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Sample records for danish food industry

  1. Lasers in food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Boris F.

    1996-09-01

    Food industry had begun to use lasers for improvement of effectiveness of production. We can clearly see three main directions: in the food technology, in the food engineering, and in the agriculture. The results of the work is given.

  2. Lasers in food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Boris F.

    1996-12-01

    The food industry has begun using lasers for improving the effectiveness of production. We clearly see three main directions: in food technology, in food engineering, and in agriculture. The resulting work of the seminar with concrete results, gotten by some research centers, is given. The programs of the seminar for 1988-1996 also are given.

  3. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant. PMID:27026492

  4. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  5. Manufacturing technology in the Danish pig slaughter industry.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Lars

    2010-02-01

    The Danish pig meat industry is very export oriented. Ninety per cent of the production of the big cooperative slaughterhouses is exported to more than 100 countries all over the world. This poses a requirement for the industry to be globally competitive in the sense of quality, product safety and--of course--price. A big challenge for the industry is therefore to maintain sufficient low unit costs in spite of the high factor costs of Denmark. In particular the high labour costs must be accompanied by correspondingly high labour productivity. And, it should be emphasized, this high labour productivity must be achieved without compromising the concern for good working conditions of the employees in the manufacturing. Technology is one of the means to achieve this combination of good working conditions and high labour productivity. One of the most important benefits from automation is the improved working environment. Pig slaughtering, cutting and boning is traditionally very labour intensive and requires hard and repetitive work. For many people a job in a slaughterhouse is therefore not their first choice. This situation can be changed by automation, which will not only reduce arduous and repetitive work but in addition will introduce more motivating jobs in terms of planning, supervision and control of the new technology. Automation will also improve the hygiene and thereby the food safety. This applies in particular to the clean slaughter line where cross contamination between carcasses is reduced because of less manual handling and because the tools in the machines can be sterilised more effectively between each carcass. Automated processes are more accurate and repeatable than manual work. For some processes, in particular in cutting and boning, this will enhance the product yield. New technology can also improve the animal welfare. The group-stunning system and mechanised lairage systems are examples of that. Improved animal welfare has an ethical value in

  6. Manufacturing technology in the Danish pig slaughter industry.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Lars

    2010-02-01

    The Danish pig meat industry is very export oriented. Ninety per cent of the production of the big cooperative slaughterhouses is exported to more than 100 countries all over the world. This poses a requirement for the industry to be globally competitive in the sense of quality, product safety and--of course--price. A big challenge for the industry is therefore to maintain sufficient low unit costs in spite of the high factor costs of Denmark. In particular the high labour costs must be accompanied by correspondingly high labour productivity. And, it should be emphasized, this high labour productivity must be achieved without compromising the concern for good working conditions of the employees in the manufacturing. Technology is one of the means to achieve this combination of good working conditions and high labour productivity. One of the most important benefits from automation is the improved working environment. Pig slaughtering, cutting and boning is traditionally very labour intensive and requires hard and repetitive work. For many people a job in a slaughterhouse is therefore not their first choice. This situation can be changed by automation, which will not only reduce arduous and repetitive work but in addition will introduce more motivating jobs in terms of planning, supervision and control of the new technology. Automation will also improve the hygiene and thereby the food safety. This applies in particular to the clean slaughter line where cross contamination between carcasses is reduced because of less manual handling and because the tools in the machines can be sterilised more effectively between each carcass. Automated processes are more accurate and repeatable than manual work. For some processes, in particular in cutting and boning, this will enhance the product yield. New technology can also improve the animal welfare. The group-stunning system and mechanised lairage systems are examples of that. Improved animal welfare has an ethical value in

  7. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  8. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  9. Biotechnology and the Food Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jenny; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Traditional and novel uses of enzymes and microbes in the baking, brewing, and dairy industries are described. Cheese, yogurt, baking, brewing, vinegar, soy sauce, single-cell proteins, enzymes, food modification, vanilla, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum, aspartame, and cochineal are discussed. Industrial links with firms involved…

  10. Industrial dimensions of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Crevel, René

    2005-11-01

    Serious attempts to estimate the impact of allergic reactions to foods on public health did not begin until the 1980s. Until about 15 years ago food allergy was considered a minor aspect of food safety. Two developments probably prompted a radical re-appraisal of that situation. The first was the apparently inexorable rise in the prevalence of atopic diseases, of which food allergy forms a part, with its possible consequences highlighted by some well-publicised severe reactions. The second was the growth of genetic modification technology, manifested by the commercialisation of transgenic crops. Each of these developments impacted on the food industry in distinct ways. On the one hand, consumers with food allergies had to be enabled to avoid specific allergens in products formulated with existing ingredients. Food manufacturers therefore had to identify those specific allergens down to trace amounts in all the ingredients forming the product and label or remove them. On the other hand, the introduction of products using ingredients from novel sources required an assessment of the allergenicity of these ingredients as an integral part of safety assurance. The approaches used by the food industry to protect existing consumers who have food allergies and those at potential risk of sensitisation from novel proteins will be illustrated, emphasising how they need to be built into every stage of the life cycle of a product.

  11. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-7].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    A/S GEA Farmaceutisk Fabrik was established as a family business in 1927 by the pharmacist Knud L. Gad Andresen who until then had been employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Gad Andresen wanted to run a company focusing on the development of generics, and he wanted this development to take place in a close cooperation with Danish physicians. This has indeed been achieved with success. In 1995 GEA was purchase'd by the American pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb who in a press release characterized GEA as Denmark's second largest manufacturer of generics. Immediately after this takeover GEA's R&D department ceased the research in innovative products and from now on exclusively focused on the development of generics. Three years later GEA was sold to the German generic company Hexal who later on resold GEA to the Swiss generic company Sandoz. GEA changed ownership another couple of times until the last owner went bankrupt in 2011. GEA is yet again a model example of an early Danish pharmaceutical company which was established as an individual company, and which had a long commercial success with the production and marketing of generics. GEA's earliest products, the organotherapeutics, were not innovations. The innovative products were developed already in the 1890s in Denmark by Alfred Benzon, and later on copies followed a.o. from Medicinalco and from foreign companies before GEA marketed their generics. Therefore GEA had to promote their preparations as especially qualified medicinal products and to intimate that the products of the competitors were less "active'". At the end of the 1920s the Ministry of Health became aware of the fact that there might be health problems related to the none-existing control of both the or- ganotherapeutic preparations and actually also the other medicinal products of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the Ministry had requested the National Board of Health for a statement regarding this problem. The National Board

  12. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-7].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    A/S GEA Farmaceutisk Fabrik was established as a family business in 1927 by the pharmacist Knud L. Gad Andresen who until then had been employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Gad Andresen wanted to run a company focusing on the development of generics, and he wanted this development to take place in a close cooperation with Danish physicians. This has indeed been achieved with success. In 1995 GEA was purchase'd by the American pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb who in a press release characterized GEA as Denmark's second largest manufacturer of generics. Immediately after this takeover GEA's R&D department ceased the research in innovative products and from now on exclusively focused on the development of generics. Three years later GEA was sold to the German generic company Hexal who later on resold GEA to the Swiss generic company Sandoz. GEA changed ownership another couple of times until the last owner went bankrupt in 2011. GEA is yet again a model example of an early Danish pharmaceutical company which was established as an individual company, and which had a long commercial success with the production and marketing of generics. GEA's earliest products, the organotherapeutics, were not innovations. The innovative products were developed already in the 1890s in Denmark by Alfred Benzon, and later on copies followed a.o. from Medicinalco and from foreign companies before GEA marketed their generics. Therefore GEA had to promote their preparations as especially qualified medicinal products and to intimate that the products of the competitors were less "active'". At the end of the 1920s the Ministry of Health became aware of the fact that there might be health problems related to the none-existing control of both the or- ganotherapeutic preparations and actually also the other medicinal products of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the Ministry had requested the National Board of Health for a statement regarding this problem. The National Board

  13. Food industry: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    2014-01-01

    Open discourse and tolerance between the food industry and public sector is limited. As a result, the public and private sectors are reluctant to collaborate on pressing nutritional issues. Those in the public sector have never heard what they could do to encourage a food company's transition towards healthier foods and beverages, whereas many in the private sector dismissed policies and actions initiated within the public sector. During my career, I have sought to engage the broadest possible stakeholder groups required to develop evidence-based policies and with the aim of improving public health. My recent experience in industry confirmed my view about the need for scientific exchange regardless of the disagreements about policy. Open discourse and partnering is essential if we are to tackle complex food and health issues and improve the global food system. Private-public engagement can provide faster and more sustainable results than government alone without impacting profits. Moreover, a high-quality product in smaller portions will have higher profit margins than a bargain-sized product of lower quality. The food industry and private sector must come together to implement innovative strategies to address urgent nutritional needs. PMID:24180599

  14. Food industry: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    2014-01-01

    Open discourse and tolerance between the food industry and public sector is limited. As a result, the public and private sectors are reluctant to collaborate on pressing nutritional issues. Those in the public sector have never heard what they could do to encourage a food company's transition towards healthier foods and beverages, whereas many in the private sector dismissed policies and actions initiated within the public sector. During my career, I have sought to engage the broadest possible stakeholder groups required to develop evidence-based policies and with the aim of improving public health. My recent experience in industry confirmed my view about the need for scientific exchange regardless of the disagreements about policy. Open discourse and partnering is essential if we are to tackle complex food and health issues and improve the global food system. Private-public engagement can provide faster and more sustainable results than government alone without impacting profits. Moreover, a high-quality product in smaller portions will have higher profit margins than a bargain-sized product of lower quality. The food industry and private sector must come together to implement innovative strategies to address urgent nutritional needs.

  15. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--8. Lundbeck].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2016-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 8 deals with products from Lundbeck. Lundbeck which today is known as a considerable international pharmaceutical company could in 2015 celebrate its 100 years' jubilee. Among the early Danish medicinal companies H. Lundbeck & Co. is in many ways an exception as the company was not originally established as a pharmaceutical company. Not until several years after the foundation the company began to import foreign ready-made medicinal products and later-on to manufacture these medicinal products in own factory and even later to do research and development of own innovative products. When Lundbeck was established in 1915 several Danish medicinal companies, not only the well-known such as Alfred Benzon and Løvens kemiske Fabrik (LEO Pharma), but also Skelskør Frugtplantage, Ferrin and Ferraton, had emerged due to the respective enterprising pharmacy owners who had expanded their traditional pharmacy business and even with commercial success. Other medicinal companies, such as C.R. Evers & Co., Leerbeck & Holms kemiske Fabriker, Chr. F. Petri, Erslevs kemiske Laboratorium, Edward Jacobsen, Th. Fallesen-Schmidt, and yet other companies which were named after the founder had all been established by pharmacists with the primary intention to manufacture and sell medicinal products. Also for the limited companies Medicinalco, Ferrosan, Pharmacia, and GEA the primary task was to manufacture and sell medicinal products, and also in these companies pharmacists were involved in the foundation. Not until 1924, fully 9 years after the foundation, Lundbeck started to be interested in medicinal products and initiated import and sale of foreign medicinal products manufactured by a.o. German and French companies which had not established their own sales companies in Denmark. Almost all contemporary Danish manufacturers of

  16. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--8. Lundbeck].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2016-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 8 deals with products from Lundbeck. Lundbeck which today is known as a considerable international pharmaceutical company could in 2015 celebrate its 100 years' jubilee. Among the early Danish medicinal companies H. Lundbeck & Co. is in many ways an exception as the company was not originally established as a pharmaceutical company. Not until several years after the foundation the company began to import foreign ready-made medicinal products and later-on to manufacture these medicinal products in own factory and even later to do research and development of own innovative products. When Lundbeck was established in 1915 several Danish medicinal companies, not only the well-known such as Alfred Benzon and Løvens kemiske Fabrik (LEO Pharma), but also Skelskør Frugtplantage, Ferrin and Ferraton, had emerged due to the respective enterprising pharmacy owners who had expanded their traditional pharmacy business and even with commercial success. Other medicinal companies, such as C.R. Evers & Co., Leerbeck & Holms kemiske Fabriker, Chr. F. Petri, Erslevs kemiske Laboratorium, Edward Jacobsen, Th. Fallesen-Schmidt, and yet other companies which were named after the founder had all been established by pharmacists with the primary intention to manufacture and sell medicinal products. Also for the limited companies Medicinalco, Ferrosan, Pharmacia, and GEA the primary task was to manufacture and sell medicinal products, and also in these companies pharmacists were involved in the foundation. Not until 1924, fully 9 years after the foundation, Lundbeck started to be interested in medicinal products and initiated import and sale of foreign medicinal products manufactured by a.o. German and French companies which had not established their own sales companies in Denmark. Almost all contemporary Danish manufacturers of

  17. Oral conditions among workers in the Danish granite industry.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Henmar, P

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the oral health situation of workers in the Danish granite industry, in particular, to describe the prevalence and severity of dental abrasion. Measurements of the work environment showed that the workers were exposed to abrasive quartz dust. A total of 39 workers (72%) completed a questionnaire on their dental health, work environment, and symptoms from the masticatory system. Only 10% had been treated by school dental services, and only 51% made regular visits to the dentist. Consequently, the clinical examinations revealed a high prevalence of dental caries (mean number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces 87.2). The workers' periodontal conditions were poor; the mean percentage of teeth with gingivitis, calculus and pockets deeper than 5 mm was 13.4. The prevalence of dental abrasion was 100%; in particular, abrasion was observed on the front teeth. The severity of abrasion and the affection ratio increased by duration of exposure to dust. In conclusion, dental abrasion induced by work-related dust should be considered an occupational disease.

  18. The food industry and provincial economies.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed. PMID:15228984

  19. Phospholipases in food industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Casado, Víctor; Martín, Diana; Torres, Carlos; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Mammal, plant, and mainly microbial phospholipases are continuously being studied, experimented, and some of them are even commercially available at industrial scale for food industry. This is because the use of phospholipases in the production of specific foods leads to attractive advantages, such as yield improvement, energy saving, higher efficiency, improved properties, or better quality of the final product. Furthermore, biocatalysis approaches in the food industry are of current interest as non-pollutant and cleaner technologies. The present chapter reviews the most representative examples of the use of phospholipases in food industry, namely edible oils, dairy, and baking products, emulsifying agents, as well as the current trend to the development of novel molecular species of phospholipids with added-value characteristics. PMID:22426737

  20. Uses of Laccases in the Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Osma, Johann F.; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are an interesting group of multi copper enzymes, which have received much attention of researchers in the last decades due to their ability to oxidise both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. This makes these biocatalysts very useful for their application in several biotechnological processes, including the food industry. Thus, laccases hold great potential as food additives in food and beverage processing. Being energy-saving and biodegradable, laccase-based biocatalysts fit well with the development of highly efficient, sustainable, and eco-friendly industries. PMID:21048873

  1. Determinants of wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Anders B; Schlunssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schaumburg, Inger

    2002-11-01

    This paper investigates the relation between wood dust exposure in the furniture industry and occupational hygiene variables. During the winter 1997-98 54 factories were visited and 2362 personal, passive inhalable dust samples were obtained; the geometric mean was 0.95 mg/m(3) and the geometric standard deviation was 2.08. In a first measuring round 1685 dust concentrations were obtained. For some of the workers repeated measurements were carried out 1 (351) and 2 weeks (326) after the first measurement. Hygiene variables like job, exhaust ventilation, cleaning procedures, etc., were documented. A multivariate analysis based on mixed effects models was used with hygiene variables being fixed effects and worker, machine, department and factory being random effects. A modified stepwise strategy of model making was adopted taking into account the hierarchically structured variables and making possible the exclusion of non-influential random as well as fixed effects. For woodworking, the following determinants of exposure increase the dust concentration: manual and automatic sanding and use of compressed air with fully automatic and semi-automatic machines and for cleaning of work pieces. Decreased dust exposure resulted from the use of compressed air with manual machines, working at fully automatic or semi-automatic machines, functioning exhaust ventilation, work on the night shift, daily cleaning of rooms, cleaning of work pieces with a brush, vacuum cleaning of machines, supplementary fresh air intake and safety representative elected within the last 2 yr. For handling and assembling, increased exposure results from work at automatic machines and presence of wood dust on the workpieces. Work on the evening shift, supplementary fresh air intake, work in a chair factory and special cleaning staff produced decreased exposure to wood dust. The implications of the results for the prevention of wood dust exposure are discussed.

  2. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  3. Food allergy and its relevance to industrial food proteins.

    PubMed

    Mills, E N C; Breiteneder, H

    2005-09-01

    Food allergies can be defined as IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and are quite distinct from food intolerances, such as Coeliac disease, with symptoms usually appearing within a matter of minutes of exposure. Around 1-2% of adults and up to 5-7% of children suffer from some type of food allergy with foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, wheat and soy, cow's milk, egg, fish and shellfish being responsible for the majority of reactions. The macromolecules recognised by IgE (generally proteinaceous in nature) are termed allergens. A brief description of the allergenic components present in the major allergenic foods is given followed by a short discussion regarding their importance in industrial proteins in the light of recent food labelling legislation for allergens.

  4. Phage therapy in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Endersen, Lorraine; O'Mahony, Jim; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; Coffey, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in modern technologies, the food industry is continuously challenged with the threat of microbial contamination. The overuse of antibiotics has further escalated this problem, resulting in the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens. Efforts to develop new methods for controlling microbial contamination in food and the food processing environment are extremely important. Accordingly, bacteriophages (phages) and their derivatives have emerged as novel, viable, and safe options for the prevention, treatment, and/or eradication of these contaminants in a range of foods and food processing environments. Whole phages, modified phages, and their derivatives are discussed in terms of current uses and future potential as antimicrobials in the traditional farm-to-fork context, encompassing areas such as primary production, postharvest processing, biosanitation, and biodetection. The review also presents some safety concerns to ensure safe and effective exploitation of bacteriophages in the future.

  5. Food reformulation: the challenges to the food industry.

    PubMed

    Buttriss, Judith L

    2013-02-01

    The role of the food industry (retailers, manufacturers and food service) in helping consumers eat healthily and sustainably has been receiving considerable attention in recent years. This paper focuses on the challenges facing the food industry and the role of food reformulation in meeting these challenges, through the lens of a public health nutritionist. Attention has been heightened by the Government's Responsibility Deal, launched in early 2011 by the Department of Health (England), by the UK's engagement with the global food security and food supply sustainability agendas and by the Government Office of Science's Foresight report. The Responsibility Deal's food network has to date focused on reduction of trans fatty acids, salt and calories and out-of-home calorie labelling (in food service settings). New pledges are expected soon on increasing fruit and vegetable intakes. Reformulation is a major feature of the Responsibility Deal's approach, and along with other approaches such as portion control, choice editing and information provision, there is potential to increase the breadth of healthier choices available to the public. With the exception of fruit and vegetables, the emphasis has been almost exclusively on aspects of the diet that are in excess for many of the population (e.g. energy and salt). Evidence of low consumption of some key micronutrients by some groups of the population, particularly adolescents and young adults, often alongside excess energy intake compared with expenditure, is all too often overlooked. This paper summarises the progress made to date, the challenges faced and the opportunities that exist, with particular focus on reformulation. One of the biggest challenges is the relatively poor understanding of how to effect positive and long-term dietary behaviour change. The paper concludes that, in isolation, reformulation is unlikely to provide a complete solution to the challenge of improving eating patterns and nutrient provision

  6. Dental visits, dental health status and need for dental treatment in a Danish industrial population.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the utilization of dental services, the distribution of dental diseases and treatment needs in a Danish industrial population. The study covered the male population at a Danish shipyard, and a sample of 988 workers and clerical and managerial staff was drawn by stratified random sampling. 841 persons were interviewed regarding dental visits and attitudes towards dental health services and data on dental health and treatment needs were collected. 61% of the participants aged 15-64 years made regular dental visits at least once a year. The percentages of regular visitors varied according to age and occupation, from 68 to 82% among clerical staff to 34 to 51% among workers. The mean DMF-T increased from 16.6 in the age group 15-24 to 27.0 among the 55-64-year-olds. Untreated dental decay was predominant among workers and persons never seeing a dentist, whereas there were more filled teeth and fewer missing teeth among staff and regular visitors. The periodontal status was less satisfactory in the older age groups and among workers, and most denture wearers were found in the age group 35-64 and among workers. Concordant to the findings on dental health status, dental treatment needs due to caries and periodontal disease as well as prosthetic treatment needs varied according to age, occupation and dental visits. More radical treatment types were needed in the older age groups, among workers and non-regular visitors. The present study seems to indicate that dental diseases in the adult Danish population are not under control.

  7. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  8. Acoustic microscopy in the food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, N.; Povey, M.; Corona, E.; Benedito, J.; Parker, N.

    2012-12-01

    Acoustic microscopy has been used for many years to image and measure the elastic properties of materials across a wide range of scientific disciplines. However the application of this technique in the food industry is scarce. In this paper we outline the operation of a reflection-mode acoustic microscope and discuss some of the issues relevant to its operation in the food sector. We then present two relevant case studies in which we employ acoustic microscopy to analyse potato cells and the fat structure in Iberian ham and chorizo.

  9. Isolation and identification of the microbiota of Danish farmhouse and industrially produced surface-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Gori, Klaus; Ryssel, Mia; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-04-01

    For studying the microbiota of four Danish surface-ripened cheeses produced at three farmhouses and one industrial dairy, both a culture-dependent and culture-independent approach were used. After dereplication of the initial set of 433 isolates by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting, 217 bacterial and 25 yeast isolates were identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene or the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, respectively. At the end of ripening, the cheese core microbiota of the farmhouse cheeses consisted of the mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteorides as well as non-starter LAB including different Lactobacillus spp. The cheese from the industrial dairy was almost exclusively dominated by Lb. paracasei. The surface bacterial microbiota of all four cheeses were dominated by Corynebacterium spp. and/or Brachybacterium spp. Brevibacterium spp. was found to be subdominant compared to other bacteria on the farmhouse cheeses, and no Brevibacterium spp. was found on the cheese from the industrial dairy, even though B. linens was used as surface-ripening culture. Moreover, Gram-negative bacteria identified as Alcalignes faecalis and Proteus vulgaris were found on one of the farmhouse cheeses. The surface yeast microbiota consisted primarily of one dominating species for each cheese. For the farmhouse cheeses, the dominant yeast species were Yarrowia lipolytica, Geotrichum spp. and Debaryomyces hansenii, respectively, and for the cheese from the industrial dairy, D. hansenii was the dominant yeast species. Additionally, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that Streptococcus thermophilus was present in the farmhouse raw milk cheese analysed in this study. Furthermore, DGGE bands corresponding to Vagococcus carniphilus, Psychrobacter spp. and Lb. curvatus on the cheese surfaces indicated that these bacterial species may play a role in cheese ripening.

  10. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry.

  11. 75 FR 59268 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    .... 0910-0037; 73 FR 11649 at 11650, March 4, 2008). In that analysis, we estimated that there are 8,950... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...

  12. Energy conservation in the food industry. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning energy conservation methods and systems in the food industry. The general principles of energy savings and future prospects in sugar, dairy, meat, frozen foods, and brewing industries are reviewed. Energy saving estimates and measures in food processing are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    PubMed

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  14. Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health.

    PubMed

    Casey, Joan A; Kim, Brent F; Larsen, Jesper; Price, Lance B; Nachman, Keeve E

    2015-09-01

    Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is a source of environmental microbial and chemical hazards. A growing body of literature suggests that populations living near these operations and manure-applied crop fields are at elevated risk for several health outcomes. We reviewed the literature published since 2000 and identified four health outcomes consistently and positively associated with living near IFAP: respiratory outcomes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Q fever, and stress/mood. We found moderate evidence of an association of IFAP with quality of life and limited evidence of an association with cognitive impairment, Clostridium difficile, Enterococcus, birth outcomes, and hypertension. Distance-based exposure metrics were used by 17/33 studies reviewed. Future work should investigate exposure through drinking water and must improve exposure assessment with direct environmental sampling, modeling, and high-resolution DNA typing methods. Investigators should not limit study to high-profile pathogens like MRSA but include a broader range of pathogens, as well as other disease outcomes.

  15. A review of energy use in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, S.; Rao, N.; Kozak, J.; Okos, M.

    1997-07-01

    The US food and kindred products industry of Standard Industry Code (SIC) 20 plays a vital role in the US economy and in foreign trade due to its large size, growth, and diverse products. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the energy use and trends in the food industry, the fifth largest user of energy within the SIC 20 sector. Energy use in the food industry is examined by cost of fuels and electricity in all SIC 20 industries, energy use by fuel type in the top SIC 20 energy consuming industries. Examination of energy use in the food industries reveals energy intensive industries that may have the most incentive to reduce energy costs by implementing energy efficient processing methods. Wet corn milling is the most energy intensive industry in the SIC 20 sector with a 15% share of the total energy used. The beet sugar industry is second in energy use (7%), while soybean oil mills, malt beverage, and meat packing plants take about 5% each of the total energy use in this sector. In order to determine which processes in an individual plant are energy intensive or inefficient, energy analyses must be performed. Processes and unit operations in the food industry vary in complexity and energy consumption. In this report, processes are defined as procedures using one or more unit operations. The most energy consuming processes and unit operations in each SIC sector are presented. Process heating and cooling was the most energy consuming process in the food industry taking up 44.6% of the total energy input. Boiler losses accounted for an average of about 22% of energy inputs. Wet corn milling, soybean oil milling, and the dairy industry are industries that have many opportunities for energy conservation and waste minimization. These industries are illustrated and opportunities for improvements discussed.

  16. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed. PMID:27432072

  17. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed.

  18. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors.

  19. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    PubMed

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. PMID:26691601

  20. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  1. [Allergen management in the food industry].

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Due to the lack of causative immunotherapies, individuals with food allergies have to rely on correct labelling for even minute amounts of allergenic constituents. It is not relevant to the allergic whether the source of the culprit food is an ingredient or an allergen that entered the food unintentionally, as is the case with so-called cross-contacts or hidden allergens.Efficient allergen management is the manufacturer's prerequisite for coping with allergenic foods in the food production environment and handling them in a way that avoids cross-contact. If it is technically not feasible to eliminate cross-contacts entirely, it must be ensured that these cross-contacts do not enter the final product without being detected.This article discusses measures that should be considered in allergen management. Examples include recording all relevant allergens in the production facility, staff sensitization and training, and taking into account all areas of production from incoming raw materials to outgoing goods.For the evaluation of unavoidable cross-contacts, it is possible today to draw on data from clinical trials for many of the substances that are subject to labelling. This data can be used to assess the risk of the final product.However, the data from threshold studies is not legally binding, so it is left to the manufacturer to assess the level up to which the food is safe for the allergic. In particular the non-harmonized approach of the EU member countries' food safety authorities currently represents a major obstacle, as this can lead to food recalls even though existing levels were evaluated as being safe according to the risk assessments performed. PMID:27299344

  2. 78 FR 49271 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... guidance for industry entitled ``Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition.''...

  3. Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley

    2010-06-01

    Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.

  4. WORK INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KONZ, STEPHAN A.; MIDDLETON, RAYMONA

    A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO DEVELOP EFFICIENT WORK METHODS FOR 100 COMMON TASKS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THEN TO PREPARE PROGRAMED LEARNING "PACKAGES" FOR EACH OF THESE TASKS FOR TRAINING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION TO HOLD USEFUL JOBS. THE CONCEPT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING PACKAGES FOR FOOD SERVICING WAS…

  5. Hotel & Food Service Industries. Workforce & Workplace Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCL Brief, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This brief gives an overview of the topic of workplace literacy for the hotel and food service industries and lists program contacts. The following organizations operate employee basic skills programs for hotel and food service employees, provide technical assistance, or operate grant programs: Essential Skills Resource Center; Language Training…

  6. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  7. Food industry and economic development in the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    McKay, John

    2007-01-01

    The food industry in the Asia Pacific region is gigantic in size, and is therefore a key element in the economic development prospects for the region. It is estimated that in 2000, for example, total expenditure on food and beverages in China was worth $US 188.5 billion, second only to that in Japan at $322 billion. Yet it is clear that given the expansion of both populations and incomes in the region this market will expand rapidly over the next few years. Particularly important will be the continued growth of cities and of the share of employment in industrial and service activities. Much of this growth in food purchases will be supplied from local sources, but this will demand some fundamental changes in domestic food production systems. There will also be a substantial growth in the food trade, with ever increasing levels of national and regional specialisation. These developments will put increasing pressures on quality standards at all levels, with a growing emphasis on food safety, integrity, quality, and nutritional and health impacts. This paper reviews the current status of the food industry and the food trade in the region, and presents some projections for future developments. Particular emphasis is given to policy choices that must be made to ensure that the food system in the region develops in ways that are sustainable and most beneficial to the population as a whole. PMID:17392081

  8. Food industry and economic development in the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    McKay, John

    2007-01-01

    The food industry in the Asia Pacific region is gigantic in size, and is therefore a key element in the economic development prospects for the region. It is estimated that in 2000, for example, total expenditure on food and beverages in China was worth $US 188.5 billion, second only to that in Japan at $322 billion. Yet it is clear that given the expansion of both populations and incomes in the region this market will expand rapidly over the next few years. Particularly important will be the continued growth of cities and of the share of employment in industrial and service activities. Much of this growth in food purchases will be supplied from local sources, but this will demand some fundamental changes in domestic food production systems. There will also be a substantial growth in the food trade, with ever increasing levels of national and regional specialisation. These developments will put increasing pressures on quality standards at all levels, with a growing emphasis on food safety, integrity, quality, and nutritional and health impacts. This paper reviews the current status of the food industry and the food trade in the region, and presents some projections for future developments. Particular emphasis is given to policy choices that must be made to ensure that the food system in the region develops in ways that are sustainable and most beneficial to the population as a whole.

  9. Assessment of sensors used in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, L.D.; Rose, W.W.; Redsun, H.; Boghosian, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The growth of automation within the food processing industry has led to heavy reliance on sensor measurement of process variables such as temperature, pressure, flow, viscosity, color, and moisture. While well-developed sensor technology and properly functioning sensors can facilitate efficient and cost-competitive processes, it is clear that malfunctioning or inadequate sensors can cause significant waste of food product, packaging materials, labor, capital investment, time, and energy. Of all the production resources listed above, energy is the major resource of concern for this study. While energy efficiency in general has been a focus of the food industry in the recent past, and while the industry has improved energy use significantly, there remains a specific need to improve detection and measuring devices as a means to further gains. Sensors and sensor technology within the food processing industry are therefore the focus of the work reported here. The ultimate goal of this endeavor is to promote an energy efficient and cost competitive food industry by facilitating improvements in sensors and sensor technology. 138 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Sanitation characteristics of some food processing industries.

