Vieira, A R; Pires, S M; Houe, H; Emborg, H-D
Overuse of antimicrobials in food-animal production is thought to be a major risk factor for the development of resistant bacterial populations. Data on non-human antimicrobial usage is essential for planning of intervention strategies to lower resistance levels at the country, region or herd levels. In this study we evaluated Danish national antimicrobial usage data for five antimicrobial classes used in slaughter pigs in different herd sizes and data on the number of slaughter pigs produced per herd, between 2002 and 2008, in Denmark. The objective was to ascertain if there is an association between herd size and amount of antimicrobials consumed. During this period, the overall number of herds with slaughter pigs decreased by 43%, with larger herds becoming more prevalent. The tetracycline treatment incidence (TI) rate increased from 0·28 to 0·70 animal-defined daily dose (ADD)/100 slaughter pig-days at risk while macrolide TI presented a more moderate increase, from 0·40 to 0·44 ADD/100 slaughter pig-days at risk during the study period. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant association between herd size and TI rates for tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides/trimethoprim and cephalosporins, with small herds presenting significantly higher TI than moderate, large and the largest herds. This study highlights the importance of establishing an antimicrobial consumption monitoring programme, integrated with comprehensive food-animal production surveillance. Further research should be performed to address the potential causes of the detected associations between herd sizes and antimicrobial consumption in pigs.
The Danish pig meat industry is very export oriented. Ninety per cent of the production of the big cooperative slaughterhouses is exported to more than 100 countries all over the world. This poses a requirement for the industry to be globally competitive in the sense of quality, product safety and--of course--price. A big challenge for the industry is therefore to maintain sufficient low unit costs in spite of the high factor costs of Denmark. In particular the high labour costs must be accompanied by correspondingly high labour productivity. And, it should be emphasized, this high labour productivity must be achieved without compromising the concern for good working conditions of the employees in the manufacturing. Technology is one of the means to achieve this combination of good working conditions and high labour productivity. One of the most important benefits from automation is the improved working environment. Pig slaughtering, cutting and boning is traditionally very labour intensive and requires hard and repetitive work. For many people a job in a slaughterhouse is therefore not their first choice. This situation can be changed by automation, which will not only reduce arduous and repetitive work but in addition will introduce more motivating jobs in terms of planning, supervision and control of the new technology. Automation will also improve the hygiene and thereby the food safety. This applies in particular to the clean slaughter line where cross contamination between carcasses is reduced because of less manual handling and because the tools in the machines can be sterilised more effectively between each carcass. Automated processes are more accurate and repeatable than manual work. For some processes, in particular in cutting and boning, this will enhance the product yield. New technology can also improve the animal welfare. The group-stunning system and mechanised lairage systems are examples of that. Improved animal welfare has an ethical value in
Sørensen, L L; Alban, L; Nielsen, B; Dahl, J
In Denmark, a serological Salmonella surveillance programme in finishing pig herds has been in place since 1995. The programme was founded on data from experimental studies, which demonstrated a strong association between Salmonella serology and the prevalence of these bacteria. The current study was carried out in three Danish abattoirs to evaluate the correlation under field conditions. A total of 160 Danish finishing pig herds were included. Seven out of these were examined twice, yielding a total of 167 observations. The herds were selected according to their herd serology based on data from the national surveillance. From each herd, samples were taken from 10 finishers at slaughter. The prevalence of Salmonella bacteria was measured at four sites: (1) caecal-content; (2) carcass surface; (3) pharynx; and (4) caecal lymph nodes. A logistic regression model was constructed for each sampling site. Abattoir, sanitary slaughter and herd seroprevalence were used as explanatory variables. The results demonstrated that there was a strong association between herd serology and the prevalence of Salmonella bacteria measured at three of the sampling sites: caecal-content, pharynx, and carcass surface. For these sites, the odds for being culture-positive for Salmonella varied from 1.3 to 1.5 for each increase of 10% in herd serology (P < 0.0001). For caecal lymph nodes, however, no linear association was found. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.
Baptista, F M; Alban, L; Olsen, A M; Petersen, J V; Toft, N
Residues of pharmacological active substances or their metabolites might be found in food products from food-producing animals. Maximum Residue Limits for pharmacological active substances in foodstuffs of animal origin are established to assure high food safety standards. Each year, more than 20,000 samples are analysed for the presence of antibacterial residues in Danish pigs. This corresponds to 0.1% of the size of the slaughter pig population and more than 1% of the sows slaughtered. In this study, a Bayesian model was used to evaluate the Danish surveillance system accuracy and to investigate the impact of a potential risk-based sampling approach to the residue surveillance programme in Danish slaughter pigs. Danish surveillance data from 2005 to 2009 and limited knowledge about true prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity were included in the model. According to the model, the true antibacterial residue prevalence in Danish pigs is very low in both sows (∼0.20%) and slaughter pigs (∼0.01%). Despite data constraints, the results suggest that the current screening test used in Denmark presents high sensitivity (85-99%) and very high specificity (>99%) for the most relevant antibacterial classes used in Danish pigs. If high-risk slaughter pigs could be identified by taking into account antibacterial use or meat inspection risk factors, a potential risk-based sampling approach to antibacterial residue surveillance in slaughter pigs would allow reducing the sample size substantially, while increasing or maintaining the probability of detection. Hence, the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs would be more cost-effective than today.
Mdegela, Robinson H; Laurence, Kibona; Jacob, Petro; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel
Occurrences of thermophlic Campylobacter in pigs and pig carcasses was investigated in a cross-sectional study that was carried out in three selected slaughter slabs in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Before sampling, the slab hygiene, slaughter, carcass dressing, and meat handling was assessed. Fecal samples were collected from 66 slaughter pigs at the kill floor. After slaughter, a 100-cm(2) area on medial surface of the thigh muscles of dressed carcasses was sampled using sterile cotton swabs. Thereafter, the jejunal, cecal, and colon contents were also sampled. The samples were subjected to standard bacteriological examination using Skirrows protocol. In all slaughter slabs visited, it was found that pig slaughter, dressing, and meat handling was done on the ground under unhygienic condition. All the slaughter slab environment were dirty and had neither tap water or drainage systems. Thermophilic Campylobacter prevalence in slaughtered pig was 66.7% while contamination rate of dressed carcasses was 10.6%. Of the Campylobacter-positive carcasses, five (12.2%) were from the animals which were also positive to Campylobacter. The isolation rate of Campylobacter in the cecum was higher (34.8%) compared to the small intestines (28.8%) and colon (16.7%) although the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species as it constituted 74% of all isolates, while Campylobacter coli was isolated at 26%. This suggests possible risks of infection to people through consumption of contaminated pork or through contact with infected pigs. Cecum was found to be the major part of intestine highly colonized by Campylobacter.
Mainar-Jaime, Raúl C.; Atashparvar, Nemat; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Rahn, Kris
A study on slaughter pigs from Saskatchewan detected Salmonella organisms in 12.5% and 5.2% of cecal content and ileocaecal lymph node samples, respectively. Cecal content prevalence was associated with larger farms and longer lairage periods. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 41.5% of the isolates. Salmonella Enteritidis was the second most prevalent serotype. PMID:18978974
Larsen, M L V; Bertelsen, M; Pedersen, L J
This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the farmer, disturbance of the pigs' resting behaviour and an increase in agonistic interactions. A systematic search was conducted and results narrowed down to 21 articles. Four factors were found to affect fouling directly: insufficient space allowance, the flooring design of the pen, the thermal climate and pigs' earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results indicate that the most important factor to control when trying to prevent fouling of a pen is the pen climate. An appropriate climate may be accomplished through floor cooling in the designated lying area, sprinklers above the designated dunging area and by ensuring a more optimal ambient temperature curve that also fits the weight of the pigs in different stages of the production. All in all, fouling of the pen in conventional slaughter pigs is a multifactorial problem, but it is important to focus on increasing the comfortability, and especially the climate, of the designated lying area.
Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt
Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Muwonge, Adrian; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Kankya, Clovice; Biffa, Demelash; Oura, Chris; Skjerve, Eystein; Oloya, James
Owing to frequent reports of suspected outbreaks and the presence of reservoir hosts and vectors (warthogs, bushpigs and O. moubata ticks), African swine fever (ASF) is believed to be an endemic disease in Uganda. There have, however, been very few studies carried out to confirm its existence in Uganda. This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of ASF based on pathologic lesions and analysis of serum samples from slaughtered pigs during a suspected outbreak in the Mubende district of Uganda. The study was based on visits to 22 slaughterhouses where individual pigs were randomly selected for a detailed ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections. Sera were also collected for laboratory analysis. A total of 997 pigs (53.7% male and 46.3% female) were examined for lesions suggestive of ASF and sero-positivity of sera for ASF antibodies. The sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples were further confirmed with an immunoblot assay. The results showed that 3.8% (38/997) of the pigs examined had clinical signs and post-mortem lesions suggestive of ASF. Two of 997 (0.2%) sera analysed were positive for ASF antibodies. Of the sub-counties investigated, Bagezza (12%) and Kiyuni (11%) had the highest prevalence of lesions suggestive of ASF based on ante- and post-mortem examination results, while Mubende town council (1.7%) had the lowest. This study found a low number of pigs (3.8%) with lesions suggestive of ASF at slaughter and an even lower number of pigs (0.2%) that were seropositive at slaughter, however a significantly higher number of pigs were slaughtered during the outbreak as a strategy for farmers to avoid losses associated with mortality.
Cadmus, S I B; Adesokan, H K; Okker, M; Jahans, K
To ascertain the cause of tuberculous-like lesions in pigs slaughtered in a local abattoir in Ibadan (south-western Nigeria), a total of 516 pigs were inspected over a period of four months, 18 of which had gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis at post-mortem. Mycobacterial culture and molecular typing (GenoType Mycobacterium CM [Common Mycobacteria] assay) analysis were used to identify and confirm the mycobacteria species responsible for these lesions. Results show that 2.3% (12/516) of the animals screened were infected with mycobacteria; Mycobacterium fortuitum was confirmed in 33.3% (4/12) of these cases. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first report confirming the isolation of M. fortuitum in slaughtered pigs in Nigeria. There is a need to improve on necessary preventive and control measures that will reduce potential sources of mycobacterial infections in pig-rearing herds. These infections may also have public health implications, especially to workers in the pig industry.
Background Pyelonephritis is a serious disease in pig production that needs to be further studied. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology, investigate the pathogenesis, and evaluate the aetiological role of Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis in slaughtered pigs by concurrent bacteriological, gross and histopathological examinations. Methods From Danish abattoirs, kidneys and corresponding lymph nodes from 22 slaughtered finishing pigs and 26 slaughtered sows with pyelonephritis were collected and evaluated by bacteriology and pathology. Based on gross lesions, each kidney (lesion) was grouped as acute, chronic, chronic active, or normal and their histological inflammatory stage was determined as normal (0), acute (1), sub-acute (2), chronic active (3), or chronic (4). Immunohistochemical identification of neutrophils, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells, E. coli and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) in renal sections was performed. The number of E. coli and the proportion of immunohistochemically visualized leukocytes out of the total number of infiltrating leukocytes were scored semi-quantitatively. Results Lesions in finishing pigs and sows were similar. Macroscopically, multiple unevenly distributed foci of inflammation mostly affecting the renal poles were observed. Histologically, tubulointerstitial infiltration with neutrophils and mononuclear cells and tubular destruction was the main findings. The significant highest scores of L1 antigen+ neutrophils were in inflammatory stage 1 while the significant highest scores of CD79αcy+ B-lymphocytes, IgG+ and IgA+ plasma cells were in stage 3 or 4. Neutrophils were the dominant leukocytes in stage 1 while CD3ε+ T-lymphocytes dominated in stage 2, 3 and 4. Interstitially THP was seen in 82% and 98% of kidneys with pyelonephritis from finishing pigs and sows, respectively. E. coli was demonstrated in monoculture and/or identified by immunohistochemistry in relation to inflammation in
Smiecińska, K; Denaburski, J; Sobotka, W
The experimental materials comprised 44 hybrid [female (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace) x male Duroc] growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: 24 pigs were slaughtered immediately after transport and 20 pigs were slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period in the lairage. The meat content of pork carcasses, carcass dressing percentage, the proximate chemical composition, physicochemical and sensory properties of meat and shear force values were determined. Serum creatine kinase activity and cortisol levels were determined in blood samples collected before transport and during carcass bleeding. Pigs slaughtered immediately after transport, compared with those slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period, were characterized by a higher meat content of the carcass and a higher carcass dressing percentage. Pre-slaughter handling had no effect on pork quality. The incidence of normal-quality meat, partially PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and PSE meat was similar in both groups. Chemical analysis showed that the content of dry matter, total protein, fat and minerals in meat was comparable in both groups. As regards the functional properties of the pork, samples from the carcasses of pigs that had rested before slaughter had a higher contribution of the red color component. Meat from pigs slaughtered immediately after transport had more desirable sensory properties. Pre-slaughter resting had a significant effect on those analyzed physiological parameters which were found to be good indicators of pre-slaughter stress. Serum creatine kinase activity and cortisol levels were higher in blood samples collected after transport (during carcass bleeding) than in samples collected before transport, pointing to a strong stress response of animals to pre-slaughter treatment. The decrease in serum cortisol levels in blood samples collected during bleeding from the carcasses of pigs slaughtered after a 24-hour rest period, compared with samples
Rydhmer, L; Hansson, M; Lundström, K; Brunius, C; Andersson, K
In today's production systems, pigs raised for slaughter are mixed many times, resulting in stress and fighting. The negative consequences of mixing are probably more severe with entire males than with castrates, as they fight more. In this project, we studied a system without castration where entire male pigs met unfamiliar pigs only once. Piglets from two litters were allowed to visit each other from circa 2 weeks of age through an opening between the farrowing pens. Entire males from these litters were kept in intact groups from weaning and onwards, and they were slaughtered pen-wise in intact groups. Control pigs were raised and weaned in their litters and mixed with unknown pigs when moved to the growing-finishing unit. They were slaughtered by split marketing based on individual weight. In total, 96 entire males from 24 litters were studied. Activity and social interactions of pigs were studied by direct observations on three observation occasions per pen for pigs kept in intact groups and four occasions for control pigs. All pigs were inspected for skin lesions during raising and at slaughter. Results showed that fewer pigs in intact groups were resting (17.1% v. 28.5%; P = 0.044) and they showed less aggressive behaviour (16.1 v. 27.7 number of interactions per hour; P = 0.001) than control pigs when moved to the growing-finishing unit. They also got fewer skin lesions compared with control pigs (15 v. 35; P < 0.001). Consequently, control pigs tended to grow slower during the 1st week after mixing; however, growth rate during the whole growing-finishing phase did not differ between treatments (P = 0.205). Control pigs directed more aggressive behaviour towards non-litter mates than towards litter mates during the whole growing-finishing phase, whereas pigs from the other treatment made no difference between litter mates and other familiar pigs. At 67 kg, there was more sexual behaviour (mounting) among control pigs (7.6 v. 3.4; P = 0.033), but after
van Staaveren, Nienke; Vale, Ana P; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Teixeira, Dayane L; Leonard, Finola C; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura A
Tail lesions are associated with poor health either because they serve as a point of entry for pathogens or because of shared risk factors. This study investigated the relationship between carcass tail lesion and lung lesion severity scores in slaughter pigs. Carcasses were scored after scalding/dehairing for tail lesion severity (0-4). Lungs were scored according to an adapted version of the BPEX pig health scheme. Severity of enzootic pneumonia (EP-like lesions) was recorded on a scale of 0-50. Severity of pleurisy was scored on a 0-2 scale with score 2 equating to severe pleurisy or those lungs that remained attached to the chest wall ('lungs in chest'). The database for assessing pleurisy lesions contained all pleurisy scores (n=5628). Lungs with a score of 2 for pleurisy were excluded from the analysis of all other lung lesions as such lungs could not be assessed for other lesions (n=4491). Associations between tail lesions and different lung lesion outcomes were analysed using generalized linear mixed models (PROC GLIMMIX) with random effect for batch. Males were more affected by moderate (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.51-2.34) and severe (OR=5.8, 95% CI 3.45-9.70) tail lesions than females. EP-like lesions and pleurisy were most commonly observed. Pigs with severe tail lesions tended to have more 'lungs in chest' than pigs with moderate tail lesions (P=0.1). No other associations between tail lesions and lung lesions were found. Males had higher odds of having EP-like lesions (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.05-1.36) than females. Tail lesions on the carcass may not be an accurate predictor of lung health. However, tail lesions are important welfare indicators and respiratory disease is a significant infectious condition affecting pigs. Thus, recording of tail and lung lesions at meat inspection provides valuable information regarding on-farm health and welfare of pigs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Fei; Wang, Ya-Lin; Yang, Zhao; Li, Xi-Lai; Li, Zong-Ren; Lin, Qing
Toxoplasma gondii is an important food-borne zoonotic protozoan parasite, which can infect endothermic animals, including pigs. However, data on T. gondii in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province were still lacking. To detect the seroprevalence and analyze the risk factors of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China, a total of 784 serum samples were collected from four administrative regions and detected by indirect hemagglutination test for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.9% (156/784) slaughter pigs. Moreover, the seropositive rate was different among rearing systems (31% in nonintensive pig farms and 6.7% in intensive pig farms), genders (19.8% in male and 20.0% in female), and regions (ranging from 6.7% in Shenmu to 38.2% in Zhouzhi). Rearing system and region were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection. These results showed that T. gondii is highly prevalent in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, and it could cause a serious risk to public health. This study provided fundamental information for the prevention and control of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in China.
D'Eath, R B; Turner, S P; Kurt, E; Evans, G; Thölking, L; Looft, H; Wimmers, K; Murani, E; Klont, R; Foury, A; Ison, S H; Lawrence, A B; Mormède, P
Pre-slaughter stress has a negative impact on animal welfare and on meat quality. Aggressive behaviour when pigs are mixed together for transportation to, or on arrival at, the abattoir is an important factor in pre-slaughter stress. Aggressiveness of pigs varies between individuals in the population, and this study investigated its effects on stress and meat quality at slaughter. We mixed pigs at a young age to identify individuals of high (H) or low (L) aggressive temperament using the previously validated approach of lesion scoring. To contrast extremes of social stress single-sex groups of eight pigs were mixed according to their aggressiveness in HH, HL or LL combinations or left unmixed (U) prior to transport and slaughter (n = 271). Each treatment was replicated in at least two groups in each of four slaughter batches. Mixing per se had little effect, but mixed groups composed of aggressive pigs (HH) had more carcass skin lesions and higher levels of plasma cortisol at slaughter and had loin muscle samples with higher pH at 24 h, and lower redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) compared to the other treatments. Females had higher levels of plasma cortisol at slaughter, a more rapid decline in pH post-slaughter and greater lean content of meat. Lactate and creatine kinase (CK) levels and meat pH were affected by the interaction of sex and treatment. Genetic factors, dam and sire line composition, and halothane locus (ryanodine receptor 1, RYR1) genotype, also affected a number of production and meat quality parameters as expected. Additionally, 'commercially normal' levels of social stress were studied in four further slaughter batches with no manipulation of group composition (n = 313). In these pigs, the proportion of unfamiliar pigs and group size of lairage groups explained limited variation in lesion scores at slaughter, but earlier aggressiveness did not. High numbers of skin lesions on the carcass were associated with high levels of cortisol and lactate and
Methner, Ulrich; Rammler, Nadine; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Rösler, Uwe
Apart from Salmonella monitoring of pig herds during the period of growth to evaluate the efficacy of control programmes, monitoring at harvest level is of relevance to assess the Salmonella status of fattening pigs and the associated risk of introducing Salmonella organisms in the slaughter process. Samples from 1830 fattening pigs were gathered at slaughter. Ileocaecal lymph nodes, rectal and caecal content as well as tonsils were collected for bacteriological examinations, and a part of the diaphragm pillar muscle was taken to gain meat-juice for serological analysis. Salmonella spp. was recovered from 13.8% of all pigs examined. Salmonella Typhimurium and Derby were the dominating serovars. The highest detection rates were found in caecal content followed by ileocaecal lymph nodes. By analysing both organs nearly 90% of all Salmonella positive pigs could be identified. Serological examination revealed 9.6% of the pigs as positive using a cut-off value of OD % ≥ 40. Only one quarter of all Salmonella positive pigs showed also a positive serological result. A reduction of the cut-off value does not necessarily result in a higher compliance between bacteriologically and serologically positive slaughter pigs. Detection of antibodies is useful to verify whether pig herds were previously exposed to Salmonella organisms. However, the Salmonella status of pigs at time of slaughter and the associated risk of dissemination of Salmonella organisms can only be assessed by bacteriological examinations which should include both lymph nodes and caecal content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Celso J B; Carvalho, Luiz F O S; Fernandes, Sueli A; Tavechio, Ana T; Domingues, Francisco J
A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of slaughter pigs infected by Salmonella typhimurium after an enterocolitis outbreak in a commercial pig farm, which was characterised by diarrhoea during the growing phase. Anatomopathological and histopathological findings were suggestive of salmonellosis, which was further confirmed by isolation of S. typhimurium from organs and faeces samples from diseased animals. Ileocolic lymph nodes were aseptically collected from 43 pigs during slaughter procedures. The estimated prevalence of Salmonella-infected pigs was 53.48% [confidence interval (CI): 42.94:64.02%]. This finding demonstrates that the carriage of S. typhimurium at slaughter might be high if pigs originate from a batch previously affected by Salmonella-enterocolitis outbreak at the pre-harvest pork production chain.
Lurette, A; Touzeau, S; Ezanno, P; Hoch, T; Seegers, H; Fourichon, C; Belloc, C
In Europe, on-farm biosecurity measures, involving a strict all-in/all-out batch-management system and decontamination of the rearing rooms between consecutive batches, are recommended to control Salmonella infection in growing pigs. However, implementation of these measures is often relaxed under common farming conditions. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the relative contributions of batch-management system and room decontamination efficacy on Salmonella seroprevalence for different growing rates and subsequent slaughter ages of pigs. Because the impact of these factors cannot be easily evaluated by an observational approach in commercial farms, a stochastic simulation model representing the population dynamics, herd management, and Salmonella infection within a farrow-to-finish pig herd was used. Realistic levels were set for each factor under study (3 for batch-management system and slaughter age; 4 for room decontamination) to generate 54 simulation scenarios. Salmonella shedding prevalence in groups of slaughter pigs was then compared. A sensitivity analysis was performed to rank the impacts of the 3 factors on output. Batch-management system had little effect. In contrast, room decontamination efficacy had the greatest impact on Salmonella prevalence in pigs at slaughter. A drop in decontamination efficacy from 100 to 50%, with a strict all-in/all-out batch-management system and for all slaughter ages tested, noticeably increased (P<0.001) the prevalence and almost doubled it for the reference slaughter age. Our results suggest that the control of Salmonella in pig herds should primarily focus on room decontamination efficacy. Provided that a good level of room decontamination is ensured, some flexibility in batch management, in terms of pig mixing, would be acceptable to limit the number of underweight pigs delivered to the slaughterhouse.
Arguello, Héctor; Carvajal, Ana; Naharro, German; Arcos, Mario; Rodicio, M Rosario; Martin, M Cruz; Rubio, Pedro
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the slaughtering process in Salmonella carcass contamination by typing isolates recovered previously in a double study of the following: (1) a tracking survey from the farm to the slaughterhouse and (2) a survey of the slaughterhouse environment (i.e., lairage area, slaughter line, cutting plant and carcasses). The Salmonella serotypes identified on the carcasses of the 16 tracked batches were frequently linked to lairage, whereas the serotypes detected at the farm, transport or pig-related samples (i.e., caecum content and lymph nodes) were only occasionally detected at the carcass level. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (MLVA) of 77 Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium isolates from seven of these batches confirmed the link between the isolates recovered from carcasses and holding pens. Only four of the 16 positive carcasses had profiles previously isolated from lymph nodes or caecal content. In the second part of the study, a total of 131 S. enterica ser. Typhimurium and 74 S. enterica ser. Derby isolates were further characterised by MLVA and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. The MLVA profiles identified in carcasses varied throughout the working day and were frequently linked to those identified in samples from the slaughter line points collected close in time. PFGE and MLVA profiles identified at lairage were also detected in later processing facilities (i.e., slaughter line and cutting plant) as well as in carcasses. Finally, most of the profiles found at the cutting plants were previously identified in the slaughter line or carcass samples. The results from this study show that Salmonella contamination in pigs entering the slaughterhouse can be attributed to several sources. Typing of isolates by MLVA and PFGE clarified the sources of carcass contamination and improved the accuracy of cross-contamination attributable values. Without obviating the relevant role of
Bertram, H C; Oksbjerg, N; Young, J F
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was applied to investigate the effects of pre-slaughter exercise stress on the plasma metabolite profile at time of slaughter. The study included a total of 40 slaughter pigs, which were exposed to one of the following treatments: No pre-slaughter stress (control treatment), pre-slaughter exercise on a treadmill and subsequently 0, 1, or 3h rest prior to slaughter. NMR-based metabonomics revealed a clear difference in the plasma metabolite profile at time of slaughter between control pigs and pigs exercised without rest, which mainly could be ascribed to increased plasma lactate due to exercise. A resting period of 1 or 3h prior to slaughter reversed the stress-induced perturbations in the plasma metabolite profile. The plasma metabolite profile at time of slaughter was highly correlated with muscle temperature 1 min post-mortem, and a correlation to WHC was also demonstrated. Lactate was found to be the metabolite of importance for the association between the plasma metabolome and pH, temperature and WHC.
Bacci, Cristina; Lanzoni, Elisa; Brindani, Franco; Bonardi, Silvia
Finishing pigs carrying Salmonella enterica are believed to be the main source of carcass contamination at the beginning of slaughtering. The aim of this study was to assess the S. enterica carrier status of finishing pigs at herd level by sampling pooled faeces on farm and mesenteric lymph nodes at slaughter in the North East of Italy. Environmental faecal samples belonging to 30 batches of pigs were collected on farm. At slaughter, mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from five randomly selected pigs per batch. S. enterica was isolated from 16 lymph nodes out of 150 (10.6%) and from seven out of 30 (23.3%) faecal samples. Four batches (13.3%) were positive to S. enterica both in lymph nodes and in faeces. The number of batches positive to S. enterica either in lymph nodes or in faeces was 13 out of 30 (43.3%). The most prevalent serovars from lymph nodes were S. Derby (25.0%) and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant 1, 4,,12:i:- (18.6%), which were also isolated from faecal material (14.3 and 42.8% respectively). Contaminated faecal material or lymph nodes could be a primary source of carcass contamination at slaughter during evisceration. S. enterica contamination is widespread on pig farms and carrier pigs pass undetected the inspection visits at slaughter, entering the food chain. Therefore, in order to control S. enterica in pigs, the need to quantify possible risk factors at slaughter and develop effective management strategies on farm is of paramount importance to ensure food safety. PMID:27800330
Aluwé, M; Millet, S; Bekaert, K M; Tuyttens, F A M; Vanhaecke, L; De Smet, S; De Brabander, D L
Piétrain (P), Large White (LW) and Belgian Landrace stress negative (BN) boars were slaughtered at 50, 70, 90 or 110 kg live weight to investigate breed differences and the effect of slaughter weight on boar taint prevalence. Boar taint was quantified by four different methodologies: sensory evaluation of neckfat heated with a hot iron in the slaughterhouse, sensory evaluation of meat by consumer panels, sensory evaluation of fat and meat by expert panels and laboratory analysis of indole, skatole and androstenone in backfat. Skatole levels in backfat were significantly higher for LW and BN than for P boars. The androstenone levels and the hot iron method revealed a significant interaction between breed and slaughter weight. On the other hand, experts detected an effect of weight on the androstenone odour perception, which was significantly higher in fat from boars slaughtered at 90 kg compared with 50 kg, and significantly higher in meat from boars slaughtered at 110 kg compared with 50 kg. Consumers did not detect differences in the sensory characteristics among breeds or slaughter weight. These results indicate opportunities to minimise the risk of boar taint in entire male pigs by carefully selecting a combination of breed and slaughter weight. Along with the optimal slaughter weight, the effectiveness of reducing boar taint by lowering slaughter weight appeared to be breed dependent.
Czerny, C P; Osterkorn, K; Wittkowski, G; Huber, M
Meat samples from diaphragm pillars were randomly taken from 3,048 pigs of 52 Bavarian herds after slaughtery. Meat-juice was collected and tested for salmonella antibodies in an indirect ELISA. The number of samples was calculated according to the annual production of slaughter pigs of a farm outlined in the "Leitlinien für ein Programm zur Reduzierung des Eintrags von Salmonellen durch Schlachtschweine in die Fleischgewinnung" from February 05th, 1998 (< 100 slaughter pigs: 45 samples, 100-200 slaughter pigs: 50 samples, > 200 slaughter pigs: 60 samples per year). Salmonella antibodies were detected in 48 carcasses (1.6%) of 12 farms (23.1%). However, 33 (68.8%) of these carcasses were originated from a single farm which had to be classified into category III (prevalence of > 40% in the samples). No bacteria could be isolated from this farm in a follow up examination. The 51 other farms (98%) were classified into category I (prevalence of < 20% in the samples). Farms with in/out-management showed a higher degree of reagents (2.1T%) than farms with continuous stabling (0.8T%). In a pig experimentally immunized with LPS-antigen preparations of Salmonella typhimurium it was shown that antibodies induced were nearly at the same level in all meat samples and even in selected organs (liver, kidney, parotis, mesenteric lymph nodes).
Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.
Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A.; Gibson, Troy J.
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs. PMID:26963642
Vitali, A; Lana, E; Amadori, M; Bernabucci, U; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N
The study was based on data collected during 5 yr (2003-2007) and was aimed at assessing the effects of the month, slaughter house of destination (differing for stocking density, openings, brightness, and cooling device types), length of the journey, and temperature-humidity index (THI) on mortality of heavy slaughter pigs (approximately 160 kg live weight) during transport and lairage. Data were obtained from 24,098 journeys and 3,676,153 pigs transported from 1,618 farms to 3 slaughter houses. Individual shipments were the unit of observation. The terms dead on arrival (DOA) and dead in pen (DIP) refer to pigs that died during transport and in lairage at the abattoir before slaughtering, respectively. These 2 variables were assessed as the dependent counts in separate univariate Poisson regressions. The independent variables assessed univariately in each set of regressions were month of shipment, slaughter house of destination, time traveled, and each combination of the month with the time traveled. Two separate piecewise regressions were done. One used DOA counts within THI levels over pigs transported as a dependent ratio and the second used DIP counts within THI levels over pigs from a transport kept in lairage as a dependent ratio. The THI was the sole independent variable in each case. The month with the greatest frequency of deaths was July with a risk ratio of 1.22 (confidence interval: 1.06-1.36; P < 0.05) and 1.27 (confidence interval: 1.06-1.51; P < 0.05) for DOA and DIP, respectively. The lower mortality risk ratios for DOA and DIP were recorded for January and March (P < 0.05). The aggregated data of the summer (June, July, and August) versus non-summer (January, March, September, and November) months showed a greater risk of pigs dying during the hot season when considering both transport and lairage (P < 0.05). The mortality risk ratio of DIP was lower at the slaughter house with the lowest stocking density (0.64 m(2)/100 kg live weight), large open
Casanova-Higes, A; Andrés-Barranco, S; Mainar-Jaime, R C
The risk of Salmonella shedding among pigs at slaughter with regard to their previous on-farm Salmonella status was assessed in a group of pigs from a farm from NE of Spain. A total of 202 pigs that had been serologically monitored monthly during the fattening period and from which mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and faecal (SFEC) samples were collected at slaughter for Salmonella isolation were included. A repeated-measures anova was used to assess the relationship between mean OD% values during the fattening period and sampling time and bacteriology on MLN and SFEC. Pigs were also grouped into four groups, that is pigs seronegative during the fattening period and Salmonella negative in MLN (group A; n = 69); pigs seronegative during the fattening period but Salmonella positive in MLN (B; n = 36); pigs seropositive at least once and Salmonella positive in MLN (C; n = 50); and pigs seropositive at least once but Salmonella negative in (D; n = 47). Pigs shedding at slaughter seroconverted much earlier and showed much higher mean OD% values than non-shedders pigs. The proportion of Salmonella shedders in groups A and D was high and similar (26.1% and 29.8%, respectively), but significantly lower than that for groups B and C. The odds of shedding Salmonella for groups B and C were 4.8 (95% CI = 1.5-15.5) and 20.9 (3.7-118) times higher, respectively, when compared to A. It was concluded that a large proportion of Salmonella seronegative pigs may shed Salmonella at slaughter, which would be likely associated to previous exposure with contaminated environments (i.e. transport and lairage). For pigs already infected at farm, the likelihood of shedding Salmonella was much higher and may depend on whether the bacterium has colonized the MLN or not. The odds of shedding Salmonella spp. were always much higher for pigs in which Salmonella was isolated from MLN.
