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Sample records for danish paediatric hiv

  1. Estimating future trends in paediatric HIV

    PubMed Central

    Penazzato, Martina; Bendaud, Victoria; Nelson, Lisa; Stover, John; Mahy, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paediatric treatment continues to lag behind adult treatment and significant efforts are urgently needed to scale up antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children. As efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission expand, better understanding of future trends and age characterization of the population that will be in need of ART is needed to inform policymakers, as well as drug developers and manufacturers. Methods: The Spectrum model was used to estimate the total number of expected paediatric infections by 2020 in 21 priority countries in Africa. Different ART scale-up scenarios were investigated and age characterization of the population was explored. Results: By 2020, new paediatric infections in the 21 countries will decline in all the scenarios. Total paediatric infections will also decline in the 21 high-burden countries, but with a differential effect by scenario and age group. On the basis of the optimal scale-up scenario, 1 940 000 [1 760 000–2 120 000] children will be expected to be living with HIV in 2020. The number of children dying of AIDS is notably different in the three models. Assuming optimal scale-up and based on 2013 treatment initiation criteria, the estimates of children to receive ART in the 21 high-burden countries will increase to 1 670 000 (1 500 000–1 800 000). Conclusion: By 2020, even under the most optimistic scenarios, a considerable number of children will still be living with HIV. Age-appropriate drugs and formulations will be needed to meet the treatment needs of this vulnerable population. Improved estimates will be critical to guide the development and forecasting of commodities to close the existing paediatric treatment gap. PMID:25409099

  2. IMMUNE ACTIVATION AND PAEDIATRIC HIV-1 DISEASE OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Roider, J; Muenchhoff, M; Goulder, PJR

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The paediatric HIV epidemic is changing. Over the past decade, new infections have substantially reduced whilst access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased. Overall this success means that numbers of children living with HIV are climbing. In addition, the problems in adults of chronic inflammation resulting from persistent immune activation even following ART-mediated suppression of viral replication are magnified in children infected from birth. Recent findings Features of immune ontogeny favor low immune activation in early life, whilst specific aspects of paediatric HIV infection tend to increase it. A subset of ART-naïve non-progressing children exists in whom normal CD4 counts are maintained in the setting of persistent high viremia and yet in the context of low immune activation. This sooty mangabey-like phenotype contrasts with non-progressing adult infection characterized by the expression of protective HLA class I molecules and low viral load. The particular factors contributing to raised or lowered immune activation in paediatric infection, and that ultimately influence disease outcome, are discussed. Summary Novel strategies to circumvent the unwanted long-term consequences of HIV infection may be possible in children in whom natural immune ontogeny in early life militates against immune activation. Defining the mechanisms underlying low immune activation in natural HIV infection would have applications beyond paediatric HIV. PMID:26679413

  3. A systematic review of measures of HIV/AIDS stigma in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations

    PubMed Central

    McAteer, Carole Ian; Truong, Nhan-Ai Thi; Aluoch, Josephine; Deathe, Andrew Roland; Nyandiko, Winstone M; Marete, Irene; Vreeman, Rachel Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-related stigma impacts the quality of life and care management of HIV-infected and HIV-affected individuals, but how we measure stigma and its impact on children and adolescents has less often been described. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies that measured HIV-related stigma with a quantitative tool in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations. Results and discussion Varying measures have been used to assess stigma in paediatric populations, with most studies utilizing the full or variant form of the HIV Stigma Scale that has been validated in adult populations and utilized with paediatric populations in Africa, Asia and the United States. Other common measures included the Perceived Public Stigma Against Children Affected by HIV, primarily utilized and validated in China. Few studies implored item validation techniques with the population of interest, although scales were used in a different cultural context from the origin of the scale. Conclusions Many stigma measures have been used to assess HIV stigma in paediatric populations, globally, but few have implored methods for cultural adaptation and content validity. PMID:27717409

  4. Promoting a Combination Approach to Paediatric HIV Psychosocial Support

    PubMed Central

    Amzel, Anouk; Toska, Elona; Lovich, Ronnie; Widyono, Monique; Patel, Tejal; Foti, Carrie; Dziuban, Eric J.; Phelps, B. Ryan; Sugandhi, Nandita; Mark, Daniella; Altschuler, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Ninety percent of the 3.4 million HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. Their psychosocial well being is fundamental to establishing and maintaining successful treatment outcomes and overall quality of life. With the increased roll-out of antiretroviral treatment, HIV infection is shifting from a life-threatening to a chronic disease. However, even for paediatric patients enrolled in care and treatment, HIV can still be devastating due to the interaction of complex factors, particularly in the context of other household illness and overextended healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa. This article explores the negative effect of several interrelated HIV-specific factors on the psychosocial well being of HIV-infected children: disclosure, stigma and discrimination, and bereavement. However, drawing on clinical studies of resilience, it stresses the need to move beyond a focus on the individual as a full response to the needs of a sick child requires support for the individual child, caregiver-child dyads, extended families, communities, and institutions. This means providing early and progressive age appropriate interventions aimed at increasing the self-reliance and self-acceptance in children and their caregivers and promoting timely health-seeking behaviours. Critical barriers that cause poorer biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among children and caregiver must also be addressed as should the causes and consequences of stigma and associated gender and social norms. This article reviews interventions at different levels of the ecological model: individual-centred programs, family-centred interventions, programs that support or train healthcare providers, community interventions for HIV-infected children, and initiatives that improve the capacity of schools to provide more supportive environments for HIV-infected children. Although experience is increasing in approaches that address the psychosocial needs of vulnerable and HIV-infected children

  5. Promoting a combination approach to paediatric HIV psychosocial support.

    PubMed

    Amzel, Anouk; Toska, Elona; Lovich, Ronnie; Widyono, Monique; Patel, Tejal; Foti, Carrie; Dziuban, Eric J; Phelps, B Ryan; Sugandhi, Nandita; Mark, Daniella; Altschuler, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    Ninety percent of the 3.4 million HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. Their psychosocial well being is fundamental to establishing and maintaining successful treatment outcomes and overall quality of life. With the increased roll-out of antiretroviral treatment, HIV infection is shifting from a life-threatening to a chronic disease. However, even for paediatric patients enrolled in care and treatment, HIV can still be devastating due to the interaction of complex factors, particularly in the context of other household illness and overextended healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa.This article explores the negative effect of several interrelated HIV-specific factors on the psychosocial well being of HIV-infected children: disclosure, stigma and discrimination, and bereavement. However, drawing on clinical studies of resilience, it stresses the need to move beyond a focus on the individual as a full response to the needs of a sick child requires support for the individual child, caregiver-child dyads, extended families, communities, and institutions. This means providing early and progressive age appropriate interventions aimed at increasing the self-reliance and self-acceptance in children and their caregivers and promoting timely health-seeking behaviours. Critical barriers that cause poorer biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among children and caregiver must also be addressed as should the causes and consequences of stigma and associated gender and social norms.This article reviews interventions at different levels of the ecological model: individual-centred programs, family-centred interventions, programs that support or train healthcare providers, community interventions for HIV-infected children, and initiatives that improve the capacity of schools to provide more supportive environments for HIV-infected children. Although experience is increasing in approaches that address the psychosocial needs of vulnerable and HIV-infected children, there

  6. A paediatric and perinatal HIV/AIDS leadership initiative in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Christie, C D C

    2004-10-01

    In Jamaica 1-2% of pregnant women are HIV-positive; 876 HIV-positive pregnant women will deliver and at least 283 newly infected HIV-infected infants will be born in 2003; HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death in children aged one to four years. We describe a collaborative "Town and Gown" programme to address the paediatric and perinatal HIV epidemic in Kingston. A team of academic and government healthcare personnel, comprising paediatricians, obstetricians, public health practitioners, nurses, microbiologists, data management and information technology personnel collaborated to address this public health emergency. A five-point plan was implemented This comprised leadership and training of a core group of paediatric/perinatal HIVprofessionals to serve Greater Kingston and St Catherine and be a model for the rest of Jamaica. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS is prevented by counselling and HIV-testing women in the antenatal clinics, giving azidothymidine (AZT) to HIV pregnant women beginning at 28 weeks gestation, throughout labour and to the HIV-exposed infants for the first six weeks of life. A unified parallel programme for identifying the HIV-infected infant and delivering paediatric HIV care at the major paediatric centres was implemented In three years, over 30,000 pregnant women are being tested for HIV; 600 HIV-exposed babies are being identified and about 140 paediatric HIV infections will be prevented The team is building research capacity which emphasizes a strong outcomes-based research agenda and implementation of clinical trials. We are collaborating, locally, regionally and internationally. Collaboratively, the mission of reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS and improving the quality of life for those already living and affected by HIV/AIDS can be achieved.

  7. A new tool for the paediatric HIV research: general data from the Cohort of the Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe).

    PubMed

    de Jose, Ma Isabel; Jiménez de Ory, Santiago; Espiau, Maria; Fortuny, Claudia; Navarro, Ma Luisa; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Muñoz-Fernandez, Ma Angeles

    2013-01-02

    There are approximately from 1,100 to 1,200 HIV-infected children in a follow-up in Spain. In 2008 an open, multicentral, retrospective and prospective Cohort of the Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe) was founded. The CoRISpe is divided into the node 1 and node 2 representing geographically almost the whole territory of Spain. Since 2008 seventy-five hospitals have been participating in the CoRISpe. All the retrospective data of the HIV-infected children have been kept in the CoRISpe since 1995 and prospective data since 2008. In this article we are going to present the notion of CoRISpe, its role, the structure, how the CoRISpe works and the process how a child is transferred from Paediatric to Adults Units. The main objective of the CoRISpe is to contribute to furthering scientific knowledge on paediatric HIV infection by providing demographic, sociopsychological, clinical and laboratory data from HIV-infected paediatric patients. Its aim is to enable high-quality research studies on HIV-infected children.

  8. A new tool for the paediatric HIV research: general data from the Cohort of the Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There are approximately from 1,100 to 1,200 HIV-infected children in a follow-up in Spain. In 2008 an open, multicentral, retrospective and prospective Cohort of the Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe) was founded. The CoRISpe is divided into the node 1 and node 2 representing geographically almost the whole territory of Spain. Since 2008 seventy-five hospitals have been participating in the CoRISpe. All the retrospective data of the HIV-infected children have been kept in the CoRISpe since 1995 and prospective data since 2008. In this article we are going to present the notion of CoRISpe, its role, the structure, how the CoRISpe works and the process how a child is transferred from Paediatric to Adults Units. The main objective of the CoRISpe is to contribute to furthering scientific knowledge on paediatric HIV infection by providing demographic, sociopsychological, clinical and laboratory data from HIV-infected paediatric patients. Its aim is to enable high-quality research studies on HIV-infected children. PMID:23282073

  9. Orofacial and systemic manifestations in 212 paediatric HIV patients from Chennai, South India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Kannan; Geethalakshmi, Elumalai; Krishna Mohan Rao, Umadevi; Vidya, Kaazhiyur Mudimbaimannar; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Solomon, Suniti

    2010-07-01

    Lesions in the mouth and in other tissues and organs (oral and systemic lesions) in paediatric HIV infection are diverse and show differences in clinical presentation and severity from that of adults. Very little data exist for oral lesions in paediatric population in India. To document and study oral and more widespread lesions in paediatric HIV seropositive patients. A cross-sectional study. Paediatric HIV seropositive patients at tertiary centers: Ragas Dental College and Hospital and YRG CARE, Chennai, India. Two hundred and twelve paediatric HIV patients aged 0-14 years seen over a period of 1 year were included in the study. Clinical history, oral and systemic examinations were recorded by qualified dental surgeons and physicians. One hundred and thirty-two patients had oral lesions ranging in number from one to three. Oral lesions included oral candidiasis (OC) (56.1%), gingivitis (10.8%), oral pigmentation (6.1%), depapillation of the tongue (5.7%), ulcers (4.2%), and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.4%). The most common systemic lesion observed was nonspecific lymphadenopathy (74.1%) followed by pruritic eruptions (53.8%), measles (51.4%), and tuberculosis (TB) (49.1%). Thirty-three (26%) patients were not immunosuppressed, 74 (58%) were moderately immunosuppressed, and 20 (15%) were severely immunosuppressed. Oral lesions exhibited positive correlation with lesions in other parts of the body. Oral lesions are a common feature in paediatric HIV infection. Their management is vital to improve the quality of life of the infected children.

  10. Paediatric HIV infection: correlates of protective immunity and global perspectives in prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Goulder, P J; Jeena, P; Tudor-Williams, G; Burchett, S

    2001-01-01

    The impact of the HIV epidemic on child health globally is beginning to be appreciated. With the burden of new infections falling on young women, there is a skyrocketing number of AIDS orphans, and a rapidly increasing number of children infected via mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT). An estimated 600,000 new paediatric infections occur each year, of which some 1500/day (> 90%) occur in sub-Saharan Africa. But whereas children account for only 4% of those currently living with HIV infection, 20% of AIDS deaths have been in children. This reflects the rapid progression to disease in paediatric HIV infection. Whereas a dramatic reduction in viraemia follows acute adult infection, corresponding to the appearance of a vigorous anti-HIV cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, virtually no impact of the immune response is observed in acute paediatric infection following MTCT. Two specific challenges for the paediatric immune response are: (i) infection occurs before the immune system itself is fully developed; and (ii) the viruses transmitted by MTCT have already evaded an immune system sharing close genetic relatedness to that of the child. Accumulating evidence indicates that the immune system is potentially capable of effective control of HIV infection, and that events occurring in acute infection critically determine the ultimate outcome. Technological advances that have transformed the study of T-cell immunity now enable the developing immune system in childhood to be better understood. Via novel immunotherapeutic approaches described, it may be possible to modulate the infant's immune response to reach effective and durable suppression of HIV, as can be achieved by the rare long-term non-progressors of HIV infection. The feasibility of adopting these approaches globally are as yet untested. Finally, the striking disparity between the burden of paediatric HIV infection and access to the necessary infrastructure and therapeutic options required for its optimal management

  11. Accelerated oral nanomedicine discovery from miniaturized screening to clinical production exemplified by paediatric HIV nanotherapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardiello, Marco; Liptrott, Neill J.; McDonald, Tom O.; Moss, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Martin, Phil; Smith, Darren; Gurjar, Rohan; Rannard, Steve P.; Owen, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Considerable scope exists to vary the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, with subsequent impact on biological interactions; however, no accelerated process to access large nanoparticle material space is currently available, hampering the development of new nanomedicines. In particular, no clinically available nanotherapies exist for HIV populations and conventional paediatric HIV medicines are poorly available; one current paediatric formulation utilizes high ethanol concentrations to solubilize lopinavir, a poorly soluble antiretroviral. Here we apply accelerated nanomedicine discovery to generate a potential aqueous paediatric HIV nanotherapy, with clinical translation and regulatory approval for human evaluation. Our rapid small-scale screening approach yields large libraries of solid drug nanoparticles (160 individual components) targeting oral dose. Screening uses 1 mg of drug compound per library member and iterative pharmacological and chemical evaluation establishes potential candidates for progression through to clinical manufacture. The wide applicability of our strategy has implications for multiple therapy development programmes.

  12. Accelerated oral nanomedicine discovery from miniaturized screening to clinical production exemplified by paediatric HIV nanotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Giardiello, Marco; Liptrott, Neill J.; McDonald, Tom O.; Moss, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Martin, Phil; Smith, Darren; Gurjar, Rohan; Rannard, Steve P.; Owen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Considerable scope exists to vary the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, with subsequent impact on biological interactions; however, no accelerated process to access large nanoparticle material space is currently available, hampering the development of new nanomedicines. In particular, no clinically available nanotherapies exist for HIV populations and conventional paediatric HIV medicines are poorly available; one current paediatric formulation utilizes high ethanol concentrations to solubilize lopinavir, a poorly soluble antiretroviral. Here we apply accelerated nanomedicine discovery to generate a potential aqueous paediatric HIV nanotherapy, with clinical translation and regulatory approval for human evaluation. Our rapid small-scale screening approach yields large libraries of solid drug nanoparticles (160 individual components) targeting oral dose. Screening uses 1 mg of drug compound per library member and iterative pharmacological and chemical evaluation establishes potential candidates for progression through to clinical manufacture. The wide applicability of our strategy has implications for multiple therapy development programmes. PMID:27767027

  13. Off-label use of maraviroc in HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Claudia; Gómez, María Luisa Navarro; Soler-Palacín, Pere; González-Tomé, María Isabel; De Ory, Santiago J; Espiau, María; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; León-Leal, Juan Antonio; Méndez, María; Moreno-Pérez, David; Guasch, Claudia Fortuny; Sierra, Antoni Mur; Guruceta, Itziar Pocheville; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; Briz, Verónica

    2015-10-23

    Maraviroc (MVC) is not approved for HIV-1-infected paediatric patients. This is the first assessment of the use of MVC-based salvage therapy in vertically HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical settings. The results suggest that MVC-based salvage therapy is useful in children and adolescents with extensive resistance profile leading to maintained virological suppression in up to 88% of the patients with CCR5-tropic virus. The likelihood of treatment success might increase when MVC is combined with other active drugs.

  14. When to start paediatric testing of the adult HIV cure research agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema K

    2017-01-01

    Ethical guidelines recommend that experimental interventions should be tested in adults first before they are tested and approved in children. Some challenge this paradigm, however, and recommend initiating paediatric testing after preliminary safety testing in adults in certain cases. For instance, commentators have argued for accelerated testing of HIV vaccines in children. Additionally, HIV cure research on the use of very early therapy (VET) in infants, prompted in part by the Mississippi baby case, is one example of a strategy that is currently being tested in infants before it has been well tested in adults. Because infants’ immune systems are still developing, the timing of HIV transmission is easier to identify in infants than in adults, and infants who receive VET might never develop the viral reservoirs that make HIV so difficult to eradicate, infants may be uniquely situated to achieve HIV cure or sustained viral remission. Several commentators have now argued for earlier initiation of HIV cure interventions other than (or in addition to) VET in children. HIV cure research is therefore a good case for re-examining the important question of when to initiate paediatric research. I will argue that, despite the potential for HIV cure research to benefit children and the scientific value of involving children in this research, the HIV cure agenda should not accelerate the involvement of children for the following reasons: HIV cure research is highly speculative, risky, aimed at combination approaches and does not compare favourably with the available alternatives. I conclude by drawing general implications for the initiation of paediatric testing, including that interventions that have to be used in combination with others and cures for chronic diseases may not be valuable enough to justify early paediatric testing. PMID:27259546

  15. HIV management by nurse prescribers compared with doctors at a paediatric centre in Gaborone, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Monyatsi, Gadzikanani; Mullan, Paul C; Phelps, Benjamin R; Tolle, Michael A; Machine, Edwin M; Gennari, Floriza F; Makosky, Jenny; Anabwani, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare compliance with national paediatric HIV treatment guidelines between nurse prescribers and doctors at a paediatric referral centre in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 at the Botswana-Baylor Children’s Clinical Centre of Excellence (COE), Gaborone, Botswana, comparing the performance of nurse prescribers and physicians caring for HIV-infected paediatric patients. Selected by stratified random sampling, 100 physician and 97 nurse prescriber encounters were retrospectively reviewed for successful documentation of eight separate clinically relevant variables: pill count charted; chief complaint listed; social history updated; disclosure reviewed; physical exam; laboratory testing; World Health Organization (WHO) staging documented; paediatric dosing. Results Nurse prescribers and physicians correctly documented 96.0% and 94.9% of the time, respectively. There was a trend towards a higher proportion of social history documentation by the nurses, but no significant difference in any other documentation items. Conclusions Our findings support the continued investment in programmes employing properly trained nurses in southern Africa to provide quality care and ART services to HIV-infected children who are stable on therapy. Task shifting remains a promising strategy to scale up and sustain adult and paediatric ART more effectively, particularly where provider shortages threaten ART rollout. Policies guiding ART services in southern Africa should avoid restricting the delivery of crucial services to doctors, especially where their numbers are limited. PMID:22273135

  16. The pattern of paediatric HIV/AIDS as seen at the National Hospital Abuja Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oniyangi, O; Awani, B; Iregbu, K C

    2006-12-01

    Paediatric HIV/AIDS has become a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in our environment. The objective of this paper is to determine the mode of transmission, clinical presentations and outcome of hospital admissions in children with Paediatric HIV/AIDS at the National Hospital Abuja Nigeria. A retrospective study of children with Paediatric HIV/AIDS admitted into the hospital from January December 2000 was done. Screening for HIV infection was based on clinical criteria as recommended by WHO except in 3 children with previously diagnosed HIV seropositivity. One positive ELISA and one positive Western Blot assay diagnosed HIV seropositivity. Forty-three HIV positive children aged six weeks to nine years (mean 16.5 months, SD 26.32) were admitted into the Paediatric unit (exclusive of the newborn unit) of the hospital, accounting for 5.7% of all admissions into the unit. There were 35 infants (81.4%). There were 18 males and 25 females (male: female ratio 1:0.72). The presumed modes of transmission were mother to child transmission 40(93.02%), blood transfusion 2 (4.6%) and an unidentified route 1 (2.3%). All parents were in the reproductive age group and there were 6 discordant couples identified (mother HIV positive, father HIV negative). Common presenting symptoms were fever 16 (37.2.8%), diarrhoea 13 (30.2%), difficult/fast breathing 12 (27.9%) and vomiting 8 (18.6%), while clinical signs were crepitations in the lungs 27 (62.7%), pallor 22 (51.2%), oral thrush 20 (46.5%), hepatomegaly 18 (41.9%), and dehydration 16 (37.2%). Admitting diagnoses were pneumonia 26 (60.5%), septicaemia 4 (9.3%), diarrhoea with dehydration, intestinal obstruction and malnutrition 2 (4.7%) each. There were 14 deaths (mortality rate 32.6%); accounting for 28.57% of total deaths in the paediatric unit during the period. Thirteen (13) (92.8%) deaths occurred in children aged 2 years old and below. The greatest contributors to mortality were pneumonia 10 (71.4%) and septicaemia

  17. 90-90-90--Charting a steady course to end the paediatric HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Elaine J; Strasser, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The new "90-90-90" UNAIDS agenda proposes that 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy and 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression by 2020. By focusing on children, the global community is in the unique position of realizing an end to the paediatric HIV epidemic. Despite vast scientific advances in the prevention and treatment of paediatric HIV infection over the last two decades, in 2014 there were an estimated 220,000 new paediatric infections attributed to mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) and 150,000 HIV-related paediatric deaths. Furthermore, adolescents remain at particularly high risk for acquisition of new HIV infections, and HIV/AIDS remains the second leading cause of death in this age group. Among the estimated 2.6 million children less than 15 years of age living with HIV infection, only 32% were receiving life-saving antiretroviral treatment. After decades of languishing, good progress is now being made to prevent MTCT. Unfortunately, efforts to scale up HIV treatment services have been less robust for children and adolescents compared with adult populations. These discrepancies reflect substantial gaps in essential services and numerous missed opportunities to prevent HIV transmission and provide effective life-saving antiretroviral treatment to children, adolescents and families. The road to an AIDS-free generation will require bridging the gaps in HIV services and addressing the particular needs of children across the developmental spectrum from infancy through adolescence. To reach the ambitious new targets, innovations and service improvements will need to be rapidly escalated at each step along the prevention-treatment cascade. Charting a successful course to reach the 90-90-90 targets will require sustained political and financial commitment as well as the rapid implementation of a broad

  18. Paediatric and perinatal HIV/AIDS in Jamaica an international leadership initiative, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Christie, C D C; Steel-Duncan, J; Palmer, P; Pierre, R; Harvey, K; Johnson, N; Samuels, L A; Dunkley-Thompson, J; Singh-Minott, I; Anderson, M; Billings, C; Evans-Gilbert, T; Rodriquez, B; McDonald, C; Moore, J; Taylor, F; Smikle, M F; Williams, E; Whorms, S; Davis, D; Mullings, A; Morgan, O; McDonald, D; Alexander, G; Onyonyor, A; Hylton-Kong, T; Weller, P; Harris, M; Woodham, A; Haughton, D; Carrington, D; Figueroa, J P

    2008-06-01

    Paediatric and Perinatal HIV/AIDS remain significant health challenges in the Caribbean where the HIV seroprevalence is second only to Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe a collaborative approach to the prevention, treatment and care ofHIVin pregnant women, infants and children in Jamaica. A team of academic and government healthcare personnel collaborated to address the paediatric and perinatal HIV epidemic in Greater Kingston as a model for Jamaica (population 2.6 million, HIV seroprevalence 1.5%). A five-point plan was utilized and included leadership and training, preventing mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT), treatment and care of women, infants and children, outcomes-based research and local, regional and international outreach. A core group of paediatric/perinatal HIV professionals were trained, including paediatricians, obstetricians, public health practitioners, nurses, microbiologists, data managers, information technology personnel and students to serve Greater Kingston (birth cohort 20,000). During September 2002 to August 2007, over 69 793 pregnant women presented for antenatal care. During these five years, significant improvements occurred in uptake of voluntary counselling (40% to 91%) and HIV-testing (53% to 102%). Eight hundred and eighty-three women tested HIV-positive with seroprevalence rates of 1-2% each year The use of modified short course zidovudine or nevirapine in the first three years significantly reduced mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from 29% to 6% (RR 0.27; 95%0 CI--0.10, 0.68). During 2005 to 2007 using maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with zidovudine and lamivudine with either nevirapine, nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir and infant zidovudine and nevirapine, MTCT was further reduced to an estimated 1.6% in Greater Kingston and 4.75% islandwide. In five years, we evaluated 1570 children in four-weekly paediatric infectious diseases clinics in Kingston, St Andrew and St Catherine and in six rural

  19. HIV transmission during paediatric health care in sub-Saharan Africa--risks and evidence.

    PubMed

    Gisselquist, David; Potterat, John J; Brody, Stuart

    2004-02-01

    Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa are challenged not only to improve care for the increasing number of HIV-infected children, but also to prevent transmission of HIV to other children and health care workers through contaminated medical procedures and needlestick accidents. HIV-infected children aged to 1 year typically have high viral loads, making them dangerous reservoirs for iatrogenic transmission. Most vertically infected children experience HIV-related symptoms early, though many survive beyond 5 years. This leads to high HIV prevalence among inpatient and outpatient children. In nine African studies, HIV prevalence in inpatient children ranged from 8.2% to 63%, roughly 1-3 times the prevalence in antenatal women. Investigations of large iatrogenic outbreaks in Russia, Romania, and Libya demonstrate efficient HIV transmission through paediatric health care. Unexplained HIV infections in African children are not rare-studies published through 2003 have recorded more than 300 HIV-infected children with HIV-negative mothers. In addition, several studies have reported much higher HIV prevalence in children 5-14 years old than could be expected from mother-to-child transmission alone. Research is required to determine the extent of iatrogenic HIV infection among African children as well as to identify high-risk procedures and settings. Such research can motivate and direct prevention efforts.

  20. Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in treating paediatric HIV/AIDS in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Pierre, R B; Steel-Duncan, J C; Evans-Gilbert, T; Rodriguez, B; Moore, J; Palmer, P; Smikle, M F; Davis, D; Figueroa, J P; Christie, C D C

    2008-06-01

    Paediatric HIV/AIDS remains a significant challenge in developing countries. We describe the effectiveness of interventions in HIV-infected children attending Paediatric Infectious Diseases Clinics in Jamaica. One hundred and ninety-seven HIV-infected children were followed prospectively in multicentre ambulatory clinics between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005, in the Kingston Paediatric and Perinatal HIV/AIDS Programme, Jamaica, and their outcomes described. Median follow-up was 23 child-months (interquartile range [IQR] 12-31) with 12 children (6.0%) lost to follow-up and deaths (n=13) occurred at 4.64 per 100 child-years of follow-up. Median age was 5.0 years (IQR 2.2-8.1) and 32.1% had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) category C disease at enrollment; 62% were ever on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median duration of 15.4 months (IQR 5.5-25.5); 85% initiated ART with zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine. Mean weight-for-height 0.13 +/- 1.02 (mean difference -1.71 [95% Confidence interval (CI) -2.73, -0.69]; p = 0.001) and body mass index-for-age 0.05 +/- 1.11 (mean difference -1.11, [CI -1.79, -0.43]; p = 0.002); z scores increased after 24 months on ART; however, children remained stunted. Reductions in the incidence of hospitalizations (mean diff 30.95, [CI 3.12, 58.78]; p = 0.03) and in episodes of pneumonia, culture-positive sepsis and tuberculosis occurred in those on ART. A successfully implemented ambulatory model for paediatric HIV care in Jamaica has improved the quality of life and survival of HIV-infected children.

  1. Inequality and ethics in paediatric HIV remission research: From Mississippi to South Africa and back.

    PubMed

    Crane, Johanna T; Rossouw, Theresa M

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, physician-researchers announced that a baby in Mississippi had been 'functionally cured' of HIV [Persaud, D., Gay, H., Ziemniak, C. F., Chen, Y. H., Piatak, M., Chun, T.-W., … Luzuriaga, K. (2013b, March). Functional HIV cure after very early ART of an infected infant. Paper presented at the 20th conference on retroviruses and opportunistic infections, Atlanta, GA]. Though the child later developed a detectable viral load, the case remains unprecedented, and trials to build on the findings are planned [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2014). 'Mississippi baby' now has detectable HIV, researchers find. Retrieved from http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2014/pages/mississippibabyhiv.aspx ]. Whether addressing HIV 'cure' or 'remission', scrutiny of this case has focused largely on scientific questions, with only introductory attention to ethics. The social inequalities and gaps in care that made the discovery possible - and their ethical implications for paediatric HIV remission - have gone largely unexamined. This paper describes structural inequalities surrounding the 'Mississippi baby' case and a parallel case in South Africa, where proof-of-concept studies are in the early stages. We argue that an ethical programme of research into infant HIV remission ought to be 'structurally competent', and recommend that paediatric remission studies consider including a research component focused on social protection and barriers to care.

  2. Think Hickam's dictum not Occam's razor in paediatric HIV.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Sharland, Mike; Nadel, Simon

    2014-03-18

    A 10-year-old girl with untreated congenital HIV developed acute sepsis to which she succumbed despite emergency treatment. Her red and dilated anal region with small areas of tissue breakdown due to advanced HIV destructive disease was misinterpreted as anal assault. Suffocation was then hypothesised to be the cause of her profound hypoxia and multi-organ failure. Criminal proceedings against her adoptive uncle ensued over a 5-year period at huge legal and social cost. Following the first acquittal, appellant hearings led to re-trial at which her uncle was acquitted for the second time. A shared idée fixe (anal assault and asphyxiation) resulted in the most likely clinical diagnosis (advanced HIV infection with subsequent overwhelming sepsis) being discarded. This was a case where the principle of parsimony (Occam's Razor) led to exclusion of a diagnosis when in fact multiple diagnoses applied (Hickam's Dictum), with devastating consequences for the family.

  3. Vertical HIV-1 transmission: prophylaxis and paediatric follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, M; Sanchéz, A; Maneiro, P; Angelosante, W; Pérez, C; Valleé, M

    2001-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of anti-HIV therapy for vertical HIV-1 transmission based on the PACTG protocol 076, modified and adapted to Venezuela. Between March 1997 and March 2000, 74 HIV-1-infected women (15-42 years old) with 77 singleton pregnancies were evaluated. Zidovudine (ZDV) 500 mg/day (average 8 weeks) was begun after Western blot confirmatory tests, independent of CD4+ count or viral load. ZDV was administered as follows: 47 patients (61 per cent) received prenatal, perinatal and postnatal therapy; 13 (17 per cent) received prenatal and postnatal therapy; two (3 per cent) received prenatal and perinatal therapy; one patient received perinatal and postnatal therapy; seven (9 per cent) received only postnatal therapy. Seven HIV-1 infected women received no treatment. Thirty-two newborns were obtained by C-section (45.7 per cent), while 38 were delivered vaginally (54.2 per cent). Due to advanced maternal illness, seven HIV-1-infected women received ZDV+3TC, two women received ZDV+ddI and one woman received ZDV+3TC+ Ritonavir. Breastfeeding was avoided in all cases. Outcomes showed 65 term newborns and five preterm newborns; three abortions; one fetal loss and one preterm death. Two maternal/fetal deaths were secondary to complications related to AIDS at 27 and 29 weeks, respectively. Twenty-one children over 18 months old were considered uninfected. Thirty-five infants below 15 months of age were considered with the status of indeterminate HIV-1 infection (PO). Three infants fewer than 5 months of age with multiple risk factors were considered infected (P2). Two infants were asymptomatic and HIV positive at 12 months of age (P1). Eight children were lost to follow-up. Independent of maternal status and delivery type, confirmed vertical transmission of HIV-1-infected women who received ZDV is 4.25 per cent. Prenatal care with a multidisciplinary team is necessary for good obstetric and newborn outcomes. Copyright 2001 IFPA and Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  4. SANKOFA: a multisite collaboration on paediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nancy R.; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Lartey, Margaret; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Enimil, Anthony; Catlin, Ann Christine; Fernando, Sumudinie; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Paintsil, Elijah

    2016-01-01

    With the scale-up of effective antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings, many HIV-infected children are now able to survive into adulthood. To achieve this potential, children must navigate normative developmental processes and challenges while living with an unusually complex, stigmatizing, potentially fatal chronic illness and meeting the demands of treatment. Yet many of these children, especially preadolescents, do not know they are HIV-infected. Despite compelling evidence supporting the merits of informing children of their HIV status, there has been little emphasis on equipping the child’s caregiver with information and skills to promote disclosure, particularly, when the caregiver faces a variety of sociocultural barriers and is reluctant to do so. In this study, we present the background, process and methods for a first of its kind collaboration that is examining the efficacy of an intervention developed to facilitate the engagement of caregivers in the process of disclosure in a manner suitable to the sociocultural context and developmental age and needs of the child in Ghana. We also report preliminary data that supported the design of the intervention approach and currently available domains of the data system. Finally, we discuss challenges and implications for future research. PMID:26049537

  5. The changing epidemiology of the global paediatric HIV epidemic: keeping track of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Annette H; Hazra, Rohan

    2013-01-01

    The global paediatric HIV epidemic is shifting into a new phase as children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) move into adolescence and adulthood, and face new challenges of living with HIV. UNAIDS reports that 3.4 million children aged below 15 years and 2 million adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years have HIV. Although the vast majority of children were perinatally infected, older children are combined with behaviourally infected adolescents and youth in global reporting, making it difficult to keep track of their outcomes. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are a highly unique patient sub-population, having been infected before development of their immune systems, been subject to suboptimal ART options and formulations, and now face transition from complete dependence on adult caregivers to becoming their own caregivers. As we are unable to track long-term complications and survival of PHIVA through national and global reporting systems, local and regional cohorts are the main sources for surveillance and research among PHIVA. This global review will utilize those data to highlight the epidemiology of PHIVA infection, treatment challenges and chronic disease risks. Unless mechanisms are created to count and separate out PHIVA outcomes, we will have few opportunities to characterize the negative consequences of life-long HIV infection in order to find ways to prevent them. PMID:23782474

  6. The changing epidemiology of the global paediatric HIV epidemic: keeping track of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Annette H; Hazra, Rohan

    2013-06-18

    The global paediatric HIV epidemic is shifting into a new phase as children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) move into adolescence and adulthood, and face new challenges of living with HIV. UNAIDS reports that 3.4 million children aged below 15 years and 2 million adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years have HIV. Although the vast majority of children were perinatally infected, older children are combined with behaviourally infected adolescents and youth in global reporting, making it difficult to keep track of their outcomes. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are a highly unique patient sub-population, having been infected before development of their immune systems, been subject to suboptimal ART options and formulations, and now face transition from complete dependence on adult caregivers to becoming their own caregivers. As we are unable to track long-term complications and survival of PHIVA through national and global reporting systems, local and regional cohorts are the main sources for surveillance and research among PHIVA. This global review will utilize those data to highlight the epidemiology of PHIVA infection, treatment challenges and chronic disease risks. Unless mechanisms are created to count and separate out PHIVA outcomes, we will have few opportunities to characterize the negative consequences of life-long HIV infection in order to find ways to prevent them.

  7. Oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS infections in paediatric Nigerian patients.

    PubMed

    Adebola, Adetokunbo Rafel; Adeleke, Solomon Ibiyemi; Mukhtar, Maryam; Osunde, Otasowie Daniel; Akhiwu, Benjamin Idemudia; Ladeinde, Akinola

    2012-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the pattern and frequency of oral lesions and to compare the prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions in paediatric Nigerian patients on HAART with those not on HAART. All patients aged 15 years and below attending the Infectious Disease Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of HIV were consecutively examined in a cross-sectional study over a 2-year period. Information was obtained by history, physical examinations, HIV testing, and enumeration of CD+ T cells. The results are presented. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. A total of 105 children comprising 63 males and 42 female who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study, mean age in months was 53.3±42.2, with a mean of 3.4±2.2 for male and 2.8±1.8 for female respectively. Oral lesions occurred in 61.9% of the children Overall, 22 (21.0%) had at least one oral lesion, 43 (41.0%) had multiple lesion. The most common lesion was oral candidiasis (79.1%). The angular cheilitis (43.8%) variant was most frequent. The mean CD4 counts were 1138 cells/mm(3), 913 cells/mm(3) and 629 cells/mm(3) for those without oral lesion, with single lesion and multiple oral lesions respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (ANOVA: F=0.185, df=2, 80, 82, P=0.831. Patients on HAART comprised about 61.9% and these were found to have reduced risk for development of such oral lesions as angular cheilitis (OR=0.76; 95% CI=0.56-1.02; P=0.03), pseudomembranous candidiasis (OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.54-0.94; P=0.024) and HIV-gingivitis (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.46-0.75; P=0.001). HAART had some beneficial but insignificant effect on development of HIV-periodonttitis (OR=0.60; 95% CI=0.51-0.70; P=0.09). The chances of occurrence of other oral lesions were not significantly reduced by HAART (Kaposi sarcoma, OR=1.24; 95% CI=0.31-5.01; P=0.47, erythematous candidiasis, OR=1.13; 95% CI=0.62-2.06). HIV-related Oral lesions are frequently seen in HIV

  8. "It's my secret": barriers to paediatric HIV treatment in a poor rural South African setting.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, E W; Manderson, L; Norris, S A; Kahn, K

    2013-01-01

    In South Africa, a third of children born are exposed to HIV, while fewer undergo an HIV confirmatory test. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) coverage among children remains low-despite roll-out of the national ART programme in South Africa in 2004. This study sought to understand critical barriers to seeking HIV-related care for children in rural South Africa. Data presented in this article derive from community-based qualitative research in poor rural villages in north-east South Africa; this includes 21 in-depth interviews in 2008 among caregivers of children identified as HIV-positive in 2007 from a randomly selected community-based sample. Using NVIVO 8, data were coded and analysed, using a constant comparative method to identify themes and their repetitions and variations. Structural barriers leading to poor access to health care, and social and systems barriers, all influenced paediatric HIV treatment seeking. Of concern was the expressed need to maintain secrecy regarding a child's HIV status to avoid stigma and discrimination, and misconceptions regarding the course of HIV disease in children; this led to a delay in seeking appropriate care. These barriers need to be addressed, including through focused awareness campaigns, improved access to health care and interventions to address rural poverty and development at both household and community levels. In addition, training of health care professionals to improve their attitudes and practice may be necessary. However, this study only provides the perspective of the caregivers; further studies with health care providers are needed to gain a fuller picture for appropriate policy and practice guidance.

  9. Informing policy and programme decisions for scaling up the PMTCT and paediatric HIV response through joint technical missions.

    PubMed

    Jashi, Mariam; Viswanathan, Rekha; Ekpini, Rene; Chandan, Upjeet; Idele, Priscilla; Luo, Chewe; Legins, Ken; Chatterjee, Anirban

    2013-07-01

    In 2005, due to slow global progress in the scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV programmes, the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on the Prevention of HIV infection among Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children initiated joint technical missions (JTMs) to countries of high HIV disease burden. The JTMs were intended to galvanize country actions for a more comprehensive response to PMTCT and paediatric HIV by bringing national and global stakeholders together to review national policies and programmes and develop country-specific recommendations for accelerating scale-up. Between 2005 and 2010, the IATT conducted JTMs in 18 low- and middle-income countries. In 2007, to assess the role played by the missions, a review in the first eight countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia) that hosted JTMs was undertaken. Country progress was assessed through desk review and key informant interviews. For each country, documents reviewed included JTM reports, baseline data for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment, and 2004 to 2007 trend data on key PMTCT and paediatric HIV indicators. Drawing upon the findings, this paper posits that JTMs contributed to national scale-up of PMTCT and paediatric HIV programmes through strengthening governance and co-ordination mechanisms for the programmes, promoting enabling policy environments, and supporting the development of national scale-up plans, which have been critical for leveraging additional financial resources for scale-up. Although the impact of the JTMs could be enhanced through greater follow-up and continued targeted assistance in technical areas such as infant and young child feeding, community-based programming and supply chain management, findings indicate that the JTMs are a useful mechanism for informing policy and programme decisions necessary for scaling up PMTCT and paediatric HIV responses. Moreover, by bringing

  10. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Paediatric HIV Care and Treatment Monitoring: From Measuring Process to Impact and Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Idele, Priscilla; Hayashi, Chika; Porth, Tyler; Mamahit, Awandha; Mahy, Mary

    2017-01-06

    Progress towards achievement of global targets for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV care and treatment is an integral part of global and national HIV and AIDS responses. This paper documents the development of the global and national monitoring and reporting systems for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes, achievements and remaining challenges. A review of the development of the monitoring and reporting process since 2002-2016 was conducted using existing published literature and taking into account changes in WHO HIV treatment guidelines, global HIV goals and targets, programmatic and methodological developments, and increased need for interagency partnerships, coordination and harmonization of global monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The number and type of indicators reported increased and evolved from monitoring of existence of national policies and guidelines, service delivery sites and trained health workers and coverage of PMTCT and paediatric HIV interventions to measuring outcomes and impact in reducing new HIV infections and AIDS related deaths, including efforts to validate elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. These changes were required to mirror changes in WHO and national PMTCT and HIV treatment guidelines. The number of countries reporting PMTCT coverage increased from 53 in 2003 to over 130 in 2015. National monitoring processes have also expanded in scope and the capacity to report on disaggregated data by type of ARV regimen and for paediatric HIV care and treatment has increased. Monitoring of PMTCT and paediatric HIV programmes has contributed a rich body of evidence that helped monitor how quickly countries were adopting and implementing the latest WHO HIV treatment guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children. The reported data and experiences were instrumental in shaping global policies, national programmes, and investment choices.

  11. Caregiver satisfaction with paediatric HIV treatment and care in Nigeria and equity implications for children living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Chamla, Dick; Asadu, Chukwuemeka; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Davies, Abiola; Ugochukwu, Ebele; Umar, Lawal; Oluwafunke, Ilesanmi; Hassan-Hanga, Fatimah; Onubogu, Chinyere; Tunde-Oremodu, Immaculata; Madubuike, Chinelo; Umeadi, Esther; Epundu, Obed; Omosun, Adenike; Anigilaje, Emmanuel; Adeyinka, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Caregiver satisfaction has the potential to promote equity for children living with HIV, by influencing health-seeking behaviour. We measured dimensions of caregiver satisfaction with paediatric HIV treatment in Nigeria, and discuss its implications for equity by conducting facility-based exit interviews for caregivers of children receiving antiretroviral therapy in 20 purposively selected facilities within 5 geopolitical zones. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis were performed. Due to the hierarchical nature of the data, multilevel regression modelling was performed to investigate relationships between satisfaction factors and socio-demographic variables. Of 1550 caregivers interviewed, 63% (95% CI: 60.6-65.4) reported being very satisfied overall; however, satisfaction varied in some dimensions: only 55.6% (53.1-58.1) of caregivers could talk privately with health workers, 56.9% (54.4-59.3) reported that queues to see health workers were too long, and 89.9% (88.4-91.4) said that some health workers did not treat patients living with HIV with sufficient respect. Based on factor analysis, two underlying factors, labelled Availability and Attitude, were identified. In multilevel regression, the satisfaction with availability of services correlated with formal employment status (p < .01), whereas caregivers receiving care in private facilities were less likely satisfied with both availability (p < .01) and attitude of health workers (p < .05). State and facility levels influenced attitudes of the health workers (p < .01), but not availability of services. We conclude that high levels of overall satisfaction among caregivers masked dissatisfaction with some aspects of services. The two underlying satisfaction factors are part of access typology critical for closing equity gaps in access to HIV treatment between adults and children, and across socio-economic groups.

  12. Incidence of benign prostate hypertrophy in Danish men with and without HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-11-01

    Information on risk of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) in HIV-infected men is sparse. We aimed to estimate the incidence of being diagnosed with BPH among HIV-infected men compared with an age and sex-matched comparison cohort from the background population. To exclude that family-associated risk factors influence risk of BPH diagnoses in families of HIV-infected individuals, we estimated risk of BPH in fathers of HIV-infected men and fathers of the comparison cohort. In a nationwide, population-based, matched cohort study, we calculated incidence rates and used Poisson regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of being diagnosed with BPH, defined as the earliest of date of the second redeemed prescription of a drug used to treat BPH, the first registration of a BPH diagnosis in the Danish National Hospital Registry (DNHR) or the first registration of a surgical procedure for BPH in DNHR. We identified 4633 HIV-infected men, 46 330 comparison cohort individuals, 1585 fathers of HIV-infected men and 20 449 fathers of the comparison cohort. Incidence rate of being diagnosed with BPH was 37.0 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 31.5-43.1] per 10 000 person-years of follow-up among HIV-infected men and was not increased compared with the comparison cohort (IRR 1.04, 95% CI 0.88-1.22). Risk was not increased for fathers of HIV-infected men vs. fathers of the comparison cohort (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.87-1.12). Stratified analyses did not change the above results markedly. HIV-infected individuals do not have an increased risk of being diagnosed with BPH.

  13. Scaling up paediatric HIV care with an integrated, family-centred approach: an observational case study from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Luyirika, Emmanuel; Towle, Megan S; Achan, Joyce; Muhangi, Justus; Senyimba, Catherine; Lule, Frank; Muhe, Lulu

    2013-01-01

    Family-centred HIV care models have emerged as an approach to better target children and their caregivers for HIV testing and care, and further provide integrated health services for the family unit's range of care needs. While there is significant international interest in family-centred approaches, there is a dearth of research on operational experiences in implementation and scale-up. Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors during scale-up of family-centred care in ten health facilities and ten community clinics supported by a non-governmental organization, Mildmay, in Central Uganda. Methods included key informant interviews with programme management and families, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data. In the 84 months following the scale-up of the family-centred approach in HIV care, Mildmay experienced a 50-fold increase of family units registered in HIV care, a 40-fold increase of children enrolled in HIV care, and nearly universal coverage of paediatric cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The Mildmay experience emphasizes the importance of streamlining care to maximize paediatric capture. This includes integrated service provision, incentivizing care-seeking as a family, creating child-friendly service environments, and minimizing missed paediatric testing opportunities by institutionalizing early infant diagnosis and provider-initiated testing and counselling. Task-shifting towards nurse-led clinics with community outreach support enabled rapid scale-up, as did an active management structure that allowed for real-time review and corrective action. The Mildmay experience suggests that family-centred approaches are operationally feasible, produce strong coverage outcomes, and can be well-managed during rapid scale-up.

  14. Retrivability in The Danish National Hospital Registry of HIV and hepatitis B and C coinfection diagnoses of patients managed in HIV centers 1995–2004

    PubMed Central

    Obel, Niels; Reinholdt, Hanne; Omland, Lars H; Engsig, Frederik; Sørensen, Henrik T; Hansen, Ann-Brit E

    2008-01-01

    Background Hospital-based discharge registries are used increasingly for longitudinal epidemiological studies of HIV. We examined completeness of registration of HIV infections and of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) coinfections in the Danish National Hospital Registry (DNHR) covering all Danish hospitals. Methods The Danish HIV Cohort Study (DHCS) encompasses all HIV-infected patients treated in Danish HIV clinics since 1 January 1995. All 2,033 Danish patients in DHCS diagnosed with HIV-1 during the 10-year period from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2004 were included in the current analysis. We used the DHCS as a reference to examine the completeness of HIV and of HBV and HCV coinfections recorded in DNHR. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios of time to diagnosis of HIV in DNHR compared to DHCS. Results Of the 2,033 HIV patients in DHCS, a total of 2,006 (99%) were registered with HIV in DNHR. Of these, 1,888 (93%) were registered in DNHR within one year of their first positive HIV test. A CD4 < 200 cells/μl, a viral load >= 100,000 copies/ml and being diagnosed after 1 January 2000, were associated with earlier registration in DNHR, both in crude and adjusted analyses. Thirty (23%) HIV patients registered with chronic HBV (n = 129) in DHCS and 126 (48%) of HIV patients with HCV (n = 264) in DHCS were registered with these diagnoses in the DNHR. Further 17 and 8 patients were registered with HBV and HCV respectively in DNHR, but not in DHCS. The positive predictive values of being registered with HBV and HCV in DHCS were thereby estimated to 0.88 and 0.97 and in DNHR to 0.32 and 0.54. Conclusion The study demonstrates that secondary data from national hospital databases may be reliable for identification of patients diagnosed with HIV infection. However, the predictive value of co-morbidity data may be low. PMID:18439245

  15. HIV and Childhood Disability: A Case-Controlled Study at a Paediatric Antiretroviral Therapy Centre in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kazembe, Peter N.; Calles, Nancy R.; Kuper, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Background As paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) is rapidly scaled up in Southern Africa, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is becoming a chronic illness. Children growing up with HIV may begin to encounter disabilities. The relationship between HIV, disability and the need for rehabilitation has added an additional element that needs to be addressed by paediatric HIV treatment programmes. Study Objectives 1) Estimate the prevalence of disabilities in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. 2) Examine types of disability and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors. 3) Identify needs, opportunities and barriers for rehabilitation in Malawi. Methods A case-controlled study of 296 HIV-infected children aged 2–9 years attending an ART centre in Lilongwe (cases) and their uninfected siblings (controls) was conducted. Disability was assessed using the WHO Ten Question Screen (TQS). Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using a parent-proxy questionnaire and medical records. Results Of 296 case and control pairs recruited, 33% (98) versus 7% (20) screened positive for a disability (OR 8.4, 4.4–15.7) respectively. Of these 98 HIV-infected cases, 6%, 36%, 33%, 53%, 46% and 6% had a vision, hearing; physical, learning/comprehension, speech or seizure-related disability respectively and 51% had multiple coexisting disabilities. HIV-infected cases with a disability were more likely to be WHO stage III or IV at enrolment (71% vs. 52%, OR 2.7, 1.5–4.2), to have had TB (58% vs. 39%, OR 2.3, 1.4–3.8) and to have below-average school grades (18% vs. 2%, OR 11.1, 2.2–54.6) than those without. Sixty-seven percent of cases with a disability had never attended any rehabilitative service. Twenty-nine percent of caregivers reported facing stigma and discrimination because of the child’s disability. Conclusion This study reveals the magnitude of disability among HIV-infected children and the large unmet need for

  16. Paediatric HIV testing beyond the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jennifer; Whitehouse, Katherine; Tuttle, Julia; Lueck, Kristin; Tran, Trang

    2016-10-01

    Many HIV-positive children in low-income and middle-income countries remain undiagnosed. Although HIV testing in children at health facilities is recommended by WHO, it is not well implemented. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the case-finding benefit of HIV screening in children aged 0-5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. We did this systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with an a-priori protocol. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, WHO Global Index Medicus, Web of Science, Médecins Sans Frontières, Cochrane, Embase, CABS Abstracts, and LILACS databases for articles published between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2016, that reported the quantitative prevalence of HIV detected through screening in four key contexts (paediatric inpatient settings, paediatric outpatient settings, nutrition centres, and expanded programme on immunisation centres) in paediatric populations in low-income and middle-income countries. Articles were identified and data were extracted in duplicate. The primary outcome was HIV prevalence, for which we used a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects meta-analysis to pool prevalence data and 95% CIs. We did stratified analyses according to geographical context and testing strategy. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42014014372. Our search found 2996 studies, of which 26 met the inclusion criteria. Paediatric HIV prevalence across all settings was 15·6% (95% CI 11·8-19·5). HIV prevalence by setting was highest in paediatric inpatient settings (21·1%, 95% CI 14·9-27·3), followed by nutrition centres (13·1%, 95% CI 3·4-22·7), expanded programme on immunisation centres (3·3%, 95% CI 0-6·9), and paediatric outpatient settings (2·7%, 95% CI 0·3-5·2). Universal testing and testing triggered by symptoms had similar diagnostic yield in the inpatient setting (21·3%, 95% CI 11·6-31·0 in triggered testing vs 20·9%, 95% CI 13·5-28·3 in universal testing). HIV testing in paediatric populations

  17. Utilization of psychotropic drugs prescribed to persons with and without HIV infection: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L D; Obel, D; Kronborg, G; Larsen, C S; Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Obel, N

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to estimate the utilization of psychotropic drugs in HIV-infected individuals compared with that in the background population. Using data obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish National Prescription Registry, we analysed aggregated data on redeemed prescription of psychotropic drugs during 1995-2009. We primarily focused our analyses on HIV-infected individuals with no history of injecting drug use (IDU) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Drug utilization was expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 person-days (DDD/1000PD). The utilization rate ratio (URR) was calculated as utilization in the HIV-infected cohort compared with that in the comparison cohort. We estimated longitudinal trends in utilization and potential associations with HIV and exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially efavirenz. During 1995-2009, 54.5% of the HIV-infected cohort (3615 non-IDU/non-HCV-infected HIV-infected individuals) and 29.2% of the comparison cohort (32 535 individuals) had at least one prescription of a psychotropic drug. HIV infection was associated with a URR of 1.13 for antipsychotics, 1.76 for anxiolytics, 4.42 for hypnotics and sedatives, and 2.28 for antidepressants. Antidepressants were confined primarily to men who have sex with men (MSM). Older age, more recent calendar time, and increased time after HIV diagnosis were associated with increased drug utilization. However, no association with exposure to HAART or efavirenz was found. HIV-infected individuals had a higher utilization of psychotropic drugs than the background population, which was not confined to individuals with a history of IDU or HCV infection. This emphasizes the need to focus on diagnosis of, and appropriate psychopharmacological interventions for, mental disorders in this population. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  18. Demographics of HIV-1 infection in Denmark: results from the Danish HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Kronborg, Gitte; Kvinesdal, Birgit; Pedersen, Court; Larsen, Carsten S; Møller, Axel; Willumsen, Lars; Obel, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We used a population-based cohort study design to describe the demographic characteristics of the HIV-infected population in Denmark and their variation over time. HIV treatment in Denmark is restricted to 9 centres, and all 3941 HIV-1 infected patients more than 15 y old seen at these centres in 1995-2003 were included. We found an estimated HIV prevalence of 70 per 100,000, and a mean annual incidence rate of 5.1 per 100,000 persons. The number of newly infected individuals was stable with a median of 231 per y (period 1995-2002), whereas the number of deaths decreased from 166 in 1995 to 50 in 2000 (p=0.000) and remained stable thereafter. Of the enrolled patients, 75% were males, 80% were Caucasian, 13% were black African, and the primary risk behaviour was male-to-male sexual contact (44%), heterosexual contact (36%), and injection drug use (11%). During the y 1995-2003 we found an increase in age at diagnosis (p=0.000), and no major changes in gender, race, mode of infection, or baseline CD4+ cell count and viral load, neither overall not within subgroups of patients. In this period 14.5% had AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis. Our data do not confirm concerns about unmonitored evolution in the HIV epidemic in Denmark.