    PubMed

    El-Tawila, M M; Ashour, M; Awad, O; Al Morshedy, H; Hassan, M

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sanitary conditions surrounding the food throughout the production stages in some food plants. Observation of the sanitary measures of the studied plants revealed that only 3 out of the 7 plants (42.9%) have acceptable sanitation that complies with the sanitary requirements specified by WHO. Personal hygiene and storage conditions were the most critical problems found in the studied plants. Laboratory examination of nasal and throat swabs and stool samples of workers was carried out to uncover the chronic carriers. Among the food handlers examined 46.3% were positive for intestinal parasites. Bacteriological examination of stool specimens revealed that 4.3% of carriers of Salmonella paratyphi and none were carriers of Vibreo species. Nasal swabs were also positive for Staph. aureus in 29.8% of all the examined swabs. Analysis of the main products of the studied plants revealed generally that the bacterial load of the products of plants having acceptable sanitary conditions was lower than that of the products of the other plants. The frozen vegetable products had a total aerobic mesophilic plate count ranging from 8.1 x 10(4) cfu/g in okra and 3.7 x 10(5) cfu/g in mixed vegetables. The total aerobic plate count of the ice cream (1 x 10(3) cfu/g) complies with specified Egyptian standards. However, the coliform count (9 x 10(1) MPN) was higher than the recommended limit. Lead and cadmium levels were also investigated in all products. The maximum detected level of lead was that of cream wafer (0.94 ppm) followed by banana wafer (0.82 ppm). The two detected levels were higher than Egyptian standards. The lead level in ice cream (0.19 ppm) was also higher than the specified standards. The relatively high levels of lead in cream wafer and ice cream may be attributed to more than one factor; the added color and the old machinery used in some production steps are the most accursed factors. On the other hand, the

  11. Need for safety of nanoparticles used in food industry.

    PubMed

    Das, Mukul; Ansari, Kausar M; Tripathi, Anurag; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2011-02-01

    Nanotechnology derived products are now used in various spheres of life including food industry. Indeed nanotechnology may transform entire food industry in terms of production, processing and packaging and consumption. Due to their small size, nanoparticles find application as a carrier of antimicrobial polypeptides required against microbial deterioration of food quality. Detection of food pathogens, fungus producing mycotoxins, viruses and bacteria through nanosensors, which are quick, sensitive and less labour intensive procedures, is another area having potential application. The use of nanosensors in plastic packaging to detect gases released due to food spoilage is of consumer's relevance. Majority of nanoparticles for food use are organic moieties, hence it is of utmost importance to investigate their physico-chemical characteristics followed by toxicological implications to intestinal cells. It remains to be seen that nanostructured ingredients and nutrient delivery system may also carry other foreign substances to blood. Nano sized particles for food usage, having new chemical and physical properties may vary from normal macro particles that may also influence the interaction with living systems. Hence in vitro and in vivo studies are required for nanoparticles to be used in foods prior to their commercialization.

  12. 77 FR 48990 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Categories in Food Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Categories in Food Facility Registrations and Updates to Food Categories; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  13. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  14. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. PMID:26645658

  15. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept.

  16. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept. PMID:26130171

  17. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  18. Antioxidants in foods: state of the science important to the food industry.

    PubMed

    Finley, John W; Kong, Ah-Ng; Hintze, Korry J; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Ji, Li Li; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-07-13

    Antioxidant foods and ingredients are an important component of the food industry. In the past, antioxidants were used primarily to control oxidation and retard spoilage, but today many are used because of putative health benefits. However, the traditional message that oxidative stress, which involves the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is the basis for chronic diseases and aging is being reexamined. Accumulating evidence suggests that ROS exert essential metabolic functions and that removal of too many ROS can upset cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic disease. It is imperative that the food industry be aware of progress in this field to present the science relative to foods in a forthright and clear manner. This may mean reexamining the health implications of adding large amounts of antioxidants to foods.

  19. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  20. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  1. [Role of the food industry in nutrition education].

    PubMed

    Bornand, G

    1986-12-01

    The way an individual feeds himself has a decisive influence on his health. Fortunately, this relationship is becoming better understood. Risks come from an imbalance. In the industrialized countries, this imbalance is due to an overabundance of food, while in the developing world, it is due to food shortages or inadequacies. In both cases, nutrition education can play an important role in improving the situation. The food industry contributes to nutritional education by offering products that correspond to the current needs of consumers and by informing them of product ingredients and nutritional characteristics. Given the important role that the industry plays in supplying the population, education is viewed as one of its social responsibilities. In the industrialised countries, food companies are already widely participating in this effort. All available communication channels are used, i.e. packaging, advertising, ad hoc information leaflets, educational materials in schools, professional associations, consumer agencies, etc... In the developing countries, nutrition education can have a beneficial influence where supplies are available but inadequately utilized. Despite communication problems that are more difficult to solve, food producers may also contribute to education in such situations, particularly through packages, information brochures and their distribution networks. It should not be forgotten that the improvement of consumer education remains the responsibility of those authorities in charge of education and health problems. While private companies are inclined more and more to participate, they can only contribute to relieving the problem.

  2. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  3. Nutritional genomics: food industry applications from farm to fork.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2007-06-01

    Nutritional genomics is a new and promising science area which can broadly be defined as the application of high throughput genomics (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics/metabonomics) and functional genomic technologies to the study of nutritional sciences and food technology. First utilised in the food industry by plant biotechnologists to manipulate plant biosynthetic pathways, the use of genomic technologies has now spread within the agriculture sector, unleashing a host of new applications (e.g. approaches for producing novel, non-transgenic plant varietals; identification of genetic markers to guide plant and animal breeding programmes; exploration of diet-gene interactions for enhancing product quality and plant/animal health). Beyond agriculture, genomic technologies are also contributing to the improvement of food processing, food safety and quality assurance as well as the development of functional food products and the evolution of new health management concepts such as 'personalised nutrition', an emerging paradigm in which the diet of an individual is customised, based on their own genomic information, to optimise health and prevent disease. In this review the relevance of nutritional genomics to the food industry will be considered and examples given on how this science area is starting to be leveraged for economic benefits and to improve human nutrition and health.

  4. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations. PMID:27357041

  5. Training in the Food and Beverages Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, Ole

    A study of the food sector in Denmark was limited to the slaughterhouse, dairy, beverages sectors. The food sector was the most important single industry in the Danish economy. It was the largest manufacturing sector, generated one-third of total manufacturing, and comprised approximately 8 percent of the total Danish gross domestic product. It…

  6. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a challenge for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first described in the 1940s, but whereas new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. At present, the paucity of new antimicrobials coming into the market has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance fast escalating into a global health crisis. Although the selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (particularly overuse or misuse) has been deemed the major factor in the emergence of bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials, concerns about the role of the food industry have been growing in recent years and have been raised at both national and international levels. The selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (primary production) and biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) is the main driving force behind the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance throughout the food chain. Genetically modified (GM) crops with antibiotic resistance marker genes, microorganisms added intentionally to the food chain (probiotic or technological) with potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, and food processing technologies used at sub-lethal doses (e.g., alternative non-thermal treatments) are also issues for concern. This paper presents the main trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development in recent decades, as well as their economic and health consequences, current knowledge concerning the generation, dissemination, and mechanisms of antibacterial resistance, progress to date on the possible routes for emergence of resistance throughout the food chain and the role of foods as a vehicle for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main approaches to prevention and control of the development, selection, and spread of antibacterial resistance in the food industry are also addressed.

  7. Agro-food industry growth and obesity in China: what role for regulating food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, C

    2008-03-01

    Taking a food supply chain approach, this paper examines the regulation of food marketing and nutrition labelling as strategies to help combat obesity in China in an era of rapid agro-food industry growth. China is the largest food producer and consumer in the world. Since the early 1980s, the agro-food industry has undergone phenomenal expansion throughout the food supply chain, from agricultural production to trade, agro-food processing to food retailing, and from food service to advertising and promotion. This industry growth, alongside related socioeconomic changes and government policies, has encouraged a 'nutrition transition'. China's population, especially in urban areas, is now consuming significantly more energy from dietary fat, which is leading to higher rates of obesity. Regulation of food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling has the potential to help prevent the further growth of obesity in China and encourage the agro-food industry to supplier healthier foods. Government legislation and guidance, as well as self-regulation and voluntary initiatives, are needed to reduce children's exposure to food advertising and promotion, and increase the effectiveness of nutrition labelling. Policies on food marketing and nutrition labelling should be adapted to the China context, and accompanied by further action throughout the food supply chain. Given China's unique characteristics and position in the world today, there is an opportunity for the government and the agro-food industry to lead the world by creating a balanced, health promoting model of complementary legislation and industry action. PMID:18307719

  8. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    PubMed

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction.

  9. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  10. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  11. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  12. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  13. Framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert C; Ford, Randall M; Helander, Mary E; Marecki, Janusz; Natarajan, Ramesh; Ray, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    We propose a methodological framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food processing industry. Mycotoxin contamination is a well-known threat to public health that has economic significance for the food processing industry; it is imperative to address mycotoxin risks holistically, at all points in the procurement, processing, and distribution pipeline, by tracking the relevant data, adopting best practices, and providing suitable adaptive controls. The proposed framework includes (i) an information and data repository, (ii) a collaborative infrastructure with analysis and simulation tools, (iii) standardized testing and acceptance sampling procedures, and (iv) processes that link the risk assessments and testing results to the sourcing, production, and product release steps. The implementation of suitable acceptance sampling protocols for mycotoxin testing is considered in some detail.

  14. Electrolyzed water and its application in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Hricova, D; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C

    2008-09-01

    Electrolyzed water (EW) is gaining popularity as a sanitizer in the food industries of many countries. By electrolysis, a dilute sodium chloride solution dissociates into acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), which has a pH of 2 to 3, an oxidation-reduction potential of >1,100 mV, and an active chlorine content of 10 to 90 ppm, and basic electrolyzed water (BEW), which has a pH of 10 to 13 and an oxidation-reduction potential of -800 to -900 mV. Vegetative cells of various bacteria in suspension were generally reduced by > 6.0 log CFU/ml when AEW was used. However, AEW is a less effective bactericide on utensils, surfaces, and food products because of factors such as surface type and the presence of organic matter. Reductions of bacteria on surfaces and utensils or vegetables and fruits mainly ranged from about 2.0 to 6.0 or 1.0 to 3.5 orders of magnitude, respectively. Higher reductions were obtained for tomatoes. For chicken carcasses, pork, and fish, reductions ranged from about 0.8 to 3.0, 1.0 to 1.8, and 0.4 to 2.8 orders of magnitude, respectively. Considerable reductions were achieved with AEW on eggs. On some food commodities, treatment with BEW followed by AEW produced higher reductions than did treatment with AEW only. EW technology deserves consideration when discussing industrial sanitization of equipment and decontamination of food products. Nevertheless, decontamination treatments for food products always should be considered part of an integral food safety system. Such treatments cannot replace strict adherence to good manufacturing and hygiene practices. PMID:18810883

  15. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro Carlos; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed. PMID:23344046

  16. Potential applications of carbohydrases immobilization in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro Carlos; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; da Graça Nascimento, Maria; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed. PMID:23344046

  17. Traceability in the food animal industry and supermarket chains.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, R G

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes.

  18. 76 FR 50484 - Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, and Food and Drug Administration Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Design Considerations for Pivotal Clinical Investigations for Medical Devices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007... information to the industry in complying with the Reportable Food Registry requirements prescribed by the...

  20. Bacteriophages as Weapons Against Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; García, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological contamination in the food industry is often attributed to the presence of biofilms in processing plants. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of bacteria attached to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric material. Their extreme resistance to cleaning and disinfecting processes is related to a unique organization, which implies a differential bacterial growth and gene expression inside the biofilm. The impact of biofilms on health, and the economic consequences, has promoted the development of different approaches to control or remove biofilm formation. Recently, successful results in phage therapy have boosted new research in bacteriophages and phage lytic proteins for biofilm eradication. In this regard, this review examines the environmental factors that determine biofilm development in food-processing equipment. In addition, future perspectives for the use of bacteriophage-derived tools as disinfectants are discussed. PMID:27375566

  1. Bacteriophages as Weapons Against Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; García, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological contamination in the food industry is often attributed to the presence of biofilms in processing plants. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of bacteria attached to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric material. Their extreme resistance to cleaning and disinfecting processes is related to a unique organization, which implies a differential bacterial growth and gene expression inside the biofilm. The impact of biofilms on health, and the economic consequences, has promoted the development of different approaches to control or remove biofilm formation. Recently, successful results in phage therapy have boosted new research in bacteriophages and phage lytic proteins for biofilm eradication. In this regard, this review examines the environmental factors that determine biofilm development in food-processing equipment. In addition, future perspectives for the use of bacteriophage-derived tools as disinfectants are discussed. PMID:27375566

  2. Bacteriophages as Weapons Against Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; García, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological contamination in the food industry is often attributed to the presence of biofilms in processing plants. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of bacteria attached to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric material. Their extreme resistance to cleaning and disinfecting processes is related to a unique organization, which implies a differential bacterial growth and gene expression inside the biofilm. The impact of biofilms on health, and the economic consequences, has promoted the development of different approaches to control or remove biofilm formation. Recently, successful results in phage therapy have boosted new research in bacteriophages and phage lytic proteins for biofilm eradication. In this regard, this review examines the environmental factors that determine biofilm development in food-processing equipment. In addition, future perspectives for the use of bacteriophage-derived tools as disinfectants are discussed.

  3. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    PubMed

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency.

  4. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    PubMed

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency. PMID:25305683

  5. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    PubMed

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  6. Cogeneration handbook for the food processing industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fasbender, A.G.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the food processing industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  7. Plastic optical fibre sensor for quality control in food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo, C.; Bilro, L.; Ferreira, R.; Alberto, N.; Antunes, P.; Leitão, C.; Nogueira, R.; Pinto, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    The present work addresses the need for new devices felt in the context of quality control, especially in the food industry. Due to the spectral dependence of the attenuation coefficient, a novel dual-parameter sensor for colour and refractive index was developed and tested. The sensor employs plastic optical fibres to measure the transmitted optical power in three measurement cells each with a different incident wavelength. The performance of the sensor was tested using several dyes at different concentrations and aqueous solutions of glycerine and ethanol. Results show that this technique allows the monitoring of refractive index and colour without cross-sensitivity.

  8. Recent trends in functional food science and the industry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Arai, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Morotomi, Masami; Shimizu, Makoto; Kuwata, Tamotsu; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2002-10-01

    International recognition of functional foods has resulted in the recent global development of this field, which originated in Japan. The national policy on functional foods, in terms of "foods for specified health use", also has been developing and has motivated the food industry to produce a variety of new food items. In Japan as well as in many other countries, academic and industrial scientists have been working in collaboration for the analysis and practical applications of functional food science. Emphasis has been placed on the study of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic food factors as well as pre- and probiotics. This review pinpoints recent trends in the science and industry in this field.

  9. Use of terpenoids as natural flavouring compounds in food industry.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Lorenzo; Aprea, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Terpenoids represent the oldest known biomolecules, having been recovered from sediments as old as 2.5 billion years. Among plant secondary metabolites, they are the most abundant and diverse class of natural compounds. The diversity of terpenoids is probably a reflection of their many biological activities in nature, which has made them a widely used resource for traditional and modern human exploitation. They are usually the main constituents of essential oils of most plants offering a wide variety of pleasant scents from flowery to fruity, to woody or balsamic notes. For this reason terpenoids constitute a very important class of compounds for flavour and fragrance industries, in fact, in the US alone, the demand is forecast to grow 3.7 percent per year to $5.3 billion in 2012. The recent patents on production and extraction of terpenoids commonly used as natural flavouring compounds in food industries are reviewed in the present manuscript.

  10. 78 FR 68852 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...: Acrylamide in Foods.'' The draft guidance is intended to provide information that may help...

  11. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling.'' FDA is issuing this guidance with labeling recommendations because of concerns that both healthcare providers and patients...

  12. Appropriate Technology, Energy and Food Production in an Industrial Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytlik, Edward; Scanlin, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    With modern agriculture, the growing, processing, packaging, and distribution of food fit well into an industrial arts curriculum. Many areas of this system need closer attention: the high cost of energy in food production, the problems of land preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, food processing, and agriculture in an industrial arts curriculum.…

  13. Contamination-Free Sonoreactor for the Food Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Jean-Luc

    A new sonoreactor technology is presented here, which should open vast development possibilities in various fields of chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. It should give a decisive impulse to sonochemistry in these various areas. These exclusive systems use high-power converging acoustic waves in a tube to produce a relatively large volume confined acoustic cavitation zone in flowing liquid reagents. It is well known that numerous chemical reactions are strongly accelerated when they take place inside such a zone. The new cylindrical sonoreactors do not contaminate the processed liquids with erosion products as other devices do. The processing conditions can be widely varied with pressure, power, temperature, and flow rate. The processing capacity of the largest models may be up to several tons per hour, using an electric power input of about 50 kW.

  14. Non-food industrial applications of poultry feathers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-11-01

    Poultry feathers are one of the unique coproducts that have versatile applications ranging from composites, fibers, tissue engineering scaffolds, nano and micro particles, electronic devices and many others. Despite their low cost, abundant availability, wide applicability and unique properties, non-food industrial applications of feather keratin are very limited. Poor-thermoplasticity, difficulty in dissolving keratin and limited knowledge on the processability and properties of products developed are some of the limitations for the large scale use of feather/keratin. Nevertheless, increasing interests in using renewable and sustainable raw materials and need to decrease dependence on non-renewable petroleum resources make feathers an attractive raw material for bioproducts. This review provides an overview of the products developed from poultry feathers and their limitations and advantages.

  15. 78 FR 68460 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Foods; Second Edition; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; reopening of the comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  16. 78 FR 59038 - Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance...

  17. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. PMID:25680370

  18. 76 FR 70150 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Investigational Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration..., Including Certain First in Human Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a...

  19. 77 FR 39498 - Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Computer-Assisted Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Approval and Premarket Notification (510(k)) Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  20. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this.

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in industry. A technology transfer profile: Food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Food processing and preservation technologies are reviewed, expected technological advances are considered including processing and market factors. NASA contributions to food technology and nutrition are presented with examples of transfer from NASA to industry.

  2. Curriculum Development for the Achievement of Multiple Goals in the Agri-Food Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonehouse, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The agri-food industry is concerned with maximizing global food output while preventing environmental damage. Agricultural education focuses on multidisciplinary, holistic, and integrative approaches that enhance student capabilities to address this complex issue. (SK)

  3. 76 FR 9027 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... Electronic Healthcare Data Sets; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... industry and FDA staff entitled ``Best Practices for Conducting and Reporting Pharmacoepidemiologic...

  4. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  5. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  6. A simple way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods and developing healthy foods in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Outila, Terhi A; Simulainen, Helena; Laukkanen, Tuula H A; Maarit Kyyrö, A

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have developed a new way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods. In the developed method, ready-to-eat foods were classified into specific product categories, and the nutritional quality of classified foods was analysed using the national dietary recommendations and the national dietary survey as a basis for the dietary calculations. The method was tested with the products of 'Saarioinen', which is the leading brand in the Finnish ready-to-eat food market. Results indicate that this low-cost method can easily be used in the food industry as a tool in product development and marketing in order to develop healthy foods. The method could also be applied to the restaurant and catering trade, as well as to other public institutions serving food. By using this model, nutritional researchers and the food industry could work together to prevent nutrition-related health problems. PMID:16849121

  7. A simple way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods and developing healthy foods in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Outila, Terhi A; Simulainen, Helena; Laukkanen, Tuula H A; Maarit Kyyrö, A

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have developed a new way of evaluating the healthiness of ready-to-eat foods. In the developed method, ready-to-eat foods were classified into specific product categories, and the nutritional quality of classified foods was analysed using the national dietary recommendations and the national dietary survey as a basis for the dietary calculations. The method was tested with the products of 'Saarioinen', which is the leading brand in the Finnish ready-to-eat food market. Results indicate that this low-cost method can easily be used in the food industry as a tool in product development and marketing in order to develop healthy foods. The method could also be applied to the restaurant and catering trade, as well as to other public institutions serving food. By using this model, nutritional researchers and the food industry could work together to prevent nutrition-related health problems.

  8. Building Groups and Independence: The Role of Food in the Lives of Young People in Danish Sports Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylow, Mine; Holm, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    This article, based on an ethnographic study, examines the role of food in the social interaction of 11- to 17-year-old youths in sports centres in Denmark. The sports centres serve as a free space where young people receive no adult supervision. This is underlined by their understanding and use of food in this environment. Food serves as a medium…

  9. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  10. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  11. 76 FR 72422 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... food-producing animals. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not... of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...-Producing Animals.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, is intended to provide guidance to industry...

  12. 76 FR 68767 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification Process (Evaluation of Automatic Class III Designation); Availability; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension of...

  13. 78 FR 15370 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling Medical Products To Inform Users That the Product or Product Container Is Not Made With Natural Rubber Latex; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  14. How the Food Processing Industry Is Diversifying Rural Minnesota. JSRI Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennelly, Katherine; Leitner, Helga

    The diversification of rural Minnesota is largely the result of the restructuring of the food processing industry and its recruitment of low-wage laborers. The relocation and expansion of food processing plants into rural areas of Minnesota creates a demand for low-wage labor that can not be met locally. Food processing businesses attract…

  15. The food industry's current and future role in preventing microbial foodborne illness within the United States.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael P; Erickson, Marilyn C; Alali, Walid; Cannon, Jennifer; Deng, Xiangyu; Ortega, Ynes; Smith, Mary Alice; Zhao, Tong

    2015-07-15

    During the past century, the microbiological safety of the US food supply has improved; however, many foodborne illnesses and outbreaks occur annually. Hence, opportunities for the food industry to improve the safety of both domestic and imported food exist through the adoption of risk-based preventive measures. Challenging food safety issues that are on the horizon include demographic changes to a population whose immune system is more susceptible to foodborne and opportunistic pathogens, climate changes that will shift where food is produced, and consumers' preferences for raw and minimally processed foods. Increased environmental and product testing and anonymous data sharing by the food industry with the public health community would aid in identifying system weaknesses and enabling more targeted corrective and preventive actions. Clinicians will continue to play a major role in reducing foodborne illnesses by diagnosing and reporting cases and in helping to educate the consumer about food safety practices.

  16. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  17. Food Industry Job Functions Reported by Recent Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComber, Diane R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 160 food and nutrition graduates (53 percent response) and 153 food technology graduates (43 percent ) identified the importance in their jobs and quality of preparation of various job functions. Differences between the two groups indicated a need for greater distinctions between the two types of programs. (SK)

  18. Bases for Vocational Education for Food Service Industry Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames.

    As a preliminary step in establishing bases for food service training programs, data were collected from a sample of institutions including 4,496 restaurants, 158 hospitals, 436 nursing homes, and 343 custodial homes. A second phase involved developing inventories of attitudes toward food service employment and administering them to high school…

  19. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  20. 76 FR 62073 - Guidance for Industry on Implementation of the Fee Provisions of the FDA Food Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Implementation of the Fee... guidance for industry entitled ``Implementation of the Fee Provisions of Section 107 of the FDA Food Safety... guidance for industry entitled ``Implementation of the Fee Provisions of Section 107 of the FDA Food...

  1. 78 FR 28228 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Best Practices for Conducting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Healthcare Data; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry and FDA...

  2. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a...

  3. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target. PMID:25195640

  4. 76 FR 36542 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: The Content of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Staff: The Content of Investigational Device Exemption and Premarket Approval Applications for Low... document entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: The Content of... Staff: The Content of Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) and Premarket Approval (PMA)...

  5. Production, properties, and industrial food application of lactic acid bacteria-derived exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zannini, Emanuele; Waters, Deborah M; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-02-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are industrially important microorganisms in the development of functional food products and are used as starter cultures or coadjutants to develop fermented foods. There is large variability in EPS production by LAB in terms of chemical composition, quantity, molecular size, charge, presence of side chains, and rigidity of the molecules. The main body of the review will cover practical aspects concerning the structural diversity structure of EPS, and their concrete application in food industries is reported in details. To strengthen the food application and process feasibility of LAB EPS at industrial level, a future academic research should be combined with industrial input to understand the technical shortfalls that EPS can address.

  6. Hyperfiltration/reverse osmosis: a handbook on membrane filtration for the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, C.A.; Pedersen, L.D.; Rose, W.W.

    1985-07-01

    The four chapters are titled: hyperfiltration/reverse osmosis technology, membranes and systems, energy recovery through renovation and recycle of hot water, and other applications of membrane technology in the food industry. (DLC)

  7. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  8. "Clickers" and HACCP: Educating a Diverse Food Industry Audience with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela; Mendonca, Aubrey; Daraba, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to food safety education for the food industry. To receive a HACCP certificate, participants must receive an 80% or higher on the final examination. Language barriers, educational levels, and age have been noted as primary reasons for not passing the final examination.…

  9. [Prevention of overweight and obesity--the role of government, the food industry and the individual].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, C; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem in Germany and other industrial nations. There is an urgent need for action in order to stop this development. Government and food industry, as well as individuals, have to act. Governmental interventions could consist in direct regulation - as in, e. g., regulations on food offered in schools and restrictions on advertising unwholesome nutrition for children, -, or in economic incentives like taxes on unhealthy food and subsidisation of wholesome school food and information (food education, campaigns, food labelling etc.). The government should provide an environment that makes a healthy life style easy. But, at present, governmental interventions are too much focused on personal behaviour and responsibility. The role of the food industry could, for example, consist in clear food labelling and the production of healthy food. Each individual holds a personal responsibility for his or her health, but there are limits to it, like social, financial, biological, and other environmental factors. Especially social factors ought to be considered more seriously. Hence, personal responsibility should only be demanded in an adequate environment. PMID:19795343

  10. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug..., Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, rm. 4613, Silver Spring, MD...

  11. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Manufacturers, International and Consumer Assistance, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and...

  12. Traditional food: a better compatibility with industry requirements.

    PubMed

    Cotillon, Christophe; Guyot, Anne-Clothilde; Rossi, Daniel; Notarfonso, Maurizio

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this article is to summarise the main results of the TRUEFOOD Integrated project, which is supported by the European Commission in the European Framework Program 6 (FP6). This project started in 2006 and ended in 2010. TRUEFOOD aimed to improve quality and safety and introduce innovation into Traditional European Food production systems through research, demonstration, dissemination and training activities. It focuses on increasing value to both consumers and producers and on supporting the development of realistic business plans for all components of the food chain, using a farm-to-fork approach.

  13. Traditional food: a better compatibility with industry requirements.

    PubMed

    Cotillon, Christophe; Guyot, Anne-Clothilde; Rossi, Daniel; Notarfonso, Maurizio

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this article is to summarise the main results of the TRUEFOOD Integrated project, which is supported by the European Commission in the European Framework Program 6 (FP6). This project started in 2006 and ended in 2010. TRUEFOOD aimed to improve quality and safety and introduce innovation into Traditional European Food production systems through research, demonstration, dissemination and training activities. It focuses on increasing value to both consumers and producers and on supporting the development of realistic business plans for all components of the food chain, using a farm-to-fork approach. PMID:23963847

  14. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  15. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  16. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  17. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  18. The future relationship between the media, the food industry and the consumer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the media, the food industry and the consumer is probably at its lowest point as we start the new millennium. The frequency of food scares appears to be increasing and news reports sometimes seem both sensational and polarised. High profile issues like the development of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the UK and the dioxin contamination of poultry products in Belgium have undermined consumer confidence in the food industry. The recent genetically modified foods' debate has served to demonstrate the gulf that has grown between the food industry, food safety experts and the public. This is a rift that has been exploited by environmental pressure groups and fuelled by the media. This paper examines some of the underlying causes of the current air of mistrust that seems to exist between the media, the food industry and the consumer. Also, by examining the projected trends in these root causes, it draws some conclusions for the future relationship between the parties involved and suggests some changes that may improve the present situation.

  19. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  20. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry. PMID:26613082

  1. Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?

    PubMed

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Iserentant, Dirk; Malcorps, Philippe; Derdelinckx, Guy; Van Dijck, Patrick; Winderickx, Joris; Pretorius, Isak S; Thevelein, Johan M; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2004-10-01

    Yeast cells often encounter a mixture of different carbohydrates in industrial processes. However, glucose and sucrose are always consumed first. The presence of these sugars causes repression of gluconeogenesis, the glyoxylate cycle, respiration and the uptake of less-preferred carbohydrates. Glucose and sucrose also trigger unexpected, hormone-like effects, including the activation of cellular growth, the mobilization of storage compounds and the diminution of cellular stress resistance. In an industrial context, these effects lead to several yeast-related problems, such as slow or incomplete fermentation, 'off flavors' and poor maintenance of yeast vitality. Recent studies indicate that the use of mutants with altered responses to carbohydrates can significantly increase productivity. Alternatively, avoiding unnecessary exposure to glucose and sucrose could also improve the performance of industrial yeasts.

  2. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under central…

  3. 78 FR 68459 - Medical Device Development Tools; Draft Guidance for Industry, Tool Developers, and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... guidance to FDA staff, industry, healthcare providers, researchers, and patient and consumer groups on a... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Development Tools; Draft Guidance for Industry, Tool Developers, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and...

  4. Cooperating with industry to teach food-animal medicine.

    PubMed

    Herdt, Thomas H; Neuder, Louis M; Green, Charles D; Fordyce, Mike G; Dill, Kevin J; Mahoney, John H

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative programs with agribusiness offer opportunities for colleges of veterinary medicine to expand their instructional programs in agricultural practice. Agribusinesses associated with livestock agriculture recognize the importance of veterinary medicine in maintaining a vibrant and successful industry. Stewardship of corporate support involves close communication with advocates within the companies, providing them with documentation of the potential effects of corporate investments. This article describes the creation of the Michigan State University (MSU) Training Center for Dairy Professionals, a key aspect of which was the identification of innovative and productive areas of mutual interest and benefit. In addition to supporting the dairy industry by training veterinary students, the program offers specific benefits to investors, including the use of MSU facilities and direct participation in veterinary instruction. PMID:18339956

  5. Cooperating with industry to teach food-animal medicine.

    PubMed

    Herdt, Thomas H; Neuder, Louis M; Green, Charles D; Fordyce, Mike G; Dill, Kevin J; Mahoney, John H

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative programs with agribusiness offer opportunities for colleges of veterinary medicine to expand their instructional programs in agricultural practice. Agribusinesses associated with livestock agriculture recognize the importance of veterinary medicine in maintaining a vibrant and successful industry. Stewardship of corporate support involves close communication with advocates within the companies, providing them with documentation of the potential effects of corporate investments. This article describes the creation of the Michigan State University (MSU) Training Center for Dairy Professionals, a key aspect of which was the identification of innovative and productive areas of mutual interest and benefit. In addition to supporting the dairy industry by training veterinary students, the program offers specific benefits to investors, including the use of MSU facilities and direct participation in veterinary instruction.

  6. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and analysis of associated bacterial communities on food industry surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J; García, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products.