Machnowska, Patrycja; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Johne, Reimar
Pigs can harbour a variety of viruses in their gastrointestinal tract. Some of them are closely related to human viruses and are therefore suspected to have a zoonotic potential. Only little is known about the presence of those viruses in pigs at slaughter. However, by contamination of meat with zoonotic viruses during the slaughtering process, food-borne transmission to humans may be possible. Here we analyzed 120 faecal samples of pigs at slaughter from 3 different geographical regions of Germany for the presence of astrovirus (AstV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and group A rotavirus (GARV). Using real-time RT-PCR, the most frequently detected virus was AstV, which was present in 20.8% of the samples, followed by NoV GII with a detection rate of 14.2%. EMCV, HEV and GARV were found only occasionally with detection rates of 4.2%, 2.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Analyses of partial genome sequences of the viruses indicated that the detected AstV and NoV GII mainly represented typical pig virus strains, which have not been detected in humans so far. However, the GARV and HEV strains were more closely related to human strains. The results indicate that enteric viruses, some of them with zoonotic potential, are present in pig faeces at slaughter. Application of good hygiene practice is necessary to minimize the risk of introducing these viruses into the food and to prevent virus transmission to highly exposed persons such as slaughterers and veterinarians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Foury, A; Lebret, B; Chevillon, P; Vautier, A; Terlouw, C; Mormède, P
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of three alternative (ALT) rearing systems for growing pigs (outdoor: 150 m2/pig; straw bedding: 1.30 m2/pig; and hut with access to a courtyard: 1.30 m2/pig) compared with a conventional system (fully slatted floor: 0.65 m2/pig, considered as control), on pre-slaughter stress indicators in relation with meat quality. To that end, the number of skin lesions on whole carcasses, as well as blood creatine kinase (CK) activity and urine levels in cortisol and catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were determined at slaughter. Glycolytic potential (GP) and ultimate pH of the semimembranosus muscle were also measured. The global correlation network calculated between all these parameters shows that the indicators of pre-slaughter muscle activity (plasma CK) and/or stress indicators (e.g. adrenaline) are negatively (r=-0.26, P<0.01; r=-0.29, P<0.05, respectively) correlated with muscle GP and positively (r=0.17, P<0.05; r=0.44, P<0.001, respectively) with meat ultimate pH. Although some traits measured were sensitive to the degree of pre-slaughter mixing, they differed across rearing systems. The differences were most pronounced for the comparison of outdoors v. slatted floor. The lower levels of plasma CK and urinary catecholamines, and the lower number of carcass skin lesions of pigs reared outdoors, were related to a lower meat ultimate pH. Thus, ALT rearing systems influence animal welfare and meat quality, by providing enriched environmental conditions to the animals.
Leyman, Bregje; Boyen, Filip; Verbrugghe, Elin; Parys, Alexander Van; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
In pigs, infection with Salmonella Typhimurium often results in the development of carriers that re-excrete the organism during periods of stress. Previous studies have shown that cortisol plays a significant role in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium and that re-excretion can be induced by injections of dexamethasone. This study evaluated whether a commercially available Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine was able to reduce Salmonella excretion in a model mimicking pre-slaughter stress. Pigs were randomly assigned to either vaccination or a control group and, 5 weeks later, were infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty-three days post infection, pigs were injected with dexamethasone to induce recrudescence and Salmonella Typhimurium numbers were determined. Salmonella loads were significantly lower in the ileum and colon and in the contents of the ileum and caecum in vaccinated pigs than in non-vaccinated pigs. In addition, significantly more Salmonella positive tonsil and colon samples were found in non-vaccinated pigs. Vaccination with an attenuated vaccine reduced but did not eliminate Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs in conditions mimicking pre-slaughter stress.
Brown, S N; Knowles, T G; Edwards, J E; Warriss, P D
Pigs from three farms were deprived of food for up to one hour, 12 hours or 18 hours before being sent for slaughter. In lairage, the animals' behaviour was monitored, and at slaughter a blood sample was collected and analysed for cortisol, lactate and creatine phosphokinase, potential indicators of stress and physical activity. The carcases were assessed for skin damage as an index of fighting, and rigor in the hind leg as an indicator of stress and/or fatigue. Measurements were also made of cold carcase weight, backfat thickness and liver glycogen concentration. General activity was very high on entry to the lairage pen. Drinking and mounting occurred almost immediately. Fighting developed after an exploratory period, and could last up to 60 minutes. There were large differences in the behaviour of pigs from the three farms. Pigs from farm A fought frequently but showed little mounting activity, whereas pigs from farm C were involved in mounting but little fighting. The period of food deprivation had no effect on average skin damage or rigor score, but the frequency of carcases with the highest scores was different The pigs deprived of food for up to an hour had the lowest incidence of severe skin damage and high rigor scores. Boars had a higher incidence of severe skin damage but a lower incidence of carcases with a high rigor score than gilts. Liver glycogen was almost completely depleted in the pigs deprived of food for 12 and 18 hours and was lower in the pigs deprived for up to an hour than in animals fed immediately before slaughter. The period of food deprivation had no effect on the levels of cortisol, creatine phosphokinase or lactate in the blood.
A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900
Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H
The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-and-fattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples.
van Putten, G; Corstiaensen, G P; van Logtestijn, J G; Zuidhof, S
In the Netherlands it is common practice to shower pigs awaiting slaughter during the two-hour period of rest in lairage. However, the quantity of water used in showering is considerable. There is a tendency to restrict the use of water for this purpose. Water, even if the well from which it is drawn is owned, is an expense, as taxes designed to cover the cost of preventing water-pollution are based on the quantity of water used. The main question asked in slaughter houses is whether spraying a mist of water is as effective as is showering (sprinkling drops of water). Another question is whether intermittent showering could replace continuous showering. The length of the periods of showering and intervals between these periods are of importance. So is the temperature of the water. By approaching these questions through two disciplines: applied ethology (preference-tests and general observations) and meat-technology (recording carcass quality), an effort was made to find an answer. Sprinkling obviously did not offer any advantage as regards the pigs or the carcass quality, when it was compared with spraying a mist of water, and uses five times as much water during a similar period and on the same surface. The pigs preferred four showers, each lasting ten minutes, to continuous showering throughout the two hours in lairage. Carcass quality was not adversely affected by intermittent showering compared with continuous showering. The experiments were carried out during a (cool) summer period. The pigs did not show any preference for lukewarm water rather than cold. Naturally, the response could be entirely different in winter time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong
To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, SCCmec typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pvl gene detection. A total of 200 S. aureus isolates were collected from 590 pigs (33.9%, 200/590), of which 162 (81%, 162/200) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 38 (19%, 38/200) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Ninety-nine of the MSSA isolates (99/162, 61.1%) were ST398, which represented the dominant sequence type overall. Eighty-seven isolates were ST9 (87/200, 43.5%), and all MRSA belonged to that sequence type which consisted of the spa types t899 and t2922. Among the MSSA strains, t034, t899 and t4358 were the most dominant spa types (139/162, 85.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IVb. The pvl gene was only detected in 3 ST7/t2119 MSSA isolates. All MRSA but more importantly also 82.7% (134/162) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to six or more antibiotics. Moreover, a novel resistance determinant-lsa(E) was identified among 22% (44/200) of all isolates. In conclusion, pigs in northeast China are frequently colonized with ST398 MSSA. MRSA with this sequence type, typically associated with pigs in Europe, was not found. High levels of multiple antibiotic resistance among MRSA isolates as well as MSSA isolates are a public health concern.
Brandt, Pia; Aaslyng, Margit Dall
Animal welfare on the day of slaughter is of increasing concern to the authorities and consumers alike, creating a need not only to optimize the welfare of the animals but also to document the level of welfare. The day of slaughter is composed of a variety of stages, initiated when the pigs leave the home pen and including pick-up facilities, transport, lairage, stunning and sticking. At each of these stages, the animals are exposed to different stressors that, both individually and in interaction with one another, can compromise welfare. As part of the initial work aiming to document the welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter, this paper provides an overview of the individual stages including a discussion of potential stressors and potential welfare measurements. These measurements are discussed with regard to their relevance and suitability for documentation of animal welfare on the day of slaughter for development of on-site tools for continuous automatic monitoring of animal welfare.
Jirawattanapong, Pichai; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; van Leengoed, Leo; Wisselink, Henk; Raymakers, Rudolf; Cruijsen, Toine; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola; Nielen, Mirjam; van Nes, Arie
Pleuritis in slaughter pigs has increased in recent years in the Netherlands. The aim of the present study was to determine what respiratory pathogens were involved in pleuritis. In total, lungs of 968 slaughter pigs from 10 herds with high prevalence of pleuritis were morphologically examined for size, location, and type of lesions. Moreover, histology and bacteriology were performed. Examination of gross lung lesions showed 45% pleuritis, 14% pleuropneumonia and 38% catarrhal pneumonia. Peribronchiolar cuffing was found in 61 of 142 samples. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was cultured from 22 lung samples from four herds. Pasteurella multocida was cultured from 55 lung samples in eight herds. No specific pattern with respect to the causal pathogens was found. In conclusion, no single infectious cause of pleuritis was found. A variety of infectious agents combined with environmental factors should be considered as a cause of pleuritis.
Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Pruvot, Mathieu; Joshi, Durga Datt; De Craeye, Stéphane; Jennes, Malgorzata; Ale, Anita; Welinski, Alma; Lama, Sanjyoti; Aryal, Arjun; Victor, Bjorn; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre
For several years, the demand for pork has been on the rise in Nepal. To assess the importance of pork as a carrier of zoonotic agents, we performed a cross-sectional study in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, in which we serologically determined the infection status of slaughtered pigs with regard to three of the most important parasites transmitted through pork consumption: Trichinella spp., Taenia solium cysticerci, and Toxoplasma gondii. From 2007 to 2010, 742 pigs were sampled at slaughter, of which 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-0.7%) were found positive for Trichinella infection, 13.8% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 0.8-28.5%) for T. solium cysticercosis, and 11.7% (95% CI 5.2-17.5%) for Toxoplasma infection. Further monitoring of the related animal and human disease burden and strengthening of food safety protocols throughout the pork production chain are strongly recommended.
Han, D U; Choi, C; Ham, H J; Jung, J H; Cho, W S; Kim, J; Higgins, R; Chae, C
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, capsular serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from slaughter pigs. Capsular serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined by coagglutination test and agar dilution minimum inhibitory concentration, respectively. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 55 of the 406 palatine tonsillar samples tested (13.8%) and 14 of the 29 sampled herds (48.3%). Of the 55 isolates recovered from slaughter pigs, 26 (47.3%) were untypeable. Of the remaining 29 isolates, capsular serotypes 9 (9 isolates) and 16 (4 isolates) were the most common, followed by capsular serotypes 4 (3 isolates) and 7 (3 isolates). Every capsulated isolate was typeable and no palatine tonsillar sample yielded more than one serotype. Most of isolates were susceptible to low concentrations (MIC90) of amoxicillin (2 microg/mL), ceftiofur (1 microg/mL), and penicillin (1 microg/mL). No correlation was found between antimicrobial susceptibility and capsular serotype. PMID:11480519
Alban, L; Dahl, J; Andreasen, M; Petersen, J V; Sandberg, M
In 2010, the "yellow card scheme" which was adopted by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration imposed restrictions on pig farmers who used more antimicrobials than twice the average. To study the potential impact on pig health, we looked into antimicrobial consumption and vaccine use data from the monitoring programme Vetstat, covering all treatments conducted on Danish pigs between January 2010 and July 2011. The decrease in antimicrobial consumption was pronounced for all age groups (sows/piglets, weaners and finishers) treated for either gastro-intestinal or respiratory disease. Evaluated over 12 months, use of vaccines increased in general: PCV2-related infections (+31%), gastro-intestinal disease (27%), respiratory infections (21%) whereas use of vaccines against other infections remained almost constant (-18%). Data from meat inspection of finisher pigs from before and after introduction of the scheme were compared. This included 1.7 million finisher pigs originating from 2765 pig farms, slaughtered on one large Danish abattoir and covered the first 9 weeks in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nine lesions of chronic nature and infectious origin and the code "condemned" were selected. The prevalence of these lesions was calculated. Logistic regression models with year and week as explanatory variables were used to identify whether the prevalence of a lesion changed from 2010 to 2011. Possible clustering due to correlation within herds and between weekly shipments of animals originating from the same herd was taken into account in the models. The most common lesion seen was chronic pleuritis (∼23%) while the other lesions occurred less-commonly (<1%). For osteomyelitis, pleuritis, chronic arthritis and condemnation, no differences were observed between the 2 years. The prevalence of chronic peritonitis (OR=1.5), umbilical hernia (OR=1.2) and chronic enteritis (OR=1.2) were statistically higher in 2011 compared to 2010, whereas it was lower for tail bite
Beloeil, Pierre-Alexandre; Chauvin, Claire; Proux, Karine; Madec, François; Fravalo, Philippe; Alioum, Ahmadou
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the pre-slaughter process on Salmonella caecal contamination of pigs at slaughter. An observational study was carried out in 2001 on 101 conventional farrow-to-finish pig farms. On each farm, one batch of contemporary pigs was followed from the end of the fattening period until slaughter. The Salmonella bacteriological status of the batches was assessed by environmental samples of faecal material. The serological Salmonella status was obtained on 30 individually identified market-age pigs using an indirect ELISA test. At the slaughterhouse, 25 g of caecal contents were taken from 10 of the identified pigs. Faecal and caecal material were analysed according to a classical bacteriological method. A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about the type of feeding during the fattening period (dry versus wet), the duration of fasting on the farm before leaving for the slaughterhouse, the duration of transport between the farm and the slaughterhouse, the holding time in lairage at the slaughterhouse and loading and unloading conditions on the farm and at the slaughterhouse. To assess the relationships between these factors and the Salmonella caecal status of the pigs and the batches, two logistic models were fitted at the individual and at the batch level, respectively. The first analysis was performed using a random effects logistic regression model. The second analysis was based on a cumulative logit model with a positive caecal rate classified into three classes as the outcome variable. The results showed that the Salmonella status of market-age pigs assessed on the farm either by serological or bacteriological examinations and the time spent in lairage before slaughtering played a crucial role on caecal contamination. In the light of these results, actions should be considered both on the farm and at the slaughterhouse to decrease the risk of Salmonella contamination of the caecal contents.
De Busser, E V; Dewulf, J; Nollet, N; Houf, K; Schwarzer, K; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Maes, D
In this study, we investigated the effect of adding organic acids to the drinking water of finishing pigs 2 weeks prior to slaughter on the shedding and prevalence rate of Salmonella at slaughter. Approximately 600 animals from four Belgian pig herds infected with Salmonella were included. At two herds, the study was conducted twice. Before the start of the study, overshoes were taken at the different herds. Two weeks prior to the expected slaughter date, the pigs were randomly divided into two groups (treatment and control group) each containing on average 50 animals within each herd. The treatment group received from this day onwards acidified drinking water (pH = 3.6-4.0), the control group received non-treated water (pH = 7.8-8.5). All other housing, feeding and management factors were identical in both groups. At the slaughterhouse, 10 pigs of each group (20 pigs for each group of study group 6) were randomly selected and sampled (blood, contents of ileum and rectum, mesenteric lymph nodes and carcass swabs). All samples were immediately transported to the laboratory and submitted to Salmonella isolation. Salmonella was isolated out of 11.9% (66/554) of the samples taken at the slaughterhouse, with the highest frequency found in the content of the ileum (18.7%), followed by 17.8% in the lymph nodes, 7.2% in the content of the rectum and 3.6% in the carcass swabs. The results did not reveal a significant difference between the treatment and control groups for the different slaughterhouse samples. The study documented that the investigated control strategy namely, the strategic application of organic acids during the last 2 weeks prior to slaughter was insufficient to decrease Salmonella shedding and contamination shortly before and during slaughter.
Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang
Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers.
Purpose We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive ...
Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E
A number of studies document the prevalence of Taenia solium infections in Nigeria, yet these studies do not cover porcine cysticercosis in private home slaughter slabs where there is no routine meat inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria. Slaughter premises were inspected for availability of basic facilities and questionnaires were used to elicit necessary informative data. Butchers were examined for taeniasis by stool microscopy and copro-antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) to ascertain T. solium - taeniasis. Pigs slaughtered at the premises were examined for cysticerci. Home slaughter conditions were substandard, unhygienic and lacked the basic facilities of a proper slaughterhouse. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 9.3%. The butchers participating in the study had very poor knowledge of T. solium infections and 30% tested positive for taeniasis by copro-Ag ELISA at the time of the study. Home slaughter of pigs in the areas studied should be considered and integrated as a component of prevention and control programmes - particularly through educational interventions - in order to equip individuals involved with a good understanding of the risks associated with animal husbandry and human practices.
Piras, Francesca; Brown, Derek J; Meloni, Domenico; Mureddu, Anna; Mazzette, Rina
In order to improve the knowledge about the presence of Salmonella in pork meat in Sardinia (Italy), the prevalence and the sources of Salmonella at 5 pig slaughterhouses (slaughtered pigs and environment) were investigated and the isolates were characterised. A total of 462 samples were collected, 425 from pigs at slaughter and 41 from the slaughterhouse environment. Salmonella was isolated from 26/85 (30.5%) mesenteric lymph nodes, 14/85 (16.4%) colon contents, and from 12/85 (14.1%) carcasses and livers. Salmonella prevalence was 38% (8/21) in samples from surfaces not in contact with meat, and 35% (7/20) in those from surfaces in contact with meat. Thirty-one pigs were identified as carriers of Salmonella in lymph nodes and/or colon content, but of these, only 8 carcasses were positive. A total of 103 Salmonella isolates were serotyped and genotyped. Eight different serotypes were detected; the most common were S. Derby (44/103, 42.7%) and S. Typhimurium (24/103, 23.3%). The most prevalent S. Typhimurium phage type was DT193. Thirty-two isolates were found to be resistant to more than one antimicrobial (MDR). Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) permitted the resolution of XbaI macrorestriction fragments of the Salmonella strains into 20 distinct pulsotypes. Combined application of a plasmid profiling assay (PPA) and PFGE gave useful additional information to assist in tracing the routes of Salmonella contamination in abattoirs. To reduce Salmonella prevalence some preventive measures should be encouraged: the origin of infected slaughter animals should be identified and direct and cross-contamination of carcasses should be avoided by adhering to HACCP principles in association with good hygiene procedures (GHP). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Knecht, Damian; Jankowska, Anna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz
The aim of the present study was to determine an influence of parasites invasion on fodder consumption and slaughter yield of fatteners in three different maintenance systems. The experimental part of the study was conducted on pigs farm producing in a close cycle. The study on internal parasites of fatteners were conducted based on coproscopic methods. In order to describe the relationship between following variables: meatiness, slaughter yield, fodder consumption and mean EPG value, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used. The analysis between fodder consumption and maintenance system and fodder consumption and helminths infection did not demonstrate any significant relationship. The analysis between slaughter yield and meatiness and an infection demonstrated in turn a decrease in both parameters values in the two maintenance systems, i.e. in fatteners kept on litter meatiness decrease in infected fatteners of 4.2% and yield of 1.7%. On slatted floor meatiness decrease in infected fatteners of 6.1% and yield of 2.7%. The decreasing tendency in meat content (3.7%) and in slaughter yield (1.1%) was also observed in fatteners maintained on deep litter, however the values were not significant statistically.
Di Martino, Guido; Capello, Katia; Scollo, Annalisa; Gottardo, Flaviana; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Rampin, Fabio; Schiavon, Eliana; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana
Adopting a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, this study evaluated whether continuous straw provision by racks, tail docking and gender (barrows vs. females) have an effect on the prevalence of lung lesions and oesophago-gastric ulcer (OGU) visually scored at slaughter in 635 Italian heavy pigs (169 ± 4 kg). The lung lesions were very low (72% of pigs with score 0), and were not significantly different among the experimental groups. Overall, OGU was diagnosed in 47% of the pigs. The consumption of small amounts of straw (70 g/day/pig) represented a protective factor against the onset of OGU (OR: 0.27). Barrows were more likely than females to have OGU (OR: 1.52), while no significant differences between docked and undocked pigs were detected. Nevertheless, the presence of straw acted as a protective factor particularly in undocked pigs (OR: 0.16), suggesting that in this group the absence of rooting material may have a stronger effect on welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnston, Kathleen M.; Doige, Cecil E.; Osborne, A. Dudley
Fifty-two joints from pigs with nonsuppurative joint disease from a local abattoir were examined grossly, histologically, and microbiologically in order to establish macroscopic differences between degenerative arthropathy and arthritis due to an infectious organism. The joints were grouped grossly according to the type and severity of lesions of the synovial membrane and cartilage, and microscopically according to the severity of synovial membrane lesions. Osteochondrosis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae were the most common causes of nonsuppurative joint disease in the joints examined. The major macroscopic differences between these two arthropathies were in the nature and severity of the synovial and cartilaginous lesions and involvement of the lymph node draining the diseased joint. Typically, in osteochondrosis, the changes are feathery hypertrophy of villi, focal full-thickness cartilage buckles, ulcers or flaps, and no change in the draining lymph node, whereas in Erysipelothrix- caused arthritis, the villous hypertrophy is severe and polypoid in nature, there is diffuse erosion of articular cartilage, and the draining lymph node is consistently hypertrophic and often cystic. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:17422755
Fois, Federica; Piras, Francesca; Torpdahl, Mia; Mazza, Roberta; Consolati, Simonetta G; Spanu, Carlo; Scarano, Christian; De Santis, Enrico P L
The aim of this study was to determine Salmonella occurrence in slaughtered finishing pigs and piglets and in slaughterhouse environment in order to characterize the isolates with phenotypical (antimicrobial testing) and molecular (PFGE, MLVA) methods. Nine slaughterhouses located in Sardinia were visited. Six hundred and eight samples collected from 106 pigs and 108 environmental samples were collected and analyzed. Salmonella was isolated in 65 of 504 (12.9%) samples from finishing pigs, with an occurrence of 15.1% in colon content, 12.7% in lymph nodes and liver, and 11.1% in carcass surface samples. Salmonella was never detected in piglets. The combined results of serotyping and PFGE showed a possible self-contamination in 71.5% of Salmonella positive carcasses of lymph nodes and/or colon content carriers, pointing out the role of healthy pigs for carcass contamination. A significantly higher (P < 0.05) occurrence was detected in finishing pigs of EC countries origin (23%) than in pigs of local farms (8%). Salmonella was also detected in 3.7% of environmental samples. The most prevalent serovar was S. Anatum, followed by S. Rissen, S. Derby, and monophasic S. Typhimurium. Resistance to at least 3 antimicrobial was observed in 97.1% of strains and 7 different patterns of multiple resistance were identified. The most common resistance was detected against sulphonamide compounds. A strict slaughterhouse application of hygiene standards is essential to control the risk of Salmonella contamination. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Nesbakken, Truls; Eckner, Karl; Høidal, Hilde Kristin; Røtterud, Ole-Johan
The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. in the lymphoid tissues and intestinal tract in pigs and the risk for contamination during the compulsory meat inspection procedures and the procedures during slaughtering and dressing. Another objective of the investigation was to compare traditional isolation methods, the use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method (BUGS'n BEADS bacterial DNA isolation kit) and an ELISA method (VIDAS CAM) as tools in risk management in the slaughterhouse. The results indicate that the compulsory procedure for the incision of the submaxillary lymph nodes represents a cross-contamination risk for virulent Yersinia. In the screening of 97 animals in 1999, 5.2% of the samples were positive, and by the sampling of 24 samples in 2000-2001, 12.5% of the samples were positive. In the last case, Y. enterocolitica O:3 was found in the kidney region in one of the subsequent carcasses that was only touched by the meat inspection personnel before sampling. In addition, incision of the mesenteric lymph nodes might represent a cross-contamination risk since 8.3% of the samples were positive. The association between antibody titres and the occurrence of virulent yersiniae in the tonsils (21-18) was striking, with virulent yersiniae found in the tonsils in most pigs with high titres. The contents of the stomach, ileum, caecum, and colon also represent contamination risks for Y. enterocolitica O:3 if the slaughterhouse personnel cuts into the viscera with their knives by accident; the frequency of virulent Yersinia varied from 4.2% to 16.7% within these sections. Campylobacter was detected in the gastrointestinal tract of all pigs, and the high contamination of tonsils (66.7%) and intestinal tract (100%) might represent an occupational health hazard. There was no statistical difference between the traditional method for isolation of Y. enterocolitica [International
Guàrdia, M D; Estany, J; Balasch, S; Oliver, M A; Gispert, M; Diestre, A
A polychotomous logistic regression model was used to identify and assess the risk factors for pork becoming dark, firm and dry meat (DFD). A total of 116 deliveries, comprising 3075 commercial pigs delivered from different farms to five commercial Spanish pig abattoirs were surveyed. The DFD condition was described as an ordinal response variable (normal, moderate and serious) based on measurements of pH(24) in the Semimembranosus muscle. The abattoir, the floor of the lorry, the season, the gender, and the stocking density during transportation influenced the risk of DFD, as well as on-farm fasting time, lairage time and estimated carcass lean content. No effect of the RYR1 gene in the risk of DFD was found. Abattoirs should be especially careful with females slaughtered in winter, where the risk of serious DFD is 4.6% higher than with males slaughtered in summer. The risk of DFD increased with high stocking density and lairage time, and with on-farm fasting times longer than 22h. Our results revealed that lowering the stocking density from 0.37 to 0.50m(2) per 100kg pig during transport would increase the risk of DFD pork by 11%. Copyright © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mann, Evelyne; Pinior, Beate; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan
The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB) could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23–171 OTUs). Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits) were most abundant (10.6 and 41.8%, respectively) in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs) were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ≥ 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i) lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of MAB, (ii) the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii) lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination. PMID:26696976
Kim, J C; Jose, C G; Trezona, M; Moore, K L; Pluske, J R; Mullan, B P
A 4 × 3 factorial experiment (n=8 pigs per treatment combination) was conducted with 96 female Landrace × Large White pigs to examine the required level of dietary vitamin E and optimum feeding duration before slaughter to maximise muscle vitamin E content in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. The respective factors were four dietary levels of vitamin E (supplemented as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate; 35, 300, 500, and 700 IU/kg) and three feeding durations (14, 28 and 42 days before slaughter). Vitamin E concentration in the LTL was maximised at 6 mg/kg, which was achieved by feeding a 700 IU vitamin E diet for 28 days before slaughter (P<0.001). There was no further increase in the vitamin E content of the LTL by feeding the high vitamin E diet more than 28 days before slaughter.
Campylobacter were isolated from 103 of 173 (59 per cent) specimens of healthy slaughter pig faeces, washed intestines and water samples collected from a slaughterhouse and butcher's shop in West Germany. As most cases of human campylobacter enteritis are caused by Campylobacter jejuni, an attempt was made to find this organism among the isolates. Twenty-five out of the 103 strains (24 per cent) were identified as C jejuni. C jejuni was also isolated from salted water samples after overnight bowel storage in the butcher's shop, indicating that the customary salt preparation of the intestines did not eliminate all organisms present.
Makino, S; Ishizaki, H; Shirahata, T; Fujiwara, S; Sawada, T
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is the causative agent of swine erysipelas. Although an attenuated vaccine is used in Japan, recent increases in disease occurrence have cast doubts on its efficacy. We investigated the similarity between the vaccine strain and E. rhusiopathiae field isolates by the analysis of acriflavine resistance (the vaccine strain marker), serotype, DNA fingerprinting and pathogenicity to mice. Although 7 acriflavine resistant E. rhusiopathiae isolates were separated from arthritic lesions of slaughter pigs, we were unable to prove that they were identical to the vaccine strain.
Grierson, Sylvia; Heaney, Judith; Cheney, Tanya; Morgan, Dilys; Wyllie, Stephen; Powell, Laura; Smith, Donald; Ijaz, Samreen; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa
Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections. PMID:26196216
Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Šernienė, Loreta; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu; Malakauskas, Mindaugas
The prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in relation to potential farming risk factors in Lithuania was examined. Pig faeces and carcase swab samples from 11 farms were studied at slaughterhouses. Nine of the 11 farms were visited again 3-5 months later, and pooled feacal samples and environmental samples were collected. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was found in 64% and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in 45% of the sampled pig farms. All obtained isolates belonged to bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:3, respectively. Low biosecurity level was associated with a high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on farms. Characterization with PFGE of 64 Y. enterocolitica and 27 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates revealed seven and two different genotypes, respectively. Dominant enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. genotypes were obtained in both pig feacal and carcase samples. The high contamination of pig carcases (25%) with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. may be an important factor contributing to the high incidence of human yersiniosis in Lithuania. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grierson, Sylvia; Heaney, Judith; Cheney, Tanya; Morgan, Dilys; Wyllie, Stephen; Powell, Laura; Smith, Donald; Ijaz, Samreen; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Tedder, Richard S
Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections.
Bai, Xiumei; Yan, Xue; Xie, Linqi; Hu, Xiaodong; Lin, Xi; Wu, Changzheng; Zhou, Ningcong; Wang, Anru; See, Miles Todd
A total of 64 5-month-old Pietrain pigs were randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates per treatment according to body weight. The pigs were fed either a standard corn-soybean meal based control diet (treatments 1 and 2), the standard diet with 1% Lycium barbarum (LB) (treatment 3), or the standard diet with 1% Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PT) (treatment 4). Serum lactic acid and glucose concentrations were increased in stressed pigs (P < 0.05). Addition of the herbs in the diet had no effect on the serum lactic acid concentration, but 1% LB decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose concentration in the stressed pigs. Pre-slaughter stress also decreased (P < 0.01) liver glycogen concentration and the decrease could be inhibited by addition of 1% LB in the diet (P > 0.05). Pre-slaughter stress increased the concentration of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum, while dietary 1% LB increased (P < 0.05) the activity of GSH-Px and decreased the concentration of MDA in the serum. In conclusion, pre-slaughter stress induces oxidative stress in pigs and dietary supplementation with 1% LB improves antioxidant capacity in stressed pigs before slaughtering.
Thomsen, Peter T; Klottrup, Anne; Steinmetz, Henriette; Herskin, Mette S
According to Danish legislation, sick or injured pigs must be housed in hospital pens with specific requirements. During recent years the majority of cases of non-compliance with legislation have been related to management of these animals. Hence, we hypothesized that 1) pig farmers generally find a requirement for hospital pens reasonable, but do not know the specific requirements; 2) pig farmers do not find the specific requirements for hospital pens meaningful compared with their perception of what sick pigs need; and 3) pig farmers often omit to move sick pigs to hospital pens due to lack of time or labour. An on-line questionnaire regarding farmers' attitudes towards and knowledge about legal requirements for hospital pens was constructed and e-mailed to 2348 pig farmers. In total, 508 farmers answered the questionnaire. Overall, 66% of the respondents found that the requirements for hospital pens made good sense, and more than 90% found that it made at least partial sense. Even though almost all respondents thought they knew the legal requirements for specific facilities in hospital pens, in fact 20% of them did not. The majority of respondents found all specific requirements in accordance with the needs of sick pigs, with the exception of cooling (only 17% agreed that cooling was needed). Unexpectedly, lack of time or labour wasn't reported to be a major obstacle to the use of hospital pens. Possibly, different thresholds for defining a pig as 'sick enough' to need housing in a hospital pen may exist between farmers and authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Čobanović, N.; Vasilev, D.; Dimitrijević, M.; Teodorović, V.; Parunović, N.; Betić, N.; Karabasil, N.