  19. What can volunteer co-providers contribute to health systems? The role of people living with HIV in the Thai paediatric HIV programme.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Olivia; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chasombat, Sanchai; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Theobald, Sally

    2015-11-01

    In Thailand people living with HIV (PLHIV) have played a major role in shaping policy and practice. They have acted as volunteer co-providers, although their potential in terms of paediatric service provision has seldom been explored from a health systems perspective. We describe the Thai paediatric HIV care system and use both demand- and supply-side perspectives to explore the impact, opportunities and challenges of PLHIV acting as volunteer co-providers. We employed qualitative methods to assess experiences and perceptions and triangulate stakeholder perspectives. Data were collected in Khon Kaen province, in the poorest Northeastern region of Thailand: three focus group discussions and two workshops (total participants n = 31) with co-providers and hospital staff; interviews with ART service-users (n = 35). Nationally, key informant interviews were conducted with policy actors (n = 20). Volunteer co-providers were found to be ideally placed to broker the link between clinic and communities for HIV infected children and played an important part in the vital psychosocial support component of HIV care. As co-providers they were recognized as having multiple roles linking and delivering services in clinics and communities. Clear emerging needs include strengthened coordination and training as well as strategies to support funding. Using motivated volunteers with a shared HIV status as co-providers for specific clinical services can contribute to strengthening health systems in Asia; they are critical players in delivering care (supply side) and being responsive to service-users needs (demand side). Co-providers blur the boundaries between these two spheres. Sustaining and optimising co-providers' contribution to health systems strengthening requires a health systems approach. Our findings help to guide policy makers and service providers on how to balance clinical priorities with psycho-social responsiveness and on how best to integrate the views and

  20. Transition of HIV-infected youths from paediatric to adult care, a Swedish single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Westling, Katarina; Navér, Lars; Vesterbacka, Jan; Belfrage, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Transition of HIV-infected adolescents from paediatric care to adult care is vulnerable and entails a risk of treatment failure. Therefore, a Transitional Outpatient Clinic for HIV-infected adolescents and young adults was started in 2008. The aims were to describe the transition process and treatment results in a Swedish cohort of adolescents with HIV. A cross-sectional study of the adolescent and young adults with HIV at the clinic was performed in October 2013 and a 2-year follow-up at the end of 2015. The 34 patients in care in October 2013 were a median of 19 years, 50% were female. Thirty-one out of 34 (91%) were perinatally infected. In 2013, 88% were on antiretroviral treatment (ART), for a median duration of 9 years, 74% were on a protease inhibitor-based regimen. Twenty-nine patients were followed-up at the end of 2015. Twenty-three were transferred to the Infectious Disease Clinic and the median age for transition was 19 years. At the end of 2015, 90% were treated with ART and 61% had an integrase inhibitor-based treatment. Of those treated with ART for more than 6 months, 90% (2013) and 96% (2015) had a viral load < 50 HIV RNA copies/mL, despite resistance problems and complicating social factors. These figures were higher than reported in other studies and similar to the treatment results in the adult HIV population in Sweden. The present study showed that it is possible to achieve good treatment results in adolescents with HIV.

  1. Testing the hypothesis that treatment can eliminate HIV: a nationwide, population-based study of the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Justin T.; Robbins, Danielle; Palk, Laurence; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels; Blower, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide, ~35 million individuals are infected with HIV; ~25 million in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The WHO proposes using “treatment as prevention” (TasP) to eliminate HIV. Treatment suppresses viral load, decreasing the probability an individual transmits HIV. The elimination threshold is one new HIV infection per 1,000 individuals. Here, we test the hypothesis that TasP can substantially reduce epidemics and eliminate HIV. We estimate the impact of TasP, between 1996–2013, on the Danish HIV epidemic in Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men (MSM), an epidemic UNAIDS has identified as a priority for elimination. Methods We use a CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation approach to estimate incidence, and the “hidden epidemic” (the number of HIV-infected undiagnosed MSM). We use data from an ongoing nationwide population-based study: the Danish HIV Cohort Study. Findings Incidence, and the hidden epidemic, decreased substantially after treatment was introduced in 1996. By 2013, incidence was close to the elimination threshold: 1·4 (median, 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (BCI): 0·4–2·1) new HIV infections per 1,000 MSM. There were only 617 (median, 95% BCI: 264–858) undiagnosed MSM. Decreasing incidence and increasing treatment coverage are highly correlated; a threshold effect is apparent. Interpretation Our study is the first to show that TasP can substantially reduce a country’s HIV epidemic, and bring it close to elimination. However, we have shown the effectiveness of TasP under optimal conditions: very high treatment coverage, and exceptionally high (98%) viral suppression rate. Unless these extremely challenging conditions can be met in SSA, the WHO’s global elimination strategy is unlikely to succeed. Funding NIAID/NIH PMID:27174504

  2. Comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis and mortality in persons infected and uninfected with HIV: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Nielsen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in individuals infected with HIV. This cohort study compared 2 different cohorts. The prospective population-based nationwide observational Danish HIV Cohort Study was used to compare all adults diagnosed with HIV in Denmark from 1997 with a matched general population cohort. Comorbidity history was ascertained from the Danish National Patient Registry and vital statistics obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cox regression was used to estimate the impact of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and hepatitis C virus coinfection on mortality, and population attributable risk was used to assess the proportional impact of comorbidity on mortality. CCI comorbidity was present before HIV diagnosis in 11.3% of 1638 persons with HIV, and in 8.0% of 156,506 persons in the general population. The risk for death in patients with HIV with at least 1 CCI point was 1.84 times higher than in those with no CCI points (adjusted mortality rate ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.32 to 2.57). The annual risk of dying for patients with HIV vs general population with 0, 1, 2, and 3+ CCI points was 1.70% (1.44 to 2.00) vs 0.27% (0.26 to 0.28), 4.37% (3.01 to 6.32) vs 1.36% (1.26 to 1.47), 8.06% (4.94 to 13.16) vs 2.44% (2.22 to 2.68), and 10.15% (5.08 to 20.30) vs 5.84% (5.19 to 6.58), respectively. Comorbidity acquired before HIV, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and background mortality accounted for 45% of total mortality in the population infected with HIV. Almost half of deaths in persons diagnosed with HIV in a health care setting with free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy stemmed from factors unrelated to HIV disease.

  3. Diagnosis of paediatric HIV infection in a primary health care setting with a clinical algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, C.; Liebeschuetz, S.; Blaauw, D.; Cassol, S.; Qazi, S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of an algorithm used by primary care health workers to identify children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This HIV algorithm is being implemented in South Africa as part of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), a strategy that aims to improve childhood morbidity and mortality by improving care at the primary care level. As AIDS is a leading cause of death in children in southern Africa, diagnosis and management of symptomatic HIV infection was added to the existing IMCI algorithm. METHODS: In total, 690 children who attended the outpatients department in a district hospital in South Africa were assessed with the HIV algorithm and by a paediatrician. All children were then tested for HIV viral load. The validity of the algorithm in detecting symptomatic HIV was compared with clinical diagnosis by a paediatrician and the result of an HIV test. Detailed clinical data were used to improve the algorithm. FINDINGS: Overall, 198 (28.7%) enrolled children were infected with HIV. The paediatrician correctly identified 142 (71.7%) children infected with HIV, whereas the IMCI/HIV algorithm identified 111 (56.1%). Odds ratios were calculated to identify predictors of HIV infection and used to develop an improved HIV algorithm that is 67.2% sensitive and 81.5% specific in clinically detecting HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Children with symptomatic HIV infection can be identified effectively by primary level health workers through the use of an algorithm. The improved HIV algorithm developed in this study could be used by countries with high prevalences of HIV to enable IMCI practitioners to identify and care for HIV-infected children. PMID:14997238

  4. Transitioning young adults from paediatric to adult care and the HIV care continuum in Atlanta, Georgia, USA: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hussen, Sophia A; Chakraborty, Rana; Knezevic, Andrea; Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres; Huang, Eugene; Stephenson, Rob; Del Rio, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    The transition from paediatric to adult HIV care is a particularly high-risk time for disengagement among young adults; however, empirical data are lacking. We reviewed medical records of 72 youth seen in both the paediatric and the adult clinics of the Grady Infectious Disease Program in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from 2004 to 2014. We abstracted clinical data on linkage, retention and virologic suppression from the last two years in the paediatric clinic through the first two years in the adult clinic. Of patients with at least one visit scheduled in adult clinic, 97% were eventually seen by an adult provider (median time between last paediatric and first adult clinic visit = 10 months, interquartile range 2-18 months). Half of the patients were enrolled in paediatric care immediately prior to transition, while the other half experienced a gap in paediatric care and re-enrolled in the clinic as adults. A total of 89% of patients were retained (at least two visits at least three months apart) in the first year and 56% in the second year after transition. Patients who were seen in adult clinic within three months of their last paediatric visit were more likely to be virologically suppressed after transition than those who took longer (Relative risk (RR): 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.9; p = 0.03). Patients with virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA below the level of detection of the assay) at the last paediatric visit were also more likely to be suppressed at the most recent adult visit (RR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.34-3.9; p = 0.002). Retention rates once in adult care, though high initially, declined significantly by the second year after transition. Pre-transition viral suppression and shorter linkage time between paediatric and adult clinic were associated with better outcomes post-transition. Optimizing transition will require intensive transition support for patients who are not virologically controlled, as well as support for youth beyond the first year

  5. HIV-1 drug resistance prevalence, drug susceptibility and variant characterization in the Jacobi Medical Center paediatric cohort, Bronx, NY, USA.

    PubMed

    de Mulder, M; York, V A; Wiznia, A A; Michaud, H A; Nixon, D F; Holguin, A; Rosenberg, M G

    2014-03-01

    With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), perinatally HIV-infected children are surviving into adolescence and beyond. However, drug resistance mutations (DRMs) compromise viral control, affecting the long-term effectiveness of ART. The aims of this study were to detect and identify DRMs in a HIV-1 infected paediatric cohort. Paired plasma and dried blood spots (DBSs) specimens were obtained from HIV-1 perinatally infected patients attending the Jacobi Medical Center, New York, USA. Clinical, virological and immunological data for these patients were analysed. HIV-1 pol sequences were generated from samples to identify DRMs according to the International AIDS Society (IAS) 2011 list. Forty-seven perinatally infected patients were selected, with a median age of 17.7 years, of whom 97.4% were carrying subtype B. They had a mean viral load of 3143 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and a mean CD4 count of 486 cells/μL at the time of sampling. Nineteen patients (40.4%) had achieved undetectable viraemia (< 50 copies/mL) and 40.5% had a CD4 count of > 500 cells/μL. Most of the patients (97.9%) had received cART, including protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens in 59.6% of cases. The DRM prevalence was 54.1, 27.6 and 27.0% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), PIs and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), respectively. Almost two-thirds (64.9%) of the patients harboured DRMs to at least one drug class and 5.4% were triple resistant. The mean nucleotide similarity between plasma and DBS sequences was 97.9%. Identical DRM profiles were present in 60% of plasma-DBS paired sequences. A total of 30 DRMs were detected in plasma and 26 in DBSs, with 23 present in both. Although more perinatally HIV-1-infected children are reaching adulthood as a result of advances in cART, our study cohort presented a high prevalence of resistant viruses, especially viruses resistant to NRTIs. DBS specimens can be used for DRM detection. © 2013

  6. Perception of voluntary screening for paediatric HIV and response to post-test counselling by Nigerian parents.

    PubMed

    Akpede, G O; Lawal, R S; Momoh, S O

    2002-10-01

    Nigeria may be taken to represent countries with an evolving HIV/AIDS epidemic. With particular reference to paediatric HIV, the voluntary testing of young children and their parents may provide an important entry point for the institution of control measures. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about how individuals perceive voluntary testing. This knowledge is important to the development of guidelines for counselling. To reduce this gap, 258 parents of hospitalized children (> 1 month to 15 years of age) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. In addition, to complement the data, four examples of seropositive mother's responses during post-test counselling are presented and analyzed. In the survey, 223 (86%) parents were HIV/AIDS aware but only 88 (39%) of these parents could describe one or more route(s) of transmission and none described vertical transmission. Among the respondents, 153 (62%) of 248 would consent to the screening of self, and 195 (85%) of 230 to the screening of a hospitalized child if based on his/her clinical condition. Perceptions of good health and lack of exposure, and despair owing to lack of a specific treatment, were the common reasons for refusing consent. These represent some of the issues which would need to be addressed to increase the acceptance of voluntary testing. The fear of a break up of families with seropositive mothers but seronegative fathers was a major concern expressed during post-test counselling. HIV-discordance among couples may be frequent and should be considered in the formulation of policies on counselling and voluntary testing.

  7. Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-seronegative children presenting to the paediatric oncology ward in The Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi during 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Mittermayer-Vassallo, Kirstin; Banda, Kondwani; Molyneux, Elizabeth M

    2016-07-01

    One of the most common malignancies in HIV-endemic, resource-poor countries is Kaposi sarcoma (KS). It is an AIDS-defining disease and as Malawi's incidence and prevalence of HIV is high, KS is now the most common cancer in adult male Malawians and the second most common in women and children. Most attention has focused on HIV-seropositive adults as their number far outweighs those of children. This audit concerns the presentation and outcome of HIV-seronegative children with KS who presented in a 12-year period (2002-2014) to The Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. Twenty (10.5%) of the 191 children with KS presenting to the paediatric oncology ward during 2002-2014 were HIV-seronegative. They were usually younger than seropositive children and 62% had severe anaemia. The main presenting complaints in the HIV-seronegative group were woody oedema, commonly of a limb, and lymphadenopathy. Woody oedema was common in children with or without HIV infection. Seronegative children with KS were less likely to have oral KS than HIV infected children. Of 11 children who completed courses of chemotherapy, seven (63%) had complete cure sustained over a 1-year follow-up period. KS is potentially curable in this group of children. Chemotherapy regimens are equally effective in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative children. The presentation of HIV-seronegative children with KS differs from adults and HIV-seropositive children. Further research is necessary to determine possible triggers for developing KS in HIV-seronegative children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of paediatric HIV infection on electrical conduction of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Nikmah S; Cheung, Michael M H; Grobbee, Diederick E; Burgner, David; Kurniati, Nia; Djer, Mulyadi M; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of HIV infection in children on heart electrical conduction, particularly to delineate the effects of HIV infection from treatment. Methods On a 12-lead ECG, available for 37 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve, 42 ART-exposed vertically-acquired HIV-infected and 50 healthy children in Jakarta, Indonesia, we measured cardiac conduction parameters: PR, QRS, and QTc (corrected using Bazett's formula) intervals. The associations between HIV infection/treatment status and ECG intervals were evaluated using general linear modelling with further adjustment for potential confounders or intermediary variables. Findings are presented as (adjusted) mean differences between each of the two HIV groups and healthy children. Results Although not exceeding the clinical threshold for long QT (QTc >460 ms for girls and >440 ms for boys) compared to healthy children, mean QTc intervals were longer in ART-naïve (difference 18.2 ms, 95% CI 7.0 to 29.3) and, to greater extent, in ART-exposed HIV-infected children (difference 28.9 ms, 19.3 to 38.5). Following adjustment for RR interval, age and height, prolongation of PR interval was seen only in ART-naïve HIV-infected children (difference 12.9 ms, 2.4 to 23.3). Cardiac mass/function, high-sensitive C reactive protein, cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, or postnatal parental smoking exposure did not affect these associations. No difference in the QRS interval was observed between groups. Conclusions Prolongation of the QTc interval occurs in ART-naïve HIV-infected children and, to a greater extent, in the ART-exposed children, whereas a longer PR interval appears to be seen only among ART-naïve HIV-infected children. PMID:27042320

  9. Prevalence of Skin Diseases in Children with Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome Infection in Paediatric HIV Clinic of A Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osinaike, B O; Temiye, E O; Odusote, O; Akinsulie, A O; Iroha, E

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection/AIDS being a multi-systemic disease affects the skin at various stages in course of the illness. A knowledge of the common skin diseases associated with HIV infection can lead to early detection, appropriate staging and commencement of appropriate care in the infected patients. The study was to document the prevalence and pattern of skin diseases in children with HIV infection seen at the Paediatric department of a tertiary centre in Nigeria. HIV positive children attending the PEPFAR HIV clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were examined for the presence of skin lesions. Anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Blood samples Were taken for CD4+ cell count, viral load and full blood count. Two hundred and fourteen (214) patients were studied, consisting of 107 HIV infected children and 107 uninfected children as controls. Skin lesions were observed in 89 (83%) of the HIV infected patients, while only 72 uninfected controls had skin lesions. (p = 0.035). The predominant skin disease in the HIV infected children was Pruritic papular eruption (PPE) with a frequency of 25.9%, followed by fungal infections (24.6%). Herpes zoster was found only in HIV infected children (p = 0.041). There was a strong correlation between the degree of immunosuppression (as reflected by the value of age dependent CD4+ cell count/CD4+ percentage). and the prevalence of skin disease in the HIV infected patients. The presence of pruritic papular eruptions and Herpes zoster was associated with advanced immunosuppression. Skin diseases are common in HIV infection in our environment. Early detection of HIV infection can be made in the presence of skin diseases like Pruritic papular eruption and Herpes zoster.

  10. Migrant women living with HIV in Europe: are they facing inequalities in the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV?: The European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord.

    PubMed

    Favarato, G; Bailey, H; Burns, F; Prieto, L; Soriano-Arandes, A; Thorne, C

    2017-04-25

    In pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care. Four cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002-12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions. We compared three suboptimal PMTCT interventions (HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy in women undiagnosed at conception, late anti-retroviral therapy (ART) start in women diagnosed but untreated at conception and detectable viral load (VL) at delivery in women on antenatal ART) in native and migrant women using multivariable logistic regression models. Data included 9421 (79.9%) migrant women, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); 4134 migrant women were diagnosed in the current pregnancy, often (48.6%) presenting with CD4 count <350 cells/µl. Being a migrant was associated with HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy [OR for SSA vs. native women, 2.12 (95% CI 1.67, 2.69)] but not with late ART start if diagnosed but not on ART at conception, or with detectable VL at delivery once on ART. Migrant women were more likely to be diagnosed in late pregnancy but once on ART virological response was good. Good access to antenatal care enables the implementation of PMTCT protocols and optimises both maternal and children health outcomes generally.

  11. Modelling the Contributions of Malaria, HIV, Malnutrition and Rainfall to the Decline in Paediatric Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Disease in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Everett, Dean; Faragher, E Brian; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Kang'ombe, Arthur; Denis, Brigitte; Kerac, Marko; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Molyneux, Malcolm; Jahn, Andreas; Gordon, Melita A; Heyderman, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae (NTS) are responsible for a huge burden of bloodstream infection in Sub-Saharan African children. Recent reports of a decline in invasive NTS (iNTS) disease from Kenya and The Gambia have emphasised an association with malaria control. Following a similar decline in iNTS disease in Malawi, we have used 9 years of continuous longitudinal data to model the interrelationships between iNTS disease, malaria, HIV and malnutrition. Trends in monthly numbers of childhood iNTS disease presenting at Queen's Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 2002 to 2010 were reviewed in the context of longitudinal monthly data describing malaria slide-positivity among paediatric febrile admissions, paediatric HIV prevalence, nutritional rehabilitation unit admissions and monthly rainfall over the same 9 years, using structural equation models (SEM). Analysis of 3,105 iNTS episodes identified from 49,093 blood cultures, showed an 11.8% annual decline in iNTS (p < 0.001). SEM analysis produced a stable model with good fit, revealing direct and statistically significant seasonal effects of malaria and malnutrition on the prevalence of iNTS disease. When these data were smoothed to eliminate seasonal cyclic changes, these associations remained strong and there were additional significant effects of HIV prevalence. These data suggest that the overall decline in iNTS disease observed in Malawi is attributable to multiple public health interventions leading to reductions in malaria, HIV and acute malnutrition. Understanding the impacts of public health programmes on iNTS disease is essential to plan and evaluate interventions.

  12. Social paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nick; Colomer, Concha; Alperstein, Garth; Bouvier, Paul; Colomer, Julia; Duperrex, Olivier; Gokcay, Gulbin; Julien, Gilles; Kohler, Lennart; Lindström, Bengt; Macfarlane, Aidan; Mercer, Raul; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Schulpen, Tom

    2005-02-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective.

  13. Social paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N.; Colomer, C.; Alperstein, G.; Bouvier, P.; Colomer, J.; Duperrex, O.; Gokcay, G.; Julien, G.; Kohler, L.; Lindstrom, B.; Macfarlane, A.; Mercer, R.; Panagiotopoulos, T.; Schulpen, T.; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective. PMID:15650140

  14. A survey of paediatric HIV programmatic and clinical management practices in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa—the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data on paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes in low-resource settings. Methods A standardized survey was completed by International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS paediatric cohort sites in the regions of Asia-Pacific (AP), Central Africa (CA), East Africa (EA), Southern Africa (SA) and West Africa (WA) to understand operational resource availability and paediatric management practices. Data were collected through January 2010 using a secure, web-based software program (REDCap). Results A total of 64,552 children were under care at 63 clinics (AP, N=10; CA, N=4; EA, N=29; SA, N=10; WA, N=10). Most were in urban settings (N=41, 65%) and received funding from governments (N=51, 81%), PEPFAR (N=34, 54%), and/or the Global Fund (N=15, 24%). The majority were combined adult–paediatric clinics (N=36, 57%). Prevention of mother-to-child transmission was integrated at 35 (56%) sites; 89% (N=56) had access to DNA PCR for infant diagnosis. African (N=40/53) but not Asian sites recommended exclusive breastfeeding up until 4–6 months. Regular laboratory monitoring included CD4 (N=60, 95%), and viral load (N=24, 38%). Although 42 (67%) sites had the ability to conduct acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears, 23 (37%) sites could conduct AFB cultures and 18 (29%) sites could conduct tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Loss to follow-up was defined as >3 months of lost contact for 25 (40%) sites, >6 months for 27 sites (43%) and >12 months for 6 sites (10%). Telephone calls (N=52, 83%) and outreach worker home visits to trace children lost to follow-up (N=45, 71%) were common. Conclusions In general, there was a high level of patient and laboratory monitoring within this multiregional paediatric cohort consortium that will facilitate detailed observational research studies. Practices will continue to be monitored as the WHO/UNAIDS Treatment 2.0 framework is implemented. PMID:23336728

  15. The prevalence of hearing impairment in the 6 months-5 years HIV/AIDS-positive patients attending paediatric infectious disease clinic at Mulago Hospital.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Ndoleriire; Edward, Turitwenka; Sabrina, Bakeera-Kitaaka; Agnes, Nyabigambo

    2013-02-01

    Hearing impairment is one form of disability in children living with HIV/AIDS. It greatly interferes with their language development, communication and performance. These are stressful to the children and their caretakers. With increasing availability of free anti-retroviral therapy, children with HIV/AIDS are living much longer. Therefore efforts must be made to reduce the disability resulting from hearing impairment among children living with HIV. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, types and severity of hearing loss in HIV positive pediatric patients between 6 months and 5 years of age attending PIDC, Mulago Hospital Uganda. This was a descriptive cross sectional study among 370 HIV/AIDS pediatric patients between 6 months and 5 years of age at PIDC Mulago. In this study, hearing impairment was defined as any auditory brainstem response (ABR) average threshold of over 25 dBnHL at frequencies of 500 Hz to 4000 Hz. This was done using a VIVOSONIC VIVOLINK ABR machine and a tympanogram was acquired from each ear. Systematic random sampling was carried out to reach individual participants. Proportions were used to estimate prevalence of hearing impairment in this age group. A total of 370 participants were recruited, with mean age of 38 months and median age of 36 months. The ratio of male to female was 1:1. The majority 172/370 (46.5%) of the participants were of WHO stage III. The prevalence of hearing loss in the 6 months to 5 years HIV/AIDS positive patients was found to be 121/370 (33.0%). The majority 77/121 (64.0%) of the participants had sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Of these with SNHL 44% had mild (26-40 dBHL) hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing among pediatric HIV/AIDS patients between the 6 months and 5 years was found to be high with sensorineural hearing loss being the most prevalent. Therefore HIV/AIDS paediatric patients should have routine screening for hearing impairment. A prospective cohort study should be

  16. The influence of paediatric HIV infection on circulating B cell subsets and CXCR5(+) T helper cells.

    PubMed

    Bamford, A; Hart, M; Lyall, H; Goldblatt, D; Kelleher, P; Kampmann, B

    2015-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) only partially restores HIV-induced alterations in lymphocyte populations. We assessed B and T cell phenotypes in a cohort of children from a single centre in the United Kingdom with perinatally acquired HIV compared to healthy controls. The majority of HIV infected children (44 of 56) were on fully suppressive combination ART. Children with perinatally acquired HIV had significantly lower memory B and CD4(+) CD45RO(+) CXCR5(+) [follicular T helper cell (Tfh)-like] T cell percentages. Detectable viraemia was associated with higher CD21(-) (activated and exhausted/tissue-like memory) B cells. A greater proportion of life spent on suppressive ART was associated with higher memory B cell percentages. These results suggest that early and sustained suppressive ART may preserve B and T cell phenotypes in perinatally acquired HIV and limit deficits in humoral immunity. A lower proportion of circulating Tfh-like cells in HIV infected children appears to be independent of HIV treatment history and ongoing HIV viraemia and warrants further investigation.

  17. Paediatrics in Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Eber, Ernst; Aurora, Paul; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Lindblad, Anders; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette E; Ross-Russell, Robert I; Turner, Steve W; Midulla, Fabio; Hedlin, Gunilla

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this update is to describe the paediatric highlights from the 2011 European Respiratory Society (ERS) Annual Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Abstracts from all seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Paediatric Respiratory Physiology, Paediatric Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Paediatric Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Paediatric Respiratory Epidemiology, and Paediatric Bronchology) are presented in the context of current literature.

  18. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mulenga, Veronica; Musiime, Victor; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Cook, Adrian D; Abongomera, George; Kenny, Julia; Chabala, Chisala; Mirembe, Grace; Asiimwe, Alice; Owen-Powell, Ellen; Burger, David; McIlleron, Helen; Klein, Nigel; Chintu, Chifumbe; Thomason, Margaret J; Kityo, Cissy; Walker, A Sarah; Gibb, Diana M

    2016-02-01

    WHO 2013 guidelines recommend universal treatment for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. No paediatric trials have compared nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa, where most HIV-infected children live. We aimed to compare stavudine, zidovudine, or abacavir as dual or triple fixed-dose-combination paediatric tablets with lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz. In this open-label, parallel-group, randomised trial (CHAPAS-3), we enrolled children from one centre in Zambia and three in Uganda who were previously untreated (ART naive) or on stavudine for more than 2 years with viral load less than 50 copies per mL (ART experienced). Computer-generated randomisation tables were incorporated securely within the database. The primary endpoint was grade 2-4 clinical or grade 3/4 laboratory adverse events. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry number, 69078957. Between Nov 8, 2010, and Dec 28, 2011, 480 children were randomised: 156 to stavudine, 159 to zidovudine, and 165 to abacavir. After two were excluded due to randomisation error, 156 children were analysed in the stavudine group, 158 in the zidovudine group, and 164 in the abacavir group, and followed for median 2·3 years (5% lost to follow-up). 365 (76%) were ART naive (median age 2·6 years vs 6·2 years in ART experienced). 917 grade 2-4 clinical or grade 3/4 laboratory adverse events (835 clinical [634 grade 2]; 40 laboratory) occurred in 104 (67%) children on stavudine, 103 (65%) on zidovudine, and 105 (64%), on abacavir (p=0·63; zidovudine vs stavudine: hazard ratio [HR] 0·99 [95% CI 0·75-1·29]; abacavir vs stavudine: HR 0·88 [0·67-1·15]). At 48 weeks, 98 (85%), 81 (80%) and 95 (81%) ART-naive children in the stavudine, zidovudine, and abacavir groups, respectively, had viral load less than 400 copies per mL (p=0·58); most ART-experienced children maintained suppression (p=1·00). All

  19. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Veronica; Musiime, Victor; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Cook, Adrian D; Abongomera, George; Kenny, Julia; Chabala, Chisala; Mirembe, Grace; Asiimwe, Alice; Owen-Powell, Ellen; Burger, David; McIlleron, Helen; Klein, Nigel; Chintu, Chifumbe; Thomason, Margaret J; Kityo, Cissy; Walker, A Sarah; Gibb, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background WHO 2013 guidelines recommend universal treatment for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. No paediatric trials have compared nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa, where most HIV-infected children live. We aimed to compare stavudine, zidovudine, or abacavir as dual or triple fixed-dose-combination paediatric tablets with lamivudine and nevirapine or efavirenz. Methods In this open-label, parallel-group, randomised trial (CHAPAS-3), we enrolled children from one centre in Zambia and three in Uganda who were previously untreated (ART naive) or on stavudine for more than 2 years with viral load less than 50 copies per mL (ART experienced). Computer-generated randomisation tables were incorporated securely within the database. The primary endpoint was grade 2–4 clinical or grade 3/4 laboratory adverse events. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry number, 69078957. Findings Between Nov 8, 2010, and Dec 28, 2011, 480 children were randomised: 156 to stavudine, 159 to zidovudine, and 165 to abacavir. After two were excluded due to randomisation error, 156 children were analysed in the stavudine group, 158 in the zidovudine group, and 164 in the abacavir group, and followed for median 2·3 years (5% lost to follow-up). 365 (76%) were ART naive (median age 2·6 years vs 6·2 years in ART experienced). 917 grade 2–4 clinical or grade 3/4 laboratory adverse events (835 clinical [634 grade 2]; 40 laboratory) occurred in 104 (67%) children on stavudine, 103 (65%) on zidovudine, and 105 (64%), on abacavir (p=0·63; zidovudine vs stavudine: hazard ratio [HR] 0·99 [95% CI 0·75–1·29]; abacavir vs stavudine: HR 0·88 [0·67–1·15]). At 48 weeks, 98 (85%), 81 (80%) and 95 (81%) ART-naive children in the stavudine, zidovudine, and abacavir groups, respectively, had viral load less than 400 copies per mL (p=0·58); most ART

  20. Mortality and clinical outcomes in children treated with antiretroviral therapy in four African vertical programmes during the first decade of paediatric HIV care, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Ben-Farhat, Jihane; Schramm, Birgit; Nicolay, Nathalie; Wanjala, Stephen; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Balkan, Suna; Pujades-Rodríguez, Mar

    2017-03-01

    To assess mortality and clinical outcomes in children treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in four African vertical programmes between 2001 and 2010. Cohort analysis of data from HIV-infected children (<15 years old) initiating ART in four sub-Saharan HIV programmes in Kenya, Uganda and Malawi, between December 2001 and December 2010. Rates of mortality, programme attrition and first-line clinico-immunological failure were calculated by age group (<2, 2-4 and 5-14 years), 1 or 2 years after ART initiation, and risk factors were examined. A total of 3949 children, 22.7% aged <2 years, 32.2% 2-4 years and 45.1% 5-14 years, were included. At ART initiation, 60.8% had clinical stage 3 or 4, and 46.5% severe immunosuppression. Overall mortality, attrition and 1-year failure rates were 5.1, 10.8 and 9.0 per 100 person-years, respectively. Immunosuppression, stage 3 or 4, and underweight were associated with increased rates of mortality, attrition and treatment failure. Adjusted estimates showed lower mortality hazard ratios (HR) among children aged 2-4 years (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.77 than children aged 5-14 years). One-year treatment failure incidence rate ratios (IRR) were similar regardless of age (IRR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.25 for <2 years; 1.01, 95% CI 0.83-1.23 for 2-4 years, vs. 5-14 years). Good treatment outcomes were achieved during the first decade of HIV paediatric care despite the late start of therapy. Encouraging early HIV infant diagnosis in and outside prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes, and linkage to care services for early ART initiation, is needed to reduce mortality and delay treatment failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Paediatric manpower.

    PubMed

    Liberman, M M; Bellman, M H

    1982-09-01

    Two investigations of paediatric manpower in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland were carried out, each using a different method. The first survey located registrars and senior registrars and checked on their occupational status 3 years later in order to see which ones had been promoted. Loss factors--such as emigration, retirement for personal reasons, part-time training, or transfer to general practice, community paediatrics, or other medical specialties--were examined closely. The second survey was a cross-sectional analysis of the entire paediatric establishment. It examined in particular the distribution of consultants and registrars. Using figures from survey 2 and loss factors from survey 1, a model of the paediatric career structure could be constructed. This showed that the present career pyramid would be unable to absorb the current number of registrars in training. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive registration scheme for registrars, especially those with honorary contracts, who are not currently included in official records. Paediatrics is unique in having a high proportion of women for whom there is little opportunity of reconciling career aspirations with family commitments.

  2. Paediatric manpower.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, M M; Bellman, M H

    1982-01-01

    Two investigations of paediatric manpower in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland were carried out, each using a different method. The first survey located registrars and senior registrars and checked on their occupational status 3 years later in order to see which ones had been promoted. Loss factors--such as emigration, retirement for personal reasons, part-time training, or transfer to general practice, community paediatrics, or other medical specialties--were examined closely. The second survey was a cross-sectional analysis of the entire paediatric establishment. It examined in particular the distribution of consultants and registrars. Using figures from survey 2 and loss factors from survey 1, a model of the paediatric career structure could be constructed. This showed that the present career pyramid would be unable to absorb the current number of registrars in training. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive registration scheme for registrars, especially those with honorary contracts, who are not currently included in official records. Paediatrics is unique in having a high proportion of women for whom there is little opportunity of reconciling career aspirations with family commitments. PMID:7125690

  3. Immunological and pharmacological strategies to reactivate HIV-1 from latently infected cells: a possibility for HIV-1 paediatric patients?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bonet, M; Clemente, M I; Serramía, M J; Moreno, S; Muñoz, E; Muñoz-Fernández, M A

    2015-07-01

    The limitations to establishing a viral reservoir facilitated by early cART in children could play a critical role in achieving natural control of viral replication upon discontinuation of cART, which could be defined as 'functional cure'. Viral reservoirs could provide a persistent source of recrudescent viraemia after withdrawal of cART, despite temporary remission of HIV-1 infection, as observed in the 'Mississippi baby'. Intensification of cART has been proposed as a strategy to control residual replication and to diminish the reservoirs. The effects of cART intensification with maraviroc persisted after discontinuation of the drug in HIV-1-infected adults. However, in HIV-1-infected children, the emergence of CXCR4-using variants occurs very early, and the use of CCR5 antagonists in these children as intensification therapy may not be the best alternative. New treatments to eradicate HIV-1 are focused on the activation of viral production from latently infected cells to purge and clear HIV-1 reservoirs. This strategy involves the use of a wide range of small molecules called latency-reversing agents (LRAs). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as givinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, and class I-selective HDACis that include oxamflatin, NCH-51 and romidepsin, are the most advanced in clinical testing for HIV-1 LRAs. Panobinostat and romidepsin show an efficient reactivation profile in J89GFP cells, a lymphocyte HIV-1 latently infected cell line considered a relevant model to study post-integration HIV-1 latency and reactivation. Clinical trials with panobinostat and romidepsin have been performed in children with other pathologies and it could be reasonable to design a clinical trial using these drugs in combination with cART in HIV-1-infected children.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and safety of a new paediatric fixed-dose combination of zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Cressey, Tim R; Capparelli, Edmund; Sirisanthana, Virat; Muresan, Petronella; Hongsiriwon, Suchat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Limwongse, Chanin; Wittawatmongko, Orasri; Aurpibul, Linda; Kabat, Bill; Toye, MariPat; Smith, Mary Elizabeth; Eksaengsri, Achara; McIntosh, Kenneth; Yogev, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Background Alternatives to the available stavudine-containing paediatric fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets are rapidly needed due to concerns regarding the cumulative toxicity of long-term stavudine exposure. We report the bioavailability and short-term safety of a novel paediatric FDC tablet of zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/nevirapine (NVP; 30/15/28 mg) in HIV-infected children. Methods In this Phase I/II open-label pharmacokinetic study, 42 children weighing 6–30 kg treated with NVP-based HAART for ≥4 weeks were randomized to receive the FDC tablets (GPO-VIR Z30) or the liquid formulations. Dosing was weight-based. Intensive 12-h blood sampling was performed after 2 weeks; subjects then crossed-over to the alternate formulation at equal doses and sampling repeated 2 weeks later. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Buccal-swab samples were collected for cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B6 polymorphism analysis. Results With the FDC tablet, the geometric mean (90% CI) area under the curve (AUC) for ZDV, 3TC and NVP was 1.58 (1.49–1.68), 7.78 (7.38–8.19) and 68.88 (62.13–76.36) μg•h/ml, respectively. Rules for NVP therapeutic inadequacy were defined a priori, and despite lower NVP exposure with the tablet (P<0.001), the levels remained therapeutically adequate. ZDV AUC was similar between formulations. 3TC exposure was significantly higher with the tablet but comparable to historical data in adults and children taking branded tablets. While receiving the tablet, NVP AUC in children with CYP2B 516 GG (45%), GT (45%) and TT (10%) genotypes were 67.0, 74.5 and 106.4 μg•h/ml, respectively (P=0.04). Conclusions Disparities in drug exposure between formulations were observed; however, the FDC tablet delivered therapeutically adequate exposures of each drug and could well play an important role in simplifying antiretroviral treatment for children. PMID:22155910

  5. HIV-1 virological remission lasting more than 12 years after interruption of early antiretroviral therapy in a perinatally infected teenager enrolled in the French ANRS EPF-CO10 paediatric cohort: a case report.

    PubMed

    Frange, Pierre; Faye, Albert; Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Bellaton, Erianna; Descamps, Diane; Angin, Mathieu; David, Annie; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie; Peytavin, Gilles; Dollfus, Catherine; Le Chenadec, Jerome; Warszawski, Josiane; Rouzioux, Christine; Sáez-Cirión, Asier

    2016-01-01

    Durable HIV-1 remission after interruption of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in some adults who started treatment during primary infection; however, whether long-term remission in vertically infected children is possible was unknown. We report a case of a young adult perinatally infected with HIV-1 with viral remission despite long-term treatment interruption. The patient was identified in the ANRS EPF-CO10 paediatric cohort among 100 children infected with HIV perinatally who started ART before 6 months of age. HIV RNA viral load and CD4 cell counts were monitored from birth. Ultrasensitive HIV RNA, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated HIV DNA, HIV-specific T-cell responses (ie, production of cytokines and capacity to suppress HIV infection), reactivation of the CD4 cell reservoir (measured by p24 ELISA and HIV RNA in supernatants upon phytohaemagglutinin activation of purified CD4 cells), and plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs were assessed after 10 years of documented control off therapy. The infant was born in 1996 to a woman with uncontrolled HIV-1 viraemia and received zidovudine-based prophylaxis for 6 weeks. HIV RNA and DNA were not detected 3 days and 14 days after birth. HIV DNA was detected at 4 weeks of age. HIV RNA reached 2·17× 10(6) copies per mL at 3 months of age and ART was started. HIV RNA was undetectable 1 month later. ART was discontinued by the family at some point between 5·8 and 6·8 years of age. HIV RNA was undetectable at 6·8 years of age and ART was not resumed. HIV RNA has remained below 50 copies per mL and CD4 cell counts stable through to 18·6 years of age. After 11·5 years of control off treatment, HIV RNA was below 4 copies per mL and HIV DNA was 2·2 log10 copies per 10(6) PBMCs. The HLA genotype showed homozygosity at several loci (A*2301-, B*1503/4101, C*0210/0802, DRB1*1101-, and DQB1*0602-). HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses and T-cell activation were weak. Findings

  6. Relative bioavailability of a paediatric granule formulation of the HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parul; Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Chen, Shuguang; Peppercorn, Amanda; Wajima, Toshihiro; Funaki, Takeshi; Fujita, Naomi; Hughes, John; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of a granule formulation of dolutegravir developed as an alternative to tablets for use in paediatric populations. A randomized, open-label study in healthy adults was carried out. Subjects received five treatments in a crossover design: a single dose of dolutegravir 50 mg as a tablet and dolutegravir 50 mg in 10 g of granule administered directly to mouth or mixed with purified water, water containing high cation concentrations or milk-based infant formula. Study treatments were separated by 7 days. Safety evaluations and serial pharmacokinetic sampling were done during each treatment period. A non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed; geometric least-squares mean ratios and 90% CIs were generated for treatment comparison. Palatability was assessed by questionnaire. Plasma dolutegravir exposures in all granule treatment arms exceeded those of tablet formulation. The mean area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) and maximum concentrations were 55-83% and 62-102% higher, respectively. Pharmacokinetics were similar when dolutegravir was mixed with purified or cation-containing water. Dolutegravir was well tolerated, with no withdrawals due to adverse events. Taste was rated acceptable for all treatments. The exposure of dolutegravir after administration of granule formulation alone, with different types of water and with milk formula, exceeded that of the tablet. The similarity of dolutegravir exposure seen with the granule formulation demonstrates that dolutegravir granule can be given without restriction on the type of liquid or can be administered directly to the mouth (for example, when potable water is not available).

  7. No change in viral set point or CD4 cell decline among antiretroviral treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected individuals enrolled in the Danish HIV Cohort Study in 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Helleberg, M; Kronborg, G; Larsen, C S; Pedersen, G; Pedersen, C; Obel, N; Gerstoft, J

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have reported faster progression of HIV infection than anticipated based on results from earlier studies. The aim of the present study was to examine if the virulence of HIV-1 infection changed in the period 1995-2010 among chronically HIV-infected individuals in Denmark. We included all patients registered in the Danish HIV Cohort Study, who were diagnosed in 1995-2009, had a CD4 count > 100 cells/μL at diagnosis and had at least two CD4 measurements prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Changes in viral set point and rate of CD4 cell decline from enrolment until the initiation of ART by calendar year of HIV diagnosis were analysed. Time to first CD4 count < 350 cells/μL was compared among patients diagnosed in 1995-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010. We followed 1469 HIV-infected patients for a total of 5783 person-years. The median viral set point was 4.27 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 3.58-4.73 log10 copies/mL]. The median CD4 cell decline per year was 57 cells/μL (IQR 10-139 cells/μL). In analyses adjusted for age, gender, origin, route of transmission and CD4 count at diagnosis, there were no associations between year of diagnosis and viral set point or CD4 cell decline. Time to first CD4 count < 350 cells/μL did not change in the study period [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.06) for 2001-2005 and 1.09 (95% CI 0.79-1.34) for 2006-2010 compared with 1995-2000]. We found no evidence of changing trends in viral set point, CD4 cell decline or time to CD4 count < 350 cells/μL during the period 1995-2010 in a cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  8. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Deverell, Marie; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-12-31

    This report provides an update on the surveillance conducted by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) during the period January to December 2013. The APSU facilitates national active surveillance of uncommon diseases of childhood including selected communicable diseases. This report includes data on the following conditions: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV), congenital rubella, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), congenital varicella, neonatal varicella, severe complications of varicella and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP). Surveillance of severe complications of influenza was undertaken during the influenza season (July to September 2013).

  9. Non-puerperal induced lactation: an infant feeding option in paediatric HIV/AIDS in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Adekanmbi, Folasade A; Fetuga, Bolanle M; Ogundeyi, Mojisola M

    2008-09-01

    A major problem in the management of infants exposed to HIV is the issue of feeding, which stems from the need to avoid transmission of the virus via breast milk. Other important issues in the nutrition of infants exposed to the virus include severe maternal illness, which makes suckling extremely difficult, and feeding orphans. Wet nursing is one of the recommended steps in addressing the feeding problems of such infants but for reasons of sociocultural disapproval, it appears not to be popular in traditional African settings. Non-puerperal induced lactation or re-lactation of a close relation, usually a grandmother, which hitherto has been used to rehabilitate severely malnourished motherless infants, may be equally useful. The procedure of re-lactation and the limitations of the method are highlighted. Also, the need to employ information, education and communication in improving the sociocultural acceptability of this veritable infant feeding method in tropical Africa is discussed.

  10. Chemokine receptor CCR2b 64I polymorphism and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts and disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Copenhagen AIDS cohort.

    PubMed

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, A K; Benfield, T L; Koppelhus, U; Garred, P

    1998-06-01

    We have investigated the role of the recently described mutation in CCR2b named 64I in relation to HIV resistance, CD4 T-cell counts, and disease progression in Danish individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as well as sequenced full-length CXCR4 and CCR5 genes from HIV-infected long-term nonprogressors for possible mutations. In total, 215 Danish individuals were analyzed for 64I allele frequency; disease progression was followed in 105 HIV-1-positive homosexual Danish men from their first known positive HIV-1 test result and up to 11 years. In 87 individuals, the CD4 T-cell count was monitored closely. We found no significant difference in 64I allele frequency between HIV-1-seropositive persons (0.08), high-risk HIV-1-seronegative persons (0.11), and blood donors (0.06). No significant difference was observed in annual CD4 T-cell decline, CD4 T-cell counts at the time of AIDS, in AIDS-free survival as well as survival with AIDS, between 64I allele carriers and wild-type individuals. Among 9 long-term nonprogressors, 2 carried the 64I allele, while none of 9 fast progressors carried the 64I allele. However, this was not significantly different (p=.47). Long-term nonprogression could not be explained by CXCR4 polymorphism or other polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene than the CCR5delta32 allele. Furthermore, we were not able to detect any significant independent effect of the 64I allele on development to AIDS, overall survival, and annual CD4 T-cell decline in this cohort.

  11. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-04-15

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  12. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  13. Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge.

    PubMed

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Theodoridou, Maria; Kramvis, Anna; Thiagarajan, Prakash; Gardner, Sharryn; Papaioannou, Georgia; Melidou, Angeliki; Koutsaki, Maria; Kostagianni, Georgia; Achtsidis, Vassilis; Koutsaftiki, Chryssie; Calachanis, Marcos; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Greenough, Anne; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-02-01

    The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. A brief historical overview of the anti-vaccination movement was also provided, as well as presentations on the educational challenge of Paediatric Virology as a new subspecialty of Paediatrics. This review highlights selected lectures and discussions of the workshop.

  14. Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Theodoridou, Maria; Kramvis, Anna; Thiagarajan, Prakash; Gardner, Sharryn; Papaioannou, Georgia; Melidou, Angeliki; Koutsaki, Maria; Kostagianni, Georgia; Achtsidis, Vassilis; Koutsaftiki, Chryssie; Calachanis, Marcos; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Greenough, Anne; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology’, which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. A brief historical overview of the anti-vaccination movement was also provided, as well as presentations on the educational challenge of Paediatric Virology as a new subspecialty of Paediatrics. This review highlights selected lectures and discussions of the workshop. PMID:28352303

  15. Careers in paediatrics: Community paediatrics revisited

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Roger Sherriff

    2012-01-01

    The concept of ‘community paediatrics’, as enunciated by Robert Haggerty in 1968, has informed and shaped many paediatric careers. The principle tenets of inclusiveness: attention to unmet needs; addressing common health problems of children and youth; using and applying preventive and harm-reduction strategies; and securing community input and control, were part of the Haggerty model. The present article revisits Haggerty’s model and describes how the concepts have shaped contemporary paediatrics in North America. PMID:23277752

  16. Neurodevelopmental and behavioural paediatrics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the notable shifts in Paediatrics across the last 50 years has been towards disorders that are chronic and qualitative in nature. In addition to physical health, these impact on childhood development, behaviour and wellbeing. Understanding and management of these problems extends the traditional biological toolkit of paediatrics into the complexities of uncertainties of psychological and social context. In Australasia, the profession has responded with the development of Community Paediatrics as a recognised sub-specialty, of which Neurodevelopmental and Behavioural Paediatrics is an important component. These developments are reviewed along with consideration of future challenges for this field of health care. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Paediatrics in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Rottier, Bart; Lindblad, Anders; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr; Eber, Ernst

    2014-08-01

    This update will describe the paediatric highlights from the 2013 European Respiratory Society (ERS) annual congress in Barcelona, Spain. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) have been chosen by group officers and are presented in the context of current literature. ©ERS 2014.

  18. Paediatrics: messages from Munich

    PubMed Central

    Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Pijnenburg, Marielle; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M.; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe paediatric highlights from the 2014 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Munich, Germany. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) are presented in the context of the current literature. PMID:27730136

  19. Paediatric surgery in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sekabira, John

    2015-02-01

    The Hugh Greenwood Lecture acknowledges the extremely generous support from Mr Greenwood that has enabled the BAPS to establish funds to advance paediatric surgical training in developing countries. In this Inaugural Lecture, Dr. Sekabira, the first Hugh Greenwood Fellow, describes the influence that this has had on his career and reviews the state of paediatric surgery in Uganda.

  20. Paediatrics in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Barbato, A; Bertuola, F; Kuehni, C; Korppi, M; Kotecha, S; Pijnenburg, M W; Ratjen, F; Seddon, P; Bush, A

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the highlights of the European Respiratory Society annual congress in Berlin, Germany. The best abstracts in asthma and allergy, cystic fibrosis, respiratory infection, paediatric and neonatal intensive care, paediatric investigative techniques (in particular respiratory physiology and bronchoscopy) and respiratory epidemiology are presented and set in the context of the current literature.

  1. Costing of Paediatric Treatment alongside Clinical Trials under Low Resource Constraint Environments: Cotrimoxazole and Antiretroviral Medications in Children Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Costing evidence is essential for policy makers for priority setting and resource allocation. It is in this context that the clinical trials of ARVs and cotrimoxazole provided a costing component to provide evidence for budgeting and resource needs alongside the clinical efficacy studies. Methods. A micro based costing approach was adopted, using case record forms for maintaining patient records. Costs for fixed assets were allocated based on the paediatric space. Medication and other resource costs were costed using the WHO/MSH Drug Price Indicators as well as procurement data where these were available. Results. The costs for cotrimoxazole and ARVs are significantly different. The average costs for human resources were US$22 and US$71 for physician costs and $1.3 and $16 for nursing costs while in-patient costs were $257 and $15 for the cotrimoxazole and ARV cohorts, respectively. Mean or average costs were $870 for the cotrimoxazole cohort and $218 for the ARV. The causal factors for the significant cost differences are attributable to the higher human resource time, higher infections of opportunistic conditions, and longer and higher frequency of hospitalisations, among others. PMID:28042479

  2. [Restraint in paediatric care].

    PubMed

    Estrade, Marie; Tessier-Levêque, Mélanie; Wanquet-Thibault, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Restraint in general, and particularly when giving paediatric care, is a sensitive subject. This practice continues to appear often as a solution when children are disorientated or struggle during care. However, it is generally traumatic for the different care agents: the child, the parent and the care-giver. Reflection on this subject has been carried out after exchanges with professionals about the use of restraint with children aged 2-4 during paediatric emergency care.

  3. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population. PMID:26235144

  4. [What's new in paediatric dermatology?].

    PubMed

    Plantin, P

    2014-12-01

    Regular analysis of the major journals in dermatology and paediatrics has been used to select forty articles which are representative of the past year in paediatric dermatology. This selection is not exhaustive but rather reflects the interests of the author and also the dominant topics in paediatric dermatology in 2013-2014.

  5. Key paediatric messages from Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Barben, Jürg; Bohlin, Kajsa; Everard, Mark L.; Hall, Graham; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle; Priftis, Kostas N.; Rusconi, Franca; Midulla, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress. PMID:27730186

  6. Paediatric psychological problems.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Allan; Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2014-04-01

    A 2011 BEACH-based study showed that over the past 40 years there has been increasing general practitioner (GP) involvement in the management of paediatric mental health in Australia. There has also been a changing mix of psychological conditions managed, including increased management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

  7. Assessment of etravirine resistance in HIV-1-infected paediatric patients using population and deep sequencing: final results of the PIANO study.

    PubMed

    Tambuyzer, Lotke; Thys, Kim; Hoogstoel, Annemie; Nijs, Steven; Tomaka, Frank; Opsomer, Magda; De Meyer, Sandra; Vingerhoets, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We assessed etravirine resistance in treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected children (n=41)/adolescents (n=60) who received twice-daily etravirine 5.2 mg/kg and a background regimen (boosted protease inhibitor plus nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, optional enfuvirtide/raltegravir) in a Phase II, open-label, multicentre trial (PIANO). In addition to phenotypes, viral genotypes were assessed by population and deep sequencing (PS and DS) in virological failures (VFs; baseline and end point) and responders (baseline). Minority resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were defined as those with frequencies above 1% and not detected with PS. By week 48, 41/101 (40.6%) patients experienced VF; 17/41 (41.5%) VFs and 22/54 (40.8%) responders had ≥1 baseline etravirine RAM by PS, mainly A98G, K101E, V106I and G190A. Baseline minority etravirine RAMs (n) were detected in 8/40 VFs (V90I [2], A98G [1], L100I [1], V106I [1], E138G [1] and Y181C [2]) and 5/38 responders (V90I [3], A98G [1], V106I [1] and E138G [1]). The most frequent emerging non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor RAMs detected by PS (≥3 VFs; n) were the etravirine RAMs Y181C (8), V90I (3), L100I (3) and E138A (3). In 15 of 29 (51.7%) VFs with baseline DS/PS and end point PS data, ≥1 emerging etravirine RAM was detected by PS, which was not detected at baseline by DS in most cases (12/15 [80.0%]). In 10/26 (38.5%) VFs with baseline/end point DS data, ≥1 additional emerging minority etravirine RAM was detected. Patterns of etravirine resistance in adults, adolescents and children experiencing VF are similar. The presence of minority etravirine RAMs at baseline was not consistently associated with treatment failure. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00665847.

  8. Paediatric AIDS: a new child abuse.

    PubMed

    Oletto, S; Giaquinto, C; Seefried, M; Ruga, E; Cozzani, S; Mazza, A; De Manzini, A; D'Elia, R; Zacchello, F

    1994-08-01

    In relation to youth rights, a new view has been created in recent decades that is included in the fundamental law of the child: the recognition of the right to education and the chance to develop a mature personality capable of creativity and liberty. Because of HIV infection it is very important to pay particular attention to the rights of the seropositive child and children born to seropositive mothers, which may be hampered not only in developing countries but also in the industrial world. HIV-affected children and their families are becoming abused and at high risk of becoming abused and this encroaches upon youth rights. As a consequence, in 1991 the Italian Society of Paediatrics issued a "Charter for the rights of seropositive children", which became an important document for all health care and social workers who deal with HIV-affected children. In this paper, we also consider the impact of HIV infection on the three main rights of children: the right to live, the rights of security and the rights of socialization.

  9. Population approaches in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chatelut, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    Population pharmacokinetic (PK) approach is now often used to evaluate PK characteristics of a new compound during its clinical development. Recently, new legislation governing the development and authorization of medicines for use in children aged 0-17 years was introduced in the European Union. Among the strategies proposed in relation to clinical aspects, use of population PKs is stated. In this manuscript, comparison between standard PK and population PK methods will be briefly addressed to understand why the second is particularly adapted to perform PK studies in paediatrics. Then, specific patients' characteristics (covariates) in paediatrics will be presented. Examples of PK and PK-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) studies will be finally given. The number of population PK studies published still exceeds largely those of PK-PD.

  10. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  11. Paediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Huguenin, Leesa

    2016-07-01

    Paediatric sports injuries are common. Fortunately, most children self-modulate their activity levels when injured until they recover, but some will seek medical help. Injury pattern varies with age, mechanism and the chosen sport. The aim of this article is to give a general overview of some of the more common paediatric sports injuries, including common patterns of pathogenesis, the effects of growth and biomechanics on tissue load, and issues particular to specific sports. The immature body has different strength ratios of bone, muscle and tendon, and is constantly developing coordination and body awareness, which are affected by growth and neurological maturation. When planning the return to sport after an injury, the demands of the chosen sport, hours and periodisation of training, and requirements of schooling need to be considered. Bio-mechanical issues are best addressed early in treatment to improve return-to-activity outcomes.