  7. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and Analysis of Associated Bacterial Communities on Food Industry Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products. PMID:23023749

  8. Recipe for a Better Tomorrow: A Food Industry Perspective on Sustainability and Our Food System.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Arlin

    2009-07-01

    The food and agriculture sector is central to efforts to improve public health today and protect and restore natural systems necessary to support good health in the future. The sector has a greater direct impact on land and water resources, employment, and economic activity than any other. And, from a finite resource base, it is underpinning not only food and fiber production but is increasingly relied upon to provide the raw materials for energy, building materials, packaging, and nonfood consumable products. This commentary reviews consumer attitudes and the transformational changes required in the food and agriculture sector to meet today's needs and ensure a better tomorrow. PMID:23144679

  9. Recipe for a Better Tomorrow: A Food Industry Perspective on Sustainability and Our Food System

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Arlin

    2009-01-01

    The food and agriculture sector is central to efforts to improve public health today and protect and restore natural systems necessary to support good health in the future. The sector has a greater direct impact on land and water resources, employment, and economic activity than any other. And, from a finite resource base, it is underpinning not only food and fiber production but is increasingly relied upon to provide the raw materials for energy, building materials, packaging, and nonfood consumable products. This commentary reviews consumer attitudes and the transformational changes required in the food and agriculture sector to meet today's needs and ensure a better tomorrow. PMID:23144679

  10. Contact and non-contact ultrasonic measurement in the food industry: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufiq Mohd Khairi, Mohd; Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md; Faramarzi, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the food manufacturing process is vital since it determines the safety and quality level of foods which directly affect the consumers’ health. Companies which produce high quality products will gain trust from consumers. This factor helps the companies to make profits. The use of efficient and appropriate sensors for the monitoring process can also reduce cost. The food assessing process based on an ultrasonic sensor has attracted the attention of the food industry due to its excellent capabilities in several applications. The utilization of low or high frequencies for the ultrasonic transducer has provided an enormous benefit for analysing, modifying and guaranteeing the quality of food. The contact and non-contact ultrasonic modes for measurement also contributed significantly to the food processing. This paper presents a review of the application of the contact and non-contact mode of ultrasonic measurement focusing on safety and quality control areas. The results from previous researches are shown and elaborated.

  11. Methods for the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industry--A review.

    PubMed

    Yamjala, Karthik; Nainar, Meyyanathan Subramania; Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of azo dyes are generally added for coloring food products not only to make them visually aesthetic but also to reinstate the original appearance lost during the production process. However, many countries in the world have banned the use of most of the azo dyes in food and their usage is highly regulated by domestic and export food supplies. The regulatory authorities and food analysts adopt highly sensitive and selective analytical methods for monitoring as well as assuring the quality and safety of food products. The present manuscript presents a comprehensive review of various analytical techniques used in the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industries of different parts of the world. A brief description on the use of different extraction methods such as liquid-liquid, solid phase and membrane extraction has also been presented. PMID:26304415

  12. Methods for the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industry--A review.

    PubMed

    Yamjala, Karthik; Nainar, Meyyanathan Subramania; Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao

    2016-02-01

    A wide variety of azo dyes are generally added for coloring food products not only to make them visually aesthetic but also to reinstate the original appearance lost during the production process. However, many countries in the world have banned the use of most of the azo dyes in food and their usage is highly regulated by domestic and export food supplies. The regulatory authorities and food analysts adopt highly sensitive and selective analytical methods for monitoring as well as assuring the quality and safety of food products. The present manuscript presents a comprehensive review of various analytical techniques used in the analysis of azo dyes employed in food industries of different parts of the world. A brief description on the use of different extraction methods such as liquid-liquid, solid phase and membrane extraction has also been presented.

  13. Risk perception and communication: lessons for the food and food packaging industry.

    PubMed

    Renn, O

    2005-10-01

    Health risks are front-page news. Be it bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE), surface ozone, or radiation from transmitter stations or mobile phones, the popular press puts out a constant stream of risk warnings and sensational reports about potential health threats. This paper examines how the general public perceives and assesses such information when it comes to food and food packaging risks. In the first part, the basic components of food risks are discussed and then compared with the perceptions of these risks. The main emphasis is on the risks from food packaging. The term 'perception' as used in cognitive psychology applies to the mental processes through which a person takes in, deals with and assesses information from the environment (physical and communicative) via the senses. The last part of the paper deals with the consequences of risk assessment and risk perception for risk management and risk communication. PMID:16227190

  14. Risk perception and communication: lessons for the food and food packaging industry.

    PubMed

    Renn, O

    2005-10-01

    Health risks are front-page news. Be it bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE), surface ozone, or radiation from transmitter stations or mobile phones, the popular press puts out a constant stream of risk warnings and sensational reports about potential health threats. This paper examines how the general public perceives and assesses such information when it comes to food and food packaging risks. In the first part, the basic components of food risks are discussed and then compared with the perceptions of these risks. The main emphasis is on the risks from food packaging. The term 'perception' as used in cognitive psychology applies to the mental processes through which a person takes in, deals with and assesses information from the environment (physical and communicative) via the senses. The last part of the paper deals with the consequences of risk assessment and risk perception for risk management and risk communication.

  15. Emerging applications of low temperature gas plasmas in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alex; Shama, Gilbert; Iza, Felipe

    2015-06-16

    The global burden of foodborne disease due to the presence of contaminating micro-organisms remains high, despite some notable examples of their successful reduction in some instances. Globally, the number of species of micro-organisms responsible for foodborne diseases has increased over the past decades and as a result of the continued centralization of the food processing industry, outbreaks now have far reaching consequences. Gas plasmas offer a broad range of microbicidal capabilities that could be exploited in the food industry and against which microbial resistance would be unlikely to occur. In addition to reducing the incidence of disease by acting on the micro-organisms responsible for food spoilage, gas plasmas could also play a role in increasing the shelf-life of perishable foods and thereby reduce food wastage with positive financial and environmental implications. Treatment need not be confined to the food itself but could include food processing equipment and also the environment in which commercial food processing occurs. Moreover, gas plasmas could also be used to bring about the degradation of undesirable chemical compounds, such as allergens, toxins, and pesticide residues, often encountered on foods and food-processing equipment. The literature on the application of gas plasmas to food treatment is beginning to reveal an appreciation that attention needs also to be paid to ensuring that the key quality attributes of foods are not significantly impaired as a result of treatment. A greater understanding of both the mechanisms by which micro-organisms and chemical compounds are inactivated, and of the plasma species responsible for this is forming. This is significant, as this knowledge can then be used to design plasma systems with tailored compositions that will achieve maximum efficacy. Better understanding of the underlying interactions will also enable the design and implementation of control strategies capable of minimizing variations in

  16. Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach.

    PubMed

    van Gerwen, Suzanne J C; Gorris, Leon G M

    2004-09-01

    Food safety control is a matter for concern for all parts of the food supply chain, including governments that develop food safety policy, food industries that must control potential hazards, and consumers who need to keep to the intended use of the food. In the future, food safety policy may be set using the framework of risk analysis, part of which is the development of (inter)national microbiological risk assessment (MRA) studies. MRA studies increase our understanding of the impact of risk management interventions and of the relationships among subsequent parts of food supply chains with regard to the safety of the food when it reaches the consumer. Application of aspects of MRA in the development of new food concepts has potential benefits for the food industry. A tiered approach to applying MRA can best realize these benefits. The tiered MRA approach involves calculation of microbial fate for a product and process design on the basis of experimental data (e.g., monitoring data on prevalence) and predictive microbiological models. Calculations on new product formulations and novel processing technologies provide improved understanding of microbial fate beyond currently known boundaries, which enables identification of new opportunities in process design. The outcome of the tiered approach focuses on developing benchmarks of potential consumer exposure to hazards associated with new products by comparison with exposure associated with products that are already on the market and have a safe history of use. The tiered prototype is a tool to be used by experienced microbiologists as a basis for advice to product developers and can help to make safety assurance for new food concepts transparent to food inspection services. PMID:15453599

  17. Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach.

    PubMed

    van Gerwen, Suzanne J C; Gorris, Leon G M

    2004-09-01

    Food safety control is a matter for concern for all parts of the food supply chain, including governments that develop food safety policy, food industries that must control potential hazards, and consumers who need to keep to the intended use of the food. In the future, food safety policy may be set using the framework of risk analysis, part of which is the development of (inter)national microbiological risk assessment (MRA) studies. MRA studies increase our understanding of the impact of risk management interventions and of the relationships among subsequent parts of food supply chains with regard to the safety of the food when it reaches the consumer. Application of aspects of MRA in the development of new food concepts has potential benefits for the food industry. A tiered approach to applying MRA can best realize these benefits. The tiered MRA approach involves calculation of microbial fate for a product and process design on the basis of experimental data (e.g., monitoring data on prevalence) and predictive microbiological models. Calculations on new product formulations and novel processing technologies provide improved understanding of microbial fate beyond currently known boundaries, which enables identification of new opportunities in process design. The outcome of the tiered approach focuses on developing benchmarks of potential consumer exposure to hazards associated with new products by comparison with exposure associated with products that are already on the market and have a safe history of use. The tiered prototype is a tool to be used by experienced microbiologists as a basis for advice to product developers and can help to make safety assurance for new food concepts transparent to food inspection services.

  18. Membrane processing technology in the food industry: food processing, wastewater treatment, and effects on physical, microbiological, organoleptic, and nutritional properties of foods.

    PubMed

    Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Membrane processing technology (MPT) is increasingly used nowadays in a wide range of applications (demineralization, desalination, stabilization, separation, deacidification, reduction of microbial load, purification, etc.) in food industries. The most frequently applied techniques are electrodialysis (ED), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF), and microfiltration (MF). Several membrane characteristics, such as pore size, flow properties, and the applied hydraulic pressure mainly determine membranes' potential uses. In this review paper the basic membrane techniques, their potential applications in a large number of fields and products towards the food industry, the main advantages and disadvantages of these methods, fouling phenomena as well as their effects on the organoleptic, qualitative, and nutritional value of foods are synoptically described. Some representative examples of traditional and modern membrane applications both in tabular and figural form are also provided.

  19. "Green preservatives": combating fungi in the food and feed industry by applying antifungal lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pawlowska, Agata M; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-01-01

    Fungal food spoilage plays a pivotal role in the deterioration of food and feed systems and some of them are also able to produce toxic compounds for humans and animals. The mycotoxins produced by fungi can cause serious health hazards, including cancerogenic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects, and Kashin-Beck disease. In addition to this, fungal spoilage/pathogens are causing losses of marketable quality and hygiene of foodstuffs, resulting in major economic problem throughout the world. Nowadays, food spoilage can be prevented using physical and chemical methods, but no efficient strategy has been proposed so far to reduce the microbial growth ensuring public health. Therefore, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can play an important role as natural preservatives. The protection of food products using LAB is mainly due to the production of antifungal compounds such as carboxylic acids, fatty acids, ethanol, carbon dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins. In addition to this, LAB can also positively contribute to the flavor, texture, and nutritional value of food products. This review mainly focuses on the use of LAB for food preservation given their extensive industrial application in a wide range of foods and feeds. The attention points out the several industrial patents concerning the use of antifungal LAB as biocontrol agent against spoilage organisms in different fermented foods and feeds.

  20. Overview of RFID technology and its applications in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Reinitz, H W; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P; Franzon, P D

    2009-10-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an alternative technology with a potential to replace traditional universal product code (UPC) barcodes. RFID enables identification of an object from a distance without requiring a line of sight. RFID tags can also incorporate additional data such as details of product and manufacturer and can transmit measured environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity. This article presents key concepts and terminology related to RFID technology and its applications in the food industry. Components and working principles of an RFID system are described. Numerous applications of RFID technology in the food industry (supply chain management, temperature monitoring of foods, and ensuring food safety) are discussed. Challenges in implementation of RFID technology are also discussed in terms of read range, read accuracy, nonuniform standards, cost, recycling issues, privacy, and security concerns. PMID:19799677

  1. Overview of RFID technology and its applications in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Reinitz, H W; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P; Franzon, P D

    2009-10-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an alternative technology with a potential to replace traditional universal product code (UPC) barcodes. RFID enables identification of an object from a distance without requiring a line of sight. RFID tags can also incorporate additional data such as details of product and manufacturer and can transmit measured environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity. This article presents key concepts and terminology related to RFID technology and its applications in the food industry. Components and working principles of an RFID system are described. Numerous applications of RFID technology in the food industry (supply chain management, temperature monitoring of foods, and ensuring food safety) are discussed. Challenges in implementation of RFID technology are also discussed in terms of read range, read accuracy, nonuniform standards, cost, recycling issues, privacy, and security concerns.

  2. Waiting time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among Danish workers in the textile, clothing, and footwear industries.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, I; Boldsen, J L

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion.

  3. 78 FR 101 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Acceptance and Filing Reviews for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Acceptance and Filing Reviews for Premarket Approval Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  4. 77 FR 63837 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  5. 76 FR 77542 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device Designations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a...

  6. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Chemical Food Additives in Feeds,'' and is seeking comments on this guidance before revisions are made... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in...

  7. 76 FR 20688 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; 30-Day Notices, 135-Day Premarket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Supplements for Manufacturing Method or Process Changes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  8. 78 FR 102 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; eCopy Program for Medical Device Submissions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of...

  9. 77 FR 69634 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of guidance...

  10. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... information on how to evaluate the safety of flood-affected food crops for human consumption. DATES:...

  11. Sampling and transportation of food materials for freeze-fracture from the industrial environment.

    PubMed

    Price, J C; Brooker, B E

    1996-08-01

    A simple holder is described which enables the multiple sampling of food materials for freeze-fracturing in an industrial environment. The holder allows frozen samples to be transferred safely to the laboratory under liquid nitrogen for freeze-fracturing and examination by transmission electron microscopy. The technique has been successfully applied to sampling food from pilot plant and production lines under factory conditions. PMID:8805830

  12. 76 FR 44594 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Systems... Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Systems.'' This guidance document describes a...

  13. Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. The questions of the survey included items on production status and future production plans, functionality labeling, promotion plans, establishment of definition, the role of the government, consumer perception, and selection of products. The results show that both industry representatives and consumers believe that legislation and the provision of scientific evidence should be improved for the development of a functional animal-based foods market. The results obtained from this study will contribute to consumer trust by supplying correct information and can be utilized in the industry as basic data for the development of functional animal-based food products.

  14. Helping to promote healthy diets and lifestyles: the role of the food industry.

    PubMed

    Gassin, A L

    2001-12-01

    In order to be successful, public health nutrition strategies require the active collaboration of all stakeholders in the promotion of healthy diet and lifestyle patterns. The food industry plays an important role both in providing products that meet consumers' needs in terms of taste, convenience, quality, nutrition and value as well as in communicating to consumers about the importance of good nutrition, including the contribution of specific foods to a balanced diet. The food industry contributes to educational efforts regarding healthy diets and lifestyles both directly--through product labelling, advertising, educational materials, on-line communications and information provided by Consumer Services departments--and indirectly, through active involvement and participation in educational programmes pursued in collaboration with nutrition and health education authorities. Through ongoing dialogue with its consumers and research conducted on consumer knowledge and attitudes towards diet, the food industry can ensure that communications developed are motivating and relevant to consumers' lives. In this paper, the specific contribution of the food industry will be illustrated through the promotion of healthy eating habits among children, focusing in particular on the importance of the breakfast meal.

  15. Industry invites regulation: the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

    PubMed

    Barkan, I D

    1985-01-01

    Ending its 27-year stranglehold on proposals for federal pure food and drug legislation, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and its companion bill, the Meat Inspection Act, on June 30, 1906. An unprecedented convergence of consumer, scientific, and industrial support in 1906 prompted such action; most industries even planned for it, hoping regulation would restore the competitiveness of their products on weak foreign and domestic markets. The ways in which these interests converged, and the reasons therefore, suggest a change in their relationships to each other and with the federal government as America headed into the twentieth century. PMID:3881052

  16. Industry invites regulation: the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, I D

    1985-01-01

    Ending its 27-year stranglehold on proposals for federal pure food and drug legislation, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and its companion bill, the Meat Inspection Act, on June 30, 1906. An unprecedented convergence of consumer, scientific, and industrial support in 1906 prompted such action; most industries even planned for it, hoping regulation would restore the competitiveness of their products on weak foreign and domestic markets. The ways in which these interests converged, and the reasons therefore, suggest a change in their relationships to each other and with the federal government as America headed into the twentieth century. Images p21-a p21-b PMID:3881052

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance: applications in the food industry. January 1972-April 1988 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1972-April 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging in the food industry. Analysis of flavor compounds, moisture content, fat crystallization, protein soluability, pigments, and compounds that preserve foods are discussed. Chemical changes in processed foods and biological processes such as plant growth and respiration are also studied. (Contains 333 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  18. Diversity of glycosyl hydrolase enzymes from metagenome and their application in food industry.

    PubMed

    Sathya, T A; Khan, Mahejibin

    2014-11-01

    Traditional use of enzymes for food processing and production of food ingredients resulted in fast-growing enzyme industries world over. The advances in technologies gave rise to exploring newer enzymes and/or modified enzymes for specific application. Search for novel enzymes that can augment catalytic efficiency and advances in molecular biology techniques including sequencing has targeted microbial diversity through metagenomic approaches for sourcing enzymes from difficult to culture organisms. Such mining studies have received more attention in characterizing hydrolases, their prevalence, broad substrate specificities, stability, and independence of cofactors. The focus on glycosyl hydrolases from metagenome for their application in food sector is reviewed. PMID:25311940

  19. Diversity of glycosyl hydrolase enzymes from metagenome and their application in food industry.

    PubMed

    Sathya, T A; Khan, Mahejibin

    2014-11-01

    Traditional use of enzymes for food processing and production of food ingredients resulted in fast-growing enzyme industries world over. The advances in technologies gave rise to exploring newer enzymes and/or modified enzymes for specific application. Search for novel enzymes that can augment catalytic efficiency and advances in molecular biology techniques including sequencing has targeted microbial diversity through metagenomic approaches for sourcing enzymes from difficult to culture organisms. Such mining studies have received more attention in characterizing hydrolases, their prevalence, broad substrate specificities, stability, and independence of cofactors. The focus on glycosyl hydrolases from metagenome for their application in food sector is reviewed.

  20. Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry.

  1. Utility of Squeeze Flow in the Food Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. A.

    2008-07-01

    Squeeze flow for obtaining shear viscosity on Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids has long been established in the literature. Rotational shear flow using cone/plate, a set of parallel plates, or concentric cylinders all develop wall slip, shear fracture, or instability on food related materials such as peanut butter or mayonnaise. Viscosity data obtained using any one of the above mentioned set-ups is suspect or potentially results in significant error. They are unreliable to support or predict the textural differences perceived by consumer evaluation. RMS-800, from Rheometrics Inc., was employed to conduct the squeezing flow under constant speeds on a set of parallel plates. Viscosity data, over a broad range of shear rates, is compared between Hellmann's real (HRM) and light mayonnaise (HLM). The Consistency and shear-thinning indices, as defined in the Power-Law Model, were determined. HRM exhibits a more pronounced shear-thinning when compared to HLM yet the Consistency of HRM is significantly higher. Sensory evaluation by a trained expert panel ranked that adhesiveness and cohesiveness of HLM are significantly higher. It appears that the degree of shear thinning is one of the key rheological parameters in predicting the above mentioned difference in textural attributes. Error involved in determining viscosity from non-parallelism between two plates can be significant to affect the accuracy of the viscosity, in particular, shear-thinning index. Details are a subject for the next presentation. Nevertheless, the method is proven to be fast, rugged, simple, and reliable. It can be developed as a QC tool.

  2. Reproductive health and the industrialized food system: a point of intervention for health policy.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrice; Wallinga, David; Perron, Joanne; Gottlieb, Michelle; Sayre, Lucia; Woodruff, Tracey

    2011-05-01

    What food is produced, and how, can have a critical impact on human nutrition and the environment, which in turn are key drivers of healthy human reproduction and development. The US food production system yields a large volume of food that is relatively low in cost for consumers but is often high in calories and low in nutritional value. In this article we examine the evidence that intensive use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics, and fossil fuel in food production, as well as chemicals in food packaging, are potentially harmful to human reproductive and developmental health. We conclude that policies to advance a healthy food system are necessary to prevent adverse reproductive health effects and avoid associated health costs among current and future generations. These policies include changes to the Farm Bill and the Toxic Substances Control Act, and greater involvement by the health care sector in supporting and sourcing food from urban agriculture programs, farmers' markets, and local food outlets, as well as increasing understanding by clinicians of the links between reproductive health and industrialized food production. PMID:21555472

  3. Restaurant industry preparedness against intentional food contamination: results of a South Carolina survey.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Smith, Lillian U; Li, Yi-Jhen; Sros, Lekhena; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Food safety and food defense are both responsibilities of public health agencies. Food safety practices within restaurants are regulated by state and local public health laws based on the US Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code. However, little is known about preemptive practices against intentional food-borne outbreaks within restaurants. The researchers administered a survey to a 50 percent random sample of South Carolina's restaurants, a state that relies heavily on tourism and the restaurant industry for its economic well-being. The survey received a response rate of 15 percent. The food defense practice items fall under three functional categories: employee management and training practices; vendor and delivery-related practices; and physical facilities and operational security practices. This study presents the results, classified by geographic region. Findings indicate some key areas of vulnerability that need attention to protect the public from mass food outbreaks due to intentional contamination. Of concern, there is much variation in practices by geographic region. On the basis of the survey, recommendations are made to improve restaurant preparedness against food-borne outbreaks from terrorism and malevolent contamination. PMID:20520362

  4. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada’s sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n=10,487 and n=15,394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in (mean ± standard deviation, mg/100g) imitation seafood (602±50 to 444±81, 26.2%, p=0.002), condiments (1309±790 to 1048±620, 19.9%, p=0.005), breakfast cereals (375±26 to 301±242, 19.7%, p=0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269±156 to 217±180, 19.3%, p<0.001), plain chips (462±196 to 376±198, 18.6% p=0.004), hot cereals (453±141 to 385±155, 15.0%, p=0.011), meat analogues (612±226 to 524±177, 14.4%, p=0.003), canned condensed soup (291±62 to 250±57, 14.1%, p=0.003), and sausages and wieners (912±219 to 814±195, 10.7%, p=0.012). The proportion of foods meeting at least one of the three phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce. PMID:27113326

  5. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium, and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada's sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n = 10 487 and n = 15 394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in imitation seafood (mean ± SD, mg/100 g; 602 ± 50 to 444 ± 81, 26.2%, p = 0.002), condiments (1309 ± 790 to 1048 ± 620, 19.9%, p = 0.005), breakfast cereals (375 ± 26 to 301 ± 242, 19.7%, p = 0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269 ± 156 to 217 ± 180, 19.3%, p < 0.001), plain chips (462 ± 196 to 376 ± 198, 18.6% p = 0.004), hot cereals (453 ± 141 to 385 ± 155, 15.0%, p = 0.011), meat analogues (612 ± 226 to 524 ± 177, 14.4%, p = 0.003), canned condensed soup (291 ± 62 to 250 ± 57, 14.1%, p = 0.003), and sausages and wieners (912 ± 219 to 814 ± 195, 10.7%, p = 0.012). The proportion of foods meeting at least 1 of the 3 phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce. PMID:27113326

  6. Future of the animal health industry at a time of food crisis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, William C; Conder, George A; Marchiondo, Alan A

    2009-08-01

    It is popular in some quarters to say that there is no food crisis; that there is food aplenty; and that the problem is one of distribution or other over-arching technical difficulty. To the starving, however, there is a food crisis; and it neither speaks well nor bodes well for humanity if we dismiss their plight so glibly. The United Nations has called for a large and rapid increase in food production. Veterinary parasitologists and industry leaders can contribute to the production of healthier livestock and the expansion of aquaculture, but enhanced production and better delivery of plant foods may provide faster relief. Although livestock farming is not the most energy-efficient way of producing food, meat will remain a significant component of the global diet for the foreseeable future. New measures for parasite control will be needed, and we must improve our methods of inventing them. They need not act directly against the parasite. In the distant future lie other threats to the inhabitants of planet Earth, and here we must acknowledge the cogency of the no-food-crisis argument. In the long term, the production of animal foods and animal feeds will be revamped in ways that depend on how (or whether) we solve the energy crisis, the environmental crisis, the increasingly dire regional population crises, and the current world financial crisis. Throughout the 20th century, the animal health industry had to adapt to industrialization and expansive agribusiness. It will have to adapt to even greater changes in the 21st century and beyond.

  7. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  8. Basic Skills in the Hotel & Food Service Industries. Workforce & Workplace Literacy Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Brief, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a list of 21 contacts and 9 references concerned with workplace literacy programs in the hotel and food service industries. Each listing includes addresses and telephone numbers, prices if applicable, and a brief description of the resource or materials. The materials listed are mostly reports of workplace literacy projects in…

  9. Food and beverage industries' participation in health scientific events: considerations on conflicts of interest.

    PubMed

    Canella, Daniela S; Martins, Ana Paula B; Silva, Hugo F R; Passanha, Adriana; Lourenço, Bárbara H

    2015-10-01

    Several sectors of the industry (pharmaceutical, food, and other) often occupy a prominent position in scientific meetings on health. The aim of this article is to discuss the participation of food and beverage industries (Big Food and Big Soda) in events organized by scientific institutions in health and nutrition, highlighting potential conflicts of interest in such partnerships. As an example, the authors report the case of a Brazilian national event organized by a nutrition scientific association in 2011. Focused on the theme "Evidence-based Nutrition," the event's scientific program was largely influenced by corporate sponsors. For example, a symposium at this congress was organized by a beverage company known worldwide for its sugar-sweetened products and classified as the "diamond sponsor" of the event. While debating the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the current scenario of rising occurrence of obesity, the rationale for health promotion was reduced to providing information that would motivate rational individual choices, thus ignoring any political, economic, cultural, marketing, and social factors involved in the global process of nutrition transition. The authors conclude that conflicts of interest are present in the participation of food and beverage industries in health scientific events. The industries' strategy attempts to grant legitimacy to the production and marketing of their products through an association with adequate health practices. Health professionals and policy-makers should reflect on such partnerships because their main purpose is to generate profit, not the promotion of public health. PMID:26758226

  10. Food and beverage industries' participation in health scientific events: considerations on conflicts of interest.

    PubMed

    Canella, Daniela S; Martins, Ana Paula B; Silva, Hugo F R; Passanha, Adriana; Lourenço, Bárbara H

    2015-10-01

    Several sectors of the industry (pharmaceutical, food, and other) often occupy a prominent position in scientific meetings on health. The aim of this article is to discuss the participation of food and beverage industries (Big Food and Big Soda) in events organized by scientific institutions in health and nutrition, highlighting potential conflicts of interest in such partnerships. As an example, the authors report the case of a Brazilian national event organized by a nutrition scientific association in 2011. Focused on the theme "Evidence-based Nutrition," the event's scientific program was largely influenced by corporate sponsors. For example, a symposium at this congress was organized by a beverage company known worldwide for its sugar-sweetened products and classified as the "diamond sponsor" of the event. While debating the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the current scenario of rising occurrence of obesity, the rationale for health promotion was reduced to providing information that would motivate rational individual choices, thus ignoring any political, economic, cultural, marketing, and social factors involved in the global process of nutrition transition. The authors conclude that conflicts of interest are present in the participation of food and beverage industries in health scientific events. The industries' strategy attempts to grant legitimacy to the production and marketing of their products through an association with adequate health practices. Health professionals and policy-makers should reflect on such partnerships because their main purpose is to generate profit, not the promotion of public health.

  11. X-ray detection of defects and contaminants in the food industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of x-rays to traverse through matter and reveal hidden contaminants or defects have led to their extensive use in manufacturing industries for quality control inspection. The difficulties inherent in the detection of defects and contaminants in food products have kept the use of x-ray i...

  12. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  13. 76 FR 72951 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... (74 FR 46433), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance. Comments on the draft guidance... Differentiation of Human Papillomaviruses; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Differentiation of Human Papillomaviruses.'' This guidance document provides industry and Agency staff...

  14. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Robinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  15. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  16. Energy conservation and savings in the food industry (citations from Food Science and Technology Abstracts). Report for Jan 1972-Nov 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hippler, R.R.

    1980-02-01

    The citations cover world-wide literature on conservation and savings in energy use for the food industry. Industries covered are dairies (including milk, cheese, cream, ice cream), breweries, meat industry, food processing plants, food warehouses, bakeries, and sugar factories. Energy savings aspects are alternate energy forms, solar drying and dehydration (including for grains and fruits), energy recycling (waste energy usage), and use of by-products for energy, such as biogas. The articles cover techniques equipment, and design for energy conservation. (Contains 95 abstracts)

  17. An Educational Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Workforce: Opportunities to Redefine Secondary Career and Technical Education to Meet Food Industry Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoleon, Larry; Freedman, Debra; Seetharaman, Koushik; Sharma, Priya

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of a needs assessment concerning current training needs and performance targets for non-degreed employees in the food industry. Focus groups were used to gather data from 5 food-processing companies: a fresh vegetable company, a canned vegetable company, 2 snack food companies, and a meat company. Focus group…

  18. The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency:Examples from the Food Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric; McKane, Aimee

    2006-05-01

    For over 25 years, the U.S. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has championed the application of emerging technologies in industrial plants and monitored these technologies impacts on industrial energy consumption. The cumulative energy savings of more than 160 completed and tracked projects is estimated at approximately 3.99 quadrillion Btu (quad), representing a production cost savings of $20.4 billion. Properly documenting the impacts of such technologies is essential for assessing their effectiveness and for delivering insights about the optimal direction of future technology research. This paper analyzes the impacts that several emerging technologies have had in the food processing industry. The analysis documents energy savings, carbon emissions reductions and production improvements and assesses the market penetration and sector-wide savings potential. Case study data is presented demonstrating the successful implementation of these technologies. The paper's conclusion discusses the effects of these technologies and offers some projections of sector-wide impacts.

  19. Citrus Essential Oils: Current and Prospective Uses in the Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Nazik E M

    2015-01-01

    Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are gaining popularity in the food industry. This review summarises the chemical compositions of citrus essential oils (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated derivatives) and explores their antimicrobial activities for use as preservatives in addition to highlight their uses as flavouring and antioxidant agents. The myriad uses of these compounds reflect a global trend towards the increased consumption of natural products. However, challenges such as production technologies, oxidation, chemical contamination by pesticides and consumption induced allergic effects still need to be addressed. Patents identified with CEO uses in food processing and those describe techniques of extraction are presented.

  20. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 "Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30" (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.

  1. Feruloyl esterases from Schizophyllum commune to treat food industry side-streams.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-11-01

    Agro-industrial side-streams are abundant and renewable resources of hydroxycinnamic acids with potential applications as antioxidants and preservatives in the food, health, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) from Schizophyllum commune were functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris with extracellular activities of 6000UL(-1). The recombinant enzymes, ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2, released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet pectin. Overnight incubation of coffee pulp released caffeic (>60%), ferulic (>80%) and p-coumaric acid (100%) indicating applicability for the valorization of food processing wastes and enhanced biomass degradation. Based on substrate specificity profiling and the release of diferulates from destarched wheat bran, the recombinant FAEs were characterized as type D FAEs. ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2 preferably hydrolyzed feruloylated saccharides with ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues and showed an unprecedented ability to hydrolyze benzoic acid esters.