This study assessed the effects of transportation and lairage time and their interaction on welfare, carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs under commercial conditions. The study was conducted on 120 pigs with a live weight of approximately 115 kg and about six months old. A complete blood picture was measured in pigs to assess pre-slaughter stress. Also, nine different carcass quality parameters including live weight, hot and cold carcass weights, cooling loss, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, meatiness and skin lesions score were measured. The pH and temperature measurements were performed 45 minutes post-mortem. The results showed that short transportation time and slaughtering without lairaging and long transportation time and overnight lairaging negatively influenced the hematological parameters, which meant that the animal welfare was seriously compromised under these pre-slaughter conditions. Long transportation time and overnight lairaging reduced live and carcass weights and increased the incidence of skin lesions on the carcass and DFD pork. In addition, short transportation time and slaughtering without lairaging caused a significant deterioration in pork quality. It can be concluded that, from the standpoint of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, the above-mentioned pre-slaughter conditions are not recommended to the farmers and/or pork producers.
Jäger, Henrike C.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Wood, James L. N.; Pearce, Gareth P.; Williamson, Susanna; Strugnell, Benjamin; Done, Stanley; Habernoll, Henrike; Palzer, Andreas; Tucker, Alexander W.
A case-control investigation was undertaken to determine management and health related factors associated with pleurisy in slaughter pigs in England and Wales. Methods The British Pig Executive Pig Health Scheme database of abattoir pathology was used to identify 121 case (>10% prevalence of pleurisy on 3 or more assessment dates in the preceding 24 months) and 121 control units (≤5% prevalence of pleurisy on 3 or more assessment dates in the preceding 24 months). Farm data were collected by postal questionnaire. Data from respondents (70 cases and 51 controls) were analysed using simple logistic regression models with Bonferroni corrections. Limited multivariate analyses were also performed to check the robustness of the overall conclusions. Results and Conclusions Management factors associated with increased odds of pleurisy included no all-in all-out pig flow (OR 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.3–29), rearing of pigs with an age difference of >1 month in the same airspace (OR 6.5 [2.8–17]) and repeated mixing (OR 2.2 [1.4–3.8]) or moving (OR 2.2 [1.5–3.4]) of pigs during the rearing phase. Those associated with decreased odds of pleurisy included filling wean-to-finish or grower-to-finish systems with piglets from ≤3 sources (OR 0.18 [0.07–0.41]) compared to farrow-to-finish systems, cleaning and disinfecting of grower (ORs 0.28 [0.13–0.61] and 0.29 [0.13–0.61]) and finisher (ORs 0.24 [0.11–0.51] and 0.2 [0.09–0.44]) accommodation between groups, and extended down time of grower and finisher accommodation (OR 0.84 [0.75–0.93] and 0.86 [0.77–0.94] respectively for each additional day of downtime). This study demonstrated the value of national-level abattoir pathology data collection systems for case control analyses and generated guidance for on-farm interventions to help reduce the prevalence of pleurisy in slaughter pigs. PMID:22363407
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Vazquez-Morales, Renata Fabiola; Colado-Romero, Edgar Eusebio; Guzmán-Sánchez, Ramiro; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Dubey, Jitender P
We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 5, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 3, 1:1600 in 2, and 1:3200 in 2. Multivariate analysis of pigs' characteristics showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with mixed breed (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003-0.26; P = 0.001). Other variables including sex, type of raising, and municipality did not show an association with T. gondii seropositivity by multivariate analysis. The frequency of high antibody titers (≥1:400) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in Landrace pigs than mixed breed pigs. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs for slaughter in Baja California Sur State is low compared with seroprevalences reported in pigs in other Mexican states. Landrace pigs demonstrated higher seroprevalence rates and antibody levels than mixed breed pigs. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in pigs raised in a desert climate.
Grünberger, B; Schleicher, C; Stüger, H-P; Reisp, K; Schmoll, F; Köfer, J; Sattler, T
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) worldwide causes important economic losses in pig production. Its causative agent, the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is one of the most frequently detected infectious agents in relation to respiratory diseases in pigs in Austria. We investigated the correlation between the PRRSV status of pig farms, determined by detection of PRRSV antibodies in the serum of slaughter pigs, and the prevalence of pathological-anatomical lung lesions in slaughter pigs of the respective farms. Between December 1, 2011 and April 16, 2012, a total of 1056 serum samples of slaughter pigs from 66 pig farms were collected at an Austrian abattoir. The presence of PRRSV antibodies was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in each sample and the PRRSV status of the respective farms was determined. No PRRSV vaccination was performed on any of the farms. In addition, the pathological-anatomical lung lesions of all slaughter pigs of the 66 farms that were slaughtered between September 1, 2011 and December 11, 2012 were recorded by authorized veterinarians at the abattoir. The prevalence of lung lesions and pleuritis in PRRSV-positive and unsuspected farms was compared and statistically interpreted. Slaughter pigs of PRRSV positive farms had a significantly higher prevalence of severe lung lesions and pleuritis visceralis and parietalis than slaughter pigs of PRRSV unsuspected farms. Pigs of combined farms (nursery and fattening unit at the same location) displayed a tendency for more moderate and severe lung lesions than pigs of exclusive fattening farms. In the present study, the PRRSV status of pig farms displayed a significant influence on the prevalence of lung lesions in the slaughter pigs. Findings untypical for PRRS, including pleuritis, were also found significantly more often on those farms. This leads to the conclusion that other primary and/or secondary infections are involved, which can be exacerbated by the immunosuppressive
Saco, Yolanda; Fraile, Lorenzo; Giménez, Mercè; Alegre, Ana; López-Jimenez, Rosa; Cortey, Martí; Segalés, Joaquim; Bassols, Anna
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the existence of lung lesions in pigs at slaughter and the concentration of the serum acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp), pig-major acute protein (Pig-MAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A total of 24 pig farms were selected out of a larger farm database previously screened to study risk factors associated with pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC) lesions at slaughter-aged pigs in Spain. The farms were classified as "pleuritis negative (P-) or positive (P+)" and as "CVPC negative (M-) or positive (M+)" and divided into four groups according to a 2X2 factorial design (P-M-, P-M+, P+M-, P+M+). Also at slaughter, blood from 20 randomly selected pigs from each farm was collected. Obtained serum samples were used to measure acute phase proteins. All APP concentrations were significantly higher for M+ farms than for M- ones. However, only Hp and Pig-MAP showed significantly higher concentrations for P+ farms than for P- ones. Pig-MAP was the most sensitive biomarker since it was able to clearly discriminate between P-/P+ and M-/M+ groups (p<0.001 in both cases). Hp was an excellent marker for pleuritis and good for CVPC lesions. CRP was able to discriminate for CVPC lesions but not for pleuritis. The present results indicate that Pig-MAP and, possibly Hp, may be used as potential markers to characterise and discriminate respiratory lesions in swine herds at slaughter.
Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel
A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs.
Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA.
Fablet, C; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Jolly, J P; Portier, F; Bidan, F; Madec, F; Rose, N
A cross-sectional study involving 143 farrow-to-finish herds was carried out to identify herd-level noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughter pigs. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during a farm visit. Climatic conditions were measured over 20 h in the post-weaning and finishing rooms where the slaughter pigs were kept. After these on-farm investigations, the finishing pigs were examined at slaughter for lung lesions. A sample of 30 randomly selected pigs per herd was scored for pneumonia and pleuritis. Herds were grouped into three categories according to their pneumonia median score (class 1: ≤ 0.5; class 2: 0.5
Forero, Jorge E; Gutiérrez-Vergara, Cristian; Parra Suescún, Jaime; Correa, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Berardo; Gutiérrez, Lina A; Díaz, Francisco J; López-Herrera, Albeiro
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that causes acute hepatitis in humans, and can be transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Pigs are considered to be a reservoir for this infection-mainly where the disease is not endemic. In a previous study conducted in Antioquia, which is a region in Colombia where the production and consumption of pork meat is higher than in the rest of the country, the presence of anti-HEV IgG-type antibodies was reported in slaughter-age pigs. Aiming to identify the HEV genotype circulating in swine, animal liver, and feces samples from five swine cattle slaughterhouses located in six different sub-regions of Antioquia were collected. A nested RT-PCR (nRT-PCR) was used in order to amplify the HEV ORF-1 (170bp) and ORF-2 (348, and 958bp). The amplicons yielded in this study were sequenced, and a molecular phylogeny analysis based on the maximum likelihood method, including HEV sequences reported in several countries, was performed. Phylogeny analysis revealed that HEV amplification fragments from Antioquia's pigs were grouped in three clades within the sub-genotype 3a without a specific geographical structure, and were also genetically related to Japanese and American HEV sequences. This analysis provides the first approach on the genetic diversity and circulation dynamics of HEV in Colombian herds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Crossan, C; Grierson, S; Thomson, J; Ward, A; Nunez-Garcia, J; Banks, M; Scobie, L
The prevalence of anti-HEV isotype-specific antibodies and viraemia were investigated in serum samples collected from slaughter-age pigs (aged 22-24 weeks) from 23 farms in Scotland. Of 176 serum samples tested, 29·0% (n = 51) were anti-HEV IgG positive, 36·9% (n = 65) anti-HEV IgA positive and 29·0% (n = 51) anti-HEV IgM positive. Overall seroprevalence (anti-HEV IgG+ and/or IgA+ and/or IgM+) was 61·4% (n = 108). HEV RNA was detected in 72/162 serum samples (44·4%). Partial sequence of ORF2 (98 nt) was obtained from eight HEV RNA-positive samples and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that they were all of genotype 3. This is the first report on the prevalence of HEV in pigs in Scotland. Given the increasing incidence of locally acquired HEV infection in the UK, evidence that HEV is a foodborne zoonosis emphasizes the need for surveillance in pigs.
Molitoris, E; Fagerberg, D J; Quarles, C L; Krichevsky, M I
Fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with various pig transit and holding times were investigated at slaughter plants. Changes in the relative abundance of two biotypes of Streptococcus faecium were associated with transit and holding of pigs, although approximately 20% of the isolates were unidentified. The greatest variety of coliforms was isolated from porcine feces after short transit (2 h) or holding (3 h) times and was qualitatively similar to those from pigs on farms. Isolates from pigs with longer average transit or holding times were almost all Escherichia coli (four biotypes). Streptococcal resistance to most antimicrobial agents was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in isolates from live pigs at slaughter plants than in those from pigs at farms and was apparent after a short transit time (2 h). Streptococci from pigs held an average of 15 h were less resistant to most antimicrobial agents than those from pigs held 3 or 43 h. When compared with short transit times, moderate transit times (6 h) were associated with significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) coliform resistance and decreased resistance transfer but a greater diversity of AMR patterns. Holding pigs overnight (14 h) was associated with lowered coliform resistance to several antimicrobial agents, compared with the resistance of isolates from pigs held 3 or 39 h. A substantial increase (18 to 48%) in the ability to transfer streptomycin resistance was demonstrated in coliforms from pigs held 39 h, when compared with those from pigs held 3 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3606107
Fraile, L; Alegre, A; López-Jiménez, R; Nofrarías, M; Segalés, J
Examination of lung lesions at the slaughterhouse is a useful tool to estimate the importance of respiratory disease at farm, regional or national level. The objective of the present work was to describe the prevalence of gross lung lesions at slaughter, with a special focus on pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation, and to identify major risk factors for these lesions. Data from 107 farms involving approximately 11,000 pigs enabled gross lung lesions to be correlated with serology to different swine respiratory pathogens as well as with production system characteristics and vaccination schedules. Pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation lesions were recorded in 26.8% and 55.7% of slaughter-aged pigs, respectively. Among lungs with pleuritis, 50.1% had lesions compatible with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection. Antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV), three subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) of swine influenza virus (SIV), App and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) were highly prevalent (>82%) in most of the farms. In a multivariable analysis, it was estimated (R(2)=0.40) that the percentage of animals with pleuritis compatible with App infection depended on the existence of an all in-all out by room management system and App and PRRSV herd seroprevalence. Moreover, it was possible to foresee (R(2)=0.59) that cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation lesions (EP-like lesions) were affected by the type of farm ventilation, the presence of respiratory symptoms during the fattening period and Mhyo and SIV H1N2 herd seroprevalence.
Kvist, P H; Jensen, E S; Aalbaek, B; Jensen, H E
Ears from slaughter pigs with auricular elephantiasis (n = 24) and the corresponding lymph nodes (lnn.) (n = 26) were grossly, histopathologically and microbiologically examined. Immunostaining for IgM, IgG, Cd3epsilon and bacterial antigens of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was performed by indirect enzyme-based techniques. Ears were variably thickened depending on the sampled area (basis, centre and apex). However, at all locations the thickness, the length from basis to apex and the weigh of whole ears with elephantiasis were significantly increased (P < 0.01). The corresponding lnn., that is, ln. parotideus superficialis and profundus, had also increased significantly (P < 0.01) in volume. Histopathologically, lesions of the ears and the corresponding lnn. revealed changes characterized by diffuse fibrosis intermingled with multiple pyogranulomatous foci containing asteroid bodies. In the majority of lesions, four distinct zones due to different cellular infiltrates encircled the central core of the asteroid bodies. In several lesions, the pyogranulomatous foci were contained within the lymph vessels. Immunohistochemically, only the bacterial antigen of S. aureus was detected within the cytoplasm of the macrophages and/or in the asteroid bodies of the ears (41.5%) and in the regional lnn. (30.8%). An abundant number of IgM, IgG and CD3epsilon-positive cells were present in all the pyogranulomatous lesions, whereas a positive IgG-staining was observed only in a single asteroid body. Thus, porcine auricular elephantiasis is a chronic pyogranulomatous inflammation that is frequently positive for S. aureus and is lymphogenically spread. Therefore, the lesions of the ears with auricular elephantiasis and the corresponding lnn. should be termed auricular botryomycosis and botryomycotic lymphadenitis, respectively. Moreover, as the disease is observed frequently in slaughter pigs it must also be considered according to the welfare of the animals
Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Pallotti, Adolfo; Rosmini, Roberto; Houf, Kurt; Korkeala, Hannu
Tonsils of 829 fattening pigs originating from Belgium (n = 201), Italy (n = 428), and Spain (n = 200) were collected between 2005 and 2007 to study the prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in slaughter pigs. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was done by selective enrichment and by cold enrichment for 7 and 14 days. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction targeting the chromosomal genes ail and inv, respectively, as well as the plasmid-encoded virF of both species. A significantly higher (p < 0.001) prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in Spain (93%) than in Belgium (44%) or Italy (32%) was observed. virF-positive Y. enterocolitica was present in 77% of ail-positive samples. Bioserotype 4/O:3 was the most common type in all three countries. Bioserotypes 2/O:5 and 3/O:9 were found in Italy (1%) and Belgium (9%), respectively. The prevalence of inv- and virF-positive Y. pseudotuberculosis was 2% and 1% in Belgium and Italy, respectively. Y. pseudotuberculosis was not detected in pigs from Spain. Bioserotypes 1/O:1 (20%), 1/O:2 (20%), and 2/O:3 (60%) were found in Belgium, and 1/O:1 (60%) and 2/O:3 (20%) in Italy. The most efficient method for isolation of Y. enterocolitica was combined cold enrichment for 7 and 14 days; however, the isolation method for Y. pseudotuberculosis was cold enrichment for 14 days. Fattening pigs seem to be an important reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in Belgium, Italy, and Spain. Bioserotype 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and bioserotypes 2/O:3 and 1/O:1 of Y. pseudotuberculosis have been shown to predominate.
Szabó, I; Scherer, K; Roesler, U; Appel, B; Nöckler, K; Hensel, A
The most frequently isolated Salmonella serotype from pork in Germany is S. typhimurium, especially phagetype DT 104. The monitoring programs on Salmonella in swine are based on enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) detecting antibodies in serum or meat juice. These serological results are used to classify swine herds in three categories to assess the hygienic status of farm regarding Salmonella infection in pigs. The object of this study was the comparative evaluation of four indirect Salmonella ELISA tests approved in Germany to detect Salmonella typhimurium infection of swine. Three tests (A-C) are based on LPS-antigen and directed against specific IgG-antibodies. The fourth test (D) bases on a whole-cell-lysate antigen and discriminates between Salmonella specific IgA-, IgM- and IgG-antibodies. In a longitudinal study sixteen 6 weeks old weaning pigs were orally infected with S. typhimurium DT 104. During an observation period of 138d clinical and bacteriological parameters were monitored and serum samples obtained at regular intervals as well as meat juice samples taken at slaughter were examined by the respective ELISA systems. Study results reveal that all tested ELISA systems are able to detect S. typhimurium infection in pigs in both sample matrices, blood serum and meat juice whereas test D showed the highest sensitivity to detect Salmonella antibodies in pigs. The sensitivity to detect Salmonella antibodies varied between tests A and C according to the used cut-off (test specific cut-off vs. recommended surveillance cut-off) resulting in a change of seroprevalence and hence may influence the Salmonella status of the farm.
Vieira-Pinto, M; Temudo, P; Martins, C
This study evaluates the occurrence of Salmonella in pork carcasses and in some risk tissues (ileum, ileocolic and mandibular lymph nodes and tonsils), that can be involved in Salmonella contamination during slaughter. Salmonella was identified in 27 (26.7%) pigs and in 13 (12.9%) carcasses. From these positive carcasses, 69.2% presented the same serotype as that identified in the corresponding pig, which emphasize the pigs importance as a source of Salmonella during the slaughter, suggesting that measures should be taken at the level of pig production in order to reduce the slaughtering of Salmonella-positive animals. The highest value of Salmonella occurrence was reached in the ileocolic lymph nodes (18.8%) and in the ileum (13.9%), representing Salmonella potential faecal source during pork processing at the abattoir. In these samples, a high level of Salmonella was observed in the ileocolic lymph nodes in comparison with the ileum. The mandibular lymph nodes (12.9%) also presented a higher occurrence in comparison with the tonsils (9.9%). These results indicate that the lymph nodes analysis could be more sensitive in the detection of Salmonella than the closer drainage tissue. Otherwise, the presence of Salmonella in the lymph nodes indicates lymphatic spread of the organism, which reflects an increased risk of pork contamination. These results also indicate that, in order to achieve a better control of Salmonella contamination during the slaughter process, it is important to consider the improvement of the evisceration practices and the tonsils as well the extraction of mandibular lymph nodes after slaughter.
Fàbrega, E; Gispert, M; Tibau, J; Hortós, M; Oliver, M A; Furnols, M Font I
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of housing system (HS), slaughter weight (SW) and strategy (SS) on carcass a nd meat quality, sexual organ development and boar taint in entire males. Twelve pens of 10 pigs were used (two trials). Half of male pens were allowed visual contact with females (MF) and half with males (MM). Half MM or MF were slaughtered at 105 or 130 kg in trial 1, or penwise or by split marketing in trial 2 at 120 kg. Housing system showed no significant effect on carcass or meat quality. MF presented significantly longer testicles and heavier bulbourethral glands compared to MM. The distribution of androstenone and skatole levels was affected by SW but not by HS or SS, samples with androstenone >1 μg/g of the different groups falling within the range of 16 to 22%. All correlations between androstenone and sex organs were significant. Housing system and slaughter strategy did not reduce the risk of boar tainted carcasses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, C; He, J; Chen, D W; Yu, B; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Yang, K Y; Yuan, Z C
A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary corn type (waxy corn [WC] vs. nonwaxy corn [NC]) and fasting period (2 h vs. 12-16 h) before slaughter on growth and plasma index in weaning pigs. Twenty-four crossbred barrows (8.26 ± 0.47 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replications of 1 pig per replicate metabolism cage. Waxy corn contained less fat, a lower amylase:amylopectin ratio, more CP, and more starch than NC. Pigs fed the WC diet had lower jejunum digesta pH compared with those fed the NC diet ( < 0.05). Maltase activity in the jejunum and ileum mucosa ( < 0.01), sucrose activity in the ileum mucosa ( < 0.01), and amylase activity in the pancreas and jejunum digesta ( < 0.05) were increased in pigs fed the WC diet relative to those fed the NC diet. But the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of starch and CP was lower for the WC group ( < 0.05). Ingestion of the NC diet resulted in higher ( < 0.05) ADG and ADFI in the second week but did not affect ADG ( = 0.091) and the feed:gain ratio (F:G; = 0.077) during the whole experiment period. The plasma glucose ( < 0.01) concentration was higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; < 0.01) concentrations was lower in the hepatic portal vein in pigs fed the WC diet relative to those fed the NC diet. Fasting 2 h before slaughter decreased the jejunum and ileum digesta pH compared with the 12-h fasting group ( < 0.01). Villus height increased in the duodenum ( < 0.01) and jejunum ( < 0.05) and the villus height:crypt depth ratio increased in the duodenum ( < 0.05) of pigs after shortening the fasting period before slaughter. Shortening the fasting time before slaughter resulted in higher plasma glucose ( < 0.05) concentrations and a higher HDL-C:low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ratio ( < 0.05) whereas the LDL-C ( < 0.05) concentrations were reduced in the hepatic portal vein. The results of this experiment indicate that although the production
Schwarz, P.; Kich, J. D.; Kolb, J.; Cardoso, M.
This study evaluated the use of an avirulent live Salmonella Choleraesuis vaccine to reduce the seroprevalence and number of Salmonella carrier pigs at slaughter. Seven batches of 500 pigs were included in each of the two study groups: the vaccinated group (VG) that was orally vaccinated and the control group (CG) that received a placebo on the first day of life. The groups were managed in a three-site system and followed up from birth to slaughter. Blood samples (n=378) were collected from each VG and CG to monitor the on-farm seroprevalence in both groups. Mesenteric lymph nodes and blood from animals (n=390) belonging to each group were collected at slaughter. At the first day of life, the seroprevalence in control batches ranged from 77.9 to 96.3 per cent, while in vaccinated batches, it ranged from 66.6 to 92.6 per cent. At weaning (21 days of age), the number of seropositives decreased in both groups (mean of 12 and 3.7 per cent for CG and VG, respectively). At slaughter, batches of VG had a significantly (P<0.0001) lower seroprevalence (46.6±5 per cent) and isolation of Salmonella from lymph nodes (33.1±5 per cent) compared with CG batches (79.7±4 per cent and 59.5±5 per cent, respectively). The results indicate that administration of a Salmonella choleraesuis-attenuated vaccine on the first day of life decreases Salmonella isolation and seroprevalence in pigs at slaughter. PMID:21949083
Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Bruini, Ilaria; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Morganti, Marina; Cavallini, Pierugo; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano
In 2013-2014, 201 pigs belonging to 67 batches were tested for Salmonella in their mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in one abattoir of Northern Italy. For each batch, faecal material was collected at lairage by swabbing the pen floor for approximately 1600 cm(2). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in MLN of pigs at slaughter, to assess Salmonella contamination at lairage and to evaluate the effect of lairage duration on its prevalence. Serotyping, XbaI PFGE typing and antimicrobial testing of the isolates were performed. Pig and human Salmonella isolates of the same region of Italy were compared to evaluate possible correlations. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 19.9% of the MLN and 49.3% of the environmental faecal samples. Nine different serovars were identified among 75 S. enterica isolates. In MLN Salmonella Derby was the most common (52.5%), followed by S. enterica 4,,12:i:- (17.5%) and Salmonella Rissen (10.0%). In faecal samples S. Derby was prevalent (51.4%), followed by S. enterica 4,, 12:i:- (20.0%) and Salmonella Brandenburg (14.3%). Lairage holding varied between 1 and ≥ 12 h (median value: 2.5h). In pigs held for 1-3h, 14.1% were positive for Salmonella in MLN but the prevalence reached 31.8% when they were held for ≥ 12 h. The contamination of MLN was statistically different (p=0.0045) between the two groups, thus confirming the role of long-lasting lairage in Salmonella contamination of pigs. XbaI PFGE typing detected 36 PFGE types. Twenty-three PFGE types were identified among the 40 MLN isolates and 22 PFGE types among the 35 faecal isolates. A total of 11 PFGE types were shared between the MLN of pigs and the lairage environment. Among S. Derby, 6 shared PFGE types between MLN and faeces were found and among S. enterica 4,,12:i:- one PFGE type was common between MLN and the faecal samples. Shared profiles between human and swine isolates of S. Derby, S. enterica 4,,12:i:-, S. Rissen, Salmonella
Mann, Evelyne; Dzieciol, Monika; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin
Microbe-laden dendritic cells are shifted to ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs), where microbes are concentrated and an adequate immune response is triggered. Hence, ICLNs are at a crucial position in immune anatomy and control processes of the local immune system. Pathological alterations in ICLNs, such as reactive hyperplasia, lymphadenitis purulenta, or granulomatosa, can harbor a multitude of pathogens and commensals, posing a potential zoonotic risk in animal production. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity of unreactive ICLNs of slaughter pigs and to investigate community shifts in reactive ICLNs altered by enlargement, purulence, or granulomatous formations. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 32 ICLNs yielded 175,313 sequences, clustering into 650 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). OTUs were assigned to 239 genera and 11 phyla. Besides a highly diverse bacterial community in ICLNs, we observed significant shifts in pathologically altered ICLNs. The relative abundances of Cloacibacterium- and Novosphingobium-associated OTUs and the genus Faecalibacterium were significantly higher in unreactive ICLNs than in pathologically altered ICLNs. Enlarged ICLNs harbored significantly more Lactobacillus- and Clostridium-associated sequences. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma, Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Variovorax OTUs were significantly increased in granulomatous ICLNs, whereas abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter OTUs were significantly increased in purulent ICLNs (P < 0.05). Correlation-based networks revealed interactions among OTUs in all ICLN groups, and discriminant analyses depicted discrimination in response to pathological alterations. This study is the first community-based survey in ICLNs of livestock animals and will provide a basis to broaden the knowledge of microbe-host interactions in pigs. PMID:24141125
Hernández, Manuela; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Luque, Inmaculada; Herrera-León, Silvia; Maldonado, Alfonso; Reguillo, Lucía; Astorga, Rafael J
New consumer tendencies are focused on products derived from systems which allow both a high animal welfare condition and a high food safety level. However, sometimes animal welfare regulations make the adoption of adequate bio-security measures difficult, representing a barrier for animal health and food safety. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella at different points of the pig slaughtering process (Trucks, Lairage, Slaughter line and Quartering, TLSQ) from pigs reared in free-range systems. From eight samplings a total of 126 Salmonella isolates out of 1160 different samples were recovered (10.86%). The highest percentage of isolates was detected at the points of pre-scalding (29/80, 36.25%), trucks (13/56, 23.21%), cecal contents (17/80, 21.25%), tonsils (14/80, 17.50%), ileocecal lymph nodes (13/80, 16.25%) and lairage (9/64, 14.06%). Furthermore, eighteen isolates were obtained from different environmental samples from slaughter line and quartering plant (knives and surface of tables) (5.63%) and three isolates at the quartering plant samples (ham, shoulder and loin) (3.75%). Fourteen different serotypes were isolated: Bredeney, Rissen, Derby, Typhimurium, Montevideo, Israel, Anatum, Emek, Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST), Choleraesuis, Durban, Kentucky, London and Sandiego. S. Typhimurium phage types U311, 193, 104b and UT were identified. Moreover, mST strain was phage typed as U311. From TLSQ1, TLSQ2 and TLSQ4, different strains of S. Derby, S. Rissen and S. Bredeney serotypes were isolated from pig and environmental samples, pointing to a potential cross contamination. Molecular typing (Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE) of these strains confirmed the cross contamination. In the remaining samplings, different serotypes were obtained in each sampled point of the chain, assuming that the isolated serotypes belonged to different epidemiological origins. Our results show the isolation of different serotypes of
Eike, H; Koch, R; Feldhusen, F; Seifert, H
The current density in the brain of a slaughter pig during electric stunning was calculated and visualised with an finite element method computer model. The anatomic model of the pig's head was constructed with the computer programme Ansys. Ansys offers the possibility of calculating the current density between electrodes in any position using the mathematical "finite element method" model. After calculation the current density distribution can be visualised in planes in any direction through the pig's head. Our simulation confirmed the common practice of positioning the electrodes for electric stunning either eye to eye or eye to ear, because the highest current density through the brain was calculated for these positions. Setting the electrodes further caudally reduced the current density remarkably and, stunning is therefore not guaranteed. Additionally, this model showed for the first time that, due to their lower resistance, the nervus opticus and blood vessels conduct the current like wires into the brain.
Lealiifano, A K; Pluske, J R; Nicholls, R R; Dunshea, F R; Campbell, R G; Hennessy, D P; Miller, D W; Hansen, C F; Mullan, B P
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether altering the timing of the secondary anti-gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) immunization closer to slaughter in male finishing pigs would reduce the increase in P2 fat depth (6.5 cm from the midline over the last rib), while still limiting the incidence of boar taint. Entire male pigs are immunized against GnRF to reduce the concentration of testicular steroids that in turn limits the incidence of boar taint. Additionally, testicle measurements and color measurements were taken to examine whether they could be used to differentiate nonimmunized entire males from immunized male pigs. A total of 175 Large White × Landrace entire male pigs aged 16 wk (59 kg of BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatment groups based on the time that pigs received the secondary immunization before slaughter. Pigs were housed in groups of 7 and randomly allocated to 1 of 5 treatments with 5 replicates per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows: no secondary immunization before slaughter, and the secondary immunization given at 2, 3, 4, or 6 wk before slaughter. The P2 fat depth levels were reduced (P = 0.054) with the secondary immunization closer to slaughter (11.7, 11.3, 12.8, 12.6, and 13.7 mm for no secondary immunization, secondary immunization at 2, 3, 4, and 6 wk before slaughter, respectively). Androstenone concentration did not exceed the generally accepted industry sensory threshold of 1.0 µg/g of fat, and both androstenone concentration in the adipose tissue and testosterone concentrations in the blood were suppressed (P < 0.001) in all immunized pigs regardless of timing of the secondary immunization compared with pigs that did not receive the secondary immunization. Skatole concentration of all pigs in the experiment did not exceed the generally accepted industry sensory threshold of 0.2 µg/g. Testes weight was reduced (P < 0.001) with increased time between slaughter and the secondary
Morar, Adriana; Sala, Claudia; Imre, Kálmán
Reported human salmonellosis cases have increased in Romania. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of Salmonella strains isolated from pork and chicken meat indicate a worrying multidrug resistance pattern. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance of Salmonella strains in a pig slaughterhouse-processing complex, which receives animals from 30% of the large industrialized swine farms in Romania. A total of 108 samples, including pork (n = 47), packaged pork products (n = 44), scald water sludge (n = 8), and detritus from the hair removal machine of the slaughterhouse (n = 9) were examined for the presence of Salmonella through standard methods. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated strains to 17 antibiotics was tested using the Vitek 2 system. Twenty-six (24.1%) samples were found to be Salmonella positive; this included 25.5% of meat samples and 15.9% of packaged products, as well as samples from two different points of the slaughter (41.2%). Resistance was observed against tetracycline (61.5%), ampicillin (50%), piperacillin (50%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (34.6%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (26.9%), nitrofurantion (23.1%), cefazolin (15.4%), piperacillin/tazobactam (7.7%), imipenem (3.8%), ciprofloxacin (3.8%), and norfloxacin (3.8%). No resistance towards cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, amikacin, and gentamicin was found. Our study demonstrated the occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains in the investigated pork production complex and highlighted it as a potential source of human infections. The results demonstrate the seriousness of antibiotic resistance of Salmonella in Romania, while providing a useful insight for the treatment of human salmonellosis by specialists.