  12. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-03-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. [New analgesics in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Avez-Couturier, Justine; Wood, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of different types of analgesics in paediatrics. They must be used in accordance with the situation, the type of pain and the characteristics of the child. In all cases, strict compliance with the posology and the instructions for use is essential to avoid any risk of error. Finally, pharmacological, physical and psychological treatments are employed in a complementary manner, for the biopsychosocial management of the child's care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Diagnosis of tuberculosis in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Altet Gómez, N; Baquero-Artigao, F; Escribano Montaner, A; Gómez-Pastrana Durán, D; González Montero, R; Mellado Peña, M J; Rodrigo-Gonzalo-de-Liria, C; Ruiz Serrano, M J

    2010-04-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most important health problems worldwide. There are an increasing number of cases, including children, due to different reasons in developed countries. The most likely determining cause is immigration from highly endemic areas. Measures to optimise early and appropriate diagnosis of the different forms of tuberculosis in children are a real priority. Two Societies of the Spanish Paediatric Association (Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectology and Spanish Society of Paediatric Pneumology) have agreed this Consensus Document in order to homogenise diagnostic criteria in paediatric patients.

  15. The Danish PEP Registry: Experience with the use of post-exposure prophylaxis following blood exposure to HIV from 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Lunding, Suzanne; Katzenstein, Terese L; Kronborg, Gitte; Storgaard, Merete; Pedersen, Court; Mørn, Birgitte; Lindberg, Jens Å; Kronborg, Thit M; Jensen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The risk of occupational exposures to blood cannot be eliminated completely and access to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent HIV transmission is important. However, PEP administration has been associated with frequent adverse effects, low compliance and difficulties to ensure a proper risk assessment. This nationwide study describes 14 years of experience with the use of PEP following blood exposure in Denmark. A descriptive study of all PEP cases following non-sexual exposure to HIV in Denmark from 1999-2012. A total of 411 cases of PEP were described. There was a mean of 29.4 cases/year, increasing from 23 cases in 1999 to 49 cases in 2005 and then decreasing to 16 cases in 2012. Overall 67.2% of source patients were known to be HIV-positive at the time of PEP initiation, with no significant change over time. The median time to initiation of PEP was 2.5 h (0.15-28.5) following occupational exposure. Adverse effects were reported by 50.9% with no significant difference according to PEP regimen. In 85.1% of cases with available data, either a full course of PEP was completed or PEP was stopped because the source was tested HIV-negative. Only 6.6% stopped PEP early due to adverse effects. PEP in Denmark is generally prescribed according to the guidelines and the annual number of cases has declined since 2005. Adverse effects were common regardless of PEP regimens used and new drug regimens should be considered.

  16. [Consensus document by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the advisory committee on vaccines of the Spanish Paediatrics Association on vaccination in immunocompromised children].

    PubMed

    Mellado Peña, M J; Moreno-Pérez, D; Ruíz Contreras, J; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2011-12-01

    Vaccination in immunocompromised infants, children and adolescents is a major aspect in the follow-up of this complex pathology in specific Paediatric Units. Vaccination is also an important prevention tool, as this can, to a certain extent, determine the morbidity and mortality in these patients. This consensus document was jointly prepared by Working Groups of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Paediatric Association, who are usually involved in updating the management of vaccinations in immunocompromised children, and reflects their opinions. The consensus specifically summarises indications for vaccination in the following special paediatric populations: Solid organ and haematopoietic transplant-recipients; primary immunodeficiency; asplenic children; non-previously transplanted immunocompromised patients; chronically ill patients; HIV-infected children and also the vaccines recommended for immunodeficient children who travel. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The EU paediatric regulation: effects on paediatric psychopharmacology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova-Beninska, Violeta V; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Isaac, Maria; Kalverdijk, Luuk J; van den Berg, Henk; Gispen-de Wied, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is a relatively young field and the recognition, classification, and treatment of disorders in children and adolescents lag behind those in adults. In recent years there is an increasing awareness of the differences between children and adults in psychopathology and pharmacology. Related to this new paediatric regulations have been introduced. This article reviews the regulatory and legislative measures that were adopted in the EU in 2007 and the subsequent impact of these measures on the field of paediatric psychopharmacology. The consequences of the paediatric regulation in the EU are reflected in several domains: regulatory, research aimed at drug development and clinical practices. In the regulatory domain, the consequences include: new paediatric indications, inclusion of special (class) warnings, specification of dose regimens, and information on safety specific to children and adolescents, and development of new medicinal formulations. The paediatric regulation leads to timely development of paediatric friendly formulations and better quality of the clinical evidence. In clinical practices, an increased awareness of the uniqueness of paediatric pharmacology is emerging among medical professionals, and subsequent improvement of medical care (i.e. correct doses, appropriate formulation, monitoring for expected adverse events). In addition, clinical guidelines will have to be revised more frequently in order to integrate the recently acquired knowledge. The new regulations stimulate transparency and discussions between academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulators. The purpose is to optimize clinical research and obtain evidence for paediatric psychopharmacology, thereby providing adequate support for treatment.

  18. Review article: Paediatric bone and joint infection.

    PubMed

    Stott, N Susan

    2001-06-01

    Paediatric musculoskeletal infection remains an important cause of morbidity. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus is still the most common organism although the incidence of methicillin resistant S. aureus in the community is rising. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis due to Haemophilus influenzae is decreasing in incidence secondary to immunisation and in some units has been replaced by infections with the gram negative bacillus, Kingella kingae. Recent prospective studies indicate that uncomplicated osteomyelitis can be treated by three to four weeks of antibiotics. However, there is still a small group of children who will have overwhelming disseminated infection. These children require aggressive surgical and medical intervention. Two recent reports have identified an increased incidence of septic arthritis in children who have hemophilia and are HIV positive.

  19. Paediatric vocal fold paralysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Isabel; Peñorrocha-Teres, Julio; Perez-Ortin, Magdalena; Cerpa, Mauricio; Rabanal, Ignacio; Gavilan, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is a relatively common cause of stridor and dysphonia in the paediatric population. This report summarises our experience with VFP in the paediatric age group. All patients presenting with vocal fold paralysis over a 12-month period were included. Medical charts were revised retrospectively. The diagnosis was performed by flexible endoscopic examination. The cases were evaluated with respect to aetiology of the paralysis, presenting symptoms, delay in diagnosis, affected side, vocal fold position, need for surgical treatment and outcome. The presenting symptoms were stridor and dysphonia. Iatrogenic causes formed the largest group, followed by idiopathic, neurological and obstetric VFP. Unilateral paralysis was found in most cases. The median value for delay in diagnosis was 1 month and it was significantly higher in the iatrogenic group. Surgical treatment was not necessary in most part of cases. The diagnosis of VFP may be suspected based on the patient's symptoms and confirmed by flexible endoscopy. Infants who develop stridor or dysphonia following a surgical procedure have to be examined without delay. The surgeon has to keep in mind that there is a possibility of late spontaneous recovery or compensation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Paediatric nuclear medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo; Easty, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject. Nuclear medicine imaging is well-established in paediatric nephro-urology in the context of urinary tract infection, ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis and other congenital renal anomalies. Also, in paediatric oncology, I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine has a key role in the management of children with neuroblastic tumours. Bone scintigraphy is still highly valuable to localize the source of symptoms in children and adolescents with bone pain when other imaging techniques have failed. Thyroid scintigraphy in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism is the most accurate imaging technique to confirm the presence of ectopic functioning thyroid tissue. Radionuclide transit studies of the gastro-intestinal tract are potentially useful in suspected gastroparesis or small bowel or colonic dysmotility. However, until now a standardized protocol and a validated normal range have not been agreed, and more work is necessary. Research is ongoing on whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its great advantage of great anatomical detail and no ionizing radiations, can replace nuclear medicine imaging in some clinical context. On the other hand, access to MRI is often difficult in many district general hospitals and general anaesthesia is frequently required, thus adding to the complexity of the examination. Patients with bone pain and no cause for it demonstrated on MRI can benefit from bone scintigraphy with single photon emission tomography and low-dose computed tomography. This technique can identify areas of mechanical stress at

  1. Paediatric recurrent herpetic whitlow.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik; Kumar, Hemant; More, Bharat; Patricolo, Mario

    2013-07-31

    We present a case of recurrent painful blisters of middle phalanx of the left ring finger of a 15-month-old previously healthy and immunocompetent female child. These lesions initially were confused with infective bacterial whitlow, treated with incision and drainage, and later with cigarette burns which led to referral to child protection team. Paediatric dermatologist finally diagnosed after scrapping and virology culture. The patient had recovery following full treatment with topical and systemic acyclovir. She presented again at the age of 4 with recurrence which required topical and systemic acyclovir therapy with good recovery. It is important to be aware of the danger of incorrect diagnosis, raising child protection concerns and management leading to danger of cross infection and serious illness especially in the immunocompromised patients.

  2. Diagnostic paediatric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.M.; Lingam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a case study teaching manual presenting radiographs and examples of other imaging modalities from 100 paediatric patients. The material comes from the radiological teaching collection at the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond Street in London and was compiled over a ten year period. With each case a short clinical history is given and a series of questions posed, similar to those encountered in postgraduate medical examinations. Sample answers with comments and more illustrations are presented on the following page. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion in the range and sophistication of diagnostic imaging modalities which are available to clinicians. Since it is impossible to achieve comprehensive coverage in a book of this size, the authors have selected examples of cases which illustrate the range of imaging modalities currently available and which may be encountered in both clinical practice and in examinations.

  3. [Toxicology screening in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Cuadrado González, Ainoha; Falcon, María

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse in paediatric patients, from the neonatal period to adolescence, is not well established as most cases go unnoticed. Regardless of clinical cases of acute poisoning leading to visits to emergency room, the exposure is usually detected by a questionnaire to the parents or children. In the last few years, new validated analytical methodologies have been developed in order to detect parent drugs and their metabolites in different biological matrices. These biological matrices have different time windows for detection of the exposure: acute (i.e., urine, blood, oral fluid), and chronic (i.e., hair, meconium or teeth). The aim of this paper was to review the scenarios where the use of biological matrices is indicated for the detection of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse.

  4. Interleukins for the paediatric pulmonologist.

    PubMed

    Rozycki, Henry J; Zhao, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Interleukins are critical immune modulators and since their first description in 1977, there has been a steady increase in the recognition of their roles in many paediatric respiratory diseases. This basic and clinical knowledge is now maturing into both approved and investigational therapies aimed at blocking or modifying the interleukin response. The purpose of this review is to bring up to date what is known about interleukin function in paediatric pulmonology, focusing on nine important lung conditions. This is followed by summaries about 18 interleukins which have been associated with these paediatric pulmonary conditions. Throughout, emphasis is placed on where interventions have been tested. Over the next several years, it is likely that many more treatments based on interleukin biology and function will become available and understanding the basis for these therapies will allow the practicing paediatric pulmonologist to take appropriate advantage of them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Paediatric Blunt Torso Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Khalid M.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z. S.; Hamid, Rana S.; Al-Balushi, Zainab N.; Sankhla, Dilip K.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Trauma is the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric/adolescent populations worldwide. This study aimed to describe trauma mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective single-centre study involved all children ≤12 years old with blunt torso trauma admitted for paediatric surgical care at SQUH between January 2009 and December 2013. Medical records were analysed to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 70 children were admitted with blunt torso trauma during the study period, including 39 (55.7%) male patients. The mean age was 5.19 ± 2.66 years. Of the cohort, 35 children (50.0%) received their injuries after having been hit by cars as pedestrians, while 19 (27.1%) were injured by falls, 12 (17.1%) during car accidents as passengers and four (5.7%) by falling heavy objects. According to computed tomography scans, thoracic injuries were most common (65.7%), followed by abdominal injuries (42.9%). The most commonly involved solid organs were the liver (15.7%) and spleen (11.4%). The majority of the patients were managed conservatively (92.9%) with a good outcome (74.3%). The mortality rate was 7.1%. Most deaths were due to multisystem involvement. Conclusion: Among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to SQUH, the main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. As a result, parental education and enforcement of infant car seat/child seat belt laws are recommended. Conservative management was the most successful approach. PMID:27226913

  6. Fifty years of paediatric ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, when the first issue of Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health appeared, medical ethics was just becoming established as a discipline. The sub-speciality of paediatric ethics did not make an appearance until the late 1980s, with the first key texts appearing in the 1990s. Professional concern to practice ethically in paediatrics obviously goes much further back than that, even if not named as such. In clinical areas of paediatrics, the story of the last 50 years is essentially a story of progress - better understanding of disease, better diagnosis, more effective treatment, better outcomes. In paediatric ethics, the story of the last 50 years is a bit more complicated. In ethics, the idea of progress, rather than just change, is not so straightforward and is sometimes hotly contested. There has certainly been change, including some quite radical shifts in attitudes and practices, but on some issues, the ethical debate now looks remarkably similar to that of 40-50 years ago. This is the story of some things that have changed in paediatric ethics, some things that have stayed the same and the key ethical ideas lying beneath the surface.

  7. The ethics of paediatric research.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Merle; Caldwell, Patrina H Y

    2011-09-01

    Paediatric research is essential for improving health outcomes of children. Waiting for adult studies before conducting paediatric studies will prolong the denial of effective treatment for children. If we rely on information from adult studies rather than conducting studies with children, we risk causing harm to children. In this paper, we identify and examine ethical issues unique to conducting research with children. These include the function and the value of a child's assent and the criteria that should guide a proxy in making decisions about a child's involvement in research, offering payment to children for research participation and acceptable levels of risk for paediatric research. Justice demands that children not be denied the benefits of research, and it is the role of the paediatric medical community to advocate not only for more research for children but also to ensure that the research conducted is of the highest quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Paediatric Autoimmune Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina

    2015-01-01

    In paediatrics, there are 2 liver disorders in which liver damage most likely stems from an autoimmune attack: 'classical' autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and the AIH/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome (also known as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, ASC). The presentation of childhood autoimmune liver disease (AILD) is non-specific and can mimic most other liver disorders. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted promptly to prevent rapid deterioration and promote remission and long-term survival. Difficult-to-treat or non-responsive patients should be treated with mycophenolate mofetil; if this fails then calcineurin inhibitors can be tried. Persistent failure to respond or lack of adherence to treatment result in end-stage liver disease. These patients, and those with fulminant liver failure at diagnosis, will require liver transplantation. ASC responds to the same immunosuppressive treatment used for AIH when treatment is initiated early. Abnormal liver function tests often resolve within a few months of treatment, although medium- to long-term prognosis is worse than that of AIH because bile duct disease continues to progress despite treatment in approximately 50% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid is usually added to conventional treatment regimen in ASC, but whether this actually helps arrest the progression of bile duct disease remains to be established. The pathogenesis of paediatric-onset AILD is not fully understood, although there is mounting evidence that genetic susceptibility, molecular mimicry and impaired immunoregulatory networks contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune attack. Liver damage is thought to be mediated primarily by CD4pos T-cells. While Th1 effector cells are associated with hepatocyte damage in both AIH and ASC, Th17 immune responses predominate in the latter where they correlate with biochemical indices of cholestasis, indicating that IL-17 is involved in the

  9. Bizarre paediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W

    2000-08-01

    Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric burn injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. Burn abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of burn abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual burn injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial burns were admitted to the Burns Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was burned by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were burned by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their burns raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were burned because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief.

  10. Paediatric manpower: towards the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, W J; Jackson, A D

    1988-01-01

    The British Paediatric Association (BPA) has carried out a national survey of paediatric medical manpower in the hospital and community child health services. The results of the survey relating to England and Wales are presented and compared with Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) manpower statistics. On the basis of the survey findings and current trends in the pattern of paediatric care paediatric manpower requirements over the next 10 years are estimated. PMID:3178274

  11. Current management of paediatric urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Gnessin, Ehud; Chertin, Leonid; Chertin, Boris

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to review a current management of paediatric nephrolithiasis. The current literature, including our own experience on the treatment of paediatric nephrolithiasis was reviewed by MEDLINE/PubMed search. We have used in our search following keywords: urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, paediatrics, surgical treatment, conservative management, ESWL, ureteroscopy, and open renal surgery. The search was limited to the English language literature during the period of time from 1990 to 2011. All papers were reviewed independently by all co-authors and only the manuscripts directly related to the reviewed subjects were included into the current review. Due to the high incidence of predisposing factors for urolithiasis in children and high stone recurrence rates, every child with urinary stone should be given a complete metabolic evaluation. Most stones in children can be managed by ESWL and endoscopic techniques. Paediatric stone disease is an important clinical problem in paediatric urology practice. Because of its recurrent nature, every effort should be made to discover the underlying metabolic abnormality so that it can be treated appropriately. Obtaining a stone-free state with interventional management and close follow-up are of utmost importance.

  12. Paediatric intensive care in the field hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, C C; McNicholas, J J K

    2009-06-01

    Our recent experience of paediatric critical care during UK military operations in Afghanistan is discussed alongside consideration of the background to the paediatric critical care service on deployment. We describe the intensive care unit's capabilities, details of recent paediatric critical care admissions during July to September 2008 and some of the ethical issues arising. Some desirable future developments will be suggested.

  13. Paediatric deaths in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Jumali, Ismail Bin

    2006-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the causes and epidemiological aspects of paediatric death. Data was collected on 143 cases of paediatric death from a total of 2,895 autopsies performed in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, over a five-year period from 2000 to 2004. There were 78 males and 65 females. The largest number of cases (32.9%) were stillborn. The highest proportion of cases (30.1%) were Chinese. The majority of cases of paediatric death were non-traumatic (74.8%) of which intrauterine death (IUD) was the most common (32.9%). Amongst the traumatic deaths (25.2%), accidental injury (23.8%) was observed in the majority of cases.

  14. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089

  15. Aetiological factors in paediatric urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    van't Hoff, William G

    2004-01-01

    The aetiology of stones in children differs from that in adults. Young children, especially boys, are prone to infective stones, although this type of calculi is decreasing in frequency over time in prosperous countries. Two monogenic causes, cystinuria and hyperoxaluria, each account for 5-15% of paediatric stones. Increased factors for stone formation in children include prematurity, neurological problems, ketogenic diet and reconstructed or augmented bladders. Hypercalciuria is commonly found in paediatric stone formers, is usually idiopathic and is only rarely associated with hypercalcaemia. All children with stones should undergo a metabolic evaluation.

  16. Oxford Handbook of PaediatricsOxford Handbook of Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    THIS EXCITING new edition to the Oxford Handbook Series provides a compact guide to all aspects of acute and chronic paediatrics. A team of 23 specialist contributors and medical editors has condensed many years of clinical experience into a pocket-sized compendium of clinical problems and treatment options.

  17. A survey of the management of paediatric minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, V; Astrand, R; Romner, B

    2014-03-01

    To investigate present established routines and standards in managing minor head-injured children in Danish hospitals, a survey of present management practice was conducted. A cross-sectional mail survey, detailing clinical and radiological examinations, in-hospital observation, discharge criteria and follow-up, was performed on all 46 hospitals treating children with minor head injury in Denmark. Of the 46 hospitals, 33% report having established written criteria for the referral and management of children with minor head injury. Ten (22%) of the 46 hospitals are so-called injury clinics, where only nurses are employed. All state that they use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and/or the paediatric GCS to assess the level of consciousness; 15% use the paediatric GCS exclusively. None perform routine radiological examinations. Criteria for early discharge are established in 98% of the hospitals. All hospitals provide written instructions for observations at home before discharge. The management of children with minor head injury varies between hospitals in Denmark. Local management guidelines are either lacking or mainly based on those of adults. Hence, there is a need for the development of minor head injury guidelines specifically designed for the management of children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Paediatric orofacial tumours: new oral health concern in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Omoregie, F O; Akpata, O

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to determine the incidence, age, gender, orofacial sites and histological pattern of paediatric orofacial tumours in a Nigerian population. The yearly findings will be analysed to identify the interval for increase in the incidence of paediatric orofacial tumours. A 21-year (1990 to 2010) retrospective analysis of paediatric orofacial tumours in children younger than 16 years was carried out in the Department of Oral Pathology/Oral Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Of the 1013 diagnosed lesions within the study period, there were 137 (13.5%) paediatric orofacial tumours, among which 71 (51.8%) cases occurred within the last 6 years (2005 to 2010). There was male predilection for the lesions (78 males to 59 females, ratio = 1.3:1). The mean age was 9 + 4.3 years, with peak age group of 11 to 15 years (n=60, 43.8%). The mandible (n=44, 32.1%), followed by the maxilla (n=42, 30.7%) and orofacial soft tissue (n=19, 13.9%) were the most common sites. The benign tumours (n=72, 52.6%) were slightly more than the malignant tumours (n=65, 47.4%). There were more malignant tumours (n=23, 16.8%) than benign tumours (n=20, 14.6%) within the last 3 years (2008 to 2010) under review. Burkitt's lymphoma (n=38, 27.7%) was the commonest malignant lesion. This study showed a recent increase in the incidence of paediatric orofacial tumours, particularly due to a higher incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  19. The Danish Melanoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097

  20. Essentials of paediatric infection control

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dorothy L

    2001-01-01

    Young children readily transmit and acquire nosocomial infections. Children are also vulnerable to endogenous infections as a result of the breakdown of their normal defences by disease, invasive procedures or therapy. The increasing acuity of illness in hospitalized children and therapeutic advances have resulted in a patient population that is increasingly at higher risk for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a problem in some paediatric hospitals, usually in intensive care and oncology units. Infection rates are the highest in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (where bloodstream infections are the most frequent), and are usually associated with intravascular devices. On general paediatric wards, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections predominate, reflecting the occurrence in the community. The surveillance of nosocomial infections identifies priorities for infection control activities and permits evaluation of interventions. The prevention of transmission between patients and to personnel requires that certain measures be taken with all patients, and that additional precautions be taken with some infections, based on the route of transmission. The prevention of transmission from personnel involves ensuring that personnel are appropriately immunized and counselled about working with infections. The prevention of nosocomial infection also involves control of visitors, appropriate management of invasive procedures and devices, sterilization and disinfection of equipment, provision of a clean environment and adequate staffing. Severely immunocompromised children require extra protection, including ventilation systems that reduce the risk of exposure to filamentous fungi. Infection control in paediatrics is an evolving field that must adapt to changes in the paediatric patient population and in health care technology. PMID:20084127

  1. Ambulatory paediatrics: does it work?

    PubMed

    Macleod, C; McElroy, G; O'Loan, D; Kennedy, F; Kerr, R M; Jenkins, J; Lim, J

    2002-02-01

    To determine whether a paediatric ambulatory assessment service is an effective and acceptable replacement for an inpatient unit. Analysis of hospital paediatric medical admissions. Postal questionnaire survey of local general practitioners. Telephone survey of parents of children who had attended the ambulatory service. Rural General Hospital in Northern Ireland. General practitioners. Parents of children referred to assessment service. Number of paediatric medical hospital admissions from the local area before and after the introduction of an ambulatory assessment service. General practitioner satisfaction levels. Parental satisfaction levels. Since the introduction of the new service in April 1996 there has been a marked progressive reduction in paediatric medical hospital admissions from the local area. By the third year of operation of the ambulatory service (1998/99), a 47% reduction in admissions was recorded, compared to the 1995/96 baseline year. The response rate to the general practitioner questionnaire was 65% (37 of 57) of whom most (31, 84%) found the service beneficial. Of the 37 respondents, 31 had referred patients to the service. The majority of these general practitioners (30, 97%) reported that the service was easy to access, and the same proportion felt that requests for consultation were met promptly. Most felt that feedback was appropriate (29, 94%). A telephone survey of 50 parents showed that most were either very satisfied (38, 76%), or satisfied (11, 22%) with the service. Most parents (41, 82%) felt their child had benefited by not being admitted to hospital. Most (46, 92%) felt they had received adequate information regarding their child's illness. A paediatric ambulatory assessment unit can reduce the number of children admitted to hospital and meet the needs of children, their families and general practitioners.

  2. The Danish Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349

  3. Spoken Danish. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Jeannette; Stig-Nielsen, Karin

    This is one of a series of self-teaching textbooks initially prepared for the Armed Forces and now offered to the public. The text is designed to be used with a native speaker of Danish or with the accompanying recordings. The textbook is divided into three major sections, each consisting of five learning units and one unit for review. Each unit…

  4. The Danish System Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    The paper is a supplement to an earlier paper in the same series which reviews Danish higher education until 1977. Expansion in higher education in the last 20 years, approaching the scale of mass higher education, culminated in a crisis in 1977. At that time, a trend toward self-government and participatory governing boards was seen as the end of…

  5. In the beginning, there was general paediatrics ….

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Hasantha; Kilham, Henry

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address how general paediatrics has evolved and adapted to change over the past 50 years and speculate on its future directions. We compare the state of general paediatrics with that of general adult medicine. We argue that general paediatrics must continue to have a strong role both in paediatric teaching hospitals and the community. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. What's new in paediatric dentistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.

  7. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  8. Trismus in the paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Shires, Peter M; Chow, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Trismus is a rare presentation affecting neonates, children, and adults. In newborns there are serious implications, with potential to affect feeding, cause airway problems, and make intubation difficult. Causes of trismus seen in the paediatric patient are discussed in this review article; they are divided into intra- and extra-articular types. The extra-articular group consists of congenital and acquired disorders. The acquired group includes infective causes such as tetanus, iatrogenic causes related to drugs, cancer or dental treatment, and trauma causing articulation difficulty or triggering a rare type of bone growth in myositis ossificans. Changes in the mouth resulting from oral submucous fibrosis can undergo malignant transformation. This review aims to raise awareness of potential causes of trismus in paediatric populations, helping clinicians identify the underlying pathology so appropriate strategies for treatment be applied, with the ultimate aim of improving long-term outlook and quality of life for affected children. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  9. [Current aspects of paediatric cholesteatomas].

    PubMed

    Thomas, J P; Volkenstein, S; Minovi, A; Dazert, S

    2013-05-01

    Cholesteatomas can be subclassified into genuine and acquired forms. Whilst epidermoid formations are the generally accepted cause of genuine cholesteatomas, metaplasia, immigration, proliferation and retraction pocket theories have all been proposed to explain the development of acquired cholesteatomas. Clinically, paediatric cholesteatomas exhibit more extensive and aggressive growth than those arising in adulthood. Molecular biological differences in terms of angiogenesis, cytokine expression and particularly the more marked inflammatory responses of the perimatrix could potentially explain these clinical differences. The surgical therapy of paediatric cholesteatomas should be adapted to the individual pathological findings, although where possible a canal wall up procedure is preferred during initial surgery. The "inside-out" mastoidectomy tracking-technique combines the benefits of a good surgical overview with those of a physiological postoperative auditory canal.

  10. Paediatric bacteraemias in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Er, Jeremy; Wallis, Peter; Maloney, Samuel; Norton, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Bacteraemias in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of local epidemiology and trends is important to inform practitioners of likely pathogens in the sick child. This study aimed to determine trends over time in pathogenic organisms causing paediatric bacteraemia in North Queensland and to audit a hospital's blood culture results with respect to contamination rate. This was a retrospective review of 8385 blood cultures collected from children attending a tertiary centre in North Queensland over a 10-year period (2001-2010). There were 696 positive blood cultures (8.3%) with 70 different bacterial species detected. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 48.6% and 51.4% of isolates, respectively. Overall, bacteraemia accounted for 4.7 per 1000 admissions. The rate of contamination was 60.6% among positive blood cultures and 5.0% for all blood cultures sampled. These results were compared with previous published reports. Notable differences were seen in the frequencies of Salmonella and group A Streptococcus bacteraemias in North Queensland when compared with other reports. There was also a decline in vaccine-preventable infections such as S. pneumoniae and an increasing trend of community-acquired MRSA bacteraemia. This study has demonstrated the unique profile of causative pathogens of paediatric bacteraemias in tropical Australia. In light of the increasing prevalence of MRSA, empiric treatment for sepsis for children in this region needs to be reconsidered. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children <7 years, the geographic distribution of the paediatric workforce highlighted very severe inequality across the nation, except the Central region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083

  12. From Transmission to Transition: Lessons Learnt from the Thai Paediatric Antiretroviral Programme

    PubMed Central

    Tulloch, Olivia; Theobald, Sally; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chasombat, Sanchai; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Jirawattanapisal, Thidaporn; Lakonphon, Sudrak; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Background The Thai HIV programme is a leader in the public health approach to HIV treatment. Starting at transmission of HIV and ending with transition to adult services this paper assesses the paediatric HIV treatment continuum from three perspectives: service-user, provider and policy maker, to understand what works well and why. Methods A qualitative research design was used to assess and triangulate the stakeholder perspectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ART service-users (n = 35), policy actors (n = 20); telephone interviews with prior caregivers of orphans (n = 10); and three focus group discussions with service-providers (hospital staff and volunteers) from a district, provincial and a university hospital. Findings Children accessing HIV care were often orphaned, cared for by elderly relatives and experiencing multiple vulnerabilities. Services were divided into three stages, 1. Diagnosis and linkage: Despite strong policies there were supply and demand-side gaps in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission ‘cascade’ preventing early diagnosis and/or treatment. 2. Maintenance on ART - Children did well on treatment; caregivers took adherence seriously and valued the quality of services. Drug resistance, adherence and psychosocial issues were important concerns from all perspectives. 3. Adolescents and transition: Adolescent service-users faced greater complexity in their physical and emotional lives for which providers lacked skills; transition from the security of paediatric clinic was a daunting prospect. Dedicated healthcare providers felt they struggled to deliver services that met service-users' diverse needs at all stages. Child- and adolescent-specific elements of HIV policy were considered low priority. Conclusions Using the notion of the continuum of care a number of strengths and weaknesses were identified. Features of paediatric services need to evolve alongside the changing needs of service users. Peer

  13. Ray resection in paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvarez, S; Maldonado-Morillo, A; Vara-Patudo, I; Martínez-González, C; Miranda-Gorozarri, C

    Evaluation of clinical and functional outcome of ray resection in paediatric population and description of key aspects of surgical technique. We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing surgery between 2010-2015. one or more ray resections of the hand and a minimum of one year follow-up. Evaluation of clinical characteristics, functional and cosmetic results, complications, need for psychological support and patient or family satisfaction. Four patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at surgery was 5 years (range, 1-14 years). Aetiology was: fibrolipomatous hamartoma, traumatic amputation, radial deficiency and complex syndactyly. Second ray was resected in three patients and third and fourth ray in one. No finger transfer was performed. No immediate post-operative complications were found at the final evaluation. None of them needed psychological support. All the patients showed excellent clinical and functional results with a high grade of satisfaction. Ray resection of the hand has been used as salvage procedure in patients with vascular lesions, tumours, trauma, infections or congenital malformations. There are only a few published studies including small samples in adults or case reports, with no references in the paediatric population. Ray resection of the hand is a useful and safe technique in paediatric population, obtaining excellent cosmetic and functional results in those cases in which it is impossible to preserve one or more fingers. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaesthesia for the paediatric outpatient.

    PubMed

    Jöhr, Martin; Berger, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review was to discuss recent developments in paediatric anaesthesia, which are particularly relevant to the practitioner involved in paediatric outpatient anaesthesia. The use of a pharmacological premedication is still a matter of debate. Several publications are focussing on nasal dexmedetomidine; however, its exact place has not yet been defined. Both inhalational and intravenous anaesthesia techniques still have their advocates; for diagnostic imaging, however, propofol is emerging as the agent of choice. The disappearance of codeine has left a breach for an oral opioid and has probably worsened postoperative analgesia following tonsillectomy. In recent years, a large body of evidence for the prevention of postoperative agitation has appeared. Alpha-2-agonists as well as the transition to propofol play an important role. There is now some consensus that for reasons of practicability prophylactic antiemetics should be administered to all and not only to selected high-risk patients. Perfect organization of the whole process is a prerequisite for successful paediatric outpatient anaesthesia. In addition, the skilled practitioner is able to provide a smooth anaesthetic, minimizing complications, and, finally, he has a clear concept for avoiding postoperative pain, agitation and vomiting.

  15. The Danish Adoption Register.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  16. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  17. Danish Cultural Identity and the Teaching of Danish to Foreigners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Hedwig

    2006-01-01

    Danish as a second language textbooks published over the last 15 years have presented the Danish cultural identity as a homogenous and purely national phenomenon. Research into teaching theory, on the other hand, has been more broad-minded, and is based on interactivity. The aim of this paper is to explain this divergence. (Contains 2 notes.)

  18. [Naples: the historic capital of Italian paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F

    2008-06-01

    No other Italian city has contributed to the birth and development of paediatrics more than Naples. This is why it can be considered the historic capital of Italian paediatrics. Here are the main reasons: Luigi Somma was the first professor of Italian paediatrics whereas Francesco Fede was the first president of the Italian Paediatrics Association. Neapolitan paediatricians have been the most numerous amongst the founder members. The first three Italian journals of paediatrics were founded in Naples as well as the journal ''La Pediatria'' which was the most distributed and long-lasting journal in this field. Moreover, Neapolitans have been the most numerous presidents of the Italian Paediatrics Association, while Rocco Jemma was the one who remained the longest in charge. ''Rocco Jemma's school'' taught not only to most professors in paediatrics who afterwards taught in most Italian universities, but also four out of five paediatricians who took charge of the position as president. The first regional department of the Italian Paediatrics Association was founded in Naples as well as the Association of Nipiology.

  19. The history of paediatric cardiology on stamps.

    PubMed

    Gursu, Hazım A; Cetin, Ibrahim I

    2017-08-14

    Paediatric cardiology is arguably the sub-specialty in which the greatest advances have been made in both disease diagnosis and treatment over the past half a century. Paediatric cardiology emerged as a discipline in the 1930s. Since then, advances in imaging techniques such as echocardiography, angiography, CT, or magnetic resonance and extracorporeal circulation have provided excellent diagnosis and treatment of CHD. The pioneers of paediatric cardiology are more than eponyms, for each used in new and original ways the tools and concepts available in his or her era. This brief overview of the history of paediatric cardiology on stamps begins from William Harvey up to our own time, and includes the milestones in paediatric cardiology.

  20. Canadian Paediatric Neurology Workforce Survey and Consensus Statement.

    PubMed

    Doja, Asif; Orr, Serena L; McMillan, Hugh J; Kirton, Adam; Brna, Paula; Esser, Michael; Tang-Wai, Richard; Major, Philippe; Poulin, Chantal; Prasad, Narayan; Selby, Kathryn; Weiss, Shelly K; Yeh, E Ann; Callen, David Ja

    2016-05-01

    Little knowledge exists on the availability of academic and community paediatric neurology positions. This knowledge is crucial for making workforce decisions. Our study aimed to: 1) obtain information regarding the availability of positions for paediatric neurologists in academic centres; 2) survey paediatric neurology trainees regarding their perceptions of employment issues and career plans; 3) survey practicing community paediatric neurologists 4) convene a group of paediatric neurologists to develop consensus regarding how to address these workforce issues. Surveys addressing workforce issues regarding paediatric neurology in Canada were sent to: 1) all paediatric neurology program directors in Canada (n=9) who then solicited information from division heads and from paediatric neurologists in surrounding areas; 2) paediatric neurology trainees in Canada (n=57) and; 3) community paediatric neurologists (n=27). A meeting was held with relevant stakeholders to develop a consensus on how to approach employment issues. The response rate was 100% from program directors, 57.9% from residents and 44% from community paediatric neurologists. We found that the number of projected positions in academic paediatric neurology is fewer than the number of paediatric neurologists that are being trained over the next five to ten years, despite a clinical need for paediatric neurologists. Paediatric neurology residents are concerned about job availability and desire more career counselling. There is a current and projected clinical demand for paediatric neurologists despite a lack of academic positions. Training programs should focus on community neurology as a viable career option.

  1. Citation context and impact of 'sleeping beauties' in paediatric research.

    PubMed

    Završnik, Jernej; Kokol, Peter; Del Torso, Stefano; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Objectives 'Sleeping beauties', i.e. publications that are not cited for a long while, present interesting findings in science. This study analysed the citation trends of sleeping beauties in paediatric research. Methods The study used bibliometric software to analyse the papers citing sleeping beauties in paediatric research, to understand the context in which paediatric sleeping beauties were finally cited and the impact of these sleeping beauties on paediatric research. Results Two paediatric sleeping beauties, addressing medical homes and the transition from paediatric to adult health care, respectively, awakened in response to organizational needs. Both presented novel concepts of paediatric service organization that became important because of an increased need for optimization of services. Conclusion All sleeping beauties bring new knowledge that becomes important only after several years. Paediatric sleeping beauties exhibited unique characteristics; however, their presence in paediatric research shows that knowledge acquisition in paediatrics resembles that in other disciplines.

  2. Sedation practice for paediatric nuclear medicine procedures in Denmark related to EANM guidelines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Linda; Andersen, Trine Borup; Petersen, Lars J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sedation practices for paediatric nuclear medicine examinations. A questionnaire was sent to all nuclear medicine departments in Denmark about sedation practices during 2012. The response rate was 100% (18 departments). Three departments did not examine children at all. The total number of paediatric examinations among the remaining 15 sites varied from 20 to 1,583 (median 191). Sedation practice showed that approximately 50% of the sites regularly (>50% of the patients) used pharmacological sedation for renography in children aged 6-12 months and 1-3 years. A minority of centres (∼15%) regularly used sedation in children aged 0-6 months, and no sites regularly used sedation in children aged and 4-6 years. Similar findings were found for renal scintigraphy. However, one large site used no sedation in children aged 1-3 years for renography but approximately 50% of patients used it in the same age group receiving renal scintigraphy with SPET. There was a trend for reduced use of sedation with increasing total number of paediatric medicine procedures. The most frequently used agents were benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The most common route of administration was rectal, oral, and intravenous. The sedation practices varied considerably among Danish nuclear medicine departments. The sedation of children in clinical practice seemed to be more prevalent than is recommended by guidelines.

  3. Information technology in paediatric rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alessandro; Morgan, Esi M; Giancane, Gabriella; Rosina, Silvia; Lanni, Stefano; Ravelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Information technology in paediatric rheumatology has seen several exciting developments in recent years. The new multidimensional questionnaires for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, and juvenile autoinflammatory diseases integrate all major parent- and child-reported outcomes (PCROs) used in these diseases into a single tool, and provide an effective guide to manage, document change in health, assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, and verify the parent and child satisfaction with illness outcome. The Pharmachild registry is aimed to gain information concerning the long-term effectiveness and safety of the medications currently used in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, particularly biologic agents, through collection of prospective data in a large, multinational sample of patients. Children and their parents are directly involved in the data collection by means of the regular completion of a digital version of a multidimensional questionnaire. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) employs modern measurement science to advance assessment of PCROs, particularly HRQL, and offers multidimensional profile measures. The conceptual link of paediatric PROMIS with adult instruments facilitates harmonisation of assessments made in children and adolescents with those carried out in young adults in the process of transition of medical care. Development of electronic versions of questionnaires that permit their completion through smartphones or touch-screen devices will revolutionise information collection from parents and children, foster the regular collection of PCROs in routine care, and ultimately improve the quality of self-reported health data, and patient outcomes.

  4. Postgraduate medical education in paediatric surgery: videoconferencing--a possible solution for Africa?

    PubMed

    Hadley, Grenville Peter; Mars, M

    2008-02-01

    Africa faces a triple burden of disease; HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Despite this, its population is expected to double over the next 45 years. There is a dire shortage of medical specialists and many countries lack suitably qualified doctors to train medical specialists. Videoconferencing offers the opportunity to share scarce human resources. In the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal there are only three paediatric surgeons who meet the clinical needs of the province and offer training in paediatric surgery to general surgeons in training. This paper reports an 18-month experience using videoconferenced postgraduate medical education in paediatric surgery in a South African setting. Seventy-one videoconference postgraduate teaching sessions of 1 h duration were broadcast to up to four sites in South Africa. Teaching sessions were in a lecture format with discussion thereafter. On average, 18 people at receive sites took part in each session in 2005 and 37 in 2006. There was universal satisfaction with videoconferenced teaching from those teaching and the participants at the distant sites. There is a demand to extend this project to other parts of South Africa and into Africa, where the shortage of paediatric surgeons is acute.

  5. Paediatric exercise training in prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pieles, Guido E; Horn, Richard; Williams, Craig A; Stuart, A Graham

    2014-04-01

    Exercise training is an underused intervention in paediatric healthcare. This is surprising, since initial evidence demonstrates its effectiveness and safety; furthermore it confers socioeconomic benefits for healthcare systems. Pilot studies have assessed and confirmed the feasibility of exercise training in many paediatric disease settings. However, more research is needed to understand the pathophysiology, quantify treatment effects and monitor outcomes. A concerted effort from researchers, health professionals and police makers will be necessary to make exercise training an evidence-based and cost-effective intervention in paediatric care.

  6. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  7. Framework conditions facilitating paediatric clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The use of unlicensed and "off-label" medicines in children is widespread. Between 50-80% of the medicines currently administered to children have neither been tested nor authorized for their use in the paediatric population which represents approximately 25% of the whole European population. On 26 January 2007, entered into force the European Regulation of Paediatric Medicines. It aims at the quality of research into medicines for children but without subjecting the paediatric population to unnecessary clinical trial. This article addresses ethical and legal issues arising from the regulation and makes recommendations for the framework conditions facilitating the development of clinical research with children. PMID:21345195

  8. Impact of the European paediatric legislation in paediatric rheumatology: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Vesely, Richard; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Martini, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Conducting clinical trials in paediatric rheumatology has been difficult mainly because of the lack of funding for academic studies and the lack of interest by pharmaceutical companies in the small and non-rewarding paediatric market. The situation changed dramatically a few years ago with the introduction of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act in the USA and of specific legislation for the development of paediatric medicines (Paediatric Regulation) in the European Union (EU). The EU Paediatric Regulation had a positive impact in paediatric rheumatology-in particular, on the development of new treatments for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Some problems remain, however, such as greater harmonisation of the regulatory aspects of medicines, how to handle me-too agents, how to conduct adequate pharmacokinetic studies and develop age-appropriate formulations, ethical problems in study review and implementation, and a change in the current JIA classification. The introduction of specific legislation, coupled with the existence of large international networks such as the Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group (PRCSG at http://www.prcsg.org), covering North America, and the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO at http://www.printo.it), covering more than 50 countries, has led to great advances in paediatric rheumatology. Future changes might increase the possibility of conducting trials with similar approaches in other paediatric rheumatological conditions and provide evidence-based treatments for children affected by rheumatic diseases.

  9. [Drug administration to paediatric inpatient].

    PubMed

    Fontan, J E; Mille, F; Brion, F; Aubin, F; Ballereau, F; Benoît, G; Brunet, M L; Braguier, D; Combeau, D; Dugast, P; Gérout, A C; May, I; Meunier, P; Naveau-Ploux, C; Proust, V; Samdjee, F; Schlatter, J; Thébault, A; Vié, M

    2004-10-01

    Available commercial drugs in France are often unsuitable for children. The aim of this study was, for every medicinal form orally or parenterally administered, to identify and to quantify difficulties met by the nurses administering drugs to paediatric inpatients and to propose solutions to main identified problems. The study was realized in 14 hospitals by direct observation. The observer, provided with a questionnaire, followed during a time slot of at least 2 h for one or several nurses and raised all the oral or injectable administrations. One thousand and nine hundred forty-six observations were performed. The children were 12.6 +/- 17 months old, and weighed 8.5 +/- 9.4 kg. Injectable drugs: half of the observations showed a posology and a mode of dilution not corresponding to the summary of product characteristics. Eight percent of orally administered drugs were injectable drugs. In 35.5% of cases, administered amount was lower than the quarter of the present quantity in the therapeutic unity. The rest of the therapeutic unity was thrown (77.2% of cases). Liquid oral forms: liquid oral forms were ready for use regarding 83.8% of cases. The medicine was readministered to the same patient (23.5%), and/or administered to other patients (80.0%). Capsules: 66.9% of the administered capsules were prepared by the hospital pharmacies. The pharmacies organized with an unit dose drug dispensing system produced significantly more preparations than those working by global distribution (P < 0.0001). In 58.4% of cases, the administered capsule was an off-label drug. Tablets: 46% of drug administration concerned a tablet without pediatric indication. 46.7% of tablets were cut, 74% were crushed. Bags: in 35.2% of observations, the bag was not administered in its entirety. Our study confirms the unsuitability of drugs to paediatric inpatients, the necessity of recommendations of good practices in the administration of drugs to paediatric inpatients, and proposes corrective

  10. The Danish Nephrology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Heaf, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nephrology Registry’s (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities’ quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. Study population The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964. Main variables DNR registers patient data (eg, age, sex, renal diagnosis, and comorbidity), predialysis specialist treatment, details of eight dialysis modalities (three hemodialysis and five peritoneal dialysis), all transplantation courses, dialysis access at first dialysis, treatment complications, and biochemical variables. The database is complete (<1% missing data). Patients are followed until death or emigration. Descriptive data DNR now contains 18,120 patients, and an average of 678 is added annually. Data for each transplantation course include donor details, tissue type, time to onset of graft function, and cause of graft loss. Registered complications include peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, causes of peritoneal dialysis technique failure, and transplant rejections. Fifteen biochemical variables are registered, mainly describing anemia control, mineral and bone disease, nutritional and uremia status. Date and cause of death are also included. Six quality indicators are published annually, and have been associated with improvements in patient results, eg, a reduction in dialysis patient mortality, improved graft survival, and earlier referral to specialist care. Approximately, ten articles, mainly epidemiological, are published each year. Conclusion DNR contains a complete description of end-stage renal disease patients in Denmark, their treatment, and prognosis. The stated aims are fulfilled. PMID:27843345

  11. The Danish Heart Registry

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population All adult (≥15 years) patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR). For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing) of each procedure (>90%) when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have a high level of completeness for surgery since 2000, and for CAG and PCI since 2010. Conclusion The DHR contains valuable data on cardiac invasive procedures, which makes it an important national monitoring and quality system and at the same time serves as a platform for research projects in the cardiovascular field. PMID:27822091

  12. Therapeutic clowning in paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Fiona; Baverstock, Anna; Lenton, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been much research into the health benefits of humour and laughter. Although often viewed very positively, rigorous evaluation of the therapeutic effect of clowning is complex. Clowning is a multi-modal intervention, which may have an impact on medical conditions, procedures, family functioning and health care teams. Clowns help children to adapt to their hospital surroundings and can distract from, and demystify, painful or frightening procedures through 'doses of fun' to complement traditional clinical interventions. This paper provides a review of the paediatric literature and reveals studies looking at the effect of clown interventions on various practical procedures and individual medical conditions, and the effects of clowning within clinical teams.

  13. Steroid Assays in Paediatric Endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330

  14. Management of paediatric liver trauma.

    PubMed

    van As, A B; Millar, Alastair J W

    2017-04-01

    Of all the intra-abdominal solid organs, the liver is the most vulnerable to blunt abdominal trauma. The majority of liver ruptures present in combination with other abdominal or extra-abdominal injuries. Over the last three decades, the management of blunt liver trauma has evolved from obligatory operative to non-operative management in over 90% of cases. Penetrating liver injuries more often require operative intervention and are managed according to adult protocols. The greatest clinical challenge remains the timely identification of the severely damaged liver with immediate and aggressive resuscitation and expedition to laparotomy. The operative management can be taxing and should ideally be performed in a dedicated paediatric surgical centre with experience in dealing with such trauma. Complications can occur early or late and include haemobilia, intrahepatic duct rupture with persistent biliary fistula, bilaemia, intrahepatic haematoma, post-traumatic cysts, vascular outflow obstruction, and gallstones. The prognosis is generally excellent.

  15. Steroid assays in paediatric endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Honour, John W

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation.

  16. Chvostek's sign in paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zeeshaan U; Absamara, Rania; Ahmed, Mas

    2014-01-01

    Chvostek's Sign was first described in 1876, as a clinical clue associated with patients who suffered from latent tetany, and is induced by percussion of the angle of the jaw. However, over the years many clinicians have called into question the strength of the association with latent tetany, particularly in paediatric practice. This review examines the variation in techniques used to elicit the sign in studies conducted on this phenomenon in children as well as how differences in the classification of a positive Chvostek's sign have lead to varied reports on the strength of the association. Furthermore, an appraisal of the literature regarding the proposed mechanism of Chvostek's sign is reported alongside analysing other diseases which have been associated with Chvostek's sign to uncover any unifying mechanism for the presence of this clinical sign in children.

  17. Job satisfaction and burnout among paediatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Akman, Ozlem; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat; Ayar, Dijle; Armstrong, Merry A

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to determine factors of job satisfaction and burnout levels of paediatric nurses. A total of 165 nurses working in paediatric clinics completed the Minnesota job satisfaction scale and the Maslach burnout scale. Average scores of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation score were low, while personal accomplishment scores were high. A high level of job satisfaction, being married, increased age and a decreased number of assigned patients were significantly associated with a low level of burnout. Paediatric nurses experience burnout at significant levels. The most important variable that affected job satisfaction was income. The results of the study could guide development of strategies that might prevent or alleviate burnout of paediatric nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Imaging in chronic cough in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Brown, S; Davies, P

    2011-11-01

    Chronic cough is a common presentation in paediatrics. We describe a case which highlights the need for careful history taking and summarize the key clinical features which should prompt a clinician to perform a chest X-ray.

  19. Paediatric cardiac nursing education: a national collaboration.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kerry; Daniels, Amanda; Sheehan, Karen; Langton, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Educational courses for staff working in paediatric specialties may not be financially viable because of the small numbers involved and the difficulties that potential students have in getting released from their units. The UK Paediatric Cardiac Nurses Association worked with other groups to explore the feasibility of a national multi-professional paediatric cardiac education pathway. Three options were identified, including the continuation of local in-house provision with its associated variation in standards. The relative benefits and resource implications of each option were explored and approaches made to educational institutions for support in developing the pathway. A university with an established reputation for e-learning undertook this development and a post graduate certificate in Paediatric Cardiothoracic Practice will soon be available.

  20. Paediatric eosinophilic oesophagitis presenting to the otolaryngologist.

    PubMed

    Harris, R; Mitton, S; Chong, S; Daya, H

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis is increasing. A Pubmed search for 'eosinophilic oesophagitis' and 'eosinophilic esophagitis' yielded 345 publications since 1976. Only seven were in otolaryngology journals.1-7 Patients typically present with dysphagia, vomiting, dyspepsia or food impaction and are therefore usually referred to a paediatric gastroenterologist; otolaryngologists are not usually involved in management. A missed diagnosis may result in oesophageal stricture. Two patients, aged two and four years, were referred to the paediatric otolaryngology department with intermittent upper oesophageal food impaction. A paediatric gastroenterologist was involved in the investigation. Histological examination of oesophageal biopsies demonstrated changes consistent with eosinophilic oesophagitis. Both patients were expediently diagnosed, investigated and managed. A diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis must be considered in patients presenting with food bolus impaction. Early involvement of a paediatric gastroenterology team in the diagnosis is recommended in children presenting with oesophageal symptoms, in order to avoid delayed diagnosis.

  1. Dental treatment for paediatric obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ngiam, Joachim; Cistulli, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Paediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common and its prevalence is expected to increase due to the rise in childhood obesity. Recent research has shown that many children, both syndromic and non-syndromic, who exhibit mouth breathing as a result of upper airway obstruction, may also exhibit dentofacial anomalies. Although adenotonsillectomy and continuous positive airway pressure have been classically proposed as the primary treatment modalities for paediatric OSA, there are significant limitations to both therapies. Therefore newer treatment modalities are needed. Current research has focused on emerging dental treatment options for paediatric OSA, such as rapid maxillary expansion, oral appliances and distraction osteogenesis. However, there are few randomized trials assessing the effectiveness of these novel dental therapies for paediatric OSA, and hence further research is required to advance the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical strategies in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, Colin T; Smith, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two distinct but related chronic relapsing inflammatory conditions affecting different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s disease is characterised by a patchy transmural inflammation affecting both small and large bowel segments with several distinct phenotypic presentations. Ulcerative colitis classically presents as mucosal inflammation of the rectosigmoid (distal colitis), variably extending in a contiguous manner more proximally through the colon but not beyond the caecum (pancolitis). This article highlights aspects of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of IBD that have relevance for paediatric practice with particular emphasis on surgical considerations. Since 25% of IBD cases present in childhood or teenage years, the unique considerations and challenges of paediatric management should be widely appreciated. Conversely, we argue that the organizational separation of the paediatric and adult healthcare worlds has often resulted in late adoption of new approaches particularly in paediatric surgical practice. PMID:26034347

  3. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Borràs, Eva; Domínguez, Àngela; Fuentes, Miriam; Batalla, Joan; Cardeñosa, Neus; Plasencia, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged < 3 years recruited by random sampling from municipal districts of all health regions of Catalonia. The total sample was 630 children. Parents completed a standard questionnaire for each child, which included vaccination coverage and knowledge about vaccination. The level of knowledge of vaccination was scored according to parental answers. Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose) and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43) and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72). The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination. PMID:19473498

  4. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). Morbidity was reported in 7.5% of patients. There were three deaths in Queensland. Helmet use is recommended for non-riders when handling horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Paediatrics: the etymology of a name.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2011-08-01

    Within the history of paediatrics is the history of the name used to describe it. The etymology of the word 'paediatrics' dates from its first written use, recorded as 'pädiatrik' in the German literature and as 'paediatric', later 'pediatric' in the USA, both first in 1850. Professor Robley Dunglison (1788-1869), the British and American medical lexicographer, first defined 'paediatria' as 'the treatment of the diseases of children' in 1855. 'Pediatric medicine' was promoted as a specialty in the USA in 1880. The oldest monumental inscription defining the specialty of 'paediatrics' in the UK is to be found on a plaque added (in 1950) to the memorial to Dr George Armstrong (1719-1789), a founder of the specialty of paediatrics, in Castleton Cemetery, Scottish Borders, Roxburghshire. 'Paediatrics' and 'child health', with subtle semantic distinctions, had become well established in the English-speaking world by the middle of the 20th century. This paper presents an interpretative chronology of the etymology of the descriptors of the specialty that enjoins all who care for children.

  6. Exploring resilience in paediatric oncology nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Zander, Melissa; Hutton, Alison; King, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Resilience has been suggested as an important coping strategy for nurses working in demanding settings, such as paediatric oncology. This qualitative study explored paediatric oncology nurses' perceptions of their development of resilience and how this resilience underpinned their ability to deal with work-related stressors. Five paediatric oncology nurses were interviewed about their understanding of the concept of resilience, their preferred coping mechanisms, and their day-today work in paediatric oncology. Using thematic analysis, the interviews were subsequently grouped together into seventeen initial themes. These themes were then grouped into seven major aspects that described how the participants perceived resilience underpinned their work. These "seven aspects of forming resilience" contributed to an initial understanding of how paediatric oncology nurses develop resilience in the face of their personal and professional challenges. Several key strategies derived from the findings, such as improved rostering, support to a nurse's friend and family, and a clinical support nursing role, could be implemented at an organizational level to support resilience development within the paediatric oncology setting.

  7. The European paediatric legislation: benefits and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Francesca; Paolucci, Paolo; Ceci, Adriana; Rossi, Paolo

    2010-08-17

    The lack of availability of appropriate medicines for children is an extensive and well known problem. Paediatricians and Physicians who take care of the paediatric population are primarily exposed to cope with this negative situation very often as more than half of the children are prescribed off-label or unlicensed medicines. Medicinal products used to treat this population should be subjected to ethical research of high quality and be explicitly authorized for use in children as it happens in adults. For that reason, and following the US experience, the European Paediatric Regulation has been amended in January 2007 by the European Commission. The objective of the Paediatric Regulation is to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children aged 0 to 17 years, to facilitate the availability of information on the use of medicines for children, without subjecting children to unnecessary trials, or delaying the authorization of medicines for use in adults. The Paediatric Regulation is dramatically changing the regulatory environment for paediatric medicines in Europe and is fuelling an increased number of clinical trials in the paediatric population. Nevertheless, there are some risks and pitfalls that need to be anticipated and controlled in order to ensure that children will ultimately benefit from this European initiative.