  2. Potential Applications of Immobilized β-Galactosidase in Food Processing Industries

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, Parmjit S.; Kumari, Shweta; Panesar, Reeba

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme β-galactosidase can be obtained from a wide variety of sources such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. The use of β-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey is one of the promising enzymatic applications in food and dairy processing industries. The enzyme can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms but the soluble enzyme can be used only for batch processes and the immobilized form has the advantage of being used in batch wise as well as in continuous operation. Immobilization has been found to be convenient method to make enzyme thermostable and to prevent the loss of enzyme activity. This review has been focused on the different types of techniques used for the immobilization of β-galactosidase and its potential applications in food industry. PMID:21234407

  3. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  4. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 "Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30" (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  5. Research advances of antimicrobial peptides and applications in food industry and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shuo; Xu, Huanli; Wang, Fengshan

    2010-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by a wide range of organisms and serve as their natural defenses against infection caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi. Because of the positively charge and amphipathic structure, AMPs kill target cells through diverse and complex mechanisms once in a target membrane and these special mechanisms are considered to be the critical factors for the less tendency of drug resistance development. Thus AMPs may become a new generation of promising antimicrobial agents in future anti-infection application. Additionally, AMPs can also be used in food industry and agriculture. On the basis of discussing the structural features, action mechanisms and sources, the applications of AMPs were reviewed in this paper, including in food industry, feedstuff, cultivation of disease-resistant transgenic plant, cultivation of transgenic animal, and aquaculture, especially the patented applications.

  6. Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume III. Technical Papers on the Future of the Food Service Industry. Service Management Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

    This third and final volume of a study on the future of the food service industry contains the technical papers on which the information in the previous two volumes was based. The papers were written by various members of the Pennsylvania State University departments of economics, food science, nutrition, social psychology, and engineering and by…

  7. [Use of a preparation from fungal pectin lyase in the food industry].

    PubMed

    Semenova, M V; Sinitsyna, O A; Morozova, V V; Fedorova, E A; Gusakov, A V; Okunev, O N; Sokolova, L M; Koshelev, A V; Bubnova, Iu P; Sinitsyn, A P

    2006-01-01

    A new enzyme preparation of fungal pectin lyase (EC 4.2.2.10) was shown to be useful for the production of cranberry juice and clarification of apple juice in the food industry. A comparative study showed that the preparation of pectin lyase is competitive with commercial pectinase products. The molecular weight of homogeneous pectin lyase was 38 kDa. Properties of the homogeneous enzyme were studied. This enzyme was most efficient in removing highly esterified pectin.

  8. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process. PMID:18942836

  9. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26175729

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  11. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Laura M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26175729

  12. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance: Applications in the food industry. January 1972-December 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1972-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging in the food industry. Analysis of flavor compounds, moisture content, fat crystallization, protein soluability, pigments, and compounds that preserve foods are discussed. Chemical changes in processed foods and biological processes such as plant growth and respiration are also studied. (This updated bibliography contains 367 citations, 48 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    PubMed

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  16. Expression of enzymes for the usage in food and feed industry with Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Spohner, Sebastian C; Müller, Hagen; Quitmann, Hendrich; Czermak, Peter

    2015-05-20

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is an established protein expression host for the production of industrial enzymes. This yeast can be grown to very high cell densities and produces high titers of recombinant protein, which can be expressed intercellularly or be secreted to the fermentation medium. P. pastoris offers some advantages over other established expression systems especially in protein maturation. In food and feed production many enzymatically catalyzed processes are reported and the demand for new enzymes grows continuously. For instance the unique catalytic properties of enzymes are used to improve resource efficiency, maintain quality, functionalize food, and to prevent off-flavors. This review aims to provide an overview on recent developments in heterologous production of enzymes with P. pastoris and their application within the food sector.

  17. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  18. The effects of flooding on dioxin and PCB levels in food produced on industrial river catchments.

    PubMed

    Lake, Iain R; Foxall, Christopher D; Fernandes, Alwyn; Lewis, Mervyn; Rose, Martin; White, Oliver; Lovett, Andrew A; White, Shaun; Dowding, Alan; Mortimer, David

    2015-04-01

    This research examined the effect of regular flooding upon PCDD/F and PCB levels in milk, beef and lamb, produced on the floodplains of industrial river catchments. Our unique dataset included more than 200 samples analysed for PCDD/Fs and PCBs over two data collection phases (1998-1999 & 2008-2010) from working farms. A robust paired study design was adopted with samples taken from flood-prone farms and nearby control farms not subject to flooding. On industrial river catchments regular flooding is associated with higher PCDD/F and PCB levels in soils and grass. This contamination may be transferred to food but the impact varied by food type. These contrasts may be due to physiological differences between animals, the ages at which they are sent to market and differences in animal husbandry. To minimise the risks of producing food on flood-prone land in industrial river catchments, as well as on any land with elevated PCDD/F and PCB levels, this research suggests a number of options. The choice of livestock may be important and as an example in our study beef cattle accumulated PCDD/Fs to a higher degree than sheep. Land management may also play a role and could include minimising the time that livestock spend on such land or feeding commercial feed, low in PCDD/Fs and PCBs, where appropriate. PMID:25668571

  19. The effects of flooding on dioxin and PCB levels in food produced on industrial river catchments.

    PubMed

    Lake, Iain R; Foxall, Christopher D; Fernandes, Alwyn; Lewis, Mervyn; Rose, Martin; White, Oliver; Lovett, Andrew A; White, Shaun; Dowding, Alan; Mortimer, David

    2015-04-01

    This research examined the effect of regular flooding upon PCDD/F and PCB levels in milk, beef and lamb, produced on the floodplains of industrial river catchments. Our unique dataset included more than 200 samples analysed for PCDD/Fs and PCBs over two data collection phases (1998-1999 & 2008-2010) from working farms. A robust paired study design was adopted with samples taken from flood-prone farms and nearby control farms not subject to flooding. On industrial river catchments regular flooding is associated with higher PCDD/F and PCB levels in soils and grass. This contamination may be transferred to food but the impact varied by food type. These contrasts may be due to physiological differences between animals, the ages at which they are sent to market and differences in animal husbandry. To minimise the risks of producing food on flood-prone land in industrial river catchments, as well as on any land with elevated PCDD/F and PCB levels, this research suggests a number of options. The choice of livestock may be important and as an example in our study beef cattle accumulated PCDD/Fs to a higher degree than sheep. Land management may also play a role and could include minimising the time that livestock spend on such land or feeding commercial feed, low in PCDD/Fs and PCBs, where appropriate.

  20. Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.

    PubMed

    Subhadra, Bobban

    2011-01-15

    Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind.

  1. The Food Industry and Self-Regulation: Standards to Promote Success and to Avoid Public Health Failures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lisa L.; Teret, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Threatened by possible government regulation and critical public opinion, industries often undertake self-regulatory actions, issue statements of concern for public welfare, and assert that self-regulation is sufficient to protect the public. The food industry has made highly visible pledges to curtail children's food marketing, sell fewer unhealthy products in schools, and label foods in responsible ways. Ceding regulation to industry carries opportunities but is highly risky. In some industries (e.g., tobacco), self-regulation has been an abject failure, but in others (e.g., forestry and marine fisheries), it has been more successful. We examined food industry self-regulation in the context of other self-regulatory successes and failures and defined 8 standards that should be met if self-regulation is to be effective. PMID:20019306

  2. Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.

    PubMed

    Subhadra, Bobban

    2011-01-15

    Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind. PMID:20981716

  3. Applications of color machine vision in the agricultural and food industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Ludas, Laszlo I.; Morgan, Mark T.; Krutz, Gary W.; Precetti, Cyrille J.

    1999-01-01

    Color is an important factor in Agricultural and the Food Industry. Agricultural or prepared food products are often grade by producers and consumers using color parameters. Color is used to estimate maturity, sort produce for defects, but also perform genetic screenings or make an aesthetic judgement. The task of sorting produce following a color scale is very complex, requires special illumination and training. Also, this task cannot be performed for long durations without fatigue and loss of accuracy. This paper describes a machine vision system designed to perform color classification in real-time. Applications for sorting a variety of agricultural products are included: e.g. seeds, meat, baked goods, plant and wood.FIrst the theory of color classification of agricultural and biological materials is introduced. Then, some tools for classifier development are presented. Finally, the implementation of the algorithm on real-time image processing hardware and example applications for industry is described. This paper also presented an image analysis algorithm and a prototype machine vision system which was developed for industry. This system will automatically locate the surface of some plants using digital camera and predict information such as size, potential value and type of this plant. The algorithm developed will be feasible for real-time identification in an industrial environment.

  4. Microbial tyrosinases: promising enzymes for pharmaceutical, food bioprocessing, and environmental industry.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Kamal Uddin; Ali, Ayesha S; Ali, Sharique A; Naaz, Ishrat

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a natural enzyme and is often purified to only a low degree and it is involved in a variety of functions which mainly catalyse the o-hydroxylation of monophenols into their corresponding o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones using molecular oxygen, which then polymerizes to form brown or black pigments. The synthesis of o-diphenols is a potentially valuable catalytic ability and thus tyrosinase has attracted a lot of attention with respect to industrial applications. In environmental technology it is used for the detoxification of phenol-containing wastewaters and contaminated soils, as biosensors for phenol monitoring, and for the production of L-DOPA in pharmaceutical industries, and is also used in cosmetic and food industries as important catalytic enzyme. Melanin pigment synthesized by tyrosinase has found applications for protection against radiation cation exchangers, drug carriers, antioxidants, antiviral agents, or immunogen. The recombinant V. spinosum tryosinase protein can be used to produce tailor-made melanin and other polyphenolic materials using various phenols and catechols as starting materials. This review compiles the recent data on biochemical and molecular properties of microbial tyrosinases, underlining their importance in the industrial use of these enzymes. After that, their most promising applications in pharmaceutical, food processing, and environmental fields are presented.

  5. Microbial Tyrosinases: Promising Enzymes for Pharmaceutical, Food Bioprocessing, and Environmental Industry

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Kamal Uddin; Ali, Ayesha S.; Ali, Sharique A.; Naaz, Ishrat

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a natural enzyme and is often purified to only a low degree and it is involved in a variety of functions which mainly catalyse the o-hydroxylation of monophenols into their corresponding o-diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones using molecular oxygen, which then polymerizes to form brown or black pigments. The synthesis of o-diphenols is a potentially valuable catalytic ability and thus tyrosinase has attracted a lot of attention with respect to industrial applications. In environmental technology it is used for the detoxification of phenol-containing wastewaters and contaminated soils, as biosensors for phenol monitoring, and for the production of L-DOPA in pharmaceutical industries, and is also used in cosmetic and food industries as important catalytic enzyme. Melanin pigment synthesized by tyrosinase has found applications for protection against radiation cation exchangers, drug carriers, antioxidants, antiviral agents, or immunogen. The recombinant V. spinosum tryosinase protein can be used to produce tailor-made melanin and other polyphenolic materials using various phenols and catechols as starting materials. This review compiles the recent data on biochemical and molecular properties of microbial tyrosinases, underlining their importance in the industrial use of these enzymes. After that, their most promising applications in pharmaceutical, food processing, and environmental fields are presented. PMID:24895537

  6. Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Food Fraud Prevention: Policy, Strategy, and Decision-Making - Implementation Steps for a Government Agency or Industry.

    PubMed

    Spink, John; Fortin, Neal D; Moyer, Douglas C; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of governments, industry, academics, and non-governmental organizations in Food Fraud prevention. Before providing strategic concepts for governments and authorities, definitions of Food Fraud are reviewed and discussed. Next there is a review of Food Fraud activities by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), the Elliott Review in the United Kingdom, the European Commission resolution on Food Fraud, and the US Food Safety Modernization Act including the Preventative Controls Rule. Two key concepts for governments or a company are: (1) formally, and specifically, mention food fraud as a food issue and (2) create an enterprise-wide Food Fraud prevention plan. The research includes a case study of the implementation of the concepts by a state or provincial agency. This analysis provides a foundation to review the role of science and technology in detection, deterrence and then contributing to prevention. PMID:27198808

  8. Food Fraud Prevention: Policy, Strategy, and Decision-Making - Implementation Steps for a Government Agency or Industry.

    PubMed

    Spink, John; Fortin, Neal D; Moyer, Douglas C; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of governments, industry, academics, and non-governmental organizations in Food Fraud prevention. Before providing strategic concepts for governments and authorities, definitions of Food Fraud are reviewed and discussed. Next there is a review of Food Fraud activities by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), the Elliott Review in the United Kingdom, the European Commission resolution on Food Fraud, and the US Food Safety Modernization Act including the Preventative Controls Rule. Two key concepts for governments or a company are: (1) formally, and specifically, mention food fraud as a food issue and (2) create an enterprise-wide Food Fraud prevention plan. The research includes a case study of the implementation of the concepts by a state or provincial agency. This analysis provides a foundation to review the role of science and technology in detection, deterrence and then contributing to prevention.

  9. An Analysis of China's Fertilizer Policies: Impacts on the Industry, Food Security, and the Environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuxuan; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Lin; Huang, Gaoqiang; Oenema, Oene; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2013-07-01

    China has made remarkable strides in recent decades to grow enough food to feed 20% of the world's population with only 9% of the world's arable land. Meanwhile, the nation is experiencing exacerbated air and water pollution problems. Agricultural growth and the pollution aggravation are closely linked with policies affecting fertilizer production and use. Essentially nonexistent in 1950, China's fertilizer industry is now a robust conglomerate producing fertilizers in amounts that not only meet domestic demand but also contribute to international trade. The industry's growth stemmed from a series of policy progressions, featuring (i) a total control system with state ownership and central planning (1949-1984), (ii) a dual system of central planning and market adjustment (1985-1997), (iii) a market-driven system with government-mandated price caps (1998-2009), and (iv) a complete market-oriented system (since 2009). In conjunction with the policy changes were massive subsidy programs totaling more than $18 billion in 2010. The support policies and subsidies helped grow the industry and safeguard an adequate supply of fertilizers at affordable costs to farmers, but the artificially low-priced fertilizers also contributed to a nationwide trend of fertilizer overuse, leading to nutrient pollution. China needs innovative policies and programs to address food security and sustainability challenges. In this study, we review and analyze policies and programs related to China's fertilizer production and use in a 60-yr span (1950-2010) and discuss its impact on the development of the industry, food security, and pressing environmental issues. Finally, our study analyzes long-term trends in fertilizer use in China and offers some key viewpoints to stimulate debates among all stakeholders.

  10. Amperometric Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Application in Food and Beverage Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csöoregi, Elisabeth; Gáspñr, Szilveszter; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mattiasson, Bo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    Continuous, sensitive, selective, and reliable monitoring of a large variety of different compounds in various food and beverage samples is of increasing importance to assure a high-quality and tracing of any possible source of contamination of food and beverages. Most of the presently used classical analytical methods are often requiring expensive instrumentation, long analysis times and well-trained staff. Amperometric enzyme-based biosensors on the other hand have emerged in the last decade from basic science to useful tools with very promising application possibilities in food and beverage industry. Amperometric biosensors are in general highly selective, sensitive, relatively cheap, and easy to integrate into continuous analysis systems. A successful application of such sensors for industrial purposes, however, requires a sensor design, which satisfies the specific needs of monitoring the targeted analyte in the particular application, Since each individual application needs different operational conditions and sensor characteristics, it is obvious that biosensors have to be tailored for the particular case. The characteristics of the biosensors are depending on the used biorecognition element (enzyme), nature of signal transducer (electrode material) and the communication between these two elements (electron-transfer pathway).

  11. Consumption of industrialized food by infants attending child day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Konstantyner, Tulio; Taddei, José Augusto de A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the age of introduction of petit suisse cheese and instant noodles in the diet of infants attending nurseries of public day care centers and to compare the nutritional composition of these foods with the healthy recommended diet (breast milk and salt meal) for this age, in order to estimate nutritional errors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 366 children (from nine to 36 months old) who attended day care centers, whose mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of those foods. The means of the nutrients indicated on the labels of the most consumed brands were considered. For the calculation of the percent composition of breast milk and salt meal, Tables of Food Composition were used. To assess the nutritional adequacy, we used the Dietary Reference Intakes by age group. The percentage of adequacy evaluation of the petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles nutritional compositions was made by comparing them with those of the human milk and the salt meal, respectively. Results: The petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles were consumed by 89.6 and 65.3% of the children in the first year of life. The percentages of adequacy for carbohydrates were more than twice and the percentages for sodium were 20 times higher than those found in the recommended foods. Conclusions: Both industrialized products are inappropriate for infants, emphasizing the need for adoption of norms that can inform health professionals, educators and parents about the risks of consumption. PMID:24676188

  12. Investigation on possible allergenicity of 19 different commercial enzymes used in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Skov, Per Stahl; Roggen, Erwin L; Hvass, Peter; Brinch, Ditte Sidelmann

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety to allergic patients of 19 commercially available and authority-approved enzymes used in the food industry. Enzymes produced by genetically modified organisms were included. Four hundred consecutive adult patients with a diagnosed allergy to inhalation allergens, food allergens, bee or wasp were included. All had at least one positive skin prick test to the above allergens. Skin prick testing with the 19 enzymes was performed on the forearm and if positive (in 13 patients), in vitro histamine release from blood basophils were performed. Patients with positive results in skin prick test were subsequently reinvestigated with further purified enzymes and finally challenged orally with the enzymes in a double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol. Only one reaction to a placebo challenge was seen. In some instances a positive skin prick test result or a positive histamine release was seen elicited by the enzymes, but since none of the patients were positive to any of the commercial enzymes in the subsequent oral challenges using exaggerated dosages of the enzymes compared to normal daily intake, the findings are without clinical relevance. A wide variety of enzyme classes and origins was included in the study. Because there were no allergenic findings of clinical relevance it is concluded that ingestion of food enzymes in general is not considered to be a concern with regard to food allergy.

  13. Filamentous fungi are large-scale producers of pigments and colorants for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Dufossé, Laurent; Fouillaud, Mireille; Caro, Yanis; Mapari, Sameer A S; Sutthiwong, Nuthathai

    2014-04-01

    With globalization in the research trends, healthier life styles, and the growing market for the natural food colorants in the economically fast-growing countries all over the world, filamentous fungi are being investigated as readily available sources of chemically diverse colorants. With two selected examples, polyketide-Monascus-like pigments from the new fungal production strains, and the promising and yet unexplored hydroxy-anthraquinoid colorants, the present review highlights exciting recent findings, which may pave the way for alternative and/or additional biotechnological processes for the industrial production of natural food colorants of improved functionality. As an additional aspect, marine fungi are discussed as potential sources of novel pigments of numerous color hues and atypical chemical structures.

  14. 78 FR 24425 - Assay Migration Studies for In Vitro Diagnostic Devices; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... studies on an old system. The draft of this guidance was issued on January 5, 2009 (74 FR 302). The... guidance is also applicable for some 510(k) cleared devices for which transition to a new system presents...; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and...

  15. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Administration (FDA) is correcting a notice that appeared in the Federal Register of April 25, 2011 (76 FR...

  16. 77 FR 20825 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... classification information.'' In the Federal Register of April 29, 2010 (75 FR 22601), FDA announced the...; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for...

  17. 77 FR 22328 - Guidance for Industry on the Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... a guidance for industry (GFI 209) entitled ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial... thinking on the use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in animal agriculture. DATES: Submit...

  18. 77 FR 16036 - Guidance for Industry, Third Parties and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Device ISO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... System; the European Union Notified Body Accreditation System; the Therapeutics Goods Administration of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry, Third Parties and Food and Drug... manufacturer whose establishment has been audited under one of the regulatory systems implemented by the...

  19. Attitudinal Factors Affecting Viral Advertising Pass-On Behaviour of Online Consumers in Food Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Salleh, Nurhidayah; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase number of active users of social media, especially Facebook, stimulates viral advertising behaviour among them, thus attracting e-marketers to focus on viral advertising in promoting their products. In global market, use of Facebook platform indicated that food services/restaurant of food industry is ranked number 11 with 18.8% users’ response rate within the platform. This development calls for e-marketers in Malaysia to use Facebook as their viral advertising channel. Attitudinal factors affecting the viral advertising pass-on behaviour (VAPB) especially among members of social media is of interest to many researchers. The typical attitudinal factors used were attitude toward social media (ATSM), attitude toward advertising in social media (AASM) and attitude toward advertising in general (AAIG). Attitude toward advertised brand (ATAB) is important in fast food industry because users of social media tend to share their experience about tastes and features of the food. However, ATAB is less emphasized in the conceptual model between attitudinal factors and VAPB. These four factors of consumer attitude served as independent variables in the conceptual model of this study and their effect on viral advertising pass-on behaviour among members of Domino's Pizza Malaysia Facebook page was examined. Online survey using a set of questionnaire which was sent to the members of this group via private message was employed. A total of 254 sets of usable questionnaires were collected from the respondents. All the attitudinal factors, except for AASM, were found to have positive and significant effect on VAPB. AAIG exerted the strongest effect on VAPB. Therefore, e-marketers should emphasize on developing a favourable attitude toward advertising in general among members of a social media to get them involve in viral advertising. In addition, instilling a favourable attitude towards advertised brand is also vital as it influences the members to viral the brand

  20. Food Allergies and the UK Catering Industry: A Study of the Training Needs for the Industry to Serve Those with Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, John; Towers, Neil

    2004-01-01

    This study looks at the ability of retail food outlets to provide suitable meals for those with special dietary needs. Thus, some food allergies are described briefly and the personnel involved in food preparation and service are examined. Groups of owners of catering outlets were interviewed to discover from them their knowledge of food allergies…

  1. Physical and ergonomic hazards in the textile, chemical, food, metal products, and woodworking industries in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered in 272 textile, chemical, food, metal products and woodworking firms in ten cities in industry-dense areas to assess the general OHS situation in Turkey. This paper explores the portion related to exposures of workers to physical and ergonomic hazards. OHS experts where available, firm owners, partners, or engineers responsible for safety were asked to answer structured questions regarding percentages of workers exposed to specific hazards. About 65% of respondents reported exposures to noise risks among at least some percentage of employees; 26.3% reported more than 50% of employees were so exposed. In more than 60% of the firms employees were exposed to ergonomic risks related to the need to meet production quotas and the need to maintain constant posture. The most prevalent risk factors in five industries and the relative frequencies of exposed employees are described.

  2. Introduction Analysis of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Technologies in Micro Grid Type Food Industrial Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both cogeneration system and energy network in food industrial park. The energy data of 14 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling, refrigerating, freezing and electric power by interviews. The author developed a micro grid model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs. The industrial park was divided into the 2,500 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Four cases were investigated. It was found that the electric power driven freezer was introduced compared with the ammonia absorption freezer. The ammonia absorption freezer was introduced in the factory that there is a little steam demand and large freezing demand at the same time.

  3. Assessment criteria and approaches for rapid detection methods to be used in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Martin; Wang, Siyun; Post, Laurie; Nightingale, Kendra

    2014-04-01

    The number of commercially available kits and methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens continues to increase at a considerable pace, and the diversity of methods and assay formats is reaching a point where it is very difficult even for experts to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different methods and to decide which methods to choose for a certain testing need. Although a number of documents outline quantitative criteria that can be used to evaluate different detection methods (e.g., exclusivity and inclusivity), a diversity of criteria is typically used by industry to select specific methods that are used for pathogen detection. This article is intended to provide an overall outline of criteria that the food industry can use to evaluate new rapid detection methods, with a specific focus on nucleic acid-based detection methods.

  4. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Layman, Donald K

    2014-07-01

    The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt. PMID:24384369

  5. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Layman, Donald K

    2014-07-01

    The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt.

  6. 75 FR 22599 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' This draft guidance is not final...) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' to the Division of...

  7. Implementation of Real-World Experiential Learning in a Food Science Course Using a Food Industry-Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Francine H.; Eren, Fulya

    2016-01-01

    Success skills have been ranked as the most important core competency for new food science professionals to have by food science graduates and their employers. It is imperative that food science instructors promote active learning in food science courses through experiential learning activities to enhance student success skills such as oral and…

  8. Changes in Occupational Employment in the Food and Kindred Products Industry, 1977-1980. Technical Note No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gary

    The extent to which occupational staffing patterns change over time was examined in a study focusing on the Food and Kindred Products industry--Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 20. Data were taken from the 1977 and 1980 Occupational Employment Statistics program coordinated by the United States Department of Labor Statistics. Actual 1980…

  9. Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    AA, Lambrechts; IS, Human; JH, Doughari; JFR, Lues

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa. Methods: A total of 230 samples were collected, involving 100% of the food handlers, in 8 selected convenient food outlets with their main focus on preparing ready-to-eat foods. The workers’ cleaned and disinfected dominant hands were sampled for Total Plate Count (TPC), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacteria were isolated and counted using standard methods. Results: The highest bacterial count from the hand samples was 7.4 x 103 cfu.cm-2 and the lowest showed no detectable growth. Although hands with a count of 0 cfu.cm-2 were found in all of the plants, the results indicated that all the plants exceeded the legal limit for food surfaces or hands of < 100 cfu.cm-2 when the average bacterial counts on hands were compared. Sixty percent of the TPC analysed exceeded the legal limit and only 18% of the food handlers had no bacteria detectable on their hands. One sample tested positive for E. coli and S. aureus could not be detected on the hands of any of the food handlers. Conclusion: The study revealed that hand hygiene is unsatisfactory and may have serious implications for public health due to contamination of food from food handlers’ hands. This therefore underlined the importance of further training to improve food handlers’ knowledge of good hand washing practices. PMID:25097511

  10. Can Entrepreneurship Be Taught? A Danish Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeboll, John

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a Japanese study linking practical experience for entrepreneurship students to business start-up. Describes a Danish endeavor to revitalize entrepreneurial culture through educational and industrial development programs. (SK)

  11. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing along with the expansion of industrial food processing and food additive consumption. The intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junction, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self-antigens. As a result, particular attention is being placed on the role of tight junction dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. Tight junction leakage is enhanced by many luminal components, commonly used industrial food additives being some of them. Glucose, salt, emulsifiers, organic solvents, gluten, microbial transglutaminase, and nanoparticles are extensively and increasingly used by the food industry, claim the manufacturers, to improve the qualities of food. However, all of the aforementioned additives increase intestinal permeability by breaching the integrity of tight junction paracellular transfer. In fact, tight junction dysfunction is common in multiple autoimmune diseases and the central part played by the tight junction in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is extensively described. It is hypothesized that commonly used industrial food additives abrogate human epithelial barrier function, thus, increasing intestinal permeability through the opened tight junction, resulting in entry of foreign immunogenic antigens and activation of the autoimmune cascade. Future research on food additives exposure-intestinal permeability-autoimmunity interplay will enhance our knowledge of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune progression.

  12. Feruloyl esterases from Schizophyllum commune to treat food industry side-streams.

    PubMed

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-11-01

    Agro-industrial side-streams are abundant and renewable resources of hydroxycinnamic acids with potential applications as antioxidants and preservatives in the food, health, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) from Schizophyllum commune were functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris with extracellular activities of 6000UL(-1). The recombinant enzymes, ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2, released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet pectin. Overnight incubation of coffee pulp released caffeic (>60%), ferulic (>80%) and p-coumaric acid (100%) indicating applicability for the valorization of food processing wastes and enhanced biomass degradation. Based on substrate specificity profiling and the release of diferulates from destarched wheat bran, the recombinant FAEs were characterized as type D FAEs. ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2 preferably hydrolyzed feruloylated saccharides with ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues and showed an unprecedented ability to hydrolyze benzoic acid esters. PMID:27566510

  13. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    PubMed Central

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  14. Review of patents and application of spray drying in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Chakraborty, Subhashis

    2014-04-01

    Spray drying has always remained an energetic field of innovation in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry since last couple of decades. The current communication embodies an in-depth application of spray drying in pulmonary drug delivery for production of uniform and respirable size particles suitable for nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI) and pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). The review also highlights spray drying application in the manufacturing of mucoadhesive formulation suitable for nasal cavities to improve the drug absorption and bioavailability. Recent research works and patents filed by various researchers on spray drying technology for solubility enhancement have also been accentuated. Benefits of spray drying in production of dry flavorings to meet a product with maximum yield and least flavor loss are also discussed. The use of spray drying in production of various food products like milk or soymilk powder, tomato pulp, dry fruit juice etc, and in encapsulation of vegetable oil or fish oil and dry creamer has been discussed. Current review also highlights the application of spray drying in the biotechnology field like production of dry influenza or measles vaccine as well as application in ceramic industry. Spray drying based patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the area of drug delivery have also been included in the current review to emphasize importance of spray drying in the recent research scenario.

  15. Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.

    PubMed

    Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    β-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. β-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect β-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing β-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected β-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products.

  16. Thermal protection of β-carotene in re-assembled casein micelles during different processing technologies applied in food industry.

    PubMed

    Sáiz-Abajo, María-José; González-Ferrero, Carolina; Moreno-Ruiz, Ana; Romo-Hualde, Ana; González-Navarro, Carlos J

    2013-06-01

    β-Carotene is a carotenoid usually applied in the food industry as a precursor of vitamin A or as a colourant. β-Carotene is a labile compound easily degraded by light, heat and oxygen. Casein micelles were used as nanostructures to encapsulate, stabilise and protect β-carotene from degradation during processing in the food industry. Self-assembly method was applied to re-assemble nanomicelles containing β-carotene. The protective effect of the nanostructures against degradation during the most common industrial treatments (sterilisation, pasteurisation, high hydrostatic pressure and baking) was proven. Casein micelles protected β-carotene from degradation during heat stabilisation, high pressure processing and the processes most commonly used in the food industry including baking. This opens new possibilities for introducing thermolabile ingredients in bakery products. PMID:23411284

  17. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27098847

  18. California Food Processing Industry Wastewater Demonstration Project: Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Glen; Atkinson, Barbara; Rhyne, Ivin

    2009-09-09

    Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive process and electricity demand is especially high during the utilities summer peak electricity demand periods. This makes wastewater treatment facilities prime candidates for demand response programs. However, wastewater treatment is often peripheral to food processing operations and its demand response opportunities have often been overlooked. Phase I of this wastewater demonstration project monitored wastewater energy and environmental data at Bell-Carter Foods, Inc., California's largest olive processing plant. For this monitoring activity the project team used Green Energy Management System (GEMS) automated enterprise energy management (EEM) technologies. This report presents results from data collected by GEMS from September 15, 2008 through November 30, 2008, during the olive harvest season. This project established and tested a methodology for (1) gathering baseline energy and environmental data at an industrial food-processing plant and (2) using the data to analyze energy efficiency, demand response, daily peak load management, and environmental management opportunities at the plant. The Phase I goals were to demonstrate the measurement and interrelationship of electricity demand, electricity usage, and water quality metrics and to estimate the associated CO{sub 2} emissions.

  19. Zero-discharge: An application of process water recovery technology in the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, S.; Moore, B.