Kagambèga, Assèta; Martikainen, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa
We investigated the prevalence of the virulence genes specific for five major pathogroups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in primary cultures from feces of animals slaughtered for human consumption in Burkina Faso. For the study, 704 feces samples were collected from cattle (n = 304), chickens (n = 350), and pigs (n = 50) during carcass processing. The presence of the virulence-associated genes in the mixed bacterial cultures was assessed using 16-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Virulence genes indicating presence of DEC were detected in 48% of the cattle, 48% of the chicken, and 68% of the pig feces samples. Virulence genes specific for different DECs were detected in the following percentages of the cattle, chicken, and pig feces samples: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in 37%, 6%, and 30%; enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 8%, 37%, and 32%; enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 4%, 5%, and 18%; and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) in 7%, 6%, and 32%. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) virulence genes were detected in 1% of chicken feces samples only. The study was the first of its kind in Burkina Faso and revealed the common occurrence of the diarrheal virulence genes in feces of food animals. This indicates that food animals are reservoirs of DEC that may contaminate meat because of the defective slaughter and storage conditions and pose a health risk to the consumers in Burkina Faso. PMID:23170227
Fois, Federica; Consolati, Simonetta Gianna; Salza, Sara; Tedde, Tiziana; Soro, Paolo; Collu, Carlo; Ladu, Daniela; Virgilio, Sebastiano; Piras, Francesca
Healthy pigs carrying pathogenic to human Yersinia enterocolitica strains are the main source of entry into slaughterhouse, where cross-contamination of carcasses can happen. The aim of this work was to determine Y. enterocolitica prevalence in slaughtered pigs, investigating the presence of carriers in relation to carcass contamination. A total of 132 pig samples (tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes, colon content, carcass surface) were collected from 4 Sardinian slaughterhouses. All the samples were examined by the ISO 10273:2003 method, and the prevalence was also determined by direct plating on CIN Agar. Moreover, to detect the ail positive Y. enterocolitica strains in enrichment broths and isolates a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied. Y. enterocolitica prevalence was 19% with direct plating and 12% with enrichment methods. Carcass surfaces and tonsils prevalence was 5.30% by direct plating, and 5.3% and 2.2%, respectively, by enrichment method. Tonsil samples showed an average contamination level of 3.2×103 CFU/g, while the mean value on carcass was 8.7×102 CFU/g. An overall prevalence of 9.8% of ail positive Y. enterocolitica broths was detected by RT-PCR, that found a higher prevalence in tonsils (7.5%) with respect to cultural methods, confirming the greater sensitivity of this technique when applied for tonsils and faeces samples. The results show a relatively low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica prevalence in pigs slaughtered in Sardinia. Good hygiene measures should be applied at slaughterhouse in order to prevent the entry of carriers and control carcass contamination. PMID:27800392
Wellock, I J; Houdijk, J G M; Miller, A C; Gill, B P; Kyriazakis, I
Short and long-term effects of manipulating dietary CP content and diet quality in weaner diets on health and performance of pigs were investigated in a 2 x 2 factorial combination of CP inclusion (high-CP, 230 g of CP/kg vs. low-CP, 170 g of CP/kg) and diet quality (high-quality, cooked cereals, and animal protein vs. low-quality, raw cereals, and plant protein). Diets were fed ad libitum for 14 d postweaning to pigs weaned at 29.4+/-3.1 d of age and 9.9+/-1.0 kg of BW. From d 14 to slaughter at 104+/-3 kg, all pigs were fed the same series of standard commercial diets. There were 15 replicates per treatment in the weaner phase (<30 kg) and 5 replicates per treatment in the grower-finisher phase (>30 kg). High-quality diets promoted gut health as indicated by improved fecal lactobacilli to coliform ratio (P=0.002) and decreased fecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli counts on d 11 postweaning (P=0.028), reducing the risk of postweaning diarrhea and improving pig health from weaning to the end of the weaner phase. Reducing CP content had no effect on gut health. High-CP (P=0.053) and high-quality (P=0.025) diets independently increased ADG during the first 14 d postweaning compared with low-CP and low-quality diets, respectively. There were no interactions between dietary CP content and quality on any of the response criteria investigated. Despite differences in the immediate postweaning period, there was no effect of manipulating diet quality or CP content for 2 wk postweaning on lifetime performance with pigs reaching slaughter weight in 128+/-7 d. These results indicate that high-quality diets may protect pig gut health during the immediate postweaning period. However, it may be possible to use less expensive, decreased quality weaner diets without any adverse effects on long-term performance when weaning older, heavier pigs and where health status, environmental control, and stock management are all maintained to a high standard.
Weschenfelder, Angela V; Saucier, Linda; Maldague, Xavier; Rocha, Luiene M; Schaefer, Allan L; Faucitano, Luigi
Infrared thermography (IRT) body temperature readings were taken in the ocular region of 258 pigs immediately before slaughter. Levels of lactate were measured in blood taken in the restrainer. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus dorsi (LD), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor muscles. Ocular IRT (IROT) temperature was correlated with blood lactate levels (r=0.20; P=0.001), with pH taken 1hour postmortem (pH1: r=-0.18; P=0.03) and drip loss (r=0.20; P=0.02) in the LD muscle, and with pH1 in the SM muscle (r=-0.20; P=0.02). Potentially, IROT may be a useful tool to assess the physiological conditions of pigs at slaughter and predict the variation of important meat quality traits. However, the magnitude of the correlations is rather low, so a further development of image capture technique and further studies under more variable preslaughter conditions ensuring a larger pork quality variation are needed.
Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt
The purpose of the current study was to find farm-level factors influencing the bacteriological prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at time of slaughter. On 100 farms, data concerning a broad range of farm aspects (e.g., management and housing system, biosecurity, and hygiene measurements) were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. At the slaughterhouse, tonsils of on average 70 slaughter pigs per batch were sampled to determine the infection status of pigs. After univariable mixed-effect logistic regressions, variables that were related to the Yersinia prevalence (p<0.05) were included in a multivariable model. In this model, the factors remaining positively associated with a higher Y. enterocolitica carriage in the tonsils (p<0.1) were an increasing number of piglet suppliers, a high density of pig farms in the area, and the use of semislatted floors in the fattening pig unit. The proper use of a disinfection bath before entering the stables and a poor biosecurity level were protective factors, although a higher prevalence was associated with a significant positive interaction between the presence of pets in the stables and a poor biosecurity level. Reducing the number of piglet suppliers, using a disinfection bath properly, and prohibiting pets inside the stables could be easily implemented by pig farmers to lower the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in pigs at slaughter.
Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna; Filipović, Ivana
A total of 156 tonsils and 156 mandibular lymph nodes from fattening pigs originating from 13 farms were sampled in Croatian slaughterhouses and examined for Salmonella spp. (n=78 per organ) and Yersinia enterocolitica (n=78 per organ) by cultural methods. Salmonella was isolated from two tonsils only, both originated from animals from the same farm (5.12%), while Y. enterocolitica were recovered from 26 tonsils (33.33%) which could be traced back to 10 farms. Salmonella was absent in mandibular lymph nodes, and Y. enterocolitica was isolated from eight lymph nodes (10.25%) which originated from six farms. Y. enterocolitica was present inside the lymph nodes of two pigs. The high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in/on pig tonsils could be the result of cross-contamination during splitting the carcasses with head. This procedure may result in higher prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on surface of mandibular lymph nodes than in their depth. Traditional veterinary postmortem examination of pig halves will not necessarily contribute to cross-contamination with Salmonella or Yersinia under conditions of present slaughter practice.
Van Damme, I; Berkvens, D; Vanantwerpen, G; Baré, J; Houf, K; Wauters, G; De Zutter, L
A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to determine the overall prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in the tonsils, feces and on carcasses of pigs at slaughter. Moreover, factors associated with Yersinia contamination of freshly eviscerated pig carcasses were studied. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 was isolated from the tonsils and feces of 55.3% and 25.6% of pigs, and Y. pseudotuberculosis from 1.4% and 0.6%, respectively. The pathogens were also recovered from 39.7% of carcass surfaces post-evisceration. The highest prevalence was found at the mandibular region (28.9%), followed by the sternal region (16.4%), pelvic duct (7.8%), and split surface near the sacral vertebrae (6.9%). Regarding the quantification of the pathogen, the median concentration of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was 4.14l og10 CFU/g in tonsils with countable numbers (n=143) and 2.80 log10 CFU/g for fecal samples with countable numbers (n=26). The quantitative load on the carcass surface was generally low as the majority of the carcass samples (97.0%) had Yersinia concentrations below the detection limit of enumeration (<1.30 log10 CFU/100 cm(2)). The initial presence of Y. enterocolitica in the tonsils and/or feces was significantly associated with carcass contamination at all sampled areas. Other risk factors for carcass contamination are the splitting of the head together with the carcass, and incision of the tonsils during removal of the pluck. Small adaptations in slaughter practices and the training of slaughterhouse personnel to respect basic hygienic instructions may diminish carcass contamination with enteropathogenic Yersinia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vanantwerpen, G; Berkvens, D; De Zutter, L; Houf, K
The microbiologically and serologically-based prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at moment of slaughter varies between pig farms due to different herd-level factors. A face-to-face questionnaire concerning a broad range of farm aspects (e.g., management and housing system, biosecurity, and hygiene measurements) was performed on one hundred farms. Factors influencing the seropositivity of 7047 pigs against human pathogenic Yersinia spp. were determined and compared to the microbiology. At the slaughterhouse, pieces of diafragm of on average 70 slaughter pigs per batch were sampled to determine the level of antibodies against enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. After univariable mixed-effect logistic regressions, variables that were related to the seropositivity (p<0.05) were included in a multivariable model (p<0.1). The factors remaining significantly associated in the latter model were an increasing number of piglet suppliers (zero up to eleven suppliers) (Odds Ratio=1.4), a high density of pig farms in the area (high versus low density) (Odds Ratio=2.3), the use of semislatted floors in the fattening pig unit (semi slatted floor versus fully slatted floor) (Odds Ratio=3.8) and the possibility of snout contact in the fattening pig unit (snout contact or not) (Odds Ratio=0.1). Decreasing the risk of infection with human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at moment of slaughter or during rearing is possible by changing farm management factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Davies, Peter R; Turkson, Paa-Kobina; Morrow, W E; Funk, Julie A; Altier, Craig; Thakur, Siddhartha
The main objectives of this study were to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns among Salmonella serotypes and to evaluate the role of transport trucks in dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant strains of Salmonella. Salmonella from groups of nursery and finishing pigs on farms, from trucks, and from pigs after slaughter were compared using serotyping, patterns of antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. The five farms included in the study yielded 858 isolates representing 27 Salmonella serovars. The most common resistance observed (80% of all isolates) was to tetracycline; resistance to ampicillin (42%), chloramphenicol (31%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30%), and piperacillin (31%) also were common. We found a correlation between serovar and antimicrobial resistance. High correlation was found between Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen and chloramphenicol resistance (Spearman rank correlation, rho = 0.7). Multidrug resistance was observed primarily in Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen (94%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (93%) and was much less common in the other common serovars, including Salmonella Derby (7%) and Salmonella Heidelberg (8%). Of the 225 isolates exhibiting the most common pentaresistance pattern in this study, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-ampicillin-chloramphenicol-piperacillin-tetracycline, 220 (98%) were Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen, and 86% of the isolates of this serovar had this pattern. Isolates from the trucks were similar, based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, to those from the cecum and mesenteric lymph nodes of pigs on two of the farms, suggesting the probable infection of pigs during transport. Class I integrons were also common among various serovars.
Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Noorazmi, Muhamad Syamsul Naim; Bakri, Wan Normaziah Wan Omar; Sathaya, Geethamalar; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi
Sarcosporidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites, namely, Sarcocystis spp. In pigs, three species of Sarcocystis spp. have been recognised, including Sarcocystis meischeriana, Sarcocystis porcifelis and Sarcocystis suihominis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of muscular sarcosporidiosis in pigs using the pepsin digestion technique. A total of 150 fresh heart, oesophagus and thigh muscle samples from 50 Yorkshire and Landrace pigs were collected from two local abattoirs in Perak from May to August 2014. All the fresh muscle samples were thoroughly examined for macrocyst-forming Sarcocystis spp. and processed using the peptic digestion technique to detect bradyzoites. The results from the muscle samples showed that 58% (29 out of 50) of the pigs were positive for Sarcocystis spp. These findings highlight the importance of implementing stringent measures for screening pigs in abattoirs for Sarcocystis spp. infection because this infection in pigs is a public health concern. PMID:28228924
Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A
Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system.
Hybschmann, G K; Ersbøll, A K; Vigre, H; Baadsgaard, N P; Houe, H
Endemic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases have a substantial negative impact on pig production, because, when present, they reduce animal welfare, productivity and generate high antimicrobial (AM) demand. In Danish legislation, AM can be prescribed only for therapeutic purposes. The objective of the study was to estimate the association between herd-level risk factors and the amount of AM use (AMU) in connection with GI diseases in finisher herds. We conducted a register-based cross-sectional study with repeated measurements from 2004 to 2007. Data were extracted from databases in the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicine, the Central Husbandry Register and the Danish Agriculture and Food Council. In total, 3192 pig herds with 26,973 records (quarters with prescriptions) were included. The outcome was presented as average AM use (measured as Animal Daily Dosage) for GI diseases per finishing pig per quarter per herd. Three potential herd-level risk factors were evaluated: herd size (number of finishers delivered for slaughter); herd health status (herds in the Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) System, conventional herds); and herd type (herds including only finishers, integrated herds). Data were analyzed using general linear mixed models with repeated measurements. Smaller herds had a larger AMU per finisher than larger herds. Integrated herds had lower AMU as compared with herds with only finishers. Herds within the SPF System had a larger decrease in AMU with increasing herd size compared to conventional herds. Significant regional differences in AMU were seen. Additionally, the results showed that other herd factors and veterinarians were more influential than the investigated herd risk factors. This illustrates the difficulties of characterising AM-demanding GI diseases in herds by the use of register data only.
Nowak, Bernhard; von Müffling, Theda; Chaunchom, Sujate; Hartung, Jörg
An antibody ELISA test and a PCR method for identifying the risk of Salmonella contamination were compared in a field study on the same lots of animals in a slaughterhouse. The results were compared to investigations carried out on two farms with different prevalences of Salmonella antibody-positive animals. Salmonella antibody ELISA testing was carried out on all 383 meat juice samples derived from the diaphragm pillar muscle of each pig. Salmonella DNA analysis was performed by PCR technique on small intestine samples with lymph nodes from all 383 pigs, and on tonsils from the last 129 pigs. The 383 animals tested came from 32 different pig farms. Furthermore, the herd antibody blood serum status against Salmonella spp. of weaners was determined on two selected pig fattening farms, one with low and one with high seroprevalence in meat juice. A total of 7.0% (ELISA cut-off OD% > or =40) of the slaughtered pigs from 6 of 32 fattening farms were seropositive. Salmonella DNA was found in 16.4% of the jejunum/lymph nodes (383 animals) and in 15.5% of the tonsils (129 animals). Salmonella DNA was found in the jejunum/lymph nodes of 41% of the seropositive pigs. However, serotitres were also positive in only 17.5% of all pigs positive in the jejunum DNA test. Two farms were selected for further investigation: farm 13 (F13), with a high prevalence of seropositive pigs, 29.0%, Category II; and F11, with 9.4%, Category I. However, categorization according to the blood serum tests of the fattening pigs after on-farm testing was very different: F13 had 5% positive animals (Category I); and F11, 23.3% (Category II). The study led to the following results and recommendations: First, ELISA tests are useful for the detection of farms that are regularly contaminated with Salmonella, but such tests cannot give information on the infectious status of a single animal (or a group) at the point of slaughter. Second, it is crucial that management measures are taken to prevent the
Alban, Lis; Rugbjerg, Helene; Petersen, Jesper Valentin; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
In Denmark, a monitoring program for residues of antimicrobials in pork is in place involving annual testing of around 20,000 samples from finishing pigs corresponding to 0.1% of the animals slaughtered. Annually, zero to two samples are found above the maximum residue limit. Both authorities and industry have expressed interest in adjusting the monitoring to a risk-based system. The objective of this study was to assess the opportunities and consequences of the monitoring considering: 1) replacing the current bioassay with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC LC-MS/MS), 2) replacing kidney with muscles as sample matrix, and 3) using indicators to identify high-risk (HR) herds and increase sampling intensity in these herds, lowering sampling in the low-risk (LR) herds, while aiming at continued detection of similar numbers of test-positives at the lowest possible costs. A state-of-the-art stochastic scenario tree modelling approach including economic evaluation of different model outcomes was used. A total of six scenarios were run for penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Relevant information was obtained through the literature, statistical analysis of existing data as well as consultations with laboratory and slaughterhouse experts. Abattoir recordings of chronic pleuritis were used as an indicator for finishing pig herds (HR=within-herd prevalence>40%). Such risk-based monitoring would have to use muscles and not kidneys, because of logistic challenges in identifying and storing of plucks until testing. However, the bioassay cannot be used on muscle tissue due to low sensitivity for tetracyclines. Different plausible combinations of sample sizes were also modelled. The HPLC LC-MS/MS method detected the same number of cases compared to the bioassay when kidney was used as matrix. HPLC LC-MS/MS has a higher sensitivity when used on muscle but it is almost twice as costly as the bioassay. Risk-based sampling resulted in detection of
Grilli, Ester; Foresti, Fabio; Tugnoli, Benedetta; Fustini, Mattia; Zanoni, Maria G; Pasquali, Paolo; Callaway, Todd R; Piva, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding level of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were separated in 4 isolation units (6 piglets/isolation unit). Each unit received either a basal diet (no treatment) or a microencapsulated mixture of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol at 1, 2, or 5 g/kg of feed. After 21 d, pigs were orally challenged with 6 log10 colony-forming units of Salmonella Typhimurium. Blood samples and feces from rectal ampullae were collected every week. On d56 of the study, pigs were euthanized and necropsied to collect intestinal contents (jejunum through colon) and ileocecal lymph nodes. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella Typhimurium and serological analysis was also conducted. In the second study, an all-in-all-out multisite pig farm that was positive for monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was followed throughout a production cycle from weaning to slaughter. Pigs received either a basal diet or the basal diet including 5 g/kg of the microencapsulated additive. Environmental, fecal, and blood samples were collected monthly, and cecal contents and ileocecal lymph nodes were collected at slaughter to isolate and enumerate Salmonella. The results indicate that the additive at 5 g/kg tended to reduce Salmonella fecal prevalence in both a controlled challenge (p=0.07) and in production conditions (p=0.03). Nevertheless, the additive did not reduce the number of pigs seropositive for Salmonella, nor it reduced the Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. The data indicate that these additives are not effective alone but must be used in conjunction with appropriate containment measures at lairage in order to prevent reinfection in pigs and to reduce the number of pigs carrying Salmonella entering the food chain.
Kostenzer, Klaus; Much, Peter; Kornschober, Christian; Lassnig, Heimo; Köfer, Josef
The Member States of the European Union are following a common strategy on the control of Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens (Anonym, 2003). Within that framework baseline studies on the most relevant animal populations have been carried out. This paper describes the implementation and the results of the baseline studies on Salmonella spp. in slaughter and breeding pigs in Austria. A total of 647 slaughter pigs were sampled in 28 slaughterhouses between October 2006 and September 2007. Samples were taken from the ileocaecal lymphnodes to detect infection in pigs and from the surface of the carcasses to detect contamination. Out of the 617 datasets included in the final analysis, Salmonella prevalences of 2% in lymphnodes and 1.1% on the carcass surface were observed. S. Derby, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were the three most frequently identified serovars. In an additional study, a total of 252 holdings with breeding pigs has been sampled between January and December combined multiplier herds. Respectively prevalences of 5, 8, 5, 3 and 9.1% were obtained, with S. Typhimurium being the most frequently isolated serovar. Overall, compared to neighbouring Member States a rather low prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pigs was documented for Austria, in particular in slaughter pigs.The serovar distribution seemed to be similar throughout the pig populations, some also being represented in Austrian human isolates. Contamination of feed seems to play a minor role considering the overall low prevalence, but nevertheless has to be taken into account in any future control or monitoring strategy for Salmonella spp. in pigs.
Ortiz Martínez, Pilar; Mylona, Sophia; Drake, Ian; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Corry, Janet E L
The tonsils of 630 pigs from 45 English farms using three different rearing methods (Assured British Pigs, Open Management and Organic) were examined between 2003 and 2005 in order to investigate if the low incidence of human yersiniosis could be attributed to a low prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia among English pigs. In addition, different isolation methods were compared, possible differences in prevalence among pigs were studied, as well as the prevalence of different bioserotypes of enteropathogenic Yersinia. A high prevalence and a wide diversity of bioserotypes of enteropathogenic Yersinia compared to other European countries were observed. The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was 44% and of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 18%. Overall, 60% of pigs carried enteropathogenic Yersinia. Y. pseudotuberculosis was detected on 78% of farms and Y. enterocolitica on 69%. The most common bioserotypes of Y. enterocolitica were 2/O:9 (33%) and 2/O:5 (26%), and of Y. pseudotuberculosis 2/O:3 (34%), 1/O:1 (26%) and 1/O:4 (24%). Cold enrichment gave the highest isolation rate for both species. Y. enterocolitica was more prevalent (P<0.001) and Y. pseudotuberculosis less prevalent (P<0.05) in winter than in summer in Eastern England. Y. enterocolitica was more common in Eastern England and in assured British pigs, whereas Y. pseudotuberculosis was more common in Western England and in organic pigs. Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:1 was predominant (P<0.05) in Western England. Types 1/O:4 (P<0.05) and 2/O:3 (P<0.001) predominated in Eastern England. The high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 2/O:5 found in this study suggests that English pigs are an important reservoir of these bioserotypes whereas in other European countries bioserotype 4/O:3 predominates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ivić, M.; Tomović, V.; Šević, R.; Jokanović, M.; Škaljac, S.; Džinić, N.; Šojić, B.; Tasić, T.; Ikonić, P.
The effect of breed on carcass composition was studied for autochthonous purebred White Mangulica (WM), crossbred Duroc x White Mangulica (DWM) and purebred Large White (LW) pigs. Pigs were slaughtered at a target body weight of about 150 kg. After slaughter, carcass yield, backfat thickness, the thickness of the lumbar muscle and chilling loss were measured and calculated. WM pigs had the highest percentage of carcass yield, while DWM produced an intermediate carcass yield, between those of the pure breeds. The backfat thickness was highest in WM pigs, compared to DWM and LW pigs (67, 41 and 27 mm, respectively, P < 0.001). WM and LW pigs had respectively the lowest and the highest thickness of the lumbar muscle (62 and 72 mm), with DWM pigs at an intermediate position (69 mm). As regards chilling loss, WM and DWM pigs showed better results than LW pigs (1.74, 1.75 and 1.92 %, respectively). Overall, evidence of additive genetic effects was present for all investigated parameters, with crosses showing intermediate values between pure breeds.
Mason, Federico; Pascotto, Ernesto; Zanfi, Cristina; Spanghero, Mauro
The effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and on the incidence of gastric lesions was studied in heavy pigs. Three groups of 14 castrated male pigs were fed a control cereal-based diet and two diets containing whole ear corn silage (15% or 30% DM) from 90 kg bodyweight to slaughter at 170 kg. The diets with whole ear corn silage increased the amount of neutral detergent fibre in the stomach contents, the weight of the organs and the area of the pyloric region. Follicular gastritis was significantly lower and gastritis less severe in pigs fed the whole ear corn silage diets than pigs fed the control diet. The inclusion of whole ear corn silage in the diet influenced the development of the stomach and reduced the incidence of gastritis in heavy pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Luque, Inmaculada; Amarilla, Shyrley Paola; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Fernández, Layla; Huerta, Belén; Carrasco, Librado; Ruiz, Pilar; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime
Free-range pigs can be infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and may contribute to the spread of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). In the present study, the diagnostic values of bacteriological culture, a duplex real-time quantitative PCR and an antibody ELISA were evaluated in an abattoir study of submandibular lymph nodes and serum samples from 73 pigs with and without lesions consistent with bTB. The duplex qPCR was an accurate method for diagnosis of TB in pigs (specificity 100%; sensitivity 80%). Combining qPCR with histopathology improved sensitivity and had very good concordance (κ = 0.94) with the reference method. Serological results suggest that the antibody ELISA can be used for monitoring herds but not individuals.
Elbers, A R; Cromwijk, W A; Hunneman, W A; Tielen, M J
veterinary drugs. Using a log book will also enable the pig farmer to estimate whether groups of animals may be sent to the slaughter-house without involving risks to public health.
Offermann, U; Bodmer, T; Audigé, L; Jemmi, T
Clinically healthy food animals can be reservoirs for various foodborne pathogens. In general, such animals do not have lesions that are visible during meat inspection. Pigs are considered to be carriers of salmonella, yersinia and mycobacteria, but the risk of transmission to humans is difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to estimate the actual prevalence of the three above mentioned pathogens in the Swiss pig population and to comment on their significance. A total of 570 samples each of tonsils and mesenteric lymphnodes, were collected at two slaughterhouses from carcasses of apparently healthy pigs and analyzed for the presence of salmonella, yersinia and mycobacteria. The prevalence of salmonella (0.9%) was found to be lower than--while that of yersinia (8.1%) and mycobacteria (12.8%) about equal to--results reported from other European countries. Yersinia typing showed that serotype O:9 of Yersinia enterocolitica (2.5%) was 6 to 7 times more frequent than serotype O:3 (0.4%)--formerly the most frequent serotype. Mycobacterium avium was the most frequent isolate (90.7%) among the mycobacteria isolated. Although all three pathogens are present in the Swiss pig population, we consider the risk of transmission to humans via consumption of pork as low. Appropriate preventive measures and quality management should contribute to keep the risk under control.
Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L
This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P < 0.05). The qPCR analysis showed that feeding with lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P < 0.05). T-RFLP analysis showed that four of the most abundant bacteria with terminal restriction fragment values >5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study showed that even a short
Powell, L F; Cheney, T E A; Williamson, S; Guy, E; Smith, R P; Davies, R H
An abattoir-based study was undertaken between January and May 2013 to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. carriage and seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) in UK pigs at slaughter. In total, 626 pigs were sampled at 14 abattoirs that together process 80% of the annual UK pig slaughter throughput. Sampling was weighted by abattoir throughput and sampling dates and pig carcasses were randomly selected. Rectal swabs, blood samples, carcass swabs and the whole caecum, tonsils, heart and tongue were collected. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 30·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26·5-34·6] of caecal content samples but only 9·6% (95% CI 7·3-11·9) of carcass swabs, which was significantly lower than in a UK survey in 2006-2007. S. Typhimurium and S. 4,,12:i:- were the most commonly isolated serovars, followed by S. Derby and S. Bovismorbificans. The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica carriage in tonsils was 28·7% (95% CI 24·8-32·7) whereas carcass contamination was much lower at 1·8% (95% CI 0·7-2·8). The seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and PRRSv was 7·4% (95% CI 5·3-9·5) and 58·3% (95% CI 53·1-63·4), respectively. This study provides a comparison to previous abattoir-based prevalence surveys for Salmonella and Yersinia, and the first UK-wide seroprevalence estimates for antibodies to Toxoplasma and PRRSv in pigs at slaughter.
Background In years past, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been frequently detected in pigs in Europe, North America and Asia. Recent, yet sporadic studies have revealed a low occurrence of MRSA in Switzerland. In 2009, a monitoring survey of the prevalence and genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in slaughter pigs in Switzerland was conducted using methods recommended by the EU guidelines, and using a sampling strategy evenly distributed throughout the year and representative of the Swiss slaughter pig population. Monitoring should determine if the overall prevalence of MRSA in the entire country is increasing over the years and if specific multi-resistant MRSA clones are spreading over the country. Results In 2009, the nasal cavities of eight out of 405 randomly selected pigs were positive for MRSA, representing a prevalence of 2.0% (95% CI 0.9-3.9). The following year, 23 out of 392 pigs were positive for MRSA [5.9% prevalence (95% CI 3.8-8.7)]. Three multilocus sequence types (ST), four spa types and two types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements were detected. The most frequent genotypes were ST398 (MLST)-(spa)t034-V(SCCmec) (n = 18) and ST49-t208-V (n = 7), followed by ST398-t011-V (n = 4), ST398-t1451-V (n = 1), and ST1-t2279-IVc (n = 1). The isolates displayed resistance to ß-lactams [mecA, (31/31); blaZ, (19/31)]; tetracycline [tet(M), (31/31); tet(K), (30/31)] (n = 31); macrolides and lincosamides [erm(C) (4/31) or erm(A) (18/31)] (n = 22); tiamulin [vga(A)v (9/31) or unknown mechanism (18/31)] (n = 27); trimethoprim [dfr(G) (18/31); spectinomycin [ant(9)-Ia (19/31) or unknown mechanism (3/31)] (n = 22); streptomycin [str (19/31)]; sulphamethoxazole (7/31) and ciprofloxacin (n = 1) (mechanisms not determined). Conclusions This study is the first to describe the presence of MRSA ST49 in slaughter pigs, and to demonstrate a significant and nearly three-fold increase of MRSA prevalence in pigs within
Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection
Goldbach, Stine Gissel; Alban, Lis
In Denmark, it was agreed to lower the Salmonella prevalence in pork to 1.2% before the end of 2006. The current control did not seem to be sufficient to attain this goal. Therefore, four alternatives to the existing Danish control strategy for Salmonella in pork were compared in a cost-benefit analysis: (1) hot-water decontamination of all pigs at slaughter, (2) sanitary slaughter of pigs from herds with high levels of Salmonella, (3) use of home-mixed feed in herds with slaughter pigs and (4) use of acidified feed for slaughter pigs. The data originated from official statistics, published papers as well as expert opinion. The partial cost-benefit analysis was restricted to slaughterhouses affiliated with the Danish Meat Association and Danish human cases ascribable to pork from these slaughterhouses. Only hot-water decontamination was socio-economically profitable. Hot-water decontamination had a net present value over 15 years of 3.5 million euros. For sanitary slaughter the net present value was - 43.6 million euros, for home-mixed feed it was - 262.3 million euros and for acidified feed it was - 79.9 million euros. For all alternatives the costs were born solely by the pig sector, whereas primarily the consumers and public authorities received the benefits. The conclusions were robust in sensitivity analyses.
Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J
Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment.
Laevens, H; Koenen, F; Deluyker, H; de Kruif, A
The spread of classical swine fever virus was investigated in an isolation unit containing four pens, each containing six slaughter pigs. One pig in the middle pen of three adjacent pens was inoculated intramuscularly and intranasally with the virus. The fourth pen was located in a separate compartment. The pens were visited in a strict order to study, first, the effect of indirect contact via contaminated clothing and footwear on the spread of the virus to adjacent pens and, secondly, the airborne transmission of the virus between compartments. The pigs were examined and blood samples were taken every other day for 62 days for virological and serological analyses. The virus was highly contagious for the five pigs that were in direct contact with the inoculated pig, but spread to the other pens only after all the pigs in the originally infected pen had become viraemic. The spread of the virus was promoted by contaminated clothing and footwear, but airborne transmission contributed considerably to the spread of the virus within the pighouse. The first clinical signs observed after the virus was introduced into a pen were decreased feed intake, increased mean rectal temperature and apathy. Neither the clinical course of the infection, nor the pattern of seroconversion observed over time, was affected by the differences in the intensity of contact with the virus between the pigs in the different pens.
Mann, Evelyne; Wagner, Martin; Schmoll, Friedrich; Slaghuis, Jörg; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Mester, Patrick
Traditionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is based on culture-dependent technologies. However, molecular quantification could forge additional, detailed information. A prerequisite of quantitative real-time PCR in animal science is a tissue preparation method where large volumes of tissue material can be reduced and particularly target cells can be concentrated. An easy-to-use sample preparation method for food (Matrix-Lysis) was recently adapted to tissues and now permits quantification of target cells from up to 5 g of organic matrix. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of Matrix-Lysis for quantification of Salmonella in porcine ileocaecal lymph nodes (ICLNs). After demonstrating constant recovery rates, ICLNs from 540 pigs were examined for Salmonella spp. with Matrix-Lysis. Samples were also analysed using ISO 6579:2002, a combined enrichment/qPCR method and a lateral flow test. It could be shown that qPCR coupled with Matrix-Lysis can contribute to QMRA in food safety by enabling reproducible quantitative data, even at low contamination rates.