  8. Enhancing HIV Treatment Access and Outcomes Amongst HIV Infected Children and Adolescents in Resource Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Goga, Ameena Ebrahim; Singh, Yagespari; Singh, Michelle; Noveve, Nobuntu; Magasana, Vuyolwethu; Ramraj, Trisha; Abdullah, Fareed; Coovadia, Ashraf H; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Sherman, Gayle G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Increasing access to HIV-related care and treatment for children aged 0-18 years in resource-limited settings is an urgent global priority. In 2011-2012 the percentage increase in children accessing antiretroviral therapy was approximately half that of adults (11 vs. 21 %). We propose a model for increasing access to, and retention in, paediatric HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings. Methods Following a rapid appraisal of recent literature seven main challenges in paediatric HIV-related care and treatment were identified: (1) lack of regular, integrated, ongoing HIV-related diagnosis; (2) weak facility-based systems for tracking and retention in care; (3) interrupted availability of dried blood spot cards (expiration/stock outs); (4) poor quality control of rapid HIV testing; (5) supply-related gaps at health facility-laboratory interface; (6) poor uptake of HIV testing, possibly relating to a fatalistic belief about HIV infection; (7) community-associated reasons e.g. non-disclosure and weak systems for social support, resulting in poor retention in care. Results To increase sustained access to paediatric HIV-related care and treatment, regular updating of Policies, review of inter-sectoral Plans (at facility and community levels) and evaluation of Programme implementation and impact (at national, subnational, facility and community levels) are non-negotiable critical elements. Additionally we recommend the intensified implementation of seven main interventions: (1) update or refresher messaging for health care staff and simple messaging for key staff at early childhood development centres and schools; (2) contact tracing, disclosure and retention monitoring; (3) paying particular attention to infant dried blood spot (DBS) stock control; (4) regular quality assurance of rapid HIV testing procedures; (5) workshops/meetings/dialogues between health facilities and laboratories to resolve transport-related gaps and to facilitate return of

  9. Networking in paediatrics: the example of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO).

    PubMed

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Martini, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Networking is key to overcoming the logistical, methodological and ethical problems related to the implementation of paediatric studies. The adoption of legislation to encourage paediatric clinical trials by the American and European regulatory agencies has opened a new era in the assessment of drug safety and efficacy in children. Two very large international trial networks--the Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group (PRCSG) and the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO)--have played a critical role in the implementation of this legislation and have facilitated several successful controlled studies on the safety and the efficacy of new and old drugs in paediatric rheumatic diseases. The PRINTO and PRCSG networks can be seen as a model for international co-operation in other paediatric subspecialties.

  10. Where should paediatric surgery be performed?

    PubMed

    Arul, G S; Spicer, R D

    1998-07-01

    We have tried to review the evidence for the organisation of paediatric surgical care. Difficulties arise because of the lack of published data from district general hospitals concerning paediatric surgical conditions. Hence much of the debate about the surgical management of children is based on anecdotal evidence. However, at a time when the provision of health care is being radically reorganised to an internal market based on a system of purchasers and providers it is more important than ever to understand the issues at stake. Two separate issues have been discussed: the role of the specialist paediatric centre and the provision of non-specialist paediatric surgery in district general hospitals. There are arguments for and against large regional specialist paediatric centres. The benefits of centralisation include concentration of expertise, more appropriate consultant on call commitment, development of support services, and junior doctor training. The disadvantages include children and their families having to travel long distances for care, and the loss of expertise at a local level. If specialist paediatric emergency transport is available the benefits of centralisation far outweigh the adverse effects of having to take children to a regional paediatric intensive care centre. Specialist paediatric centres are aware of the importance of treating children and their parents as a family unit as highlighted by the Platt committee; this is an important challenge and enormous improvements have occurred to provide proper accommodation for families while their children are treated in hospital. To keep these arguments of large distances and separation from the home in context, one paediatric intensive care unit in Victoria, Australia, providing a centralised service to a region larger in are than England and with a similar admission rate, has a lower mortality rate than the decentralised paediatric intensive care provided in the Trent region of the UK. There is clear

  11. Subjectless sentences in child Danish.

    PubMed

    Hamann, C; Plunkett, K

    1998-11-01

    Three alternative accounts of subject omission, pragmatic, processing and grammatical, are considered from the perspective of child Danish. Longitudinal data for two Danish children are analyzed for subject omission, finite and infinitival verb usage and discourse anchorage of sentence subjects (overt and missing). The data exhibit a well-defined phase of subject omission which coincides with a well-defined phase of infinitival verbal utterances. No evidence is found for input driven accounts of subject omission. Danish adults rarely omit subjects from utterance initial position. Neither is there any evidence to support the claim that omitted subjects are anchored in previous discourse. Evidence supporting a processing constraint explanation of missing subjects is equivocal. The pattern of subject omission, infinitival usage and third person pronoun and past tense usage points to a grammatical explanation of the phenomenon. However, current grammatical accounts have difficulty accommodating several aspects of the data reported. Contrary to structure building theories, the Danish children do not exhibit a phase of development where only uninflected verb forms are used. Danish children also omit subjects from finite utterances. Furthermore, the decline of subject omissions in finite utterances coincides with decline in usage of infinitival utterances. These findings challenge tense-based accounts of children's subject omission. Finally, Danish children exhibit an asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type; subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Given the language typology associated with Danish, this asymmetry is difficult to accommodate within truncation and tense or number-based accounts of subject omission. We suggest that a proper treatment of child subject omission will involve an integration of grammatical and discourse-based approaches.

  12. Paediatric diagnostic audiology testing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Selvarani

    2016-03-01

    With the increased emphasis on the importance of early identification of paediatric hearing loss within developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria there has been a recognition of the ethical obligation to ensure access to timely diagnostic and intervention services for children identified with hearing loss; regardless of their geographic or socioeconomic status. There are limited studies on diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in a developing world context. The objective of this study was to determine processes used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa, across the private and public healthcare sectors, and to profile the age of testing for each component of the diagnostic test battery. Diagnostic audiology testing data of 230 children enrolled in an early intervention programme was analysed to profile the reporting of diagnostic audiology testing as well as diagnostic audiology procedures employed. Results were analysed according to province as well as healthcare sector to compare diagnostic services across regions as well as healthcare sectors. The differences in audiology practice and tests employed with paediatric clients across the regions of Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal and Western Cape indicates that services across regions and across the public and private sector are not equitable. Each region is equally unlikely to complete a full, comprehensive diagnostic evaluation on paediatric clients. The age of testing highlights the increased age of diagnosis of hearing loss. Paediatric diagnostic audiology is a section of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention services that requires attention in terms of the appropriateness of procedures as well as equity of services. Further studies on diagnostic practice and resources in South Africa will provide information on factors that are preventing adherence to international best practice guidelines for paediatric diagnostic audiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217

  14. Vomiting and common paediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Busoni, P; Crescioli, M; Agostino, R; Sestini, G

    2000-01-01

    Postoperative vomiting is a common and unpleasant complication. The purpose of the present study was to verify if dexamethasone reduces the incidence of vomiting when injected IV in children anaesthetized with halothane for common paediatric operations. We also studied the incidence of vomiting when sevoflurane was used instead. Five hundred and 69 boys, aged 2-12 years (ASA physical status I, II), scheduled for inguinal field surgery were randomly assigned to receive halothane, halothane and dexamethasone and sevoflurane in three groups: halothane (n=180), halothane and IV dexamethasone (n=188) and sevoflurane (n=201). Anaesthesia was induced by inhalation of halothane or sevoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide and was maintained at minimum alveolar concentration of each agent throughout the surgery. For intra- and postoperative pain control iliac crest block was used in all the boys. Vomiting was defined as any expulsion of liquid gastric contents. The incidence of postoperative vomiting was 23% in the halothane group, which was significantly greater than that in the other groups (halothane and dexamethasone group, 9%; sevoflurane group, 13%). In conclusion, dexamethasone reduces the incidence and frequency of multiple emetic episodes when administered intravenously after halothane anaesthesia; sevoflurane reduces the overall incidence of vomiting, but not multiple emetic episodes.

  15. [Paediatric pharmacobezoar in vitamin overdose].

    PubMed

    Vega-Mata, Nataliz; Fernández-García, Laura; Lara-Cardenas, Carolina; Raposo-Rodríguez, Lucía; Montes-Granda, María

    2016-12-29

    Pharmacobezoars are aggregates of undigested medications that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract and can cause obstructive or toxic complications. In this paper, the first case is reported of a paediatric pharmacobezoar formation after a vitamin overdose. The objective of this report is to prevent the occurrence of this complication and the action to be taken. A 6-year-old child, 6h after ingesting 40 chewable tablets of a hydrophobic vitamin E with high capacity to form a pharmacobezoar, underwent urgent oesophagogastroscopy. A viscoelastic mass of 10×4cm was observed stretching from the cardia to the greater curvature. Seventy-five percent of the mass was removed and the remainder was fragmented, hydrated and aspirated. The patient remains asymptomatic to date. An overdose of hydrophobic drugs can produce a bezoar formation therefore prompt evacuation is recommended with an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which is a safe and effective technique in gastric bezoars. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Minimally invasive paediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Emile; Kalfa, David

    2014-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive surgery for congenital heart disease in paediatric patients is broad, and has the aim of reducing the trauma of the operation at each stage of management. Firstly, in the operating room using minimally invasive incisions, video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotically assisted surgery, hybrid procedures, image-guided intracardiac surgery, and minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. Secondly, in the intensive-care unit with neuroprotection and 'fast-tracking' strategies that involve early extubation, early hospital discharge, and less exposure to transfused blood products. Thirdly, during postoperative mid-term and long-term follow-up by providing the children and their families with adequate support after hospital discharge. Improvement of these strategies relies on the development of new devices, real-time multimodality imaging, aids to instrument navigation, miniaturized and specialized instrumentation, robotic technology, and computer-assisted modelling of flow dynamics and tissue mechanics. In addition, dedicated multidisciplinary co-ordinated teams involving congenital cardiac surgeons, perfusionists, intensivists, anaesthesiologists, cardiologists, nurses, psychologists, and counsellors are needed before, during, and after surgery to go beyond apparent technological and medical limitations with the goal to 'treat more while hurting less'.

  17. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  18. [A Paediatric Orthopaedic outpatient clinic referral patterns].

    PubMed

    Moraleda, L; Castellote, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the commonest referrals to a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic and, therefore, to be able to improve the paediatric residency program in managing musculoskeletal problems. Demographic data, referrals and final diagnosis were collected prospectively on all patients that were evaluated in a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic. The majority of referrals were to evaluate musculoskeletal pain (37%), foot deformity (20%), spine deformity (15%), walking pattern (11%), alignment of the lower limbs (4%), and development of the hip (4%). A normal physical examination or a normal variation was observed in 42% of patients. A mild condition was observed in 17% of patients that should have only been referred to a paediatric orthopaedic clinic after failing to resolve pain with anti-inflammatories or physiotherapy. A mild deformity that only needed treatment if it became symptomatic was seen in 8% of patients. The majority of referrals were due to a normal variation or mild conditions that only required symptomatic treatment. Paediatric residency programs do not reflect the prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Causes, mechanisms and management of paediatric osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, Outi

    2013-08-01

    Osteoporosis, a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength and an increased risk of fractures, is an important paediatric disorder that involves almost all paediatric subspecialties. Osteogenesis imperfecta is the most common form of childhood-onset primary osteoporosis, but several other forms are also known. Secondary osteoporosis is caused by an underlying chronic illness or its treatment. The most common causes of secondary osteoporosis include chronic systemic inflammation, glucocorticoid use and neuromuscular disabilities. The skeletal sequelae can present in childhood as low-energy peripheral and vertebral fractures, or become evident in adulthood as low bone mass and an increased propensity to develop osteoporosis. Management should aim at prevention, as interventions to treat symptomatic osteoporosis in the paediatric age group are scarce. Bisphosphonates are the principal pharmacological agents that can be used in this setting, but data on their efficacy and safety in paediatric populations remain inadequate, especially in patients with secondary osteoporosis. Consequently, it is important to understand the potential skeletal effects of paediatric illnesses and their therapies in order to institute effective and timely prevention of skeletal complications.

  20. Outcome of paediatric intensive care survivors

    PubMed Central

    Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bos, Albert P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of paediatric intensive care has contributed to the improved survival of critically ill children. Physical and psychological sequelae and consequences for quality of life (QoL) in survivors might be significant, as has been determined in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Awareness of sequelae due to the original illness and its treatment may result in changes in treatment and support during and after the acute phase. To determine the current knowledge on physical and psychological sequelae and the quality of life in survivors of paediatric intensive care, we undertook a computerised comprehensive search of online databases for studies reporting sequelae in survivors of paediatric intensive care. Studies reporting sequelae in paediatric survivors of cardiothoracic surgery and trauma were excluded, as were studies reporting only mortality. All other studies reporting aspects of physical and psychological sequelae were analysed. Twenty-seven studies consisting of 3,444 survivors met the selection criteria. Distinct physical and psychological sequelae in patients have been determined and seemed to interfere with quality of life. Psychological sequelae in parents seem to be common. Small numbers, methodological limitations and quantitative and qualitative heterogeneity hamper the interpretation of data. We conclude that paediatric intensive care survivors and their parents have physical and psychological sequelae affecting quality of life. Further well-designed prospective studies evaluating sequelae of the original illness and its treatment are warranted. PMID:17823815

  1. Danish Palliative Care Database

    PubMed Central

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111

  2. Guidelines for paediatric life support. Paediatric Life Support Working Party of the European Resuscitation Council.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The paediatric life support working party of the European Resuscitation Council was set up in 1992 with the aim of producing guidelines for basic and advanced paediatric resuscitation that would be acceptable throughout Europe. The commonest cause of cardiac arrest in children is problems with the airway. The resulting difficulties in breathing and the associated hypoxia rapidly cause a severe bradycardia or asystole. In contrast, adults have primary cardiac events resulting in ventricular fibrillation. This important difference in the pathogenesis of paediatric and adult cardiac arrest is reflected in these European Resuscitation Council guidelines, which complement those already published for adults. PMID:8019227

  3. Peer teaching in paediatrics - medical students as learners and teachers on a paediatric course.

    PubMed

    Schauseil-Zipf, Ulrike; Karay, Yassin; Ehrlich, Roland; Knoop, Kai; Michalk, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Peer assisted learning is known as an effective educational strategy in medical teaching. We established a peer assisted teaching program by student tutors with a focus on clinical competencies for students during their practical training on paediatric wards. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the effects of a clinical skills training by tutors, residents and consultants on students evaluations of the teaching quality and the effects of a peer teaching program on self assessed clinical competencies by the students. Medical student peers in their 6(th) year were trained by an intensive instruction program for teaching clinical skills by paediatric consultants, doctors and psychologists. 109 students in their 5(th) year (study group) participated in a peer assisted teaching program for training clinical skills in paediatrics. The skills training by student peer teachers were supervised by paediatric doctors. 45 students (control group) participated in a conventional paediatric skills training by paediatric doctors and consultants. Students from both groups, which were consecutively investigated, completed a questionnaire with an evaluation of the satisfaction with their practical training and a self assessment of their practical competencies. The paediatric skills training with student peer teachers received significantly better ratings than the conventional skills training by paediatric doctors concerning both the quality of the practical training and the support by the teaching medical staff. Self assessed learning success in practical skills was higher rated in the peer teaching program than in the conventional training. The peer assisted teaching program of paediatric skills training was rated higher by the students regarding their satisfaction with the teaching quality and their self assessment of the acquired skills. Clinical skills training by student peer teachers have to be supervised by paediatric doctors. Paediatric doctors seem to be more

  4. Peer Teaching in Paediatrics - Medical Students as Learners and Teachers on a Paediatric Course

    PubMed Central

    Schauseil-Zipf, Ulrike; Karay, Yassin; Ehrlich, Roland; Knoop, Kai; Michalk, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peer assisted learning is known as an effective educational strategy in medical teaching. We established a peer assisted teaching program by student tutors with a focus on clinical competencies for students during their practical training on paediatric wards. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the effects of a clinical skills training by tutors, residents and consultants on students evaluations of the teaching quality and the effects of a peer teaching program on self assessed clinical competencies by the students. Methods: Medical student peers in their 6th year were trained by an intensive instruction program for teaching clinical skills by paediatric consultants, doctors and psychologists. 109 students in their 5th year (study group) participated in a peer assisted teaching program for training clinical skills in paediatrics. The skills training by student peer teachers were supervised by paediatric doctors. 45 students (control group) participated in a conventional paediatric skills training by paediatric doctors and consultants. Students from both groups, which were consecutively investigated, completed a questionnaire with an evaluation of the satisfaction with their practical training and a self assessment of their practical competencies. Results: The paediatric skills training with student peer teachers received significantly better ratings than the conventional skills training by paediatric doctors concerning both the quality of the practical training and the support by the teaching medical staff. Self assessed learning success in practical skills was higher rated in the peer teaching program than in the conventional training. Conclusions: The peer assisted teaching program of paediatric skills training was rated higher by the students regarding their satisfaction with the teaching quality and their self assessment of the acquired skills. Clinical skills training by student peer teachers have to be supervised by paediatric doctors

  5. [The latest in paediatric resuscitation recommendations].

    PubMed

    López-Herce, Jesús; Rodríguez, Antonio; Carrillo, Angel; de Lucas, Nieves; Calvo, Custodio; Civantos, Eva; Suárez, Eva; Pons, Sara; Manrique, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac arrest has a high mortality in children. To improve the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is essential to disseminate the international recommendations and the training of health professionals and the general population in resuscitation. This article summarises the 2015 European Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation recommendations, which are based on a review of the advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and consensus in the science and treatment by the International Council on Resuscitation. The Spanish Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation recommendations, developed by the Spanish Group of Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation, are an adaptation of the European recommendations, and will be used for training health professionals and the general population in resuscitation. This article highlights the main changes from the previous 2010 recommendations on prevention of cardiac arrest, the diagnosis of cardiac arrest, basic life support, advanced life support and post-resuscitation care, as well as reviewing the algorithms of treatment of basic life support, obstruction of the airway and advanced life support.

  6. Diagnostic radiology in paediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preena; Koh, Michelle; Carr, Lucinda; McHugh, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an expanding specialty within paediatrics, which has attracted little attention in the paediatric radiological literature. Paediatric patients under a palliative care team will have numerous radiological tests which we traditionally categorise under organ systems rather than under the umbrella of palliative medicine. The prevalence of children with life-limiting illness is significant. It has been estimated to be one per thousand, and this may be an underestimate. In this review, we will focus on our experience at one institution, where radiology has proven to be an invaluable partner to palliative care. We will discuss examples of conditions commonly referred to our palliative care team and delineate the crucial role of diagnostic radiology in determining treatment options.

  7. Postdural puncture headache in paediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Burt, N; Dorman, B H; Reeves, S T; Rust, P F; Pinosky, M L; Abboud, M R; Barredo, J C; Laver, J H

    1998-08-01

    Previous studies have not determined the correlation between dural puncture and postural headache in paediatric patients. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the correlation between atypical headache and dural puncture in the paediatric population. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the incidence of typical postdural puncture headache (PDPHA) and atypical headache in paediatric oncology patients following dural puncture. The study population consisted of 66 paediatric patients undergoing 128 consecutive procedures, including 99 lumbar punctures and 29 bone marrow aspirations without concomitant lumbar puncture. Patients were prospectively randomized into four groups: Group I, preteens (< 13 yr) undergoing lumbar puncture, Group II, adolescents (13-21 yr) undergoing lumbar puncture, Group III, preteens undergoing bone marrow aspiration, and Group IV, adolescents undergoing bone marrow aspiration. The presence and description of headache was documented immediately after dural puncture or bone marrow aspiration, and on post-procedure days # 1, 3 and 5 by personnel blinded to the type of procedure. There was an increase in the incidence of headache (9.1%) after lumbar puncture in patients < 21 yr relative to patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration (P < 0.05). No difference was found between the incidence of typical PDPHA after dural puncture in preteens and adolescents. There was also no difference in the incidence of atypical headache after dural puncture or after bone marrow aspiration among preteens and adolescents. Paediatric patients experience an increased incidence of typical postdural puncture headache after dural puncture compared with age-matched patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration only. Atypical headache is relatively common in the paediatric population after dural puncture or bone marrow aspiration.

  8. Seizures in the paediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Ben; Deuble, Natalie

    2016-02-01

    Seizures are a common presentation to emergency departments. Early intervention improves treatment response. Use of consensus guidelines is highly recommended to decrease drug side effects and reduce intensive care requirements. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of first-line treatment. Choice of drugs for second-line treatment is expanding and some important studies are currently underway to determine which of these agents has the best safety and effectiveness profile in children. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Genetic testing for paediatric neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Valente, Enza Maria; Ferraris, Alessandro; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2008-12-01

    Paediatric neurological disorders encompass a large group of clinically heterogeneous diseases, of which some are known to have a genetic cause. Over the past few years, advances in nosological classifications and in strategies for molecular testing have substantially improved the diagnosis, genetic counselling, and clinical management of many patients, and have facilitated the possibility of prenatal diagnoses for future pregnancies. However, the increasing availability of genetic tests for paediatric neurological disorders is raising important questions with regard to the appropriateness, choice of protocols, interpretation of results, and ethical and social concerns of these services. In this Review, we discuss these topics and how these concerns affect genetic counselling.

  10. Collagen Cross- Linking for Paediatric Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Panos, Georgios D; Kozeis, Nikolaos; Balidis, Miltiadis; Moschos, Marilita M; Hafezi, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Since the late 1990s corneal crosslinking (CXL) has been proposed as a new treatment option which can stop progression of keratoconus with promising results in adults. Keratoconus presents a higher rate and faster progression in paediatric patients and for this reason prompt and effective treatment is essential. Due to its success in adult keratoconus patients, CXL has been recently applied to children in order to stop or slow progression of keratoconus in paediatric patients. This article will present an update of the literature on the topic of CXL in this age group.

  11. Resuscitation of general paediatrics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wacogne, I; Scott-Jupp, R; Chambers, T

    2006-12-01

    "The report of my death was an exaggeration", said Mark Twain. For a dying specialty, general paediatrics has certainly been looking very healthy recently. It is timely to examine why our specialty was thought to be at such risk, and to explore why, although in many cases shocked and confused, it is well on the way to recovery. This article explores what is needed to keep it healthy to ensure that the general paediatrician is at the centre of the delivery of paediatrics in the UK.

  12. Paediatric radiology seen from Africa. Part I: providing diagnostic imaging to a young population.

    PubMed

    Andronikou, Savvas; McHugh, Kieran; Abdurahman, Nuraan; Khoury, Bryan; Mngomezulu, Victor; Brant, William E; Cowan, Ian; McCulloch, Mignon; Ford, Nathan

    2011-07-01

    Paediatric radiology requires dedicated equipment, specific precautions related to ionising radiation, and specialist knowledge. Developing countries face difficulties in providing adequate imaging services for children. In many African countries, children represent an increasing proportion of the population, and additional challenges follow from extreme living conditions, poverty, lack of parental care, and exposure to tuberculosis, HIV, pneumonia, diarrhoea and violent trauma. Imaging plays a critical role in the treatment of these children, but is expensive and difficult to provide. The World Health Organisation initiatives, of which the World Health Imaging System for Radiography (WHIS-RAD) unit is one result, needs to expand into other areas such as the provision of maintenance servicing. New initiatives by groups such as Rotary and the World Health Imaging Alliance to install WHIS-RAD units in developing countries and provide digital solutions, need support. Paediatric radiologists are needed to offer their services for reporting, consultation and quality assurance for free by way of teleradiology. Societies for paediatric radiology are needed to focus on providing a volunteer teleradiology reporting group, information on child safety for basic imaging, guidelines for investigations specific to the disease spectrum, and solutions for optimising imaging in children.

  13. Diagnosis. Severity scoring system for paediatric FMF.

    PubMed

    Livneh, Avi

    2012-04-17

    Severity scoring systems for adult familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) are established and used as important clinical and analytical tools in disease management and research. A recent paper highlights the need for a paediatric FMF severity measure. How should such a score be built and what challenges might be faced?

  14. Vitamin D deficiency: a paediatric orthopaedic perspective.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nicholas M P; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-02-01

    At the turn of the last century, rickets (vitamin D deficiency) was one of the most common musculoskeletal diseases of the paediatric population presenting to physicians. Today, the most common referral pathway for these patients ends in a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic. Vitamin D deficiency is a clinical entity that can affect all children and should be looked for in all children with musculoskeletal symptoms. The child at risk of rickets is now white, breastfed, protected from the sun and obese. Vitamin D deficiency can present as atypical muscular pain, pathological fractures or slipped upper femoral epiphysis. Obesity is linked with lower vitamin D levels; however, in the paediatric population, this does not necessarily equal clinical disorder. Vitamin D supplements can be used to reduce the risk of pathological fractures in the cerebral palsy child. It should also form part of the differential diagnosis in the work-up of nonaccidental injuries. Children with a low vitamin D present with a higher incidence of fractures from normal activities. Vitamin D levels need to be assessed before any form of orthopaedic surgery, as it can affect growth, both in the diaphysis of the bone and in the growth plate. Vitamin D levels are a key element in the successful practice of paediatric orthopaedics. It is not just the possible cause of disorder presenting to the clinician but also extremely important in ensuring the successful postoperative recovery of the patient.

  15. [The medicine use pathway in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Didelot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The medicine use pathway is a process which is constantly evolving in order to comply with intangible rules. As in other therapeutic fields, the drug regimen in paediatrics must tolerate no error and must be able to detect all warning signs, however minor, in order to optimise this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The paediatric story of human papillomavirus (Review)

    PubMed Central

    MAMMAS, IOANNIS N.; SOURVINOS, GEORGE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is composed of a particularly heterogeneous family of DNA viruses, which has gained much attention in recent years due to the discoveries of Professor Harald zur Hausen, who first identified a connection between HPV and cervical cancer. Professor Harald zur Hausen, the ‘Father of HPV Virology’, was the recipient of the 2008 Nobel Prize. HPV can be transmitted through physical contact via autoinoculation or fomites, sexual contact, as well as vertically from the HPV-positive mother to her newborn, causing subclinical or clinical infections. In infancy and childhood, HPV-associated clinical infections include skin warts, genital warts and juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, while cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions have also been reported among adolescent girls. To date, several research teams, worldwide, have extensively investigated HPV from the paediatric point of view. This primitive effort has been performed before the recent great expansion of paediatric HPV research due to the vaccination programmes against HPV, which were introduced into clinical practice in 2006. In this review article, we present a brief overview of paediatric HPV research after the first report in 1978 involving children in the research of HPV until the time point of this great expansion. In the future, it is expected that further unresolved issues will be addressed and clarified, as the paediatric story of HPV remains a challenging research target. PMID:25013461

  17. Measuring the Expertise of Paediatric Rehabilitation Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Currie, Melissa; Gilpin, Michelle; Baxter, Donna; Willoughby, Colleen; Tucker, Mary Ann; Strachan, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a classification system to measure the expertise levels of practicing paediatric rehabilitation therapists. Seventy-five therapists from five disciplines (physical, occupational, speech-language, behaviour, and recreational therapy) were involved, along with 170 peers, and 188 parents of children with…

  18. [Paediatric palliative care, definition and regulations].

    PubMed

    Gioia, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of paediatric palliative care aims to fulfil objectives regarding the support provided for the child and his/her family in all aspects of care. It is guided by regulations and recommendations relating to pain relief, quality of life and support for families.

  19. Measuring the Expertise of Paediatric Rehabilitation Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Currie, Melissa; Gilpin, Michelle; Baxter, Donna; Willoughby, Colleen; Tucker, Mary Ann; Strachan, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a classification system to measure the expertise levels of practicing paediatric rehabilitation therapists. Seventy-five therapists from five disciplines (physical, occupational, speech-language, behaviour, and recreational therapy) were involved, along with 170 peers, and 188 parents of children with…

  20. Delivering pediatric HIV care in resource-limited settings: cost considerations in an expanded response.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Michael A; Phelps, B Ryan; Desmond, Chris; Sugandhi, Nandita; Omeogu, Chinyere; Jamieson, David; Ahmed, Saeed; Reuben, Elan; Muhe, Lulu; Kellerman, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    If children are to be protected from HIV, the expansion of PMTCT programs must be complemented by increased provision of paediatric treatment. This is expensive, yet there are humanitarian, equity and children's rights arguments to justify the prioritization of treating HIV-infected children. In the context of limited budgets, inefficiencies cost lives, either through lower coverage or less effective services. With the goal of informing the design and expansion of efficient paediatric treatment programs able to utilize to greatest effect the available resources allocated to the treatment of HIV-infected children, this article reviews what is known about cost drivers in paediatric HIV interventions, and makes suggestions for improving efficiency in paediatric HIV programming. High-impact interventions known to deliver disproportional returns on investment are highlighted and targeted for immediate scale-up. Progress will carry a cost - increased funding, as well as additional data on intervention costs and outcomes, will be required if universal access of HIV-infected children to treatment is to be achieved and sustained.

  1. Acute paediatric paraplegia: a case series review.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Abigail N; Forsyth, Rob

    2013-11-01

    Paediatric paraplegia resulting from spinal cord pathology of any cause is rare; hence prognostic information for children less than 16 years is limited. This case series review aims to ascertain all cases of paediatric paraplegia from 1997 to 2012 in the former Northern Region of England. Children presenting with sudden paraplegia before the age of 16 years were multiply ascertained from databases in the regional paediatric neurology, neuroradiology, neuro-oncology and adult spinal injuries units. Data were obtained from retrospective case note review. A total of 44 cases (24 female) were identified. The incidence is estimated at 0.49 per 100,000 children under 16/year (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57). Mean age of onset was 8.8 years and the most common aetiology was inflammatory. Twelve months post presentation, mortality was zero and a good outcome (defined as Gross Motor Function Classification System grades I or II) was seen in 66.6%. Motor outcome at 12 months was associated with the presence of bladder/bowel signs at presentation, previous viral illness and initial severity of paraplegia. Bladder signs at presentation were the strongest predictor of prognosis (OR for poor motor outcome 10.3). We were unable to demonstrate a relationship between aetiology and late outcome. Paediatric paraplegia is rare. Mortality rates are low and 66.6% have a good outcome with fully or nearly independent walking. Bladder signs are the strongest predictor of prognosis. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The changing UK paediatric consultant workforce: report from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health.

    PubMed

    McColgan, Martin; Winch, Rachel; Clark, Simon J; Ewing, Carol; Modi, Neena; Greenough, Anne

    2017-02-01

    To determine if there had been changes in the size of the UK paediatric workforce and working patterns between 1999 and 2013. Analysis of prospectively collected datasets. UK consultant paediatricians. Data from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health's workforce census from 1999 to 2013 and the annual surveys of new paediatric Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) and Certificate of Equivalence of Specialist Registration (CESR) holders between 2010 and 2013. Paediatric consultant numbers, programmed activities (PAs) and resident shift working. The UK paediatric consultant workforce grew from 1933 in 1999 to 3718 in 2013. Over the same time period, there was a decline in the number of consultants with a primary academic contract from 210 to 143. There was an increase in the proportion of consultants who were female (40% in 1999 to 50% in 2013, p<0.01). The median number of PAs declined from 11 in 2009 to 10 in 2013 (p<0.001) as did the median number of PAs for supporting professional activities (2.5-2.3, p<0.001). In 2013, 38% of new consultants in general paediatrics or neonatology were working resident shifts. Between 2009 and 2013, the proportion of less than full-time working consultants rose from 18% to 22%, which was more common among female consultants (35% vs 9%). The paediatric consultant workforce has doubled since 1999, but more are working less than full time. The decline in those with a primary academic contract is of concern. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. An Early Danish Computer Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    This paper reports on the development of Nimbi, which is an early computer game implemented at the Danish Computer Company Regnecentralen in 1962-63. Nimbi is a variant of the ancient game Nim. The paper traces the primary origins of the development of Nimbi. These include a mathematical analysis from 1901 of Nim that “killed the game” as the outcome could be predicted quite easily; the desire of the Danish inventor Piet Hein to make a game that eluded such analyses; and the desire of Piet Hein to have computers play games against humans. The development of Nimbi was successful in spite of considerable technical obstacles. However, it seems that the game was not used for publicizing the capabilities of computers - at least not widely - as was the case with earlier Nim implementations, such as the British Nim-playing computer Nimrod in 1951.

  4. The Danish Testicular Cancer database.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.

  5. Paediatric workload of an adult retrieval service in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Harry, Christina L; Mccormack, Jon; Donald, Michael; Corfield, Alasdair R

    2017-02-01

    The Emergency Medical Retrieval Service (EMRS) provides adults with life-threatening conditions in remote areas with timely interventions and rapid access to definitive medical care, including a primary response service. Paediatric patients are managed under a separate network. Despite this, there has been an increase in paediatric retrievals by EMRS. We aim to inform future service development and ascertain how EMRS can serve the needs of this cohort. This is a retrospective, observational study. Raw data were retrieved from the database of paediatric patients retrieved by EMRS for 9 years. A total of 112 paediatric patients were retrieved; 46% were primary retrievals. The most common injuries were head injuries (n=29) and orthopaedic injuries (n=16). Common interventions include fluid resuscitation (n=34), ventilation (n=22) and sedation/paralysis (n=22).This study describes the evolution of an adult retrieval service to cover paediatric patients in Scotland outside the remit of the paediatric retrieval service.

  6. Current views and advances on Paediatric Virology: An update for paediatric trainees.

    PubMed

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Greenough, Anne; Theodoridou, Maria; Kramvis, Anna; Christaki, Iliana; Koutsaftiki, Chryssie; Koutsaki, Maria; Portaliou, Dimitra M; Kostagianni, Georgia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Sourvinos, George; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines Paediatrics with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was included in the official programme of the 20th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and the 18th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine, which attracted over 500 delegates from the five continents. During the Workshop, the topics covered included the challenges of vaccine implementation against human papillomaviruses in countries under financial crisis, strategies for eradicating poliomyelitis and its 60th vaccine anniversary, as well as the debate on the association between autism and vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. Among the non-vaccine related topics, emphasis was given to viral infections in prematurely born infants and their long-term outcomes, new paediatric intensive care management options for bronchiolitis related to respiratory syncytial virus, the clinical implications of hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus genotyping, the Ebola virus threat and preparedness in Paediatric Emergency Departments, oral, oropharynx, laryngeal, nasal and ocular viral infections and Merkel cell polyomavirus as a novel emerging virus of infancy and childhood. In this review, we provide selected presentations and reports discussed at the Workshop.

  7. Current views and advances on Paediatric Virology: An update for paediatric trainees

    PubMed Central

    MAMMAS, IOANNIS N.; GREENOUGH, ANNE; THEODORIDOU, MARIA; KRAMVIS, ANNA; CHRISTAKI, ILIANA; KOUTSAFTIKI, CHRYSSIE; KOUTSAKI, MARIA; PORTALIOU, DIMITRA M.; KOSTAGIANNI, GEORGIA; PANAGOPOULOU, PARASKEVI; SOURVINOS, GEORGE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines Paediatrics with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was included in the official programme of the 20th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and the 18th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine, which attracted over 500 delegates from the five continents. During the Workshop, the topics covered included the challenges of vaccine implementation against human papillomaviruses in countries under financial crisis, strategies for eradicating poliomyelitis and its 60th vaccine anniversary, as well as the debate on the association between autism and vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. Among the non-vaccine related topics, emphasis was given to viral infections in prematurely born infants and their long-term outcomes, new paediatric intensive care management options for bronchiolitis related to respiratory syncytial virus, the clinical implications of hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus genotyping, the Ebola virus threat and preparedness in Paediatric Emergency Departments, oral, oropharynx, laryngeal, nasal and ocular viral infections and Merkel cell polyomavirus as a novel emerging virus of infancy and childhood. In this review, we provide selected presentations and reports discussed at the Workshop. PMID:26889211

  8. Paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus: insights from translational research.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tracey B; Punaro, Marilynn

    2017-04-01

    Investigations in paediatric SLE contributed significantly to the discovery of the association of type I IFNs with lupus and underscored the potential application of this knowledge by informing the use of glucocorticoid therapy. Recent, promising research reveals biomarkers that may yield more focused clinical monitoring and assessment of response to treatment. This article reviews unique features of paediatric SLE and details important developments in paediatric lupus research.

  9. Consent in paediatrics: a complex teaching assignment.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, V J

    1991-01-01

    The topic of consent in paediatrics is made more difficult, and at the same time more interesting, by the complexity of the issues involved and the consequent diversity of viewpoints. In a teaching session for senior medical students on consent in paediatrics it proved necessary to reinstate previous learning from a range of disciplines. Philosophical medical ethics, developmental psychology, communication skills and the appropriate legal definitions all contributed to a proper understanding of the cases presented. The two most important additional components appeared to be a) a basic knowledge of cognitive development and how to apply it, and b) an awareness of the need to balance an individual child's rights or best interests, with those of the family unit, as well as the wider society. PMID:1787521

  10. Dental fluorosis in the paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Atia, Gahder-Sara; May, Joanna

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to excessive fluoride intake during the early childhood years can disrupt the normal development of enamel, resulting in dental fluorosis. This varies in severity, ranging from white opacities in mild cases to more severe black and brown discoloration or enamel pitting. This article aims to give the reader a better understanding of the aetiology, diagnosis and subsequent treatment of dental fluorosis in the paediatric patient. Fluorosis can have a marked effect on dental aesthetics. The prevalence of fluorosis in the United Kingdom may increase following the publication of Delivering Better Oral Health, published by the Department of Health in 2007, which suggested changes to fluoride levels in children's toothpastes. This article highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis of fluorosis and also explains the treatment options available to paediatric patients.

  11. [Suspected child abuse in paediatric emergency service].

    PubMed

    Sabaté Rotés, A; Sancosmed Ron, M; Cebrián Rubio, R; Canet Ponsa, M; Martín González, M

    2009-07-01

    To describe the epidemiology of child abuse in an emergency department of a tertiary paediatric hospital. Descriptive and retrospective study from January 2008 to January 2006 including patients less than sixteen years of age who were suspected of being abused during the examination in the emergency department. Child maltreatment was 0.07% of all paediatric emergencies (45% physical abuse, 35% sexual abuse and 20% neglect). Mean age of 6 years old, with no gender differences. 86% were suspected of maltreatment. An adult living with the child was suspected in 67% of cases. Social and judicial procedures were activated. A total of 24 children were admitted, 14 under medical criteria and the rest in order to protect the child; 2 had serious neurological consequences and one died. Eight patients were discharged to social service care centres. We believe it is necessary to improve the pediatrician's knowledge of child abuse and to create specialized units.

  12. Alternative diagnoses at paediatric appendicitis MRI.

    PubMed

    Moore, M M; Kulaylat, A N; Brian, J M; Khaku, A; Hulse, M A; Engbrecht, B W; Methratta, S T; Boal, D K B

    2015-08-01

    As the utilization of MRI in the assessment for paediatric appendicitis increases in clinical practice, it is important to recognize alternative diagnoses as the cause of abdominal pain. The purpose of this review is to share our institution's experience using MRI in the evaluation of 510 paediatric patients presenting with suspected appendicitis over a 30 month interval (July 2011 to December 2013). An alternative diagnosis was documented in 98/510 (19.2%) patients; adnexal pathology (6.3%, n = 32), enteritis-colitis (6.3%, n = 32), and mesenteric adenitis (2.2%, n = 11) comprised the majority of cases. These common entities and other less frequent illustrative cases obtained during our overall institutional experience with MRI for suspected appendicitis are reviewed.

  13. Improving quality in paediatric respiratory disease management.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Michele; Amegavie, Laweh

    2003-11-01

    Throughout the development, implementation and dissemination of the Paediatric Respiratory Newsletter, effective channels of communication between healthcare professionals have been established, highlighting the importance of collaboration. Promoting education, training, audit and research, the newsletter has nurtured both professional and practice development. The work begun during this project, and the outcomes it has achieved, have been developed into an ethos that recognises effective clinical practice and organisational development as central to the delivery of a quality service. This work informs and is informed by strategic developments, in particular, research and development, clinical audit, quality, practice development and clinical risk, all of which are observed to be the key elements of clinical governance. On a personal level, the project has provided me with an opportunity to consolidate information, forge links with the multidisciplinary team and establish a framework for the development of paediatric respiratory services. We hope it will continue to respond to, and be influenced by, changing health and social care demands.

  14. Paediatric nephrology: the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Kausman, Joshua Y; Powell, Harley R

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the specialty of paediatric nephrology was in its infancy. Following the development of a landmark collaborative research study, the International Study of Kidney Disease in Childhood in the mid-1960s, the first specialist societies were formed: the European Society of Pediatric Nephrology in 1967 and the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology in 1969. The extraordinary improvements in care delivered to children with kidney disease over the past 50 years are too broad to cover in any one paper. They traverse the spectrum of diagnosis, classification, therapeutics, social well-being and transition to adult care. We have selected four case scenarios to highlight these changes in key areas of paediatric nephrology: post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and neonatal dialysis and childhood transplantation.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for paediatric neuroradiology

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Clare; Gunny, Roxanne; Jones, Rod; Cox, Tim; Chong, Wui Khean

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, radiologists are encouraged to have protocols for all imaging studies and to include imaging guidelines in care pathways set up by the referring clinicians. This is particularly advantageous in MRI where magnet time is limited and a radiologist’s review of each patient’s images often results in additional sequences and longer scanning times without the advantage of improvement in diagnostic ability. The difficulties of imaging small children and the challenges presented to the radiologist as the brain develops are discussed. We present our protocols for imaging the brain and spine of children based on 20 years experience of paediatric neurological MRI. The protocols are adapted to suit children under the age of 2 years, small body parts and paediatric clinical scenarios. PMID:17487479

  16. Dose reduction in paediatric MDCT: general principles.

    PubMed

    Paterson, A; Frush, D P

    2007-06-01

    The number of multi-detector array computed tomography (MDCT) examinations performed per annum continues to increase in both the adult and paediatric populations. Estimates from 2003 suggested that CT contributed 17% of a radiology department's workload, yet was responsible for up to 75% of the collective population dose from medical radiation. The effective doses for some CT examinations today overlap with those argued to have an increased risk of cancer. This is especially pertinent for paediatric CT, as children are more radiosensitive than adults (and girls more radiosensitive than boys). In addition, children have a longer life ahead of them, in which radiation induced cancers may become manifest. Radiologists must be aware of these facts and practise the ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle, when it comes to deciding CT protocols and parameters.

  17. Effects of anaesthesia on paediatric lung function.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, D; Svendsen, J; Erb, T O; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory adverse events are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in paediatric anaesthesia. Aside from predisposing conditions associated with an increased risk of respiratory incidents in children such as concurrent infections and chronic airway irritation, there are adverse respiratory events directly attributable to the impact of anaesthesia on the respiratory system. Anaesthesia can negatively affect respiratory drive, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) matching and tidal breathing, all resulting in potentially devastating hypoxaemia. Understanding paediatric respiratory physiology and its changes during anaesthesia will enable anaesthetists to anticipate, recognize and prevent deterioration that can lead to respiratory failure. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the effects of anaesthesia on respiration in children. It focuses on the impact of the different components of anaesthesia, patient positioning and procedure-related changes on respiratory physiology.

  18. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  19. Ciprofloxacin safety in paediatrics: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Adefurin, Abiodun; Sammons, Helen; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Choonara, Imti

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety of ciprofloxacin in paediatric patients in relation to arthropathy, any other adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and bibliographies of relevant articles was carried out for all published articles, regardless of design, that involved the use of ciprofloxacin in any paediatric age group ≤17 years. Only articles that reported on safety were included. Results 105 articles met the inclusion criteria and involved 16 184 paediatric patients. There were 1065 reported AEs (risk 7%, 95% CI 3.2% to 14.0%). The most frequent AEs were musculoskeletal AEs, abnormal liver function tests, nausea, changes in white blood cell counts and vomiting. There were six drug interactions (with aminophylline (4) and methotrexate (2)). The only drug related death occurred in a neonate who had an anaphylactic reaction. 258 musculoskeletal events occurred in 232 paediatric patients (risk 1.6%, 95% CI 0.9% to 2.6%). Arthralgia accounted for 50% of these. The age of occurrence of arthropathy ranged from 7 months to 17 years (median 10 years). All cases of arthropathy resolved or improved with management. One prospective controlled study estimated the risk of arthropathy as 9.3 (OR 95% CI 1.2 to 195). Pooled safety data of controlled trials in this review estimated the risk of arthropathy as 1.57 (OR 95% CI 1.26 to 1.97). Conclusion Musculoskeletal AEs occur due to ciprofloxacin use. However, these musculoskeletal events are reversible with management. It is recommended that further prospective controlled studies should be carried out to evaluate the safety of ciprofloxacin, with particular focus on the risk of arthropathy. PMID:21785119

  20. Sleep · 8: Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, G; Brouillette, R

    2005-01-01

    In the past 25 years there has been increasing recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a common condition of childhood. Morbidity includes impairment of growth, cardiovascular complications, learning impairment, and behavioural problems. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of paediatric OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:15923253

  1. Improving paediatric asthma care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Wa Somwe, Somwe; Jumbe-Marsden, Emilia; Mateyo, Kondwelani; Senkwe, Mutale Nsakashalo; Sotomayor-Ruiz, Maria; Musuku, John; Soriano, Joan B; Ancochea, Julio; Fishman, Mark C

    2015-10-01

    In 2008, the prevalence of paediatric asthma in Zambia was unknown and the national treatment guideline was outdated. We created an international partnership between Zambian clinicians, the Zambian Government and a pharmaceutical company to address shortcomings in asthma treatment. We did two studies, one to estimate prevalence in the capital of Lusaka and one to assess attitudes and practices of patients. Based on the information obtained, we educated health workers and the public. The information from the studies was also used to modernize government policy for paediatric asthma management. The health-care system in Zambia is primarily focused on acute care delivery with a focus on infectious diseases. Comprehensive services for noncommunicable diseases are lacking. Asthma management relies on treatment of acute exacerbations instead of disease control. Seven percent of children surveyed had asthma (255/3911). Of the 120 patients interviewed, most (82/120, 68%) used oral short-acting β2-agonists for symptom control; almost half (59/120, 49%) did not think the symptoms were preventable and 43% (52/120) thought inhalers were addictive. These misconceptions informed broad-based educational programmes. We used a train-the-trainer model to educate health-care workers and ran public awareness campaigns. Access to inhalers was increased and the Zambian standard treatment guideline for paediatric asthma was revised to include steroid inhalers as a control treatment. Joint activities were required to change paediatric asthma care in Zambia. Success will depend on local sustainability, and it may be necessary to shift resources to mirror the disease burden.

  2. Fitting and flailing: recognition of paediatric antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Freeman, H; Patel, J; Fernandez, D; Sharples, P; Ramanan, A V

    2014-02-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune condition where the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies is thought to predispose to thrombotic events. It is uncommon in the paediatric population, but current diagnostic criteria are based on adult population studies, making assessment of its true paediatric prevalence difficult. We present two cases of paediatric APS, who presented with primary neurological events, and discuss approaches to diagnosis, interpretation of screening investigations, including antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. Possible approaches to the management of paediatric APS are discussed.

  3. Paediatric Post-Traumatic Bladder Neck Distraction Injury: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Ajit S.; Kumar, Vikash; Pawar, Prakash; Tamhankar, Ashwin S.

    2017-01-01

    The bladder neck distraction is a rare posterior urethral injury in paediatric age group. It mostly occurs secondary to road traffic accidents. We report three cases of paediatric bladder neck distraction injury. Three paediatric patients aged between 4 to 7 years (mean 5 year), who presented with post traumatic bladder neck distraction injury but no other major injury, they were treated with early urethro-vesical anastomosis. Postoperatively all patients were continent and with good urine flow rates. In paediatric bladder neck distraction injury, immediate urethro-vesical anastomosis gives good results. PMID:28384935

  4. [Off-label use of drugs in paediatrics causes uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Hart, Dieter; Mühlbauer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The off-label use of drugs in paediatrics is a common practice casting doubts on the adequate safety of drug therapy. Regulatory initiatives of European and national legislators aim to address this paucity of clinical drug trials in paediatrics through clarifying regulations and incentives in pharmaceutical law, thereby promoting an increase in the approval of paediatric drugs, the improvement of drug and thus treatment safety. This paper describes the present situation in paediatrics and the legal status of off-label use in pharmaceutical law, medical malpractice law and statutory health insurance law.

  5. Multi-detector CT in the paediatric urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Damasio, M B; Darge, K; Riccabona, M

    2013-07-01

    The use of paediatric multi-slice CT (MSCT) is rapidly increasing worldwide. As technology advances its application in paediatric care is constantly expanding with an increasing need for radiation dose control and appropriate utilization. Recommendations on how and when to use CT for assessment of the paediatric urinary tract appear to be an important issue. Therefore the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) uroradiology task force and European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) paediatric working groups created a proposal for performing renal CT in children that has recently been published. The objective of this paper is to discuss paediatric urinary tract CT (uro-CT) in more detail and depth. The specific aim is not only to offer general recommendations on clinical indications and optimization processes of paediatric CT examination, but also to address various childhood characteristics and phenomena that facilitate understanding the different approach and use of uro-CT in children compared to adults. According to ALARA principles, paediatric uro-CT should only be considered for selected indications provided high-level comprehensive US is not conclusive and alternative non-ionizing techniques such as MR are not available or appropriate. Optimization of paediatric uro-CT protocols (considering lower age-adapted kV and mAs) is mandatory, and the number of phases and acquisition series should be kept as few as possible.

  6. The evaluation and management of paediatric headaches

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, JM

    2009-01-01

    The management of patients with headaches is a major component of every paediatric practice. In a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents, it was found that 26.6% of those 12 to 13 years of age and 31.2% of those 14 to 15 years of age reported that they experienced headaches at least once per week. The diagnosis of headaches in children and adolescents is established through a headache history in the vast majority of patients. Specific questions can identify those at most risk for headaches secondary to underlying pathology. Similarly, the examination should be tailored to identify those who require further investigation. Investigations are not routinely indicated for paediatric headache, but neuroimaging should be considered in children whose headaches do not meet the criteria for one of the primary headache syndromes and in those with an abnormal neurological examination. The optimal treatment of primary headaches should begin with nonpharmacological methods. Preventive pharmacological therapy should be considered when headaches significantly impair the patient’s quality of life. Flunarizine may be valuable in paediatric headache prevention, and ibuprofen, acetaminophen and nasal sumatriptan may be effective in the acute management of headaches. PMID:19436460

  7. Injuries in the competitive paediatric motocross athlete.

    PubMed

    Arena, C B; Holbert, J A; Hennrikus, W L

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the spectrum of injuries sustained by competitive paediatric motocross athletes at a level I trauma centre. A retrospective study of paediatric competitive motocross injuries treated at a level I trauma centre between 2004 and 2014 was performed. Athletes were included if aged less than 18 years and injured while practising or competing on a competitive motocross track. Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, race, location of accident, use of safety equipment, mechanism of injury, injury type and severity, Glasgow Coma Score at hospital presentation and Injury Severity Score (ISS). In total, 35 athletes were studied. The average age was 14 years. One athlete died. Thirty athletes were injured during competition; five were injured during practice. Twenty-four athletes (69%) suffered an orthopaedic injury with a total of 32 fractures and two dislocations. Two fractures were open (6.3%). Lower extremity fractures were twice as common as upper extremity fractures. Surgery was more common for lower extremity fractures-83% versus 30%. The most common fractures were femoral shaft (18.8%), fibula (12.5%), clavicle (12.5%), tibial shaft (9.4%) and forearm (9.4%). Competitive paediatric motocross athletes suffer serious, potentially life-threatening injuries despite the required use of protective safety equipment. Femoral shaft, fibula and clavicle were found to be the most commonly fractured bones. Further prospective research into track regulations, protective equipment and course design may reduce the trauma burden in this athlete population.

  8. Paediatric Iliopsoas abscess: A case report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Carla

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: Iliopsoas abscess is an uncommon condition in the paediatric population. The clinical presentation is variable and may be confused with other conditions such as septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and appendicular abscess. A suspicion of iliopsoas abscess requires a prompt diagnosis so that rapid management and treatment can be undertaken. Discussion: This case describes the presence of an iliopsoas abscess in a paediatric patient presenting to the emergency department within a rural community. Due to the variability in clinical presentation imaging studies are necessary to distinguish an iliopsoas abscess from other inflammatory processes. Ultrasound is often the modality of choice. Imaging guided percutaneous drainage and/or aspiration and the administration of intravenous antibiotics are minimally invasive modern techniques providing a safe treatment options in the presence of an iliopsoas abscess. Conclusion: Iliopsoas abscess is an uncommon condition in the paediatric population. Due to the variability in clinical presentation, imaging, and in particular, ultrasound play a vital role in the diagnosis of cases with a high suspicion of abscess formation. Accurate diagnosis leads to a rapid treatment plan, avoiding further insult.

  9. Fluid resuscitation therapy for paediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Long, Elliot; Duke, Trevor

    2016-02-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the final common pathway for many decompensated paediatric infections. Fluid resuscitation therapy has been the cornerstone of haemodynamic resuscitation in these children. Good evidence for equivalence between 0.9% saline and 4% albumin, with the relative expense of the latter, has meant that 0.9% saline is currently the most commonly used resuscitation fluid world-wide. Evidence for harm from the chloride load in 0.9% saline has generated interest in balanced solutions as first line resuscitation fluids. Their safety has been well established in observational studies, and they may well be the most reasonable default fluid for resuscitation. Semi-synthetic colloids have been associated with renal dysfunction and death and should be avoided. There is evidence for harm from excessive administration of any resuscitation fluid. Resuscitation fluid volumes should be treated in the same way as the dose of any other intravenously administered medication, and the potential benefits versus harms for the individual patient weighed prior to administration. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Radiation doses in paediatric interventional cardiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Kottou, Sofia; Korniotis, Sarantis; Nikolaki, Niki; Rammos, Spyridon; Apostolopoulou, Sotiria C

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to investigate paediatric doses in coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in the largest cardiac hospital in Greece. Forty procedures were carried out by two board-certified senior interventional cardiologists. Data collected were: patient weight, height, age, fluoroscopy time (FT), total number of images (N) and kerma-area product (KAP). Median (range) age was 7.5 y (17 d to 17 y). Median FT, N and KAP were 4 min, 655, 2.1 Gy cm2 for CA and 12.1 min, 1296, 14.7 Gy cm2 for PTCA (corresponding adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are: 6.5 min, 700, 45 Gy cm2 for CA and 15.5 min, 1000 and 85 Gy cm2 for PTCA). The highest percentage of cine dose was in newborns (0-1 y) (CA: 92% and PTCA: 100%). As age increased, cine dose percentage decreased, whereas total radiation dose increased. Median paediatric FT and N recorded reached or even exceeded adult DRL and should be optimised. Paediatric DRL should be set.