    1999-07-01

    Water is a valuable natural resource and the food processing industry has been among the leading industrial water users in California. With support from a major northern California utility and the California Institute for Food and Agricultural Research, Tri Valley Growers (TVG) has successfully installed the first US energy-efficient zero-discharge process water reclamation system at its Oberti Olive processing facility in Madera, California. The advanced zero-discharge system is the largest application in the world of membrane filtration for recovering water from a food processing plant. Previously, the plant discharged an average of 1 million gallons of salty wastewater (brine) a day into 160 acres of evaporation ponds. However, new environmental regulations made the ponds obsolete. The cost of process water disposal using alternate biotreatment system was prohibitive and would make continued operation uneconomical with plant closure and job loss the likely outcome. Through comprehensive pilot testing and subsequent system design and operational optimization, the advance membrane filtration system with pre- and post-treatment now recovers about 80% of the process liquid in high priority form of water for subsequent reuse at the plant. The solids produced in olive processing, plus concentrated process liquids are used off-site as an animal feed component, thus achieving the plant zero-discharge scheme. The successful implementation of the zero discharge system at the Oberti Olive processing plant has produced energy saving of 3,500,000 kilowatthours and 244,000 therms of gas a year of power as compared to the alternate biotreatment system. It also prevented plant closure and job loss. In addition, water conservation and the discontinuation of evaporation pond use is beneficial to the environment. The project was applauded by the California Environmental Protection Agency as a positive step forward for environmental technology in the agricultural sector in

  20. 77 FR 20826 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 22599), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance. Comments on the draft... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Procedures for Section 513(g) Requests for Information under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.''...

  1. SEM/EDS analysis for problem solving in the food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, Wayne D.

    2015-10-01

    For forensic investigation in the food industry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) is a powerful, often non-destructive, instrumental analysis tool to provide information about: • Identification of inorganic (and some organic) materials found as foreign contaminants in food products returned by consumers or detected during quality control inspections in the production facilities • Identification of wear particles found in production lines • Distribution of materials within a matrix • Corrosion and failure analysis of production equipment The identification of materials by SEM/EDS is accomplished through a combination of morphology by SEM imaging and the elemental composition of the material by EDS. Typically, the EDS analysis provides a qualitative spectrum showing the elements present in the sample. Further analysis can be done to quantify the detected elements in order to further refine the material identification. Metal alloys can often be differentiated even within the same family such as 300 Series stainless steels. Glass types can be identified by the elemental composition where the detected elements are quantified as the oxides of each element. In this way, for example, common window glass is distinguishable from insulation glass used in many ovens. Wear particles or fragments from breakage can find their way into food products. SEM/EDS analysis of the materials is an important resource to utilize when trying to determine the original source. Suspected source materials can then be sampled for comparative analysis. EDS X-ray mapping is another tool that is available to provide information about the distribution of materials within a matrix. For example, the distribution of inorganic ingredients in a dried food helps to provide information about the grind and blend of the materials.

  2. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  3. Fighting childhood obesity through performance-based regulation of the food industry.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2007-04-01

    That childhood obesity is an alarming public health problem is clear and widely appreciated. What is altogether unclear is what our society should do about it. Some people think the solution lies in using tort law to sue McDonald's, Coca-Cola, and other corporations. We reject that notion. Others believe that government should order specific changes in the behavior of food companies and school officials--and yet, there is little reason for confidence that these "command and control" strategies will make a difference. Instead, we propose "performance-based regulation" of the food industry. This is analogous to the approach our country is now taking with respect to elementary and secondary education (most prominently in the No Child Left Behind legislation). Schools are not told how to achieve better educational results, but better outcomes are demanded of them. This strategy has also been used in the environmental context to reduce harmful power plant emissions, and it has been briefly proposed as a way of regulating cigarette companies. In this Article, we propose that large firms selling food and drink that is high in sugar or fat will be assigned the responsibility of reducing obesity rates in a specific pool of children. A firm's share of the overall responsibility will be based on its share of the "bad' food market, and the children assigned to it will be organized by geographically proximate schools where obesity rates are currently above the plan's nationwide target rate of 8 percent (the actual childhood obesity rate today is approximately 16 percent). Firms that fail to achieve their goals will be subject to serious financial penalties.

  4. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  5. New Weapons to Fight Old Enemies: Novel Strategies for the (Bio)control of Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Laura M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. Biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. Pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem for the healthcare and food industries, as their biofilm-forming ability protects them from common cleaning processes and allows them to remain in the environment post-sanitation. In the food industry, persistent bacteria colonize the inside of mixing tanks, vats and tubing, compromising food safety and quality. Strategies to overcome bacterial persistence through inhibition of biofilm formation or removal of mature biofilms are therefore necessary. Current biofilm control strategies employed in the food industry (cleaning and disinfection, material selection and surface preconditioning, plasma treatment, ultrasonication, etc.), although effective to a certain point, fall short of biofilm control. Efforts have been explored, mainly with a view to their application in pharmaceutical and healthcare settings, which focus on targeting molecular determinants regulating biofilm formation. Their application to the food industry would greatly aid efforts to eradicate undesirable bacteria from food processing environments and, ultimately, from food products. These approaches, in contrast to bactericidal approaches, exert less selective pressure which in turn would reduce the likelihood of resistance development. A particularly interesting strategy targets quorum sensing systems, which regulate gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density governing essential cellular processes including biofilm formation. This review article discusses the problems associated

  6. Macroinvertebrate production and food web energetics in an industrially contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Runck, Clay

    2007-04-01

    This study examines secondary production and periphyton-invertebrate food web energetics at two sites in an industrially contaminated, nutrient-enriched stream. Secondary production data and data from the literature were used to calculate potential amounts of mercury transferred from periphyton to chironomid larvae and into terrestrial food webs with emerging adults. The nutritional quality of periphyton was characterized using energy content, chlorophyll a, protein, ash-free dry mass (AFDM), and percentage of organic matter. Chironomid larvae (Orthocladiinae: Cricotopus spp.) comprised 96% of all macroinvertebrates collected from stones at the two sites. Cricotopus production was extremely high: production was 59.5 g AFDM x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the site upstream of a 1-ha settling basin and 32.4 g AFDM x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the site below the basin. Apparent differences in annual secondary production were associated with reduced organic content (i.e., nutritional quality) of the periphyton matrix under different loading of total suspended solids. The periphyton matrix at both sites was contaminated with inorganic (Hg(II)) and methyl (MeHg) mercury. The amount of Hg(II) potentially ingested by Cricotopus was calculated to be 49 mg Hg(II) x m(-1) x yr(-1) at the upstream site and 19 mg Hg(II)x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the downstream site. Mercury ingestion by Cricotopus at the downstream site was calculated to be 2% of the estimated annual deposition of particulate-bound Hg(II) to the stream bed. Emergence of adult Cricotopus was calculated to remove 563 microg Hg(II)x m(-2) x yr(-1) from the stream at the upstream site and 117 microg Hg(II) x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the downstream site, which amounted to 4.1 g Hg(II)/yr for the 2.1-km reach of stream included in this study. The ratio of metal export in emergence production to surface area for the study stream was 10 to 10(3) times higher than ratios calculated for lakes using data from the literature. This study is the first well

  7. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  8. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-11

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  9. The Development of a Spray Dryer based on a Food Industrial Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The spray dryer, which will satisfy the future demands, is developed through the engineering approach in accordance to 3A- Sanitary Standards in the food industry. The main points are as follows. 1) A High Discharge-Single Swirl Atomizer is adapted for practical use; which can mix effectively with single hot air jet. 2) An optimum jet distributer eliminates swirling components in the jet. 3) Secondary air from the periphery of the jet controls the diffusion and Coanda effect of the jet. 4) The drying chamber's wall is controlled at a temperature below the "Sticky Point" of products. 5) An optimum cooler is included in the bottom of the drying chamber. The above devices prevent undried particles from adhering to the drying chamber's wall, improve the fluidity of products as powder particles, and bring about high efficiency, stable and high quality long lasting productivity.

  10. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  11. General evidence supporting the hypothesis that Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaginal isolates originate from food industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Siccardi, Daniela; Rellini, Paolo; Corte, Laura; Bistoni, Francesco; Fatichenti, Fabrizio; Cardinali, Gianluigi

    2006-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from pregnant women were identified and characterized by molecular techniques which disclosed a wide chromosomal variability and possible segregations due to sporulation. The morphological analysis showed that very few strains were able to sporulate and generate pseudohyphae, whereas none produced proteases, raising some doubts on the importance of these characters in strain pathogenicity. The analysis of ethanol production revealed that these strains are quite similar to those found in fermentative plants, suggesting a possible derivation from the food industrial environment. Since the absence of relevant amounts of sugar does not confer selective advantage to strong fermentative metabolisms, these findings suggest that a metabolic adaptation to the vaginal environment did not occur yet.

  12. Biosurfactant production through Bacillus sp. MTCC 5877 and its multifarious applications in food industry.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Farhan; Gautam, Gunjan; Edgard, Gnansounou; Negi, Sangeeta

    2016-08-01

    In this study Bacillus sp. MTCC5877 was explored for the production of biosurfactant (BSs) and various carbon sources 1% (w/v), 0.5% (w/v) nitrogen sources were tested at different pH, and temperature. Yield was measured in terms of Emulsification index (EI), Oil Displacement Area (ODA) and Drop Collapse Area (DCA) and maximum emulsification activities of BSs were found (E24) 50%, 76% and 46%, respectively, and maximum ODA of 5.0, 6.2 and 4.7cm, were shown respectively. The BS was able to reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 30mN/m and 72 to 32mN/m. Structural compositions of BS were confirmed by FTIR, GC-MS and NMR. Anti-adhesive property of BS was determined and found effective against biofilm formation. It could remove 73% Cd from vegetable which confirms its application in food industry.

  13. Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Christos; Aprea, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.

  14. Methylene Blue Removal by Biochars from Food Industry By-Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanos, Alexis; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2016-04-01

    Biomass produced by food industries is mainly used as feedstock or in composting. In recent years, considerable research effort has been focused on the production of biochar under oxygen-limited conditions from carbon-rich biomass, such as food industry by-products, as mitigation measure for global warming once it is used as a soil amendment. The present study presents the findings of an experimental work, which investigated the use of different biochars for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Biochars were produced from malt spent rootlets (MSR) from brewering and espresso coffee residue from coffee shops. MSR was pyrolyzed at temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 750, 850, and 900oC and the coffee residue was pyrolyzed at 850oC. The charring process was performed under limited-oxygen conditions using specialized containers. The surface area and the porosity of the materials were determined. Batch experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the sorption capacity of the above materials, and samples were agitated for 24 h at 25oC, at an optimum pH of about 7. Kinetic analysis was conducted over a period of 24 h, and isotherm studies were also constructed. The surface area of biochar produced from MSR and the MB removal were considerably increased at pyrolysis temperatures higher than 500oC. At 850oC, the maximum surface area value (300 m2 g-1) was observed, and the MB sorption capacity was 99 mg g-1. Based on the kinetic experimental data, sorption capacities at 120 min were over 58% of their equilibrium values for the biochars used. The maximum MB sorption capacity, based on the isotherm data, was 130 mg g-1, for the two biochars employed.

  15. Trans fatty acid isomers in human health and in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, A; Morgado, N

    1999-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration. These fatty acids occur naturally in dairy and other natural fats and in some plants. However, industrial hydrogenation of vegetable or marine oils is largely the main source of trans fatty acids in our diet. The metabolic effect of trans isomers are today a matter of controversy generating diverse extreme positions in light of biochemical, nutritional, and epidemiological studies. Trans fatty acids also have been implicated in the etiology of various metabolic and functional disorders, but the main concern about its health effects arose because the structural similarity of these isomers to saturated fatty acids, the lack of specific metabolic functions, and its competition with essential fatty acids. The ingestion of trans fatty acids increases low density lipoprotein (LDL) to a degree similar to that of saturated fats, but it also reduces high density lipoproteins (HDL), therefore trans isomers are considered more atherogenic than saturated fatty acids. Trans isomers increase lipoprotein(a), a non-dietary-related risk of atherogenesis, to levels higher than the corresponding chain-length saturated fatty acid. There is little evidence that trans fatty acids are related to cancer risk at any of the major cancer sites. Considerable improvement has been obtained with respect to the metabolic effect of trans fatty acids due the development of analytical procedures to evaluate the different isomers in both biological and food samples. The oleochemical food industries have developed several strategies to reduce the trans content of hydrogenated oils, and now margarine and other hydrogenated-derived products containing low trans or virtually zero trans are available and can be obtained in the retail market. The present review provides an outline of the present status of trans fatty acids including origin, analytical procedures, estimated ingestion, metabolic effects

  16. Hyperfiltration and energy in the food industry. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report describes the initial research and development phase of a program to evaluate the use of high temperature hyperfiltration to reduce energy usage in the food industry. Studies were conducted at two food processing plants in California. The program utilized a mobile laboratory. Results of screening tests (approximately 4 hours duration) were used to select one process stream for intensive testing (approximately 2 weeks duration) at each plant. Screening test results indicate a flux of 0.6 to 0.8 m/d (15 to 20 GFD) for the concentration of hot break tomato juice from 5% NTSS (Natural Tomato Soluble Solids). The potential annual energy saving for the preconcentration of tomato juice by hyperfiltration is estimated to be equivalent to about 23 million liters (6 million gallons) of oil. The tests on hot caustic peeling solutions (approximately 10% Sodium Hydroxide) and hot (82C, 180F) container wash water indicate technical feasibility of reclaiming these solutions. Short term testing data on the hyperfiltration of several olive processing streams are also presented. The test results are used to prepare economic estimates. Short pay back periods for energy savings by use of hyperfiltration in the areas of preevaporator concentration, chemical (caustic) recovery, and hot wash water recycle are predicted.

  17. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  18. Constraints in meeting food safety and quality requirements in the Turkish dairy industry: a case study of Izmir province.

    PubMed

    Demirbaş, Nevin; Karagözlü, Cem

    2008-02-01

    Recent global developments concerning food quality and food safety have influenced and stimulated food legislation in Turkey in accordance with internal and international trade and agreements. In this study, the way in which the dairy industry conforms to this legislation was analyzed through a case study of Izmir province, which generally has all the structural characteristics of the dairy sector in Turkey. A survey in which dairy plant managers responded to a special questionnaire was used to collect data from 86 dairy plants chosen on the basis of proportional sampling. According to the results of this study, (i) there are many dairy processors in the region, (ii) most managers have a limited education concerning their positions, (iii) most firms handle small volumes of milk and have little control over the raw milk supply, (iv) resources are too limited in these firms, limiting their ability to adopt most regulations, and (v) few processors apply the regulatory practices imposed by governmental agencies. Thus, food legislation is not enough to ensure food safety in the dairy industry in Turkey. Technical and educational support should be given to farmers and the staff of dairy firms by the Ministry of Agriculture to form an appropriate food safety infrastructure in Turkey for the milk and processed dairy products industry.

  19. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  20. Management of wastewater from soap and food industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    el-Gohary, F A; Abo-Elela, S I; Ali, H I

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents the wastewater management of an industrial complex which produces different products, i.e. soap, perfume extract, macaroni, jam and juices. A continuous monitoring programme for departmental as well as final effluents was carried out for almost 3 months. Characterization of the composite wastewater from both soap and food processing plants indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by COD and BOD values. Moreover, effluent from the soap manufacturing plant contains significant concentrations of oil and grease amounting to 563 mg l-1. Soap manufacturing effluent and the combined wastes discharged from the whole industrial complex were subjected to different treatment processes, namely dissolved air flotation, chemical coagulation-sedimentation, and biological treatment via a completely mixed activated sludge process. Although coagulation using alum followed by sedimentation removed 52% of COD, residual values did not comply with the regulatory standards. Biological treatment of the composite combined wastewater significantly removed the organic contaminants in wastewater. Average residual BOD, COD, oil and grease values were 30, 92 and 8.3 mg l-1 respectively. Based on the laboratory results a final process design was developed.

  1. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1).

  2. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Diana; Schneider, Sarah; Mdege, Noreen; Ali, Shehzad; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2015-10-16

    An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit) and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media "television", mass media "internet", home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers.

  3. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Diana; Schneider, Sarah; Mdege, Noreen; Ali, Shehzad; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit) and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media “television”, mass media “internet”, home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers. PMID:26501319

  4. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Diana; Schneider, Sarah; Mdege, Noreen; Ali, Shehzad; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2015-10-01

    An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit) and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media "television", mass media "internet", home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers. PMID:26501319

  5. 78 FR 55727 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive Petitions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Submission of Animal Food Additive Petitions.'' This draft guidance describes the types of information that...) submitted for food additives intended for use in food for animals. It is intended to help the...

  6. Application of Bayesian techniques to model the burden of human salmonellosis attributable to U.S. food commodities at the point of processing: adaptation of a Danish model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuanfa; Hoekstra, Robert M; Schroeder, Carl M; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Ong, Kanyin Liane; Hartnett, Emma; Naugle, Alecia; Harman, Jane; Bennett, Patricia; Cieslak, Paul; Scallan, Elaine; Rose, Bonnie; Holt, Kristin G; Kissler, Bonnie; Mbandi, Evelyne; Roodsari, Reza; Angulo, Frederick J; Cole, Dana

    2011-04-01

    Mathematical models that estimate the proportion of foodborne illnesses attributable to food commodities at specific points in the food chain may be useful to risk managers and policy makers to formulate public health goals, prioritize interventions, and document the effectiveness of mitigations aimed at reducing illness. Using human surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Salmonella testing data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service's regulatory programs, we developed a point-of-processing foodborne illness attribution model by adapting the Hald Salmonella Bayesian source attribution model. Key model outputs include estimates of the relative proportions of domestically acquired sporadic human Salmonella infections resulting from contamination of raw meat, poultry, and egg products processed in the United States from 1998 through 2003. The current model estimates the relative contribution of chicken (48%), ground beef (28%), turkey (17%), egg products (6%), intact beef (1%), and pork (<1%) across 109 Salmonella serotypes found in food commodities at point of processing. While interpretation of the attribution estimates is constrained by data inputs, the adapted model shows promise and may serve as a basis for a common approach to attribution of human salmonellosis and food safety decision-making in more than one country.

  7. When wastewater has worth: Water reconditioning opportunities in the food industry to achieve sustainable food manufacturing (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major sustainability goal of food processing wastewater (FPWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products present in the FPWW. Many processed food products, especially those from fruits and vegetables, result in FPWW streams that contain compou...

  8. Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Application of wastewater from paper and food seasoning industries with green manure to increase soil organic carbon: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Ching; Arun, A B; Rekha, P D; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2008-09-01

    This laboratory scale experiment was designed to study the suitability of organic wastes from paper and food seasoning industries to improve the soil organic carbon for rice cultivation. Lignin-rich wastewater from paper industry and nitrogen-rich effluent from a food industry at suitably lower concentrations were used at two levels of green manure to enhance the soil organic carbon fraction over time. Both the groups of soils with or without Sesbania were incubated under submerged condition at 25 degrees C for 15 days. Wastewaters from paper industry (WP), food industry (WS), and a combination of WP+WS were added separately to both the treatment groups in flasks. After 103 days of incubation, from all the three treatments and control, total organic carbon and alkali-soluble organic carbon fractions were analyzed. Results indicated that in all the three treatments containing green manure amended with industrial wastewaters, the organic carbon content increased significantly. The alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction was increased by 59% in the soil amended with green manure containing WS and by 31% in the treatment without green manure compared to control. The paper mill waste water namely, WP, increased the organic carbon only in the soil containing green manure by 63%. The combined treatment of WP+WS with green manure increased alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction by 90% compared to control, while in the treatment without green manure, the organic carbon increase was 71%. Overall, the combined treatment WP+WS with green manure could increase the alkali-soluble organic carbon fraction more than all other treatments. Hence, wastewater rich in organics from paper and food industries can be efficiently used to temporarily increase the soil organic carbon content.

  12. Coordinating Education & Industry in the 1990's: A Strategy for Managing a Food Service/Hospitality Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogalla, Edward V.

    Research was conducted to determine areas of strengths and weaknesses of the Food Service/Hospitality Management program of Ferris State University (Michigan). The study examined graduates' perceptions of the preparation they received and of the adequacy of their preparation for the hospitality industry. A literature review focused on strategies…

  13. 75 FR 22601 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Staff; User Fees for 513(g); Requests for Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... the draft guidance entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information.'' This draft guidance describes the user fees associated with 513(g) requests...

  14. A Study of Career Ladders and Manpower Development for Non-Management Personnel in the Food Service Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Hotel Administration at Cornell Univ.

    Because of its failure to provide career ladders for non-management employees, the food service industry is facing increasingly severe manpower shortages and labor turnover. Unnecessary requirements bar entry workers from many jobs, and training opportunities leave much to be desired. This report identifies the problem areas and develops a model…

  15. 78 FR 14305 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Types of Communication During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... efficiency of the review process. This draft guidance is not final nor is it in effect at this time. DATES... review process between FDA and industry for specific medical device premarket submissions. Further... recommendations for MDUFA III, Title II of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, Public...

  16. EDITORIAL: Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation Systems for the Food and Beverage Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    Advanced sensors and instrumentation systems are becoming increasingly important in the classification, characterization, authentication, quality control and safety management of food products and beverages. To bring together industrialists and academic researchers to discuss the latest developments and trends in this particular area, the ISAT (Instrument Science and Technology) Group of the Institute of Physics organized a highly focused one-day technical meeting, which was held at the Rutherford Conference Centre at the Institute of Physics in London on 15 December 2004. The event was co-sponsored by the Measurement, Sensors, Instrumentation and NDT Professional Network of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Measurement Science and Technology Panel of the Institute of Measurement and Control. The special feature in this issue (on pages 229 287) brings together a collection of some of the papers that were presented at the event. Also included in the special feature are two relevant papers that were submitted through the usual route. Technical topics covered, though wide ranging as reflected in part by the diversity of the papers, demonstrate recent developments and possible approaches that may offer solutions to a broad range of sensing and measurement problems in the food and beverage industries. The first paper, reported by Sheridan et al, is concerned with the quality monitoring of chicken, sausages and pastry products during their cooking processes using an optical fibre-based sensing system. Carter et al describe how digital imaging and image processing techniques have been applied to achieve the classification and authentication of rice grains. The challenges in the measurement and control of final moisture content in baked food products such as bread and biscuits are addressed and discussed by McFarlane. Juodeikiene et al report their progress in the development of acoustic echolocation-based techniques for the evaluation of porosity and

  17. Dual-Mode Combined Infra Red and Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Technique for Real-Time Industrial Process Control with Special Reference to the Food Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallav, P.; Hutchins, D. A.; Diamond, G. G.; Gan, T. H.; Hellyer, J. E.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the use of air-coupled ultrasound and Near Infra red (NIR) as complimentary techniques for food quality assessment. A major study has been performed, in collaboration with four industrial food companies, to investigate the use of air-coupled ultrasound and NIR to both detect foreign bodies, and to measure certain parameters of interest, such as the amount of a certain additive. The research has demonstrated that air-coupled ultrasound can be used in on-line situations, measuring food materials such as chocolate and cheese. It is also capable of performing measurements on moving sealed metal cans containing food, and is able to detect foreign bodies with the top removed, as encountered just before sealing. NIR has been used as a complimentary technique to test food materials where propagation of air-coupled ultrasound was found to be difficult. This could be due to the presence of air pockets within the food material, as in the case of bread dough.

  18. Escherichia coli biosensors for environmental, food industry and biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allil, R. C. S. B.; Werneck, M. M.; da Silva-Neto, J. L.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Rodrigues, D. M. C.; Wandermur, G. L.; Rambauske, D. C.

    2013-06-01

    This work has the objective to research and develop a plastic optical fiber biosensor based taper and mPOF LPG techniques to detect Escherichia coli by measurements of index of refraction. Generally, cell detection is crucial in microbiological analysis of clinical, food, water or environmental samples. However, methods current employed are time consuming, taking at least 72 hours in order to produce reliable responses as they depend on sample collection and cell culture in controlled conditions. The delay in obtaining the results of the analysis can result in contamination of a great number of consumers. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) biosensors consist in a viable alternative for rapid and inexpensive scheme for cells detection. A study the sensitivity of these sensors for microbiological detection, fiber Tapers and Long Period Grating (LPG) both in poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) were realized as possible candidates to take part of a biosensor system to detect Escherichia coli in water samples. In this work we adopted the immunocapture technique, which consists of quantifying bacteria in a liquid sample, attract-ing and fixing the bacteria on the surface of the polymer optical fiber, by the antigen-antibody reaction. The results were obtained by optical setup that consists in a side of the fiber a LED coupled to a photodetector through a POF with the taper in the middle of it. On the other side of the POF a photodetector receives this light producting a photocurrent. The output voltage is fed into the microcontroller A/D input port and its output data is sent via USB to a LabView software running in a microcomputer. The results showed the possibility of the POF in biosensor application capable to detect E. coli for environmental and food industry and for detecting and identifying biological-warfare agents using a very rapid response sensor, applicable to field detection prototypes.

  19. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... provides updated information pertaining to registration of human and animal food facilities under the... Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-615), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Barringer, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-615), Food and...

  20. 78 FR 11654 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Providing Information About...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Pediatric Uses of Medical Devices Under Section 515A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' FDA is... information required under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). This draft guidance is...

  1. Launching a new food product or dietary supplement in the United States: industrial, regulatory, and nutritional considerations.

    PubMed

    Finley, John Weldon; Finley, John Wescott; Ellwood, Kathleen; Hoadley, James

    2014-01-01

    Launching a new food/dietary supplement into the US market can be a confusing process to those unfamiliar with the food industry. Industry capability and product specifications are initial determinants of whether a candidate product can be manufactured in a reproducible manner and whether pilot production can be brought up to the market scale. Regulatory issues determine how a product can be produced and marketed; the primary federal institutions involved in regulations are the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission. A primary distinction is made between food and drugs, and no product may enter the food market if it is in part or whole a drug. Product safety is a major concern, and myriad regulations govern the determination of safety. New foods/dietary supplements are often marketed by health claims or structure/function claims, and there are specific regulations pertaining to claims. Not understanding the regulatory issues involved in developing a new product or failing to comply with associated regulations can have legal and financial repercussions.

  2. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  3. Investigation of the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusaini, N. S.; Ismail, A.; Rashid, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian Food and Beverages Industry. A survey was carried out to determine the most prominent barriers of lean manufacturing implementation that are currently being faced in this industry. The amount of barriers identified for this study is twenty seven. Out of 1309 available organizations, a total of 300 organizations have been randomly selected as respondents, and 53 organizations responded. From the variable map, the analysis shows that, the negative perception towards lean manufacturing top the list as the most agreeable barrier, while the technical barriers came after it. It can also be seen from the variable map that averagely, lack of vision and direction is the barrier that is being faced. Finally, this is perhaps the first attempt in investigating the prominent barriers to Lean Manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model.

  4. Curbing variations in packaging process through Six Sigma way in a large-scale food-processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Darshak A.; Kotadiya, Parth; Makwana, Nikheel; Patel, Sonalinkumar

    2015-08-01

    Indian industries need overall operational excellence for sustainable profitability and growth in the present age of global competitiveness. Among different quality and productivity improvement techniques, Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective breakthrough improvement strategies. Though Indian industries are exploring this improvement methodology to their advantage and reaping the benefits, not much has been presented and published regarding experience of Six Sigma in the food-processing industries. This paper is an effort to exemplify the application of Six Sigma quality improvement drive to one of the large-scale food-processing sectors in India. The paper discusses the phase wiz implementation of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) on one of the chronic problems, variations in the weight of milk powder pouch. The paper wraps up with the improvements achieved and projected bottom-line gain to the unit by application of Six Sigma methodology.

  5. Insect-derived enzymes: a treasure for industrial biotechnology and food biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mika, Nicole; Zorn, Holger; Rühl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse group of organisms on earth, colonizing almost every ecological niche of the planet. To survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats, insects have established diverse biological and chemical systems. Core components of these systems are enzymes that enable the insects to feed on diverse nutrient sources. The enzymes are produced by either the insects themselves (homologous) or by symbiotic organisms located in the insects' bodies or in their nests (heterologous). The use of these insect-associated enzymes for applications in the fields of food biotechnology and industrial (white) biotechnology is gaining more and more interest. Prominent examples of insect-derived enzymes include peptidases, amylases, lipases, and β-D-glucosidases. Highly potent peptidases for the degradation of gluten, a storage protein that can cause intestinal disorders, may be received from grain pests. Several insects, such as bark and ambrosia beetles and termites, are able to feed on wood. In the field of white biotechnology, their cellulolytic enzyme systems of mainly endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases and β-D-glucosidases can be employed for saccharification of the most prominent polymer on earth-cellulose. PMID:23881056

  6. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

  7. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin).

  8. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin.

  9. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). PMID:26159043

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Alternatives to Antibiotics in Food Animal Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Qing; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by chemical synthesis, are possible candidates for the design of new antimicrobial agents because of their natural antimicrobial properties and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorganisms. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge of the basic biology of AMPs and their applications in non-ruminant nutrition. Antimicrobial peptides not only have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also have the ability to bypass the common resistance mechanisms that are placing standard antibiotics in jeopardy. In addition, AMPs have beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and gut microbiota in pigs and broilers. Therefore, AMPs have good potential as suitable alternatives to conventional antibiotics used in swine and poultry industries. PMID:27153059

  11. Insect-derived enzymes: a treasure for industrial biotechnology and food biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mika, Nicole; Zorn, Holger; Rühl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse group of organisms on earth, colonizing almost every ecological niche of the planet. To survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats, insects have established diverse biological and chemical systems. Core components of these systems are enzymes that enable the insects to feed on diverse nutrient sources. The enzymes are produced by either the insects themselves (homologous) or by symbiotic organisms located in the insects' bodies or in their nests (heterologous). The use of these insect-associated enzymes for applications in the fields of food biotechnology and industrial (white) biotechnology is gaining more and more interest. Prominent examples of insect-derived enzymes include peptidases, amylases, lipases, and β-D-glucosidases. Highly potent peptidases for the degradation of gluten, a storage protein that can cause intestinal disorders, may be received from grain pests. Several insects, such as bark and ambrosia beetles and termites, are able to feed on wood. In the field of white biotechnology, their cellulolytic enzyme systems of mainly endo-1,4-β-D-glucanases and β-D-glucosidases can be employed for saccharification of the most prominent polymer on earth-cellulose.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Alternatives to Antibiotics in Food Animal Industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Qing; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by chemical synthesis, are possible candidates for the design of new antimicrobial agents because of their natural antimicrobial properties and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorganisms. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge of the basic biology of AMPs and their applications in non-ruminant nutrition. Antimicrobial peptides not only have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also have the ability to bypass the common resistance mechanisms that are placing standard antibiotics in jeopardy. In addition, AMPs have beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and gut microbiota in pigs and broilers. Therefore, AMPs have good potential as suitable alternatives to conventional antibiotics used in swine and poultry industries. PMID:27153059

  13. Hyperfiltration as an energy conservation technique in the food industry. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    The continued investigation of various membranes and applications of hyperfiltration in the food industry is reported. Tomato juice was the main emphasis of the study since the potential energy savings for the preconcentration of tomato juice is estimated to be about 23 million liters of oil. There were numerous attempts to produce dynamically formed membranes for concentrating tomato juice. Unfortunately a consistent, reliable membrane was not developed. The thin film composite membrane demonstrated good potential in long term testing of hot tomato juice. The membrane gave consistent results and the flux was able to be restored after cleaning. Hot water from a jar washer and evaporator condensate were investigated for recovery potential. Both show very good potential and the positive results indicate a long term test for approximately 6 months is warranted. Since only feasibility tests were performed, the membrane stability over time needs additional investigation. In addition to tomato juice, several other streams were investigated for concentration potential: orange juice, grape juice, fish stickwater. The concentration of byproducts normally discharged from the plant was also investigated. Primarily short term feasibility tests were performed.