Astorga, Rafael Jesús Márquez; Salaberria, Aurora Echeita; García, Alfonso Maldonado; Jimenez, Silvia Valdezate; Martinez, Alfonso Carbonero; García, Ana Aladueña; Casas, Antonio Arenas
The prevalence of and the antibiotic resistance shown by Salmonella isolated from pigs in Andalusia (southern Spain) is reported. Salmonella enterica was recovered from 40 (33%) of 121 sampled herds, and a total of 65 isolates were serotyped. The most common Salmonella serotypes were Typhimurium and Rissen (30.7% each); others included Derby (9.2%), Brandenburg (9.2%), Newport (7.7%), Bredeney (4.6%), Anatum (3.0%), Hadar (1.5%), and Goldcoast (1.5%). One strain (1.5%) belonging to the monophasic variant of the Typhimurium serotype (Salmonella 4,5,12:i: -) was also detected. Definitive phage type (DT) 104b was the most common Typhimurium phage type isolated. These Salmonella strains were resistant to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracycline (84.6%), streptomycin (69.2%), neomycin (63.0%), sulfonamides (61.5%), ampicillin (53.8%), and amoxicillin (53.8%). All isolates were fully susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and colistin. Thirty-nine strains (64%) resistant to four or more antimicrobial agents were defined as multidrug resistant. Multidrug resistance profiles were observed in Salmonella serotypes Typhimurium, Rissen, Brandenburg, Bredeney, a monophasic variant, Gold-coast, Hadar, and Anatum, with serotypes Typhimurium and Brandenburg showing the most complicated resistance patterns (resistant to > or = 11 drugs).
Narucka, U; Westendorp, J F
Of sixty pigs in which the tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes, caecal contents, liver and bile, urinary bladder and bone marrow were examined for the presence of Salmonella, thirty-six (60 per cent) were found to be positive. The results were as follows: tonsils alone one, mesenteric lymph nodes alone five, tonsils plus mesenteric lymph nodes two, mesenteric lymph nodes plus caecal contents seven, tonsils plus caecal contents six, tonsils plus mesenteric lymph nodes plus caecal contents six, caecal contents plus liver and bile one, mesenteric lymph nodes plus caecal contents plus liver and bile one. Salmonella was not found to be present in the urinary bladder and bone marrow. It is oncluded that in the manufacture of "meat" (muscular tissue obtained by scraping bones), the bone marrow fraction does not contribute to contamination of this meat with Salmonella. Of the total number of seventy-eight strains isolated, fifty-two were of the sero-type S. typhimurium (66 2/3 per cent).
Espinosa-Gongora, C; Larsen, J; Moodley, A; Nielsen, J P; Skov, R L; Andreasen, M; Guardabassi, L
The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Dust and pigs at five age groups were sampled in six Danish MRSA-positive pig farms. MRSA CC398 was isolated from 284 of the 391 samples tested, including 230 (74%) animal and 54 (68%) environmental samples. PFGE analysis of a subset of 48 isolates, including the six strains previously isolated from farm workers, revealed the existence of farm-specific pulsotypes. With a single exception, human, environmental and porcine isolates originating from the same farm clustered together in the PFGE cluster analysis, indicating that spread of MRSA CC398 in Danish pig farms is mainly due to clonal dissemination of farm-specific lineages that can be discriminated by PFGE. This finding has important implications for planning future epidemiological studies investigating the spread of CC398 in pig farming.
Background The nasal microbiota of pigs has been poorly assessed but could play a role in carriage of important microorganisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objectives of this study were to describe the nasal microbiota in slaughter age pigs, to evaluate the impact of farm management on the nasal microbiota and to provide a preliminary assessment of the influence of the microbiota on MRSA carriage. Results Nasal swabs were collected from five MRSA positive and eight MRSA negative pigs on one farm that used a liquid feeding system and routine tylosin treatment, and seven MRSA negative pigs from an antibiotic-free farm that used conventional feeding. A total of 946310 sequences passed all quality control filters. The number of sequences per sample ranged from 4307 to 165656 (mean 56092, SD 40007). CatchAll analysis of richness predicted a mean of 1749 OTUs (range 213–3736, SD 996). Overall, 6291 OTUs were identified, yet 5125 (81%) were identified less than 10 times and the 12 most abundant OTUs accounted for 80.7% of sequences. Proteobacteria predominated in all but two samples. Liquid-fed/tylosin-exposed pigs had significantly lower relative abundances of Verrucomicrobia (P = 0.004), Fibrobacteres (P = <0.0001) and sequences unclassified at the phylum level (P = 0.028). When comparing only liquid-fed pigs, MRSA carriers had significantly more Bacteroidetes (P = 0.037) than MRSA negative pigs. 124 genera were identified, with Moraxella accounting for 35.4% of sequences. In the Jaccard index tree, five of eight MRSA positive pigs clustered closely together, as did six of the seven conventionally-fed pigs. A significant difference was identified between conventional and liquid-fed pigs using parsimony test with the Jaccard (P < 0.001) but not the Yue&Clayton (P = 0.26) index. There were no significant differences between MRSA positive and negative pigs (P = 0.133 and 0.175). OTUs belonging to Firmicutes
Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Ase
Host-virus interactions play an important role for the clinical outcome of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infections in pigs. Strain virulence, host characteristics and environment are all factors that markedly influence disease severity. We tested CSFV strains of varying virulence in an experimental set-up, reducing the influence of host and environmental factors. Thus, weaner pigs were inoculated with one of 4 CSFV strains in order to compare the pathogenesis for a 3-week-period after infection. CSFV strains selected were 2 new and 2 previously characterized. None of these strains had been tested in Danish outbred pigs before. Clinical observations grouped the infected pigs into two different categories reflecting either non-specific, mainly gastro-intestinal, problems, or severe disease including high fever within the first week after inoculation. Gross-pathological findings varied between strains, however, lymphoid atrophy and growth retardation represented a consistent finding for all 4 strains. Virus distribution, viral load and in particular virus persistence differed, but supported present practice that recommends lymphoid tissue, most optimal tonsil and lymph nodes, as target material to be applied for early laboratory diagnosis. The present study demonstrated constraints associated with early detection of infections with CSFV strains of low virulence. Since neither clinical symptoms nor pathological lesions observed with these strains constituted characteristic signs of CSF, the risk of neglecting a CSF suspicion is immediate. Therefore, topical information on new outbreaks and continuous enhancement of an efficient surveillance system is of great importance to prevent further spread of CSF within the pig population.
Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Pongolini, Stefano; Morganti, Marina; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bacci, Cristina; Brindani, Franco
Tonsils from 150 pigs slaughtered at 270 days or older were tested for Yersinia enterocolitica with different cultural methods. Samples were collected in three different abattoirs of Northern Italy between April and November 2012 and were analysed by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar and by enrichment procedures following the ISO 10273:2003 reference method. Twenty-three (15.3%) samples were positive: 22 tonsils (14.7%) were positive for human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 4/O:3 and one tonsil (0.7%) for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 1A/7,8-8,8,19. Seventeen samples out of 23 (73.9%) were positive by direct plating method. Among the enrichment procedures, the best recovery rate (8 positives out of 23; 34.8%) was obtained by the two-day enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth followed by plating on CIN agar plates. The two-day enrichment in PSB followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment before plating onto CIN agar gave 7 positives out of 23 (30.4%), decreasing to 3 positives (13.0%) without KOH treatment. The worst results were obtained by prolonged (five days) enrichment in PSB, with or without KOH treatment, followed by plating on CIN agar: 4.3% (1 out of 23) and 0.0% recovery rates, respectively. The mean concentration was 1.9 × 10(4)CFU/g, with a minimum of 1.0 × 10(2)CFU/g and a maximum of 5.8 × 10(4)CFU/g, thus demonstrating that tonsils may play an important role in contamination of pluck sets, carcasses, and slaughterhouse environment. Prevalence of virulence genes among the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates was as follows: 12/22 (54.5%) for yadA, 21/22 (95.5%) for ail, 21/22 (95.5%) for inv and 22/22 (100%) for ystA. All Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime and resistant to ampicillin and cephalotin. High proportions of 4/O:3 isolates (95%) were sensitive to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamicin and nalidixic acid. High levels of
Hoffer, E; Haechler, H; Frei, R; Stephan, R
Clostridium difficile is a cause of diarrhea and colitis in humans. The increase of incidence and severity of C. difficile infections in humans in past years is due, at least in part, to the emergence of more virulent strains (PCR ribotypes 027 and 078). Recent studies describe the occurrence of hypervirulent strains in ground meat products. Therefore, food animals and food need to be assessed for their possible role as vectors of C. difficile to humans. In this pilot study, fecal samples of 204 calves and 165 pigs, as well as 46 minced meat products were investigated to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in farm animals at slaughter and in ground meat products at the retail level in Switzerland. C. difficile was isolated from only one fecal sample of a calf. All samples from pigs and ground meat were negative. Further characterization revealed that the isolated strain harbored genes for toxins A and B as well as binary toxin, and belonged to the ribotype 078. Based on these results, low occurrence of C. difficile in farm animals at slaughter and retail ground meat in Switzerland is postulated. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary data and to assess future trends.
Hammann, A; Huebner, N-O; Bender, C; Ekkernkamp, A; Hartmann, B; Hinz, P; Kindel, E; Koban, I; Koch, S; Kohlmann, T; Lademann, J; Matthes, R; Müller, G; Titze, R; Weltmann, K-D; Kramer, A
To compare the tissue tolerance and efficacy of two wound antiseptics with tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) on enucleated contaminated eyes from slaughtered pigs in order to draw consequences for the use of TTP on wounds. The corneas of extracted eyes were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One and 10 min after application of 10% povidone (PVP)-iodine and 0.04% polyhexanide, respectively, the eyes were rinsed with inactivating solution. To test TTP, the plasma pen meandered over the eyes at a speed of 30 mm/s and a distance of 5 mm; the eyes were then rinsed with balanced salt solution. The reduction factor was calculated by the difference between the logarithm of colony-forming units in the rinse before and after antisepsis or TTP application. The efficacy of TTP (reduction factor 2.4-2.9) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of PVP-iodine and polyhexanide (reduction factor 1.7-2.1). TTP is more effective than the tested wound antiseptics. The lack of histological damage to the eyes of slaughtered pigs would seem to make its use as a wound antiseptic a viable alternative. In contrast to antiseptics, it supplies additional energy in the form of heat, electric fields and radicals by TTP. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chen, Jing; Liu, XianJun; Bian, LianQuan
Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire×Landrace) pigs with an average initial BW of 108.2±0.8 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i) a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii) a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii) a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM) were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p<0.05) serum CK and lactate concentration, but had no effect (p>0.05) on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01), while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05) as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05) muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05) muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes. PMID:25049863
Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine
Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended.
Heikinheimo, Annamari; Johler, Sophia; Karvonen, Laura; Julmi, Jérôme; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Stephan, Roger
The emergence of livestock-associated MRSA has become a growing public health concern worldwide. Studies elucidating the population structure, as well as resistance phenotypes and virulence gene profiles of livestock-associated MRSA strains are needed to improve risk assessment and to develop effective control measures. The objective of this study therefore was to determine i) clonal complexes and spa types, as well as ii) resistance phenotypes and iii) virulence and resistance gene profiles of livestock-associated MRSA isolated from Finnish fattening pigs at slaughter. Fifty MRSA isolates collected from Finnish fattening pigs at slaughter were characterized by spa typing and DNA microarray profiling. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. MRSA isolates were assigned to clonal complexes CC1 (n = 4) and CC398 (n = 46). One dominant spa type (t2741) was present in 33 out of 50 investigated isolates, originating from 15 out of 18 farms. The remaining isolates were assigned to spa types t034 (n = 7), t108 (n = 5), and t011 (n = 1). Although each herd exhibited isolates assigned to one clonal complex only, five herds harbored MRSA isolates of either two or three different spa types. All tested MRSA isolates were phenotypically resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, and tetracycline. With the exception of the isolates assigned to t108, all isolates exhibited resistance to clindamycin. On the genomic level, all isolates exhibited mecA, blaZ/I/R, and tetK, and were assigned to SCCmec type V. Many isolates also harbored tetM (46/50 isolates), lnuB (41/50 isolates), ermB (26/50 isolates), and one isolate was positive for aadD. DNA microarray profiling showed that all isolates of the dominant CC398/t2741 MRSA-V type belonged to agr type I, capsule type 5, and were negative for fnbB. Interestingly, one isolate of CC398/t2741 MRSA-V was agr negative and also lacked hld. A new
Sorensen, D; Vernersen, A; Andersen, S
Implementation of a Bayesian analysis of a selection experiment is illustrated using litter size [total number of piglets born (TNB)] in Danish Yorkshire pigs. Other traits studied include average litter weight at birth (WTAB) and proportion of piglets born dead (PRBD). Response to selection for TNB was analyzed with a number of models, which differed in their level of hierarchy, in their prior distributions, and in the parametric form of the likelihoods. A model assessment study favored a particular form of an additive genetic model. With this model, the Monte Carlo estimate of the 95% probability interval of response to selection was (0.23; 0.60), with a posterior mean of 0.43 piglets. WTAB showed a correlated response of -7.2 g, with a 95% probability interval equal to (-33.1; 18.9). The posterior mean of the genetic correlation between TNB and WTAB was -0.23 with a 95% probability interval equal to (-0.46; -0.01). PRBD was studied informally; it increases with larger litters, when litter size is >7 piglets born. A number of methodological issues related to the Bayesian model assessment study are discussed, as well as the genetic consequences of inferring response to selection using additive genetic models. PMID:10978292
HILL, A. A.; SNARY, E. L.; ARNOLD, M. E.; ALBAN, L.; COOK, A. J. C.
SUMMARY Previous modelling studies have estimated that between 1% and 10% of human salmonella infections are attributable to pig meat consumption. In response to this food safety threat the British pig industry have initiated a salmonella monitoring programme. It is anticipated that this programme will contribute to achieving a UK Food Standards Agency target for reducing salmonella levels in pigs at slaughter by 50% within 5 years. In order to better inform the monitoring programme, we have developed a stochastic transmission model for salmonella in a specialist grower-finisher pig herd, where data from a Danish longitudinal study have been used to estimate some of the key model parameters. The model estimates that about 17% of slaughter-age pigs will be infected with salmonella, and that of these infected pigs about 4% will be excreting the organism. In addition, the model shows that the most effective control strategies will be those that reduce between-pen transmission. PMID:17475090
van Asseldonk, M; van Wagenberg, C P A; Wisselink, H J
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms equaled the cost of averted human disease burden and cost-of-illness minus the costs of a T. gondii surveillance program. The surveillance program comprised serological testing of blood samples taken at slaughter. Break-even points were determined given alternative levels of the effectiveness of the intervention program (10% up to 90% in steps of 10%), the value of an averted DALY (20,000, 50,000 and 80,000 Euro), and threshold of sample prevalence for a farm to be under intervention (5% up to 50% out of 20 samples in steps of 5%). Since test characteristics are a determining factor in the break-even analysis, and literature is inconclusive concerning sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of the serological test kit used, two alternative sets of assumptions were analysed. The estimated maximum costs of an intervention if only benefits for domestic consumers were accounted amounted approximately 2981 Euro (se=98.9% and sp=92.7%) versus 4389 Euro (se=65.2% and sp=97.4%) per year per fattening pig farm under intervention assuming an effectiveness of 50%, 50,000 Euro per averted DALY and threshold T. gondii sample prevalence of 5% for a farm to be under intervention. Since almost 80% of the gross domestic production is exported corresponding break-even values increased up to 12,034 Euro and 18,366 Euro if benefits for consumers abroad were included as well. Empirical research to strengthen the knowledge about the efficacy of a farm intervention measures is recommended.
Nobmann, Juliane Annette; Blaha, Thomas; Beyerbach, Martin; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Meemken, Diana
The German Salmonella Monitoring Programme started by the QS-System in 2002 (Blaha, 2004) is mandatory due to the so-called "Salmonella Regulation for Pigs" since 2007 (Anonym, 2007). The Regulation does not clearly prescribe the specific muscle which is to be taken as source of the meat juice. Thus, at different slaughter plants meat samples are also taken from different muscles and several scientific papers describe various muscles as source of the meat juice, too. The objective of this study was to compare the serological results of meat juices from three different locations (diaphragm pillar, neck, belly muscle) to each other and to those of the blood serum from exactly the same animals. All samples were simultaneously tested for Salmonella antibodies by two serological tests (Salmo-type Pig Screen, LDL, Germany; HerdChek Swine Salmonella, IDEXX, Germany). Comparisons were carried out between the various sample kinds per animal and between the two test systems. The analysis of all results of the meat juices revealed in both test systems a clear decline of the OD% values from the diaphragm pillar to the neck to the belly muscle. The average OD% values of all samples were higher when measured by the HerdChek ELISA (IDEXX, Germany) than by the Salmotype ELISA (LDL, Germany), especially in blood serum. Since the results of the meat juice samples gained from the diaphragm pillar were in both test systems by far the closest to the results of the corresponding serum blood samples, it is recommended to amend the "Salmonella Regulation for Pigs" by prescribing meat from the diaphragm pillar as the only muscle for gaining meat juice.
Arega, Sintayehu Mulugeta; Conraths, Franz Josef; Ameni, Gobena
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acid fast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required.
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. Results The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acid fast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). Conclusions The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required. PMID:23647845
Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Grierson, Sylvia; Cheney, Tanya; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Williamson, Susanna
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately. This study used plasma, tonsil, and cecal content samples previously collected from pigs in 14 abattoirs in England and Northern Ireland to study the prevalence of several pathogens including PRRSV and HEV. The diversity of PRRSV strains detected in these samples was analyzed by sequencing open reading frame 5 (ORF5), revealing no substantial difference in PRRSV strains from these clinically unaffected pigs relative to those from clinical cases of disease in the UK. Despite the potential immuno-modulatory effect of PRRSV infection, previously demonstrated to affect Salmonella and HEV shedding profiles, no significant association was found between positive PRRSV status and positive HEV status.
Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Grierson, Sylvia; Cheney, Tanya; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Williamson, Susanna
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately. This study used plasma, tonsil, and cecal content samples previously collected from pigs in 14 abattoirs in England and Northern Ireland to study the prevalence of several pathogens including PRRSV and HEV. The diversity of PRRSV strains detected in these samples was analyzed by sequencing open reading frame 5 (ORF5), revealing no substantial difference in PRRSV strains from these clinically unaffected pigs relative to those from clinical cases of disease in the UK. Despite the potential immuno-modulatory effect of PRRSV infection, previously demonstrated to affect Salmonella and HEV shedding profiles, no significant association was found between positive PRRSV status and positive HEV status.
Dokmanović, M; Velarde, A; Tomović, V; Glamočlija, N; Marković, R; Janjić, J; Baltić, M Ž
Lairage time (short - 8min to 2.7h, n=28 vs. long - 14 to 21.5h, n=72) and pig handling (gentle - no use of stick or electric prod, pig not slipping, falling, nor emitting high-pitched vocalizations vs. rough - where any of these occurred) effects on pig stress and meat quality were measured. Blood lactate and cortisol, plus post-mortem pH (pH60min; pH24h), temperature (T60min), drip loss, sensory and instrumental color and meat quality for the longissimus dorsi, pars lumbalis derived meat were determined. Carcass rigor mortis and skin damages were measured. Lairage time significantly affected blood lactate, carcass rigor mortis, skin damages, drip loss, color and meat quality. Handling procedure influenced blood lactate, pH60min and T60min. Long lairage was more stressful, and was detrimental to carcass quality, but caused better meat quality compared to short lairage. Rough handling was related to higher lactate and lower meat quality.
Tutenel, A V; Pierard, D; Van Hoof, J; Cornelis, M; De Zutter, L
From 1999 until 2001, 3625 food samples were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli O157. Samples were from bovine origin (ground beef, n=549; carcasses, n=2452), calves (carcasses, n=147), chicken (breast, n=203; carcasses, n=71) and pigs (carcasses, n=85; trimmings, n=118). Vidas ECO detected 451 (12%) samples positive, but from only 27 (0.74%) samples was E. coli O157 isolated. One strain was isolated from bovine ground beef (0.18%), one from a pig carcass (1.17%) and all others were isolated from bovine carcasses (1.02%). All strains possessed the attaching-and-effacing gene, the enterohemorrhagic plasmid and verotoxin (VT) genes, except the strain isolated from the pig carcass that was therefore eliminated. Six of the strains were urease-positive. Strains were typed by two DNA fingerprinting methods: random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE revealed a similarity of 71.05%, while RAPD was 77.36% similar. None of the typing methods were able to classify all urease-positive strains to one pattern. Strains in the same PFGE cluster did not belong to one RAPD cluster. This paper highlights that Belgian fresh meat at retail level can be contaminated with E. coli O157 and that two different typing methods divide strains into different types.
Yang, Cheng-Yao; Lin, Chao-Nan; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Chiou, Ming-Tang
In total, 211 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae were collected from pigs with hemorrhagic pneumonia at slaughterhouses during 2002-2007. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for each isolate of A. pleuropneumoniae to 10 antimicrobial agents. Serovar 1 of A. pleuropneumoniae was predominant in Taiwan in 138 of the 211 isolates, followed by serovars 2 and 5. More than 90% of collected isolates were sensitive to ceftiofur, cephalothin, and chloramphenical. However, lincospectin and gentamicin were relatively less susceptible with sensitivities of only 2.4 and 5.7%, respectively. Additionally, ceftiofur had the highest in vitro activity with an MIC(50) of 2.2 µg/ml, followed by cephalothin (2.7 µg/ml) and chloramphenicol (7.9 µg/ml). Lincospectin had the least activity with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of 73.9 and 114.5 µg/ml, respectively. The data indicate that ceftiofur and cephalothin were extremely active against A. pleuropneumoniae and with minimum MIC values. These drugs are suitable for controlling and treating hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia outbreaks in swine.
Cenci-Goga, B T; Mattiacci, C; De Angelis, G; Marini, P; Cuccurese, A; Rossi, R; Catanese, B
This research aims to understand the prevalence of religious slaughter practices in Italy. Two different ways of slaughtering animals are identified. Conventional slaughter is performed with prior stunning; kosher slaughter is practiced without stunning. Halal slaughter is performed for most animals without stunning. Halal slaughter with prior stunning is acceptable for 5.90% of small ruminants. For Halal slaughter in Italy, the terms "religious slaughter with stunning" and "religious slaughter without stunning" should be used to differentiate religious slaughter practices, keeping animal welfare in perspective.
Barron, Ursula Gonzales; Soumpasis, Ilias; Butler, Francis; Duffy, Geraldine
Some attempts have been made to elucidate the association between positive serology and Salmonella detection by bacterial culture in individual pigs and pig herds. This study aimed to appraise whether the existing knowledge on such association provides grounds for the utilization of serology monitoring data for predicting Salmonella subclinical infection of pigs entering the abattoir. Serology test results of pig carcasses (taken at abattoirs) originating from 436 representative active herds in Ireland were utilized to estimate the overall cecal Salmonella carriage of Irish slaughter pigs. To this effect, two separate simulations were conducted using (i) herd-level regression data and (ii) animal-level sensitivity (0.2890) and specificity (0.8895) data, which were extracted from published articles. The herd-level approach estimated a moderate prevalence of cecal Salmonella carriage of 0.222 (sigma = 0.094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.069 to 0.431), which matched closely the mean prevalence value from the surveys' validation data of Salmonella-positive cecal samples (n = 1,098) obtained at Irish abattoirs (0.215; 95% CI: 0.192 to 0.240). The animal-level simulation generated an output distribution with slightly more uncertainty (sigma = 0.102 and 95% CI: 0.146 to 0.537) and a higher estimate of cecal carriage (0.312), which was an effect of the low relative sensitivity of serology, common under field conditions. While the herd-level simulation appeared to be technically more appropriate, since its correlation is only moderate, further elucidation of other factors related to subclinical infection should be attained for their incorporation in prospective dynamic on-farm models, which would be useful in the ultimate goal of estimating the risk of carcass contamination during slaughter.
Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Pedersen, Karl; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif
Salmonella sp. continues to be one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Control measures in terms of cleaning and disinfection on food production plants are very important for limiting the risk of contaminated food products to reach the consumer. In the last decade concern has arisen that bacteria exposed to disinfectants can develop resistance toward disinfectants and can have a higher risk of developing antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of biocide resistant Salmonella sp. in Danish pig slaughterhouses, to evaluate if there was a correlation between susceptibilities to biocides and antibiotics, and to examine if cleaning and disinfection select isolates with changed susceptibility toward biocides or antibiotics. Salmonella sp. was isolated from the environment in Danish pig slaughterhouses before and after cleaning and disinfection. The susceptibility toward three different biocides, triclosan and two commercial disinfection products: Desinfect Maxi, a quaternary ammonium compound, and Incimaxx DES, an acetic compound, was determined. We found no resistance toward the biocides tested, but we did find that isolates obtained after cleaning had higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values toward one of the disinfectants (Incimaxx DES) compared to isolates obtained before cleaning and disinfection. This could indicate selection of strains that are more tolerant, due to the cleaning and disinfection. Furthermore, we found that there was a weak statistical correlation between MICs toward the biocides and some antibiotics, but no difference in log(MIC)s toward antibiotics between isolates obtained before and after cleaning, nor did we find any difference in the number of resistances of isolates obtained before and after cleaning and disinfection.
Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Henrik E; Jespersen, Anna; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Margit B; Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Lene J
This study examined effects of the amount of straw offered on occurrence and severity of gastric lesions in pigs kept in pens (18 pigs, 0.7 m(2)/pig) with partly slatted flooring and 10, 500 or 1000 g straw/pig/day from 30 kg live weight. The pigs had ad libitum access to dry feed. Forty-five pigs were used, three from each of 15 pens. After euthanization, the dimension of the non-glandular region of the stomach was measured. Lesions were characterized and scored. Irrespective of straw provided, 67% of the pigs showed signs of gastric pathology. Pigs provided with 500 or 1000 g straw were pooled as 'permanent access'. The proportion of pigs with ulcerations was reduced by permanent access to straw (7 vs. 33%; P<0.05), suggesting that permanent access to straw may improve animal health, and be considered as one possible strategy to limit gastric ulceration in pigs.
Fertner, Mette; Sanchez, Javier; Boklund, Anette; Stryhn, Henrik; Dupont, Nana; Toft, Nils
The emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobials has prompted political initiatives targeting a reduction in the use of veterinary antimicrobials in Denmark, especially for pigs. This study elucidates the tendency of pig farms with a significantly higher antimicrobial use to remain in clusters in certain geographical regions of Denmark. Animal Daily Doses/100 pigs/day were calculated for all three age groups of pigs (weaners, finishers and sows) for each quarter during 2012–13 in 6,143 commercial indoor pig producing farms. The data were split into four time periods of six months. Repeated spatial cluster analyses were performed to identify persistent clusters, i.e. areas included in a significant cluster throughout all four time periods. Antimicrobials prescribed for weaners did not result in any persistent clusters. In contrast, antimicrobial use in finishers clustered persistently in two areas (157 farms), while those issued for sows clustered in one area (51 farms). A multivariate analysis including data on antimicrobial use for weaners, finishers and sows as three separate outcomes resulted in three persistent clusters (551 farms). Compared to farms outside the clusters during this period, weaners, finishers and sows on farms within these clusters had 19%, 104% and 4% higher use of antimicrobials, respectively. Production type, farm type and farm size seemed to have some bearing on the clustering effect. Adding these factors as categorical covariates one at a time in the multivariate analysis reduced the persistent clusters by 24.3%, 30.5% and 34.1%, respectively. PMID:26317206
Katakam, Kiran K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Mejer, Helena
Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs, finisher pigs, dry and lactating sows. The uppermost bedding material was sampled from three pen areas (resting, intermediate and latrine) of shallow and deep litter pens. Ascaris suum was found on all farms. Averaged across farm and season, the prevalence of A. suum was 48, 64, 28 and 15% in starters, finishers, dry and lactating sows, respectively. For starters and finishers, the prevalence varied with season increasing towards the end of the year when 83-96% of finishing pigs from each farm had fresh liver white spots. Farrowing pastures were contaminated with a mean of 78-171 larvated eggs/kg dry soil depending on farm, while pastures for starter pigs contained 290-5397 larvated eggs/kg dry soil. The concentration of eggs in soil was highest in the autumn. Indoors, all pen areas were contaminated with A. suum eggs at comparable levels for shallow and deep litter. Overall there were 106, 445 and 1331 eggs/g dry straw in the resting, intermediate and latrine areas, respectively. However, more eggs were undergoing development in resting areas (44%) compared to intermediate (33%) and latrine areas (13%). Irrespective of area, more eggs were undergoing development in the autumn, but overall there were very few fully developed (i.e., infective) eggs in the bedding material. Laboratory embryonation of eggs from the bedding material nevertheless revealed that an overall mean of 79% of the eggs were viable. The organic pigs of all ages were continuously exposed to A. suum, but mainly younger animals were infected. Deep litter appeared to be a less important source of A. suum eggs than previously believed compared to shallow litter. Long-term pasture rotation to eliminate pasture contamination was
Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Takai, Hisamitsu; Heederik, Dick; Omland, Øyvind; Wouters, Inge M; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kromhout, Hans
To identify working tasks and stable characteristics that determine intensity and variability of personal exposure to dust and endotoxin among pig farmers. Three hundred fifty-four personal full-shift measurements were performed in 231 farmers employed in 53 Danish pig farms. Filters were gravimetrically analysed for inhalable dust and for endotoxin by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Information on working tasks and stable characteristics were collected using self-reported activity diaries and walk-through surveys performed in conjunction with the measurements. Associations between log-transformed dust and endotoxin exposure and working tasks and stable characteristics were examined using linear mixed-effects analysis. In these models, worker and farm identity were treated as random effects and working tasks and stable characteristics as fixed effects. Both separate and combined models for tasks and stable characteristics were elaborated. Inhalable dust concentrations ranged between 0.1 and 48 mg m(-3) and endotoxin concentrations varied between 9.2 and 370,000 EU m(-3). Field work activities played a dominant role on the exposure variability. Indoor working tasks with intense animal activity or handling of feed materials increased exposure concentrations, whereas engagement in field work was associated with lower exposure concentrations. High-pressure water cleaning increased endotoxin exposure but did not affect exposure to inhalable dust. Stable characteristics related to feeding practices and type of ventilation were determinants of exposure to inhalable dust. For endotoxin, the most important determinants were use of dry feed and slatted floor coverage. Feeding practices solely explained all between-farms variability in exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxin. These findings suggest feeding systems, flooring and ventilation to be potential areas where improved methods can reduce exposure to dust and endotoxin among pig farmers. Further, they highlight
Dupont, Nana; Diness, Line Hummelmose; Fertner, Mette; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Stege, Helle
Following introduction of the antimicrobial restrictive "Yellow Card Scheme" in summer 2010, a rapid decrease in the Danish national pig antimicrobial consumption was observed. The aims of this study were to (i) investigate which measures had been implemented to reduce the antimicrobial consumption according to farmers and veterinarians and (ii) where possible, investigate if said measures were reflected in the herds' antimicrobial purchase data. Based on national register data from VetStat and the Central Husbandry Register, the study population was selected among Danish pig herds which had decreased their annual antimicrobial consumption with ≥10% following the introduction of the Yellow Card Scheme comparing June 1, 2009-May 31, 2010 to June 1, 2010-May 31, 2011. Subsequently, questionnaire surveys of both farmers and veterinarians were carried out, resulting in responses from 179 farmers accounting for 202 herds (response ratio: 83%) and 58 veterinarians accounting for 140 herds. Prior to the introduction of the Yellow Card Scheme, 24% of the participating herds had an antimicrobial consumption for one or more age groups which exceeded the Yellow Card Scheme threshold values on antimicrobial consumption, while 50% of the herds had an antimicrobial consumption below the national average. The measures most frequently stated as having contributed to the antimicrobial reduction were increased use of vaccines (52% of farmers; 35% of the veterinarians), less use of group medication (44% of the farmers; 58% of the veterinarians) and staff education (22% of the farmers; 26% of the veterinarians). Reduced usage of antimicrobials for oral use accounted for 89% of the total reduction in antimicrobial use. Among the farmers, 13% also stated that change in choice of product had contributed to reducing their antimicrobial consumption. However, when analyzing purchase data, no general trend was seen towards a larger purchase of products with a higher registered dosage per
Daza, Argimiro; Mateos, Arancha; Rey, Ana Isabel; Lopez-Bote, Clemente Jose
A group of 11 pigs was fed with 70 g feed per kg of metabolic weight (H pigs) and another group of 11 pigs was fed with 50g feed per kg of metabolic weight (L pigs). In both experimental groups (H and L pigs), it was observed that the higher initial proportion of C16:0, C18:0 and C18:2 (n-6) in backfat at the beginning of the free-range feeding period, the greater decrease rate of these fatty acid proportions regarding weight gain during the free-range fattening period took place. On the other hand, the greater initial proportion of C18:1 (n-9), the smaller increase rate in the concentration of this fatty acid was observed. The intramuscular neutral lipids from L pigs had higher C18:3 (n-3) and lower proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than those from H pigs, while intramuscular polar lipids from L pigs had significantly higher proportions of C18:0, PUFA, C18:3 (n-3) and (n-3) and significantly lower MUFA and C18:1 (n-9) proportions than those from H pigs. The alpha-tocopherol concentration found in Longissimus dorsi from L pigs was significantly higher (p < 0.012) than those from H pigs.
Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan
To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.
Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjaer; Enøe, Claes; Wachmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm
A retrospective cohort study was performed on 130 pig herds in Denmark, to assess the effect of PMWS on the use of antimicrobial drug. The study comprised 65 herds diagnosed with PMWS during 2003-2004, and matched by the veterinary practitioner with 65 herds free from PMWS. Information on antimicrobial use 1 year before and 1 year after the diagnosis was achieved from the National Prescription Medicine Monitoring Database, VetStat, and summarized on quarter within age group and herd. The multiple linear regression analysis comprised antimicrobial use as the outcome variable with (1) quarter relative to diagnosis of PMWS in the positive herd (same date for the negative match), (2) diagnosis of PMWS (same date used for matched PMWS(-) herd), (3) season and (4) temporal trend as fixed effects. Relative to the unaffected herds, the antimicrobial use in the sow units in the PMWS(+) herds was elevated significantly by 35% in the last quarter and 43% in the fourth quarter before positive diagnosis in the herds (p<0.05). In weaner pigs, the antimicrobial use increased significantly two quarters before, and one quarter after the positive diagnosis, by 68%, 91% and 124% respectively. In weaner pigs, effects were seen of herd size and season. The study support that increased morbidity occur for an extended period prior to the diagnosis of PMWS, both in the sow units and the weaner pig units and further indicate that the syndrome cease after the diagnosis, with a decrease in need for antimicrobial treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kranker, Søren; Alban, Lis; Boes, Jaap; Dahl, Jan
A longitudinal study of the infection dynamics of Salmonella enterica was carried out with three Danish farrow-to-finish swine herds. To account for variations in Salmonella shedding over time, litters from each herd were divided into two cohorts. Each cohort consisted of 30 pigs, for a total of 180 pigs. Pigs were individually monitored by monthly bacteriologic and serologic examinations from weaning to slaughter. At weaning, individual sows were examined bacteriologically and serologically. At slaughter, cecal contents, ileocecal lymph nodes, and carcass swab samples were obtained from 131 pigs. A total of 88 pigs were found to be shedding Salmonella on one or more occasions. Only the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium was detected during the study period. At weaning, no sows or piglets were found to be shedding, but a serological reaction was detected in 11 sows. The prevalence in culture peaked in the nursery and subsequently declined to undetectable levels before slaughter. The seroprevalence peaked approximately 60 days after the peak prevalence in culture. Salmonella was detected in individual fecal samples at least once in 53% of the pigs, and 62% of the pigs were seropositive more than once. Only 3.7% of all pigs were found to be culture positive on more than one occasion. Piglets from seroreacting sows had a significantly (P = 0.0339) lower probability of shedding in the nursery. Under the assumption that shedding lasted at least 1 or 2 weeks, the average shedding time was estimated to have been 18 or 26 days. An association between serology, on-farm bacteriology, and Salmonella prevalence in culture at slaughter was shown. Marked differences in prevalence in sera and prevalence in culture between cohorts and within herds were observed. These differences emphasize the need for caution when using point estimates in on-farm interventions and surveillance in subclinically infected swine herds. PMID:12791837
Kranker, Søren; Alban, Lis; Boes, Jaap; Dahl, Jan
A longitudinal study of the infection dynamics of Salmonella enterica was carried out with three Danish farrow-to-finish swine herds. To account for variations in Salmonella shedding over time, litters from each herd were divided into two cohorts. Each cohort consisted of 30 pigs, for a total of 180 pigs. Pigs were individually monitored by monthly bacteriologic and serologic examinations from weaning to slaughter. At weaning, individual sows were examined bacteriologically and serologically. At slaughter, cecal contents, ileocecal lymph nodes, and carcass swab samples were obtained from 131 pigs. A total of 88 pigs were found to be shedding Salmonella on one or more occasions. Only the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium was detected during the study period. At weaning, no sows or piglets were found to be shedding, but a serological reaction was detected in 11 sows. The prevalence in culture peaked in the nursery and subsequently declined to undetectable levels before slaughter. The seroprevalence peaked approximately 60 days after the peak prevalence in culture. Salmonella was detected in individual fecal samples at least once in 53% of the pigs, and 62% of the pigs were seropositive more than once. Only 3.7% of all pigs were found to be culture positive on more than one occasion. Piglets from seroreacting sows had a significantly (P = 0.0339) lower probability of shedding in the nursery. Under the assumption that shedding lasted at least 1 or 2 weeks, the average shedding time was estimated to have been 18 or 26 days. An association between serology, on-farm bacteriology, and Salmonella prevalence in culture at slaughter was shown. Marked differences in prevalence in sera and prevalence in culture between cohorts and within herds were observed. These differences emphasize the need for caution when using point estimates in on-farm interventions and surveillance in subclinically infected swine herds.
Verhoeven, Merel; Gerritzen, Marien; Velarde, Antonio; Hellebrekers, Ludo; Kemp, Bas
Exposure to CO2 at high concentration is a much debated stunning method in pigs. Pigs respond aversively to high concentrations of CO2, and there is uncertainty about what behaviors occur before and after loss of consciousness. The aim was to assess timing of unconsciousness in pigs during exposure to high concentrations of CO2 based on changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and the relation with the behaviors sniffing, retreat and escape attempts, lateral head movements, jumping, muscular contractions, loss of posture, and gasping. Pigs (108 ± 9 kg) were randomly assigned to 80% CO2 (80C, n = 24) or 95% CO2 (95C, n = 24). The time at which the gondola started descending into the well pre-filled with 80C or 95C was marked as T = 0. The CO2 exposure lasted 346 s after which the corneal reflex and breathing were assessed for 1 min. Visual assessment of changes in the amplitude and frequency of EEG traces after T = 0 was used to determine loss of consciousness. Time to loss of consciousness was longer in 80C pigs (47 ± 6 s) than in 95C pigs (33 ± 7 s). Time to an iso-electric EEG was similar in 80C pigs (75 ± 23 s) and 95C pigs (64 ± 32 s). When pigs descended into the well, the earlier entry of 95C pigs into high CO2 atmosphere rather than the concentration of CO2 by itself affected the latency of behavioral responses and decreasing brain activity. During exposure to the gas, 80C and 95C pigs exhibited sniffing, retreat attempts, lateral head movements, jumping, and gasping before loss of consciousness. 95C pigs exhibited all these behaviors on average earlier than 80C pigs after T = 0. But the interval between onset of these behaviors and loss of consciousness and the duration of these behaviors, except gasping, was similar for both treatments. Loss of posture was on average observed in both groups 10 s before EEG-based loss of consciousness. Furthermore, 88% of 80C pigs and 94% of 95C pigs
Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Michael Albin; Larsen, Lars Erik
This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detected in several Danish pig herds during the last 2-3 years and may possess a challenge for human as well as animal health. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Enne, Virve I; Cassar, Claire; Sprigings, Katherine; Woodward, Martin J; Bennett, Peter M
The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.
Kruse, Amanda Brinch; de Knegt, Leonardo Víctor; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Alban, Lis
It is often stated that vaccines may help reduce antimicrobial use in swine production. However, limited evidence is available outside clinical trials. We studied the change in amounts of antimicrobials prescribed for weaners and finishers in herds following initiation of vaccination against five common endemic infections: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia intracellularis. Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each of the infections. Danish sow herds initiating vaccination during 2007–2013 were included (69–334 herds, depending on the analysis). Danish sow herds with no use of the vaccine in question were included as non-exposed herds (130–570 herds, depending on the analysis). Antimicrobial prescriptions for weaners in sow herds and for finishers in receiving herds were extracted from the VetStat database for a period of 12 months before and 6–18 months after the first purchase of vaccine, or random date and quantified as average animal daily doses (ADDs) per 100 animals per day. The herd-level difference between ADD in the period after and before vaccination was the outcome in linear regression models for weaner pigs, and linear mixed-effects models for finishing pigs, taking into account sow herds delivering pigs to two or more finisher herds. Three plausible risk factors (Baseline ADD, purchase of specific vaccine, purchase of other vaccines) and five confounders (herd size, export and herd health status, year and season) were initially considered in all 10 models. The main significant effect in all models was the Baseline ADD; the higher the Baseline ADD was for weaner and finishing pigs, the larger the decrease in ADD was following vaccination (or random date for non-vaccinating herds). Regardless of vaccination status, almost equal proportions of herds experienced a
Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R
Environmental variables, as sound levels, were collected during the pre-slaughter process in 18 different Belgian commercial slaughterhouses. Four pre-slaughter phases were determined: firstly after arrival of the truck at the slaughterhouse and just before unloading, secondly during unloading, thirdly at lairage and finally while moving to the stunner. A total of 8508 pigs was examined during the pre-slaughter process, of which the pH(LT) (M. longissimus thoracis), at 30 min post-mortem was measured. For each pre-slaughter phase, variables which might influence pork quality were determined. Moreover, this study made it possible to infer a checklist to represent and predict PSE traits of pork for all kind of pre-slaughter situations. The checklist shows also that the impact on pork quality is more decisive for the variables measured close to the stunning phase. Hence, this information is useful for the industry to optimize handling of pigs, reducing the risk for PSE traits.
Sequence-Based Genotyping of Expressed Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles by Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Novel Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Haplotypes and Alleles in Belgian, Danish, and Kenyan Fattening Pigs and Göttingen Minipigs
Sørensen, Maria Rathmann; Ilsøe, Mette; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bishop, Richard; Erbs, Gitte; Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Jungersen, Gregers
The need for typing of the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) is increasing with the expanded use of pigs as models for human diseases and organ-transplantation experiments, their use in infection studies, and for design of veterinary vaccines. Knowledge of SLA sequences is furthermore a prerequisite for the prediction of epitope binding in pigs. The low number of known SLA class I alleles and the limited knowledge of their prevalence in different pig breeds emphasizes the need for efficient SLA typing methods. This study utilizes an SLA class I-typing method based on next-generation sequencing of barcoded PCR amplicons. The amplicons were generated with universal primers and predicted to resolve 68–88% of all known SLA class I alleles dependent on amplicon size. We analyzed the SLA profiles of 72 pigs from four different pig populations; Göttingen minipigs and Belgian, Kenyan, and Danish fattening pigs. We identified 67 alleles, nine previously described haplotypes and 15 novel haplotypes. The highest variation in SLA class I profiles was observed in the Danish pigs and the lowest among the Göttingen minipig population, which also have the highest percentage of homozygote individuals. Highlighting the fact that there are still numerous unknown SLA class I alleles to be discovered, a total of 12 novel SLA class I alleles were identified. Overall, we present new information about known and novel alleles and haplotypes and their prevalence in the tested pig populations. PMID:28670315
Baggesen, D L; Aarestrup, F M
A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S enterica serovar typhimurium (S typhimurium) isolates resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and three isolates of S typhimurium DT104, two from 1994 and one from 1995, were further tested for resistance against chloramphenicol and sulphonamide and analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I. Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified. The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193. Two of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant to spectinomycin, streptomycin and sulphonamides. All three isolates showed PFGF profiles identical to the four multiresistant DT104 isolates. Compared with most other countries antimicrobial resistance among S enterica isolated from Danish pig herds is uncommon. However, several different multiresistant clones were found.
Petersen, Heidi H; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Enemark, Heidi L
Cryptosporidium. Likewise, pigs infected with Cryptosporidium scrofarum excreted fewer oocysts (mean CPG: 54,848 ± 194,508CI: 9085-118,781) compared to pigs infected with Cryptosporidium suis (mean OPG: 351,035 ± 351,035CI: 67,953-634,117). No correlation between faecal consistency and (oo-)cyst excretion levels was observed. Of the successfully genotyped isolates, 38/56 (67.9%) were C. scrofarum and 18/56 (32.1%) were C. suis, while the livestock specific G. duodenalis Assemblage E was detected in 11/13 (84.6%) isolates and the potentially zoonotic Assemblage A was identified in 2/13 (15.4%) isolates. Piglets exclusively hosted C. suis, with one exception, while starter pigs and fatteners predominantly hosted C. scrofarum. As organic pigs are partly reared outdoors, environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia is inevitable. Nevertheless, the present data indicate that the potential public health risk associated with both of these parasites in Danish organic pig production seems to be negligible.
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were dist...
Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Skou, Peter Bæk; Alban, Lis
The most important lesion to be overlooked when performing visual-only inspection of the lungs is embolic pneumonia. The aim of the present study was to assess the additional human health risk represented by overlooking cases of pyaemia represented by embolic pneumonia in finisher pigs, when conducting visual-only compared to palpation of the lungs, as is the traditional meat inspection procedure. An examination of bacteria isolated from 19 finisher pigs identified with embolic pneumonia at traditional meat inspection was undertaken. From each pig samples were taken from various organs (lungs, spleen, heart, liver and kidney), from the carpal joints (A. carpi) and flexor muscle (M. flexor digitorum superficialis) on the right foreleg. These data were included in a risk assessment following OIE guidelines. Bacteria were isolated from 78 out of 127 tissue and swap samples taken (61% positive samples). Staphylococcus aureus (N=37) was the most frequently isolated bacterium. The predominant site of S. aureus was the lung. S. aureus was detected although less frequently in low numbers in some organs (<100CFU/sample) and muscle samples (<10CFU/sample). Only one MRSA isolate was found. Staphylococcus warneri (N=24) was the second most commonly found bacterium. There was no predominant site and the number of S. warneri was less than 50CFU per sample. The risk of a food-borne intoxication from S. aureus in relation to pyaemia in pigs was considered very low due to the low quantitative numbers of S. aureus in muscle tissue samples. Implementing visual-only inspection will reduce the exposure of S. aureus due to less cross-contamination and handling of the plucks by the meat inspectors. The human health risk associated with S. warneri was considered very low, due to the limited zoonotic potential of this bacterium. In conclusion, the additional human health risk in relation to possibly overlooking pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs was considered negligible when conducting
Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Andersen, Vibe Dalhoff; Halasa, Tariq; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Toft, Nils; Vigre, Håkan
Accurate and detailed data on antimicrobial exposure in pig production are essential when studying the association between antimicrobial exposure and antimicrobial resistance. Due to difficulties in obtaining primary data on antimicrobial exposure in a large number of farms, there is a need for a robust and valid method to estimate the exposure using register data. An approach that estimates the antimicrobial exposure in every rearing period during the lifetime of a pig using register data was developed into a computational algorithm. In this approach data from national registers on antimicrobial purchases, movements of pigs and farm demographics registered at farm level are used. The algorithm traces batches of pigs retrospectively from slaughter to the farm(s) that housed the pigs during their finisher, weaner, and piglet period. Subsequently, the algorithm estimates the antimicrobial exposure as the number of Animal Defined Daily Doses for treatment of one kg pig in each of the rearing periods. Thus, the antimicrobial purchase data at farm level are translated into antimicrobial exposure estimates at batch level. A batch of pigs is defined here as pigs sent to slaughter at the same day from the same farm. In this study we present, validate, and optimise a computational algorithm that calculate the lifetime exposure of antimicrobials for slaughter pigs. The algorithm was evaluated by comparing the computed estimates to data on antimicrobial usage from farm records in 15 farm units. We found a good positive correlation between the two estimates. The algorithm was run for Danish slaughter pigs sent to slaughter in January to March 2015 from farms with more than 200 finishers to estimate the proportion of farms that it was applicable for. In the final process, the algorithm was successfully run for batches of pigs originating from 3026 farms with finisher units (77% of the initial population). This number can be increased if more accurate register data can be
Estévez, Mario; Morcuende, David; Cava, Ramón
The oxidative stability and colour evolution during refrigerated storage (10 days at +4 °C) of Longissimus dorsi muscle from three lines of Iberian pigs and industrial genotype pigs were studied. The Iberian pigs were reared in an extensive system and fed on a commercial feed with access to pasture grazing, while industrial genotype pigs were reared in an intensive system. Fresh Longissimus dorsi of Iberian pig lines showed a more intense and redder colour, with a statistically significant higher CIE chroma and a*-value as well as a lower L*-value (P<0.05) compared with those of industrial genotype pigs. Pig genotype significantly affected the colour and lipid oxidation changes of m. Longissimus dorsi during refrigerated storage. The decrease in L*-value during the refrigerated storage was more intense in industrial pig's Longissimus dorsi than in those from Iberian pig lines. CIE a*-value decrease was more intense in 'Lampiño' Iberian line and industrial Longissimus dorsi than in the other two Iberian pig lines, however CIE a*-value was significantly higher in muscles from Iberian pig lines than in muscle of industrial genotype (P<0.05) at the end of refrigerated storage. The Iberian and industrial pig's Longissimus dorsi did not show statistically significant differences in TBA-RS values (mg MDA/kg meat) at the end of the refrigerated storage period (P>0.05). To establish relationships between parameters measured in fresh meat and oxidation and colour changes during refrigerated storage, correlations and multiple regression models were calculated. CIE a*-values at day 10 were positively correlated with values of fresh muscles for a*, C18:1 percentages and negatively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids percentages of neutral and polar lipids. Inversely, TBA-RS values at day 10 showed a positive correlation with initial values for phospholipid content and polyunsaturated fatty acids of neutral and polar lipid fractions, while C18:1 percentage were
Mobile slaughter is commonly discussed as alternative method to slaughter avoiding transportation stress in slaughter animals. In 1994 mobile slaughter became part of the coalition-contract between the two major parties, SPD and GRUNE, in the Department HESSEN. In the article the actual principles, problems to cope with EU-legislation and hygiene-standards, chances and risks of mobile slaughter are discussed. Assuming that some of the major problems concerning hygiene, workers security and waste-deposit can be solved, mobile slaughter seems to bring an improvement in animal welfare and advantages in related meet quality. The slightly higher costs may be acceptable in welfare-interested, high-quality market sections.
Mainar-Jaime, R. C.; Andrés, S.; Vico, J. P.; San Román, B.; Garrido, V.
The ISO 6579:2002/Amd 1:2007 (ISO) standard has been the bacteriological standard method used in the European Union for the detection of Salmonella spp. in pig mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), but there are no published estimates of the diagnostic sensitivity (Se) of the method in this matrix. Here, the Se of the ISO (SeISO) was estimated on 675 samples selected from two populations with different Salmonella prevalences (14 farms with a ≥20% prevalence and 13 farms with a <20% prevalence) and through the use of latent-class models in concert with Bayesian inference, assuming 100% ISO specificity, and an invA-based PCR as the second diagnostic method. The SeISO was estimated to be close to 87%, while the sensitivity of the PCR reached up to 83.6% and its specificity was 97.4%. Interestingly, the bacteriological reanalysis of 33 potential false-negative (PCR-positive) samples allowed isolation of 19 (57.5%) new Salmonella strains, improving the overall diagnostic accuracy of the bacteriology. Considering the usual limitations of bacteriology regarding Se, these results support the adequacy of the ISO for the detection of Salmonella spp. from MLN and also that of the PCR-based method as an alternative or complementary (screening) test for the diagnosis of pig salmonellosis, particularly considering the cost and time benefits of the molecular procedure. PMID:23100334
Shircliff, K E; Callahan, Z D; Wilmoth, T A; Ohman, C E; Johnson, R C; Wiegand, B R
A total of 40 pens containing 22 crossbred barrows (initial BW = 43.07 ± 1.61 kg; PIC 1050 × PIC 337 genetics) were housed in a commercial wean to finish facility. Pens were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0% or 20%) and chosen for 1 of 3 marketing cuts removing 4, 8, and 10 animals from each pen. Fat tissue samples were removed from the anterior tip of the jowl and posterior to the sternum on the belly edge 1d postmortem. Fatty acid composition was determined via the Folch method, and iodine values (IV) were calculated from chemical titrations, fatty acid profile (GC IV), and in-plant Bruker near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Pearson's correlation coefficients for IV determination methods were estimated. Inclusion of 20% DDGS did not change ( > 0.05) growth performance, whereas marketing cut affected performance, with the second cut producing the most efficient pigs ( < 0.01). Total SFA and MUFA concentrations were higher ( < 0.01) in belly and jowl fat from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Total PUFA and the PUFA:SFA in belly and jowl fat was higher ( < 0.01) when 20% DDGS was fed. Dried distillers grains with solubles inclusion increased IV in belly and jowl as determined by all 3 methods. Regardless of dietary treatment or fat depot, Pearson correlation coefficients between titration and GC IV, titration and NIR, and GC IV and NIR were 0.46 ( < 0.01), 0.68 ( < 0.01), and 0.43 ( < 0.01), respectively. These correlations suggest methods may rank samples equally but do not provide the same absolute IV. Belly fat had a lower IV ( < 0.01) than jowl fat using titration or GC IV methods, suggesting pigs have varied degrees of physiological maturity at specific fat depots when weight end points are used during the finishing phase. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS negatively affected fat quality but not growth performance, and marketing time changed growth performance.
Vigre, H; Larsen, P B; Andreasen, M; Christensen, J; Jorsal, S E
This study estimated the effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters (duAGPs) on the risk of antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea, arthritis, pneumonia, unthriving and miscellaneous disorders in Danish pig farms. The estimation was done in a case-crossover study comparing: (1) the proportion of days per farm where treatment was performed (PDT) and (2) the proportion of pigs treated per day per farm at days where treatment was performed (PPT) before and after duAGPs at 68 farrow-to-finish farms. The farms were selected using a two-stage (veterinarian/farm) convenience sampling. On average, during the first year after duAGPs there was a significant increase in the risk of antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea (PDT: OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.8; PPT: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2). However, the effect varied among farms--some farms experienced substantial problems, while others experienced few problems after duAGPs. No effect was identified for the risk of treatment for other diseases.
Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
Matayoshi, Masanao; Kitano, Takashi; Sasaki, Tetsu; Nakamura, Masaji
A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan.
Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan
MATAYOSHI, Masanao; KITANO, Takashi; SASAKI, Tetsu; NAKAMURA, Masaji
A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan. PMID:25715779
Gjerlaug-Enger, E; Kongsro, J; Odegård, J; Aass, L; Vangen, O
In this study, computed tomography (CT) technology was used to measure body composition on live pigs for breeding purposes. Norwegian Landrace (L; n = 3835) and Duroc (D; n = 3139) boars, selection candidates to be elite boars in a breeding programme, were CT-scanned between August 2008 and August 2010 as part of an ongoing testing programme at Norsvin's boar test station. Genetic parameters in the growth rate of muscle (MG), carcass fat (FG), bone (BG) and non-carcass tissue (NCG), from birth to ∼100 kg live weight, were calculated from CT data. Genetic correlations between growth of different body tissues scanned using CT, lean meat percentage (LMP) calculated from CT and more traditional production traits such as the average daily gain (ADG) from birth to 25 kg (ADG1), the ADG from 25 kg to 100 kg (ADG2) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 25 kg to 100 kg were also estimated from data on the same boars. Genetic parameters were estimated based on multi-trait animal models using the average information-restricted maximum likelihood (AI-REML) methodology. The heritability estimates (s.e. = 0.04 to 0.05) for the various traits for Landrace and Duroc were as follows: MG (0.19 and 0.43), FG (0.53 and 0.59), BG (0.37 and 0.58), NCG (0.38 and 0.50), LMP (0.50 and 0.57), ADG1 (0.25 and 0.48), ADG2 (0.41 and 0.42) and FCR (0.29 and 0.42). Genetic correlations for MG with LMP were 0.55 and 0.68, and genetic correlations between MG and ADG2 were -0.06 and 0.07 for Landrace and Duroc, respectively. LMP and ADG2 were clearly unfavourably genetically correlated (L: -0.75 and D: -0.54). These results showed the difficulty in jointly improving LMP and ADG2. ADG2 was unfavourably correlated with FG (L: 0.84 and D: 0.72), thus indicating to a large extent that selection for increased growth implies selection for fatness under an ad libitum feeding regime. Selection for MG is not expected to increase ADG2, but will yield faster growth of the desired tissues and a better
Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R
This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30 min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions.
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze data available from multiple studies conducted by our research team estimating the prevalence of S. enterica, and the serotype distribution in swine at slaughter, based on different sample types. A total of 1,110 pigs from three large capaci...
Borch, E; Nesbakken, T; Christensen, H
Swine slaughter is an open process with many opportunities for the contamination of the pork carcass with potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, it does not contain any point where hazards are completely eliminated. Data on the prevalence of various pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter coli/jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica) in pigs, their growth and survival characteristics and ability to become established on the slaughter line are presented. The presentation covers the processing steps from lairage to chilling and is based on swine slaughter practices in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The major contamination points during swine slaughter are pig-related, such as faecal and pharyngeal, and environmental. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) and GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) in swine slaughter must be focused on limiting this spread. The pathogenic bacteria show differences in their general mechanism of distribution. The major contamination source of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Y. enterocolitica is the pig, and the contamination of carcasses with these bacteria may be limited, provided that only strict slaughtering procedures are used. Other organisms such as Aeromonas spp., L. moncytogenes/Listeria spp. and S. aureus can be endemic in the processing environment. Since endemic bacteria can be controlled by proper cleaning and disinfection, these organisms are useful as indicators for the success of GMP rules. The following affiliation to CPs or CCPs made for specific steps during slaughter and dressing may serve as a guidance: (i) lairage (CP), (ii) killing (CP), (iii) scalding (CP), (iv) dehairing (CP), (v) singeing/flaming (CP), (vi) polishing (CP), (vii) circumanal incision and removal of the intestines (CCP), (viii) excision of the tongue, pharynx, and in particular the tonsils (CCP), (ix) splitting (CP), (x) post mortem inspection procedures (CCP
Arguello, Hector; Alvarez-Ordoñez, Avelinó; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro; Prieto, Miguel
Salmonella is one of the major foodborne pathogens worldwide. Pork products are among the main sources of Salmonella infection in humans, and several countries have established Salmonella surveillance and control programs. The role of slaughtering in carcass contamination has been indicated by studies focused on the slaughterhouse environment. In this review, we examine and discuss the information available regarding the influence that farm status, pig transport, and lairage have on the carriage of Salmonella by pigs entering the slaughter line. The evolution of carcass contamination throughout the slaughtering process, the main sources of contamination in the dirty and clean zones of the slaughter line, and previously reported prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses and factors affecting this prevalence also are discussed. The importance of implementing interventions at the slaughter level is discussed briefly. Consistent with the information available, pigs from infected farms and newly acquired or recrudescent infections in pigs at the subsequent stages of transport and lairage are important sources of Salmonella at the slaughtering plant. The continuous introduction of Salmonella into the slaughterhouse and the potential for resident flora constitute a risk for carcass contamination. At the slaughterhouse, some dressing activities can reduce carcass contamination, but others are critical control points that jeopardize carcass hygiene. This information indicates the importance of considering slaughter and previous stages in the pork production chain for controlling Salmonella in swine production.
Hotes, S; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J
This study focussed on the effectiveness of Salmonella control measures to decrease Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. Considered measures were the control of hygiene and husbandry management as well as vaccination and logistic slaughter procedures. Results emphasized the capabilities of the farrowing stage to influence slaughter pig prevalence. Limited Salmonella entry by the implementation of hygiene control measures at farrowing farms obtained a significant decrease in prevalence after lairage at slaughterhouse. In contrast, hygiene control measures at finishing stage were less effective. Husbandry control measures, preventing physical contacts between pigs, were proved to decrease slaughter pig prevalence whether they were implemented at farrowing or finishing stage. Furthermore, the vaccination of sows and piglets was an appropriate control measure to decrease slaughter pig prevalence, if a large part of farms established this control measure. Simultaneous implementation of control measures showed that vaccination and especially hygiene measures are mutually supportive. Concerning logistic slaughter procedures it became obvious that with decreasing prevalence, infections at transport and lairage become more and more important. The herd status separation significantly decreased the percentage of infected pigs that became infected at lairage.
Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R
This study investigates the relationship between sound levels, pre-slaughter handling during loading and pork quality. Pre-slaughter variables were investigated from loading till slaughter. A total of 3213 pigs were measured 30 min post-mortem for pH(30LT) (M. Longissimus thoracis). First, a sound level model for the risk to develop PSE meat was established. The difference in maximum and mean sound level during loading, mean sound level during lairage and mean sound level prior to stunning remained significant within the model. This indicated that sound levels during loading had a significant added value to former sound models. Moreover, this study completed the global classification checklist (Vermeulen et al., 2015a) by developing a linear mixed model for pH(30LT) and PSE prevalence, with the difference in maximum and mean sound level measured during loading, the feed withdrawal period and the difference in temperature during loading and lairage. Hence, this study provided new insights over previous research where loading procedures were not included.
Jensen, Karin H; Jørgensen, Lisbeth; Haugegaard, Svend; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit B; Pedersen, Lene J; Canibe, Nuria
The aim of the present study was (1) to determine the dose-response relationship between the amount of straw provided on the floor and oesophageal ulceration in pigs kept under typical Danish production conditions (18 pigs/pen, 0.7m(2)/pig, partly slatted floor, ad libitum access to feed), (2) to reveal whether straw ingestion explains the effect of straw provision on the stomach health and (3) to elucidate the effect of straw ingestion on the stomach conditions. Data were collected at slaughter (approximately 100kg body weight) on pigs provided with straw amounts in the range 10g to 500g wheat straw/pig/day from 30kg body weight and fed a wheat-based pelleted feed added 15% non-heated and non-pelleted rolled barley. Aims (1) and (2) included 712 pigs kept in 42 pens, whereas (3) was studied on a subset of 37 pigs with either none or obvious amounts of straw in the stomach. The amount of straw provided affected stomach health in a curvilinear manner. Provision of up to approximately 300gstraw/pig/day progressively decreased the risk of oesophageal ulceration and scarring. At larger amounts of straw the ulceroprotective effect of straw was reduced which requires further investigation. Straw ingestion appeared to be an essential intermediary factor for the improvement of stomach health. The number of pigs without straw in the stomach decreased linearly with the logarithm of the amount of straw provided, which explained the effect of straw provision on stomach health. The structure of the stomach contents increased as revealed by the increased weight and dry matter content and decreased sedimentation of the digesta. Provision of approximately 300gstraw/pig/day on the floor may be a potential strategy to reduce, but not inevitably eliminate, oesophageal ulceration in pigs in commercial pig production.
Turyk, Zofia; Osek, Maria; Olkowski, Bogusław; Janocha, Alina
This study examined carcass and meat quality parameters in growing/finishing pigs fed unconventionally versus the concentrate-based system. Ninety-six, 12 wk old pigs (34±SD 0.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups, assigned to one of the three dietary treatments: standard complete concentrate mixture, conventional (C diet); unconventional, steamed potato-green forage-concentrate based diet (U diet), and unconventional basal diet+herbage mix (UH diet). Pigs fed U diet showed lower dressing percentage, meatiness, loin eye area, and weight of pork neck (p≤0.05), but their carcasses were significantly (p≤0.05) longer and had increased backfat depth (p≤0.05). There was no impact of the diet on the meat content of dry matter, crude ash, acidity, and colour parameters of m. longissimus. Unconventional feeding significantly (p≤0.05) elevated water the holding capacity of m. longissimus and slightly improved the sensory attributes analysis of meat. The addition of herbs resulted in increased loin eye area (p≤0.05), decreased fat content (p≤0.05) in m. longissimus, and tended to improve some sensory attributes of meat. There were significant gender differences in response to all diets. There were significant diet×sex interactions for some measured variables, but there were no clearly identifiable trends with regard to any specific carcass or meat parameters. Feeding unconventional diet to pigs may offer better culinary attributes of the meat, and improve some technologically important characteristics of pig carcass, but may negatively affect some carcass or meat parameters.