  11. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  12. Paediatric extracranial germ-cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Furqan; Murray, Matthew J; Amatruda, James F; Coleman, Nicholas; Nicholson, James C; Hale, Juliet P; Pashankar, Farzana; Stoneham, Sara J; Poynter, Jenny N; Olson, Thomas A; Billmire, Deborah F; Stark, Daniel; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2016-04-01

    Management of paediatric extracranial germ-cell tumours carries a unique set of challenges. Germ-cell tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that present across a wide age range and vary in site, histology, and clinical behaviour. Patients with germ-cell tumours are managed by a diverse array of specialists. Thus, staging, risk stratification, and treatment approaches for germ-cell tumours have evolved disparately along several trajectories. Paediatric germ-cell tumours differ from the adolescent and adult disease in many ways, leading to complexities in applying age-appropriate, evidence-based care. Suboptimal outcomes remain for several groups of patients, including adolescents, and patients with extragonadal tumours, high tumour markers at diagnosis, or platinum-resistant disease. Survivors have significant long-term toxicities. The challenge moving forward will be to translate new insights from molecular studies and collaborative clinical data into improved patient outcomes. Future trials will be characterised by improved risk-stratification systems, biomarkers for response and toxic effects, rational reduction of therapy for low-risk patients and novel approaches for poor-risk patients, and improved international collaboration across paediatric and adult cooperative research groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic landscape of paediatric adrenocortical tumours.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Emilia M; Chen, Xiang; Easton, John; Finkelstein, David; Liu, Zhifa; Pounds, Stanley; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Lund, Troy C; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Boggs, Kristy; Yergeau, Donald; Cheng, Jinjun; Mulder, Heather L; Manne, Jayanthi; Jenkins, Jesse; Mastellaro, Maria J; Figueiredo, Bonald C; Dyer, Michael A; Pappo, Alberto; Zhang, Jinghui; Downing, James R; Ribeiro, Raul C; Zambetti, Gerard P

    2015-03-06

    Paediatric adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis. Here we analyse 37 adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. Most cases (91%) show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 11p, with uniform selection against the maternal chromosome. IGF2 on chromosome 11p is overexpressed in 100% of the tumours. TP53 mutations and chromosome 17 LOH with selection against wild-type TP53 are observed in 28 ACTs (76%). Chromosomes 11p and 17 undergo copy-neutral LOH early during tumorigenesis, suggesting tumour-driver events. Additional genetic alterations include recurrent somatic mutations in ATRX and CTNNB1 and integration of human herpesvirus-6 in chromosome 11p. A dismal outcome is predicted by concomitant TP53 and ATRX mutations and associated genomic abnormalities, including massive structural variations and frequent background mutations. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the nature, timing and potential prognostic significance of key genetic alterations in paediatric ACT and outline a hypothetical model of paediatric adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

  14. Paediatric airway management: What is new?

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R; Archana, SR

    2012-01-01

    Airway management plays a pivotal role in Paediatric Anaesthesia. Over the last two decades many improvements in this area have helped us to overcome this final frontier. From an era where intubation with a conventional laryngoscope or blind nasal intubation was the only tool for airway management, we have come a long way. Today supraglottic airway devices have pride of place in the Operating Room and are becoming important airway devices used in routine procedures. Direct and indirect fibreoptic laryngoscopes and transtracheal devices help us overcome difficult and previously impossible airway situations. These developments mean that we need to update our knowledge on these devices. Also much of our basic understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the paediatric airway has changed. This article attempts to shed light on some of the most important advances/opinions in paediatric airway management like, cuffed endotracheal tubes, supraglottic airway devices, video laryngoscopes, rapid sequence intubation, the newly proposed algorithm for difficult airway management and the role of Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure in the management of the neonatal airway. PMID:23293383

  15. Paediatric suicidal burns: A growing concern.

    PubMed

    Segu, Smitha; Tataria, Rachana

    2016-06-01

    An alarming rise in rates of paediatric population committing self-immolation acts is a growing social and medical problem. In recent times there seems to be a rising concern in paediatric population. A study was conducted at a government tertiary care burn centre over 5 years in paediatric age group of <18 years who had committed self-immolation. Demographic data, aetiology, burn severity, associated illnesses, treatment and outcomes of the patients were collected with preventive strategies. Of total 89 patients, 12 patients were below 12 years (children) and 77 between 12-18 years (adolescent) with female preponderance. Majority belonged to lower middle and upper lower class families. Most had deep partial thickness burns. Psychiatric and personality disorder were found in 24.03% and 31.46% patients respectively. Kerosene was the main agent chosen to inflict injury. The average length of hospital stay was 19.8 days. The crude mortality rate observed was 38.2%. With cultural and socio-economic changes children and adolescents are exposed to increased levels of stress and peer pressure leaving them vulnerable. A multidisciplinary care involving medical, psychological and social support is required. Identifying children at risk and proper counselling and support can form an important strategy at prevention rather than cure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. New normal limits for the paediatric electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Rijnbeek, P R; Witsenburg, M; Schrama, E; Hess, J; Kors, J A

    2001-04-01

    Previous studies that determined the normal limits for the paediatric ECG had their imperfections: ECGs were recorded at a relatively low sampling rate, ECG measurements were conducted manually, or normal limits were presented for only a limited set of parameters. The aim of this study was to establish an up-to-date and complete set of clinically relevant normal limits for the paediatric ECG. ECGs from 1912 healthy Dutch children (age 11 days to 16 years) were recorded at a sampling rate of 1200 Hz. The digitally stored ECGs were analysed using a well-validated ECG computer program. The normal limits of all clinically relevant ECG measurements were determined for nine age groups. Clinically significant differences were shown to exist, compared with previously established normal limits. Sex differences could be demonstrated for QRS duration and several amplitude measurements. These new normal limits differ substantially from those commonly used and suggest that diagnostic criteria for the paediatric ECG should be adjusted. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.

  17. "Experiences with disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child": Perspectives of healthcare providers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sariah, Adellah; Rugemalila, Joan; Somba, Magreat; Minja, Anna; Makuchilo, Margareth; Tarimo, Edith; Urassa, David; Siril, Helen

    2016-10-13

    The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children's cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child. A qualitative study involving 20 health care providers who attend HIV-positive children was conducted in September, 2014 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants were selected from ten HIV care and treatment clinics (CTC) by purposive sampling. An interview guide, translated into participants' national language (Kiswahili) was used during in-depth interviews. Sampling followed the principle of data saturation. The interviews focused on perspectives of health-care providers regarding their experience with paediatric HIV disclosure. Data from in-depth interviews were transcribed into text; data analysis followed qualitative content analysis. The results show how complex the process of disclosure to children living with HIV can be to healthcare providers. Confusion was noted among healthcare providers about their role and responsibility in the process of disclosing to the HIV infected child. This was reported to be largely due to unclear guidelines and lack of standardized training in paediatric HIV disclosure. Furthermore, healthcare providers were concerned about parental hesitancy to disclose early to the child due to lack of disclosure skills and fear of stigma. In order to improve the disclosure process in HIV infected children, healthcare providers recommended further standardized training on paediatric HIV disclosure with more emphasis on practical skills and inclusion of disclosure

  18. Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Islam, M I; Talukder, M K; Islam, M M; Laila, K; Rahman, S A

    2017-04-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of rheumatic disorders, which commonly occurs in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA).This study was carried out with the aims of describing the clinical features, laboratory findings and outcomes of MAS associated with paediatric rheumatic diseases in the Department of Paediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and compare these results with previous studies on MAS. This retrospective study was conducted in the paediatric rheumatology wing of the Department of Paediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Clinical and laboratory profile of all the diagnosed cases of MAS were analyzed from the medical records from January 2010 to July 2015. Among 10 MAS patients, 6 were female and 4 were male. Seven patients of systemic JIA, two patients of SLE and one patient with Kawasaki Disease developed MAS in their course of primary disease. Mean duration of primary disease prior to development of MAS was 2.9 years and mean age of onset was 9.1 years. High continued fever and new onset hepatosplenomegaly were the hallmark of the clinical presentation. White blood cell count and platelet count came down from the mean of 16.2 to 10.2×10⁹/L and 254 to 90×10⁹/L. Mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was dropped from 56 to 29 mm/hr. Six patients had abnormal liver enzyme level (ALT) and 5 had evidence of coagulopathy (prolonged prothrombin time and APTT) at the onset of disease. Hyperferritinnemia were found in all the patients. Bone marrow study was done in 5 patients but features of hamophagocytosis were found only in 2 patients. All patients received intravenous steroid and 3 patients who did not respond to steroid received additional cyclosporine. Mortality rate was 30% in this series. Macrophage activation syndrome is a fatal complication of paediatric rheumatic diseases among which s-JIA was predominant. Early diagnosis and

  19. Prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among Danish prisoners.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P B; Krarup, H B; Niesters, H G; Norder, H; Georgsen, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among prisoners, we conducted a prospective study in a Danish medium security prison for males. The prisoners were offered an interview and blood test for hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus HIV at inclusion as well as at release from prison or end of study. Of 403 prisoners available 325 (79%) participated in the initial survey and for 142 (44%) a follow-up test was available. 43% (140/325) of the participants were injecting drug users (IDUs) of whom 64% were positive for hepatitis B (HBV) and 87% for hepatitis C (HCV) markers. No cases of HIV or human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) were found. 32% of all prisoners could transmit HBV and/or HCV by blood contact. 70% of IDUs had shared injecting equipment, and 60% had injected inside prison. Only 2% of IDUs were vaccinated against HBV. Duration of injecting drug use, numbers of imprisonments, and injecting in prison were independently and positively associated with the presence of HBV antibodies among IDUs by logistic regression analysis. The HBV incidence was 16/100 PY (95% CI: 2-56/100 PY) and the HCV incidence 25/100 PY (1-140) among injecting drug users (IDUs). We conclude that IDUs in prison have an incidence of hepatitis B and C 100 times higher than reported in the general Danish population. They should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and new initiatives to stop sharing of injecting equipment in and outside prison is urgently needed.

  20. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. Study population The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995. All Danish orthopedic departments – both public and private – report to the register, and registration is compulsory. Main variables The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. Descriptive data A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995, completeness of procedure registration has been high, being 97.8% and 92.0% in 2014 for primary THAs and revisions, respectively. Several risk factors, such as comorbidity, age, specific primary diagnosis and fixation types for failure of primary THAs, and postoperative complications, have been identified through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. Conclusion The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data with long-term follow-up and high completeness. The register can be used for population-based epidemiology studies of THA surgery and can be linked to a range of other national databases. PMID:27822092

  1. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  2. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    PubMed

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to <2% since 2013. The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an

  3. Invasive bacterial and fungal infections among hospitalized HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and infants in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Crump, John A.; Ramadhani, Habib O.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Msuya, Levina J.; Yang, Lan-Yan; Chow, Shein-Chung; Morpeth, Susan C.; Reyburn, Hugh; Njau, Boniface N.; Shaw, Andrea V.; Diefenthal, Helmut C.; Bartlett, John A.; Shao, John F.; Schimana, Werner; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Kinabo, Grace D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To describe the contribution of paediatric HIV and of HIV co-infections to admissions to a hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, using contemporary laboratory methods. METHODS During 1 year, we enrolled consecutively admitted patients aged ≥2 months and <13 years with current or recent fever. All patients underwent standardized clinical history taking, a physical examination and HIV antibody testing; standard aerobic blood cultures and malaria film were also done, and hospital outcome was recorded. Early infant HIV diagnosis by HIV-1 RNA PCR was performed on those aged <18 months. HIV-infected patients also received serum cryptococcal antigen testing and had their CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count and percent determined. RESULTS A total of 467 patients were enrolled whose median age was 2 years (range 2 months–13 years); Of those patients, 57.2% were female and 12.2% were HIV-infected. Admission clinical diagnosis of HIV disease was made in 10.7% and of malaria in 60.4%. Of blood cultures, 5.8% grew pathogens; of these 25.9% were Salmonella enterica (including 6 Salmonella Typhi) and 22.2% Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmodium falciparum was identified on blood film of 1.3%. HIV infection was associated with S. pneumoniae (odds ratio 25.7, 95% CI 2.8, 234.0) bloodstream infection (BSI), but there was no evidence of an association with Escherichia coli or P. falciparum; Salmonella Typhi BSI occurred only among HIV-uninfected participants. The sensitivity and specificity of an admission clinical diagnosis of malaria were 100% and 40.3%; and for an admission diagnosis of bloodstream infection, they were 9.1% and 86.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bloodstream infection among paediatric admissions in Tanzania and is closely associated with HIV infection. Malaria was over-diagnosed clinically, whereas invasive bacterial disease was underestimated. HIV and HIV co-infections contribute to a substantial proportion of

  4. A comparison of cases of paediatric-onset and adult-onset cryptococcosis detected through population-based surveillance, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Meiring, Susan T; Quan, Vanessa C; Cohen, Cheryl; Dawood, Halima; Karstaedt, Alan S; McCarthy, Kerrigan M; Whitelaw, Andrew C; Govender, Nelesh P

    2012-11-28

    We compared the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed paediatric cryptococcal disease with adult-onset disease in the South African population. The study was an active, prospective, population-based, laboratory-based surveillance in South Africa. We compared cases of paediatric cryptococcosis (<15 years) with cases of adult-onset cryptococcosis that were reported to the surveillance programme between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2007. The case definition was based on a positive India ink test, cryptococcal antigen test or cryptococcal culture. Clinical case data were obtained at enhanced surveillance sites. Of 16,192 incident episodes of cryptococcosis in South Africa, 361 (2%) episodes occurred among children. In 2007, incidence was one and 19 cases per 100,000 persons in the general paediatric and adult populations and was 47 and 120 cases per 100,000 persons for HIV-infected children and adults, respectively. Among children, a bimodal peak in incidence was evident in the less than 1-year age group and in the 5 age group. Most children (64%) and adults (63%) were severely immunocompromised (CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count < 50 cells/μl) at the time of diagnosis. On multivariable analysis, children were significantly more likely than adults to be male, diagnosed on blood culture, infected with Cryptococcus gattii, treated with amphotericin B and admitted for a longer stay in hospital. This series of 361 cases of paediatric cryptococcosis is by far the largest described to date. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis should be considered in the paediatric HIV-infected population, especially among those who are severely immunocompromised.

  5. Use of Zoledronic Acid in Paediatric Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rossin, Sara; Divisic, Antuan; De Gregorio, Alesandra; Agosto, Caterina; Catalano, Igor; Mazza, Alessandro; Sartori, Leonardo; Benini, Franca

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a paediatric patient affected by mandibular fibrous dysplasia (FD) with severe and chronic pain who was successfully treated with zoledronic acid (ZOL): a third-generation bisphosphonate. Further research is needed to assess its safety and efficacy as a treatment option for FD in the paediatric population. PMID:27747122

  6. Medical students' views on selecting paediatrics as a career choice.

    PubMed

    Bindal, Taruna; Wall, David; Goodyear, Helen M

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasing numbers of UK medical students, the number of trainees selecting paediatrics as their specialty choice has decreased. Previous studies show that most students will choose their ultimate career during undergraduate training. We therefore explored the views of students in the final year at Birmingham University about a career in paediatrics. Students completed a 27-item questionnaire during the penultimate week of their paediatric clerkship (PC) and 97% responded (127/131). Prior to the PC, 29% (37/127) of students had considered a career in paediatrics, rising to 50% (63/127) after the PC (p < 0.001). Students felt that paediatricians were enthusiastic and keen on teaching, and the ward working atmosphere was good. However, students perceived paediatrics as a difficult specialty with high competition for training posts. Students felt their paediatric experience was too limited and advice was needed on paediatric careers early in undergraduate training. This study confirmed that focusing on improving the PC is not sufficient if we are to inspire medical students to consider a career in paediatrics. Exposure to the specialty is needed from year 1 of undergraduate training along with career advice to dispel current myths about specialty training. Students would then be able to make more informed career decisions.

  7. [Materials for the paediatric resuscitation trolley or backpack: Expert recommendations].

    PubMed

    López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Rodríguez Núñez, Antonio; Carrillo Álvarez, Ángel; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, Cecilia; Calvo Macías, Custodio

    2017-07-05

    Cardio-respiratory arrest (CPA) is infrequent in children, but it can occur in any place and at any time. This fact means that every health care facility must always have the staff and material ready to resuscitate a child. These recommendations are the consensus of experts of the Spanish Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation Group on the material and medication for paediatric and neonatal resuscitation and their distribution and use. CPR trolleys and backpacks must include the essential material to quickly and efficiently perform a paediatric CPR. At least one CPR trolley must be available in every Primary Care facility, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department, and Pre-hospital Emergency Areas, as well as in paediatric wards, paediatric ambulatory areas, and radiology suites. This trolley must be easily accessible and exclusively include the essential items to perform a CPR and to assist children (from newborns to adolescents) who present with a life-threatening event. Such material must be familiar to all healthcare staff and also include the needed spare parts, as well as enough drug doses. It must also be re-checked periodically. The standardisation and unification of the material and medication of paediatric CPR carts, trolleys, and backpacks, as well as the training of the personnel in their use are an essential part of the paediatric CPR. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Paediatric fever management: continuing education for clinical nurses.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anne M; Edwards, Helen E; Courtney, Mary D; Wilson, Jenny E; Monaghan, Sarah J

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of level of practice, additional paediatric education and length of paediatric and current experience on nurses' knowledge of and beliefs about fever and fever management. Fifty-one nurses from medical wards in an Australian metropolitan paediatric hospital completed a self-report descriptive survey. Knowledge of fever management was mediocre (Mean 12.4, SD 2.18 on 20 items). Nurses practicing at a higher level and those with between one and four years paediatric or current experience were more knowledgeable than novices or more experienced nurses. Negative beliefs that would impact nursing practice were identified. Interestingly, beliefs about fever, antipyretic use in fever management and febrile seizures were similar; they were not influenced by nurses' knowledge, experience, education or level of practice. Paediatric nurses are not expert fever managers. Knowledge deficits and negative attitudes influence their practice irrespective of additional paediatric education, paediatric or current experience or level of practice. Continuing education is therefore needed for all paediatric nurses to ensure the latest clear evidence available in the literature for best practice in fever management is applied.

  9. The need of paediatric dentistry specialists in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan Raza; Mahmud, Sadia; Rahman, Munawar

    2013-04-01

    In the last decade, a rapid increase has been observed in the number of dentists due to establishment of a number of dental colleges in Pakistan. Very few of these institutions have Paediatric Dentistry Department. Similarly, no postgraduate Paediatric Dentistry training program exists in the two major provinces of the country. The objectives of this study were to map the pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the clinicians in teaching institutions and private practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted at dental departments of academic institutions and selected dental practices in Karachi. There was a statistically significant difference in preferences, selection of dental materials and pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the teaching dentists compared to the private practitioners. Both the teaching and non-teaching dentists need to update themselves in the provision of Paediatric Dentistry services such as fluoride application and fissure sealant placement.

  10. [Primary management and treatment of paediatric septic shock].

    PubMed

    Kneyber, Martin C J; van Heerde, Marc; Henneveld, Hetty Th

    2010-01-01

    Paediatric shock is common. Hypovolaemic and septic shock are the main forms. Early and rapid results-oriented therapy of paediatric septic shock has a favourable effect on survival. There is an international guideline for the primary management of paediatric shock during the first hour after presentation of the patient. The goal of treatment is to prevent oxygen debt and consequently organ failure. The main symptoms of paediatric shock are tachycardia and reduced consciousness. In a child in shock, the clinical picture should be recognized within 15 minutes and an attempt should be made to reverse the situation by rapid fluid infusion. If the shock persists after 15 minutes, vasoactive medication should be given and the child should be transferred to a local paediatric intensive care unit. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are then also required.

  11. Diagnosing autism: Australian paediatric research network surveys.

    PubMed

    Randall, Melinda; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Brignell, Amanda; Gulenc, Alisha; Hennel, Sabine; Coates, Cathy; Symeonides, Christos; Hiscock, Harriet; Marraffa, Catherine; Silove, Natalie; Bayl, Vivian; Woolfenden, Susan; Williams, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with reported prevalence of more than 1/100. In Australia, paediatricians are often involved in diagnosing ASD and providing long-term management. However, it is not known how paediatricians diagnose ASD. This study aimed to investigate whether the way Australian paediatricians diagnose ASD is in line with current recommendations. Members of the Australian Paediatric Research Network were invited to answer questions about their ASD diagnostic practice in a multi-topic survey and also as part of a study about parents needs around the time of a diagnosis of ASD. The majority of the 124 paediatricians who responded to the multi-topic survey and most who responded to the parent needs survey reported taking more than one session to make a diagnosis of ASD. Most paediatricians included information from preschool, child care or school when making a diagnosis, and over half included information from speech pathology or psychology colleagues more than 50% of the time. The main reasons for not including assessment information in the diagnostic process were service barriers such as no regular service available or long waiting lists. More than 70% reported ordering audiology and genetic tests more than half of the time. Not all paediatricians are following current recommendations for diagnosing ASD more than 50% of the time. While there are good reasons why current diagnostic approaches may fall short of expected standards, these need to be overcome to ensure diagnostic validity and optimal services for all children and their families. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. [Paediatric dermatology emergencies in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Sánchez, E; Bernabéu-Wittel, J; Dominguez-Cruz, J J; Conejo-Mir, J

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the increasing demand for dermatological consultations in the Emergency department has resulted in the publication of a variety of studies on this subject. However, most of them deal with the general population, without taking into account the changes in frequencies found in young children (ages 0-14). To determine the frequency of various dermatological diagnoses made by the on-call paediatrician in the Emergency Department, and after referral to Paediatric Dermatology. Firstly, a descriptive retrospective study was performed that included all patients aged between 0 and 14 years old who were seen after being referred to the emergency paediatric dermatologist by the on-call paediatrician from June 2010 to December 2013. Secondly, an analytical study was carried by calculating the kappa index calculus, in order to establish the diagnostic concordance between the emergency paediatrician and the paediatric dermatologist. A total of 861 patients, with a mean age of 4.5 years were included. More than half of the skin disorders analysed were eczema (27%) and infections (26%). The 5 main diagnoses were: atopic dermatitis (16%), acute prurigo simplex (5%), tinea (5%), pyogenic granuloma (4%), and molluscum contagiosum (4%). Additional tests were only required in 16% of the cases. The kappa index obtained was 0.206 (95% CI: 0.170-0.241). The dermatology consultations in the Emergency Department were shown to be frequent and mostly involved minor diseases. Collaboration between paediatricians and dermatologists resulted in a high treatment success rate, leading to a low percentage of additional tests required and a high rate of discharges. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Injuries in the competitive paediatric motocross athlete

    PubMed Central

    Arena, C. B.; Holbert, J. A.; Hennrikus, W. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the spectrum of injuries sustained by competitive paediatric motocross athletes at a level I trauma centre. Patients and Methods A retrospective study of paediatric competitive motocross injuries treated at a level I trauma centre between 2004 and 2014 was performed. Athletes were included if aged less than 18 years and injured while practising or competing on a competitive motocross track. Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, race, location of accident, use of safety equipment, mechanism of injury, injury type and severity, Glasgow Coma Score at hospital presentation and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Results In total, 35 athletes were studied. The average age was 14 years. One athlete died. Thirty athletes were injured during competition; five were injured during practice. Twenty-four athletes (69%) suffered an orthopaedic injury with a total of 32 fractures and two dislocations. Two fractures were open (6.3%). Lower extremity fractures were twice as common as upper extremity fractures. Surgery was more common for lower extremity fractures—83% versus 30%. The most common fractures were femoral shaft (18.8%), fibula (12.5%), clavicle (12.5%), tibial shaft (9.4%) and forearm (9.4%). Conclusions Competitive paediatric motocross athletes suffer serious, potentially life-threatening injuries despite the required use of protective safety equipment. Femoral shaft, fibula and clavicle were found to be the most commonly fractured bones. Further prospective research into track regulations, protective equipment and course design may reduce the trauma burden in this athlete population. PMID:28828059

  14. Paediatric stress: from neuroendocrinology to contemporary disorders.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, Stavroula; Nicolaides, Nicolas C; Critselis, Elena; Darviri, Christina; Charmandari, Evangelia; Chrousos, George P

    2017-03-01

    Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis. A broad spectrum of extrinsic or intrinsic, real or perceived stressful stimuli, called 'stressors', activates a highly conserved system, the 'stress system', which adjusts homeostasis through central and peripheral neuroendocrine responses. Inadequate, excessive or prolonged adaptive responses to stress may underlie the pathogenesis of several disease states prevalent in modern societies. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors. We conducted a systematic review of original articles and reviews published in MEDLINE from 1975 through June 2016. The search terms were 'childhood stress', 'pediatric stress', 'stress and disorders' and 'stress management'. In this review, we discuss the historical and neuroendocrine aspects of stress, and we present representative examples of paediatric stress system disorders, such as early-life adversity, obesity and bullying. We also discuss the adverse impact of a socio-economic crisis on childhood health. The tremendous progress of epigenetics has enabled us to have a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying paediatric stress-related disorders. The need for early successful stress management techniques to decrease the incidence of paediatric stress-related diseases, as well as to prevent the development of several pathologic conditions in adolescence and adulthood, is imperative. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  15. Priority setting in paediatric preventive care research.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Mikael; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Straus, Sharon; Laupacis, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    To identify the unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care that are most important to parents and clinicians, and to explore how questions from parents and clinicians may differ. Iterative mixed methods research priority setting process. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Parents of children aged 0-5 years enrolled in a research network in Toronto, and clinicians practising in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Informed by the James Lind Alliance's methodology, an online questionnaire collected unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care from study participants. Similar submissions were combined and ranked. A consensus workshop attended by 28 parents and clinicians considered the most highly ranked submissions and used the nominal group technique to select the 10 most important unanswered research questions. Forty-two clinicians and 115 parents submitted 255 and 791 research questions, respectively, which were combined into 79 indicative questions. Most submissions were about nutrition, illness prevention, parenting and behaviour management. Parents were more likely to ask questions about screen time (49 parents vs 8 clinicians, p<0.05) and environmental toxins (18 parents vs 0 clinicians, p<0.05). The top 10 unanswered questions identified at the workshop related to mental health, parental stress, physical activity, obesity, childhood development, behaviour management and screen time. The top 10 most important unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care from the perspective of parents and clinicians were identified. These research priorities may be important in advancing preventive healthcare for children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Evaluation of paediatric radiology services in hospitals in the UK.

    PubMed

    Halliday, K; Drinkwater, K; Howlett, D C

    2016-12-01

    To compare paediatric radiology provision across the UK with national standards published by the Department of Health and the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR). Audit standards and indicators for paediatric imaging were derived from "Delivering quality imaging services for children",(1) "Standards for imaging in cases of suspected non-accidental injury"(2) and "Improving paediatric interventional radiology services"(3) and agreed jointly by the Clinical Radiology Audit Committee and the British Society of Paediatric Radiology. A questionnaire was sent to all hospitals and NHS trusts imaging children aged 16 or younger in the UK in October 2013. The target for all indicators was 100%. Eighty-seven of 196 (44%) eligible institutions submitted data, the size distribution of the institutions was representative when compared to data from "Facing the future: a review of paediatric services"(4) published by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child health. Only 65% of paediatric images were obtained by staff who had had specific training and only 60% were reported by radiographers or radiologists with appropriate training. Sixty-two percent of centres did not have access to a paediatric opinion 24 hours a day, 7 days a week all year; only 34% of radiographers who regularly imaged children had had any access to continuing professional development (CPD) in the 12 months of the audit. Although all hospitals had facilities for image transfer, only 57% had any formal funding arrangements in place for external reporting of images. The standards set for a network approach to paediatric radiology provision in "Delivering quality imaging services for children" are largely unmet. This failure to make the most of the workforce and resources puts vulnerable children at risk. The authors urge NHS England to work with the RCR to organise and administer a national network for paediatric imaging. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Paediatric idiopathic limbal stem cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Stephen J; Lee, Graham A

    2017-03-20

    Acquired limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) describes a condition in which the corneal limbal stem cells are altered or destroyed, typically due to ocular trauma, chronic allergy or inflammation. Idiopathic LSCD is a term used to describe limbal stem cell failure in the absence of any identifiable causative factor. While several cases of adult-onset LSCD have been identified previously, this case report describes a rare presentation of bilateral asymmetric idiopathic paediatric limbal stem cell deficiency in a sixteen-year-old male with an otherwise unremarkable ocular history.

  18. Depression in paediatric cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dejong, Margaret; Fombonne, Eric

    2006-07-01

    Research into depression in paediatric cancer is in its early stages, but nevertheless has presented interesting challenges regarding the recognition and measurement of depression in a medically ill population. In this article we discuss the complex interaction between physical and psychological variables, and the diagnostic difficulties arising from this. We review the epidemiological findings regarding prevalence, evaluating the apparently low prevalence rate in the light of methodological weaknesses. Hypotheses put forward to explain the findings are discussed. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research.

  19. [Emergency medical aid in a paediatrics context].

    PubMed

    Branchard, Delphine; Tentillier, Éric; Gillet, Stéphane; Naud, Julien

    2016-01-01

    In France, the organisation of aid involves the intervention of the emergency medical services (Samu), which coordinate the medical regulation platforms for site 15 and the mobile emergency and intensive care services (Smur). Since they were created, the Samu have been tirelessly adapting their response to the various characteristics of pre-hospital assignments. Pre- and inter-hospital paediatrics has seen the development of specialised teams with the aim of providing effective aid which is adapted to the youngest and most vulnerable patients.

  20. Infection control in paediatric office settings

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of infection in the paediatric office is of increasing concern. The present document discusses routes of transmission of infection and the principles of current infection control measures. Prevention includes appropriate office design and administrative policies, triage, routine practices for the care of all patients (eg, hand hygiene; use of gloves, masks, eye protection and gowns for specific procedures; adequate cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surfaces and equipment including toys, and aseptic technique for invasive procedures), and additional precautions for specific infections. Personnel should be adequately immunized, and those infected should follow work-restriction policies. PMID:19412374

  1. NSAIDs in paediatrics: caution with varicella!

    PubMed

    Durand, L; Sachs, P; Lemaitre, C; Lorrot, M; Bassehila, J; Bourdon, O; Prot-Labarthe, S

    2015-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory drugs have been suspected on several occasions to have promoted development of bacterial infection among varicella patients. Some countries have not implemented childhood varicella vaccination. Three cases in our hospital suggested the predisposing role of NSAIDs in varicella patient deterioration. Open access to these drugs widely increases their use and patient information should be continually provided in the medical offices and at dispensing pharmacy counters. Taking account of the benefit/risk balance and applying the simple precautionary principle, it would be appropriate to be cautious about the use of NSAIDs in the paediatric population.

  2. Paediatric travel medicine: vaccines and medications

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The paediatric aspects of travel medicine can be complex, and individual advice is often required. Nonetheless, children are much more likely to acquire common infections than exotic tropical diseases whilst travelling. Important exceptions are malaria and tuberculosis, which are more frequent and severe in children. Overall, travellers' diarrhoea is the most common illness affecting travellers. This review discusses vaccines and medications that may be indicated for children who are travelling overseas. It focuses on immunizations that are given as part of the routine schedule, as well as those that are more specific to travel. Malaria and travellers' diarrhoea are also discussed. PMID:23163285

  3. Evidence-based paediatric surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Losty, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    Surgeons play a pivotal role in the decision-making and multidisciplinary management of childhood solid tumours.(1) Evidence-based medicine-"aims to optimise decision making by emphasising on the use of best evidence from well-designed conducted research." This article offers a brief overview in an effort to demonstrate how a selection of well-conducted, recently published studies can help address some topical and controversial themes in paediatric surgical oncology practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Azithromycin use in paediatrics: A practical overview.

    PubMed

    Ovetchkine, Philippe; Rieder, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Azithromycin is an antibiotic that is commonly prescribed for upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children. While it has proven benefits, some concerns regarding azithromycin use have arisen in recent years. This practice point considers azithromycin therapy for acute respiratory infections in otherwise healthy children. Pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, the problem of resistant bacteria and clinical aspects are considered, along with recommendations for use and contraindications. Azithromycin should be avoided in patients with a significant risk of bacteremia. It is associated with pneumococcal resistance and, with stated exceptions, is generally not recommended for the treatment of acute pharyngitis, acute otitis media or pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in the paediatric population.

  5. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  6. Sequencing paediatric antiretroviral therapy in the context of a public health approach

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Ragna S; Boender, T Sonia; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Sigaloff, Kim CE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) efforts has increased, the total number of children being born with HIV has significantly decreased. However, those children who do become infected after PMTCT failure are at particular risk of HIV drug resistance, selected by exposure to maternal or paediatric antiretroviral drugs used before, during or after birth. As a consequence, the response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in these children may be compromised, particularly when non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are used as part of the first-line regimen. We review evidence guiding choices of first- and second-line ART. Discussion Children generally respond relatively well to ART. Clinical trials show the superiority of protease inhibitor (PI)- over NNRTI-based treatment in young children, but observational reports of NNRTI-containing regimens are usually favourable as well. This is reassuring as national guidelines often still recommend the use of NNRTI-based treatment for PMTCT-unexposed young children, due to the higher costs of PIs. After failure of NNRTI-based, first-line treatment, the rate of acquired drug resistance is high, but HIV may well be suppressed by PIs in second-line ART. By contrast, there are currently no adequate alternatives in resource-limited settings (RLS) for children failing either first- or second-line, PI-containing regimens. Conclusions Affordable salvage treatment options for children in RLS are urgently needed. PMID:26639116

  7. Does your pig go 'knor'? Medical students' skills in using animal sounds as a cross-cultural paediatric engagement tool.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Roy, Melyssa

    2016-12-01

    The development of verbal communication skills is an important aspect of medical education as accurate assessment in part relies on effectively obtaining information from patients. When assessing children of different cultural or ethnic backgrounds, young medics may find effective verbal communication difficult because they lack understanding about what children are really like. Animal noises are a likely tool with which to successfully engage with young children. However, these differ by culture and it is unclear whether young New Zealand medical students will be adept at effectively engaging and communicating with foreign children via this mode of communication. We therefore assessed whether medical students in our country were able to accurately reproduce animal noises from different cultures. Six current medical students from New Zealand (with English as their first language) were assessed on their ability to reproduce animal noises from three different foreign languages: Dutch, Arabic and Danish. The animals selected were duck, cow, dog, frog, pig and sheep. Students were played recordings of the foreign-language animal noises, and were then rated on a scale of 1-5 (1 = poor, 5 = outstanding) on their ability to reproduce the noise. Arabic animal noises were reproduced more convincingly than those in the other languages (mean score: 3.8), of which animal noises in Danish were worst (mean score: 3.1). Perhaps unsurprisingly, sheep noises were reproduced best (mean score: 4.7), whereas pig noises were the least convincing (mean score: 2.2). Findings indicate that New Zealand medical students are likely to be better than average at reproducing animal noises in the languages examined, and are perhaps socially and genetically predisposed to replicating sheep noises successfully. They are therefore likely to make good paediatric registrars and fabulous au pairs. The study highlights the more serious issues of multicultural understanding and tolerance of other

  8. Citation context and impact of ‘sleeping beauties’ in paediatric research

    PubMed Central

    Završnik, Jernej; del Torso, Stefano; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives ‘Sleeping beauties’, i.e. publications that are not cited for a long while, present interesting findings in science. This study analysed the citation trends of sleeping beauties in paediatric research. Methods The study used bibliometric software to analyse the papers citing sleeping beauties in paediatric research, to understand the context in which paediatric sleeping beauties were finally cited and the impact of these sleeping beauties on paediatric research. Results Two paediatric sleeping beauties, addressing medical homes and the transition from paediatric to adult health care, respectively, awakened in response to organizational needs. Both presented novel concepts of paediatric service organization that became important because of an increased need for optimization of services. Conclusion All sleeping beauties bring new knowledge that becomes important only after several years. Paediatric sleeping beauties exhibited unique characteristics; however, their presence in paediatric research shows that knowledge acquisition in paediatrics resembles that in other disciplines. PMID:27834306

  9. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    PubMed Central

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish

  10. Agility - The Danish Way (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Agility - The Danish Way Dr. William Mitchell Dept. for Joint Operations | C2 & Intelligence | Royal Danish Defence College Ryvangs Allé 1...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Royal Danish Defence College,Dept...Establish presence in Mogadishu and expand with main effort in Southern Somalia. •MD2- Establish small military presence in Somaliland. • P/SD1-ID Clan

  11. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Stephen P

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.

  12. Anaesthesia for MRI in the paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianpaolo; Zadra, Nicola

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present review is to focus on the literature in the past year and specifically the development of recent guidelines, the debate on who does the sedation anaesthesia for MRI in a paediatric patient, the use of medications and techniques, and the use of monitors and equipment. The revised guidelines of American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry underline the serious risks associated with the sedation of paediatric patients and emphasize the need for proper preparation and proper evaluation. Most children require deep sedation for MRI and the practitioner must have appropriate skills to rescue the patient from general anaesthesia. In the debate on 'who does the sedation', the most important goal is to achieve uniformity in the formal training of the practitioners in key practice elements (airway management, resuscitation, vascular access, medications). Recent findings about the use of anaesthetic techniques, monitors and equipment, and complications are reported. The MRI suite is a challenging environment for anaesthetists and nonanaesthetists, and has serious risks. A systematic approach, similar to that of anaesthesia provided in the operating room, is mandatory. A well equipped anaesthesia machine, standard monitoring, trained personnel and adequate planning should be standard for all procedures out of the operating room.

  13. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186

  14. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart.

    PubMed

    Knight, Stephen P

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies - body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior-posterior (AP)/posterior-anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.

  15. [Treatment of pain in hospital paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Molina, J; Sagaseta de Ilúrdoz, M; Busto, N; Lezáun, I; Cía, M L; Carrascosa, S; Azanza, M J

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a review of pain at the paediatric age, which can be considered a question of maximum interest given the novel application of analgesia or other procedures for avoiding and controlling the different types of pain in the course of normal practice during childhood. After a brief introduction on the history of pain and the scarce attention that it has received until recently, the concepts and different actions for dealing with pain are set out, which depend on its aetiology and localisation: pain in oncology, post-operational pain, pain in chronic or acute diseases, pain in intensive care, etc. Tables are presented with the normal doses used at these ages in the different situations required by the child and which the professional might find himself facing. The non-pharmacological attitude is set out as this can be of great use in the initial stages of controlling pain at these ages, and the different forms of sedation and analgesia at the paediatric age are explained, with regard to the medicines employed, the form of administering them and the importance of a multidisciplinary team: paediatricians, child anaesthetists, nursing personnel as well as the necessary technical support for taking the corresponding action.

  16. Simulation in paediatrics: An educational revolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Adam; Duff, Jonathan; Grant, Estee; Kissoon, Niranjan; Grant, Vincent J

    2007-01-01

    Recent changes in the culture of medical education have highlighted deficiencies in the traditional apprenticeship model of education, and emphasized the need for more experiential modalities of learning. Simulations, which are scenarios or environments designed to closely approximate real-world situations, have recently found their way into the medical training of health care providers. High-fidelity simulators are life-like mannequins connected to computer systems that control the physiological and physical responses of the mannequin. These simulators are able to provide direct feedback to learners in safe, risk-free environments. This technology has been used to teach all aspects of medical care, including medical knowledge, technical skills, and behavioural training or communication skills. The present article provides a general overview of simulation that will hopefully help to generate interest in paediatric simulation across Canada. Several tertiary care paediatric hospitals in Canada are already using simulation to teach health care providers; continued growth and interest is expected in this exciting area of medical education. PMID:19030409

  17. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:26229655

  18. [Causes, diagnostics and therapy for paediatric ptosis].

    PubMed

    Ungerechts, R; Grenzebach, U; Harder, B; Emmerich, K-H

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of and therapy for paediatric ptosis present challenges because of difficulties in performing preoperative examinations and the inability of the patient to provide intraoperative cooperation for proper lid placement. The authors provide an overview of the different forms and findings in congenital ptosis patients and point out the difficulties of the surgical procedures. The majority of paediatric ptosis cases is simple unilateral congenital ptosis with dysgenesis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. Other different forms exist due to neurological, neuro-myogenic, aponeurotic, sympathic, and mechanical reasons or syndromes. The relevant history is obtained, including birth history and family history, careful observation and full ophthalmological examination are necessary. Amblyopia because of ptosis, strabismus or anisometropia with corneal astigmatism should be recognised and treated early. The preoperative examination is vital for determining the appropriate diagnosis and is useful for selecting the appropriate procedure. Ptosis correction is based on ptosis severity, Bell phenomenon and levator function. The primary goal is symmetry of the upper lids. Most frequently a levator resection is performed between the 3rd and 5th year with a levator function of more than 3 mm. The most common complication is undercorrection, poor lid contour or amblyopia. Overcorrection may be associated with dry eye syndrome and keratopathy. Levator resection is a useful procedure for the correction of mild to moderate ptosis. Frontalis suspension surgery is effective for congenital ptosis with poor levator function. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi; Nørgaard, Mette; Thind, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. Study population All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47%) patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC) and 512 (53%) were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). A total of 300 (31%) patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50%) received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5) in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31) in 2013. Conclusion This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and monitor treatment and mortality. In the future, DaBlaCa-data will be a valuable data source and expansive observational studies on BC will be available. PMID:27822081

  20. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346

  1. Paediatric training for family doctors: principals and practice.

    PubMed

    Melville, C; Wall, D; Anderson, J

    2002-05-01

    There is controversy as to how best to train general practitioners for the paediatric challenges they will meet in practice, in particular what should be included in training, what should be left out and how long should it last? All 615 general practice principals referring to 6 hospitals were surveyed (40% response rate). West Midlands region of England. Postal questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of responses. Quantitative responses were analysed by hospital, decade of qualification, and duration of paediatric training. Qualitative responses were analysed using grounded theory. Satisfaction with training was directly related to its duration, with low levels of satisfaction for less than 6 months paediatrics, moderate levels for 6-11 months, and high levels with 12 months or more. The most important item of training was recognition of the sick child. Acute and chronic paediatrics was generally well covered. Psychosocial aspects, public health and immunisation were poorly addressed. Neonatal resuscitation and first day checks were seen as relevant, but neonatal intensive care was not. At least 6 months of paediatrics is necessary for GPs in training, but longer paediatric exposure further increases their satisfaction with training. GPs have a biopsychosocial rather than biomedical approach to their child patients, suggesting potential benefits from a greater emphasis on psychosocial and public health aspects at the expense of neonatal intensive care. Recognition of the sick child is essential, and acute and chronic organic illness should be covered in breadth. Possible future models for GP training in paediatrics are discussed.

  2. Stages of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Stages of HIV Infection How Does HIV Progress in Your Body? Without treatment, HIV advances ... are the three stages of HIV infection: Acute HIV Infection Stage Within 2-4 weeks after HIV ...

  3. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  4. Treatment for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  5. Paediatric biopharmaceutics classification system: current status and future decisions.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah

    2014-08-05

    Biopharmaceutical methods are routinely used in the design of medicines to predict in vivo absorption and hence guide the development of new products. Differences in anatomy and physiology of paediatric patients require adaptation of existing biopharmaceutical methods to ensure that in vivo predictions are relevant for this population. The biopharmaceutics classification system is a tool used in drug development to guide formulation selection and manufacture from early clinical studies through to product launch. The applicability of the biopharmaceutics system to paediatric product development has yet to be explored; this note brings together some key issues in direct extrapolation from adults into paediatric populations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Future of the Danish Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    as a natural consequence of being a co-founder of the United Nations, focused on promoting peace and stability in the world, as a relatively large...Soviet invasion to a more expeditionary course of deploying forces to promote peace and stability around the globe. As a result, Danish defense policy...Danish government including the armed forces. As a consequence Defense Agreement 2010 – 2014 was replaced by Defense Agreement 2013 – 2017 including

  7. Trends in paediatric bloodstream infections at a South African referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Dramowski, Angela; Cotton, Mark F; Rabie, Helena; Whitelaw, Andrew

    2015-04-02

    The epidemiology of paediatric bloodstream infection (BSI) in Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly documented with limited data on hospital-acquired sepsis, impact of HIV infection, BSI trends and antimicrobial resistance. We retrospectively reviewed paediatric BSI (0-14 years) at Tygerberg Children's Hospital between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013 (excluding neonatal wards). Laboratory and hospital data were used to determine BSI rates, blood culture contamination, pathogen profile, patient demographics, antimicrobial resistance and factors associated with mortality. Fluconazole resistant Candida species, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae were classified as antimicrobial resistant pathogens. Of 17001 blood cultures over 6 years, 935 cultures isolated 979 pathogens (5.5% yield; 95% CI 5.3-5.7%). Contamination rates were high (6.6%, 95% CI 6.4-6.8%), increasing over time (p = 0.003). Discrete BSI episodes were identified (n = 864) with median patient age of 7.5 months, male predominance (57%) and 13% HIV prevalence. BSI rates declined significantly over time (4.6-3.1, overall rate 3.5 per 1000 patient days; 95% CI 3.3-3.7; Chi square for trend p = 0.02). Gram negative pathogens predominated (60% vs 33% Gram positives and 7% fungal); Klebsiella pneumoniae (154; 17%), Staphylococcus aureus (131; 14%) and Escherichia coli (97; 11%) were most prevalent. Crude BSI mortality was 20% (176/864); HIV infection, fungal, Gram negative and hospital-acquired sepsis were significantly associated with mortality on multivariate analysis. Hospital-acquired BSI was common (404/864; 47%). Overall antimicrobial resistance rates were high (70% in hospital vs 25% in community-acquired infections; p < 0.0001); hospital-acquired infection, infancy, HIV-infection and Gram negative sepsis were associated with resistance. S. pneumoniae BSI declined significantly

  8. Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project.

    PubMed

    Paget, W John; Balderston, Catherine; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Gé; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone

    2010-08-01

    The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003-2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0-4 and 5-14 years in England, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0-4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47-83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making concerning

  9. Clinical practice audit concerning antimicrobial prophylaxis in paediatric neurosurgery: results from a German paediatric oncology unit.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Katja; Simon, Arne; Graf, Norbert; Schöpe, Jakob; Oertel, Joachim; Linsler, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP) has been identified as an important target for internal audits, concerning the judicious use of antibiotics. Paediatric oncology patients with brain tumours face an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery and receive routine PAP in this setting. All patients younger than 18 years admitted to the paediatric oncology centre (POC) with a neurosurgical intervention. Systematic audit of routine clinical data is divided in two groups: retrospective (Jan 01, 2012-March 31, 2014) and prospective (April 01, 2014-March 31, 2015) referring to an internal PAP guideline, invented in Jan. 2014). Surveillance of SSI up to 30 days after the operation with standard criteria (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, USA). In total, 53 neurosurgical operations were analysed in 33 paediatric oncology patients. Twelve patients received more than one operation. The detailed analysis of PAP revealed prophylactic cefuroxim doses about 30 mg/kg instead of 50 mg/kg and no repeated dosing in operations lasting longer than 4 h. In addition, Cefotaxim, which is not indicated as PAP in neurosurgery, was used instead of Cefuroxim (or Ampicillin-Sulbactam) in 23 % of all cases in the retrospective and 18 % of all cases in the prospective audit. PAP for more than 3 doses (>24 h) was administered in 66 % in the retrospective group and in 60 % in the prospective group (p = n.s.). In both groups, no SSI was detected. This first comprehensive audit of PAP in paediatric oncology patients undergoing neurosurgery outlines significant opportunities to improve clinical practice in terms of correct dosing, the correct choice of the antibiotic, a correct timing schedule and a shorter duration of PAP. In addition, our results illustrate in detail the challenges in clinical practice when an evidence-based approach to improve a standard workflow has to be implemented.

  10. Are Danish doctors comfortable teaching in English?

    PubMed

    Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D

    2016-08-27

    From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.

  11. [Quality of initial trauma care in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Pradas, Vicente; Pérez Montejano, Rut

    2017-04-18

    Trauma care in Spain is not provided in specific centres, which means that health professionals have limited contact to trauma patients. After the setting up of a training program in paediatric trauma, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the initial care provided to these patients before they were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a third level hospital (trauma centre), as an indirect measurement of the increase in the number of health professionals trained in trauma. Two cohorts of PICU admissions were reviewed, the first one during the four years immediately before the training courses started (Group 1, period 2001-2004), and the second one during the 4 years (Group 2, period 2012-2015) after nearly 500 professionals were trained. A record was made of the injury mechanism, attending professional, Glasgow coma score (GCS), and paediatric trauma score (PTS). Initial care quality was assessed using five indicators: use of cervical collar, vascular access, orotracheal intubation if GCS ≤ 8, gastric decompression if PTS≤8, and number of actions carried out from the initial four recommended (neck control, provide oxygen, get vascular access, provide IV fluids). Compliance was compared between the 2 periods. A P<.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 218 patient records were analysed, 105 in Group 1, and 113 in Group 2. The groups showed differences both in injury mechanism and in initial care team. A shift in injury mechanism pattern was observed, with a decrease in car accidents (28% vs 6%; P<.0001). Patients attended to in low complexity hospitals increased from 29.4% to 51.9% (P=.008), and their severity decreased when assessed using the GCS ≤ 8 (29.8% vs 13.5%; P=.004), or PTS≤8 (48.5% vs 29.7%; P=.005). As regards quality indicators, only the use of neck collar improved its compliance (17.3% to 32.7%; P=.01). Patients who received no action in the initial care remained unchanged (19% vs 11%%; P=.15

  12. HIV and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Essajee, Shaffiq; Penazzato, Martina

    2015-02-01

    Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 has two HIV/AIDS commitments: to have halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 and to ensure access to treatment among all those in need by 2010. Given the almost universal lack of access to HIV testing, prevention and treatment for children in high prevalence countries in 2000, the achievements of the past 15 years have been extraordinary, fuelled by massive donor investment, strong political commitment and ambitious global targets; however, MDG 6 is some way from being attained. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services have expanded enormously, with new infections among children falling by 58% between 2002 and 2013. There has been a shift towards initiation of lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women, although low HIV testing rates in pregnancy, suboptimal PMTCT coverage and poor retention in care remain barriers to achieving HIV elimination among children. Early infant diagnosis has expanded substantially but, in 2013, only 44% of all HIV-exposed infants were tested before 2 months of age. Diagnosis of HIV, therefore, frequently occurs late, leading to delays in ART initiation. By the end of 2013, approximately 760 000 children were receiving ART, leading to 40% decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, only 24% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART, compared with 36% of adults, leading to a 'treatment gap'. In this review, we summarise progress and remaining challenges in reaching MDG 6 and discuss future strategies to achieve the ambitious goals of paediatric HIV elimination and universal access to treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Safe and judicious paediatric psychotropic prescribing.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, F; Orakwue, N

    2014-02-01

    Psychotropic medications are now a well-established and evidenced based treatment for increasing number of child mental health disorders prescribed at increasing frequencies and by increasing number of professional groups. Clinicians' perceived levels of competence and standardised monitoring lag behind prescribing practice and should be addressed by regular continuous professional development. A study specific questionnaire on psychotropic prescribing practice in children was mailed to all child psychiatrists and paediatricians working in Ireland and GPs from a selected Dublin CAMHS catchment area. Of the 116 who replied, (39% response rate), antidepressants (58.7%), antipsychotics (57.1%) and ADHD medications (36.5%) were most commonly prescribed. Results suggest increasing trends of monitoring amongst Irish clinicians over time, but with some lack of specificity. Commensurate with the wish of clinicians, ongoing training in paediatric psychopharmacology is considered essential in order to benefit from the increasing advances in pharmacology.

  14. Adenoid bacterial colonization in a paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Subtil, João; Rodrigues, João Carlos; Reis, Lúcia; Freitas, Luís; Filipe, Joana; Santos, Alberto; Macor, Carlos; Duarte, Aida; Jordao, Luisa

    2017-04-01

    Adenoids play a key role in both respiratory and ear infection in children. It has also been shown that adenoidectomy improves these symptoms in this population. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate adenoid bacterial colonization and document a possible relation with infectious respiratory disease. A prospective observational study was designed to evaluate the proposed hypothesis in a paediatric population submitted to adenoidectomy by either infectious or non-infectious indications and compare these two cohorts. A total of 62 patients with ages ranging from 1 to 12 years old were enrolled in the study. Adenoid surface, adenoid core and middle meatus microbiota were compared. A close association between adenoid colonization and nasal infection was found, supporting that adenoids may function as bacterial reservoir for upper airway infection. The obtained results also contribute to explain the success of adenoidectomy in patients with infectious indications.

  15. Eosinophilic heart disease in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Dedieu, Natalie; Giardini, Alessandro; Khambadkone, Sachin; Marek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old child with no previous medical history was referred with a 4-day history of cough, shortness of breath, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a soft tissue infiltrating the left ventricular free wall, the lateral mitral annulus, and the mitral valve leaflets. A soft tissue strand connecting the lateral left atrial wall and mitral leaflets across the mitral valve orifice was also identified, causing reduced opening and functional mitral stenosis. The diagnosis of Löeffler endocarditis was made, and after 10 weeks of treatment with oral prednisolone, there was complete resolution of symptoms and of the infiltrative tissue with normalization of mitral valve function. The present case highlights some atypical features of eosinophilic heart disease-like occurrence in paediatric age, the complete preservation of the right ventricle and left ventricular apex, and the presentation with mitral stenosis compared with mitral regurgitation typically observed in the late phase of the disease.

  16. Role of advanced paediatric nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Lisa, Egerton

    2012-07-01

    Children's attendance at emergency departments (EDs) is increasing every year, yet many children present with minor, self-limiting illnesses that could be managed at home. In light of Williams et al (2009) suggestion that healthcare professionals should improve the care available to patients at point of contact rather than try to change their health-seeking behaviours, this article describes how Tameside and Glossop Primary Care Trust has developed an advanced paediatric nurse practitioner (APNP) service in the ED to improve the care of children, and to reduce the number of admissions. The APNPs treat children in the ED then divert them to more appropriate services where support is given to the families to care for their children at home. The role contributes to meeting ED clinical quality indicators, frees up medical staff to deal with more seriously ill patients, and makes financial savings for the trust.

  17. Haemocompatibility of paediatric membrane oxygenators with heparin-coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wendel, H P; Scheule, A M; Eckstein, F S; Ziemer, G

    1999-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in paediatric patients with heparin-coated oxygenation systems is rarely investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate, preclinically, the haemocompatibility of paediatric membrane oxygenators with heparin-coated surfaces. We compared 16 paediatric membrane oxygenators (Minimax, Medtronic) in an in vitro heart-lung machine model with fresh human blood. Eight of these oxygenation systems had a covalent heparin coating (Carmeda bioactive surface). After 90 min simulated ECC, the heparin-coated systems showed significantly higher platelet count, lower platelet-factor 4 release, reduced contact activation (factor XIIa and kallikrein), and lower neutrophil elastase levels (p < 0.05), compared to the noncoated oxygenator group. More biocompatible materials for paediatric operations may ameliorate the various postperfusion syndromes arising from ECC procedures, particularly unspecific inflammation, hyperfibrinolysis and blood loss.

  18. Clinical competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics: raising the bar.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Mick

    2014-01-01

    For our specialist paediatric workforce to be suitably equipped to deal with current childhood morbidity, a high level of competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics (DBP) is necessary. New models of training and assessment are required to meet this challenge. An evolution of training in DBP, built around the centrepiece of competency-based medical education, is proposed. Summative assessment based upon entrustable professional activities, and a menu of formative workplace-based assessments specific to the DBP context are key components. A pilot project to develop and implement these changes is recommended. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. A 3D digital medical photography system in paediatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

  20. Interruption handling strategies during paediatric medication administration.

    PubMed

    Colligan, Lacey; Bass, Ellen J

    2012-11-01

    Interruptions are a part of many hospital settings. During medication administration, interruptions have been shown to lead to medication errors. Understanding interruption management strategies during medical management could lead to the design of interventions to reduce and mitigate related errors. Semi-structured interviews with paediatric nurses in an in-patient setting were used to identify types of interruptions, strategies for safe medication administration and interruption management, as well as factors influencing the interruption management strategy choice. Nurses also worked through use cases and provided verbal protocols about their strategies. To confirm and refine a framework for interruption handling, on-the-job observations were also conducted. Four case studies of medication administration highlight four interruption handling strategies. Three allow the interruption: 1) the primary task is suspended so that the higher priority secondary task may be engaged immediately; 2) multi-task by dividing attention between the primary and secondary tasks; and 3) mediating the interruption with an action that supports resumption of the primary task. The fourth blocks the interruption, keeping attention on the primary task (blocking). Interviews and on-the-job observation suggest that nurses dynamically assess the primary and (interrupting) secondary tasks. They prioritise task execution based on both risk and workflow efficiency assessments. Specific interruption handling depends on both task and experience related factors. Paediatric nurses have developed sophisticated strategies to manage interruptions and maintain patient safety and work efficiency during medication administration. To support a more resilient healthcare system, interruption management strategies should be supported through process, task support tools and education.