  14. Quantitative analysis by mid-infrared spectrometry in food and agro-industrial fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Nathalie; Huvenne, J. P.; Sombret, B.; Legrand, P.

    1993-03-01

    Thanks to what has been achieved by the Fourier transform, infrared spectroscopy can now become a state of the art device in the quality control laboratories if we consider its precision and the gain in time it ensures compared to traditional analysis methods such as HPLC chromatography. Moreover, the increasing number of new mathematical regression methods such as Partial Least Square ( PLS) regression allows the multicomponent quantitative analysis in mixtures. Nevertheless, the efficiency of infrared spectrometry as a quantitative analysis method often depends on the choice of an adequate presentation for the sample. In this document, we shall demonstrate several techniques such as diffuse reflectance and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) which can be according to the various physical states of the mixtures. The quantitative analysis of real samples from the food industry enables us to estimate its precision. For instance, the analysis of the three main components (glucose, fructose and maltose) in the glucose syrups can be done (using ATR) with a precision in the region of 3% whereas the time required to obtain an analysis report is about 5 minutes. Finally multicomponent quantitative analysis is quite feasable by mid-IR spectroscopy.

  15. Why chlorate occurs in potable water and processed foods: a critical assessment and challenges faced by the food industry.

    PubMed

    Kettlitz, Beate; Kemendi, Gabriella; Thorgrimsson, Nigel; Cattoor, Nele; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Maphosa, Farai; Perrichet, Aurélie; Christall, Birgit; Stadler, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Recently, reports have been published on the occurrence of chlorate mainly in fruits and vegetables. Chlorate is a by-product of chlorinating agents used to disinfect water, and can be expected to be found in varying concentrations in drinking water. Data on potable water taken at 39 sampling points across Europe showed chlorate to range from < 0.003 to 0.803 mg l(-1) with a mean of 0.145 mg l(-1). Chlorate, however, can also be used as a pesticide, but authorisation was withdrawn in the European Union (EU), resulting in a default maximum residue limit (MRL) for foods of 0.01 mg kg(-1). This default MRL has now led to significant problems in the EU, where routinely disinfected water, used in the preparation of food products such as vegetables or fruits, leaves chlorate residues in excess of the default MRL, and in strict legal terms renders the food unmarketable. Due to the paucity of data on the chlorate content of prepared foods in general, we collated chlorate data on more than 3400 samples of mainly prepared foods, including dairy products, meats, fruits, vegetables and different food ingredients/additives. In total, 50.5% of the food samples contained chlorate above 0.01 mg kg(-1), albeit not due to the use of chlorate as a pesticide but mainly due to the occurrence of chlorate as an unavoidable disinfectant by-product. A further entry point of chlorate into foods may be via additives/ingredients that may contain chlorate as a by-product of the manufacturing process (e.g. electrolysis). Of the positive samples in this study, 22.4% revealed chlorate above 0.1 mg kg(-1). In the absence of EU levels for chlorate in water, any future EU regulations must consider the already available WHO guideline value of 0.7 mg l(-1) in potable water, and the continued importance of the usage of oxyhalides for disinfection purposes.

  16. Why chlorate occurs in potable water and processed foods: a critical assessment and challenges faced by the food industry.

    PubMed

    Kettlitz, Beate; Kemendi, Gabriella; Thorgrimsson, Nigel; Cattoor, Nele; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Maphosa, Farai; Perrichet, Aurélie; Christall, Birgit; Stadler, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Recently, reports have been published on the occurrence of chlorate mainly in fruits and vegetables. Chlorate is a by-product of chlorinating agents used to disinfect water, and can be expected to be found in varying concentrations in drinking water. Data on potable water taken at 39 sampling points across Europe showed chlorate to range from < 0.003 to 0.803 mg l(-1) with a mean of 0.145 mg l(-1). Chlorate, however, can also be used as a pesticide, but authorisation was withdrawn in the European Union (EU), resulting in a default maximum residue limit (MRL) for foods of 0.01 mg kg(-1). This default MRL has now led to significant problems in the EU, where routinely disinfected water, used in the preparation of food products such as vegetables or fruits, leaves chlorate residues in excess of the default MRL, and in strict legal terms renders the food unmarketable. Due to the paucity of data on the chlorate content of prepared foods in general, we collated chlorate data on more than 3400 samples of mainly prepared foods, including dairy products, meats, fruits, vegetables and different food ingredients/additives. In total, 50.5% of the food samples contained chlorate above 0.01 mg kg(-1), albeit not due to the use of chlorate as a pesticide but mainly due to the occurrence of chlorate as an unavoidable disinfectant by-product. A further entry point of chlorate into foods may be via additives/ingredients that may contain chlorate as a by-product of the manufacturing process (e.g. electrolysis). Of the positive samples in this study, 22.4% revealed chlorate above 0.1 mg kg(-1). In the absence of EU levels for chlorate in water, any future EU regulations must consider the already available WHO guideline value of 0.7 mg l(-1) in potable water, and the continued importance of the usage of oxyhalides for disinfection purposes. PMID:27143443

  17. 75 FR 32953 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Use of “Light,” “Mild,” “Low,” or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Use of ``Light,'' ``Mild,'' ``Low,'' or Similar Descriptors in the Label, Labeling, or Advertising of Tobacco Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  18. Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

    1989-08-01

    The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer.

  19. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed. PMID:22408551

  20. Enzyme kinetics modeling as a tool to optimize food industry: a pragmatic approach based on amylolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Galanakis, Charis M; Patsioura, Anna; Gekas, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Modeling is an important tool in the food industry since it is able to simplify explanation of phenomena and optimize processes that cover a broad field from manufacture to byproducts treatment. The goal of the current article is to explore the development of enzyme kinetic models and their evolution over the last decades. For this reason, corresponding simulations were classified in deterministic, empirical, and stochastic models, prior investigating limitations, corrections, and industrial applications in each case. The ultimate goal is to provide an answer to a major problem: how can we develop an intermediate complexity model that achieves satisfactorily representation of the main phenomena with a limited number of parameters?

  1. [Control of foodborne pathogens in the food industry and the environment: e.g. Campylobacter in poultry industry].

    PubMed

    Salvat, Gilles

    2012-11-01

    Foodborne zoonoses are not only a major public health concern but also have important economic implications, both for the meat industry and for public finances. The authors take as an example Campylobacter contamination of the environment and of poultry carcasses. Measures that might reduce human exposure to Campylobacter are examined for their potential efficacy.

  2. "We're Part of the Solution": Evolution of the Food and Beverage Industry's Framing of Obesity Concerns Between 2000 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Wilking, Cara; Dorfman, Lori; Daynard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We investigated how industry claim-makers countered concerns about obesity and other nutrition-related diseases in newspaper coverage from 2000, the year before the US Surgeon General's Call to Action on obesity, through 2012. We found that the food and beverage industry evolved in its response. The defense arguments were made by trade associations, industry-funded nonprofit groups, and individual companies representing the packaged food industry, restaurants, and the nonalcoholic beverage industry. Individual companies used the news primarily to promote voluntary self-regulation, whereas trade associations and industry-supported nonprofit groups directly attacked potential government regulations. There was, however, a shift away from framing obesity as a personal issue toward an overall message that the food and beverage industry wants to be "part of the solution" to the public health crisis. PMID:26378841

  3. "We're Part of the Solution": Evolution of the Food and Beverage Industry's Framing of Obesity Concerns Between 2000 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Wilking, Cara; Dorfman, Lori; Daynard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We investigated how industry claim-makers countered concerns about obesity and other nutrition-related diseases in newspaper coverage from 2000, the year before the US Surgeon General's Call to Action on obesity, through 2012. We found that the food and beverage industry evolved in its response. The defense arguments were made by trade associations, industry-funded nonprofit groups, and individual companies representing the packaged food industry, restaurants, and the nonalcoholic beverage industry. Individual companies used the news primarily to promote voluntary self-regulation, whereas trade associations and industry-supported nonprofit groups directly attacked potential government regulations. There was, however, a shift away from framing obesity as a personal issue toward an overall message that the food and beverage industry wants to be "part of the solution" to the public health crisis.

  4. Cytotoxic and mutagenic in vitro assessment of two organosulfur compounds derived from onion to be used in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María; Maisanaba, Sara; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Prieto, Ana I; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Angeles; Moreno, F Javier; Cameán, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Edible members of the Allium family are widely used since they exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial related to the organosulphur compounds. One the most promising use of Allium species, hence, onion essential oil, could be in the packaging food industry. The present work aims to assess the safety of two organosulphur compounds present in onion essential oil; dipropyl disulphide, dipropyl sulphide and their mixture. For this purpose, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species and glutathione contents, and ultrastructural cellular damages were studied in the human intestinal cells, Caco-2, exposed to these organosulphur compounds. Moreover, their potential mutagenicity was also assessed. The results revealed no significant adverse effects. Additionally, reactive oxygen species scavenger activity was observed for both compounds. Therefore, they could be a good natural alternative to other synthetic antioxidant and antibacterial substances used in the food industry.

  5. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaofu; Napier, Johnathan A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2011-04-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils.

  6. 75 FR 17143 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Document: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator for Pain Relief; Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA... for Pain Relief Intended for Over the Counter Use; Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff''; (5... Output for Pain Relief; Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff''; (6) ``Class II Special...

  7. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry structure and Federal marketplace over time have... public comment in the October 21, 2009 issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 53913) to increase the size... industries in NAICS Sector 44-45, Retail Trade (74 FR 53924) and for 18 industries in NAICS Sector 81,...

  8. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies. PMID:24175575

  9. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

  10. Production and applications of biobased packaging materials for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Weber, C J; Haugaard, V; Festersen, R; Bertelsen, G

    2002-01-01

    Materials based on renewable resources are being developed at an increasing rate. Today, the only biobased food-packaging materials used commercially on a major scale are based on cellulose. However, materials based on proteins, starch, polylactate and other renewable resources may be the food-packaging materials of tomorrow. The paper presents some of the different biobased materials and their potential as food-packaging materials. PMID:11962705

  11. Utilization of orange peel, a food industrial waste, in the production of exo-polygalacturonase by pellet forming Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz; Lahore, Marcello Fernandez; Tari, Canan

    2015-04-01

    The production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from orange peel (OP), a food industrial waste, using Aspergillus sojae was studied in submerged culture. A simple, low-cost, industrially significant medium formulation, composed of only OP and (NH4)2SO4 (AS) was developed. At an inoculum size of 2.8 × 10(3) spores/mL, growth was in the form of pellets, which provided better mixing of the culture broth and higher exo-PG activity. These pellets were successfully used as an inoculum for bioreactors and 173.0 U/mL exo-PG was produced. Fed-batch cultivation further enhanced the exo-PG activity to 244.0 U/mL in 127.5 h. The final morphology in the form of pellets is significant to industrial fermentation easing the subsequent downstream processing. Furthermore, the low pH trend obtained during this fermentation serves an advantage to fungal fermentations prone to contamination problems. As a result, an economical exo-PG production process was defined utilizing a food industrial by-product and producing high amount of enzyme. PMID:25352336

  12. Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. March 1985-October 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food-processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste-heat recovery, meat processing, seafood processing, dairy wastes, beverage industry, fruits and vegetables, and other food-industry wastes. Waste utilization includes animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, conversion to fertilizer, composting, and recovery and recycling of usable chemicals. Food-packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 169 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  13. Allergen sanitation in the food industry: a systematic industrial scale approach to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination of cookies.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Ibach, Anja; Mücke, Ingo; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Recently, we investigated the impact of shared equipment on cross-contamination of cookies at a pilot plant scale. Based on those findings, this study investigated the extent and subsequent sanitation of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) of cookies at the industrial scale. Similarly, a product change from cookies with hazelnut ingredient to cookies without hazelnut was performed on standard equipment. HNCC in the hazelnut-free follow-up product was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for each production device and the applied cleaning procedure. All experiments were repeated in duplicate. The highest HNCC was found in concordance with previous studies after mere mechanical scraping: more than 1,000 mg of hazelnut protein per kg was quantified in the follow-up product after processing by a cookie machine. Additional cleaning with hot water decreased the HNCC irrespective of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg of hazelnut protein per kg. Furthermore, raw materials for cookie production were monitored over a period of 24 months for unwanted preloads of hazelnut and peanut: hazelnut was quantified in 16% of the investigated raw materials as being between 0.26 and 90 mg/kg. Further critical control points at the industrial scale, where cross-contamination might occur, were identified but did not display noteworthy sources of cross-contamination. In conclusion, the quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency at the industrial scale confirmed the procedure of manual scraping plus wet cleaning as a qualified sanitation procedure to effectively reduce the hazelnut protein cross-contamination down to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  14. 78 FR 41069 - Medical Device Reporting for Manufacturers; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, Rm. 4613, Silver Spring... and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, Rm. 2312... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  15. 76 FR 50740 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), procedural information on how to fulfill section 522... INFORMATION: I. Background Postmarket surveillance under section 522 of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 306l) is one... Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 amended section 522 of the FD&C ] Act to expand...

  16. 75 FR 57963 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Helicobacter pylori; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). This draft guidance is not final nor is it in effect at this time... Detection of Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori,'' to suggest information that submitters provide that...

  17. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-01-01

    The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation. PMID:10419184

  18. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-01-01

    The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation.

  19. Principles and application of high pressure-based technologies in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, V M Bala; Martínez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Gupta, Rockendra

    2015-01-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) has emerged as a commercially viable food manufacturing tool that satisfies consumers' demand for mildly processed, convenient, fresh-tasting foods with minimal to no preservatives. Pressure treatment, with or without heat, inactivates pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, yeast, mold, viruses, and also spores and extends shelf life. Pressure treatment at ambient or chilled temperatures has minimal impact on product chemistry. The product quality and shelf life are often influenced more by storage conditions and packaging material barrier properties than the treatment itself. Application of pressure reduces the thermal exposure of the food during processing, thereby protecting a variety of bioactive compounds. This review discusses recent scientific advances of high pressure technology for food processing and preservation applications such as pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, freezing, and thawing. We highlight the importance of in situ engineering and thermodynamic properties of food and packaging materials in process design. Current and potential future promising applications of pressure technology are summarized.

  20. The health and technological implications of a better control of neoformed contaminants by the food industry.

    PubMed

    Birlouez-Aragon, I; Morales, F; Fogliano, V; Pain, J-P

    2010-06-01

    The recent discovery of the presence of variable amounts of the carcinogenic compound acrylamide in a wide range of severely heat-treated food products, such as fried potatoes, biscuits, bread and coffee or malt, as a result of the heat process, has induced an important research in the area of the Maillard reaction in food. The interaction between a specific food composition and the heat process applied results in the development of complex oxidation and glycation reactions, which give rise to a mixture of flavoured compounds and possible neoformed contaminants (NFC). Recommendations by the European Commission aim at monitoring the content of major NFC, such as acrylamide and furan, in a list of food products commercialized in Europe. On the other hand, the Commission for European Normalization (CEN) has created recently a new workgroup (WG13) responsible for normalization of analytical method for NFC assessment. The European collective research ICARE was carried out to identify the possible health consequences of the ingestion of heat-treated products, characterize the reaction kinetics leading to NFC and evaluate some mitigation procedures proposed by the CIAA toolbox, and finally develop a simple, rapid and non destructive control method based on fluorescence acquisition on the crushed food products and chemometric analysis of the spectral information. This paper summarizes the objectives and essential results obtained in the scope of the project, highlighting the need for evaluating the distribution of NFC in food products commercialized in Europe, as well as the impact of the food formula/recipe and process on Maillard derived NFC food levels. The potential of the Fluoralys sensor regarding its ability to control food contamination with NFC is presented. A decrease in NFC concentration of heat processed food should allow significantly limiting the exposure of populations to NFC and consequently the potential related health risk. PMID:19906499

  1. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    PubMed

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. PMID:25988272

  2. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    PubMed

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.

  3. Understanding Transferable Supply Chain Lessons and Practices to a “High-Tech” Industry Using Guidelines from a Primary Sector Industry: A Case Study in the Food Industry Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E.; Coronado, Etienne S.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a “high-tech” industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a “high-tech” industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in “low-tech” industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived “low-tech” industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a “high-tech” industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a “low-tech” industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  4. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    PubMed

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry.

  5. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    PubMed

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  6. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  7. The Effects of industrial workers' food choice attribute on sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction with Structural Equcation Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research analyzes the effects of the food choices of industrial workers according to their sugar intake pattern on their job satisfaction through the construction of a model on the relationship between sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS Surveys were collected from May to July 2015. A statistical analysis of the 775 surveys from Kyungsangnam-do was conducted using SPSS13.0 for Windows and SEM was performed using the AMOS 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis through a Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the measurement model was proven to be appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis in conjunction with AMOS. The results of factor analysis on food choice, sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction were categorized into five categories. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all factors except confection (0.516) and dairy products (0.570). The multicollinearity results did not indicate a problem between the variables since the highest correlation coefficient was 0.494 (P < 0.01). In an attempt to study the sugar intake pattern in accordance with the food choices and job satisfaction of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests confirmed that the model satisfied the recommended levels for the goodness of fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proven to be appropriate. PMID:27478555

  8. 76 FR 569 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... for the Detection and Differentiation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: The... Detection and Differentiation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and...

  9. 77 FR 125 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Device Classification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Staff; Medical Device Classification Product Codes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... of the draft guidance entitled ``Medical Device Classification Product Codes.'' The purpose of the... classification product codes for medical devices regulated by the Center for Devices and Radiological...

  10. Systematic Evaluation of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Food Waste Management Strategies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Keith L; Levis, James W; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-08-16

    New regulations and targets limiting the disposal of food waste have been recently enacted in numerous jurisdictions. This analysis evaluated selected environmental implications of food waste management policies using life-cycle assessment. Scenarios were developed to evaluate management alternatives applicable to the waste discarded at facilities where food waste is a large component of the waste (e.g., restaurants, grocery stores, and food processors). Options considered include anaerobic digestion (AD), aerobic composting, waste-to-energy combustion (WTE), and landfilling, and multiple performance levels were considered for each option. The global warming impact ranged from approximately -350 to -45 kg CO2e Mg(-1) of waste for scenarios using AD, -190 to 62 kg CO2e Mg(-1) for those using composting, -350 to -28 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was managed by WTE, and -260 to 260 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was landfilled. Landfill diversion was found to reduce emissions, and diverting food waste from WTE generally increased emissions. The analysis further found that when a 20 year GWP was used instead of a 100 year GWP, every scenario including WTE was preferable to every scenario including landfill. Jurisdictions seeking to enact food waste disposal regulations should consider regional factors and material properties before duplicating existing statutes. PMID:27387287

  11. Systematic Evaluation of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Food Waste Management Strategies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Keith L; Levis, James W; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-08-16

    New regulations and targets limiting the disposal of food waste have been recently enacted in numerous jurisdictions. This analysis evaluated selected environmental implications of food waste management policies using life-cycle assessment. Scenarios were developed to evaluate management alternatives applicable to the waste discarded at facilities where food waste is a large component of the waste (e.g., restaurants, grocery stores, and food processors). Options considered include anaerobic digestion (AD), aerobic composting, waste-to-energy combustion (WTE), and landfilling, and multiple performance levels were considered for each option. The global warming impact ranged from approximately -350 to -45 kg CO2e Mg(-1) of waste for scenarios using AD, -190 to 62 kg CO2e Mg(-1) for those using composting, -350 to -28 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was managed by WTE, and -260 to 260 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was landfilled. Landfill diversion was found to reduce emissions, and diverting food waste from WTE generally increased emissions. The analysis further found that when a 20 year GWP was used instead of a 100 year GWP, every scenario including WTE was preferable to every scenario including landfill. Jurisdictions seeking to enact food waste disposal regulations should consider regional factors and material properties before duplicating existing statutes.

  12. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  13. Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ismaïl, Rached; Aviat, Florence; Michel, Valérie; Le Bayon, Isabelle; Gay-Perret, Perrine; Kutnik, Magdalena; Fédérighi, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Various types of surfaces are used today in the food industry, such as plastic, stainless steel, glass, and wood. These surfaces are subject to contamination by microorganisms responsible for the cross-contamination of food by contact with working surfaces. The HACCP-based processes are now widely used for the control of microbial hazards to prevent food safety issues. This preventive approach has resulted in the use of microbiological analyses of surfaces as one of the tools to control the hygiene of products. A method of recovering microorganisms from different solid surfaces is necessary as a means of health prevention. No regulation exists for surface microbial contamination, but food companies tend to establish technical specifications to add value to their products and limit contamination risks. The aim of this review is to present the most frequently used methods: swabbing, friction or scrubbing, printing, rinsing or immersion, sonication and scraping or grinding and describe their advantages and drawbacks. The choice of the recovery method has to be suitable for the type and size of the surface tested for microbiological analysis. Today, quick and cheap methods have to be standardized and especially easy to perform in the field. PMID:24240728

  14. Dose Imprecision and Resistance: Free-Choice Medicated Feeds in Industrial Food Animal Production in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Love, David C.; Davis, Meghan F.; Bassett, Anna; Gunther, Andrew; Nachman, Keeve E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Industrial food animal production employs many of the same antibiotics or classes of antibiotics that are used in human medicine. These drugs can be administered to food animals in the form of free-choice medicated feeds (FCMF), where animals choose how much feed to consume. Routine administration of these drugs to livestock selects for microorganisms that are resistant to medications critical to the treatment of clinical infections in humans. Objectives In this commentary, we discuss the history of medicated feeds, the nature of FCMF use with regard to dose delivery, and U.S. policies that address antimicrobial drug use in food animals. Discussion FCMF makes delivering a predictable, accurate, and intended dose difficult. Overdosing can lead to animal toxicity; underdosing or inconsistent dosing can result in a failure to resolve animal diseases and in the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. Conclusions The delivery of antibiotics to food animals for reasons other than the treatment of clinically diagnosed disease, especially via free-choice feeding methods, should be reconsidered. PMID:21030337

  15. The Literacy Factor: Adding Value to Training. Investigation of the Inclusion of Literacy in Training Packages in the Food Processing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanguinetti, Jill

    The effects of the inclusion of literacy and numeracy competencies within Australia's food processing industry training package were examined in two case studies of training at two food processing facilities in Victoria. The first case study involved a large pasta factory that had approximately 270 employees and a contract with a registered…

  16. Advances in feature selection methods for hyperspectral image processing in food industry applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiong; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the applications of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for assessing food quality, safety, and authenticity. HSI provides abundance of spatial and spectral information from foods by combining both spectroscopy and imaging, resulting in hundreds of contiguous wavebands for each spatial position of food samples, also known as the curse of dimensionality. It is desirable to employ feature selection algorithms for decreasing computation burden and increasing predicting accuracy, which are especially relevant in the development of online applications. Recently, a variety of feature selection algorithms have been proposed that can be categorized into three groups based on the searching strategy namely complete search, heuristic search and random search. This review mainly introduced the fundamental of each algorithm, illustrated its applications in hyperspectral data analysis in the food field, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms. It is hoped that this review should provide a guideline for feature selections and data processing in the future development of hyperspectral imaging technique in foods.

  17. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Wednesday, September 11, 2013 (78 FR 55727), announcing the availability of the draft guidance for industry... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of Wednesday, September 11, 2013 (78 FR 55727),...

  18. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  19. Authors’ Financial Relationships With the Food and Beverage Industry and Their Published Positions on the Fat Substitute Olestra

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Jane; Gussow, Joan Dye; Hastings, Diane; Eccher, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the association between authors’ published positions on the safety and efficacy in assisting with weight loss of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) fat substitute olestra and their financial relationships with the food and beverage industry. Methods. Journal articles about olestra, and their authors, were classified as supportive, critical, or neutral with respect to its use. Authors not known to have industry affiliations were surveyed about their financial relationships. Results. Supportive authors were significantly more likely than critical or neutral authors to have financial relationships with P&G (80% vs 11% and 21%, respectively; P < .0001). All authors disclosing an affiliation with P&G were supportive. Conclusions. Because authors’ published opinions were associated with their financial relationships, obtaining noncommercial funding may be more essential to maintaining objectivity than disclosing personal financial interests. PMID:12660215

  20. Feasibility studies for the Sonic Sensor System for noninvasive temperature measurement in the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, L.S.; Mikesell, C.R.; Taylor, S.C.; Tow, D.M.

    1991-09-01

    Feasibility studies for development of the Sonic Sensor System to measure temperature in the interior of particulates during food processing are described. The method involves tomography-based acquisition and interpretation of speed of sound data. The method is found to be feasible, and representative engineering problems and other technical issues are identified. A two-step approach to concept commercialization, involving replacement of the present puncture-and-thermometer method is conventional batch processing and development of a device to use in continuous aseptic processing, is proposed. A conservative estimate of immediate energy savings, just for food processing, is 0.01 quad/y. Potential follow-on applications are discussed.

  1. The role and challenges of the food industry in addressing chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasingly, food companies play an important role in stemming the rising burden of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Concrete actions taken by these companies include global public commitments to address food reformulation, consumer information, responsible marketing, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and public-private partnerships. These actions are reviewed together with eleven specific PepsiCo goals and commitments that address products, the marketplace, and communities at large. Interim progress on these goals and commitments are discussed as well as constraints hampering faster progress. Further disease prevention depends on increasing implementation of private-public initiatives. PMID:20509876

  2. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  3. 76 FR 80948 - Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, Institutional Review Boards, and Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ..., November, 10, 2011 (76 FR 70151). In the notice, FDA requested comments on the draft guidance that has been... (76 FR 70151), FDA published a notice announcing the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``FDA... Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Clinical Investigations; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and...

  4. 76 FR 34999 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus for Culture-Based Devices; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus for Culture- Based... Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) for Culture-Based Devices'' to the Division of Small Manufacturers,...

  5. Promoting the Use of Life Cycle Assessment for a Sus-tainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies that address the holistic human health and environmental impacts related to food, feed, and bio-based fuel roduction has steadily increased in recent years. Studies on agricultural systems have identified environmental issues ranging from greenhouse gas emis...

  6. Progress in Working Towards a More Sustainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human health and environmental issues related to food, feed, and bio-based systems, range widely from greenhouse gas emissions and energy use to land use, water availability, soil quality, water quality and quantity, biodi-versity losses, and chemical exposure. Threats that s...

  7. 76 FR 70151 - Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, Institutional Review Boards, and Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``FDA Decisions for Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Clinical Investigations.'' This guidance document has been developed to promote the initiation of clinical investigations to evaluate medical devices under FDA's IDE regulations. In an effort to promote timely clinical investigations in......

  8. 77 FR 74195 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Design Considerations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Staff; Design Considerations for Devices Intended for Home Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Design Considerations for Devices Intended for Home Use.'' This document is intended to assist manufacturers in designing and developing home use medical devices...

  9. Participative development of packages in the food industry--evaluation of ergonomics and productivity by objective measurements.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Mikael; Bernmark, Eva; Nilsson, Birgitta; Pousette, Sandra; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    Rationalizations generally have a negative effect on health and known risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. These effects may be reduced by paying attention to modifiers as worker participation and a resonant management style. In this study a participatory approach was used in the food industry in order to improve ergonomics and productivity. The food industry shows a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, and repetitive manual work occurs extensively. Prototypes of new packaging solutions were developed in three cases, and compared in a simulated production to the existing production system through direct measurements of working postures and muscle activity, ratings of physical load, and general productivity data. Measured and rated ergonomic exposures showed that workload was significantly lower for the prototypes, in all three cases. In two cases, the number of handling operations included in the packaging operations were greatly reduced with the prototype package, as were production costs. The impact on disorders of the obtained load reductions is difficult to assess, but we believe that in "critical" situations like this, even small improvements may have an effect. This study shows that workloads during manual handling of packages as well as production costs can be reduced by applying participative development of packages.

  10. 76 FR 6477 - Industry Exchange Workshop on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... regulation to the regulated industry. Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on June 20 and 21, 2011.... Seats are limited; therefore, please submit your registration as soon as possible. Course space will be... possible on a space available basis on the day of the public workshop beginning at 7:30 a.m. The cost...

  11. 76 FR 76166 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; the Content of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ..., including CTR, CTT, and Low Glucose Suspend systems. On June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36542), FDA announced the... Staff; the Content of Investigational Device Exemption and Premarket Approval Applications for... document entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: The Content of Investigational...

  12. 76 FR 789 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Section 905(j) Reports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...; Section 905(j) Reports: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry and FDA staff entitled ``Section 905(j) Reports... products before they may be marketed; alternatively, manufacturers may submit a 905(j) report intended...

  13. 76 FR 36133 - Draft Guidances for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Classification of Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... if: ``through either chemical reaction or intermolecular forces or both, the product mediates a... Issues; and Interpretation of the Term ``Chemical Action'' in the Definition of Device Under Section 201...'' and ``Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: Interpretation of the Term 'Chemical Action' in...

  14. Marine-Based Nutraceuticals: An Innovative Trend in the Food and Supplement Industries.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Osborne, Simone; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda

    2015-10-01

    Recent trends in functional foods and supplements have demonstrated that bioactive molecules play a major therapeutic role in human disease. Nutritionists and biomedical and food scientists are working together to discover new bioactive molecules that have increased potency and therapeutic benefits. Marine life constitutes almost 80% of the world biota with thousands of bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites derived from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, sea slugs and many other marine organisms. These bioactive molecules and secondary metabolites possess antibiotic, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and anticancer activities. They are also inhibitors or activators of critical enzymes and transcription factors, competitors of transporters and sequestrants that modulate various physiological pathways. The current review summaries the widely available marine-based nutraceuticals and recent research carried out for the purposes of isolation, identification and characterization of marine-derived bioactive compounds with various therapeutic potentials. PMID:26473889

  15. The food industry and conflicts of interest in nutrition research: A Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Nestle, Marion

    2015-10-29

    Conflicts of interest arise when corporations marketing harmful products establish financial relationships with research institutions, researchers, or public health organizations. As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, such relationships threaten to jeopardize the integrity of scientific research. Latin America, a region undergoing rapid development, is particularly vulnerable to such conflicts. Here, we provide examples of how food and beverage companies are funding nutrition-focused research and institutions in Latin America, putting their credibility at risk. Public health organizations and institutions should take measures to identify, manage, and limit (or eliminate) conflicts of interest caused by partnerships with food companies making and marketing unhealthful products.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 29 October 2015; doi:10.1057/jphp.2015.37.