Turyk, Zofia; Osek, Maria; Olkowski, Bogusław; Janocha, Alina
This study examined carcass and meat quality parameters in growing/finishing pigs fed unconventionally versus the concentrate-based system. Ninety-six, 12 wk old pigs (34±SD 0.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups, assigned to one of the three dietary treatments: standard complete concentrate mixture, conventional (C diet); unconventional, steamed potato-green forage-concentrate based diet (U diet), and unconventional basal diet+herbage mix (UH diet). Pigs fed U diet showed lower dressing percentage, meatiness, loin eye area, and weight of pork neck (p≤0.05), but their carcasses were significantly (p≤0.05) longer and had increased backfat depth (p≤0.05). There was no impact of the diet on the meat content of dry matter, crude ash, acidity, and colour parameters of m. longissimus. Unconventional feeding significantly (p≤0.05) elevated water the holding capacity of m. longissimus and slightly improved the sensory attributes analysis of meat. The addition of herbs resulted in increased loin eye area (p≤0.05), decreased fat content (p≤0.05) in m. longissimus, and tended to improve some sensory attributes of meat. There were significant gender differences in response to all diets. There were significant diet×sex interactions for some measured variables, but there were no clearly identifiable trends with regard to any specific carcass or meat parameters. Feeding unconventional diet to pigs may offer better culinary attributes of the meat, and improve some technologically important characteristics of pig carcass, but may negatively affect some carcass or meat parameters. PMID:25050003
Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli obtained from Danish pigs, pig farmers and their families from farms with high or no consumption of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins.
Hammerum, Anette M; Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Vibe D; Lester, Camilla H; Skovgaard Skytte, Timmy S; Hansen, Frank; Olsen, Stefan S; Mordhorst, Hanne; Skov, Robert L; Aarestrup, Frank M; Agersø, Yvonne
To compare and characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from pigsties, pig farmers and their families on farms with previous high or no use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Twenty farms with no third- or fourth-generation cephalosporin use and 19 herds with previous frequent use were included. The ESBL-producing isolates detected in humans and pigs were characterized by ESBL genotype, PFGE, susceptibility to non-β-lactam antibiotics and phylotype, and selected isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Furthermore, transferability of bla(CTX-M-)1 from both human and pig isolates was studied and plasmid incompatibility groups were defined. The volunteers answered a questionnaire including epidemiological risk factors for carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected in pigs on 79% of the farms with high consumption of cephalosporins compared with 20% of the pigs on farms with no consumption. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected in 19 of the 195 human participants and all but one had contact with pigs. The genes found in both humans and pigs at the same farms were blaCTX-M-1 (eight farms), bla(CTX-M-14) (one farm) and bla(SHV-12) (one farm). At four farms ESBL-producing E. coli isolates with the same CTX-M enzyme, phylotype, PFGE type and MLST type were detected in both pigs and farmers. The majority of the plasmids with bla(CTX-M-1) were transferable by conjugation and belonged to incompatibility group IncI1, IncF, or IncN. The present study shows an increased frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli on farms with high consumption of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins and indicates transfer of either ESBL-producing E. coli or plasmids between pigs and farmers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pannwitz, S; Riechert, D; Wolter, F; Franze, F
Economy of prophylactic haemoserological control of pig stocks in a district as well as of a sow breeding unit and of cattle stocks on two industrialised fattening farms has been enhanced by including blood samples from routine slaughtering. Preliminary organisational experience is reported in this paper. The samples collected samples collected from normally slaughtered selected sows may contribute to an improvement of veterinary production control.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Slaughter. 65.250 Section 65.250 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.250 Slaughter. Slaughter means the point in...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Slaughter. 65.250 Section 65.250 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.250 Slaughter. Slaughter means the point in...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Slaughter. 65.250 Section 65.250 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.250 Slaughter. Slaughter means the point in...
Interventions to reduce non-typhoidal Salmonella in pigs during transport to slaughter and lairage: Systematic review, meta-analysis, and research synthesis based infection models in support of assessment of effectiveness.
Wilhelm, Barbara J; Young, Ian; Cahill, Sarah; Desmarchelier, Patricia; Nakagawa, Rei; Rajić, Andrijana
A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce Salmonella prevalence or concentration in pork was undertaken. A broad search was conducted in two electronic databases. Each citation was appraised using screening tools designed and tested a priori. Level 1 relevance screening excluded irrelevant citations; level 2 confirmed relevance and categorized. Data were then extracted, and intervention categories were descriptively summarized. Meta-analysis was performed to provide a summary estimate of treatment effect where two or more studies investigated the same intervention in comparable populations. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the confidence in the estimated summary measures of intervention effect for each data subgroup. Data were also extracted from the control groups of 25 challenge trials captured by the review, to fit logistic regression models of Salmonella infection in pigs, using odds of infection as the outcome measure. The only intervention captured by the review which was significantly associated with reduced risk of Salmonella in field settings, was elimination of lairage, which is not currently feasible commercially. The logistic regression model for fecal Salmonella shedding in pigs with a random intercept for trial yielded the following predictors significantly associated with increased odds of infection: oral challenge route relative to intra-nasal, log increase in challenge dose, and elapsed time post-challenge. Univariable exact logistic regression modeling lymph node contamination post-challenge yielded the following predictors significantly associated with increased odds of Salmonella infection: younger animals relative to older ones; intra-nasal challenge route relative to oral route; and animals sampled within the first 7days post-challenge relative to those sampled at 14 or 21days. We hypothesize that the presence of absence of one or more of these
Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils
A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However, it is difficult to sample a large number of farms from an exact predefined list, due to the logistics and workflow of an abattoir. Therefore, it is necessary to have a systematic sampling procedure and to evaluate the obtained sample with respect to the study objective. We propose a method for 1) planning, 2) conducting, and 3) evaluating the representativeness and reproducibility of a cross-sectional study when simple random sampling is not possible. We used an example of a cross-sectional study with the aim of quantifying the association of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2) conducting: sampling was carried out at five abattoirs; 3) evaluation: representativeness was evaluated by comparing sampled and non-sampled farms, and the reproducibility of the study was assessed through simulated sampling based on meat inspection data from the period where the actual data collection was carried out. In the cross-sectional study samples were taken from 681 Danish pig farms, during five weeks from February to March 2015. The evaluation showed that the sampling
Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua
Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.
Bergman, I M; Edman, K; van As, P; Huisman, A; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl
The mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are central components of innate immunity, facilitating phagocytosis and inducing the lectin activation pathway of the complement system. Previously, it has been found that certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MBL1 and MBL2 (pMBL1, pMBL2) affect mRNA expression, serum concentration, and susceptibility to disease, but the combinatory effect of pMBL1 and pMBL2 genotypes needs further elucidation. In the present study, pMBL1 and pMBL2 alleles, combined pMBL haplotypes, and MBL-A concentration in serum were analyzed in purebred Landrace (N = 30) and Duroc (N = 10) pigs. Furthermore, the combined pMBL haplotypes of 89 Piètrain × (Large White × Landrace) crossbred pigs were studied, and the genotypes of 67 crossbreds challenged with Escherichia coli were compared to their individual disease records. In the purebred animals, three non-synonymous SNPs and a two-nucleotide deletion were detected in the coding sequence of pMBL2. The two-nucleotide deletion was present at a frequency of 0.88 in the Landrace pigs and 0.90 in the Duroc pigs, respectively. In the crossbreds, the T allele of the SNP G949T in pMBL1-previously shown to have profound effect on MBL-A concentration even in the heterozygote condition-was detected in 47 % of the animals. Finally, an association was found between low-producing MBL genotypes and low body weight on the day of weaning in the same animals.
Clasen, Julie; Mellerup, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein; Folkesson, Anders; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Birkegård, Anna Camilla
The primary objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of individual fecal samples to pool together in order to obtain a representative sample for herd level quantification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in a Danish pig herd, using a novel high-throughput qPCR assay. The secondary objective was to assess the agreement between different methods of sample pooling. Quantification of AMR was achieved using a high-throughput qPCR method to quantify the levels of seven AMR genes (ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O) and tet(W)). A large variation in the levels of AMR genes was found between individual samples. As the number of samples in a pool increased, a decrease in sample variation was observed. It was concluded that the optimal pooling size is five samples, as an almost steady state in the variation was observed when pooling this number of samples. Good agreement between different pooling methods was found and the least time-consuming method of pooling, by transferring feces from each individual sample to a tube using a 10μl inoculation loop and adding 3.5ml of PBS, approximating a 10% solution, can therefore be used in future studies.
Sandvang, D; Jensen, L B; Baggesen, D L; Baloda, S B
The clonal relationship among Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from selected pig production units in Denmark was investigated by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing method to determine environmental survival and spread of Salmonella in different herds. Thirty-four Typhimurium isolated during 1996-1998 from porcine faeces and environmental samples from three pig farms designated 1, 3 and 5 were characterised by PFGE using two restriction enzymes. Farm 5 supplied piglets to farm 1 and the herds were located close to each other. Results of PFGE analysis showed both intra- and inter-relationships, i.e. identical PFGE patterns among the faecal and environmental isolates from farm 1 and farm 5. All the isolates from farm 3 irrespective of the source showed identical PFGE patterns, but were different from samples from farms 1 and 5. This study indicates spread between farms and survival of a farm-specific clone. Furthermore, identical PFGE patterns of isolates from piglet supplier and finisher herds indicate that the farrow-to-grower herd of farm 5 was sub-clinically infected prior to delivery to farm 1 and thereby caused the transmission of Salmonella.
Salmonella shedding often increases in pigs following pre-slaughter transportation and/or lairage. We previously showed that administering anti-Salmonella bacteriophages to pigs by gavage significantly reduced Salmonella colonization when the pigs were exposed to a Salmonella-contaminated pen. In ...
Funk, J A; Harris, I T; Davies, P R
In the USA, control of food-borne salmonellosis associated with meat consumption has been predominantly focused at slaughter and processing. It is expected that standards at slaughter and processing will become more stringent, creating pressure to reduce prevalence of Salmonella-positive food animals through on-farm interventions. The aim of this study was to compare traditional fecal culture and the Danish Mix-ELISA (DME) for determination of Salmonella prevalence pre-harvest in swine. In Trial 1, five cohorts of individually identified pigs were longitudinally sampled during the growing period to compare the kinetics of prevalence as estimated by fecal culture and the DME. In Trial 2, the correlation between fecal prevalence and seroprevalence was estimated pre-marketing in 49 groups of pigs. In Trial 1, fecal prevalence and seroprevalence showed similar kinetics, with a tendency of a higher OD% cut-off to more closely approximate fecal prevalence. In Trial 2, correlations between fecal culture and the DME were 0.40, 0.36, 0.43, and 0.43 (p<0.001) for OD% cut-offs > or =10, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Based on these results, a higher OD% cut-off would be recommended if more approximate estimation of fecal prevalence is desired and longitudinal sampling would be suggested for evaluating the impact of on-farm interventions for Salmonella reduction whether utilizing fecal culture or the DME. Further evaluation of the impact of Salmonella serovar present on farms on seroprevalence and the relationship of on-farm seroprevalence with food safety risk are needed prior to utilizing the DME for pre-harvest Salmonella diagnostics in the US swine herd.
Morrison, Robert B.; Hilley, Harvey D.; Leman, Allen D.
Four hundred and sixty-two pigs from 37 herds were examined at slaughter for the presence and extent of turbinate atrophy and pneumonia. Turbinate atrophy was scored by measuring the mm space between the turbinate bone and the floor of the nasal cavity on both sides of the nasal septum. The total percentage of pneumonic involvement for each lung was evaluated by scoring the percentage of each lobe that was consolidated. There was a low, positive correlation between individual scores of turbinate atrophy and the associated percentage of lung involved with pneumonia (r = + 0.177; p < 0.001). There was a postive correlation between the herd mean turbinate atrophy score and the herd mean percentage pneumonia score (r = + 0.515; p = 0.001). The age at slaughter was known for 95 pigs from four herds and was not significantly correlated with the mm of turbinate atrophy, or the percentage of pneumonia. PMID:17422517
van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Jonge, Rob; van Overbeek, Wendy M; Bouw, El; Pielaat, Annemarie; Smid, Joost H; Malorny, Burkhard; Junker, Ernst; Löfström, Charlotta; Pedersen, Karl; Aarts, Henk J M; Heres, Lourens
Pork contributes significantly to the public health disease burden caused by Salmonella infections. During the slaughter process pig carcasses can become contaminated with Salmonella. Contamination at the slaughter-line is initiated by pigs carrying Salmonella on their skin or in their faeces. Another contamination route could be resident flora present on the slaughter equipment. To unravel the contribution of these two potential sources of Salmonella a quantitative study was conducted. Process equipment (belly openers and carcass splitters), faeces and carcasses (skin and cutting surfaces) along the slaughter-line were sampled at 11 sampling days spanning a period of 4 months. Most samples taken directly after killing were positive for Salmonella. On 96.6% of the skin samples Salmonella was identified, whereas a lower number of animals tested positive in their rectum (62.5%). The prevalence of Salmonella clearly declined on the carcasses at the re-work station, either on the cut section or on the skin of the carcass or both (35.9%). Throughout the sampling period of the slaughter-line the total number of Salmonella per animal was almost 2 log lower at the re-work station in comparison to directly after slaughter. Seven different serovars were identified during the study with S. Derby (41%) and S. Typhimurium (29%) as the most prominent types. A recurring S. Rissen contamination of one of the carcass splitters indicated the presence of an endemic 'house flora' in the slaughterhouse studied. On many instances several serotypes per individual sample were found. The enumeration of Salmonella and the genotyping data gave unique insight in the dynamics of transmission of this pathogen in a slaughter-line. The data of the presented study support the hypothesis that resident flora on slaughter equipment was a relevant source for contamination of pork.
Disanto, Chiara; Celano, Giuseppe; Varvara, Michele; Fusiello, Nunziana; Fransvea, Armida; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Celano, Gaetano Vitale
Monitoring animal welfare at a slaughterhouse is somehow different from the situation on the farm. The throughput numbers can be very high, and there is no possibility to know the individual history, background or habits of each animal. The animals are unfamiliar to the staff and viceversa. Furthermore, most animals will be unknown to each other even if they may be delivered in groups or batches, and it is not rare to see mixing of completely unfamiliar animals. The slaughter plants' environment is of course completely unknown to the animals, with large areas not always designed to minimize noise or visual distraction for animals. Sub-optimal handling of animals can unfortunately be seen at many slaughterhouses, where animals are coerced roughly, using sticks or prods and loud voices, forcing the animals to move fast in the desired direction. Vets need to be aware of these factors because they can cause excessive prodding for animals, which may become balking, excited and stressed. A survey of 10 italian slaughter plants revealed that: 5 plants had slick floors that would cause animals to slip and fall, 9 plants had high pitched motor noise or hissing air that made animals balking; air drafts blowing down the chutes, which will often impede animal movement, were a problem in 9 of the observed plants. Simple modifications of lighting and elimination of air drafts and hissing will often greatly improve animal movement.
Strathe, A B; Velander, I H; Mark, T; Ostersen, T; Hansen, C; Kadarmideen, H N
Concerns have been raised regarding selection against the boar taint compounds, androstenone and skatole, due to potential unfavorable genetic correlations with important male fertility traits (i.e., selection of boars with low levels of these boar taint compounds might also reduce male fertility). Hence, the objective of this investigation was to study the genetic association between direct measures of male fertility and the boar taint compounds in Danish Landrace pigs. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars, respectively. The litter size traits, such as total number born, live piglets at d 5, and piglet survival until d 5 on relatives of the slaughter boars, were extracted from the Danish Landrace breeding program, yielding 35,715 records. Semen volume, sperm concentration, subjective sperm quality score, and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models. Skatole and androstenone concentrations were moderate to highly heritable (i.e., 0.33 and 0.59, respectively). The genetic correlation between the two compounds was moderate (0.40). Genetic variance of sperm production per ejaculate increased during the productive life of the boar, resulting in heritability estimates increasing from 0.18 to 0.31. Genetic correlations between sperm production per ejaculate at different ages were high and generally larger than 0.8, indicating that later genetic merit can be predicted from records at an early age. The heritability (based on service-sire genetic component) of both total number of piglets born and survival to d 5 were 0.02, and the correlation between these effects and the additive genetic effect on boar taint ranged from 0.05 to -0
Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S
Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.
Atuhaire, David Kalenzi; Afayoa, Mathias; Ochwo, Sylvester; Mwesigwa, Savannah; Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Olaho-Mukani, William; Ojok, Lonzy
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs leading to serious socio-economic impact on people's livelihoods. ASF is endemic in Uganda and there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of the disease. The major aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in apparently healthy slaughter pigs at Wambizi slaughterhouse in Kampala city, Uganda. We also estimated the presence of ASFV antibodies and circulating viral antigens in pigs from selected districts of Uganda during targeted surveillance. We analysed 540 and 181 blood samples collected from slaughter pigs and pigs from targeted surveillance districts respectively. The prevalence of ASFV in slaughter pigs was 52.96% (95% CI, 48.75-57.14) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.06-14.45) by ELISA and PCR respectively. In surveillance districts, the proportion of ASFV positive pigs was 53.59% (95% CI, 46.33-60.71) and 0.55% (95% CI, 0.1-3.06) by ELISA and PCR respectively. The study has found out a high seroprevalence of ASFV antibodies in apparently healthy slaughter pigs and also a high proportion of ASFV antibody seropositive pigs in surveyed districts in Uganda indicating exposure to ASFV. However, there was a lower prevalence of ASFV infection implying that there could be low virulent strains of ASFV circulating in domestic pigs in Uganda which requires further investigation.
Pleva, J; Hojer, R; Cabadaj, R; Baranová, M
The occurrence of qualitative changes in meat was studied in a set of 1008 pigs slaughtered in four sanitation slaughter houses for the period of 12 months. PSE meat was found in 206 pigs (20.43 per cent) and DFD meat only in 9 pigs (0.89 percent) of the total number of pigs examined. The rule was applied that the defect should be demonstrated by two of three commonly used parameters (the pH value, colour and water loss by dripping). The highest occurrence of qualitative changes in meat of PSE type was registered in the group of animals with a defect of the respiratory organs (32.53 per cent) and the lowest in animals with diseases of sexual organs, including parturition complications (5.00 per cent). A similar trend was recorder even in the DFD meat occurrence. As to the seasons, the highest percentage of occurrence of PSE defects was in July and August (35.41 and 29.06 per cent) and the lowest (8.64 and 10.97 per cent) in March and January. The actual disease is proved to be only one of the secondary stress to induce the PSE meat formation.
Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P; Thakur, Siddhartha
The objectives of this study were to compare and characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Campylobacter in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment. Fecal and environmental samples were collected from ABF farms (pigs, 1,239; environment, 797) and conventional farms (pigs, 1,650; environment, 1,325). At slaughter, we collected samples from carcasses, including postevisceration swabs, postchill swabs, and mesenteric lymph nodes from ABF systems (postevisceration swabs, 182; postchill swabs, 199; mesenteric lymph nodes, 184) and conventional systems (postevisceration swabs, 272; postchill swabs, 271; mesenteric lymph nodes, 255) at separate processing facilities. We also sampled the processing plant environment, including truck and lairage floor swab samples (ABF, 115; conventional, 90). Overall, a total of 2,908 Campylobacter isolates, including Campylobacter coli (farm, 2,557, 99.8%; slaughter, 341, 98.3%) and Campylobacter jejuni (farm, 4, 0.2%; slaughter, 6, 1.7%), were isolated in the study. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ABF and conventionally raised pigs (farrowing, P = 0.20; nursery, P = 0.06; finishing, P = 0.24) and the environment (P = 0.37). At slaughter, Campylobacter was isolated from all of the stages, including postchill. The highest frequencies of resistance were exhibited against tetracycline (ABF, 48.2%; conventional, 88.3%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates were observed in conventionally raised (17.1%) and ABF (1.2%) pigs (P = 0.11). Antimicrobial use data from conventional farms indicated significant associations between oxytetracycline use and tetracycline resistance in the nursery pigs (P = 0.01), between tiamulin exposure and azithromycin and erythromycin resistance in nursery (P < 0.01) and finishing (P < 0.01) pigs, and between enrofloxacin exposure and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in
Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.
The objectives of this study were to compare and characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Campylobacter in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment. Fecal and environmental samples were collected from ABF farms (pigs, 1,239; environment, 797) and conventional farms (pigs, 1,650; environment, 1,325). At slaughter, we collected samples from carcasses, including postevisceration swabs, postchill swabs, and mesenteric lymph nodes from ABF systems (postevisceration swabs, 182; postchill swabs, 199; mesenteric lymph nodes, 184) and conventional systems (postevisceration swabs, 272; postchill swabs, 271; mesenteric lymph nodes, 255) at separate processing facilities. We also sampled the processing plant environment, including truck and lairage floor swab samples (ABF, 115; conventional, 90). Overall, a total of 2,908 Campylobacter isolates, including Campylobacter coli (farm, 2,557, 99.8%; slaughter, 341, 98.3%) and Campylobacter jejuni (farm, 4, 0.2%; slaughter, 6, 1.7%), were isolated in the study. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ABF and conventionally raised pigs (farrowing, P = 0.20; nursery, P = 0.06; finishing, P = 0.24) and the environment (P = 0.37). At slaughter, Campylobacter was isolated from all of the stages, including postchill. The highest frequencies of resistance were exhibited against tetracycline (ABF, 48.2%; conventional, 88.3%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates were observed in conventionally raised (17.1%) and ABF (1.2%) pigs (P = 0.11). Antimicrobial use data from conventional farms indicated significant associations between oxytetracycline use and tetracycline resistance in the nursery pigs (P = 0.01), between tiamulin exposure and azithromycin and erythromycin resistance in nursery (P < 0.01) and finishing (P < 0.01) pigs, and between enrofloxacin exposure and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in
Bijker, P G; Koolmees, P A
Pigs's head meat is mainly obtained in specialised deboning plants and provides raw materials for the manufacture of meat products and snacks. Few data on hygiene in processing and production of pig's heads or on the bacteriological quality and tissue composition of pig's head meat have so far been published. The object of the present investigation was to supplement these data and to examine the extent to which this quality could be improved by Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP's). A total number of 11 slaughter-houses and 14 deboning plants were studied. Hygiene was assessed by two investigators on the basis of a check list. Temperatures of rooms, heads and head meat were measured. Twenty-one samples (7 x 3) were taken in each of nine deboning plants for bacteriological and histological examination. The investigations carried out in slaughter-houses showed that pig's heads were only washed in five out of eleven slaughter-houses. Cleansing and disinfection of the apparatus used in splitting the carcasses were omitted or merely carried out incidentally during slaughter. Assessment of hygiene in the deboning plants ranged from adequate to satisfactory in 13 out of 14 plants. The average aerobic colony count in Log N g-1 of pig's head meat was 6.7 +/- 0.7; this was 4.4 +/- 0.9 for counts of colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterobacteriaceae. Tonsils, mucous membranes, bone, hair and dirt were found to be present in 8, 13, 21, 39 and 9 per cent of the samples respectively. As a result of the manual cleavage of heads, relatively large bone particles (greater than 8 mm) were detected in the head meat. It is concluded that an improvement of the hygienic quality of pig's head meat can mainly be achieved by taking more care in obtaining pig's heads.
van der Wolf, P J; Wolbers, W B; Elbers, A R; van der Heijden, H M; Koppen, J M; Hunneman, W A; van Schie, F W; Tielen, M J
A national program to reduce Salmonella in pork and pork products should include monitoring and intervention at farm level. To develop an adequate intervention strategy at farm level, risk factors for Salmonella infections in finishing pigs have to be determined. In this study, blood samples were collected randomly at two slaughterhouses from slaughter pigs. Samples were tested by the Dutch Salmonella ELISA, based on the O-antigens 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 12, using a cut-off of OD%=10. This ELISA has been calibrated against the Danish ELISA to give comparable results. Workers from herds from which at least forty blood samples had been collected, were asked to participate in a questionnaire. In total, 353 questionnaires were obtained and analysed. Significant risk factors associated with the proportion of seropositive samples were identified by multiple linear logistic regression. The feeding of a complete liquid feed containing fermented by-products and the omission of disinfection after pressure washing a compartment as part of an all-in/all-out procedure, were both associated with a lower Salmonella seroprevalence. A small to moderate herd size (<800 finishing pigs), a previous diagnosis of clinical Salmonella infection in the herd, the use of tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter in finishing feed, or herds which had more than 16% of the livers of their pigs condemned at the slaughterhouse as a result of white spots were associated with a higher Salmonella seroprevalence. Hypothetical intervention strategies based on these risk factors can be studied for their effect on the Salmonella seroprevalence and practical applicability in field studies.
Kalambhe, D. G.; Zade, N. N.; Chaudhari, S. P.; Shinde, S. V.; Khan, W.; Patil, A. R.
Aim: To determine the prevalence, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. in the common food animals slaughtered for consumption purpose at government approved slaughter houses located in and around Nagpur region during a period of 2010-2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising 50 each of blood and meat from each slaughtered male cattle, buffaloes, pigs and goats were collected. Isolation was done by pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth with subsequent selective plating onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production and Congo red dye binding assay (CRDA). An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. Results: A total of 10 isolates of Salmonella spp. from meat (3 from cattle, 1 from buffaloes and 6 from pigs) with an overall prevalence of 5% among food animals was recorded. No isolation was reported from any blood samples. Pathogenicity assays revealed 100% and 80% positivity for CRDA and hemolytic activity, respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed multi-drug resistance. The overall resistance of 50% was noted for trimethoprim followed by ampicillin (20%). A maximum sensitivity (80%) was reported to gentamycin followed by 40% each to ampicillin and trimethoprim, 30% to amikacin and 10% to kanamycin. Conclusion: The presence of multidrug resistant and potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. in slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region can be a matter of concern for public health. PMID:27051204
Feed withdrawal and transport commonly occur together in pigs. Objectives were to determine if these pre-slaughter stressors, feed withdrawal and transportation, affect the levels of Salmonella, stress hormone concentrations, and immune functions in infected market pigs. A 2 x 2 factorial analysis ...
Cargill, C F; Pointon, A M; Davies, P R; Garcia, R
Sarcoptic mange is one of the common swine diseases worldwide. Although mange-free populations can be established with caesarean derived stock, by herd repopulation programmes or by eliminating mange with ivermectin, mange remains prevalent in many countries. Field and experimental studies indicate that hypersensitive mange is detrimental to performance of growing pigs. Typically, producers tolerate mange infestation in their herds and control measures are often haphazard. This tolerance to mange infestation is attributable to the covert nature of the losses (reduced growth rate and feed efficiency without mortality) and to the fact that clinical signs of hypersensitive mange (pruritus) are usually viewed as normal. Lack of tools to evaluate mange severity in pigs and to demonstrate its importance has hindered the efforts of veterinarians to control the disease. Traditionally, veterinarians have used slaughter inspections to assess respiratory diseases such as enzootic pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis. Much of the value of slaughter inspections is as a tool with which veterinarians can educate and motivate their clients to improve disease control measures. The potential for evaluating hypersensitive mange by inspecting slaughtered pigs for lesions of papular dermatitis was recognised some time ago, but quantitative evaluation of the reliability of this approach has been lacking. We have conducted several studies in Australia, the USA, Canada, Europe and Latin America to evaluate associations between Sarcoptes infestation and the severity of papular dermatitis at slaughter, using a simple ordinal scale for classifying carcasses. Our initial field and experimental data in Australia indicated the specificity of localised dermatitis to be in the order of 75-80%, but that the generalised dermatitis was highly specific (> 98%) for mange. Subsequent studies in the US Midwest yielded almost identical results, and indicated that the method may also have some utility for
Thomsen, L E; Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Roepstorff, A
Two experiments (Exps 1 and 2) were carried out to study the effect of dietary carbohydrates on the establishment of Trichuris suis in pigs. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with non-fermentable carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Exp. 1, thirty-two pigs were allocated randomly into 4 groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and 2 groups were fed Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs each and the other two groups were uninfected controls. All pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). In Exp. 2, twenty-four pigs were allocated randomly into 2 groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively. All the pigs were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs. Six pigs from each group were slaughtered 8 weeks p.i. and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. Infections were followed by faecal egg counts and worm burdens were assessed at necropsy. Pigs fed Diet 2 had lower egg counts in both experiments; in Exp. 2 the difference was significant (P<0.05). No differences were found in worm burdens 8 weeks p.i. in both experiments, however, worms from pigs on Diet 2 were significantly shorter (P<0.0001). Pigs fed Diet 2 and slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. had significantly lower worm counts (P<0.01) compared to pigs fed Diet 1. The results indicate that fermentable carbohydrates do not affect the establishment of T. suis in naïve pigs, but result in earlier expulsion and reduced growth of the established worms. Thus, diets with highly fermentable carbohydrates may be used in the control of T. suis.
Long, V P; Tarrant, P V
Thirty pairs of Landrace or Large White pigs were used to determine the effects of pre- and post-slaughter cooling treatments on pork quality and yield. One animal from each pair was showered in cold water and after slaughter one side from each carcass was rapidly chilled and the other side was conventionally chilled. Two experiments were carried out in winter: they examined different times of exposure to cooling treatments; a further experiment was carried out in summer time. Showering caused a reduction in the temperature of the deep loin at 40 min post mortem (P < 0·01). Rapid chilling caused a further reduction in carcass temperature and the rate of pH fall was lower (P < 0·05) in the rapidly chilled sides. There was a strong indication that showering in the winter time lowered drip loss in slices of Longissimus dorsi muscle (P = 0·077) whereas showering in the summer time was not effective. Shower water temperature may have been important in this regard. Showering did not lower drip loss in intact pork legs. Rapid chilling was not effective in lowering drip loss in either slices of Longissimus dorsi or intact pork legs. Rapid chilling at -20°C for 3 h without an air blast lowered evaporative chill losses in sides of pork by 27-29% (P < 0·1) compared to normal chilling. Reduced treatments gave reduced effects. Neither treatment had any significant effect on cooking loss or toughness in broiled slices of pork Longissimus dorsi muscle. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... the comment period for the proposed rulemaking ``Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection'' and... advocacy organizations and two trade associations representing the poultry industry asked that FSIS...
de Boer, E; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, J T M; Lesuis, R
Pigs have been identified as the main reservoir of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. In this prevalence study, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from 13 (9.3%) of 140 samples of porcine tonsils and from 5 (3.3%) of 150 samples of pig faeces. These prevalence percentages are lower than those reported in an earlier study. Good hygienic slaughter practices are essential to prevent the contamination of pork with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and consequently to minimize the risk of human yersiniosis.
Terlouw, E M C; Arnould, C; Auperin, B; Berri, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Deiss, V; Lefèvre, F; Lensink, B J; Mounier, L
The present paper describes the main procedures used to slaughter fowl, pigs, calves and adult cattle, sheep, and farmed fish, starting on the farm and ending with the death of the animal at the abattoir. It reviews the currently known causes of stress, indicated by behavioural and physiological measurements on the animal level, and by post-mortem muscle metabolism. During the pre-slaughter period, psychological stress is due to changes of environment, social disturbances and handling, and physical stress is due to food deprivation, climatic conditions, fatigue, and sometimes pain. The exact causes of stress depend, however, on the characteristics of each species, including the rearing system. For fowl, bird catching and crating, duration and climatic conditions of transport and of lairage and shackling are the main known pre-slaughter stress factors. For pigs, stress is caused by fighting during mixing of pens, loading and unloading conditions, and introduction in the restrainer. Handling and novelty of the situation contribute to the stress reactions. For veal calves and adult cattle, disruption of the social group, handling, loading and sometimes unloading conditions, fatigue, novelty of the situation and for calves mixing with unfamiliar animals are known stress factors. Gathering and yarding of extensively reared lambs and sheep causes stress, particularly when shepherd dogs are used. Subsequent transport may induce fatigue, especially if sheep are commercialised through auctions or markets. In farmed fish, stress is predominantly related to environmental aspects such as temperature, oxygen, cleanliness of the water and, to a certain extent, stocking density and removal of the fish from the water. If transport and lairage conditions are good and their durations not too long, they may allow pigs, calves and adult cattle, sheep, and fish to rest. For certain species, it was shown that genetic origin and earlier experience influence reactions to the slaughter
... grams. 4 4 A copy of the testing methods and checklist for conducting validated tests may be obtained by... table that reflects a 99 percent confidence level of detecting a positive carcass in a population with a... testing. (iii) In the event of a positive test result, the slaughter facility representative must...