  1. Sixth Nerve Palsy in Paediatric Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Julia E.; Reem, Rachel E.; Aylward, Shawn C.; Rogers, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to report the incidence and describe the characteristics of sixth cranial nerve (CN VI) palsy in paediatric patients with intracranial hypertension (IH). A retrospective chart review of central Ohio children diagnosed with IH over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2013 was conducted. IH without identifiable cause was defined as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), whereas IH with identifiable pathologic aetiology was deemed secondary intracranial hypertension (SIH). A subset of patients with CN VI palsy was identified. Data collected included patient age, gender, past medical history, aetiology of SIH, ophthalmic examination, lumbar puncture results, neuroimaging results, and response to treatment. Seventy-eight children with intracranial hypertension were included in the study. Nine (11.5%) children (four males, five females; median age 14, range: 3–18) were found to have a unilateral (n = 2) or bilateral (n = 7) CN VI palsy. Five children had IIH; the remaining four had SIH from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (n = 2) and infection (n = 2). The mean lumbar puncture opening pressure for the nine patients with CN VI palsy was 40 cm H2O (range: 21–65 cm H2O). Papilloedema was present in 8/9 (89%) patients. One patient required a lumboperitoneal shunt, and two others required optic nerve sheath fenestrations in addition to medical management. All cases of CN VI palsy resolved with treatment. In our primary service area, the incidence of CN VI palsy is approximately 12% among paediatric IH patients. The majority of cases with CN VI palsy presented with papilloedema and all cases resolved with treatment of intracranial hypertension. PMID:27928378

  2. Recent advances in paediatric neuro-oncology.

    PubMed

    Saran, Frank

    2002-12-01

    Primary central nervous system malignancies incorporate a variety of tumours with diverse biology and clinical behaviour and represent the most common solid tumour entity of childhood, accounting for approximate 20-25% of all primary paediatric malignancies. Recent findings regarding the underlying tumour biology may open up new avenues of clinical trial design, particularly identifying possible targets for biological modifiers. Over the last 12-18 months a significant number of institutional and national studies have been reported which are likely to impact on the design of future clinical trials. In low-grade gliomas, stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy should lead to a significant reduction in radiation-associated late toxicity, while in selected groups of high-grade gliomas the use of adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy may improve survival. Completeness of resection and use of adjuvant focal radiotherapy remains the most important prognostic factor for outcome in patients with ependymomas, although in infants the use of post-surgical chemotherapy alone may allow the postponing of radiotherapy in selected cases. In primitive neuroectodermal tumours prognostic biological markers have been identified that are undergoing prospective evaluation. For patients with localized medulloblastomas a new standard treatment is emerging that uses reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by platinum-based chemotherapy, while in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours future treatment will be aimed at improving local control. Given the rarity of paediatric primary central nervous system malignancies, further progress can only be achieved in the context of national or multinational prospective clinical trials incorporating biological studies, and participation in these should be strongly encouraged. Copyright 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  3. Impact of child death on paediatric trainees.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Clare E; Wesley, Carla; Huckridge, Jaymie; Finn, Gabrielle M; Griksaitis, Michael J

    2017-08-18

    To assess the prevalence of symptoms of acute stress reactions (ASR) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in paediatric trainees following their involvement in child death. A survey designed to identify trainees' previous experiences of child death combined with questions to identify features of PTSD. Quantitative interpretation was used alongside a χ(2) test. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant. 604 surveys were distributed across 13 UK health education deaneries. 303/604 (50%) of trainees completed the surveys. 251/280 (90%) of trainees had been involved with the death of a child, although 190/284 (67%) had no training in child death. 118/248 (48%) of trainees were given a formal debrief session following their most recent experience. 203/251 (81%) of trainees reported one or more symptoms or behaviours that could contribute to a diagnosis of ASR/PTSD. 23/251 (9%) of trainees met the complete criteria for ASR and 13/251 (5%) for PTSD. Attending a formal debrief and reporting feelings of guilt were associated with an increase in diagnostic criteria for ASR/PTSD (p=0.036 and p<0.001, respectively). Paediatric trainees are at risk of developing ASR and PTSD following the death of a child. The feeling of guilt should be identified and acknowledged to allow prompt signposting to further support, including psychological assessment or intervention if required. Clear recommendations need to be made about the safety of debriefing sessions as, in keeping with existing evidence, our data suggest that debrief after the death of a child may be associated with the development of symptoms suggestive of ASR/PTSD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Radiological protection in paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Khong, P-L; Frush, D; Ringertz, H

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that paediatric patients are generally at greater risk for the development of cancer per unit of radiation dose compared with adults, due both to the longer life expectancy for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and the fact that developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. Multiple computed tomography (CT) examinations may cumulatively involve absorbed doses to organs and tissues that can sometimes approach or exceed the levels known from epidemiological studies to significantly increase the probability of cancer development. Radiation protection strategies include rigorous justification of CT examinations and the use of imaging techniques that are non-ionising, followed by optimisation of radiation dose exposure (according to the 'as low as reasonably achievable' principle). Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction technology when acquiring CT scanners. Dose reduction should be optimised by adjustment of scan parameters (such as mAs, kVp, and pitch) according to patient weight or age, region scanned, and study indication (e.g. images with greater noise should be accepted if they are of sufficient diagnostic quality). Other strategies include restricting multiphase examination protocols, avoiding overlapping of scan regions, and only scanning the area in question. Newer technologies such as tube current modulation, organ-based dose modulation, and iterative reconstruction should be used when appropriate. Attention should also be paid to optimising study quality (e.g. by image post-processing to facilitate radiological diagnoses and interpretation). Finally, improving awareness through education and advocacy, and further research in paediatric radiological protection are important to help reduce patient dose. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibody tests, combination or fourth-generation tests, and nucleic acid tests (NAT). HIV tests may be performed on ... retested 3 months after your possible exposure. A nucleic acid test (NAT) looks for HIV in the blood. ...

  6. [Paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care services, objectives and missions].

    PubMed

    Julliand, Sébastien; Lodé, Noëlla

    2016-01-01

    The paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care service care teams have expertise in taking care of children in life-threatening circumstances. At the Robert-Debré Hospital in Paris, the paediatric Smur is multi-skilled, specialising particularly in transporting neonates and infants with severe cardiac or respiratory difficulties. The pathologies handled are very varied and include both neonatal pathologies and trauma pathologies in older children.

  7. Developmental paediatrics in primary care: what should we teach?

    PubMed Central

    Baird, G; Hall, D M

    1985-01-01

    There is little agreement about what constitutes good developmental paediatric practice at the level of primary care. Many of the available screening tests are intrinsically unsatisfactory or badly performed, but screening is only a small part of developmental paediatrics. Every primary care doctor should be familiar with the scientific basis of the subject even if a decision is made not to embark on a formal screening programme. PMID:2412629

  8. Immobilisation in Australian paediatric medical imaging: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Noonan, S; Spuur, K; Nielsen, S

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study is to document the use of paediatric immobilisation techniques in medical imaging. Secondary aims are to investigate differences between current practice of paediatric and non-paediatric facilities and radiographer gender and to investigate immobilisation protocols. A SurveyMonkey link was distributed through the Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT) newsletter. Radiographer members of ASMIRT were invited to participate. Frequency percentage analysis was undertaken; as the 'frequency of immobilisation' response was on a Likert scale and the ages categorical, a Fisher's exact test could determine dependency. The use of paediatric immobilisation techniques was determined to be related to age. The most commonly used technique in general X-ray was "other people"; in computed tomography, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques; and in magnetic resonance imaging, sedation and Velcro. A comparison of immobilisation techniques demonstrated that Velcro use in X-ray was dependent on facility (p = 0.017) with paediatric facilities using it up to 17 years. Immobilisation frequency was dependent in 13-17 years (p = 0.035) with paediatric facilities rarely immobilising and non-paediatric facilities never. No dependencies resulted upon comparing genders. Immobilisation frequency was not dependent between protocols or current practice. The use of paediatric immobilisation technique is related to age with "other people", sedation, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques being regularly used. The dependency of Velcro use and immobilisation frequency in 13-17 years is for unknown reasons and further investigation is required. A larger study should be carried out to validate these findings. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes towards abortion among physicians working at obstetrical and paediatric departments in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Norup, M

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the attitudes among physicians working in perinatal medicine towards abortion for social reasons or because of abnormal prenatal diagnostic results. A questionnaire was sent to all physicians registered as employed at obstetrical or paediatric departments in Danish hospitals with a neonatal function. Of 994 questionnaires, 687 (69 per cent) were completed and returned. There was strong consensus among all participants that abortion is acceptable until week 21 in the case of trisomy 13 and at least until week 19 in the case of cystic fibrosis. Furthermore, there was strong consensus that abortion in the first trimester is acceptable in the case of an unwanted pregnancy in a 16-year-old girl and in the case of Down syndrome. Major controversy was found in connection with abortion in the case of Turner syndrome until week 21, abortion in week 13 in the case of polycystic kidney disease, abortion in week 24 in the case of Down syndrome, and abortion for social reasons in week 21.

  10. Accuracy and interrater reliability of paediatric emergency department triage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Amy R; Spittal, Matthew J; Nicolas, Caroline; Oakley, Ed; Freed, Gary L

    2015-10-01

    To determine the accuracy and reliability of triage of children in public hospital EDs using the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS). This is the first study to examine these issues in paediatric triage following the 2007 development of the Emergency Triage Education Kit (ETEK) to foster accurate and consistent application of the ATS. A convenience sample of 167 triage nurses working at three general hospitals and one speciality paediatric hospital in greater metropolitan Melbourne assigned triage ratings for nine paediatric clinical scenarios using the ATS. Scenarios were derived from the ETEK or from other published sources. Kappa was used to assess interrater reliability within and between hospitals. Triage nurses correctly assigned triage scores to an average of 5.3 of nine paediatric clinical scenarios. Accuracy in specific hospitals ranged from a low of 15% on one scenario, to 100% accuracy on a different scenario at a different hospital. Interrater reliability within and across the EDs studied was found to be kappa = 0.27. Both accuracy and interrater reliability were marginally higher at the speciality paediatric hospital. Our findings demonstrate inconsistencies in the accuracy and reliability in which sick children presenting to EDs receive triage scores both within and across hospitals. These results suggest the need for improvements either in current triage nurse training or training resources. Use of the ETEK alone has not resulted in high levels of paediatric triage accuracy or reliability. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Specialist paediatric dentistry in Sweden 2008 - a 25-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer

    2010-09-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. Paediatric dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist paediatric dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in combination with dental treatment needs (27%), followed by medical conditions/disability (18%), and high caries activity (15%). The use of different techniques for conscious sedation as well as general anaesthesia had also increased. Conclusions. The referrals to paediatric dentistry continue to increase, leading to a heavy work load for the same number of specialists. Thus, the need for more paediatric dentists remains.

  12. Collaboration between paediatric surgery and other medical specialties in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Philemon E; Ameh, Emmanuel A

    2012-01-01

    The quality of service and success of patient care and research in most fields of medicine depend on effective collaboration between different specialties. Paediatric surgery is a relatively young specialty in Nigeria and such collaborations are desirable. This survey assesses the nature and extent of collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. This is a questionnaire survey carried out in November 2008 among paediatric surgeons and their trainees practising in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed and retrieved either by hand or e-mailing. The responses were then collated and analysed using the SPSS 17.0. Forty-seven respondents were included in the survey. Forty-five (95.7%) respondents thought that there was inadequate collaboration and that there was a need for an increased collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties. Anaesthesia, paediatrics and radiology are among the specialties where collaborations were most required but not adequately received. Collaboration had been required from these specialties in areas of patient care, training and research. Reasons for inadequate collaboration included the paucity of avenues for inter-specialty communication and exchange of ideas 33 (70.3%), lack of awareness of the need for collaboration 32 (68.1%), tendency to apportion blames for bad outcome 13 (27.7%), and mutual suspicion 8 (17%). There is presently inadequate collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. There is a need for more inter-specialty support, communication, and exchange of ideas in order to achieve desirable outcomes.

  13. Pioneering paediatric intensive care medicine in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Trubuhovich, R V

    2013-09-01

    The origin of New Zealand's paediatric intensive care medicine lay in the formal establishment of Auckland Hospital's Central Respiratory Unit within the hospital's Infectious Diseases Unit (December 1958). It was initially established for the care of critically ill children, chiefly with airway and respiratory disorders or tetanus. Senior Specialist Anaesthetist Matthew Spence soon took charge, his first annual report (1960) briefly describing six children among 19 admissions and another six consulted on elsewhere. Rapid build-up of paediatric admissions-36 in 1963 becoming 104 in 1969-is detailed through Dr Spence's admirable annual reports for that period, which also provide the evidence of his organisational brilliance and personal commitment to development of the unit. Treatment for children, approximately a third of all admissions, soon included management of brain swelling from meningitis, intractable convulsions, traumatic brain injury, etc. Critically ill children were occasionally flown into Auckland; others were cared for regionally as further intensive care units developed throughout New Zealand. Successive additions to medical staffing gradually resulted in four full-time intensivists after Dr Spence's retirement in 1983. Dr James Judson computerised record-keeping from 1984 and developed a large database, containing details of children with numbers approaching 2000. At the end of 1991, the (now) Department of Critical Care Medicine completed its paediatric role over three decades, with care of children passing to a paediatric intensive care unit in the new Auckland paediatric hospital (soon to be called "Starship"). Regional intensive care units still make a substantial contribution to paediatric intensive care countrywide.

  14. Informed consent for paediatric clinical trials in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lepola, Pirkko; Needham, Allison; Mendum, Jo; Sallabank, Peter; Neubauer, David; de Wildt, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Paediatric clinical trials are often conducted as multinational trials. Informed consent or assent is part of the ethics committee approval for clinical trials. The consent requirements vary between countries due to national laws and regulations, which are not harmonised in Europe. These discrepancies can present challenges for paediatric clinical trials. The aim of this study was to assemble these consent and assent requirements across the European Economic Area. The collated national requirements have not been publicly available before, despite a real need for this data. Methods National consent and assent requirements for paediatric clinical trials were analysed and collated for 25 European Union Member States and 2 European Free Trade Association countries until the end of 2014. The data were retrieved from existing databases and through communication with the competent authorities and selected ethics committees. Results from a literature search for international or national guidelines, declarations and conventions and academic societies' publications served as comparison material. Results Consent and assent requirements are heterogeneous across these countries. We compiled our findings in ‘The Informed Consent and Assent Tool Kit’, a table including 27 national consent and assent requirements listed by individual country. Conclusions Wide variation in paediatric consents and assents presents challenges for multinational paediatric trials in Europe. The toolkit is available for all those involved in paediatric clinical trials and ethics committees, providing a new platform for proactive feedback on informed consent requirements, and may finally lead to a needed harmonisation process, including uniform standards accepted across Europe. PMID:27226526

  15. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. PMID:27822082

  16. Our surgical heritage: the role of the Department of Paediatric Surgery in the development of paediatric surgery in Cape Town, in Africa, and around the world.

    PubMed

    Rode, Heinz; Millar, Alastair J W

    2012-03-23

    The Department of Paediatric Surgery at the University of Cape Town has made a remarkable contribution to the academic body of knowledge of Paediatric Surgery both in South Africa and around the world. It has played a key role in the development of the specialty in South Africa and through the South African diaspora has trained many paediatric surgeons who have made their mark internationally. More recently it has become a major focus of teaching and training for African paediatric surgeons. This article traces this legacy through its origins in the early 1920s to its current prominent position in the world paediatric surgical community.

  17. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published.

  18. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  19. Challenges in infant and young child nutrition in the context of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Sint, Tin Tin; Lovich, Ronnie; Hammond, Wendy; Kim, Maria; Melillo, Sara; Lu, Lydia; Ching, Pamela; Marcy, Jennifer; Rollins, Nigel; Koumans, Emilia H.; Heap, Amie N.; Brewinski-Isaacs, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    There is consensus on the benefits for all infants of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and introduction of appropriate complementary foods at 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding. However, guidelines on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) for HIV-positive mothers have changed continually since 2000. This article explores issues and evidence related to IYCF for the prevention and care of paediatric HIV in resource-limited settings in light of new HIV treatment guidelines, implementation challenges and knowledge gaps. In 2010 the impact of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) on reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV moved WHO to urge countries to endorse either avoidance of all breastfeeding or exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months while taking ARVs, depending on which strategy could give their infants the greatest chance of HIV-free survival. Implementation of the 2010 recommendations is challenged by lack of healthcare provider training, weak clinic–community linkages to support mother/infant pairs and lack of national monitoring and reporting on infant feeding indicators. More evidence is needed to inform prevention and treatment of malnutrition among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. Knowledge gaps include the effects of prolonged ARV exposure, the cause of HIV-associated growth faltering, the effects of early infant testing on continuation of breastfeeding and specific nutrition interventions needed for HIV-infected children. Significant progress has been made toward keeping mothers alive and reducing paediatric HIV infection, but sustained political, financial and scientific commitment are required to ensure meaningful interventions to eliminate postnatal transmission and meet the nutritional needs of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. PMID:24361626

  20. Challenges in infant and young child nutrition in the context of HIV.

    PubMed

    Sint, Tin Tin; Lovich, Ronnie; Hammond, Wendy; Kim, Maria; Melillo, Sara; Lu, Lydia; Ching, Pamela; Marcy, Jennifer; Rollins, Nigel; Koumans, Emilia H; Heap, Amie N; Brewinski-Isaacs, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    There is consensus on the benefits for all infants of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and introduction of appropriate complementary foods at 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding. However, guidelines on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) for HIV-positive mothers have changed continually since 2000. This article explores issues and evidence related to IYCF for the prevention and care of paediatric HIV in resource-limited settings in light of new HIV treatment guidelines, implementation challenges and knowledge gaps.In 2010 the impact of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) on reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV moved WHO to urge countries to endorse either avoidance of all breastfeeding or exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months while taking ARVs, depending on which strategy could give their infants the greatest chance of HIV-free survival. Implementation of the 2010 recommendations is challenged by lack of healthcare provider training, weak clinic-community linkages to support mother/infant pairs and lack of national monitoring and reporting on infant feeding indicators.More evidence is needed to inform prevention and treatment of malnutrition among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. Knowledge gaps include the effects of prolonged ARV exposure, the cause of HIV-associated growth faltering, the effects of early infant testing on continuation of breastfeeding and specific nutrition interventions needed for HIV-infected children.Significant progress has been made toward keeping mothers alive and reducing paediatric HIV infection, but sustained political, financial and scientific commitment are required to ensure meaningful interventions to eliminate postnatal transmission and meet the nutritional needs of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children.

  1. Uptake of interventions, outcomes and challenges in caring for HIV-exposed infants in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Steel-Duncan, J C; Pierre, R; Evans-Gilbert, T; Rodriquez, B; Smikle, M F; Palmer, P; Whorms, S; Hambleton, I; Figueroa, J P; Christie, C D C

    2004-10-01

    In a few Caribbean islands, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) of HIV with zidovudine prophylaxis has reduced transmission rates from 27 - 44% to 5.5 - 9 %. To highlight the uptake of interventions, preliminary outcomes and challenges in caring for HIV-exposed infants in a pMTCT HIVprogramme in a resource-limited setting. A cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women were identified at the leading maternity centres in Greater Kingston through HIV counselling and testing and enrolled in the Kingston Paediatric and Perinatal HIV/AIDS Programme. Antiretroviralprophylaxis with zidovudine or nevirapine was given to the HIV-positive women and their newborns along with formula feeding. Some infants were enrolled retrospectively and followed irrespective of whether they had or had not received antiretroviral prophylaxis. A multidisciplinary team at the paediatric centres supervised protocol-driven management of the infants. Infants were followed for clinical progress and definitive HIV-infection status was to be confirmed at 18 months of age by ELISA or the Determine Rapid Test. During September 1, 2002 through August 31, 2003, 132 HIV-exposed infants were identified. For those infants prospectively enrolled (78), 97% received antiretroviral prophylaxis and 90% were not breastfed For all HIV-exposed children, 90% received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and 88% continued follow-up care. Ninety-two per cent of all the infants remained asymptomatic and five died; of these deaths one is possibly HIV-related (severe sepsis at 11 weeks). This infant was retrospectively identified, had received no antiretroviral prophylaxis and was breastfed The main programme challenges, which were overcome, included the impact of stigma, compliance with antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis, breast-milk substitution and follow-up care. Financial constraints and laboratory quality assurance issues limited early diagnosis of HIV infection. Despite the challenges, the expected outcome is to prevent

  2. Paediatric cardiac intensive care unit: current setting and organization in 2010.

    PubMed

    Fraisse, Alain; Le Bel, Stéphane; Mas, Bertrand; Macrae, Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Over recent decades, specialized paediatric cardiac intensive care has emerged as a central component in the management of critically ill, neonatal, paediatric and adult patients with congenital and acquired heart disease. The majority of high-volume centres (dealing with over 300 surgical cases per year) have dedicated paediatric cardiac intensive care units, with the smallest programmes more likely to care for paediatric cardiac patients in mixed paediatric or adult intensive care units. Specialized nursing staff are also a crucial presence at the patient's bedside for quality of care. A paediatric cardiac intensive care programme should have patients (preoperative and postoperative) grouped together geographically, and should provide proximity to the operating theatre, catheterization laboratory and radiology department, as well as to the regular ward. Age-appropriate medical equipment must be provided. An optimal strategy for running a paediatric cardiac intensive care programme should include: multidisciplinary collaboration and involvement with paediatric cardiology, anaesthesia, cardiac surgery and many other subspecialties; a risk-stratification strategy for quantifying perioperative risk; a personalized patient approach; and anticipatory care. Finally, progressive withdrawal from heavy paediatric cardiac intensive care management should be institutionalized. Although the countries of the European Union do not share any common legislation on the structure and organization of paediatric intensive care or paediatric cardiac intensive care, any paediatric cardiac surgery programme in France that is agreed by the French Health Ministry must perform at least '150 major procedures per year in children' and must provide a 'specialized paediatric intensive care unit'.

  3. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study population Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Main variables Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Descriptive data Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. Conclusion The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients. PMID:27822083

  4. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database.

    PubMed

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients.

  5. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  6. Mental health challenges among adolescents living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Rachel C; McCoy, Brittany M; Lee, Sonia

    2017-05-16

    Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. For each of the topics included in this review, individual searches were run using Medline and PubMed, accompanied by scans of bibliographies of relevant articles. The topics on which searches were conducted for HIV-infected adolescents include depression and anxiety, transition from paediatric to adult HIV care and its impact on adherence and mental health, HIV-related, mental health services and interventions, and the measurement of mental health problems. Articles were included if the focus was consistent with one of the identified topics, involved HIV-infected adolescents, and was published in English. Mental and behavioural health challenges are prevalent in HIV-infected adolescents, including in resource-limited settings where most of them live, and they impact all aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. Too little has been done to measure the impact of mental health challenges for adolescents living with HIV, to evaluate interventions to best sustain or improve the mental health of this population, or to create healthcare systems with personnel or resources to promote mental health. Mental health issues should be addressed proactively during adolescence for all HIV-infected youth. In addition, care systems need to pay greater attention to how mental health support is integrated into the care management for HIV

  7. Mental health challenges among adolescents living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Rachel C.; McCoy, Brittany M.; Lee, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. Methods: For each of the topics included in this review, individual searches were run using Medline and PubMed, accompanied by scans of bibliographies of relevant articles. The topics on which searches were conducted for HIV-infected adolescents include depression and anxiety, transition from paediatric to adult HIV care and its impact on adherence and mental health, HIV-related, mental health services and interventions, and the measurement of mental health problems. Articles were included if the focus was consistent with one of the identified topics, involved HIV-infected adolescents, and was published in English. Results and Discussion: Mental and behavioural health challenges are prevalent in HIV-infected adolescents, including in resource-limited settings where most of them live, and they impact all aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. Too little has been done to measure the impact of mental health challenges for adolescents living with HIV, to evaluate interventions to best sustain or improve the mental health of this population, or to create healthcare systems with personnel or resources to promote mental health. Conclusions: Mental health issues should be addressed proactively during adolescence for all HIV-infected youth. In addition, care systems need to pay greater attention to how mental

  8. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  9. Post thrombotic syndrome following deep vein thrombosis in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Vosicka, Klara; Qureshi, Mahim I; Shapiro, Susan E; Lim, Chung S; Davies, Alun H

    2017-01-01

    Background Although well characterised in adults, less is known about post-thrombotic syndrome in children. In this review, current knowledge regarding paediatric post-thrombotic syndrome is summarised, with particular emphasis on pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis and management. Methods A Medline literature review was performed using search terms 'post thrombotic syndrome', 'post phlebitic syndrome', paediatric and children. Relevant articles were identified and included for summation analysis. Results The incident of paediatric venous thromboembolism is rising. Deep vein thrombosis can cause venous hypertension through a combination of venous reflux, venous obstruction and impairment of the calf muscle pump, leading to development of post-thrombotic syndrome. In children, this is more likely to occur if deep vein thrombosis diagnosis and treatment are delayed, if a higher number of vessels are involved, and if factors such as D-dimer are elevated at diagnosis and throughout treatment. Post-thrombotic syndrome occurs in about 26% of paediatric deep vein thrombosis, though the results of individual studies vary widely. A number of tools exist to diagnose paediatric post-thrombotic syndrome, including the modified Villalta scale and Manco-Johnson instrument. Once post-thrombotic syndrome develops, the mainstay of treatment remains supportive, with little evidence of benefit from pharmacological measures. Conclusion Surgical or interventional treatment is not advised except in exceptional cirumstances, due to variable prognosis of PTS in paediatric populations with rising incidence of paediatric venous thromboembolism, it follows that the prevalence of post-thrombotic syndrome in children may also increase. Evidence-based venous thromboembolism prevention strategies need to be implemented for prevention of deep vein thrombosis, but when it does occur, deep vein thrombosis requires prompt and effective treatment to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome. Optimum

  10. Mortality in perinatally HIV-infected young people in England following transition to adult care: an HIV Young Persons Network (HYPNet) audit.

    PubMed

    Fish, R; Judd, A; Jungmann, E; O'Leary, C; Foster, C

    2014-04-01

    Mortality in young people with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIV) following transfer to adult care has not been characterized in the UK. We conducted a multicentre audit to establish the number of deaths and associated factors. Fourteen adult clinics caring for infected young people reported deaths to 30 September 2011 on a proforma. Deaths were matched to the Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study, a clinical database of HIV-infected children in the UK/Ireland, to describe clinical characteristics in paediatric care of those who died post-transition. Eleven deaths were reported from 14 clinics which cared for 248 adults with PHIV. For the 11 deaths, the median age at transfer to adult care was 17 years (range 15-21 years), and at death was 21 years (range 17-24 years). Causes of death were suicide (two patients), advanced HIV disease (seven patients) and bronchiectasis (one patient), with one cause missing. At death, the median CD4 count was 27 cells/μL (range 0-630 cells/μL); five patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) but only two had a viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Nine had poor adherence when in paediatric care, continuing into adult care despite multidisciplinary support. Eight had ART resistance, although all had potentially suppressive regimens available. Nine had mental health diagnoses. Our findings highlight the complex medical and psychosocial issues faced by some adults with PHIV, with nine of the 11 deaths in our study being associated with poor adherence and advanced HIV disease. Novel adherence interventions and mental health support are required for this vulnerable cohort. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  11. Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP): development of a consensus based paediatric podiatry and physiotherapy standardised recording proforma.

    PubMed

    Cranage, Simone; Banwell, Helen; Williams, Cylie M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric gait and lower limb assessments are frequently undertaken in podiatry and physiotherapy clinical practice and this is a growing area of expertise within Australia. No concise paediatric standardised recording proforma exists to assist clinicians in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a gait and lower limb standardised recording proforma guided by the literature and consensus, for assessment of the paediatric foot and lower limb in children aged 0-18 years. Expert Australian podiatrists and physiotherapists were invited to participate in a three round Delphi survey panel using the online Qualtrics(©) survey platform. The first round of the survey consisted of open-ended questions on paediatric gait and lower limb assessment developed from existing templates and a literature search of standardised lower limb assessment methods. Rounds two and three consisted of statements developed from the first round responses. Questions and statements were included in the final proforma if 70 % or more of the participants indicated consensus or agreement with the assessment method and if there was support within the literature for paediatric age-specific normative data with acceptable reliability of outcome measures. There were 17 of the 21 (81 %) participants who completed three rounds of the survey. Consensus was achieved for 41 statements in Round one, 54 statements achieved agreement in two subsequent rounds. Participants agreed on 95 statements relating to birth history, developmental history, hip measurement, rotation of the lower limb, ankle range of motion, foot posture, balance and gait. Assessments with acceptable validity and reliability were included within the final Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP) proforma. The GALLOP proforma is a consensus based, systematic and standardised way to collect information and outcome measures in paediatric lower limb assessment. This standardised recording proforma will assist

  12. Amputation and prosthesis fitting in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Griffet, J

    2016-02-01

    Amputation of a limb is always perceived as a catastrophe. The principles underlying creation of a stump adapted to modern prosthetic fittings must be fully understood and the patient managed by a multidisciplinary team. In paediatric patients, preserving residual limb length is a crucial point that should be assessed according to the expected growth potential. Advances in prosthetic fittings have led to changes in the overall concept of socket design, which seeks to achieve three objectives: to maximise the weight-bearing surface area, to eliminate friction of the skin on the socket, and to eliminate lever-arm effects. The introduction on the market of new materials has contributed substantially to advances in prosthetic fittings. These advances require the use of new criteria for stump quality and optimisation, which exert a considerable influence on prosthesis function. Prosthetic fitting and specific management of psychological and social problems are provided during an inpatient stay in a physical medicine department, by a team of physicians, other healthcare professionals, social workers, and educators. Three-dimensional imaging and gait analysis provide valuable information.

  13. Harvesting organs for paediatric transplantation: medical features.

    PubMed

    Nivet, H

    1989-01-01

    The progress in organ transplantation has led to a rise in the demand for organs. Paediatric intensive care units are the main source for obtaining organs. Every "brain dead" patient should be regarded as a potential donor. General contraindications to organ donation are: systemic viral or bacterial infections and extra-cerebral malignancy. They are also organ-specific contraindications. The criteria for the diagnosis of "brain death" have been widely studied and defined. Care of brain dead donors consists of maintenance of cardiac, pulmonary and renal function. Monitoring requires control of central venous and arterial blood pressure, core temperature, urine flow, heart rate and biological data on both urine and blood. A 5% dextrose infusion is maintained with added potassium and sodium chloride according to the urine flow, detectable water loss, and blood and urine composition. Hypotension due to hypovolaemia requires immediate treatment with blood, colloid or albumin infusion. Persistent hypotension with cardiac pump failure is treated with inotropic agents: dopamine and/or dobutamine. Raised urine flow due to diabetes insipidus requires desmopressin (dDAVP). Progress in organ collection requires the consent of the parents and highly motivated medical teams.

  14. Sedation/anaesthesia in paediatric radiology

    PubMed Central

    Arlachov, Y; Ganatra, R H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this article we will give a comprehensive literature review on sedation/general anaesthesia (S/GA) and discuss the international variations in practice and options available for S/GA for imaging children. Methods The key articles were obtained primarily from PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, NHS Evidence and The Cochrane Library. Results Recently, paediatric radiology has seen a surge of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, some of which require children to be still and compliant for up to 1 h. It is difficult and sometimes even impossible to obtain quick and high-quality images without employing sedating techniques in certain children. As with any medical procedure, S/GA in radiological practice is not without risks and can have potentially disastrous consequences if mismanaged. In order to reduce any complications and practice safety in radiological units, it is imperative to carry out pre-sedation assessments of children, obtain parental/guardian consent, monitor them closely before, during and after the procedure and have adequate equipment, a safe environment and a well-trained personnel. Conclusion Although the S/GA techniques, sedative drugs and personnel involved vary from country to country, the ultimate goal of S/GA in radiology remains the same; namely, to provide safety and comfort for the patients. Advances in knowledge Imaging children under general anaesthesia is becoming routine and preferred by operators because it ensures patient conformity and provides a more controlled environment. PMID:22898157

  15. Depression in paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bould, Helen; Collin, Simon M; Lewis, Glyn; Rimes, Katharine; Crawley, Esther

    2013-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of depression in children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and investigate the relationship between depression in CFS/ME and clinical symptoms such as fatigue, disability, pain and school attendance. Cross-sectional survey data using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) collected at assessment. Specialist paediatric CFS/ME service in the South West. Children aged 12-18 years with CFS/ME. Depression was defined as scoring >9 on the HADS depression scale. 542 subjects had complete data for the HADS and 29% (156/542) (95% CI 25% to 33%) had depression. In a univariable analysis, female sex, poorer school attendance, and higher levels of fatigue, disability, pain, and anxiety were associated with higher odds of depression. Age of child and duration of illness were not associated with depression. In a multivariable analysis, the factors most strongly associated with depression were disability, with higher scores on the physical function subscale of the 36 item Short Form (SF-36). Depression is commonly comorbid with CFS/ME, much more common than in the general population, and is associated with markers of disease severity. It is important to screen for, identify and treat depression in this population.

  16. Nasojejunal tube placement in paediatric intensive care.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Ann; Tomkins, Natalie; Lazonby, Gill

    2007-03-01

    Nasojejunal delivery of enteral feeds is a safe and effective alternative to parenteral nutrition in critically ill children in whom intra-gastric feeding is usually poorly tolerated. A guideline for bedside placement of nasojejunal tubes (NJTs) was developed by a mulit-disciplinary group. An audit of practice was carried out following implementation of the guideline. During the audit period 27 NJTs were successfully passed in 21 patients. The result of this innovation has been early initiation of nasojejunal feeding and an increase in bedside placement of NJTs within the PICU. Paediatric radiologists have reported a reduction in requests for NJT placement under X-ray screening and there has been a reduction in the use of medication and X-ray to place NJTs. Based on the audit data, 58 per cent of the children would have definitely or probably commenced parenteral nutrition had NJT placement and feeding been unsuccessful. The audit also demonstrated that 26 out of 27 nurses and doctors reported they found the guidelines easy or very easy to follow. Reducing variations in practice through the use of guidelines increases the frequency of jejunal feeding. This benefits critically ill patients by improving tolerance of enteral feeding for better nutritional outcomes.

  17. Low back pain in the paediatric athlete.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susannah L; Shaw, Pamela C; Beattie, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to provide an overview of the epidemiology and clinical findings in children presenting to a sports injury clinic with 'low back pain' (LBP). The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of presentation, management and outcome of children and adolescents presenting with back pain to a specialist paediatric sports injury clinic. A retrospective descriptive review of patients aged 8-16 years presenting with LBP to a specialist at sports injury clinic between January 2004 and December 2010 was performed. Epidemiological variables, historical points and examination features, including several 'red flags', were evaluated in each patient and the findings related to the diagnosis made from the consultant radiologist reported imaging at that time. A total of 174 patients were analysed. LBP constituted 30% of presentations to the clinic. The median patient age in the study group was 14.0 years, with the male to female ratio of the population analysed being almost 1 : 1. For males, the most prevalent primary sport was rugby and for females, swimming was the most prevalent primary sport. Biomechanical back pain was most frequently diagnosed with spondylolysis, the most prevalent radiological diagnosis. No consistent demonstrable association was established between clinical presentation and final diagnosis. It was found that red flags could not be relied upon for the inclusion or the exclusion of a significant radiological finding. This study therefore suggests that, in this population group, a significant diagnosis cannot always be reliably excluded from clinical assessment alone.

  18. Steam vaporizers: A danger for paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Lonie, Sarah; Baker, Paul; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Steam vaporizers are used to humidify air in dry environments. They are marketed to moisten children's airway secretions and thus to help relieve symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately the steam emitted from the unit can also pose a significant risk of burns to children. Our study aimed to ascertain patterns of injury and treatment outcomes from steam burns resulting from these devices. Potential preventative measures are discussed. Children who had sustained vaporizer scald burns were identified at the outpatient burns clinic over a 10-month period (November 2014-August 2015). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively and data collected on pattern of injury, management and outcomes. Ten children were treated for vaporizer steam burns over the study period. The mean age was 1.6 years and 8 (80%) patients were male. Operative intervention was undergone in 5 (50%) cases; four acutely and one as a secondary reconstructive procedure. Hand burns accounted for 8 (80%) of cases. Steam vaporizers can cause significant burns in the paediatric population. Toddlers were most at risk, frequently sustaining hand burns that underwent skin grafting. Greater public awareness of the danger is indicated and measures to prevent such injuries should be addressed by appropriate authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of bone tumours in paediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Bölling, T; Hardes, J; Dirksen, U

    2013-01-01

    The management of bone tumours in paediatric oncology requires careful multidisciplinary planning due to the need for multimodal therapy approaches. The non-specific symptoms often lead to a delayed definitive diagnosis of a bone tumour. Imaging procedures are of major importance for an individualised and optimised treatment planning. They have to be carried out before any surgery, including biopsies. The introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival rates in patients suffering from Ewing's sarcomas and osteosarcomas. However, local therapy still remains indispensable in order to achieve long-term survival. For osteosarcoma, surgery remains the only adequate local therapy modality. Radiotherapy may be considered if surgery is not feasible. In these cases, high radiation doses need to be applied. The choice for local therapy modality is not as clear in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Today, surgery is often preferred if a wide or at least marginal resection can be carried out. Additional radiotherapy is advised in patients with marginal/intralesional resection or poor histological response to induction chemotherapy. Definitive radiotherapy is recommended for inoperable lesions. In the future, new radiotherapy approaches, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy or proton therapy, may yield better results with minor risks of late effects.

  20. Parental involvement in paediatric cancer treatment decisions.

    PubMed

    McKenna, K; Collier, J; Hewitt, M; Blake, H

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated parents' information needs and involvement in decision-making processes affecting the care of children diagnosed with cancer. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess parental satisfaction in 50 mothers and 16 fathers responsible for 58 children in an English Paediatric Oncology Unit. Parents reported that doctors contributed almost twice as much to the decision-making process as they did, but parental satisfaction was positively correlated with the amount of information provided when giving informed consent. Satisfaction about their involvement in this process relied heavily upon the level of support received from others. Parents consenting to their child's involvement in non-randomised trials perceived themselves to be under greater pressure from others during the decision-making process while those whose children were further along the treatment trajectory were more uncertain about decisions previously made. Findings indicate that the accessibility, support, information and degree of control afforded to parents by healthcare professionals impacts upon their satisfaction with both the decision-making process and their confidence in the decisions thus made. Information and support tailored to parents' specific needs may therefore enhance satisfaction with clinical decision making and reassure parents about decisions made in the long-term interest of their child's health.

  1. Paediatrics and psychoanalysis--Miss Anna Freud.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Miss Anna Freud died during the winter at the age of 86. She had been a pioneer in the understanding of children through psychoanalysis and a great champion of the rights of children. Her life began in Vienna as the youngest child of Sigmund Freud, and her early work with children was in Austria. In 1938, because of the Nazi régime and even though she was nursing her father during his terminal illness, she had to escape with him to London. Her work with homeless children and with those in residential nurseries in London during the second world war is well known, as is her work on child development and psychopathology in the postwar years. But one less well known aspect of her life that was of immense importance to a few fortunate British paediatricians was the 'paediatric group' that she ran for over a quarter of a century and which Dr Christine Cooper recalled at the memorial meeting in London earlier this year. PMID:6344806

  2. Secondary surgery in paediatric facial paralysis reanimation.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Olivares, Fatima S

    2010-11-01

    Ninety-two children, the entire series of paediatric facial reanimation by a single surgeon over thirty years, are presented. The objective is to analyse the incidence and value of secondary revisions for functional and aesthetic refinements following the two main stages of reanimation. The reconstructive strategy varied according to the denervation time, the aetiology, and whether the paralysis was uni- or bilateral, complete or partial. Irrespective of these variables, 89% of the patients required secondary surgery. Post-operative videos were available in seventy-two cases. Four independent observers graded patients' videos using a scale from poor to excellent. The effect of diverse secondary procedures was measured computing a mean-percent-gain score. Statistical differences between treatment groups means were tested by the t-test and one-way ANOVA. Two-thirds of the corrective and ancillary techniques utilized granted significantly higher mean-scores post-secondary surgery. A comparison of pre- and post-operative data found valuable improvements in all three facial zones after secondary surgery. In conclusion, inherent to dynamic procedures is the need for secondary revisions. Secondary surgery builds in the potential of reanimation surgery, effectively augmenting functional faculties and aesthesis.

  3. Clinical aspects of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in North-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Gebregziabiher, Berhane; Assefa, Abraham; Lakew, Wubishet; Belew, Zewdu; Hailu, Asrat; Boelaert, Marleen; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in north-west Ethiopia is causing an overwhelming case load among adult migrant workers that masked the disease burden in children. This study describes the clinical profile and explores comorbidities in paediatric VL patients. A prospective study at two hospitals in this region (Gondar and Humera) was conducted in a year period, 2011-2012. The clinical manifestations and comorbidities such as malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency and HIV infection were assessed, and treatment outcomes noted. A total of 122 children with VL were detected during the study period with median age of 8.5 years (IQR 5-12 years); 23% were under 5 years. Eighty-five (69.7%) cases were male. The clinical manifestations were similar to the adult patients. High rates of malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis (47.5%) and hypovitaminosis D (56.4%) were detected. The proportion of stunting and wasting was 63% and 22.2% in children aged under five years, and 50.5% and 75.9% in 5-year and older children, respectively, using WHO standard growth curves. Only one child had HIV infection. In 95% of the cases, sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days) was used for treatment. The treatment success rate at end of therapy was 98.3%, but the definitive outcome at 6 months could not be determined because of a high loss to follow-up (80.2%). While HIV co-infection was rare, malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency were frequent indicating the need for further research on their role in the pathophysiology. Meanwhile, systematic assessment and management of malnutrition and intestinal parasitosis in VL programmes is recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Paediatric dilated cardiomyopathy: clinical profile and outcome. The experience of a tertiary centre for paediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Joana O; Costa, Liane; Rodrigues, Esmeralda; Teles, Elisa L; Baptista, Maria J; Areias, José C

    2015-02-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common form of cardiomyopathy in the paediatric population and an important cause of heart transplantation in children. The clinical profile and course of dilated cardiomyopathy in children have been poorly characterised. A retrospective review of 61 patients (37 female; 24 male) diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy from January, 2005 to June, 2012 at a single institution was performed. The median age at diagnosis was 15 months. Heart failure was present in 83.6% of patients and 44.3% required intensive care. The most prevalent causes were idiopathic (47.5%), viral myocarditis (18.0%) and inherited metabolic diseases (11.5%). In viral myocarditis, Parvovirus B19 was the most common identified agent, in concurrence with the increasing incidence documented recently. Inherited metabolic diseases were responsible for 11.5% of dilated cardiomyopathy cases compared with the 4-6% described in the literature, which reinforces the importance of considering this aetiology in differential diagnosis of paediatric dilated cardiomyopathy. The overall mortality rate was 16.1% and five patients underwent heart transplantation. In our series, age at diagnosis and aetiology were the most important prognosis factors. We report no mortality in the five patients who underwent heart transplantation, after 2 years of follow-up.

  5. Peer mentoring: evaluation of a novel programme in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Sarah; Sukhani, Seema; Brightwell, Alex; Stoneham, Sara; Long, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Mentoring is important for personal and professional development of doctors. Peer mentoring is a core skill in the UK paediatric postgraduate curriculum. However, there is a paucity of peer mentoring programmes aimed at postgraduate doctors in training (postgraduate trainees), and there are no such schemes within paediatrics described in the literature. We developed a regional peer mentoring programme for postgraduate trainees in paediatrics to assess demand and need for peer mentoring and to explore the benefits for both peer mentees and mentors. Junior postgraduate trainees, randomly selected from volunteers, received peer mentoring from more senior trainees for 1 year. Peer mentors were selected by competitive application and undertook tailored training followed by an experiential learning programme. The programme was evaluated using structured questionnaires. 90% (76/84) of first-year postgraduate trainees in paediatrics applied to participate, demonstrating high demand. 18 peer mentor-mentee pairs were matched. Peer mentors and mentees reported high satisfaction rates, acquisition of new and transferable skills and changed behaviours. All peer mentors intended to use the skills in their workplace and, later, as an educational supervisor. Our programme represents a novel approach to meeting the demonstrated demand and the curriculum requirement for peer mentoring, and enabled peer mentors and mentees to develop a valuable and versatile skill set. To our knowledge, it is the first such programme in paediatrics and provides a feasibility model that may be adapted locally to allow education providers to offer this important experience to postgraduate trainees.

  6. Prebiotics as a modulator of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity.

    PubMed

    Nicolucci, A C; Reimer, R A

    2017-08-01

    This review highlights our current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity and the potential role for dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota with prebiotics in managing paediatric obesity. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial and is now known to include microbial dysbiosis in the gut. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which selectively modulate the number and/or composition of gut microbes. The goal of prebiotic consumption is to restore symbiosis and thereby confer health benefits to the host. There is convincing evidence that prebiotics can reduce adiposity and improve metabolic health in preclinical rodent models. Furthermore, there are several clinical trials in adult humans highlighting metabolic and appetite-regulating benefits of prebiotics. In paediatric obesity, however, there are very limited data regarding the potential role of prebiotics as a dietary intervention for obesity management. As the prevalence of paediatric obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities increases globally, interventions that target the progression of obesity from an early age are essential in slowing the obesity epidemic. This review emphasizes the need for further research assessing the role of prebiotics, particularly as an intervention in effectively managing paediatric obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Smartphone applications in paediatric radiology: availability and authority.

    PubMed

    Shelmerdine, Susan C; Lynch, Jeremy O

    2015-08-01

    With the widespread ownership of smartphones, many health care professionals question the degree to which medically related smartphone applications are reliable. To assess the variety of smartphone applications relating to paediatric radiology and the presence of health care professional involvement in their development. As a secondary objective, we explore whether there are gaps within the paediatric radiology app market. The most popular smartphone marketplaces (Apple iTunes App Store, Blackberry Mobile Market, Google Play Android Market, Nokia Ovi, Samsung and Microsoft Windows Marketplace) were searched for terms relating to paediatric radiology. Cost, review ratings, number of downloads, health care involvement and target audience were recorded. Nine paediatric radiology applications were found in the Apple iTunes App Store and nine in the Google Play Android Market. The target audiences for all applications were health care professionals. None were available for patients or their caregivers. All applications were reported to have medical expertise in their development. All paediatric radiology applications were developed with the aid of a health care professional. Due to the small number available online, there is a potential gap in the marketplace for further applications in this field, possibly aimed at patients and their families.

  8. Perinatally acquired HIV infection in adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa: a review of emerging challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, Elizabeth D; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Chapman, Jennifer; Goldrath, Kathryn; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, more than three million children are infected with HIV, 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. As the HIV epidemic matures and antiretroviral treatment is scaled up, children with HIV are reaching adolescence in large numbers. The growing population of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection living within this region presents not only unprecedented challenges but also opportunities to learn about the pathogenesis of HIV infection. In this Review, we discuss the changing epidemiology of paediatric HIV and the particular features of HIV infection in adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Longstanding HIV infection acquired when the immune system is not developed results in distinctive chronic clinical complications that cause severe morbidity. As well as dealing with chronic illness, HIV-infected adolescents have to confront psychosocial issues, maintain adherence to drugs, and learn to negotiate sexual relationships, while undergoing rapid physical and psychological development. Context-specific strategies for early identification of HIV infection in children and prompt linkage to care need to be developed. Clinical HIV care should integrate age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health and psychological, educational, and social services. Health-care workers will need to be trained to recognise and manage the needs of these young people so that the increasing numbers of children surviving to adolescence can access quality care beyond specialist services at low-level health-care facilities. PMID:24406145

  9. Should HIV testing for all pregnant women continue? Cost-effectiveness of universal antenatal testing compared to focused approaches across high to very low HIV prevalence settings

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Dalal, Shona; Johnson, Cheryl; Hogan, Daniel R; Shimbo, Takuro; Shaffer, Nathan; Pendse, Razia N; Lo, Ying-Ru; Ghidinelli, Massimo N; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing is the entry point for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Decreasing external funding for the HIV response in some low- and middle-income countries has triggered the question of whether a focused approach to HIV testing targeting pregnant women in high-burden areas should be considered. This study aimed at determining and comparing the cost-effectiveness of universal and focused HIV testing approaches for pregnant women across high to very low HIV prevalence settings. Methods We conducted a modelling analysis on health and cost outcomes of HIV testing for pregnant women using four country-based case scenarios (Namibia, Kenya, Haiti and Viet Nam) to illustrate high, intermediate, low and very low HIV prevalence settings. We used subnational prevalence data to divide each country into high-, medium- and low-burden areas, and modelled different antenatal and testing coverage in each. Results When HIV testing services were only focused in high-burden areas within a country, mother-to-child transmission rates remained high ranging from 18 to 23%, resulting in a 25 to 69% increase in new paediatric HIV infections and increased future treatment costs for children. Universal HIV testing was found to be dominant (i.e. more QALYs gained with less cost) compared to focused approaches in the Namibia, Kenya and Haiti scenarios. The universal approach was also very cost-effective compared to focused approaches, with $ 125 per quality-adjusted life years gained in the Viet Nam-based scenario of very low HIV prevalence. Sensitivity analysis further supported the findings. Conclusions Universal approach to antenatal HIV testing achieves the best health outcomes and is cost-saving or cost-effective in the long term across the range of HIV prevalence settings. It is further a prerequisite for quality maternal and child healthcare and for the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:27978939

  10. Oral and dental lesions in HIV infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Abe, Elizabeth Oluwatoyin; Agelebe, Efeturi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases in the HIV infected children though commonly encountered are under researched and often overlooked by physicians in developing countries. The aim of this study is to document the types and frequency of oral lesions in HIV infected children and examine the effects of management with HAART on their rates. Methods A cross sectional study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the pediatricians and dental surgeons. Results The 58 children studied consisted of 34 boys and 24 girls with their ages ranging from 3 months to 13 years. Thirty seven (63.8%) of the 58 children had oral diseases. Enamel hypoplasia, candidiasis, caries, angular chelitis, and herpes labialis were the most common oral lesions found in the patients. Oral soft tissue lesions were less frequently encountered among children on HAART. Statistical significance was recorded among those infected with candidiasis. More than 60% of the children diagnosed with oral disease had no knowledge of the state of their oral health before the study. Conclusion Oral diseases are very common amongst the children studied. Awareness of oral disease among the children and their caregivers is low. Administration of HAART may have a preventive effect on the development of oral soft tissue disease. There is a need to integrate dental care into the paediatric HIV care programs. PMID:26161210

  11. HIV healthcare transition outcomes among youth in North America and Europe: a review.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Vicki; Zaner, Stefanie; Ryscavage, Patrick

    2017-05-16

    The transition from paediatric to adult care poses risks to the health of young adults living with HIV if unsuccessful, including interruptions in care and poor health outcomes. Evolving best practices in HIV healthcare transition should ideally be informed by real-world qualitative and quantitative clinical healthcare transition outcomes. There has been a recent proliferation of HIV healthcare transition outcome research, largely from Europe and North America. A literature search was undertaken using the online databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Medical subject and text word searches were combined for terms relating to HIV, paediatric transition outcomes, and internal and external factors were used to identify peer-reviewed articles. In this paper, we review data on HIV healthcare transition outcomes in North America and Europe. Internal and external factors which may impact the success of HIV healthcare transition are examined. We describe ongoing research efforts to capture transition outcomes in the North America and Europe. Clinical, operational, and implementation science research gaps that exist to date are highlighted. Efforts to improve HIV healthcare transition research through country-level surveillance networks and large multicentre cohorts, including data integration and linkage between paediatric and adult cohorts are discussed. We identified the need for a comprehensive approach to implementing empirically supported protocols to support healthcare transition for ALHIV. While there is limited prospective longitudinal cohort data available at this time, cohorts linking the paediatric and adolescent with ongoing surveillance into adulthood are being developed. Through a review of existing qualitative and quantitative healthcare transition outcomes studies, we identify emerging areas of consensus surrounding healthcare transition research implementation. Successful healthcare transition programmes in Europe and North America often

  12. The use of the Statscan digital X-ray unit in paediatric polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Richard D; Wilde, Jim C H; Douglas, Tania S; van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2009-05-01

    We present a 3-year review of clinical paediatric experience with the Statscan (Lodox Systems, Johannesburg, South Africa), a low-dose, digital, whole-body, slit-scanning X-ray machine. While focusing on the role of the unit in paediatric polytrauma, insight into its applications in other paediatric settings is provided.

  13. Paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program in Latin-America: the RIBEPCI experience.

    PubMed

    López-Herce, Jesús; Matamoros, Martha M; Moya, Luis; Almonte, Enma; Coronel, Diana; Urbano, Javier; Carrillo, Ángel; Del Castillo, Jimena; Mencía, Santiago; Moral, Ramón; Ordoñez, Flora; Sánchez, Carlos; Lagos, Lina; Johnson, María; Mendoza, Ovidio; Rodriguez, Sandra

    2017-09-12

    To describe the design and to present the results of a paediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program adapted to Latin-America. A paediatric CPR coordinated training project was set up in several Latin-American countries with the instructional and scientific support of the Spanish Group for Paediatric and Neonatal CPR. The program was divided into four phases: CPR training and preparation of instructors; training for instructors; supervised teaching; and independent teaching. Instructors from each country participated in the development of the next group in the following country. Paediatric Basic Life Support (BLS), Paediatric Intermediate (ILS) and Paediatric Advanced (ALS) courses were organized in each country adapted to local characteristics. Five Paediatric Resuscitation groups were created sequentially in Honduras (2), Guatemala, Dominican Republican and Mexico. During 5 years, 6 instructors courses (94 students), 64 Paediatric BLS Courses (1409 students), 29 Paediatrics ILS courses (626 students) and 89 Paediatric ALS courses (1804 students) were given. At the end of the program all five groups are autonomous and organize their own instructor courses. Training of autonomous Paediatric CPR groups with the collaboration and scientific assessment of an expert group is a good model program to develop Paediatric CPR training in low- and middle income countries. Participation of groups of different countries in the educational activities is an important method to establish a cooperation network.

  14. Prevalence of maternal HIV infection and knowledge on mother–to–child transmission of HIV and its prevention among antenatal care attendees in a rural area in northwest Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Feteh, Vitalis F.; Tindong, Maxime; Tanyi, John T.; Bihle, Nestor Mbinkar; Angwafo, Fru F.

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2010, an estimated 141 new HIV infections occurred per day in Cameroon and reports suggest an upsurge of these rates by 2020 if current trends continue. Mother—to—child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is a major public health challenge, and maternal knowledge on HIV transmission during pregnancy and its prevention is important in curtailing paediatric HIV acquisition. Objectives We aimed at establishing the prevalence of maternal HIV infection as well as assessing knowledge on HIV, MTCT and prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) of HIV among pregnant women in a rural area of Cameroon. Methods This study was conducted in two phases: a 29 month retrospective analysis of 1866 deliveries within three rural health facilities in the Babessi sub—division, Northwest Cameroon and a 1 month prospective phase wherein 150 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at the study centres were consecutively recruited. Results Overall, the prevalence of maternal HIV infection was 5.0% (100/2016). All (100%) of the interviewed pregnant women were aware of HIV infection and most (76.7%) had adequate knowledge on its routes of transmission. Meanwhile, only 79.3% (119/150) of them were aware of MTCT with slightly above a third (37.0%) having adequate knowledge on the periods of transmission. The proportions of women correctly stating: during pregnancy, during labour/delivery and during breastfeeding as possible periods of MTCT of HIV were 63.0%, 60.5% and 89.1% respectively. A majority (76.3%) of these women had inadequate knowledge on PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion The overall prevalence of maternal HIV warrants strengthening of current intervention strategies including scaling—up of PMTCT measures. Among others, intensification of HIV—related ANC services to improve the pregnant women’s awareness and knowledge on MTCT and its prevention are vital steps in curbing the growing burden of paediatric HIV. PMID:28199373

  15. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  16. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  17. Increasing Staff Mobility--A Danish Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Recent Danish government proposals to increase the national and international mobility of scientists are reviewed, including a formalized sabbatical system in the universities, new rules for obtaining leaves of absence with or without salary, and plans for increased mobility between public and private sectors. (MSE)

  18. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  19. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  20. HIV chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Douglas D.