  16. Marine-Based Nutraceuticals: An Innovative Trend in the Food and Supplement Industries

    PubMed Central

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Osborne, Simone; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in functional foods and supplements have demonstrated that bioactive molecules play a major therapeutic role in human disease. Nutritionists and biomedical and food scientists are working together to discover new bioactive molecules that have increased potency and therapeutic benefits. Marine life constitutes almost 80% of the world biota with thousands of bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites derived from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, sea slugs and many other marine organisms. These bioactive molecules and secondary metabolites possess antibiotic, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and anticancer activities. They are also inhibitors or activators of critical enzymes and transcription factors, competitors of transporters and sequestrants that modulate various physiological pathways. The current review summaries the widely available marine-based nutraceuticals and recent research carried out for the purposes of isolation, identification and characterization of marine-derived bioactive compounds with various therapeutic potentials. PMID:26473889

  17. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty. PMID:26241377

  18. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty.

  19. Exposure of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium to Three Humectants Used in the Food Industry Induces Different Osmoadaptation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Sarah; Rogers, Lisa; Händler, Kristian; McClure, Peter; Amézquita, Alejandro; Hinton, Jay C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Common salt (NaCl) is frequently used by the food industry to add flavor and to act as a humectant in order to reduce the water content of a food product. The improved health awareness of consumers is leading to a demand for food products with reduced salt content; thus, manufacturers require alternative water activity-reducing agents which elicit the same general effects as NaCl. Two examples include KCl and glycerol. These agents lower the water activity of a food matrix and also contribute to limit the growth of the microbiota, including foodborne pathogens. Little is currently known about how foodborne pathogens respond to these water activity-lowering agents. Here we examined the response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium 4/74 to NaCl, KCl, and glycerol at three time points, using a constant water activity level, compared with the response of a control inoculum. All conditions induced the upregulation of gluconate metabolic genes after 6 h of exposure. Bacteria exposed to NaCl and KCl demonstrated the upregulation of the osmoprotective transporter mechanisms encoded by the proP, proU, and osmU (STM1491 to STM1494) genes. Glycerol exposure elicited the downregulation of these osmoadaptive mechanisms but stimulated an increase in lipopolysaccharide and membrane protein-associated genes after 1 h. The most extensive changes in gene expression occurred following exposure to KCl. Because many of these genes were of unknown function, further characterization may identify KCl-specific adaptive processes that are not stimulated by NaCl. This study shows that the response of S. Typhimurium to different humectants does not simply reflect reduced water activity and likely involves systems that are linked to specific humectants. PMID:26209672

  20. Exposure of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium to Three Humectants Used in the Food Industry Induces Different Osmoadaptation Systems.

    PubMed

    Finn, Sarah; Rogers, Lisa; Händler, Kristian; McClure, Peter; Amézquita, Alejandro; Hinton, Jay C D; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Common salt (NaCl) is frequently used by the food industry to add flavor and to act as a humectant in order to reduce the water content of a food product. The improved health awareness of consumers is leading to a demand for food products with reduced salt content; thus, manufacturers require alternative water activity-reducing agents which elicit the same general effects as NaCl. Two examples include KCl and glycerol. These agents lower the water activity of a food matrix and also contribute to limit the growth of the microbiota, including foodborne pathogens. Little is currently known about how foodborne pathogens respond to these water activity-lowering agents. Here we examined the response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium 4/74 to NaCl, KCl, and glycerol at three time points, using a constant water activity level, compared with the response of a control inoculum. All conditions induced the upregulation of gluconate metabolic genes after 6 h of exposure. Bacteria exposed to NaCl and KCl demonstrated the upregulation of the osmoprotective transporter mechanisms encoded by the proP, proU, and osmU (STM1491 to STM1494) genes. Glycerol exposure elicited the downregulation of these osmoadaptive mechanisms but stimulated an increase in lipopolysaccharide and membrane protein-associated genes after 1 h. The most extensive changes in gene expression occurred following exposure to KCl. Because many of these genes were of unknown function, further characterization may identify KCl-specific adaptive processes that are not stimulated by NaCl. This study shows that the response of S. Typhimurium to different humectants does not simply reflect reduced water activity and likely involves systems that are linked to specific humectants.

  1. Waste treatment: Beverage industry. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment in the alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage industries. Brewery effluent and wastewater management and disposal are reviewed. References cover aerobic treatment, sources of effluents, waste reduction, waste fermentation, effluent purification, and cost-effectiveness evaluation. The use of wastes for biogas production and for building material manufacture is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Defining, regulating and using saccharin at the outset of the industrial food era (1888-1914).

    PubMed

    Guillem-Llobat, Ximo

    2012-12-01

    This paper focuses on the in-depth debates on saccharin that took place around 1900. In numerous discussions among chemists and physicians the sweetener was defined and redefined in a complex way and with a clear lack of agreement among experts. Nevertheless, this fact did not hinder the search for an international agreement on the regulation of saccharin in the food market. This paper analyses these discussions by building on the new trends in material culture studies, and estimates the real impact of medical and chemical expertise on international agreements.

  3. Application of ozonated dry ice (ALIGAL™ Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Fratamico, Pina M; Juneja, Vijay; Annous, Bassam A; Rasanayagam, Vasuhi; Sundar, M; Braithwaite, David; Fisher, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation. ALIGAL™ Blue Ice (ABI), which combines the antimicrobial effect of ozone (O(3)) along with the high cooling capacity of dry ice, was investigated for its effect on bacterial reduction in air, in liquid, and on food and glass surfaces. Through proprietary means, O(3) was introduced to produce dry ice pellets to a concentration of 20 parts per million (ppm) by total weight. The ABI sublimation rate was similar to that of dry ice pellets under identical conditions, and ABI was able to hold the O(3) concentration throughout the normal shelf life of the product. Challenge studies were performed using different microorganisms, including E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria, that are critical to food safety. ABI showed significant (P < 0.05) microbial reduction during bioaerosol contamination (up to 5-log reduction of E. coli and Listeria), on chicken breast (approximately 1.3-log reduction of C. jejuni), on contact surfaces (approximately 3.9 log reduction of C. jejuni), and in liquid (2-log reduction of C. jejuni). Considering the stability of O(3), ease of use, and antimicrobial efficacy against foodborne pathogens, our results suggest that ABI is a better alternative, especially for meat and poultry processors, as compared to dry ice. Further, ABI can potentially serve as an additional processing hurdle to guard against pathogens during processing, transportation, distribution, and/or storage.

  4. Development of an enzyme membrane reactor for treatment of cyanide-containing wastewaters from the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Basheer, S.; Kut, O.M.; Prenosil, J.E.; Bourne, J.R. )

    1993-02-20

    Cyanidase, an immobilized enzyme preparation for hydrolyzing cyanide to ammonia and formate, was applied for the treatment of cyanide-containing waste-waters from the food industry. Apricot seed extract was chosen as a model effluent. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pure amygdalin, the main cyanogenic glycoside in the extract, and the degradation of the cyanide formed was investigated and compared with the behavior of the real extract in a batch slurry reactor. A diffusional-type, flat-membrane reactor with immobilized cyanidase was developed, where the enzyme is effectively protected from adverse effects of high molecular components contained in the extract. For monitoring continuous-membrane reactor operation, a new unsegmented ammonia measurement system was developed and applied. In continuous operation the cyanidase retained its original activity for more than 400 hours on stream.

  5. Perceived Working Conditions and Sickness Absence - A Four-year Follow-up in the Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Pekka J; Luukkaala, Tiina H; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the association between changes in perceived physical and psychosocial working conditions and change of sickness absence days in younger and older (< 50 and ≥ 50 years) food industry employees. Methods This was a follow up study of 679 employees, who completed working conditions survey questionnaires in 2005 and 2009 and for whom the requisite sickness absence data were available for the years 2004 and 2008. Results Sickness absence increased and working conditions improved during follow-up. However, the change of increased sickness absence days were associated with the change of increased poor working postures and the change of deteriorated team spirit and reactivity (especially among < 50 years). No other changes in working conditions were associated with the changes in sickness absence. Conclusion Sickness absence is affected by many factors other than working conditions. Nevertheless, according to this study improving team spirit and reactivity and preventing poor working postures are important in decreasing sickness absence. PMID:22953215

  6. Application of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) in the Turkish poultry industry: a comparison based on enterprise size.

    PubMed

    Kök, M Samil

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) implementation in the Turkish poultry industry. A survey was conducted with 25 major poultry meat producers, which account for close to 90% of national production, and a comparison was made between the procedures of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms (LFs). The survey revealed that there is a high level of application of ISO 22000 (72%), which is seen to aid the export market. LFs were shown to adopt more stringent schemes and make better use of governmental support services than SMEs. LFs were also more aware of, and able to deal with, risks from a greater range of contaminants.

  7. Ergonomic intervention in aonla pricking operation during preserve preparation in food processing industries.

    PubMed

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Kumar, Nitin; Sharma, D K; Garg, M K

    2012-01-01

    Aonla is an important Indian fruit crop with great potential for processing into various quality products. Aonla preserve making is an important economic activity in our country. The pricking methods are age old, hence a hand operated aonla pricking machine was introduced in preserve making industries to speed up the pricking task. OWAS and RULA two of the most commonly used ergonomic assessment tools were evaluated for their efficacy in the assessment pricking along with Rating of perceived exertion scale. Analysis of working posture using RULA revealed that the pricking task with existing methods i.e. fork and hand tool requires immediate investigation and changes in working posture while with machine pricking investigations and changes are required soon. The results of OWAS indicated that the posture maintained while pricking with existing methods need to be changed in future planning while with machine was acceptable. The subjective assessment revealed that machine pricking was less exerting activity as compared to the existing methods. The preserve prepared from machine pricked fruit was most acceptable among consumers. Hence, in the form of machine ergonomic intervention was brought about in preservation industries which have proved beneficial for workers in terms of their safety and productivity.

  8. A food-grade industrial arming yeast expressing β-1,3-1,4-glucanase with enhanced thermal stability*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Liu-liu; Chen, Qi-he; Chen, Ji-cheng; Zhang, Hong-bo; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to construct a novel food-grade industrial arming yeast displaying β-1,3-1,4-glucanase and to evaluate the thermal stability of the glucanase for practical application. For this purpose, a bi-directional vector containing galactokinase (GAL1) and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) promoters in different orientations was constructed. The β-1,3-1,4-glucanase gene from Bacillus subtilis was fused to α-agglutinin and expressed under the control of the GAL1 promoter. α-galactosidase induced by the constitutive PGK1 promoter was used as a food-grade selection marker. The feasibility of the α-galactosidase marker was confirmed by the growth of transformants harboring the constructed vector on a medium containing melibiose as a sole carbon source, and by the clear halo around the transformants in Congo-red plates owing to the expression of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The analysis of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity in cell pellets and in the supernatant of the recombinant yeast strain revealed that β-1,3-1,4-glucanase was successfully displayed on the cell surface of the yeast. The displayed β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity in the recombinant yeast cells increased immediately after the addition of galactose and reached 45.1 U/ml after 32-h induction. The thermal stability of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase displayed in the recombinant yeast cells was enhanced compared with the free enzyme. These results suggest that the constructed food-grade yeast has the potential to improve the brewing properties of beer. PMID:20043351

  9. A review on the applications of portable near-infrared spectrometers in the agro-food industry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Cláudia A Teixeira; Lopo, Miguel; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Lopes, João A

    2013-11-01

    Industry has created the need for a cost-effective and nondestructive quality-control analysis system. This requirement has increased interest in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, leading to the development and marketing of handheld devices that enable new applications that can be implemented in situ. Portable NIR spectrometers are powerful instruments offering several advantages for nondestructive, online, or in situ analysis: small size, low cost, robustness, simplicity of analysis, sample user interface, portability, and ergonomic design. Several studies of on-site NIR applications are presented: characterization of internal and external parameters of fruits and vegetables; conservation state and fat content of meat and fish; distinguishing among and quality evaluation of beverages and dairy products; protein content of cereals; evaluation of grape ripeness in vineyards; and soil analysis. Chemometrics is an essential part of NIR spectroscopy manipulation because wavelength-dependent scattering effects, instrumental noise, ambient effects, and other sources of variability may complicate the spectra. As a consequence, it is difficult to assign specific absorption bands to specific functional groups. To achieve useful and meaningful results, multivariate statistical techniques (essentially involving regression techniques coupled with spectral preprocessing) are therefore required to extract the information hidden in the spectra. This work reviews the evolution of the use of portable near-infrared spectrometers in the agro-food industry.

  10. 76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... information pertaining to FDA's authority to order the administrative detention of food for human or animal... (HFS-009), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... Compliance (HFS-607), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

  11. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...-contact animal foods. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to... Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Direct- Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The document provides guidance to firms that manufacture,...

  12. 76 FR 20686 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Labeling Changes; Implementation of the Federal Food, Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...; Implementation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) added new provisions to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C...

  13. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for Food and Beverage Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ruijie

    2013-12-30

    Food and beverage plants inherently consume a large quantity of water and generate a high volume of wastewater rich in organic content. On one hand, water discharge regulations are getting more stringent over the time, necessitating the use of different technologies to reduce the amount of wastewater and improve the effluent water quality. On the other hand, growing energy and water costs are driving the plants to extract and reuse valuable energy and water from the wastewater stream. An integrated waste-tovalue system uses a combination of anaerobic digester (AD), reciprocating gas engine/boiler, membrane bioreactor (MBR), and reverse osmosis (RO) to recover valuable energy as heat and/or electricity as well as purify the water for reuse. While individual anaerobic digestion and membrane bioreactors are being used in increasing numbers, there is a growing need to integrate them together in a waste-to-value system for enhanced energy and water recovery. However, currently operation of these systems relies heavily on the plant operator to perform periodic sampling and off-line lab analysis to monitor the system performance, detect any abnormal condition due to variations in the wastewater and decide on appropriate remedial action needed. This leads to a conservative design and operation of these systems to avoid any potential upsets that can destabilize the system.

  14. Rationalizing lipid nanoemulsion formation for utilization in the food and beverage industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jiajia

    There is growing interest in the use of nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic functional agents in food and beverage products due to their high optical clarity, physical stability and bioavailability. The goal of this research is to establish quantitative structure-function relationships to allow rational formulation of food-grade nanoemulsions for food and beverage applications. Initially, formation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions using a low energy method was examined. Nanoemulsions were formed using the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, which involves heating a surfactant, oil, water (SOW) systems near the PIT, and then cooling rapidly with stirring. Preliminary experiments were carried out using a model system consisting of a non-ionic surfactant (C12E4), hydrocarbon oil (tetradecane), and water. Nanoemulsions were formed by holding SOW mixtures near their PIT (38.5 °C) and then cooling them rapidly to 10 °C. The PIT was measured using electrical, conductivity and turbidity methods. The optimum storage temperature for PIT-nanoemulsions was about 27 °C lower than the PIT. The stability of PIT-nanoemulsions at ambient temperatures can be improved by adding either Tween 80 (0.2 wt%) or SDS (0.1 wt%) to displace the C12E4 (Brij 30) from the nano-droplet surfaces. Experiments were then carried out to establish if stable nanoemulsions could be formed using the PIT method from food-grade ingredients. Nanoemulsions were fabricated from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and flavor oil (lemon oil) by heat treatment. Different types of colloidal dispersion could be formed by simple heat treatment (90 °C, 30 minutes) depending on the surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR): emulsions at SOR < 1; nanoemulsions at 1 < SOR < 2; microemulsions at SOR > 2. The results suggested that there was a kinetic energy barrier in the SOW system at ambient temperature that prevented it from moving from a highly unstable system into a nanoemulsion system. The conditions where

  15. Rationalizing lipid nanoemulsion formation for utilization in the food and beverage industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jiajia

    There is growing interest in the use of nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic functional agents in food and beverage products due to their high optical clarity, physical stability and bioavailability. The goal of this research is to establish quantitative structure-function relationships to allow rational formulation of food-grade nanoemulsions for food and beverage applications. Initially, formation of oil-in-water nanoemulsions using a low energy method was examined. Nanoemulsions were formed using the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method, which involves heating a surfactant, oil, water (SOW) systems near the PIT, and then cooling rapidly with stirring. Preliminary experiments were carried out using a model system consisting of a non-ionic surfactant (C12E4), hydrocarbon oil (tetradecane), and water. Nanoemulsions were formed by holding SOW mixtures near their PIT (38.5 °C) and then cooling them rapidly to 10 °C. The PIT was measured using electrical, conductivity and turbidity methods. The optimum storage temperature for PIT-nanoemulsions was about 27 °C lower than the PIT. The stability of PIT-nanoemulsions at ambient temperatures can be improved by adding either Tween 80 (0.2 wt%) or SDS (0.1 wt%) to displace the C12E4 (Brij 30) from the nano-droplet surfaces. Experiments were then carried out to establish if stable nanoemulsions could be formed using the PIT method from food-grade ingredients. Nanoemulsions were fabricated from a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) and flavor oil (lemon oil) by heat treatment. Different types of colloidal dispersion could be formed by simple heat treatment (90 °C, 30 minutes) depending on the surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR): emulsions at SOR < 1; nanoemulsions at 1 < SOR < 2; microemulsions at SOR > 2. The results suggested that there was a kinetic energy barrier in the SOW system at ambient temperature that prevented it from moving from a highly unstable system into a nanoemulsion system. The conditions where

  16. Utilization of food industry wastes for the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Machado, S; Grosso, J P; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2014-10-15

    The proper disposal of the several types of wastes produced in industrial activities increases production costs. As a consequence, it is common to develop strategies to reuse these wastes in the same process and in different processes or to transform them for use in other processes. This work combines the needs for new synthesis methods of nanomaterials and the reduction of production cost using wastes from citrine juice (orange, lime, lemon and mandarin) to produce a new added value product, green zero-valent iron nanoparticles that can be used in several applications, including environmental remediation. The results indicate that extracts of the tested fruit wastes (peel, albedo and pulp fractions) can be used to produce zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs). This shows that these wastes can be an added value product. The resulting nZVIs had sizes ranging from 3 up to 300 nm and distinct reactivities (pulp>peel>albedo extracts). All the studied nanoparticles did not present a significant agglomeration/settling tendency when compared to similar nanoparticles, which indicates that they remain in suspension and retain their reactivity. PMID:25089685

  17. A Model Train-The-Trainer Program for HACCP-Based Food Safety Training in the Retail/Food Service Industry: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kenneth E.; Knabel, Steve; Mendenhall, Von

    1999-01-01

    A survey showed states are adopting higher training and certification requirements for food-service workers. A train-the-trainer model was developed to prepare extension agents, health officers, and food-service managers to train others in food-safety procedures. (SK)

  18. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  19. Impact of reproductive technologies on dairy food production in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies drive the efficiency of managing dairy cows because the lactation cycle of the dairy cow depends on regular calving to renew lactation yields. Achieving timely pregnancies to allow calving every 12-14 months, therefore, is critical in modern dairy production. To meet the demands to produce sufficient milk for fluid and dairy products, various technologies are applied to enhance efficiencies on the dairy farm. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, ultrasonographic and chemical detection of pregnancy, various monitors that detect or predict estrus, and handheld communication and testing devices allow managers to retrieve information to make cow-side decisions about health and reproductive status. Genomic testing of young potential sires or young heifers is now possible and can provide information about their genetic merit years before any progeny tests can be completed. In many countries, the challenge faced by dairy producers is their ability to afford these technologies in the face of rising feed and labor costs and volatile milk prices received at the farm gate. Government policies often place obstacles, trade barriers, and unfunded mandates that preclude operations from making a modest profit. Unlike nearly all other manufacturing industries, agriculture producers have little control over the price received for their products. Therefore, dairy production is vulnerable to many uncontrolled factors including climate, government policy, economic conditions, and skilled labor shortages. It is clear that the impact of emerging and current reproductive technologies is critical to the management of dairy cattle to produce sufficient milk to meet consumer demands for quality fluid and dairy products.

  20. Impact of reproductive technologies on dairy food production in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies drive the efficiency of managing dairy cows because the lactation cycle of the dairy cow depends on regular calving to renew lactation yields. Achieving timely pregnancies to allow calving every 12-14 months, therefore, is critical in modern dairy production. To meet the demands to produce sufficient milk for fluid and dairy products, various technologies are applied to enhance efficiencies on the dairy farm. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, ultrasonographic and chemical detection of pregnancy, various monitors that detect or predict estrus, and handheld communication and testing devices allow managers to retrieve information to make cow-side decisions about health and reproductive status. Genomic testing of young potential sires or young heifers is now possible and can provide information about their genetic merit years before any progeny tests can be completed. In many countries, the challenge faced by dairy producers is their ability to afford these technologies in the face of rising feed and labor costs and volatile milk prices received at the farm gate. Government policies often place obstacles, trade barriers, and unfunded mandates that preclude operations from making a modest profit. Unlike nearly all other manufacturing industries, agriculture producers have little control over the price received for their products. Therefore, dairy production is vulnerable to many uncontrolled factors including climate, government policy, economic conditions, and skilled labor shortages. It is clear that the impact of emerging and current reproductive technologies is critical to the management of dairy cattle to produce sufficient milk to meet consumer demands for quality fluid and dairy products. PMID:24170357

  1. Potential application of quantitative microbiological risk assessment techniques to an aseptic-UHT process in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Laure; Albert, Isabelle; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Aseptic ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-type processed food products (e.g., milk or soup) are ready to eat products which are consumed extensively globally due to a combination of their comparative high quality and long shelf life, with no cold chain or other preservation requirements. Due to the inherent microbial vulnerability of aseptic-UHT product formulations, the safety and stability-related performance objectives (POs) required at the end of the manufacturing process are the most demanding found in the food industry. The key determinants to achieving sterility, and which also differentiates aseptic-UHT from in-pack sterilised products, are the challenges associated with the processes of aseptic filling and sealing. This is a complex process that has traditionally been run using deterministic or empirical process settings. Quantifying the risk of microbial contamination and recontamination along the aseptic-UHT process, using the scientifically based process quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), offers the possibility to improve on the currently tolerable sterility failure rate (i.e., 1 defect per 10,000 units). In addition, benefits of applying QMRA are (i) to implement process settings in a transparent and scientific manner; (ii) to develop a uniform common structure whatever the production line, leading to a harmonisation of these process settings, and; (iii) to bring elements of a cost-benefit analysis of the management measures. The objective of this article is to explore how QMRA techniques and risk management metrics may be applied to aseptic-UHT-type processed food products. In particular, the aseptic-UHT process should benefit from a number of novel mathematical and statistical concepts that have been developed in the field of QMRA. Probabilistic techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation, Bayesian inference and sensitivity analysis, should help in assessing the compliance with safety and stability-related POs set at the end of the manufacturing

  2. Native Speakers' Judgments of Second Language Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, J. N.; Quist, P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines native speakers' reactions to the second language Danish of young Bilingual Turkish-Danish school students. Respondents were asked to evaluate the quality of the Danish of these students on the basis of tape recorded excerpts. Overall, respondents evaluated all speakers more negatively when they considered them to be nonnative Danes, but…

  3. The application of bioactive compounds from the food industry to control mold growth in indoor waterborne coatings.

    PubMed

    Bellotti, N; Salvatore, L; Deyá, C; Del Panno, M T; del Amo, B; Romagnoli, R

    2013-04-01

    Microbial growth in indoor environments creates health problems, especially in people with asthma; approximately 80% of these patients are allergic to mold. Antimicrobial coatings are formulated to generate surfaces that are easy to clean and may also incorporate active agents, commonly called biocides, which inhibit microbial colonization, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. Some research lines seek to replace traditional organometallic and organochlorines biocides with environmentally acceptable ones. The aim of this research was, primarily, to explore the possible application of different compounds used in food industry like preservatives to be used as antimicrobial additives for antimicrobial coatings. Four biocides were tested against two different ambient molds isolated from an interior painted wall (Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate). The selected biocides were zinc salicylate, zinc benzoate, calcium benzoate and potassium sorbate. The resulting paints were subjected to biological and physical tests (viscosity, hiding power, humidity absorption and biocides leaching rate). Bioassays revealed that zinc benzoate and zinc salicylate resulted active against both fungi. PMID:23298599

  4. Production of high docosahexaenoic acid by Schizochytrium sp. using low-cost raw materials from food industry.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaojin; Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2015-01-01

    The low-cost substrates from food industry, including maize starch hydrolysate and soybean meal hydrolysate, were used to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88. Glucose derived from maize starch hydrolysate was used as the carbon source and soybean meal hydrolysate as the nitrogen sources. In 10L bioreactor fermentation, by using the soybean meal hydrolysate as the main nitrogen source, the biomass of Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88 reached 85.27 g L(-1), and the yields of DHA was 20.7g L(-1). As a comparison, when yeast extract was used as the main nitrogen source, the yields of biomass and DHA were 68.93 g L(-1) and 13.3 g L(-1), respectively. From the results of this study, these hydrolysates can provide all the nutrients required for high-density cultivation of S. limacinum OUC88 and DHA production, that will improve the economical and competitive efficiency of commercial DHA production. PMID:25748379

  5. Characterization of key aroma compounds in distiller's grains from wheat as a basis for utilization in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Roth, M; Meiringer, M; Kollmannsberger, H; Zarnkow, M; Jekle, M; Becker, T

    2014-11-12

    The limited use of distiller's grains (DG) in the food industry depends occasionally on the characteristic odor of DG. For a better understanding of this typical odor, a sensory evaluation was performed first. The impressions seasoninglike, roasty/breadlike, and malty/caramellike were revealed as the most intensive odors. Furthermore, analysis of volatile flavor compounds was applied on dried DG from wheat. Isolation was performed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), and simultaneous distillation/extraction and identification with gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry. As a result, 42 odor-active compounds could be identified in total. Among 24 of the 42 odor-active compounds obtained by SAFE, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoninglike) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor, and 7 compounds (3-methylbutanioc acid, dimethyl trisulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-phenylethanol, 2,6-nonadienal, and 5-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone) with a FD factor ≥ 32 were identified as key aroma compounds in DG from wheat.

  6. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  7. The Application of Waiting Lines System in Improving Customer Service Management: The Examination of Malaysia Fast Food Restaurants Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Zurina; Shokor, Shahrul Suhaimi AB

    2016-03-01

    Rapid life time change of the Malaysian lifestyle had served the overwhelming growth in the service operation industry. On that occasion, this paper will provide the idea to improve the waiting line system (WLS) practices in Malaysia fast food chains. The study will compare the results in between the single server single phase (SSSP) and the single server multi-phase (SSMP) which providing Markovian Queuing (MQ) to be used for analysis. The new system will improve the current WLS, plus intensifying the organization performance. This new WLS were designed and tested in a real case scenario and in order to develop and implemented the new styles, it need to be focusing on the average number of customers (ANC), average number of customer spending time waiting in line (ACS), and the average time customers spend in waiting and being served (ABS). We introduced new WLS design and there will be prompt discussion upon theories of benefits and potential issues that will benefit other researchers.

  8. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  9. Reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for investigation of primary aromatic amines migration from food packaging and during industrial curing of multilayer plastic laminates.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Francesca; Di Lallo, Valentina; Catellani, Dante; Mattarozzi, Monica; Careri, Maria; Suman, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. In the present work, a reliable analytical method, exploiting a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-(selected ion monitoring)-mass spectrometry system, for PAAs compliance assessment in food contact materials was developed as an effective alternative to the current standard spectrophotometric one, moving in this way from the screening to the accurate and selective quantitation perspective for the analysis of PAAs both in aqueous and acidic food simulants. The main validation parameters were verified achieving very satisfactory results in terms of linearity range, limit of detection (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg(-1)) and quantitation (ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 µg kg(-1)), repeatability and accuracy. Suitability of the method was demonstrated for a wide range of commercial samples, chosen among different producers of the most common used food packaging plastic and paperboard categories and then analyzed to assess the risk related to PAAs migration. Finally, the method was also successfully exploited to monitor the evolution of potential PAAs migration during the industrial curing process of multilayer plastic laminates, prior to their release for delivery to the food industry end user. PMID:25230184

  10. Reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for investigation of primary aromatic amines migration from food packaging and during industrial curing of multilayer plastic laminates.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Francesca; Di Lallo, Valentina; Catellani, Dante; Mattarozzi, Monica; Careri, Maria; Suman, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. In the present work, a reliable analytical method, exploiting a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-(selected ion monitoring)-mass spectrometry system, for PAAs compliance assessment in food contact materials was developed as an effective alternative to the current standard spectrophotometric one, moving in this way from the screening to the accurate and selective quantitation perspective for the analysis of PAAs both in aqueous and acidic food simulants. The main validation parameters were verified achieving very satisfactory results in terms of linearity range, limit of detection (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg(-1)) and quantitation (ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 µg kg(-1)), repeatability and accuracy. Suitability of the method was demonstrated for a wide range of commercial samples, chosen among different producers of the most common used food packaging plastic and paperboard categories and then analyzed to assess the risk related to PAAs migration. Finally, the method was also successfully exploited to monitor the evolution of potential PAAs migration during the industrial curing process of multilayer plastic laminates, prior to their release for delivery to the food industry end user.

  11. 76 FR 81511 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Center for Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Staff; Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave. Bldg. 66, rm. 4613.... Buckles, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire...

  12. An Experimental Guide for Personnel Training Requirements of Technicians in Future Food Irradiation Technology Industries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Philip G.

    With increasing requirements for food free from microbiological health hazards plus extended shelf life of refrigerated and nonrefrigerated foods, many persons will need fundamental training in irradiation techniques and methods of handling irradiated food. Special training needs and criteria for training were defined by conducting interviews with…

  13. 75 FR 32952 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; “‘Harmful and Potentially...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act''; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Products as Used in Section 904(e) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' This draft guidance... Cosmetic Act.'' This draft guidance, when finalized, will discuss the meaning of the term ``harmful...

  14. 76 FR 5387 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; “`Harmful and Potentially Harmful...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of June 10, 2010 (75 FR 32952), FDA announced... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act''; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Section 904(e) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.'' This guidance provides written guidance...