    2001-04-01

    The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.

  1. Paediatric radiation oncology in the care of childhood cancer: A position paper by the International Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS).

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Freeman, Carolyn; Marcus, Karen; Claude, Line; Dieckmann, Karin; Halperin, Edward; Esiashvili, Natia; Paulino, Arnold; Mahajan, Anita; Seiersen, Klaus; Ahern, Verity; Ricardi, Umberto; Carrie, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Paediatric malignancies are a challenge for the radiation oncologist due to their rarity, the great variety of histological types, and the complexity of treatment concepts that evolve over time. The Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS) is the only internationally operating society for paediatric radiation oncology. The objectives of PROS are to set a world-wide standard of excellence with respect to radiation oncology aspects in curing children and adolescents with cancer, to provide a forum for communication between radiation oncologists, and to exchange information with all professionals involved in the management of paediatric and adolescent cancer. Challenges include the need to promote education and support practice in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as well as the cost and availability of modern treatment technologies for all but most especially these countries. Collaborations with other societies that include for example the education programmes provided jointly with ESTRO, and the upgraded technical platform of the PROS web site offer new possibilities to enhance the efficacy of PROS in education and support of paediatric radiation oncology practice world-wide. PROS has made an important contribution to the management of childhood malignancies over the past decade and new and developing collaborations between PROS and other societies or organizations will ultimately lead to a reduction in world-wide health care inequalities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reddi, Anand; Leeper, Sarah C; Grobler, Anneke C; Geddes, Rosemary; France, K Holly; Dorse, Gillian L; Vlok, Willem J; Mntambo, Mbali; Thomas, Monty; Nixon, Kristy; Holst, Helga L; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Rollins, Nigel C; Coovadia, Hoosen M; Giddy, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Background Few studies address the use of paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Africa. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate preliminary outcomes of all children eligible for HAART at Sinikithemba HIV/AIDS clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Immunologic, virologic, clinical, mortality, primary caregiver, and psychosocial variables were collected and analyzed. Results From August 31, 2003 until October 31, 2005, 151 children initiated HAART. The median age at HAART initiation was 5.7 years (range 0.3–15.4). Median follow-up time of the cohort after HAART initiation was 8 months (IQR 3.5–13.5). The median change in CD4% from baseline (p < 0.001) was 10.2 (IQR 5.0–13.8) at 6 months (n = 90), and 16.2 (IQR 9.6–20.3) at 12 months (n = 59). Viral loads (VLs) were available for 100 children at 6 months of which 84% had HIV-1 RNA levels ≤ 50 copies/mL. At 12 months, 80.3% (n = 61) had undetectable VLs. Sixty-five out of 88 children (73.8%) reported a significant increase (p < 0.001) in weight after the first month. Eighty-nine percent of the cohort (n = 132) reported ≤ 2 missed doses during any given treatment month (> 95%adherence). Seventeen patients (11.3%) had a regimen change; two (1.3%) were due to antiretroviral toxicity. The Kaplan-Meier one year survival estimate was 90.9% (95%confidence interval (CI) 84.8–94.6). Thirteen children died during follow-up (8.6%), one changed service provider, and no children were lost to follow-up. All 13 deaths occurred in children with advanced HIV disease within 5 months of treatment initiation. In multivariate analysis of baseline variables against mortality using Cox proportional-hazards model, chronic gastroenteritis was associated with death [hazard ratio (HR), 12.34; 95%CI, 1.27–119.71) and an HIV-positive primary caregiver was found to be protective against mortality [HR, 0.12; 95%CI, 0.02–0.88). Age, orphanhood, baseline CD4%, and hemoglobin were not

  3. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C.I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain. Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity. There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems. Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain. Although research is limited for paediatric pain, CAM interventions receiving the most empirical attention include hypnotherapy, acupuncture and music therapy. Evidence also exists for the therapeutic benefits of yoga, massage, humor therapy and the use of certain biological based therapies. PMID:26525515

  4. Patient centric formulations for paediatrics and geriatrics: Similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Sara M; Lopez, Felipe L; Wong, Ian C K; Ernest, Terry B; Tuleu, Catherine; Orlu Gul, Mine

    2016-10-30

    Paediatrics and geriatrics both represent highly heterogenous populations and require special consideration when developing appropriate dosage forms. This paper discusses similarities, differences and considerations with respect to the development of appropriate medicine formulations for paediatrics and geriatrics. Arguably the most significant compliance challenge in older people is polypharmacy, whereas for children the largest barrier is taste. Pharmaceutical technology has progressed rapidly and technologies including FDCs, multi-particulates and orodispersible dosage forms provide unprecedented opportunities to develop novel and appropriate formulations for both old and new drugs. However, it is important for the formulation scientists to work closely with patients, carers and clinicians to develop such formulations for both the paediatric and geriatric population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Paediatric surgery for the busy GP - Getting the referral right.

    PubMed

    Teague, Warwick J; King, Sebastian K

    2015-12-01

    Is a child who presents with a possible non-acute surgical complaint a welcome prospect? Unavoidable deliberations follow: normal versus abnormal, common versus exotic, routine versus urgent, investigate or not, and reassurance versus referral. Delayed or inadequately investigated referrals are uncommon in general paediatric surgery; rather, those that may be unnecessary, inappropriately ascribed as 'urgent' or over-investigated are more commonplace. This article seeks to optimise a general practitioner's assessment of children with surgical presentations to ensure any resulting paediatric surgery referrals are necessary, timely and appropriately investigated. Common, non-acute complaints presenting in childhood, including testicular maldescent, inguinal hernia and hydrocoele, non-retractile foreskin, and abdominal wall herniae, are discussed in this article. Each summary outlines the basis of the complaint, recommended pre-referral work-up and typical management of these paediatric surgery referrals. Online guidelines may be useful (eg www.rch.org.au/kidsconnect/prereferral_guidelines).

  6. Training residents and fellows in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Andropoulos, Dean B

    2016-12-01

    The significant increase in complex anaesthetic care for infants, children, adolescents, and adults with CHD has given rise to specialized fellowship training programs. Specialized paediatric cardiac anaesthesia training for residents and fellows has advanced significantly since the 1970's, when there a handful of programs. With the advent of formal paediatric anaesthesia fellowship programs in the U.S., more specialized training became available in the 1990's and early 2000's. In the past decade, increasing numbers of second year advanced fellowships in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia have been organized; today in North America there are 18 programs with 25 positions. Standardized recommendations for case numbers and curriculum have been devised and are widely available via journal publications.

  7. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Subhadra; Tsao, Jennie C I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2008-09-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain.Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity.There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems.Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain.Although research is limited for paediatric pain, CAM interventions receiving the most empirical attention include hypnotherapy, acupuncture and music therapy. Evidence also exists for the therapeutic benefits of yoga, massage, humor therapy and the use of certain biological based therapies.

  8. Basics, principles, techniques and modern methods in paediatric ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Riccabona, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay of paediatric Radiology. This review aims at revisiting basic US principles, to list specific needs throughout childhood, and to discuss the application of new and modern US methods. The various sections elude to basic US physics, technical requisites and tips for handling, diagnostically valuable applications of modern techniques, and how to properly address hazards, risks and limitations. In conclusion, US holds vast potential throughout childhood in almost all body regions and many childhood specific queries - helping to reduce the need for or to optimize more invasive or irradiating imaging. Make the most of US and offerings a dedicated paediatric US service throughout the day, the week and the year thus is and will stay a major task of Paediatric Radiology.

  9. An overview of genetics of paediatric rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patricia; Colbert, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The evidence so far suggests that the paediatric inflammatory diseases encountered in rheumatology practice may be largely genetic in origin, where common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple genes contribute to risk, with real but variable environmental components. As far as genetic susceptibility to common paediatric rheumatic diseases is concerned, only juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has been investigated in any substantial way so far. This article discusses susceptibility for different types of JIA, the different methods used and their advantages and disadvantages. The genetic code is also modifiable by epigenetic mechanisms and examples of these in immunity and rheumatoid arthritis are given to indicate another area of research in the elucidation of the genetics of paediatric rheumatic diseases. PMID:19853825

  10. Paediatric oral biopharmaceutics: key considerations and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah K; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Klein, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    The complex process of oral drug absorption is influenced by a host of drug and formulation properties as well as their interaction with the gastrointestinal environment in terms of drug solubility, dissolution, permeability and pre-systemic metabolism. For adult dosage forms the use of biopharmaceutical tools to aid in the design and development of medicinal products is well documented. This review considers current literature evidence to guide development of bespoke paediatric biopharmaceutics tools and reviews current understanding surrounding extrapolation of adult methodology into a paediatric population. Clinical testing and the use of in silico models were also reviewed. The results demonstrate that further work is required to adequately characterise the paediatric gastrointestinal tract to ensure that biopharmaceutics tools are appropriate to predict performance within this population. The most vulnerable group was found to be neonates and infants up to 6 months where differences from adults were greatest. © 2013.

  11. Short-course therapy for tuberculosis in infants and children. Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve efficacy of and compliance with therapy for tuberculosis in children. OPTIONS: Short-course (6-month) multi-drug therapy, either non-supervised or directly supervised, versus long-course (more than 6-month) multi-drug therapy. OUTCOMES: Success (more than 90% of cases cured without relapse or serious side effects), development of drug resistance and compliance with treatment. EVIDENCE: Review of published reports of efficacy trials of tuberculosis therapy in children, side effects and compliance studies; consensus of expert opinion. VALUES: Values were assigned to the evidence by the Infectious Disease and Immunization Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society through review of the data and consensus. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Improved efficacy and compliance with short-course protocols should lower the rate of treatment failure among children in Canada and the cost of tuberculosis care. RECOMMENDATIONS: A short-course (6-month) protocol of four drugs for the first 2 months and two drugs for the subsequent 4 months is recommended to treat pulmonary tuberculosis or extrapulmonary disease causing lymphadenopathy. Tuberculous meningitis, disease involving bones and joints and tuberculosis with HIV infection require longer courses of treatment. Asymptomatic tuberculosis should be treated with daily doses of isoniazid for 9 months. Intermittent directly observed therapy is recommended if compliance cannot be ensured. Routine liver function testing is not recommended for prepubescent children taking isoniazid, but monthly assessment for clinical symptoms and periodic liver function evaluation is advised in adolescent women, especially post partum. VALIDATION: This report was reviewed by the directors of the Canadian Paediatric Society, the Hepatitis and Special Pathogens Division of the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control and the Canadian Thoracic Society. The recommendations are similar to those of the American Academy of Pediatrics. SPONSOR

  12. The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry

    PubMed Central

    Gimsing, Peter; Holmström, Morten O; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfelt; Andersen, Niels Frost; Gregersen, Henrik; Pedersen, Robert Schou; Plesner, Torben; Pedersen, Per Trøllund; Frederiksen, Mikael; Frølund, Ulf; Helleberg, Carsten; Vangsted, Annette; de Nully Brown, Peter; Abildgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry (DMMR) is a population-based clinical quality database established in January 2005. The primary aim of the database is to ensure that diagnosis and treatment of plasma cell dyscrasia are of uniform quality throughout the country. Another aim is to support research. Patients are registered with their unique Danish personal identification number, and the combined use of DMMR, other Danish National registries, and the Danish National Cancer Biobank offers a unique platform for population-based translational research. Study population All newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering MM, solitary plasmacytomas, and plasma cell leukemia in Denmark are registered annually; ~350 patients. Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with polyneuropathy have been registered since 2014. Main variables The main registered variables at diagnosis are patient demographics, baseline disease characteristics, myeloma-defining events, clinical complications, prognostics, first- and second-line treatments, treatment responses, progression free, and overall survival. Descriptive data Up to June 2015, 2,907 newly diagnosed patients with MM, 485 patients with smoldering MM, 64 patients with plasma cell leukemia, and 191 patients with solitary plasmacytomas were registered. Registration completeness of new patients is ~100%. A data validation study performed in 2013–2014 by the Danish Myeloma Study Group showed >95% data correctness. Conclusion The DMMR is a population-based data validated database eligible for clinical, epidemiological, and translational research. PMID:27822103

  13. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  14. Oral medicines for children in the European paediatric investigation plans.

    PubMed

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Römkens, Erwin G A W; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes implemented as a result of the EMA/PDCO review. All PIPs agreed by 31 December 2011 were identified through a proprietary EMA-database. PIPs were included if they contained an agreed proposal to develop an oral medicine for children 0 to 11 years. Information on the therapeutic area (EMA classification system); target age range (as defined by industry) and pharmaceutical characteristics (active substance, dosage form(s) as listed in the PIP, strength of each dosage form, excipients in each strength of each dosage form) was extracted from the EMA website or the EMA/PDCO assessment reports. A hundred and fifty PIPs were included corresponding to 16 therapeutic areas and 220 oral dosage forms in 431 strengths/compositions. Eighty-two PIPs (37%) included tablets, 44 (20%) liquids and 35 (16%) dosage forms with a specific composition/strength that were stored as a solid but swallowed as a liquid e.g. dispersible tablets. The EMA/PDCO review resulted in an increase of 13 (207 to 220) oral paediatric dosage forms and 44 (387 to 431) dosage forms with a specific composition/strength. For many PIPs, the target age range was widened and the excipient composition and usability aspects modified. The EMA/PDCO review realized an increase in the number of requirements for the development of oral dosage forms and a larger increase in the number of dosage forms with a specific composition/strength, both targeting younger children. Changes to their pharmaceutical design were less profound.

  15. Management of paediatric spontaneous pneumothorax: a multicentre retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Blackburn, Carol; Babl, Franz E; Gamage, Lalith; Schutz, Jacquie; Nogajski, Rebecca; Dalziel, Stuart; Donald, Colin B; Druda, Dino; Krieser, David; Neutze, Jocelyn; Acworth, Jason; Lee, Mark; Ngo, Peter K

    2015-10-01

    Paediatric guidelines are lacking for management of spontaneous pneumothorax. Adult patient-focused guidelines (British Thoracic Society 2003 and 2010) introduced aspiration as first-line intervention for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and small secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces (SSP). Paediatric practice is unclear, and evidence for aspiration success rates is urgently required to develop paediatric-specific recommendations. Retrospective analysis of PSP and SSP management at nine paediatric emergency departments across Australia and New Zealand (2003-2010) to compare PSP and SSP management. 219 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax occurred in 162 children (median age 15 years, 71% male); 155 PSP episodes in 120 children and 64 SSP episodes in 42 children. Intervention in PSP vs SSP episodes occurred in 55% (95% CI 47% to 62%) vs 70% (60% to 79%), p<0.05. An intercostal chest catheter (ICC) was used in 104/219 (47%) episodes. Aspiration was used in more PSP than in SSP episodes with interventions (27% (18% to 37%) vs 9% (3% to 21%), p<0.05). Aspiration success was 52% (33% to 70%) overall and not significantly different between PSP and SSP. Aspiration success was greater in small vs large pneumothoraces (80% (48% to 95%) vs 33% (14% to 61%), p=0.01). Small-bore ICCs were used in 40% of ICCs and usage increased during the study. In this descriptive study of pneumothorax management, PSP and SSP management did not differ and ICC insertion was the continuing preferred intervention. Overall success of aspiration was lower than reported results for adults, although success was greater for small than for large pneumothoraces. Paediatric prospective studies are urgently required to determine optimal paediatric interventional management strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Paediatric surgery: trends in UK surgical trainees' operative experience.

    PubMed

    Youngson, G G; Adams, S; Winton, E

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the effects of the reconfiguration of postgraduate surgical training and changes to work patterns through legislation within UK on the operative experience of trainees completing specialty training in paediatric surgery. Data were collected from the consolidation record of operative experience submitted by every candidate sitting the Intercollegiate Specialty Board Examination in Paediatric Surgery in UK from 1996 through 2004. A number of index procedures were chosen as surrogates of the overall operative experience and underwent detailed analysis. These comprised operations performed in the following categories: Neonatal Surgery, General Paediatric Surgery, Paediatric Urology, Paediatric Oncology, and Emergency Paediatric Surgery. Sixty-three sets of data comprising 12,866 operations were ultimately identified as being suitable for analysis. The average number of operations performed annually by trainees increased over the study period as did the number in each of the operative categories. The number of operations performed with senior assistance or supervision increased over this period by an average of 12.5%. This trend was also evident in emergency surgery where the average number of sample procedures performed by trainees increased by 28% over the study period. In 1995, reforms to the training grade within UK reduced the time spent in specialist training from a previously unregulated period to 72 months of higher surgical training. Subsequent directives in response to health and safety legislation have further abbreviated the length of time spent at the workplace, initially to 72 hours and more recently to 58 hours per week. This combination has been generally perceived throughout the surgical community as prejudicial to acquisition of clinical and operative competence. This study, however, fails to endorse this perception and suggests to the contrary that perhaps through increased delegation, the volume of training operations is being

  17. Oral Medicines for Children in the European Paediatric Investigation Plans

    PubMed Central

    van Riet – Nales, Diana A.; Römkens, Erwin G. A. W.; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F. A. M.; Egberts, Toine C. G.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes implemented as a result of the EMA/PDCO review. Methods All PIPs agreed by 31 December 2011 were identified through a proprietary EMA-database. PIPs were included if they contained an agreed proposal to develop an oral medicine for children 0 to 11 years. Information on the therapeutic area (EMA classification system); target age range (as defined by industry) and pharmaceutical characteristics (active substance, dosage form(s) as listed in the PIP, strength of each dosage form, excipients in each strength of each dosage form) was extracted from the EMA website or the EMA/PDCO assessment reports. Results A hundred and fifty PIPs were included corresponding to 16 therapeutic areas and 220 oral dosage forms in 431 strengths/compositions. Eighty-two PIPs (37%) included tablets, 44 (20%) liquids and 35 (16%) dosage forms with a specific composition/strength that were stored as a solid but swallowed as a liquid e.g. dispersible tablets. The EMA/PDCO review resulted in an increase of 13 (207 to 220) oral paediatric dosage forms and 44 (387 to 431) dosage forms with a specific composition/strength. For many PIPs, the target age range was widened and the excipient composition and usability aspects modified. Conclusion The EMA/PDCO review realized an increase in the number of requirements for the development of oral dosage forms and a larger increase in the number of dosage forms with a specific composition/strength, both targeting younger children. Changes to their pharmaceutical design were

  18. Paediatric Drug Development and Formulation Design-a European Perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Aylward, Brian; de Vries, Rutger; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A; Schobben, Alfred F A M

    2017-02-01

    The availability of licensed paediatric drugs is lagging behind those for adults, and there is a lack of safe formulations in suitable doses that children are able and willing to take. As a consequence, children are commonly treated with off-label or unlicensed drugs. As off-label and unlicensed drug use are associated with a greater risk for harm than on-label drug use, a range of global initiatives have been developed to realize "better" medicines for children. This review describes the challenges and achievements of the European Union to realize this goal, with a focus on paediatric drug development and formulation design. In 2007, a European Paediatric Regulation was installed enforcing companies to consider children in the early development of drugs with a new drug substance, for a new indication or with a new route of administration. The Regulation, e.g. requires companies to develop a paediatric investigation plan discussing the proposed clinical trials in children of different ages and the formulations for future marketing. Since 2013, the pharmaceutical design of any newly marketed paediatric drug should comply with the "Guideline on the Pharmaceutical Development of Medicines for Paediatric Use." Companies should, e.g. justify the route of administration, dosage form, formulation characteristics, safety of excipients, dosing frequency, container closure system, administration device, patient acceptability and user information. In this review, the guideline's key aspects are discussed with a focus on novel formulations such as mini-tablets and orodispersible films, excipients with a potential risk for harm such as azo dyes and adequate user instructions.

  19. Correlation of CD4 count, CD4% and HIV viral load with clinical manifestations of HIV in infected Indian children.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ira

    2006-06-01

    To correlate the absolute CD4 count, CD4% and HIV viral load with different clinical manifestations of HIV in antiretroviral-naive children. The paediatric and perinatal HIV clinic in a tertiary care hospital over a period of 4 years, from January 1999 to December 2003. A total of 92 highly active antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. The clinical manifestations, age, sex and CDC classification of each patient were determined. CD4 count, CD4% and HIV-1 viral load were estimated at presentation and correlated with various clinical manifestations of HIV disease. CD4% was higher in infants (p < 0.001) and lower in children over 5 years of age (p = 0.01). Boys had a higher absolute CD4 count than girls (769 +/- 517 vs 532 +/- 430 cells/mm3, p = 0.02). Patients with lymphadenopathy (n = 43) had a high CD4 count (840 +/- 487 cells/mm3, p = 0.01) whereas patients with HIV cardiomyopathy (n = 4) had low CD4 counts (mean 182 cells/mm3, p = 0.04). In patients with failure to thrive (n = 29), the CD4% was low (14 +/- 9%, p = 0.02) and HIV-1 viral load was high (mean 4.5 x 10(5) copies/ml, p = 0.03). CD4 count, CD4% and HIV viral load did not correlate with the stage of the disease as per the CDC classification. HIV viral load, CD4 cell count and CD4% vary with age and disease complications in HIV-infected children. However, CD4 count, CD4% and viral load did not correlate with CDC classification.

  20. Clinical validation of the paediatric pain profile.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Anne; Goldman, Ann; Seers, Kate; Crichton, Nicola; Mastroyannopoulou, Kiki; Moffat, Vivien; Oulton, Kate; Brady, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) is a 20-item behaviour rating scale designed to assess pain in children with severe neurological disability. We assessed the validity and reliability of the scale in 140 children (76 females, mean age 9 years 11 months, SD 4 years 7 months; range 1 to 18 years), unable to communicate through speech or augmentative communication. Parents used the PPP to rate retrospectively their child's behaviour when 'at their best' and when in pain. To assess interrater reliability, two raters concurrently observed and individually rated each child's behaviour. To assess construct validity and responsiveness of the scale, behaviour of 41 children was rated before and for four hours after administration of an 'as required' analgesic. Behaviour of 30 children was rated before surgery and for five days after. Children had significantly higher scores when reported to have pain than 'at their best' and scores increased in line with global evaluations of pain. Internal consistency ranged from 0.75 to 0.89 (Cronbach's alpha) and interrater reliability from 0.74 to 0.89 (intraclass correlation). Sensitivity (1.00) and specificity (0.91) were optimized at a cut-off of 14/60. PPP score was significantly greater before administration of the analgesic than after (paired-sample t-tests, p<0.001). Though there was no significant difference in mean pre- and postoperative scores, highest PPP score occurred in the first 24 hours after surgery in 14 (47%) children. Results suggest that the PPP is reliable and valid and has potential for use both clinically and in intervention research.

  1. Clinical repigmentation patterns in paediatric vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Gan, E Y; Gahat, T; Cario-André, M; Seneschal, J; Ezzedine, K; Taïeb, A

    2016-09-01

    Repigmentation is an essential outcome measure in vitiligo. However, clinical studies describing vitiligo repigmentation patterns are lacking. To assess and clearly define the repigmentation patterns in a series of patients with vitiligo, correlating these with clinicoepidemiological characteristics. Patients with vitiligo seen at least at twice (initial consultation and follow-up visit) in the Department of Paediatric Dermatology, Hôpital Pellegrin des Enfants, Bordeaux University Hospital from 2006 to 2014 were included. Clinical photographs and case records were reviewed. There were 109 patients (64 female, 45 male) mostly with Fitzpatrick skin type III (n = 67, 61%). The majority had nonsegmental (n = 71, 65%) or segmental vitiligo (n = 29, 27%). In total 172 representative vitiligo lesions were analysed. Overall, a combined pattern of repigmentation was most commonly seen (n = 106, 62%). The combined pattern occurred more frequently in patients with segmental vs. nonsegmental vitiligo (P = 0·009), whereas the diffuse pattern was more frequent in the latter (P = 0·007). Diffuse repigmentation was the predominant pattern on the eyelids (P < 0·001). We observed a new pattern in sites with few to absent hair follicles, which we propose to call 'medium spotted repigmentation'. This begins as circular macules of repigmentation, wider than 5 mm in diameter, which, from the outset, are larger than the initial macules of perifollicular repigmentation. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and small sample size for subgroup assessment. The combined pattern of repigmentation was most frequently observed. Medium spotted repigmentation is a new pattern, which will benefit from larger studies for a better understanding. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Portfolios for assessment of paediatric specialist registrars.

    PubMed

    Melville, C; Rees, M; Brookfield, D; Anderson, J

    2004-10-01

    In 1997 the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health introduced portfolios to guide and monitor the learning of specialist registrars. We studied their value for assessment. Using Bigg's SOLO criteria we devised a marking scheme based on 6 domains of competence: clinical, communication, teaching and learning, ethics and attitudes, management and evaluation, and creation of evidence. We rated portfolios according to quality of evidence presented and expectations by year of training. We similarly assessed trainee performance in the annual record of in-training assessment (RITA) interview. Specific advice based on the results of the first portfolio assessments was circulated to all trainees, instructing them to increase the structure and decrease the bulk of portfolios. A second sample of portfolios was reviewed a year later, using similar evaluations, to determine the effects. A total of 76 portfolios were assessed in year 1 by a single rater; 30 portfolios were assessed in year 2 by 2 independent raters. The quality of documentation improved from year 1 to year 2 but there was no significant increase in portfolio scores. The inter-rater correlation coefficient of the portfolio assessment method was 0.52 (Cohen's kappa 0.35). The inter-rater correlation coefficient of the RITA interview was 0.71 (Cohen's kappa 0.38). There was moderate inter-assessment correlation between portfolios and RITA interviews (kappa 0.26 in year 1 and 0.29 in year 2). Generalisability analysis suggested that 5 successive ratings by a single observer or independent ratings by 4 observers on the same occasion would be needed to yield a generalisability coefficient > 0.8 for overall portfolio rating. This method of portfolio assessment is insufficiently reliable as a sole method for high stakes, single-instance assessment, but has a place as part of a triangulation process. Repeated portfolio assessment by paired observers would increase reliability. Longer term studies are required to

  3. Paediatric blepharoptosis: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Berry-Brincat, A; Willshaw, H

    2009-07-01

    To examine the characteristics of blepharoptosis and the success of surgical intervention in a large group of children presenting to a specialist at paediatric ophthalmology center. Ten-year retrospective case notes review of patients presenting to the Birmingham Children's Hospital for blepharoptosis surgery. Resultant database was interrogated for aetiology of ptosis; severity; surgical correction; outcome; complications and need for reoperation. One hundred and fifty five children (186 eyes) underwent blepharoptosis surgery. Hundred and ten patients (71%) were treated with a levator resection procedure, 28 (18%) underwent a brow suspension using Mersilene mesh, 15 (10%) with Fasanella Servat procedure and 2 (1%) with La Mange procedure. The mean post-operative follow-up was 30.82 months with 84 children completing a minimum of 12 months follow-up. Overall, 70.97% lids were successfully corrected with a single operation. In 9.14% lids, the results were fair but no further surgery was carried out. Reoperation was required in 19.89% of lids with the mean time to second surgery being 32.69 months. Amblyopia was found in 26.45% (41 children); in 3 patients, their amblyopia became manifest after the ptosis surgery. A concomitant squint was present in 14.19%, and 18.70% had a significant refractive error requiring spectacles prescription, with anisometropia present in more than 72% of these patients. Early referral to an ophthalmologist is necessary even though surgical correction may be delayed. Children with congenital ptosis need to be monitored for amblyopia both pre- and post-operatively, as the incidence of strabismus and refractive errors is much higher than the general population and these may develop even after ptosis surgery.

  4. Developing a paediatric drug formulary for the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Tjitske M; de Wildt, Saskia N; Liem, Yves; Offringa, Martin; de Hoog, Matthijs

    2017-04-01

    As many drugs in paediatrics are used off-label, prescribers face a lack of evidence-based dosing guidelines. A Dutch framework was developed to provide dosing guidelines based on best available evidence from registration data, investigator-initiated research, professional guidelines, clinical experience and consensus. This has clarified the scientific grounds of drug use for children and encouraged uniformity in prescribing habits in the Netherlands. The developed framework and the current content of the Dutch Paediatric Formulary could be used as basis for similar initiatives worldwide, preferably in a concerted effort to ultimately provide children with effective and safe drug therapy.

  5. A customer focus to paediatric health care: John Hunter Hospital.

    PubMed

    Keatinge, D

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Paediatrics at John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, was invited to represent paediatric services in the New South Wales Department of Health's customer focus initiative. Six health care organisations were selected to be pathfinder centres in customer focus under this initiative. The aim of these pathfinder centres was to trial customer-oriented projects that would be applicable to other health care organisations. This article will discuss the process through which three customer-focused projects were identified and implemented, and discuss some of the outcomes of these projects.

  6. Immunisation practices in centres caring for children with perinatally acquired HIV: A call for harmonisation.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Alasdair; Manno, Emma C; Mellado, Maria Jose; Spoulou, Vana; Marques, Laura; Scherpbier, Henriette J; Niehues, Tim; Oldakowska, Agnieszka; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo

    2016-11-04

    Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV. This survey was completed to assess current vaccination practices and attitudes toward vaccination among pediatricians who care for vertically HIV infected children. An online questionnaire was completed by 46 experts in paediatric HIV-infection from the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA). Data were collected between November 2013 and March 2014. 46units looking after 2465 patients completed the questionnaire. The majority of units (67%) reported that common childhood immunisation were administered by the family doctor or local health services rather than in the HIV specialist centre. Vaccination histories were mostly incomplete and difficult to obtain for 40% of the studied population. Concerns were reported regarding the use of live attenuated vaccines, such as varicella and rotavirus, and these were less frequently recommended (61% and 28% of the units respectively). Monitoring of vaccine responses was employed in a minority of centres (41%). A range of different assays were used resulting in diverse units of measurement and proposed correlates of protection. Vaccination practices for perinatally HIV-infected children vary a great deal between countries. Efforts should be made to improve communication and documentation of vaccinations in healthcare settings and to harmonise recommendations relating to additional vaccines for HIV infected children and the use of laboratory assays to guide immunisation. This will ultimately improve coverage and vaccine induced

  7. Keeping kids in care: virological failure in a paediatric antiretroviral clinic and suggestions for improving treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Purchase, Susan; Cunningham, Jayne; Esser, Monika; Skinner, Donald

    2016-09-01

    The burden of paediatric HIV in South Africa is extremely high. Antiretrovirals (ARVs) are now widely accessible in the country and the clinical emphasis has shifted from initiation of treatment to retention in care. This study describes the cumulative virological failure rate amongst children on ARVs in a peri-urban clinic, and suggests ways in which clinics and partners could improve treatment outcomes. The study was conducted by the non-profit organisation HOPE Cape Town Association. A retrospective file audit determined the cumulative virological failure rate, that is, the sum of all children with a viral load >1000 copies/ml, children on monotherapy, children who had stopped treatment, children lost to follow-up (LTFU) and children who had died. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 12 staff members and a random sample of 21 caregivers and 4 children attending care. Cumulative virological failure rate was 42%, with most of those children having been LTFU. Both staff and caregivers consistently identified pharmacy queues, ongoing stigma and unpalatable ARVs as barriers to adherence. Staff suggestions included use of adherence aids, and better education and support groups for caregivers. Caregivers also requested support groups, as well as "same day" appointments for caregivers and children, but rejected the idea of home visits. Simple, acceptable and cost-effective strategies exist whereby clinics and their partners could significantly reduce the cumulative virological failure rate in paediatric ARV clinics. These include actively tracing defaulters, improving education, providing support groups, and campaigning for palatable ARV formulations.

  8. European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases consensus recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in Europe: update 2014.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Van Damme, Pierre; Giaquinto, Carlo; Dagan, Ron; Guarino, Alfredo; Szajewska, Hania; Usonis, Vytautas

    2015-06-01

    The first evidence-based recommendations for rotavirus (RV) vaccination in Europe were prepared at the time of licensure of 2 live oral RV vaccines (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, and RotaTeq, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) in 2006 and published in 2008. Since then several countries in Europe and more globally have adopted universal RV vaccination of all healthy infants as part of their national immunization programs (NIPs). The experience from these NIPs has produced a wealth of post-introduction effectiveness data that, together with the evidence from prelicensure efficacy trials presented in the 2008 Recommendations, support the case of RV vaccination in Europe. The prelicensure safety trials of Rotarix and RotaTeq, each in populations of more than 60,000 infants, did not reveal risk of intussusception (IS), but postvaccination surveillance in several countries, particularly Australia and Mexico, has established that the risk of IS for both vaccines after the first dose might be between 1:50,000 and 1:80,000. Although it may be argued that the risk is acceptable vis-à-vis the great benefits of RV vaccination, this argument alone may not suffice, and every effort should be made to reduce the risk of IS. Considerable evidence, including postvaccination surveillance data from Germany, suggests that the risk of IS can be reduced by early administration of the first dose of oral RV vaccine. The previous European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases/European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommendations held that the first dose of oral RV vaccine should be given between 6 and 12 weeks of age; this recommendation is sustained but with an emphasis toward the lower range of the recommended age, that is, preferably between 6 and 8 weeks of age. At the time of the earlier recommendations, experience of RV vaccination in premature infants and other special target groups was limited. It is now recommended with greater confidence than

  9. Blood borne viral infections among Danish health care workers--frequent blood exposure but low prevalence of infection.

    PubMed

    Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H; Krarup, Henrik B; Licht, Dorthe; Georgsen, Jørgen; Christensen, Peer B

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay in endemic areas were associated independently to HBV infection as opposed to job-category, duration of employment, HBV vaccination status and blood exposure. Based on a 4-week recall period, the incidence of percutaneous blood exposure was 1.5/person-year. In conclusion the HIV and hepatitis prevalence was low despite frequent blood exposure and the principal risk factors were unrelated to work. Danish HCWs do not seem to be at increased risk of hepatitis B even though universal HBV vaccination has not been implemented.

  10. Advertising HIV.

    PubMed

    Mougenez, Stephane; Chad, N'Djamena; Howe, John

    1995-04-05

    Think of advertising and what comes to mind, soap powders, motor cars, baked beans? All of these, of course, are heavily advertised, but what about HIV? Among the most durable of the government's advertisement campaigns have been the ones concerning HIV. Tens of millions of pounds have been spent telling the public of the presence and dangers of the virus.

  11. Managing HIV in the PICU--the experience at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Argent, A C

    2008-06-01

    The HIV pandemic has affected children throughout the developing world. This article describes the experience of the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Over the last 20 years we have improved our management of HIV infected children requiring intensive care admission. In the absence of anti-retroviral therapy, long term outcomes from PICU admission of HIV infected children have not improved significantly, and it is debatable whether PICU admission is justified. Once anti-retroviral therapy is available to children, there may be significant improvements in outcome and possible affected children should be admitted to the PICU if resources are available.

  12. Projections of diagnosed HIV infection in children and adolescents in New York State.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel E; Ghazaryan, Lusine R; Maslak, Julia; Anderson, Bridget J; Brousseau, Kathleen S; Carrascal, Alvaro F; Smith, Lou C

    2012-03-01

    Decreasing mother-to-child transmission is changing the population of children and adolescents with HIV. This project used recent epidemiological data to develop short-term projections of children and adolescents living with diagnosed HIV infection in New York State. A population simulation model was created to project prevalence of diagnosed HIV cases aged 0-19 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity and risk for years 2007-2014. Using 2006 data as the baseline population and 2001-2006 diagnosis and death data, annual diagnoses and deaths were calculated for each age/sex/race/risk category and known cases were 'aged' into the next year. The model produced annual estimates until 2014. The model predicts a decline in the number of persons aged 0-19 years living with diagnosed HIV in New York from 2810 in 2006 to 1431 in 2014, a net decrease of 49%. Living cases with paediatric risk continue to decrease. Cases aged 13-19 with non-paediatric risk increase slowly, leading to a shift in the risk composition of the population. The dominant effect seen in the model is the ageing out of perinatally infected children born before measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission were broadly implemented in the mid- to late 1990s. Changing trends in the young HIV-infected population should be considered in developing public health programmes for HIV prevention and care in New York State for the coming years.

  13. Paediatric ECMO at low-volume paediatric cardiac centres in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Veien, M; Lindberg, L; Tynkkynen, P; Ravn, H B

    2015-03-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving resource-intensive technology for patients with respiratory and/or circulatory failure. We aimed to evaluate outcome data from three Nordic paediatric centres comparing with data from the International Registry of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) and selected high-volume single-centre studies. One-hundred nineteen patients < 19 years from 2002 to 2012 were enrolled. Data on demographics and outcome were collected using a standardised registration form. Outcome data were compared with the ELSO registry and high-volume single-centre studies. Demographics, indications and diagnosis were similar to the ELSO register. Survival after ECMO was similar to outcome data from the ELSO register, apart from paediatric cardiac ECMO, where a significantly better survival to discharge was seen in the Nordic centres (68% vs. 49%; P = 0.03). Comparison with high-volume centres in the period after 2005 demonstrated a significantly better survival after cardiac ECMO in a single high-volume centre study, whereas four studies had significantly lower survival after cardiac ECMO. No significant difference was seen in children receiving respiratory ECMO in the Nordic centres and high-volume centres. Survival after ECMO in three low-volume Nordic centres demonstrated comparable outcome data with ELSO data and data from high-volume centres. We believe regular quality assurance surveys, as the present study, should be performed in order to maintain excellent therapy within the individual ECMO centres. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Osteoarticular infections: therapeutic proposals of the Paediatric Infectious Diseases Group of the French Society of Paediatrics (GPIP)].

    PubMed

    Grimprel, E; Lorrot, M; Haas, H; Pinquier, D; Parez, N; Ferroni, A; Cohen, R

    2008-10-01

    The empiric choice of initial antibiotherapy in osteoarticular infections in infants and children must take into consideration the actual epidemiology of principal pathogens, their respective antibiotic sensitivity profile, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and the results of efficacy clinical studies. After a review of recent data concerning these four major points, the Paediatric Infectious Diseases Group of the French Society of Paediatrics (GPIP) has proposed guidelines for initial recommended schemes of antimicrobial therapy in acute and non complicated osteoarticular infections in infants and children.

  15. Oral ranula in an HIV-positive patient: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kinshuck, Andrew Jon; Schober, Marianne; Kokai, George; Clarke, Ray

    2012-07-10

    We describe the presentation and treatment of an HIV-positive patient with an oral ranula, and review the literature. Ranulas are mucoceles or retention cysts formed by the extravasation of mucus from the sublingual gland, presumably due to continued production of saliva in the presence of ductal obstruction. Oral ranulas in children are rare and the overall prevalence of mucoceles has been reported as 0.08% in children aged 0-12 years. However, there has been a documented increased occurrence in HIV-positive patients. This has been attributed to a blockage of the salivary gland by inflammation and peri-ductal fibrosis following HIV-associated salivary gland disease. Oral lesions may indicate infection with HIV and can also predict progression of HIV to AIDS. The most common oral manifestation is oral candidiasis occurring in 67% of children with HIV. Following this salivary gland disease, periodontal and gingival disease and herpes simplex are the next most common. The exact prevalence of ranulas in an HIV population is not known but the occurrence of a paediatric patient with HIV having at least one oral lesion has been documented as high as 63% and salivary gland disease at 50%. The true extent of the relationship between HIV and ranula is as yet unknown. This represents the only reported case of oral ranula in an HIV-positive patient in the UK.

  16. Oral ranula in an HIV-positive patient: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kinshuck, Andrew Jon; Schober, Marianne; Kokai, George; Clarke, Ray

    2012-01-01

    We describe the presentation and treatment of an HIV-positive patient with an oral ranula, and review the literature. Ranulas are mucoceles or retention cysts formed by the extravasation of mucus from the sublingual gland, presumably due to continued production of saliva in the presence of ductal obstruction. Oral ranulas in children are rare and the overall prevalence of mucoceles has been reported as 0.08% in children aged 0–12 years. However, there has been a documented increased occurrence in HIV-positive patients. This has been attributed to a blockage of the salivary gland by inflammation and peri-ductal fibrosis following HIV-associated salivary gland disease. Oral lesions may indicate infection with HIV and can also predict progression of HIV to AIDS. The most common oral manifestation is oral candidiasis occurring in 67% of children with HIV. Following this salivary gland disease, periodontal and gingival disease and herpes simplex are the next most common. The exact prevalence of ranulas in an HIV population is not known but the occurrence of a paediatric patient with HIV having at least one oral lesion has been documented as high as 63% and salivary gland disease at 50%. The true extent of the relationship between HIV and ranula is as yet unknown. This represents the only reported case of oral ranula in an HIV-positive patient in the UK. PMID:22783004

  17. Report from The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease (Part 1 - Procedural nomenclature).

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Lisa; Everett, Allen Dale; Giroud, Jorge Manuel; Martin, Gerard R; Franklin, Rodney Cyril George; Béland, Marie Josée; Krogmann, Otto Nils; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; Gaynor, J William; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters, Henry Lane; Weinberg, Paul; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip

    2011-06-01

    Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and on the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the first part of a two-part series. Part 1 will cover the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. This procedural nomenclature of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code will be used in the IMPACT Registry™ (IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment) of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry® of The American College of Cardiology. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.

  18. High levels of anti-Nef antibodies may prevent AIDS disease progression in vertically HIV-1-infected infants

    PubMed Central

    Corró, Guillermo; Crudeli, Cintia Milena; Rocco, Carlos Alberto; Marino, Silvia Alejandra; Sen, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV-1-associated CD4+ T-cell depletion is a consequence of uninfected cell death. Nef is one of the viral factors that trigger apoptosis on bystander cells, though the plasma Nef levels do not correlate with Th lymphocytes counts. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether anti-Nef antibodies were involved in paediatric AIDS development and whether they can prevent the CD4+ T-cell depletion in vertically infected children. Methods Two hundred and seventy three HIV-1 vertically infected children seen at Garrahan Paediatric Hospital were randomly included in the study, adding 13 selected cases: seven LTNP (long-term non-progressors) and six RP (rapid progressors) children (n total=286). Specific anti-HIV-1-Nef antibodies were titrated by indirect ELISA and compared between groups. The plasma blocking effect on Nef-dependent cytotoxicity was evaluated in Jurkat cells using recombinant Nef as apoptotic stimulus and patient plasmas as blockers, measuring the apoptotic levels using Annexin-V stain and flow cytometry. Results Only 63.4% of the patients had specific anti-Nef antibodies, and the levels of anti-Nef antibodies found in the selected LTNPs plasmas were always significantly higher (p=1.55×10−4) than those in RPs or general HIV-1+ paediatric populations. The LTNPs’ plasma had a strong inhibitory effect on Nef-dependent cytotoxicity even at high dilutions, while RP plasmas had little or no effect on Nef-induced apoptosis. Discussion and conclusions High anti-Nef antibody levels are associated and predict slow or non-progression to AIDS in vertically HIV-1-infected children. They could be an efficient tool in preventing Nef-associated bystander effect, preserving CD4+ T-cells and the immune function in the context of paediatric HIV-1 infection. PMID:24560340

  19. Use of Anti-TNFα Agents and Time to First-time Surgery in Paediatric Patients with Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Michael Due; Qvist, Niels; Nielsen, Jan; Kjeldsen, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskær; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2016-06-01

    It is debated whether the need for surgery has changed following introduction of anti-TNFα agents in the treatment of paediatric ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [CD]. We aimed to describe the implementation of anti-TNFα agents in paediatric patients, and the need of first-time surgery before and after introduction of anti-TNFα agents. In the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified incident paediatric patients diagnosed from 1998. We calculated the proportion of patients receiving anti-TNFα agents within 5 years from diagnosis, and the cumulative 5 year proportion of surgery, according to calendar periods of diagnosis. At the end of our study period [2007 and 2008], 29-41% of CD children were treated with anti-TNFα agents within 5 years, and for UC children 17-19%. In 1278 CD patients, the 5 year cumulative proportions of surgery were 14.6-15.6% for children diagnosed in 1998-2008 and 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.7-13.7) for those diagnosed in 2009-2013. In 1468 UC patients, the cumulative proportion of surgery suggested a decline in patients diagnosed after mid 2005, and the hazard ratio of surgery was 0.64 [95% CI: 0.47-0.86] after the introduction of anti-TNFα agents compared with before. For UC patients diagnosed in 2009-2013, the 5 year cumulative proportion of surgery was 7.6% [95% CI: 5.2-11.2]. This nationwide study showed an extensive use of anti-TNFα agents at the end of our study period. For UC children, our data suggest a decline in the proportion of surgery in the period of increasing use of anti-TNFα agents. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival. PMID:21439041

  1. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Tollman, Stephen M; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier F; Dunger, David B; Kahn, Kathleen

    2011-03-25

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  2. Effect of HIV diagnosis disclosure on psychosocial outcomes in Thai children with perinatal HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Boon-Yasidhi, V; Naiwatanakul, T; Chokephaibulkit, K; Lolekha, R; Leowsrisook, P; Chotpitayasunond, T; Wolfe, M

    2016-03-01

    A provider-assisted, counselling-based, paediatric HIV disclosure model was developed and implemented at two tertiary-care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. All undisclosed perinatally acquired HIV-infected children, aged 7-18 years, and their caretakers were offered the four-step disclosure service, including: screening, readiness assessments and preparation, disclosure sessions, and follow-up evaluations. To assess psychosocial outcomes of disclosure, we compared the scores of the Children Depression Inventory and the PedsQL 4.0™ at baseline and at two-month and six-month follow-up visits, and compared the scores of the Child Behavioral Checklist at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Disclosure was made to 186 children, 160 of whom completed post-disclosure assessments. The median Children's Depression Inventory score in 135 children decreased significantly from 11 at baseline to 8 at two-month and six-month follow-up (p < 0.01). The median PedsQL 4.0™ scores in 126 children increased significantly from 78 at baseline to 80 at two-month and 84 at six-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The median Child Behavioral Checklist scores were not significantly changed. In conclusion, paediatric HIV diagnosis disclosure using this model was found to have positive effect on the children's mood and quality of life, and no negative effect on children's behaviours. This disclosure programme should be expanded to improve the psychosocial health of HIV-infected children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. [Treatment of splenic trauma in paediatric age].

    PubMed

    Capasso, Lorenzo; Cuomo, Ugo Manlio; D'Ambrosio, Raffaele; Buonincontro, Silvio; Iarrobino, Gianfausto; Borsi, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    The splenic trauma in children presents some peculiarity that differentiates it from that one in adult age. Therefore we have see again our relative experience on splenic trauma, in the period 2001-2006, confronting two groups of patients, one of inferior age to fourteen years (A Group) and one of advanced age (B Group). We have estimated the following parameters: aetiology, type of lesion, association with others trauma, type of treatment, compliance, mortality, number of transfusions and hospital stay. On a total of 75 splenic trauma (M:52, F:23 of age comprised between 5 and 71 years) 18 belongs to the A group (medium age of 9.2 years) and 57 to the B group (medium ages of 47.4 years). The prevailing aetiology in the A group is domestic accident (39%) and the fall from bicycle (33%), while in the B group it is the street accident (69%). The lesions found in pediatric age are of smaller gravity if compared with B group, for lesion gravity and for association with abdominal and/or extra-abdominal others trauma. In the children group we have performed nonoperative management or conservative surgery in the 83% of cases versus the 26% in the B group. The rate of conversion from a nonoperative treatment in to an operative treatment has been of 7%. The post-operative complicance are absent in the A group and of 5.5% in the B group. The mortality rate in the surgical patients has been of the 14.3% for serious toraco-abdominal trauma in A group and of 11.1% in B group. No mortality is detected in the groups with nonoperative treatment. The medium number of transfusions is of 1.8 units in the paediatric patients and of 2.5 units in the adults. The medium stay in hospital is of eighteen days in the A group and of thirteen days in the B group. In conclusion the marked difference in the two groups examines stays in the type of treatment, more often nonoperative or conservative in the children group.

  4. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics in treatment of paediatric febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Vedi, Aditi; Cohn, Richard

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether, in low-risk febrile neutropenic paediatric populations, oral antibiotics are as effective as intravenous antibiotics in obtaining resolution of the febrile neutropenic episode. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL identified prospective, randomised controlled trials comparing oral antibiotics with intravenous antibiotics in the treatment of febrile neutropenic episodes in low-risk paediatric oncology patients. Outcomes assessed were mortality, rate of treatment failure, length of the febrile neutropenic episode and adverse events. The random effects model was used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data and mean difference with standard deviation for continuous data. Seven trials were included in the overall analysis, which included 934 episodes of febrile neutropenia in 676 patients aged between 9 months and 20 years. The overall treatment failure rates were not significantly different between oral and intravenous antibiotics (RR: 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.32, P= 0.91). In carefully selected low-risk febrile neutropenic children, empiric treatment with oral antibiotics is a safe and effective alternative to intravenous antibiotics as they lower the cost of treatment as well as psychosocial burden on these children and their families. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Standard concentration infusions in paediatric intensive care: the clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Joanne; Aguado-Lorenzo, Virginia; Arenas-Lopez, Sara

    2016-08-14

    The use of standard concentrations of intravenous infusions has been advocated by international organisations to increase intravenous medication safety in paediatric and neonatal critical care. However, there is no guidance on how to identify and implement these infusions leading to great interunit variability.

  6. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors.

    PubMed

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (<6 years). We analysed all paediatric liver transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (<1, ≥1 to <6, ≥6 to <16, ≥16 to <45, ≥45 years). Overall, 413 paediatric liver transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year.

  7. Benign paediatric mandibular tumours: experience in reconstruction using vascularised fibula.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Tamimy, Muhammad Sarmad; Ehtesham-Ul-Haq; Sarwar, Saad Ur Rahman; Rizvi, Syed Taokeer Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the paediatric oral and maxillofacial tumours are benign and the mandible is involved in one-third of these cases. A review of the literature reveals only a handful of studies pertaining exclusively to benign paediatric mandibular tumours. The basis of this study was to fulfil the need to assess the suitability of major mandibular reconstructions using a vascularised fibular graft in cases of benign tumours in children. From April 1999 to April 2011 we have managed 18 cases of benign paediatric mandibular tumours. All the reconstructions were done using vascularised fibular graft. The age of these patients ranged from 8 to 16 years. The most common pathology seen in our series was Ameloblastoma, followed by Giant Cell Granuloma and vascular malformation. Other cases included fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst and odontogenic myxoma. Five of these were recurrent lesions. The mean length of the fibula harvested was 12 ± 2 cm. All the flaps in this series survived. Bone union occurred in all cases by 6 weeks. All the patients have maintained a satisfactory chin contour of the mandible during the follow-up period with minimal distortion occurring secondary to contralateral native mandibular growth in two cases. We conclude that, for benign paediatric mandibular tumours requiring major bone resection, the vascularised fibula is an excellent reconstructive option with the advantages of having a good bone stock, possibility for osteotomy, long pedicle length and potential for growth along with the possibility of dental rehabilitation.

  8. Definition of important early morbidities related to paediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine L; Pagel, Christina; Brimmell, Rhian; Bull, Kate; Davis, Peter; Franklin, Rodney C; Hoskote, Aparna; Khan, Natasha; Rodrigues, Warren; Thorne, Sara; Smith, Liz; Chigaru, Linda; Utley, Martin; Wray, Jo; Tsang, Victor; Mclean, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Morbidity is defined as a state of being unhealthy or of experiencing an aspect of health that is "generally bad for you", and postoperative morbidity linked to paediatric cardiac surgery encompasses a range of conditions that may impact the patient and are potential targets for quality assurance. As part of a wider study, a multi-disciplinary group of professionals aimed to define a list of morbidities linked to paediatric cardiac surgery that was prioritised by a panel reflecting the views of both professionals from a range of disciplines and settings as well as parents and patients. We present a set of definitions of morbidity for use in routine audit after paediatric cardiac surgery. These morbidities are ranked in priority order as acute neurological event, unplanned re-operation, feeding problems, the need for renal support, major adverse cardiac events or never events, extracorporeal life support, necrotising enterocolitis, surgical site of blood stream infection, and prolonged pleural effusion or chylothorax. It is recognised that more than one such morbidity may arise in the same patient and these are referred to as multiple morbidities, except in the case of extracorporeal life support, which is a stand-alone constellation of morbidity. It is feasible to define a range of paediatric cardiac surgical morbidities for use in routine audit that reflects the priorities of both professionals and parents. The impact of these morbidities on the patient and family will be explored prospectively as part of a wider ongoing, multi-centre study.

  9. Unmet needs in paediatric psychopharmacology: Present scenario and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Persico, Antonio M; Arango, Celso; Buitelaar, Jan K; Correll, Christoph U; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Moreno, Carmen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Vorstman, Jacob; Zuddas, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Paediatric psychopharmacology holds great promise in two equally important areas of enormous biomedical and social impact, namely the treatment of behavioural abnormalities in children and adolescents, and the prevention of psychiatric disorders with adolescent- or adult-onset. Yet, in striking contrast, pharmacological treatment options presently available in child and adolescent psychiatry are dramatically limited. The most important currently unmet needs in paediatric psychopharmacology are: the frequent off-label prescription of medications to children and adolescents based exclusively on data from randomized controlled studies involving adult patients; the frequent lack of age-specific dose, long-term efficacy and tolerability/safety data; the lack of effective medications for many paediatric psychiatric disorders, most critically autism spectrum disorder; the scarcity and limitations of randomized placebo-controlled trials in paediatric psychopharmacology; the unexplored potential for the prevention of psychiatric disorders with adolescent- and adult-onset; the current lack of biomarkers to predict treatment response and severe adverse effects; the need for better preclinical data to foster the successful development of novel drug therapies; and the effective dissemination of evidence-based treatments to the general public, to better inform patients and families of the benefits and risks of pharmacological interventions during development. Priorities and strategies are proposed to overcome some of these limitations, including the European Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychopharmacology Network, as an overarching Pan-European infrastructure aimed at reliably carrying out much needed psychopharmacological trials in children and adolescents, in order to fill the identified gaps and improve overall outcomes.

  10. Pressure area care in infants and children: Nimbus Paediatric System.

    PubMed

    Jones, I; Tweed, C; Marron, M

    Survival rates in both critically and chronically ill infants and children have improved dramatically in recent years and new challenges exist in the nursing care given to these patients. Among these is the increased risk of pressure ulcer development. Children in intensive care environments are especially at risk. Prevention and management of pressure ulceration in the paediatric population requires clinical judgement and skill. The use of pressure ulcer risk assessment tools can assist in this process; however, to date, there is a lack of research evidence and further studies are needed. The pressure relief requirements of the paediatric patient are significantly different to those of the adult patient. In children under the age of 36 months, the ears and occiput are the areas most at risk of pressure injury as a result of the fact that this area is proportionately the largest and heaviest bony prominence. Despite the abundance of specialist pressure redistributing devices for adults, there is little available specifically for the paediatric patient. This article describes a review of the literature on these subject areas and follows with a short report of the evaluation of the new Paediatric Nimbus System undertaken at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Edinburgh.