  15. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  16. Evaluation of the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs using Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Baptista, F M; Alban, L; Olsen, A M; Petersen, J V; Toft, N

    2012-10-01

    Residues of pharmacological active substances or their metabolites might be found in food products from food-producing animals. Maximum Residue Limits for pharmacological active substances in foodstuffs of animal origin are established to assure high food safety standards. Each year, more than 20,000 samples are analysed for the presence of antibacterial residues in Danish pigs. This corresponds to 0.1% of the size of the slaughter pig population and more than 1% of the sows slaughtered. In this study, a Bayesian model was used to evaluate the Danish surveillance system accuracy and to investigate the impact of a potential risk-based sampling approach to the residue surveillance programme in Danish slaughter pigs. Danish surveillance data from 2005 to 2009 and limited knowledge about true prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity were included in the model. According to the model, the true antibacterial residue prevalence in Danish pigs is very low in both sows (∼0.20%) and slaughter pigs (∼0.01%). Despite data constraints, the results suggest that the current screening test used in Denmark presents high sensitivity (85-99%) and very high specificity (>99%) for the most relevant antibacterial classes used in Danish pigs. If high-risk slaughter pigs could be identified by taking into account antibacterial use or meat inspection risk factors, a potential risk-based sampling approach to antibacterial residue surveillance in slaughter pigs would allow reducing the sample size substantially, while increasing or maintaining the probability of detection. Hence, the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs would be more cost-effective than today. PMID:22579393

  17. Treatment of high organic content wastewater from food-processing industry with the French vertical flow constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Paing, J; Serdobbel, V; Welschbillig, M; Calvez, M; Gagnon, V; Chazarenc, F

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the treatment performances of a full-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands designed to treat wastewater from a food-processing industry (cookie factory), and to study the influence of the organic loading rate. The full-scale treatment plant was designed with a first vertical stage of 630 m², a second vertical stage of 473 m² equipped with a recirculation system and followed by a final horizontal stage of 440 m². The plant was commissioned in 2011, and was operated at different loading rates during 16 months for the purpose of this study. Treatment performances were determined by 24 hour composite samples. The mean concentration of the raw effluent was 8,548 mg.L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 4,334 mg.L(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and 2,069 mg.L(-1) suspended solids (SS). Despite low nutrients content with a BOD5/N/P ratio of 100/1.8/0.5, lower than optimum for biological degradation (known as 100/5/1), mean removal performances were very high with 98% for COD, 99% for BOD5 and SS for the two vertical stages. The increasing of the organic load from 50 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD to 237 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD (on the first stage) did not affect removal performances. The mean quality of effluent reached French standards (COD < 125 mg.L(-1), BOD5 < 25 mg.L(-1), SS < 35 mg.L(-1)).

  18. Treatment of high organic content wastewater from food-processing industry with the French vertical flow constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Paing, J; Serdobbel, V; Welschbillig, M; Calvez, M; Gagnon, V; Chazarenc, F

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the treatment performances of a full-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands designed to treat wastewater from a food-processing industry (cookie factory), and to study the influence of the organic loading rate. The full-scale treatment plant was designed with a first vertical stage of 630 m², a second vertical stage of 473 m² equipped with a recirculation system and followed by a final horizontal stage of 440 m². The plant was commissioned in 2011, and was operated at different loading rates during 16 months for the purpose of this study. Treatment performances were determined by 24 hour composite samples. The mean concentration of the raw effluent was 8,548 mg.L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 4,334 mg.L(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and 2,069 mg.L(-1) suspended solids (SS). Despite low nutrients content with a BOD5/N/P ratio of 100/1.8/0.5, lower than optimum for biological degradation (known as 100/5/1), mean removal performances were very high with 98% for COD, 99% for BOD5 and SS for the two vertical stages. The increasing of the organic load from 50 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD to 237 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD (on the first stage) did not affect removal performances. The mean quality of effluent reached French standards (COD < 125 mg.L(-1), BOD5 < 25 mg.L(-1), SS < 35 mg.L(-1)). PMID:26114273

  19. Accumulated pesticide and industrial chemical findings from a ten-year study of ready-to-eat foods. KAN-DO Office and Pesticides Team.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    This report lists the pesticide and industrial chemicals found in the ready-to-eat foods tested repetitively for 10 years through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Revised Market Basket Study. The study operated from 1982 to 1991. During that time 37 market baskets, each containing 234 food items that represented about 5000 food types in American diets covering all age groups, including infants and children, were collected. Each food item was individually prepared for eating; that is, it was opened, unwrapped, washed, peeled, sliced, formulated by recipe, or cooked. Each item was then composited and analytically screened for about 300 different chemicals, including chlorphenoxy acids, ethylenethiourea, methyl carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, organosulfurs, phenylureas, and pyrethroids. Overall, less than 1% of the potential of 2.5 million findings occurred for the 10-year study period. In total, 138 different chemical residues accounted for 17 050 accumulated findings. Most findings were less than 1 microgram/g, which is considered a low-level finding. Each food item averaged about 2 low-level findings per analysis.

  20. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as "Agro-Industrial Ecology", is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale.

  1. Establishment of a simple and rapid identification method for Listeria spp. by using high-resolution melting analysis, and its application in food industry.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Vesaratchavest, Mongkol; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative bacteria of listeriosis, which has a higher mortality rate than that of other causes of food poisoning. Listeria spp., of which L. monocytogenes is a member, have been isolated from food and manufacturing environments. Several methods have been published for identifying Listeria spp.; however, many of the methods cannot identify newly categorized Listeria spp. Additionally, they are often not suitable for the food industry, owing to their complexity, cost, or time consumption. Recently, high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA), which exploits DNA-sequence differences, has received attention as a simple and quick genomic typing method. In the present study, a new method for the simple, rapid, and low-cost identification of Listeria spp. has been presented using the genes rarA and ldh as targets for HRMA. DNA sequences of 9 Listeria species were first compared, and polymorphisms were identified for each species for primer design. Species specificity of each HRM curve pattern was estimated using type strains of all the species. Among the 9 species, 7 were identified by HRMA using rarA gene, including 3 new species. The remaining 2 species were identified by HRMA of ldh gene. The newly developed HRMA method was then used to assess Listeria isolates from the food industry, and the method efficiency was compared to that of identification by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The 2 methods were in coherence for 92.6% of the samples, demonstrating the high accuracy of HRMA. The time required for identifying Listeria spp. was substantially low, and the process was considerably simplified, providing a useful and precise method for processing multiple samples per day. Our newly developed method for identifying Listeria spp. is highly valuable; its use is not limited to the food industry, and it can be used for the isolates from the natural environment.

  2. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production. PMID:27450127

  3. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production.

  4. Development of food-grade nanoemulsions and emulsions for delivery of omega-3 fatty acids: opportunities and obstacles in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of biologically active amounts of omega-3 fatty acids is linked to improved human health, which has partly been attributed to their important role in brain development and cardiovascular health. Western diets are relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and many consumers turn to supplements or functional foods to increase their intake of these healthy lipids. Fish oil is one of the most widely used sources of omega-3 fatty acid for supplementation and has greater health benefits than plant sources because of its higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into foods and beverages is often challenging due to their low water-solubility, poor oxidative stability, and variable bioavailability. Nanoemulsions offer a promising way to incorporate omega-3 fatty acids into liquid food systems like beverages, dressing, sauces, and dips. Nanoemulsions are colloidal dispersions that contain small oil droplets (r<100 nm) that may be able to overcome many of the challenges of fortifying foods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids. The composition and fabrication of nanoemulsions can be optimized to increase the chemical and physical stability of oil droplets, as well as to increase the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids.

  5. 75 FR 14445 - Guidance for Industry on Submitting a Report for Multiple Facilities to the Reportable Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College... Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, 301-436-2428. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ]...

  6. 75 FR 71133 - Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Pottery Intended for Use With Food and the Use of the Term ``Lead Free'' in the Labeling of Pottery; and... Intended for Use With Food and the Use of the Term `Lead Free' in the Labeling of Pottery; and Proper... requirements for properly labeling certain ornamental and decorative ceramicware as not for use for...

  7. Danish North Sea crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-09-12

    Danish North Sea blend was assayed earlier this year. The light, sweet crude comprises crude oil from 10 fields. The crude is piped from offshore production facilities to the A/S Dansk Shell refinery at Fredericia, Denmark. Fig. 1 shows the boiling point curve for the crude, and Fig. 2 illustrates the metals content (vanadium, nickel, and iron), as a function of distillation temperature. The table lists properties of the crude and its fractions.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Safer Food Saves Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... them from happening in the first place. Food industries can: Keep records to trace foods from source ... can be found on: www.foodsafety.gov Food industries can Keep records to trace foods from source ...

  9. 78 FR 38994 - Implanted Blood Access Devices for Hemodialysis; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Implanted Blood Access Devices for Hemodialysis; Draft... availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Implanted Blood Access Devices for Hemodialysis.'' This guidance was developed to support the reclassification of the Implanted Blood Access Devices for...

  10. 75 FR 53971 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Impact-Resistant Lenses: Questions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...; Impact-Resistant Lenses: Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance entitled ``Impact-Resistant Lenses: Questions and Answers.'' This guidance document answers manufacturer, importer, and consumer questions on impact-resistant lenses, including questions on...

  11. [The estimation of intake of selected and permissible preservatives used in food industry among people from Podlaskie voivodeship].

    PubMed

    Szczerbiński, Robert; Karczewski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The work aimed at estimating intake of food containing permissible preservatives. The data was comprised of food samples from 14 poviats of Podlaskie voivodeship taken to detect presence of preservatives (sodium nitrate, nitrite, benzoic acid and its salt, sorbic acid and its salt). The samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 by food inspection agency. Data concerning consumption of food provided results for an average consumption of some foodstuffs in households in which consumption of given foodstuff has been recorded by Polish Central Statistical Office, whereas data concerning consumption of soft drinks was provided by the report from March, 2008 (soft drinks market in Poland). It was stated that an average intake of the considered preservatives with an average diet is not a threat to people. Taking into account the fact data concerning consumption of foodstuffs in households is limited, it is advised to create databases comprising consumption of foodstuffs which would help in more precise evaluation of the intake.

  12. An OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli isolated from a Danish patient with no hospitalization abroad.

    PubMed

    Gedebjerg, Anne; Hasman, Henrik; Sørensen, Christian Møller; Wang, Mikala

    2015-08-01

    Carbapenemase-producing organisms are disseminating globally and are now emerging as a worrying threat in Scandinavia. Before August 2013, OXA-48-producing organisms had not been detected in Danish patients. Here we report the isolation of an ST746 OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli with the plasmid pOXA-48a carrying the blaOXA-48 gene isolated from a Danish patient without history of hospitalization abroad. The patient reported tourist travel to Egypt and Turkey. The potential acquisition of carbapenemase-producing organisms by ingestion of contaminated food is discussed.

  13. Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at μg/L scale.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

    2014-03-15

    This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 μg L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the

  14. Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at μg/L scale.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

    2014-03-15

    This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 μg L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the

  15. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  16. 78 FR 14097 - Pulse Oximeters-Premarket Notification Submissions [510(k)s]; Guidance for Industry and Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Federal Register of July 19, 2007 (72 FR 39631), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance... developed this guidance document to assist industry in preparing a Premarket Notification (510(k)) for...

  17. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  18. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Pressure Wound Therapy; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT).'' This guidance document describes a means by which non-powered suction... Device Intended for Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT)'' to the Division of Small...

  19. Application of ozonated dry ice (AligalTM Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of ozone contained in dry ice pellets (ALIGALTM Blue Ice; ABI) was investigated for microbial reduction in air, and on food contact surfaces and meat products. Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance durin...

  20. 78 FR 49529 - Radio Frequency Wireless Technology in Medical Devices; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... 3, 2007 (72 FR 137). The comment period closed on April 2, 2007. Over 25 companies, numerous... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 2006D-0504) Radio Frequency Wireless...) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Radio Frequency Wireless Technology...

  1. 76 FR 78670 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Evaluation of Sex Differences...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Staff; Evaluation of Sex Differences in Medical Device Clinical Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Evaluation of Sex Differences in Medical Device Clinical Studies.'' This document provides guidance on the study and evaluation of sex differences...

  2. 78 FR 15017 - Guidance for Industry: What You Need To Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... regulations in 21 CFR part 1, subpart K (76 FR 25538), that pertain to the criteria for ordering... Administrative Detention of Foods,'' (76 FR 66073, October 25, 2011). The guidance was intended to provide... February 5, 2013 (78 FR 7994), FDA issued a final rule adopting the IFR as final without changes. The...

  3. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A

    2000-04-01

    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer. PMID:10772215

  4. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... for the Topical Approximation of Skin; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Intended for the Topical Approximation of Skin.'' This guidance document describes a means by which tissue adhesives with adjunct wound closure devices intended for the topical approximation of skin may comply...

  5. 77 FR 41413 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices: The Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ..., Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg... New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, Rm. 1666, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-6380; or Stephen Ripley... specific questions during product development and early protocol ] planning, about device studies...

  6. 76 FR 51993 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on In Vitro Companion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Register of July 14, 2011 (76 FR 41506). In the notice, FDA requested comments on a draft guidance document... 14, 2011 (76 FR 41506), FDA published a notice announcing the availability of the draft guidance... Staff on In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Devices; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and...

  7. 77 FR 27461 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Pediatric Information for X...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Staff; Pediatric Information for X-Ray Imaging Device Premarket Notifications; Availability AGENCY: Food... announcing the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Pediatric Information for X-ray Imaging Device... should be ] provided in premarket notifications for x-ray imaging devices with indications for use...

  8. 77 FR 48159 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... draft guidance entitled ``Refuse to Accept Policy for 510(k)s.'' The purpose of this document is to... (510(k)) submission is administratively complete, which determines whether it should be accepted...

  9. 78 FR 48172 - Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... specifically address children's toy laser products. FDA recently issued a proposed rule (78 FR 37723) that... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft... availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products.'' This...

  10. 76 FR 64228 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Special Controls Guidance Document: External Pacemaker Pulse Generator; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Pulse Generator.'' This draft guidance document describes a means by which external pacemaker pulse generators may comply with the requirement of special controls for class II devices. This draft guidance...

  11. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  12. Reproducibility of a web-based FFQ for 13- to 15-year-old Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Anne A; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2016-01-01

    FFQ are widely used in large-scale studies to assess dietary intake. To aid interpretation of diet-disease associations assessment of validity must be performed. Reproducibility is one aspect of validity focusing on the stability of repeated assessment with the same method which may also reveal problems in instrument design or participant instructions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a web-based FFQ targeting Danish adolescents within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data for the present study were obtained from a prospective design nested within the DNBC. Adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old (n 48, 60 % girls) completed the FFQ twice 4 weeks apart. The proportion of adolescents consistently classified into the same tertile according to amount of food intake ranged from 45 % (fish) to 77 % (vegetables), whereas classification into opposite tertiles ranged from 0 % (fruit, oils and dressing) to 15 % (beverages). Overall, no significant differences were observed in intake of food groups or nutrients between the two completions of the FFQ. Mean crude Spearman correlation for all food groups was 0·56 and mean intra-class correlation for all food groups was 0·61. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the FFQ for Danish adolescents was acceptable. The study revealed that adolescents aged 13-15 years seemed capable of recalling consistently overall dietary habits and had some difficulties estimating the frequency of consumption of regularly consumed food items. PMID:26855775

  13. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    PubMed

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2.

  14. 78 FR 20116 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Glass Syringes for Delivering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Staff; Glass Syringes for Delivering Drug and Biological Products: Technical Information To Supplement... availability of draft guidance for industry and FDA staff entitled ``Glass Syringes for Delivering Drug and... glass syringes that comply with the ISO 11040-4 standard when connected to devices (``connecting...

  15. 78 FR 9396 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Civil Money Penalties for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Tobacco to Protect Children and Adolescents'' (75 FR 13225, March 19, 2010, codified at 21 CFR part 1140... Staff; Civil Money Penalties for Tobacco Retailers: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Civil...

  16. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes. PMID:27620095

  17. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  18. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Nathalie; Baudrit, Cédric; Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system. PMID:26230334

  19. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Nathalie; Baudrit, Cédric; Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system.

  20. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system. PMID:26230334

  1. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cancer Drug Development and US Regulatory Review: Perspectives From Industry, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Patient.

    PubMed

    Basch, Ethan; Geoghegan, Cindy; Coons, Stephen Joel; Gnanasakthy, Ari; Slagle, Ashley F; Papadopoulos, Elektra J; Kluetz, Paul G

    2015-06-01

    Data reported directly by patients about how they feel and function are rarely included in oncology drug labeling in the United States, in contrast to Europe and to nononcology labeling in the United States, where this practice is more common. Multiple barriers exist, including challenges unique to oncology trials, and industry's concerns regarding cost, logistical complexities, and the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) rigorous application of its 2009 guidance on the use of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. A panel consisting of representatives of industry, FDA, the PRO Consortium, clinicians, and patients was assembled at a 2014 workshop cosponsored by FDA to identify practical recommendations for overcoming these barriers. Key recommendations included increasing proactive encouragement by FDA to clinical trial sponsors for including PROs in drug development programs; provision of comprehensive PRO plans by sponsors to FDA early in drug development; promotion of an oncology-specific PRO research agenda; development of an approach to existing ("legacy") PRO measures, when appropriate (focused initially on symptoms and functional status); and increased FDA and industry training in PRO methodology. FDA has begun implementing several of these recommendations. PMID:26181187

  2. Typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolates originating from the food processing industry with automated ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Aarnisalo, Kaarina; Autio, Tiina; Sjöberg, Anna-Maija; Lundén, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu; Suihko, Maija-Liisa

    2003-02-01

    A total of 486 Listeria monocytogenes isolates originating from 17 Finnish food processing plants (representing meat, poultry, fish, and dairy production) were collected and typed by automated ribotyping using EcoRI as the restriction enzyme. The isolates were divided into 16 different ribotypes (RTs). Some of these isolates (121), representing all EcoRI types and 16 food plants, were subjected to ribotyping with the PvuII enzyme, to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing with AscI and SmaI restriction enzymes, and to serotyping with O-antigen antisera. Nineteen ribotypes were generated with PvuII, 42 macrorestriction patterns were generated with AscI and 24 with SmaI, and three serotypes were generated with antisera. When the results were combined, the overall number of RTs was 23, and that of the PFGE types was 46. Thus, the overall discrimination power of PFGE was higher (discrimination index [DI] 0.966) than that of ribotyping (DI 0.906). The most common serotype (90.1% of the isolates) was 1/2, and isolates of serotype 4 (3.3%) were rare. There was no connection between food sectors and RTs or PFGE types, but PFGE indicated the single plants (78.3% of the types) better than ribotyping (56.5%). On the basis of its automation and on the availability of identification databases, automated ribotyping had some advantages over PFGE. Overall, automated ribotyping can be considered a practical and rapid tool when Listeria contamination is suspected and when screening a large number of isolates is necessary, e.g., when tracing contamination sources. However, in cases of outbreaks, the identical patterns must be confirmed by PFGE, which is a more discriminatory method.

  3. Laccase and manganese peroxidase activities of Phellinus robustus and Ganoderma adspersum grown on food industry wastes in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Songulashvili, G; Elisashvili, V; Wasser, S; Nevo, E; Hadar, Y

    2006-09-01

    Phellinus robustus produced both laccase (700-4,000 U l(-1)) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) (1,000-11,300 U l(-1)) in fermentation of nine food wastes, whereas Ganoderma adspersum produced only laccase (600-34,000 U l(-1)). Glucose provided high laccase and MnP activity of P. robustus but repressed enzyme production by G. adspersum. Ammonium sulphate and ammonium tartrate increased the P. robustus laccase yield (3-fold), whereas the accumulation of MnP was not enhanced by additional nitrogen. PMID:16823599

  4. Isolation of Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10 with ability to secrete bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance from milk products for applications in food industry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be isolated from traditional milk products. LAB that secrete substances that inhibit pathogenic bacteria and are resistant to acid, bile, and pepsin but not vancomycin may have potential in food applications. Results LAB isolated from a range of traditional fermented products were screened for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. A total of 222 LAB strains were isolated from fermented milk products in the form of fresh curds, dried curds, and ghara (a traditional flavor enhancer prepared from whey), and fermented cocoa bean. Eleven LAB isolates that produced antimicrobial substances were identified as Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici strains by biochemical methods and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Of these, the cell-free supernatant of Kp10 (P. acidilactici) most strongly inhibited Listeria monocytogenes. Further analysis identified the antimicrobial substance produced by Kp10 as proteinaceous in nature and active over a wide pH range. Kp10 (P. acidilactici) was found to be catalase-negative, able to produce β-galactosidase, resistant to bile salts (0.3%) and acidic conditions (pH 3), and susceptible to most antibiotics. Conclusion Traditionally prepared fermented milk products are good sources of LAB with characteristics suitable for industrial applications. The isolate Kp10 (P. acidilactici) shows potential for the production of probiotic and functional foods. PMID:23153191

  5. The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population.

    PubMed

    Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-22

    Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking.

  6. The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population

    PubMed Central

    Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194

  7. Assessment of (poly)phenols in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems by using food/pharma industry compatible solvents and Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Teixeira, A I; Rosa, E; Barros, A I

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to analyse the effect of time (10-30 min), temperature (25-95°C), and solvents concentration (5-90%) on the extraction of total phenolics, flavonoids, ortho-diphenols, and anthocyanins as well as to assess the ABTS(+) scavenging capacity, which were considered as response variables. Values coefficients of determination (R(2)), ranging from 0.903 to 0.996, fitted for describing efficient extraction of bioactive (poly)phenols and antioxidant activity. The recorded data allowed to establish the optimal extraction conditions at 23.0 min, 95.0°C, and 57.9% of food-quality ethanol/water for Vitis vinifera L. var. 'Viosinho' (white variety), and 23.4 min, 84.2°C, and 63.8% for var. 'Touriga Nacional' (red variety). The achievement of optimal extraction conditions of phenolics from grape stems using solvents compatible with further uses in food/pharma industries demonstrated that RSM constitutes a powerful tool for deriving optimal conditions for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from grape stems.

  8. [Food allergy].

    PubMed

    Kanny, Gisile

    2007-06-30

    The prevalence of food allergies increases in industrialized countries: 3% in general population, up to 6% of children. Food allergy has a genetic basis. The recent increase is thought to be due to a change in environmental factors, including changes in diet and reduced exposure to early childhood infection. Food allergies present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including anaphylaxis, urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, gastrointestinal disorders. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE, avoidance diet and challenge tests. The mainstay of diagnosis and management of food allergies is correct identification and avoidance of the offending antigen. Children often develop tolerance to cow's milk, egg, wheat by school age, whereas allergies to nuts, fish and seafood are generally not outgrown no matter at what age they develop.

  9. Potential of electric discharge plasma methods in abatement of volatile organic compounds originating from the food industry.

    PubMed

    Preis, S; Klauson, D; Gregor, A

    2013-01-15

    Increased volatile organic compounds emissions and commensurate tightening of applicable legislation mean that the development and application of effective, cost-efficient abatement methods are areas of growing concern. This paper reviews the last two decades' publications on organic vapour emissions from food processing, their sources, impacts and treatment methods. An overview of the latest developments in conventional air treatment methods is presented, followed by the main focus of the paper, non-thermal plasma technology. The results of the review suggest that non-thermal plasma technology, in its pulsed corona discharge configuration, is an emerging treatment method with potential for low-cost, effective abatement of a wide spectrum of organic air pollutants. It is found that the combination of plasma treatment with catalysis is a development trend that demonstrates considerable potential. The as yet relatively small number of plasma treatment applications is considered to be due to the novelty of pulsed electric discharge techniques and a lack of reliable pulse generators and reactors. Other issues acting as barriers to widespread adoption of the technique include the possible formation of stable oxidation by-products, residual ozone and nitrogen oxides, and sensitivity towards air humidity.

  10. Reducing the Role of the Food, Tobacco, and Alcohol Industries in Noncommunicable Disease Risk in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and food corporations in promoting NCD risk and unhealthy lifestyles in South Africa and in exacerbating inequities in NCD distribution among populations. Through their business practices such as product design, marketing, retail distribution, and pricing and their business practices such as lobbying, public relations, philanthropy, and sponsored research, national and transnational corporations in South Africa shape the social and physical environments that structure opportunities for NCD risk behavior. Since the election of a democratic government in 1994, the South African government and civil society groups have used regulation, public education, health services, and community mobilization to modify corporate practices that increase NCD risk. By expanding the practice of health education to include activities that seek to modify the practices of corporations as well as individuals, South Africa can reduce the growing burden of NCDs. PMID:27037150

  11. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

  12. Industrial storage applications overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a technology demonstration for the food processing industry, development and technology demonstrations for selected near-term, in-plant applications and advanced industrial applications of thermal energy storage are overviewed.

  13. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published.

  14. Composting sewage sludge amended with different sawdust proportions and textures and organic waste of food industry--assessment of quality.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Tarek G; Al-Omari, Qusai; Abbassi, Bassim E

    2012-01-01

    The quality of compost made from dewatered sewage sludge, sawdust (SD) and organic wastes of a potato-processing industry (OW), in terms of chemical and biological properties, was assessed. Mixtures of the sludge, SD and OW were composted for 57 days in insulated containers at two C:N ratios (approximately 30 : 1 and approximately 20 : 1) and SD textures (coarse- and fine-textured SD). The parameters monitored over this period were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C:N ratio, CO2 evolution and two spectrophotometric ratios (Q2/6 and Q2/4). All the studied parameters were in general similarly influenced by initial C:N ratio and texture of SD except for EC, Q2/6 and Q2/4. At high C:N ratio of both textures, the EC of the final products increased but were less than those of low C:N ratio of both textures. Thus, final product can be used alone as growth medium without the need for grinding or blending with other materials. The spectrophotometric ratios (Q2/6 and Q2/4) dramatically decreased two weeks after composting and then slightly increased at the end of composting process. However, coarse-textured SD at the low C:N ratio and fine-textured SD at both C:N ratios resulted in lower Q2/6 and Q2/4 ratios, reflecting a better degree of aromatic condensation and organic matter humification. Considering these parameters, co-composting sludge with fine-textured SD and OW at high initial C:N ratio would represent the best compromise.

  15. Composting sewage sludge amended with different sawdust proportions and textures and organic waste of food industry--assessment of quality.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Tarek G; Al-Omari, Qusai; Abbassi, Bassim E

    2012-01-01

    The quality of compost made from dewatered sewage sludge, sawdust (SD) and organic wastes of a potato-processing industry (OW), in terms of chemical and biological properties, was assessed. Mixtures of the sludge, SD and OW were composted for 57 days in insulated containers at two C:N ratios (approximately 30 : 1 and approximately 20 : 1) and SD textures (coarse- and fine-textured SD). The parameters monitored over this period were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C:N ratio, CO2 evolution and two spectrophotometric ratios (Q2/6 and Q2/4). All the studied parameters were in general similarly influenced by initial C:N ratio and texture of SD except for EC, Q2/6 and Q2/4. At high C:N ratio of both textures, the EC of the final products increased but were less than those of low C:N ratio of both textures. Thus, final product can be used alone as growth medium without the need for grinding or blending with other materials. The spectrophotometric ratios (Q2/6 and Q2/4) dramatically decreased two weeks after composting and then slightly increased at the end of composting process. However, coarse-textured SD at the low C:N ratio and fine-textured SD at both C:N ratios resulted in lower Q2/6 and Q2/4 ratios, reflecting a better degree of aromatic condensation and organic matter humification. Considering these parameters, co-composting sludge with fine-textured SD and OW at high initial C:N ratio would represent the best compromise. PMID:22988624

  16. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  17. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

  18. Insights in Public Health: Protecting Public Health Through Governmental Transparency: How the Hawai'i Department of Health's New "Stoplight" Placarding Program is Attempting to Influence Behavioral Change in Hawai'i's Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai'i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public.

  19. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - how to achieve substantial CO(2) reductions?

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, T; Olesen, J E; Petersen, S O; Petersen, B M; Jørgensen, U; Kristensen, T; Hutchings, N J; Gyldenkærne, S; Hermansen, J E

    2011-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance.

  20. Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.

    PubMed

    Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2015-07-01

    In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100μgL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs. PMID:25841181

  1. Investigating the Role of State and Local Health Departments in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP) facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments’ responses, and barriers to involvement. Results Health departments’ roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. Conclusions Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health. PMID:23382947

  2. Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.

    PubMed

    Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2015-07-01

    In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100μgL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs.

  3. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  4. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  5. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  6. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  8. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  9. Energy conservation in industry

    SciTech Connect

    Strub, A.S.; Ehringer, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses combustion and heat recovery, engines and batteries, and applications and technologies. Some of the topics covered include: energy-saving technologies; heat exchangers, fluidized bed exchangers, industrial heat pumps; fluidized bed combustion; waste heat recovery; orc machines and cascading; engines and flywheels; new types of engines; advanced batteries; fuel cell; chemical industry and catalysis; metallurgy; textile industry; food industry; microwave applications; and cement and glass ceramic industry.

  10. Industrial Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajdas, C.; Karpińska, A.; Kulczycki, A.

    'Industrial lubricant' gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are explained. The properties, applications and selection of various industrial lubricants for different gears are described. Steam and industrial gas turbine lubricant formulations are discussed and the effects of their degradation products, particularly for valves and filters, are presented. Metalworking lubricant applications are divided into cutting and forming operations and their actions are described. Speciality applications such as process, textile, food-grade, slideway, cylinder and wire rope lubricants are explained.

  11. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  12. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications.

  13. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  14. Ultrasonics in food processing.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Oliver, Christine; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, the physical and chemical effects of ultrasound in liquid and solid media have been extensively used in food processing applications. Harnessing the physical forces generated by ultrasound, in the absence and presence of cavitation, for specific food processing applications such as emulsification, filtration, tenderisation and functionality modification have been highlighted. While some applications, such as filtration and emulsification are "mature" industrial processes, other applications, such as functionality modification, are still in their early stages of development. However, various investigations discussed suggest that ultrasonic processing of food and dairy ingredients is a potential and viable technology that will be used by many food industries in the near future.

  15. Irradiation and food processing.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  16. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Boucher, Barbara J; Heitmann, Berit L

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  17. The role of population pharmacokinetics in drug development in light of the Food and Drug Administration's 'Guidance for Industry: population pharmacokinetics'.

    PubMed

    Williams, P J; Ette, E I

    2000-12-01

    Population pharmacokinetics (PPK) has evolved from a discipline primarily applied to therapeutic drug monitoring to one that plays a significant role in clinical pharmacology in general and drug development in particular. In February 1999 the US Food and Drug Administration issued a 'Guidance for Industry: Population Pharmacokinetics' that sets out the mechanisms and philosophy of PPK and outlines its role in drug development. The application of PPK to the drug development process plays an important role in the efficient development of safe and effective drugs. PPK knowledge is essential for mapping the response surface, explaining subgroup differences, developing and evaluating competing dose administration strategies, and as an aid in designing future studies. The mapping of the response surface is done to maximise the benefit-risk ratio, so that the impact of the input profile and dose magnitude on beneficial and harmful pharmacological effects can be understood and applied to individual patients. PPK combined with simulation methods provides a tool for estimating the expected range of concentrations from competing dose administration strategies. Once extracted, this knowledge can be applied to labelling or used to assess various future study designs. PPK should be implemented across all phases of drug development. For preclinical studies, PPK can be applied to allometric scaling and toxicokinetic analyses, and is useful for determining 'first time in man' doses and explaining toxicological results. Phase I studies provide initial understanding of the structural model and the effect of possible covariates, and may later be used to evaluate PPK differences between patients and healthy individuals. Phase II studies provide the greatest opportunity to map the response surface. With these PPK models it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the role of the dose on the response surface and of the range of expected responses. In phase III and IV studies, PPK

  18. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  19. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  20. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.