  11. Waiting times in a tertiary paediatric nephrology clinic

    PubMed Central

    Filler, Guido; Sutandar, Marilyn; Poulin, Darlene

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND To the authors’ knowledge, paediatric nephrology waiting times have not been previously studied. Given the high incidence of new referrals each year, the evaluation of the current waiting times would be beneficial in the management and triaging of new appointments. PATIENTS AND METHODS Using descriptive statistics, data from all appropriate paediatric nephrology referrals to the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Ottawa, Ontario) from 2003 to 2005 (n=1446) were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS The median waiting time from receipt of initial request for referral to first appointment was 111 days (range zero to 364 days). No significant variation existed throughout the duration of the study, despite the variation in the number of paediatric nephrology staff. Infants were seen significantly sooner than older children. There were no assigned priority classification levels based on referral reason. Critical conditions, such as macrohematuria, were seen on an urgent basis; all other patients were seen at the next available appointment slot, which was usually four months away. A significant proportion of patients were referred for dysfunctional voiding and enuresis (25.9%). These diagnoses are not generally considered a part of core nephrology. CONCLUSION The waiting times for a paediatric nephrology appointment are long. Focusing on core nephrology business and appropriate triaging of consult would be necessary to implement a priority classification level-based appointment assignment. Additional resources would allow for more patients to be seen in a more timely fashion. PMID:19030333

  12. How readable are Australian paediatric oral health education materials?

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Lam, Andy S F; Karami, Zahra; Do, Loc Giang; Harris, Mark Fort

    2014-09-02

    The objective of this study was to analyse the readability of paediatric oral health education leaflets available in Australia. Forty paediatric oral health education materials were analysed for general readability according to the following parameters: Thoroughness; Textual framework; Terminology; and Readability (Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Gunning Fog index (Fog) and Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG)). Leaflets produced by the industry were among the hardest to read with an average readability at the 8th grade (8.4 ± 0.1). The readability of leaflets produced by the commercial sector was at the 7th grade (7.1 ± 1.7) and the government at the 6th grade (6.3 ± 1.9). The FKGL consistently yielded readabilities 2 grades below the Fog and SMOG indexes. In the content analyses, 14 essential paediatric oral health topics were noted and Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was identified as the most commonly used jargon term. Paediatric oral health education materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely and may be difficult to read for disadvantaged populations in Australia. A redesign of these leaflets while taking literacy into consideration is suggested.

  13. [Assessing and making safe the medicine use pathway in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Didelot, Nicolas; Guerrier, Catherine; Didelot, Anne; Fritsch, Sandrine; Pelte, Jean-Pierre; Socha, Marie; Javelot, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Based on an assessment of adverse events in a follow-up care and rehabilitation unit in paediatrics, audits were carried out of the medicine use pathway. The evaluation grid taken from this study today serves as a basis for the audits carried out on the medicine use pathway on a national level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Maintenance intravenous fluid prescribing practices among paediatric residents.

    PubMed

    Freeman, M A; Ayus, J C; Moritz, M L

    2012-10-01

      To investigate the sodium composition of maintenance intravenous fluids (mIVF) used by paediatric residents throughout the United States in common clinical scenarios of arginine vasopressin (AVP) excess.   We distributed an online survey to paediatric residency programmes asking what type of mIVF (0.2%, 0.45%, 0.9% NaCl or lactated Ringer's solution) they would administer in four common clinical scenarios of AVP excess (gastroenteritis, pneumonia, meningitis and postoperative) in both a 6-month-old (mo) and a 13-year-old (yo) child.   We had 472 responses, representing 5% of the total paediatric residency population in the United States. Hypotonic mIVF were selected in 78% of children (88.2% of 6 mo and 68.5% of 13 yo). Isotonic mIVF were selected approximately twice as often for patients with meningitis as for those without (21.4% vs. 8.7% 6 mo and 42.8% vs. 27.7% 13 yo; p < 0.001).   The majority of US paediatric residents would prescribe hypotonic mIVF in disease states associated with AVP excess. However, a significant number of residents are using isotonic mIVF. Isotonic fluids are more likely to be prescribed in older children and children with meningitis. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Diego Grimaldi; Simas, Ana Amélia Souza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome. PMID:27872765

  16. Pediatric & Congenital Electrophysiology Society: building an international paediatric electrophysiology organisation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Stephenson, Elizabeth; Skinner, Jon; Drago, Fabrizio; Davis, Andrew; Janousek, Jan; Rosenthal, Eric; Collins, Kathryn K; Triedman, John

    2016-08-01

    The Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) is a non-profit organisation comprised of individuals dedicated to improving the care of children and young adults with cardiac rhythm disturbances. Although PACES is a predominantly North American-centric organisation, international members have been a part of PACES for the last two decades. This year, PACES expanded its North American framework into a broadly expansive international role. On 12 May, 2015, paediatric electrophysiology leaders from within the United States of America and Canada met with over 30 international paediatric electrophysiologists from 17 countries and five continents discussing measures to (1) expand PACES' global vision, (2) address ongoing challenges such as limited resource allocation that may be present in developing countries, (3) expand PACES' governance to include international representation, (4) promote joint international sessions at future paediatric EP meetings, and (5) facilitate a global multi-centre research consortium. This meeting marked the inception of a formal international collaborative spirit in PACES. This editorial addresses some solutions to breakdown the continental silos paediatric electrophysiologists have practiced within; however, there remain ongoing limitations, and future discussions will be needed to continue to move the PACES global international vision forward.

  17. The paediatric cardiology Hall of Fame: Maude Elizabeth Abbott.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Béland, Marie J

    2010-04-01

    Few paediatric cardiologists know of Maude Abbott. Yet before Helen Taussig, no one contributed more to founding the specialty than Maude Abbott. She achieved international fame as the early 20th century expert on cardiac malformations. We summarise here her life and contributions, indicating how she is more than justified in being inducted to the Hall of Fame.

  18. Optimizing treatment in paediatric rheumatology--lessons from oncology.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of children with cancer, in particular with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), has been highly successful in the past two decades owing to the implementation of treatment optimization studies. Study centres appointed by scientific societies design treatment optimization study protocols (TOSPs) that address an investigator-initiated research question and detail treatment procedures according to these aims. Nearly all children with malignant diseases are treated within TOSPs, whereas children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and other common paediatric rheumatic diseases are mostly treated outside TOSPs and clinical trials. Despite the differences in natural course and prognosis between malignant and inflammatory diseases, aiming for the recruitment of all children with defined rheumatic diseases into TOSPs or similar protocols would enable the longitudinal collection of crucial clinical data and improve evidence-based approaches. Successful research networks already exist in paediatric rheumatology that could facilitate the implementation of this approach. Paediatric rheumatic diseases have a considerable impact on patients and their families; thus, I propose that research networks in paediatric rheumatology should recruit most--if not all--children with rheumatic diseases into study protocols with standardized treatment and outcome measures.

  19. Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Pessia, Alberto; Jaakkola, Tytti; de Vos, Willem M; Velagapudi, Vidya

    2017-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is considered to result from the interplay between host and intestinal microbiota but its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. While IBD in adults has shown to be associated with marked changes in body fluid metabolomics, there are only few studies in children. Hence, this prospective study addressed the faecal and serum metabolomics in newly diagnosed paediatric IBD. Paediatric patients with IBD undergoing diagnostic endoscopies and controls also with endoscopy but no signs of inflammation provided blood and stool samples in a tertiary care hospital. Blood inflammatory markers and faecal calprotectin levels were determined. The serum and faecal metabolomics were determined using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Serum and faecal metabolite profiles in newly diagnosed paediatric IBD patients were different from healthy controls and categorized Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis [UC] patients into separate groups. In serum, amino acid metabolism, folate biosynthesis and signalling pathways were perturbed in Crohn's disease; in UC also sphingolipid metabolic pathways were perturbed when compared to controls. In faecal samples, there was an increased level of several metabolites in UC in contrast to low or intermediate levels in Crohn's disease. There was a clear correlation with the level of inflammation, i.e. faecal calprotectin levels and the profile of various biologically important metabolites [carnosine, ribose and, most significantly, choline]. Characterization of inflammatory pattern using metabolomics analysis is a promising tool for better understanding disease pathogenesis of paediatric IBD.

  20. [The nurse consultation in a Swiss university paediatric emergency department].

    PubMed

    Yersin, Corinne; Hemme, Denis; Gehri, Mario; Pittet, Anne; Rey-Bellet Gasser, Céline

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, overcrowding in tertiary emergency departments is a frequent problem, resulting in lengthy waiting times, lower satisfaction on the part of families and a risk for patient's safety. The setting up of a nurse consultation in a university paediatric emergency centre has helped to improve the quality of care in this context.

  1. Aetiology of Intellectual Disability in Paediatric Outpatients in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhari, Prashant; Boggula, Raju; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Singh, Chandrakanta; Kohli, Neera; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the aetiology of intellectual disability in patients presenting to hospital and the diagnostic yield of a standardized examination. Method: Over a 1-year period, the first three children presenting to the paediatric outpatients department (OPD) on 2 selected weekdays with developmental delay, suspected intellectual disability, or…

  2. Global child health education in Canadian paediatric residency programs.

    PubMed

    Audcent, Tobey Ann; MacDonnell, Heather; Samson, Lindy; Brenner, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation has led to significant changes in health care, yet medical education remains domestically focused. The majority of the world's children live in developing countries, and education related to global child health is important for paediatric residents. Chief residents and program directors from the 16 Canadian paediatric training programs were surveyed using a questionnaire regarding global child health training program content, electives, attitudes and perceptions towards global child health. No programs had a formalised global health curriculum. All program directors and chief residents reported that programs offer global child health sessions, but 50% of the programs did not address six out of twelve of the content areas including topics such as refugee health and international adoption. All program directors agreed global child health understanding is important for paediatric trainees; 83% agreed more emphasis should be placed on this during post-graduate training. A formalised global child health curriculum is lacking for Canadian paediatric residents: Program directors are willing to integrate global child health training modules into their post-graduate training programs.

  3. Paediatric rheumatology clinic population in Southeast Asia: are we different?

    PubMed

    Arkachaisri, Thaschawee; Tang, Swee-Ping; Daengsuwan, Tassalapa; Phongsamart, Gun; Vilaiyuk, Soamarat; Charuvanij, Sirirat; Hoh, Sook Fun; Tan, Justin Hung Tiong; Das, Lena; Ang, Elizabeth; Lim, Wendy; Chan, Yiong Huak; Bernal, Christine B

    2017-03-01

    To examine the descriptive epidemiology of the patient population referred to paediatric rheumatology centres (PRCs) in Southeast Asia (SEA) and to compare the frequency of conditions encountered with other PRC populations. A web-based Registry for Childhood Onset Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases was established in 2009 and seven PRCs in four SEA countries, where paediatric rheumatologists are available, participated in a prospective 24 month data collection (43 months for Singapore). The number of patients analysed was 4038 (788 from Malaysia, 711 from the Philippines, 1943 from Singapore and 596 from Thailand). Over 70% of patients evaluated in PRCs in Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand had rheumatic diseases (RDs), as compared with one-half of the proportion seen in Singaporean PRCs, which was similar to the Western PRC experience. Among RDs diagnosed (n = 2602), JIA was the most common disease encountered in Malaysia (41%) and Thailand (61%) as compared with systemic vasculitides in the Philippines (37%) and Singapore (35%) among which Henoch-Schönlein purpura was the most prevalent. SLE and related diseases were more common, but idiopathic pain syndrome and abnormal immunological laboratory tests were rarer than those seen in the West. JIA subtype distributions were different among countries. Among non-RDs (n = 1436), orthopaedic and related conditions predominated (21.7-59.4%). The frequencies of RDs seen by SEA PRCs were different from those in the West. Systemic vasculitides and SLE were common in addition to JIA. Paediatric rheumatologist availability and healthcare accessibility partially explain these observed discrepancies.

  4. Denominator estimation: approaches in the Hamburg paediatric sentinel network.

    PubMed Central

    Kellerhof, M; Gritz, K; Brand, H

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were to develop an estimator for the size of paediatric practices to be used as a denominator for purposes of comparison; to analyse the age structure of the patients attending paediatric practices and to check the necessity for an age specific denominator; and to validate the denominator information by other available data. DESIGN--This was an observational study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS--A sentinel network was set up comprising 26 self selected paediatric practices. Weekly patient contacts in relation to age and sex were counted three times during the study period of two years. In addition, accounting data, including the total number of children treated in a given three month period (quarter), were available. MAIN RESULTS--Weekly patient contact counts were stable over time, not in terms of the absolute number of contacts but in the rank positions of the practices (rs = 0.86) and in their age structure. The age distribution of weekly patient contacts differed significantly between the practices. Cross validation of the weekly contact count by means of the quarterly accounting data resulted in a rank correlation of rs = 0.90. CONCLUSIONS--Sentinel networks with paediatric practices should use age specific denominator information. Weekly contact group, estimated by counts in a sample of weeks, is a stable and easily available denominator for sentinel practices in the context of the German health care system. Images PMID:7561666

  5. How readable are Australian paediatric oral health education materials?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyse the readability of paediatric oral health education leaflets available in Australia. Methods Forty paediatric oral health education materials were analysed for general readability according to the following parameters: Thoroughness; Textual framework; Terminology; and Readability (Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Gunning Fog index (Fog) and Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG)). Results Leaflets produced by the industry were among the hardest to read with an average readability at the 8th grade (8.4 ± 0.1). The readability of leaflets produced by the commercial sector was at the 7th grade (7.1 ± 1.7) and the government at the 6th grade (6.3 ± 1.9). The FKGL consistently yielded readabilities 2 grades below the Fog and SMOG indexes. In the content analyses, 14 essential paediatric oral health topics were noted and Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was identified as the most commonly used jargon term. Conclusion Paediatric oral health education materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely and may be difficult to read for disadvantaged populations in Australia. A redesign of these leaflets while taking literacy into consideration is suggested. PMID:25183234

  6. Development of paediatric electrophysiology standards for Florida Children's Medical Services.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Jorge; Seslar, Stephen; Wolff, Grace; Young, Ming; Bryant, Randall; Neghme, Rodrigo; Fishberger, Steven; Decker, Jamie A; Sokoloski, Mary; Ho, Jason; Lawrence, David; Jenkins, Chrishonda; Stannard, Kelli; Schiebler, Gerold L; Blanchard, William; Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2014-12-01

    The Florida Children's Medical Services (CMS) has a long-standing history of ensuring that providers of multiple paediatric subspecialties abide by the highest standards. The cardiac sub-committee has written quality standard documents that participating programmes must meet or exceed. These standards oversee paediatric cardiology services including surgery, catheterisations, and outpatient services. On April, 2012, the cardiac sub-committee decided to develop similar standards in paediatric electrophysiology. A task force was created and began this process. These standards include a catalogue of required and optional equipment, as well as staff and physician credentials. We sought to establish expectations of procedural numbers by practitioner and facility. The task force surveyed the members of the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society. Finding no consensus, the task force is committed to generate the data by requiring that the CMS participating programmes enrol and submit data to the Multicenter Pediatric and Adult Congenital EP Quality (MAP-IT™) Initiative. This manuscript details the work of the Florida CMS Paediatric Electrophysiology Task Force.

  7. Aetiology of Intellectual Disability in Paediatric Outpatients in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhari, Prashant; Boggula, Raju; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Singh, Chandrakanta; Kohli, Neera; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the aetiology of intellectual disability in patients presenting to hospital and the diagnostic yield of a standardized examination. Method: Over a 1-year period, the first three children presenting to the paediatric outpatients department (OPD) on 2 selected weekdays with developmental delay, suspected intellectual disability, or…

  8. [Teamwork in a paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care service].

    PubMed

    Tison-Chambellan, Camille; Daussac, Élisabeth; Barnet, Lucile; Sirven, Sabine; Bambou, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    A paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care service team comprises several professionals with complementary skills. The cohesion of a team, as well as the listening and communication skills of each of its members, allow it to respond in the best possible way to emergency situations. Feedback sessions on practice and simulation exercises enhance teamwork.

  9. Surveillance biopsies after paediatric kidney transplantation: A review.

    PubMed

    Rose, Edward M; Kennedy, Sean E; Mackie, Fiona E

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective means of treating children with end-stage kidney disease, and yet, there continues to be a limited "life span" of transplanted kidneys in paediatric recipients. Early graft monitoring, using the surveillance biopsy, has the potential to extend renal allograft survival in paediatric recipients. The surveillance biopsy provides important and timely information about acute and chronic graft pathology, particularly SCR and calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity, which can subsequently guide management decisions and improve long-term graft survival. The ostensible value of the surveillance biopsy is furthered by the limitations of conventional renal functional studies. However, there is still much debate surrounding the surveillance biopsy in paediatric recipients, particularly in regard to its overall utility, safety and timing. This review discusses the current literature regarding the utility, safety, and potential predictive value of surveillance biopsies for guiding post-transplant management in paediatric renal allograft recipients, as well as the viability of other potentially newer non-invasive strategies for renal allograft monitoring.

  10. Epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Coward, R; Peters, C; Duffy, P; Corry, D; Kellett, M; Choong, S; van't, H

    2003-01-01

    Background: The previous epidemiological study of paediatric nephrolithiasis in Britain was conducted more than 30 years ago. Aims: To examine the presenting features, predisposing factors, and treatment strategies used in paediatric stones presenting to a British centre over the past five years. Methods: A total of 121 children presented with a urinary tract renal stone, to one adult and one paediatric centre, over a five year period (1997–2001). All children were reviewed in a dedicated stone clinic and had a full infective and metabolic stone investigative work up. Treatment was assessed by retrospective hospital note review. Results: A metabolic abnormality was found in 44% of children, 30% were classified as infective, and 26% idiopathic. Bilateral stones on presentation occurred in 26% of the metabolic group compared to 12% in the infective/idiopathic group (odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.03 to 7.02). Coexisting urinary tract infection was common (49%) in the metabolic group. Surgically, minimally invasive techniques (lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and endoscopy) were used in 68% of patients. Conclusions: There has been a shift in the epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK over the past 30 years. Underlying metabolic causes are now the most common but can be masked by coexisting urinary tract infection. Treatment has progressed, especially surgically, with sophisticated minimally invasive techniques now employed. All children with renal stones should have a metabolic screen. PMID:14612355

  11. Family functioning in paediatric obsessive compulsive and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Yolanda E; Flessner, Christopher A

    2015-11-01

    Research among youths with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has shown a significant relationship between illness severity, treatment outcome, and the family environment yet little work has been undertaken among the broader class of obsessive compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) - Trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), skin picking disorder (SPD), and hoarding. The aim of this study was to (1) review the family functioning literature among paediatric OCRDs, (2) address limitations to previous studies, and (3) highlight areas in need of further research. A review of the literature was conducted using several databases (i.e., Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect) and employing key search terms (e.g., 'family functioning', 'paediatric OCD'). The resultant articles examined several domains subsumed under the broader heading of family environment including parental mental health, parenting practices, family dynamics, family involvement with symptoms, and family emotional climate. The literature reviewed demonstrated a strong relationship between paediatric OCD and adverse family functioning (e.g., parental symptoms of anxiety and depression, family accommodation, family strain and stress, parental guilt and fear) in all identified domains. While family functioning research in paediatric HPD was relatively scant, research suggested similar familial dysfunction (e.g., limited independence, low family cohesion, family violence). Collectively, only 1 article, examining BDD, assessed family functioning within other OCRDs. This review supports the need for further research in the OCRDs. Limitations to the available literature and targeted suggestions for future research are discussed. The domains of family environment in this study indicate specific family functioning deficits that may serve as aetiological and/or maintenance factors in paediatric OCRDs, possibly contributing to the understanding of these complex disorders. The recognition of family deficits

  12. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in the paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Habiballah, Laila; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    A paucity of research related to the problem of pressure ulcers in paediatrics is found, with a variety of reported prevalence rates. To record the prevalence, location and categories of PU in the inpatient paediatric wards, and to identify the characteristics of pressure ulcer patients. A descriptive point prevalence study. All paediatric inpatient wards in two hospitals in Jordan. One of which is a university-affiliated hospital and the other a paediatric public hospital. Isolation, burn and emergency units, outpatients' clinics and psychiatric wards were excluded. One sixty six paediatric patients aged from one day up to 18 years from both hospitals. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were included and examined for the existence of pressure ulcers on one day in each hospital by the primary investigator. The European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification system was used to categorise each identified ulcer. The characteristics of ulcers were collected as well. Sixteen ulcers were identified in 11 patients, giving a prevalence rate of 6.6%.When Category I ulcers were excluded, the prevalence rate dropped to 2.4%. All except one of the PU patients were being treated in critical care units (n = 10, 90.9%), and most of the ulcers were category one (n = 7, 63.6%) and caused by devices (n = 7, 63.6). The face was the most frequently reported location of PUs (n = 6, 54.5%), followed by the occiput (n = 2, 18.2%). Most PU patients were male (n = 6, 54.5%), and less than 12 months old (n = 8, 72.7%). PU patients had experienced longer hospital stays than patients free from PU (U = 499.0, p = 0.02). Jordanian paediatric patients do have pressure ulcers, with a prevalence rate congruent with previously reported international rates. Most of the ulcers found were caused by devices used in critical care units. This should encourage nurses to pay extra attention to their paediatric patients when they are connected to medical devices. Copyright

  13. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann.

  14. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  15. HIV Viral Load

    MedlinePlus

    ... Count ; HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) ; HIV Drug Resistance ( Genotypic and Phenotypic ) All content on Lab Tests ... have their therapy changed. They should undergo HIV drug resistance testing to help in the selection of an ...

  16. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Find HIV Treatment Services HIV and Mental Health HIV and Nutrition and Food Safety Print This ... from the following sources: From the Department of Health and Human Services: ... of Veterans Affairs: Treatment Decisions for HIV From the National ...

  17. HIV Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  18. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... 03-13T18:29:11+00:00 PH and HIV Print PH and HIV Brochure (PDF) Order Copies ... to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and HIV are two separate ...

  19. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  20. HIV and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  1. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: March 2, 2017 Key ...

  2. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  3. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  4. Risk of myocardial infarction in parents of HIV-infected Individuals: a population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Line D; Omland, Lars H; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Jensen, Janne; Obel, Niels

    2010-06-14

    Previous studies have indicated an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV infected individuals especially after start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is however controversial whether the increased risk of atherosclerotic disease is exclusively associated with the HIV disease and HAART or whether life-style related or genetic factors also increase the risk in this population. To establish whether the increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV patients partly reflects an increased risk of MI in their families, we estimated the relative risk of MI in parents of HIV-infected individuals. From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish Civil Registration System we identified the parents of all HIV-infected patients born in Denmark after 1952 in whom a Danish born mother was identifiable. For each HIV patient, 4 matched population controls and their parents were identified. Cumulative incidence functions were constructed to illustrate time to first MI of the parents as registered in the Danish National Hospital Registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated by Cox's regression analyses. Due to the confidential type of the analysed data the study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. 2,269 mothers and 2,022 fathers of HIV patients as well as 9,076 mothers and 8,460 fathers of control subjects were identified. We observed an increased risk of MI in mothers of HIV patients (adjusted IRR, 1.31; 95% CI: 1.08-1.60). The strongest association was seen in case the offspring was infected heterosexually (adjusted IRR, 1.59; 95% CI: 1.07-2.35) or by IV drug abuse (IVD) (adjusted IRR, 1.63; 95% CI: 1.02-2.60). In fathers of HIV patients the risk of MI was only increased if the offspring was infected by IVD (adjusted IRR, 1.42; 95% CI: 1.01-2.00). Mothers of HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of MI. We presume that this stems from family related life style risk factors, some of which may also influence the risk of MI

  5. High-alert medications in a French paediatric university hospital.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Julie; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Bourdon, Olivier; Joret, Perrine; Brion, Françoise; Hartmann, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    High-alert medications (HAMs) are medications that are associated with a high risk of serious harm if used improperly. The objective of this study was to identify paediatric HAM used in our institution and to identify safety measures for their use. The list of HAM and the list of safety measures that were introduced in our department were based on (1) a literature search; (2) a survey of health care professionals in our department including doctors, head nurses, nurses and pharmacists; and (3) the drug steering committee. We found four lists of HAM based on a literature search, including 27 classes of pharmaceutical agents, and 63 common drug names. The response rate of the survey was 20.7% (230 of 1113). Some of the HAMs included in our list were not identified by the literature search. These included neuroleptic drugs, anti-malarial agents, antiviral agents, anti-retroviral agents and intravenous acetaminophen. The drug steering committee selected 17 HAM and highlighted 53 safety measures involving seven broad aspects of pharmacological management. This project was part of the new safety strategies developed in a paediatric hospital. We set out to make a list of HAM relevant to paediatrics with additional safety measures to prevent medication errors associated and a 'joker' system. The various safety measures, such as double-checking of HAM prescriptions, should be reviewed during the year following their implementation. This list, which was developed in our hospital specifically for use in paediatrics, can be adapted for use in other paediatric departments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Prenatal counselling and the role of the paediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Benachi, Alexandra; Sarnacki, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    With the development of prenatal ultrasound and of foetal medicine, the paediatric surgeon has extended his knowledge of the natural history of surgical malformations. He is a part of the prenatal team and parents should always be referred to him when a surgical malformation is suspected, even when termination of pregnancy is planned because of an expected poor prognosis. Direct contact between the prenatal medicine specialist and the paediatric surgeon is also highly recommended to ensure continuity in the messages delivered to the parents. Postnatal counselling does not compare with prenatal counselling, and the paediatric surgeon has learned from the obstetrician to modulate his talk by including other conditions that might affect the outcome of the foetus, especially genetically determined syndromes. When the foetal malformation is diagnosed very early, especially in the first trimester, it therefore seems important for the consultation with the paediatric surgeon to be scheduled when the complementary exams required by the anomalies diagnosed are done, in order to avoid later contradictory messages. Repeated consultations should be favoured as they allow provision of more precise information regarding changes in ultrasound and/or MRI images and so decrease parents׳ anxiety and help them to take their decision. Foetal surgery, which has reached various stages of development in different countries, requires paediatric surgeons and obstetricians to join forces to optimise procedures and evaluate their benefit/risk ratio. Since 2004, the National Rare Disease Plan in France has allowed the creation of Rare Disease Centres, which deal with congenital malformations and produce recommendations for the health care pathway of these patients by means of a multidisciplinary approach. This greatly enhances interdisciplinary communication and ensures that best care is provided to the parents-to-be and to their child.

  7. Paediatric entrance doses from exposure index in computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, E.; Martinez, D.; Fernandez, J. M.; Ordiales, J. M.; Prieto, C.; Floriano, A.; Ten, J. I.

    2008-06-01

    Over the last two years we have evaluated paediatric patient doses in projection radiography derived from exposure level (EL) in computed radiography (CR) in a large university hospital. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for 3501 paediatric examinations was calculated from the EL, which is a dose index parameter related to the light emitted by the phosphor-stimulable plate, archived in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) header of the images and automatically transferred to a database using custom-built dedicated software. Typical mean thicknesses for several age bands of paediatric patients was estimated to calculate ESAK from the EL values, using results of experimental measurements with phantoms for the typical x-ray beam qualities used in paediatric examinations. Mean/median ESAK values (in µGy) for the age bands of <1 year, 1-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years have been obtained for chest without a bucky: 51/41, 57/34, 91/54 and 122/109; chest with a bucky (for only the last three age bands): 114/87, 129/105 and 219/170; abdomen: 119/91, 291/225, 756/600 and 1960/1508 and pelvis: 65/48, 455/314, 943/707 and 2261/1595. Sample sizes of clinical images used for the (indirect) measurements were 1724 for chest without a bucky, 799 for chest with a bucky, 337 for abdomen and 641 for pelvis. The methodology we describe could be applicable to other centres using CR as an imaging modality for paediatrics. Presently, this method is the only practical approach to automatically extract parameters contained in the DICOM header, for the calculation of patient dose values for the CR modality.

  8. A model for peer-assisted learning in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Ajay; Primalani, Nishal; Raza, Sadaf; Marlais, Matko

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown peer-assisted learning (PAL) to be an effective method of teaching, with benefits to students and tutors; however, the effect of PAL in paediatrics has not been evaluated in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate a student-led paediatrics revision course for students preparing for examinations in medical specialties. Students in their specialties year were invited to undergo a 1-day revision course consisting of a lecture and small group teaching, with a supplemental revision booklet. Tutors were recruited from the final-year cohort to facilitate the teaching. Questionnaires containing Likert-scale questions (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree) were distributed before and after the course to assess its effectiveness. In all, 62 per cent (87/140) of students who attended the course responded to the study. Students felt significantly more prepared for their exam after the course (mean 3.47 post-course versus 2.16 pre-course), and significantly more prepared to manage children in clinical practice (mean 3.49 post-course versus 2.53 pre-course). Students rated the course as good (4.35/5), with the small group sessions deemed to be the most useful aspect. Tutors agreed that participating had improved their teaching in general (4.0/5), their confidence (4.1/5), their clinical knowledge (3.6/5) and their oral presentation skills (3.8/5). The results demonstrate an effective model for students and tutors in building vital skills in paediatrics and exam preparation. This reinforces the holistic positive attributes attainable from peer-assisted learning, and such schemes should be incorporated into undergraduate medical curricula for paediatrics to increase student confidence and potentially increase recruitment to paediatrics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Paediatric emergency department anaphylaxis: different patterns from adults

    PubMed Central

    Braganza, S C; Acworth, J P; Mckinnon, D R L; Peake, J E; Brown, A F T

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims Data on acute paediatric anaphylaxis presentations to the emergency department (ED) are limited. All allergic presentations to one Australian paediatric ED were studied to determine epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data. Methods Retrospective, case based study of patients under 16 years attending one metropolitan, paediatric teaching hospital ED in Australia over three years. The medical records of patients presenting with generalised allergic reactions and anaphylaxis satisfying relevant ICD‐9‐CM diagnostic codes were studied. The incidence, age, sex ratio, co‐morbidities, likely aetiology, clinical features, management, and disposal were determined. Results A total of 526 children with generalised allergic reactions, and 57 with anaphylaxis were included in the study. This represented incidences of 9.3:1000 ED presentations for generalised allergic reactions and 1:1000 for anaphylaxis. There were no fatalities. In anaphylaxis cases, a cause was recognised in 68.4%. Cutaneous features were present in 82.5%. A past history of asthma was reported in 36.8%. Adrenaline was used in 39.3% of severe anaphylaxis cases. The ED alone definitively cared for 97.8% of all patients. Follow up was inadequate in cases of anaphylaxis. Conclusions This is the first reported incidence figure for paediatric anaphylaxis ED presentations in Australia, and is less than that reported in adults in the same local population. However, the incidence of generalised allergic reactions of 9.3:1000 was greater than in the adults. Virtually all paediatric allergic cases may be managed in the ED alone, provided that the importance of specialist follow up, particularly for severe anaphylaxis, is recognised. PMID:16308410

  10. Anaesthesia for ambulatory paediatric surgery: common techniques and complications.

    PubMed

    Imarengiaye, C O; Osifo, D; Tudjegbe, S; Evbuomwan, I

    2009-01-01

    Ambulatory surgical care accounts for over 70% of elective procedures in Northern America. Ambulatory paediatric surgical practice is not widespread in Nigeria. This report examined clinical indicators for quality care in paediatric ambulatory surgery using common outcomes after day case procedures as benchmark. This was a cross-sectional study of children who were presented for ambulatory surgical care in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. A standardized questionnaire was employed to record the age, gender, indication for surgery, type of anaesthesia, timelines for the surgery and associated complications. A total of 93 patients had surgical procedures on ambulatory basis. The mean age of the patients was 4.1(4.0) yr and duration of surgical procedure 31.3(12.1) min. The male to female ratio was 3:1, and herniotomy was the most frequent procedure on ambulatory paediatric surgical care 60 (64.5%). The common anaesthetic techniques employed in the paediatric ambulatory setting were spontaneous respiration with face mask 40 (43%), Inhalation technique with tracheal intubations 31 (33.3%), general anaesthesia with relaxant technique five (5.4%), local infiltration with or without sedation eight (8.6%), GA plus caudal block eight(8.6%), and subarachnoid block one(1.1%). The indicators of quality care were unanticipated admission (5.4%), repeat hospital visit (4.3%), readmission (2.2%) and delayed discharge (21.5%). The practices of paediatric surgery on ambulatory services are feasible in our setting. The observable complications are within acceptable limits. The timelines in the scheduling and discharge appear not to be optimal for an effective ambulatory service.

  11. Licensing and labelling of drugs in a paediatric oncology ward

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Henk; Tak, Nanda

    2011-01-01

    AIM Paediatric drug prescriptions are known for their high percentages of off-label and unlicensed use. In paediatric oncology data available are scarce. The aim of this paper is an analysis of the licensing and labelling status of all prescribed medication over a 2 week period in a Dutch paediatric oncology centre. METHODS An analysis of the delivery of medication by the hospital pharmacy to patients admitted to the paediatric oncology centre was carried out. RESULTS In total 268 precriptions were filed for 39 patients. In 87% of children unlicensed medication was used. Fifty-nine per cent of the children received at least two unlicensed drugs. In total 72% of the drugs were used licensed and on-label was found in 57% of the prescriptions. There was a trend that in younger children percentages were lower. International and local guidelines necessitated in many cases unlicensed use, e.g. intrathecal prednisolone, low dose medication such as heparin, ethanol and vancomycin for locking intravenous devices and higher intravenous vancomycin dosages. There were no major differences with respect to type of malignancy. CONCLUSION Our figures are substantially higher than the figures reported from adult oncology. Comparison with other paediatric reports are cumbersome, due to different percentages of diseases in the reports and other rules to dispense medication in the outpatient setting. Our data are in line with reports mentioning the higher percentages of unlicensed and off-label use. Our data further underpin the need for more research on suitable formulations, dosages, safety and efficacy in these children. PMID:21453298

  12. Licensing and labelling of drugs in a paediatric oncology ward.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Henk; Tak, Nanda

    2011-09-01

    Paediatric drug prescriptions are known for their high percentages of off-label and unlicensed use. In paediatric oncology data available are scarce. The aim of this paper is an analysis of the licensing and labelling status of all prescribed medication over a 2 week period in a Dutch paediatric oncology centre. An analysis of the delivery of medication by the hospital pharmacy to patients admitted to the paediatric oncology centre was carried out. In total 268 precriptions were filed for 39 patients. In 87% of children unlicensed medication was used. Fifty-nine per cent of the children received at least two unlicensed drugs. In total 72% of the drugs were used licensed and on-label was found in 57% of the prescriptions. There was a trend that in younger children percentages were lower. International and local guidelines necessitated in many cases unlicensed use, e.g. intrathecal prednisolone, low dose medication such as heparin, ethanol and vancomycin for locking intravenous devices and higher intravenous vancomycin dosages. There were no major differences with respect to type of malignancy. Our figures are substantially higher than the figures reported from adult oncology. Comparison with other paediatric reports are cumbersome, due to different percentages of diseases in the reports and other rules to dispense medication in the outpatient setting. Our data are in line with reports mentioning the higher percentages of unlicensed and off-label use. Our data further underpin the need for more research on suitable formulations, dosages, safety and efficacy in these children. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. PMID:27822105

  14. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II), and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV). Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. PMID:27822109

  15. Drug development: EU paediatric legislation, the European Medicines Agency and its Paediatric Committee--adolescents' melanoma as a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Rose, Klaus; Senn, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency (EMA) website lists all diseases that officially exist in adults only. The class waiver for juvenile melanoma was revoked in 2008 referring to US SEER statistics. This statistical justification is misleading. Melanoma in adolescents is much rarer than claimed by EMA/Paediatric Committee; < 1 ∕ 4 of adolescents with melanoma need systemic treatment; separate efficacy studies are neither medically justified nor feasible. The scarce adolescent patients should be allowed to participate in adult trials. To force companies to investigate them separately turns them into paediatric hostages, to adapt the term therapeutic orphans coined in 1968 by Shirkey. There are now five melanoma Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs). Probably none of the PIP-triggered clinical studies will ever be completed; we propose to call them ghost studies. An oncology research network considering a reasonable trial in melanoma, including adolescents, will compete for recruitment with the PIP-triggered trials designed by regulatory tunnel vision and sponsored by companies under EMA-imposed pressure. EMA/Paediatric Committee's territorial enthusiasm ("our patients") damages oncology research.

  16. Are paediatric operations evidence based? A prospective analysis of general surgery practice in a teaching paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Zani-Ruttenstock, Elke; Zani, Augusto; Bullman, Emma; Lapidus-Krol, Eveline; Pierro, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric surgical practice should be based upon solid scientific evidence. A study in 1998 (Baraldini et al., Pediatr Surg Int) indicated that only a quarter of paediatric operations were supported by the then gold standard of evidence based medicine (EBM) which was defined by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The aim of the current study was to re-evaluate paediatric surgical practice 16 years after the previous study in a larger cohort of patients. A prospective observational study was performed in a tertiary level teaching hospital for children. The study was approved by the local research ethics board. All diagnostic and therapeutic procedures requiring a general anaesthetic carried out over a 4-week period (24 Feb 2014-22 Mar 2014) under the general surgery service or involving a general paediatric surgeon were included in the study. Pubmed and EMBASE were used to search in the literature for the highest level of evidence supporting the recorded procedures. Evidence was classified according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2009 system as well as according to the classification used by Baraldini et al. Results was compared using Χ (2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. During the study period, 126 operations (36 different types) were performed on 118 patients. According to the OCEBM classification, 62 procedures (49 %) were supported by systematic reviews of multiple homogeneous RCTs (level 1a), 13 (10 %) by individual RCTs (level 1b), 5 (4 %) by systematic reviews of cohort studies (level 2a), 11 (9 %) by individual cohort studies, 1 (1 %) by systematic review of case-control studies (level 3a), 14 (11 %) by case-control studies (level 3b), 9 (7 %) by case series (type 4) and 11 procedures (9 %) were based on expert opinion or deemed self-evident interventions (type 5). High level of evidence (OCEBM level 1a or 1b or level I according to Baraldini et al. PSI 1998) supported 75 (60 %) operations in the current

  17. Living with HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  18. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Format: Select One File [155K] Recommend ...

  19. HIV among Transgender People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Transgender People Format: Select One PDF [227K] ...

  20. Current educational status of paediatric rheumatology in Europe: the results of PReS survey.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, E; Ozen, S; Türker, T; Kuis, W; Saurenmann, R K

    2009-01-01

    To understand the status of education and problems in paediatric rheumatology practice in Europe, through a survey. A 26-item questionnaire was conducted during the 14th Congress of the Paediatric Rheumatology European Society in Istanbul, 2007. Physicians who were practicing or studying within the field of paediatric rheumatology for at least one year were included in the survey. One hundred and twenty eight physicians, 79 paediatric rheumatologists (including 5 paediatric immunologists and 10 paediatric nephrologists), 34 paediatric rheumatology fellows and 15 adult rheumatologists completed the survey. The physicians were from: Europe 95 (81.9%), South America 12 (10.4%), Middle East 5 (4.3%), Asia 2 (1.7%), Africa 2 (1.7%). The duration of training for paediatric rheumatology ranged between 1-5 years (mean: 3.12+/-1.11). Sixty physicians scored their education as unsatisfactory and among those, 48 physicians were from Europe. Physicians reported good skills in the following items; intraarticular injections (83.3%); soft tissue injections (47.6%); evaluation of radiographs (67.5%); whereas competence in the evaluation of computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (30.5%); and musculoskeletal sonography (16.7%) was much lower. A need for improved basic science and rotations among relevant fields were specifically expressed. Being a relatively new speciality in the realm of paediatrics, paediatric rheumatology education at the European level needs to be further discussed, revised and uniformed.

  1. Choosing a career in paediatrics: do trainees' views change over the first year of specialty training?

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Helen M; Lakshminarayana, Indumathy; Wall, David; Bindal, Taruna

    2014-09-01

    To look at why a regional cohort of UK doctors chose a paediatric career and to ascertain views on their career near the end of training year one. A 20-item questionnaire was sent to all new regional paediatric specialty trainees. Three focus groups were held with trainees near the end of year one to elicit key themes. West Midlands Deanery, UK. Twenty-nine new regional paediatric specialty trainees in year one completed the questionnaire. A total of 15 trainees participated in the focus groups near the end of year one training. Reasons for choosing a paediatric career and factors which further influence career choice for trainees during their first specialty training year. Key influencing factors for choosing paediatrics were enjoying working with children and positive undergraduate experience of the specialty. All trainees had paediatrics as their first choice specialty and undertook a paediatric Foundation post. Near the end of year one, doubts were cast on career aspirations due to seeing middle grade colleagues struggling with work-life balance and a growing feeling that family came first. Senior trainees need to be aware that they act as powerful role models for their more junior colleagues and therefore have an influential role on how juniors perceive a paediatric career. Family friendly flexible working patterns in paediatrics are vital to retain junior trainees. All paediatric staff are role models and need to be enthusiastic, keen to teach and to promote a positive working environment.

  2. Paediatric intussusception caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Hadley, G P; Chotey, Nivesh A; Mahlakwane, Mabitsela S; Singh, Bhugwan

    2010-08-01

    To document the clinicopathological features of paediatric intussusception caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Clinicopathological features of six patients with AIDS-KS-associated intussusception were obtained retrospectively from departmental and hospital records. Six debilitated male children, without cutaneous KS, were presented with abdominal pain and vomiting for >1 week. Intussusception was the sentinel of HIV infection in five patients. One patient had been on HAART for 13 months. Three patients each had ileal and ileocolic intussusceptions; two had recurrent intussusception. Bowel resection was performed because of failed reduction, infarction and polypoid lead points in all patients, in addition to perforation and peritonitis in three. Five patients died, the immediate cause being massive hematochezia from anorectal KS and/or septic shock. One patient, who received post-surgical chemotherapy and HAART, is currently in remission. Pathologic examination confirmed intussusception due to KS. AIDS-KS-associated intussusception occurred without cutaneous KS. Resection of the infarcted segment may relieve the presenting obstruction, but recurrent intussusception may occur because every elevated KS is a potential lead point. AIDS-KS-I is rare but fatal in children, unless timely surgical intervention, optimal histopathological diagnosis, and appropriate medical management, including HAART and chemotherapy, are facilitated.

  3. Prevalence of, and barriers to the disclosure of HIV status to infected children and adolescents in a district of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Eric; Okyere, Paul; Enoch, Acheampong; Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel

    2017-04-08

    Globally there are about 3.3million children under the age of 15 years living with HIV. Of this number, 88% live in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, an estimated 33,000 children were said to be living with the HIV infection in 2012. Lack of disclosure adversely affects the well-being of the child, including access to paediatric HIV treatment and care and adherence to treatment. However, the greatest psychosocial challenges that parents and caregivers of HIV-infected children face is disclosure of HIV status to their infected children. This study sought to determine the prevalence of and the barriers to the disclosure of HIV status to infected children and adolescents in Lower Manya-Krobo District in Ghana. A cross sectional study with a sample of 118 caregivers of HIV infected children and adolescents aged 4-19 years attending three HIV clinics in the Lower Manya Krobo District, and 10 key informants comprising of healthcare workers and HIV volunteer workers involved in the provision of care to infected children and their families. The prevalence of disclosure was higher. Main barriers to disclosure identified in this study included age of child, perceived cause of HIV, stigma attached to HIV, child's inability to keep diagnosis to self and fear of psychological harm to child. There is the need for the Ghana Health Service in conjunction with the Ghana Aids Commission and the National Aids Control Programme to develop comprehensive context-based disclosure guidelines.

  4. Children and young people with perinatal HIV in Europe: epidemiological situation in 2014 and implications for the future.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Accurate ascertainment of the number of children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important to plan paediatric and adolescent health services. In Europe, the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected survivors are transferring to adult care and their health needs are unknown. We undertook an online survey of HIV cohort studies participating in the EuroCoord Network of Excellence to ascertain the number of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) patients included, to compare it with those published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and to assess the ability of countries to follow up pHIV patients after transfer to adult care. At the end of 2013, 16 countries in EuroCoord reported 8,229 pHIV patients in follow-up in cohorts, compared with 5,160 cumulative diagnoses reported by the ECDC in the same area. Follow-up of pHIV patients after transfer to adult care varied. It is likely that the number of diagnoses of perinatal HIV reported to ECDC is an underestimate, although this varies by country. Further work is needed to refine estimates and encourage follow-up in adult HIV cohorts to investigate long-term outcomes and improve the care of the next generation of children with HIV.

  5. HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Mutsindiri, Reggie; Chawira, Godwin; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2–14 years) in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%). Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort. Results HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.8%) and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03) or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04) but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0%) were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is

  6. Parental consent in paediatric clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Chappuy, H; Doz, F; Blanche, S; Gentet, J‐C; Pons, G; Tréluyer, J‐M

    2006-01-01

    Aims To assess parental understanding and memorisation of the information given when seeking for consent to their child's participation to clinical research, and to identify the factors of significant influence on parents' decision making process. Methods Sixty eight parents who had been approached for enrolling their child in a clinical oncology or HIV study were asked to complete an interview. Their understanding was measured by a score which included items required to obtain a valid consent according to French legislation. Results Items that were best understood by parents were the aims of the study (75%), the risks (70%), the potential benefits to their child (83%), the potential benefits to other children (70%), the right to withdraw (73%), and voluntariness (84%). Items that were least understood were the procedures (44%), the possibility of alternative treatments (53%), and the duration of participation (39%). Less than 10% of the parents had understood all these points. Ten parents (15%) did not remember that they had signed up for a research protocol. Thirty three parents (48%) reported no difficulty in making their decision. Twenty four parents (38%) declared that they made their decision together with the investigator; 26 (41%) let the physician decide. Fifty four parents (78%) felt that the level of information given was satisfactory. Conclusion There was an apparent discrepancy between parents' evaluation of the adequacy of the information delivered and evaluation of their understanding and memorisation. The majority of parents preferred that the physician take as much responsibility as possible in the decision making process. PMID:16246853

  7. [Paediatric visceral leishmaniasis: experience of a paediatric referral center 1990-2009].

    PubMed

    Dionísio, Maria Teresa; Dias, Andrea; Rodrigues, Fernanda; Félix, Miguel; Estêvão, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic infection, endemic in many parts of the world, including Portugal. The aim is to review all cases of VL admitted to our hospital. Retrospective analysis of all cases of VL admitted to a Level III Paediatric Hospital, between January 1990 and December 2009 (20 years). Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, therapeutic and follow-up data were analysed. During the study period, 54 children were admitted with VL, three of which were excluded from the study due to incomplete clinical records. The mean age was 27 months (seven months - twelve years) and 53% were female. Two thirds of the cases were diagnosed during Spring and Summer. The mean time for diagnosis was 31 days (2-188 days). The most common clinical findings were splenomegaly (100%), fever (96%), pallor (90%) and hepatomegaly (82%). Bone marrow aspiration was performed in all children, with amastigotes identified in 73% of the cases. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed in 30 cases, being positive in 29 (97%). All were treated with meglumine antimoniate. Three children relapsed during the first year after the initial episode. A 17 months-old child died due to cardiac failure. The early diagnosis of VL is essential to carry out prompt management and prevent potential fatal complications. In our analysis, the management with meglumine antimoniate resulted in an overall favourable outcome.

  8. Treatment of paediatric APL: how does the therapeutic approach differ from adults?

    PubMed

    Kutny, Matthew A; Gregory, John; Feusner, James H

    2014-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) in children and adolescents shares many features with APL in adults. There are important distinctions, however, between these age groups in the presentation, complications and treatment outcomes. Paediatric patients are more likely to present with high risk features including elevated WBC count or microgranular variant (M3v). Yet the early death rate is lower in paediatric patients compared to adult patients. Overall outcomes such as CR, OS and EFS appear similar in paediatric and adult patients treated on similar regimens except that very young children may have a higher risk of relapse. While contemporary studies have clearly demonstrated improved survival in adults receiving ATO therapy, currently there is more limited data on the role of ATO in paediatric patients. Here we highlight the similarities and important distinctions between paediatric and adult APL while reviewing available data on treatment of paediatric APL.

  9. How small is small enough? Role of robotics in paediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Ganpule, Arvind P; Sripathi, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    The well-known advantages of robotic surgery include improved dexterity, three-dimensional operating view and an improved degree of freedom. Robotic surgery is performed for a wide range of surgeries in urology, which include radical prostatectomy, radical cystectomy, and ureteric reimplantation. Robotic paediatric urology is evolving. The major hindrance in the development of paediatric robotics is, first, the differences in practice patterns in paediatric urology compared with adult urology thereby making development of expertise difficult and secondly it is challenging to conduct proper studies in the paediatric population because of the paucity of cases. The difficulties in conducting these studies include difficulty in designing a proper randomised study, difficulties with blinding, and finally, the ethical issues involved, finally the instruments although in the phase of evolution require a lot of improvement. In this article, we review the relevant articles for paediatric robotic surgery. We emphasise on the technical aspects and results in contemporary paediatric robotic case series.

  10. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  11. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  12. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  13. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  14. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under…

  15. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  16. Quality improvement of paediatric care in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schulpen, Tom W J; Lombarts, Kiki M J

    2007-01-01

    The development of the quality improvement programme of the Paediatric Association of the Netherlands is described within the setting of the national programme of the Dutch government. The programme is based on four pillars: site visits by peers (visitatie), continuous medical and professional education, development of clinical (evidence based) guidelines and patient safety with complication registration. The site visits by peers play a central role in assessing the quality improvement activities in hospital based paediatric care. The self assessment approach and the confidential character of the visits are well received by the surveyed specialists. Recent inclusion of quality criteria in the legally required 5 yearly medical specialist recertification process has boosted the care for quality, which could serve as example for other countries. PMID:17588977

  17. Challenges in paediatric procedural sedation: political, economic, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Mason, K P

    2014-12-01

    Paediatric sedation has expanded in volume and demand over the past decade. In parallel with the increasing demand for and delivery of sedation by multi-specialty providers, conflicting political agendas have surfaced. With a limited selection of sedatives and few new sedatives to market over the past decade, some providers utilize agents that formerly were considered exclusive for administration by anaesthesiologists. This review highlights the important contributions to paediatric sedation over the past century. Considerations include the barriers and politics that impede progress and also future advances and contributions that may lie ahead. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Advanced practice in paediatric intensive care: a review.

    PubMed

    Heward, Yvonne

    2009-02-01

    Advanced nursing roles are one way of encouraging experienced nurses to stay in clinical practice so they can provide expert care, develop practice and be role models for junior staff. A search for literature about advanced nurse practice in paediatric intensive care units in the UK identified just four articles, including one survey, but no reports of empirical research. There is some consensus on the nature and educational requirements for advanced practice but delays in agreeing a regulatory framework and failure to recognise the potential contribution of advanced roles mean that development is hindered. Although several UK units have developed or are developing the role, more insight and better evidence is needed on how nursing can be advanced in paediatric intensive care settings.

  19. Paediatric palliative care: coming of age in oncology?

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Renée; Comac, Maggie; Craig, Finella

    2008-05-01

    Palliative care in children has been emerging as a clinical subspecialty of paediatrics for many years. It requires the knowledge and experience of a paediatrician, combined with the skills of a palliative care specialist. Both are essential, as a paediatrician may not have advanced knowledge of palliative care and a palliative care specialist is unlikely to be familiar with the complexity of working with families where the child is the patient. This paper reviews recent literature and discusses advances in the development of palliative care services for children and young people with incurable cancer. It highlights key areas where paediatric palliative care differs from that of adults and outlines the barriers to providing palliation and conducting evidence-based research in children and young people dying from cancer.

  20. A review of paediatric oral and maxillofacial pathology.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Daniel J; Chee, Catherine Koo Min; Speight, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    This review aims to summarise common paediatric oral and maxillofacial pathology. It will focus on lesions that have a particular predilection for children, lesions that impart significant morbidity or rare and important entities which paediatric specialists may be less familiar with. Although the vast majority of pathology encountered will be benign or require minimal intervention, there are also lesions that may require urgent referral to an appropriate specialist, multidisciplinary team care and significant surgery. Recognition and appreciation of the clinicopathological features should facilitate an appreciation that the growth, anatomy, physiology or relationship of the maxillofacial structures may have been altered by the pathological entity or treatment received. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  1. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in paediatric melanoma. A case series.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Aguilar, M; Álvarez Pérez, R M; García Gómez, F J; Fernández Ortega, P; Borrego Dorado, I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in children is uncommon, being particularly rare in children under 10 years-old. However, this disease is increasing by a mean of 2% per year. As in adults, the lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor, crucial to performing the selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We report 3 cases of paediatric patients of 3, 4 and 8 years-old, in which SLNB was performed for malignant melanoma. Paediatric age implies greater technical difficulty to the scintigraphy scan due to poor patient cooperation, with mild sedation required in some cases, and only being able to acquire planar images in other cases. SPECT/CT was only performed in the oldest patient. In our cases, SLNB was useful for selecting the least invasive surgery in order to reduce morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Are we ready for universal influenza vaccination in paediatrics?

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that paediatric influenza is a greater medical problem than usually thought because it can cause excess hospitalisations, medical visits, and antibiotic prescriptions even in healthy children, especially those under 2 years. Furthermore, influenza in otherwise healthy children may have substantial socioeconomic consequences for the children and their household contacts. These findings have led many experts to encourage the more widespread use of influenza vaccine in childhood. Although the immunogenicity of the available vaccines is good and they are safe, well-tolerated, and highly effective in preventing influenza and its complications, economic data support universal vaccination only when indirect effectiveness is considered. However, infants aged 6-23 months, children with recurrent acute otitis media or respiratory-tract infections, and healthy children attending day-care centres or elementary schools should be included among the paediatric groups requiring vaccination.

  3. Screening for celiac disease in Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Anna; Skaaby, Tea; Kårhus, Line Lund; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Rumessen, Jüri J; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry is ∼50/100,000 persons. This is much lower than the reported prevalence of CD in other Nordic countries and underdiagnosis is suspected. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of CD in a population-based study of Danish adults. A total of 2297 adults aged 24-76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen were screened for CD by immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. IgA/IgG-positive participants were invited to a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist. Of the invited 56 participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation and 8 persons were diagnosed with CD; 2 of the 16 persons, who did not complete the clinical evaluation, were considered by experts to have probable CD. None of the above 56 participants had a known history of CD or a recorded diagnosis of CD in National Patient Registry. By combining cases of biopsy-proven CD (n = 8), probable CD (n = 2), and registry-recorded CD (n = 1), the prevalence of CD was estimated to be 479/100,000 (11/2297) persons (95% CI: 197-761). In this general adult population, the prevalence of CD as estimated by screening and clinical evaluation was 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of CD. Of 11 participants diagnosed with CD in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study. Thus, our study suggests that CD is markedly underdiagnosed in Danish adults.

  4. Varicella paediatric hospitalisations in Belgium: a 1-year national survey

    PubMed Central

    Blumental, Sophie; Sabbe, Martine; Lepage, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real burden of infection. We assessed the burden of varicella in Belgium through analysis of hospitalised cases during a 1-year period. Methods Data on children admitted to hospital with varicella were collected through a national network from November 2011 to October 2012. Inclusion criteria were either acute varicella or related complications up to 3 weeks after the rash. Results Participation of 101 hospitals was obtained, covering 97.7% of the total paediatric beds in Belgium. 552 children were included with a median age of 2.1 years. Incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalisations reached 29.5/105 person-years, with the highest impact among those 0–4 years old (global incidence and odds of hospitalisation: 79/105 person-years and 1.6/100 varicella cases, respectively). Only 14% (79/552) of the cohort had an underlying chronic condition. 65% (357/552) of children had ≥1 complication justifying their admission, 49% were bacterial superinfections and 10% neurological disorders. Only a quarter of children (141/552) received acyclovir. Incidence of complicated hospitalised cases was 19/105 person-years. Paediatric intensive care unit admission and surgery were required in 4% and 3% of hospitalised cases, respectively. Mortality among Belgian paediatric population was 0.5/106 and fatality ratio 0.2% among our cohort. Conclusions Varicella demonstrated a substantial burden of disease in Belgian children, especially among the youngest. Our thorough nationwide study, run in a country without varicella UV, offers data to support varicella UV in Belgium. PMID:26130380

  5. Estimating reliable paediatric reference intervals in clinical chemistry and haematology.

    PubMed

    Ridefelt, Peter; Hellberg, Dan; Aldrimer, Mattias; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Very few high-quality studies on paediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and haematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The present review summarises current reference interval studies for common clinical chemistry and haematology analyses. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Acute pancreatitis in the paediatric age group: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Cosentini, A; Stranieri, G; Capillo, S; Notarangelo, L; Madonna, L; Iannini, S; Ferro, V; Defilippo, V; Defilippo, R G; Rubino, R

    2005-01-01

    Although relatively rare, acute pancreatitis is the most common disease complex involving the pancreas in the paediatric age group. The etiology of the disease is often unknown, and Italian epidemiological data on the paediatric population and, in particular, on the etiology of the disease are not ava