... grams. 4 4 A copy of the testing methods and checklist for conducting validated tests may be obtained by... table that reflects a 99 percent confidence level of detecting a positive carcass in a population with a... testing. (iii) In the event of a positive test result, the slaughter facility representative must...
... grams. 4 4 A copy of the testing methods and checklist for conducting validated tests may be obtained by... table that reflects a 99 percent confidence level of detecting a positive carcass in a population with a... testing. (iii) In the event of a positive test result, the slaughter facility representative must...
The OIE Welfare Standards on slaughter transport, and killing of animals for disease control are basic minimum standards that every country should follow. The OIE, European Union, and many private standards used by commercial industry have an emphasis on animal based outcome standards instead of engineering based standards. Numerical scoring is used by both private industry and some governments to access animal welfare at slaughter plants. Five variables are measured. They are: 1) Percentage of animals effectively stunned on the first attempt, 2) Percentage rendered insensible, 3) Percentage that vocalize (bellow, moo, squeal) during handling and stunning, 4) Percentage that fall during handling, and 5) Percentage moved with an electric goad. Each one of these critical control points measures the outcome of many problems. A good animal welfare auditing system also has standards that prohibit really bad practices such as dragging, dropping, throwing, puntilla, and hoisting live animals before ritual slaughter. On farm and transport problems that can be measured at the slaughter plant are: percentage of lame animals, percentage of thin animals, percentage of dirty animals, percentage with sores, bruises or lesions, death losses, morbidity, and percentage of birds with broken wings and legs.
Stajković, S.; Teodorović, V.; Baltić, M.; Karabasil, N.
Stress is an inevitable consequence of handling of animals for slaughter. Stress conditions during transport, lairage and at slaughter induce undesirable effects on the end quality of meat such as pale, soft, exudative meat and dark firm dry meat. Hence, it is very important to define appropriate parameters for objective assessment of level of stress. Attempts to define measures of stress have been difficult and no physiological parameter has been successfully used to evaluate stress situations. One physiological change in swine associated with animal handling stress and with pork quality is an increase in blood lactate concentration. Plasma cortisol was thought to be an appropriate indicator of stress, but the concentration was not consistently changed by different stressors. Therefore, finding alternative parameters reacting to stressors, such as acute phase proteins, would be of great value for the objective evaluation of level of stress and meat quality. As the stress during pre-slaughter handling is unavoidable, the final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, meat quality and animal welfare.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Imported for immediate slaughter. 65.180 Section 65... (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL... immediate slaughter. Imported for immediate slaughter means imported into the United States for...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Imported for immediate slaughter. 65.180 Section 65... (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL... immediate slaughter. Imported for immediate slaughter means imported into the United States for...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported for immediate slaughter. 65.180 Section 65... (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL... immediate slaughter. Imported for immediate slaughter means imported into the United States for...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported for immediate slaughter. 65.180 Section 65... (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL... immediate slaughter. Imported for immediate slaughter means imported into the United States for...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Imported for immediate slaughter. 65.180 Section 65... (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL... immediate slaughter. Imported for immediate slaughter means imported into the United States for...
... COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.5 Requirements at a slaughtering facility. (a) Upon arrival at a slaughtering facility, the owner/shipper must: (1) Ensure that each equine has access to... representative; (3) Allow a USDA representative access to the equines for the purpose of examination; and (4...
... COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.5 Requirements at a slaughtering facility. (a) Upon arrival at a slaughtering facility, the owner/shipper must: (1) Ensure that each equine has access to... representative; (3) Allow a USDA representative access to the equines for the purpose of examination; and (4...
When a stunning method is being evaluated, it is essential that the animal-handling and restraint methods that are used with it are also examined. This makes it possible to determine the effect of the entire system on animal welfare. Cattle, pigs, and sheep will move easily through the races at a slaughter plant if visual distractions such as reflections on shiny metal, dangling chains, moving equipment, or people up ahead are removed. The most important scientific research on captive bolt, CO2, and electrical stunning methods is reviewed. A common mistake made by people evaluating insensibility is to misinterpret reflexive leg kicks as a sign of return to sensibility. When religious slaughter is being evaluated, the variable of how the animal is restrained must be separated from the variable of slaughter without stunning. Slaughter can be done with a high level of animal welfare.
Botteldoorn, N; Heyndrickx, M; Rijpens, N; Grijspeerdt, K; Herman, L
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs at the moment of slaughter and in the slaughterhouse environment. In total, five different commercial slaughterhouses were sampled during eight slaughterhouse visits. Carcass swabs, colon content and mesenteric lymph nodes were taken to reflect the animal status and from the slaughterhouse environmental samples were taken. Salmonella was isolated from 37% of the carcass samples as a mean value. High variations were noticed between different slaughterhouses (between 0 and 70%) and sampling days in the same abattoir (between 3 and 52%). A correlation was found between the carcass contamination and the status of the delivered animals (P=0.01675). Cross contamination was estimated to account for 29% of the positive carcasses. The slaughterhouse environment was highly contaminated; before starting the slaughtering activities 25% of the samples were positive on average. The most prevalent serotypes isolated at the slaughterhouse environment and from the colon content were S. Typhimurium, S. Livingstone and S. Derby. On carcasses S. Typhimurium was predominately isolated (71%). The biggest variability of serotypes was found in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Serologically 56.3% of the pigs were found positive for Salmonella using a cut-off level of the optical density percentage higher than 10 (O.D.% > or = 10). While on individual pig level the correlation between the bacteriological and serological data was poor, because of recent Salmonella infections, a better correlation was found at the herd level on the moment of slaughtering. A high degree of carcass contamination is noticed after slaughtering. This contamination resulted from the delivery of Salmonella-positive pigs and cross-contamination from the slaughterhouse environment. In pigs, Salmonella carriage is high, but it is obvious that slaughterhouse hygiene is a determinative factor for managing carcass contamination.
INOUE, Ryoko; JOMA, Ikumi; OTSUBO, Koji; MATSUTAKE, Hiroshi; YANAI, Tokuma; SAKAI, Hiroki
A cardiac mass (3 × 5 × 3 cm) was detected at the base between the right auricular wall and right vena cava of a slaughtered 6-month-old female mixed-breed pig during a meat inspection. The tumor comprised infiltrative prominent interweaving fascicles of Schwann cells with Verocay bodies. Moreover, the ganglion cells were scattered or aggregated throughout the neoplastic tissue. The ganglion and Schwann cells had neither cellular atypism nor mitosis. On the basis of the bearing site as well as the morphological and immunohistochemical features, this is the first case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma in a pig. PMID:26256406
Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Galloway, D L; Hamilton, C R; Yancey, J W S
Crossbred pigs (n=288) were used to test the interactive effects of dietary fat source and slaughter weight on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat. Pigs were blocked by initial BW (28.1 kg), and, within blocks, pens (8 pigs/pen) were randomly assigned to either grower and finisher diets devoid of added fat (Ctrl) or diets formulated with 5% beef tallow (BT), poultry fat (PF), or soybean oil (SBO). Immediately after treatment allotment, as well as at mean block BW of 45.5, 68.1, 90.9, and 113.6 kg, 1 pig was randomly selected from each pen, slaughtered, and, within 1 h postmortem, samples of backfat were removed from each carcass between the 4th and 8th thoracic vertebra and separated into the inner, middle, and outer layers for fatty acid composition analysis. During the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, percentages of all SFA increased by more than 4% in subcutaneous fat of pigs fed the Ctrl and BT diets, but decreased by 4.4 and 7.7% in pigs fed the PF and SBO diets, respectively (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). Proportions of all MUFA in subcutaneous fat from BT-fed pigs increased by 6.1% during the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, but MUFA percentages in SBO-fed pigs decreased by 9.1% between 28.1 and 45.5 kg (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). Conversely, percentages of all PUFA from SBO-fed pigs increased by 39.9%, whereas PUFA concentrations in BT-fed pigs decreased by 12.6% as slaughter weight increased from 28.1 to 45.5 kg (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). Resultant iodine values (IV) of subcutaneous fat from SBO-fed pigs increased (P<0.05) from 73.5 to 85.2 within the first 17.4 kg of BW gain, and remained elevated above those of their contemporaries fed the Ctrl, BT, or PF diets at each subsequent slaughter weight (fat source x slaughter weight, P<0.001). The inner backfat layer had the greatest (P<0.05) proportions of all SFA and the least (P<0.05) proportions of all PUFA, whereas the outer layer had the least (P<0.05) percentages of
Jama, N; Maphosa, V; Hoffman, L C; Muchenje, V
The study determined the effect of sex and time to slaughter on cortisol and creatine kinase levels, and pork quality in commercial crossbred pigs. Saliva samples were before collected transportation, on arrival at the abattoir, and after a 20 hour lairage period. Cortisol levels from saliva (SC), serum (SeC) and urine (UC) were determined. Creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined from serum samples. Fifteen boars vs. 15 gilts were immediately slaughtered on arrival (SOA), and the other 15 boars vs. 15 gilts were rested for 20 h before slaughter. Meat quality parameters were also determined. In both sexes, SC significantly increased in response to time to slaughter. There was a significant interaction of sex and time to slaughter on SeC. Gilts had higher CK levels and lower muscle L* values than boars. There were correlations among baseline SC, SeC, UC and most meat quality parameters. Time to slaughter influenced levels of SC, UC, CK and pork quality between boars and gilts.
van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P
In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Benest, Daniel; Gonczi, R.
Three comets are now known to be at or near the 1/1 resonance with Jupiter: P/Slaughter-Burnham, P/Boethin and the newly discovered P/Ge-Wang. Although details of the individual orbits differ, the three comets have very similar dynamical behavior: their orbits show many transitions between the different types of resonant motion (satellite libration, anti-satellite libration, and circulating motion). The stochastic character of such cometary orbits, mainly due to encounters with Jupiter is investigated using Lyapunov Characteristic Indicators. For each comet of the group, we study the influences on the stochasticity of initial eccentricity, inclination, longitude of node, and l-l(sub J) (mean longitude of comet minus mean longitude of Jupiter). We present here our first results for P/Slaughter-Burnham.
Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L
Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with
Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; López-Soria, S; Segalés, J; Valero, O; Espinal, A; Calsamiglia, M
A field trial was conducted to study Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) infection dynamics by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and serology in pigs of a farm affected by enzootic pneumonia (EP). Moreover, correlation of Mh detection at different respiratory tract sites with presence of EP gross and microscopic lung lesions was assessed. These parameters were studied and compared between vaccinated (two doses at 1 and 3 weeks of age versus one dose at 6 weeks of age) and non-vaccinated pigs. Animals were monitored from birth to slaughter by nPCR from nasal swabs and by serology. From 3 to 22 weeks of age, an average of three pigs per treatment and per batch were necropsied (n = 302). The remaining pigs were sent to the slaughter (n = 103). Nasal, bronchial and tonsillar swabs were taken from the necropsied/slaughtered pigs; gross and microscopic EP-suggestive lung lesions were also assessed. Single and double vaccination resulted in earlier seroconversion and higher percentage of Mh seropositive pigs compared to control group. At slaughter, double vaccinated pigs showed lower percentage of EP-compatible gross lung lesions and lower Mh prevalence at upper respiratory tract sites (nasal cavity and tonsil) than control pigs.
Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.
This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?
Vanderhasselt, R F; Buijs, S; Sprenger, M; Goethals, K; Willemsen, H; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M
Freedom of (prolonged) thirst is considered to be of paramount importance for animal welfare. This emotion normally results from dehydration, which can be measured using physiological indicators. Because no reliable physiological indicator for thirst was available for broilers, we aimed to identify such a measure in this study. This indicator would ideally be integrated into quality control systems in commercial slaughter plants. In the first experiment, water deprivation was manipulated systematically by withdrawing water for different durations (total water withdrawal for 0 (control), 24, 36, or 48 h, or a 10-d period with restricted access to water for 2 times 10 min per day). A significant decrease in drained blood content and BW occurred from 36 h of total water deprivation onward (both P = 0.03), whereas long-term restricted access tended to decrease drained blood content (P = 0.05). No effect of water deprivation or restriction on skin turgor was found. In the second experiment, water was withdrawn for 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Plasma chloride concentration was increased after 6 h of water withdrawal, but did not rise further with longer withdrawal. If assessed at slaughter, chloride will thus mainly reflect the catching-to-slaughter interval. In contrast, plasma creatinine and hematocrit levels showed a numerical decrease after 6 h of water withdrawal, but rose again after prolonged withdrawal. Plasma creatinine values were significantly higher in 24-h-deprived birds than in 6-h-deprived birds (P < 0.01), allowing for discernment between water withdrawal during catching and transport from dehydration that had occurred on the farm. Blood sodium concentrations and plasma osmolality showed a steady increment between 0 and 24 h of water deprivation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 for both), and may thus be used to assess the combined effects of water deprivation on farm and during the catching-to-slaughter interval. These findings may form the basis of an on
Calderón Díaz, Julia Adriana; Boyle, Laura Ann; Diana, Alessia; Leonard, Finola Catherine; Moriarty, John Patrick; McElroy, Máire Catríona; McGettrick, Shane; Kelliher, Denis; García Manzanilla, Edgar
The objective of this study was to investigate associations between early life indicators, lactation management factors and subsequent mortality, health, welfare and carcass traits of offspring. A total of 1016 pigs from a batch born during one week were used. During lactation, number of liveborn piglets, stillborn and mummies, sow parity, number of times cross-fostered, weaning age, birth and weaning body weight (BW) were collected. Mortality was recorded throughout the offspring production cycle. Prior to slaughter, pigs were scored for lameness (1=non-lame to 3=severely lame). At slaughter, tail lesions were scored (0=no lesion to 4=severe lesion) and cold carcass weight (CCW), lean meat%, presence of pericarditis and heart condemnations were recorded. Additionally, lungs were scored for pleurisy (0=no lesions to 4=severely extended lesions) and enzootic pneumonia (EP) like lesions. There was an increased risk of lameness prior to slaughter for pigs born to first parity sows (P<0.05) compared with pigs born to older sows. Sow parity was a source of variation for cold carcass weight (P<0.05) and lean meat% (P<0.05). Pigs born in litters with more liveborn pigs were at greater risk of death and to be lame prior to slaughter (P<0.05). Pigs that were cross-fostered once were 11.69 times, and those that were cross-fostered ≥2 times were 7.28, times more likely to die compared with pigs that were not cross-fostered (P<0.05). Further, pigs that were cross-fostered once were at greater risk of pericarditis and heart condemnations compared with pigs that were not cross-fostered (P<0.05). Pigs with a birth BW of <0.95kg were at higher mortality risk throughout the production cycle. There was an increased risk of lameness, pleurisy, pericarditis and heart condemnations (P<0.05) for pigs with lower weaning weights. Additionally, heavier pigs at weaning also had higher carcass weights (P<0.05). There was an increased risk of lameness for pigs weaned at a younger age (P<0
Barington, K; Jensen, H E
Bruises in pigs inflicted by blunt trauma are a significant animal welfare problem, and affected skin and underlying muscle are regularly submitted for forensic investigation. Central to the evaluation is an assessment of the age of the bruises. This paper presents cases of bruises in pigs sent for forensic investigation that were collected retrospectively. Data comprised photographs of the gross lesions, slides for histology, and written reports. The time from collecting the animals at the farms and delivery to the slaughterhouse was recorded together with the time of slaughter. Since 2005 there has been an increase in cases, with a peak in 2008 and 2009 of 40 cases for each year. At gross examination, the pattern of bruises often reflected the type of object which caused them. Histologically, haemorrhage and cellular infiltrations were frequently present. Currently, the age of bruises may be estimated to be more or less than four hours based on a porcine bruise model. In bruises more than four hours old, estimations of two-hour intervals are used based on studies of wound healing. The time from collecting the pigs at the farms until slaughter was between one and four hours in 44.1 per cent of cases, during which time the pigs had been handled by several people. In addition, in 22.0 per cent of cases of bruising an inflammatory response was absent, making it impossible to estimate the age of the bruise.
Bekir, Alboga M A
A report is given on history and procedures of ritual slaughter from the point of view of a Moslem representative. The term sacrifice and the religious meaning of the offering feast are explained on the basis of the Abrahamian tradition. The social aspect of ritual slaughter is that two thirds of the slaughtered animal are given to the poor or served as meal to guests and relatives. One third is saved for the own family only. The Islamic religion acknowledges the responsibility of man for animals as creatures of god whose life and well-being have to be protected, nobody is allowed to subject animals to pain, suffering and damage without a sound reason. The ritual slaughter aims at complete debleeding. Blood is symbol life and soul and the breath of life. It must leave the body completely before consumption because it is not allowed to eat animals alive. Electric stunning is allowed if the animal is unconscious and not dead. The consumption of dead animals is forbidden by religion. It is recommended to introduce more veterinarian expert knowledge in the discussion.
Pozzi, Paolo S; Waner, Trevor
Shechita is the procedure of killing or slaughtering animals for food production, according to Jewish tradition and it is performed without prior stunning. USA and European legislations conditionally allow slaughter without prior stunning in the frame of religion freedom (USA) or religious/cultural traditions (EU); nevertheless some traditional events in Europe de nitely represent a concern for animal welfare. It is possible to identify animal welfare issues in the rules for shechita: correct restrain of the animal; adequacy of the instrument (knife); technical ability of the operator. Animals restrain techniques evolved along the time in order to accomplish to less stressful immobilization of animals in course of shechita. When performed in the right way, shechita cannot be framed as negligent or intentionally painful, distressing or inducing su ering to animals. Today's stunning techniques raise concerns relative to adequacy and e ectiveness of stunning on animals, with welfare implications due to automatism of next dressing procedures. Shechita needs in Europe are in line with average meat demand by non Jewish population.
Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær
In the Danish husbandry antimicrobial growth promoters were phased out 1994-2000 and the therapeutic use has been increasingly regulated. Hitherto, a minimum in therapeutic use was reached in 1997. The antimicrobial use in pigs increased by 44% during 2002-2009; a 12% decrease in second half of 2010 was likely due to the announcement of the "yellow card" regulation. From July 2010, a voluntary two years stop of cephalosporins use in pigs was realized, due to increasing occurrence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) resistance in animal and meat isolates; highest levels of ESBL are observed in imported poultry.
Lebret, B; Prunier, A; Bonhomme, N; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dourmad, J Y
The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs/genotype. Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and feed intake, but similar carcass composition to SF pigs. Levels of stress related hormones and plasma metabolites at slaughter were not different between BO and SF pigs, suggesting that housing did not influence pig reactivity to pre-slaughter handling. Similar (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris) or slightly reduced (Semimembranosus) pH values, higher drip, lipid content and juiciness were observed in BO compared with SF pork. CD pigs had more tender meat than CS. In conclusion, the BO system resulted in higher feed intake, faster growth rate, increased intramuscular fat, and improved eating quality in both genotypes. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The quality of slaughtered turkeys fed a diet supplemented with Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) oil was investigated. Two treatments were studied, T0: control diet and T1: control diet + 400 mg kg**-1 of oregano oil with 60% carvacrol. Live weight at slaughter was different, with T0...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...
Jentzsch, R; Schäffer, J
The article surveys the development of legislation to the slaughtering of warm-blooded animals in Germany since 1933. It examines the ritual slaughtering of the Jews (Schechita) on the one hand, and of the Moslems (Dabh) on the other hand. While 1933 the legislation was coined by the political situation, after 1949, legal setting and decisions reflected the changing sensibility to animals' protection. Before 1945, Schechita was the matter of legal dispute, more recently, the discussion has centred on the ritual slaughtering of the Moslems, with different arguments. The "Law on the Slaughtering of Animals" of 21-04-33 was part and parcel of the Third Reich's policy against Jews implicating a nation wide practical inhibition of Schechita by decreeing a general obligation of stunning before slaughtering. In 1945, the inhibition of Schechita became invalid after the occupation of the Reich by the Allied Forces. For the first time, the "First Amendment to the Animal Protection Law" of 1986 permitted ritual slaughtering by the way of exception as long as it was covered by the religious obligations. In 1995 the Federal Administrative Court judged that an inhibition of the ritual slaughtering by Moslems could be possible, because there are no religious obligations for Moslems. Nowadays, the ritual slaughtering of the Moslems is, de facto, forbidden, Schechita is performed in some cities for the needs of the residential Jewish population.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... General Provisions § 146.8 Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. Participating...
Interview with John Brooks Slaughter, recent president of Occidental College, focuses on his leadership during a period when the college dramatically increased its minority enrollment, recruited an impressively diverse faculty, and launched various community outreach programs. Explores Slaughter's views concerning diversity as part of a college's…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... General Provisions § 146.8 Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. Participating...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... General Provisions § 146.8 Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. Participating...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... General Provisions § 146.8 Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. Participating...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency slaughter; inspection prior to. 309.12 Section 309.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., the animals shall be inspected immediately before slaughter, whether theretofore inspected or...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency slaughter; inspection prior to. 309.12 Section 309.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., the animals shall be inspected immediately before slaughter, whether theretofore inspected or...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency slaughter; inspection prior to. 309.12 Section 309.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., the animals shall be inspected immediately before slaughter, whether theretofore inspected or...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... General Provisions § 146.8 Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. Participating...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency slaughter; inspection prior to. 309.12 Section 309.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., the animals shall be inspected immediately before slaughter, whether theretofore inspected or...
5. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 slaughter addition (featuring cold slaughter area), facing north-northeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV
Cheah, K S; Cheah, A M; Just, A
RSE (reddish-pink, soft and exudative) meat was investigated using pigs of three different halothane genotypes. A significantly lower pH(1h), value was observed in RSE compared with that of RFN (red, firm and non-exudative) -meat, both of which have values higher than 6.0 at 1 hr post-mortem. Drip loss (%) in RSE-meat was ≥7%, which was twice that of RFN-meat. Normal values for fibre optic probe and Minolta L and a were observed for RSE-meat. RSE-meat could be derived from NN and Nn pigs, and its formation could be induced from RFN-prone pigs by poor post-slaughter management. Pigs expected to produce RSE-meat were identified using small biopsy samples of M. longissimus dorsi (LD). Predicted RSE-meat in live pigs was confirmed by post-mortem assessments of meat quality using LD muscle. With NN Landrace-Yorkshire × Duroc pigs, 15.6% were identified to be RSE-prone in live pigs, and a further 6.7% RSE was induced after slaughter from RFN pigs. The rate of glycolysis determined from biopsy LD samples and at 1 hr post-mortem (pH(1h)) were significantly (p < 0.001) faster in RSE than in RFN-prone pigs, but significantly slower than those of PSE-prone pigs. Good correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between biopsy fluid (F) values, an indicator of water-holding capacity (WHC), and drip loss (r = 0.652) from post-mortem LD muscle, and between biopsy pH (F), an indicator for the rate of glycolysis, and F (r = -0.828). These results show that the skeletal muscle test using biopsy LD muscle could be employed to reduce the incidence of RSE-meat.
The objective was to quantify the effect of marketing group (MG) on the variability of primal quality. Pigs (N=7,684) were slaughtered in 3 MGs from 8 barns. Pigs were from genetic selection programs focused on lean growth (L; group 1 n=1,131; group 2 n=1,466; group 3 n=1,030) or superior meat qua...
Gowda, Tanuja K G M; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Zade, Nandkishor N; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Khan, Waqar A; Shinde, Shilpa V; Patil, Archana R
Aeromonads are ubiquitous foodborne pathogens with a global distribution. Animal-origin foods and contaminated animals are the main sources of Aeromonas infection to humans. So far little is known about the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in food-producing animals in India. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Aeromonas species from 50 each of meat, blood, and sera samples collected from cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs slaughtered in and around Nagpur, Central India. Alkaline peptone water and ampicillin dextrin agar were used to isolate Aeromonas spp. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized by use of whole-cell antigen (WC) and outer membrane protein (OMP) of Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC 646). Aeromonads were isolated from 44 (22%) of the meat samples, and 1 (0.5%) from the blood samples. Seroprevalence by indirect ELISA-based WC antigen was estimated as 68% in cattle, 44% in buffaloes, 60% in goats, and 30% in pigs. OMP-based ELISA yielded a seroprevalence of 56%, 48%, 52%, and 22% in cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs, respectively. The results revealed that OMP-based ELISA and WC-based ELISA were in agreement with one another. Isolation along with high seropositivity demonstrates the presence of foodborne Aeromonas spp. in the Nagpur city of Central India.
Moo, D; O'Boyle, D; Mathers, W; Frost, A J
One jejunal and one caecal lymph node were sampled from each of 50 cows, 40 yearling cattle, 25 sheep, 20 lambs and 45 pigs after slaughter. Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus, all organisms which cause food poisoning in man, were sought by direct plating methods. The samples were also enriched and cultured for Salmonella. Organisms were cultured from 208 (58%) of the 360 lymph nodes; aerobic plate counts yielded up to 25,000 organisms per gram of tissue, although from most infected samples less than 1000 organisms per gram were cultured. Salmonella was isolated directly from 5% of samples, with counts up to 1,500 per gram. After enrichment Salmonella was isolated from nodes taken from 15 cows, 2 yearling cattle, one sheep and 8 pigs. Cl. perfringens was isolated from the caecal nodes of 2 yearling cattle and 2 pigs; S. aureus was not isolated from any sample. It was concluded that mesenteric lymph nodes may be a significant reservoir of Salmonella for transfer to meat and meat products.
Narinc, Dogan; Karaman, Emre; Aksoy, Tulin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between slaughter age and slaughter-carcass characteristics in 2 quail lines. With this aim, a Japanese quail flock subjected to mass selection to increase BW for 4 generations and a control flock that randomly mated for 4 generations were used. Birds of both lines were slaughtered at 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk of age. Weights of carcass, breast, leg, wing, edible inner organs, and abdominal fat, and their percentages in BW were measured. Short-term mass selection for increased BW resulted in an increase for all slaughter and carcass traits, except edible inner organ percentage. Slaughter age had a significant effect on the studied traits, indicating that the BW and weight of carcass, carcass parts, abdominal fat, edible inner organs, and percentage of abdominal fat increased with increased slaughter age. Conversely, the carcass yield and percentages of carcass parts and edible inner organs were decreased with an increase in slaughter age. The present study showed that deterioration in carcass quality occurred with an increase in slaughter age. Furthermore, the differences between the carcass weights over the different ages ranged between 16.83 to 22.45% in favor of the selection line after a short-term mass selection.
Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously. PMID:21492433
Farouk, M M; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Sabow, A B; Bekhit, A E D; Adeyemi, K D; Sazili, A Q; Ghani, A
There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Velarde, A; Rodriguez, P; Dalmau, A; Fuentes, C; Llonch, P; von Holleben, K V; Anil, M H; Lambooij, J B; Pleiter, H; Yesildere, T; Cenci-Goga, B T
As part of the project "Religious slaughter (DIALREL): improving knowledge and expertise through dialogue and debate on issues of welfare, legislation and socio-economic aspects", this paper discusses an evaluation of current practices during Halal and Shechita slaughter in cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. During religious slaughter, animals are killed with and without stunning by a transverse incision across the neck that is cutting the skin, muscles (brachiocephalic, sternocephalic, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid), trachea, esophagus, carotid arteries, jugular veins and the major, superficial and deep nerves of the cervical plexus. In this report, the restraint methods, stunning, neck cutting, exsanguination, slaughter techniques and postcut handling in the abattoir were assessed for religious slaughter. Information about the procedures used during religious slaughter in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, Turkey and Australia was collected by means of spot visits to abattoirs. To standardize the information gathered during the spot visits three guidelines were designed, one for each species, and translated into the national languages of the countries involved. The document included questions on the handling and restraint methods (stunning, neck cutting/exsanguination/slaughter techniques and postcut handling performed under religious practices) and for pain and distress of the animal during the restraint, neck cutting and induction to death in each abattoir. Results showed differences in the time from restraining to stun and to cut in the neck cutting procedures and in the time from cut to death. © 2013.
Leblanc, Danielle; Ward, Pierre; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Poitras, Elyse; Müller, Peter; Trottier, Yvon-Louis; Simard, Carole; Houde, Alain
Hepatitis E virus has recently been recognized as having zoonotic potential and could be transmitted from pig to human. Pigs are identified as a potential animal reservoir and HEV is highly prevalent in the swine population around the world. In this study, the presence of HEV was investigated in 51 subjects reared on a simulated commercial farm setting from the age of 2 weeks up to slaughter. Samples were collected on four occasions: at 2, 8, and 18 weeks and between 22-29 weeks of age. Anti-HEV IgG in plasma samples, presence of HEV RNA in plasma samples and feces were monitored. At 2 weeks of age, HEV RNA was detected in feces of 6 subjects (11.8%) but not in their plasma. At 8 weeks, HEV was detected in feces of 27 subjects (52.9%) and in plasma of one subject. At 18 weeks, HEV was detected in feces of 44 subjects (86.2%) and in plasma of 24 subjects (47.1%). At slaughter time (22-29 weeks), HEV was present in plasma of 6 subjects (11.8%) and in stools of 21 subjects (41.2%). Spread of the virus inside the population was evaluated by comparison of means (paired t-test, P<0.05) of anti-HEV IgG ELISA results from the 4 bleedings. Significant differences were noted between the results of populations at 8 and 18 weeks and also between 18 and 22 to 29 weeks indicating an immune response to the virus. Based on the comparison of a 304 nucleotides sequence of the 5' ORF 2 gene, all amplified fragments clustered in genotype 3a.
Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Morrison, David A; Österberg, Julia; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Heldmer, Eva; Ekman, Stina
Organic pig production is expanding and amongst the objectives of organic farming are enhancing animal health and welfare. However, some studies have reported a higher prevalence of lameness and joint condemnation at slaughter in free-range/organic pigs than in conventionally raised pigs. Organic slaughter pigs have free-range housing in which indoor and outdoor access is compulsory, while in conventional farming the pigs are commonly confined to indoor pens. The present study evaluated the effects of free-range and confined housing on lameness prevalence in a herd of 106 finisher pigs, and whether osteochondrosis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae associated arthritis influences these effects. We also evaluated the association between clinical lameness during the rearing period and joint condemnations at slaughter. Seventy free-range and 36 confined housed fattener pigs were scored for their gait twice during the rearing period and 848 joints were evaluated post mortem. Osteochondrosis was more frequent among free-range than confined pigs (P < 0.05), and when present it was also more severe (P < 0.001). Pigs with more numerous and more severe osteochondral lesions had their gait affected more than did pigs with fewer such lesions (P < 0.05). Hence it was a paradox that we did not detect more lameness among the free-range pigs than the confined pigs. E. rhusiopathiae associated arthritis was not diagnosed. The association between gait remarks/clinical lameness and joint condemnations at slaughter was not significant. The results indicate that free-range housing may have both positive and negative effects on locomotory traits. Free-range pigs may be less clinically affected by osteochondrosis than are confined pigs. One explanation for this effect may be strengthening of joint supportive tissue and pain relief promoted by exercise. Visual gait scoring missed serious joint lesions that probably were harmful to the pigs, and should therefore not be used as a sole
Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus
Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089
Rutjes, S A; Bouwknegt, M; van der Giessen, J W; de Roda Husman, A M; Reusken, C B E M
Sporadic nontravel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been reported in industrialized countries. These infections are caused by zoonotic HEV genotypes 3 and 4 that circulate in swine, wild boar, and deer. In The Netherlands, HEV RNA has been detected in >50% of the pig farms, and HEV-specific antibodies were detected in ∼70% of the slaughter pigs. In the current study, HEV seroprevalences were investigated in pigs raised on conventional, free-range, and organic farms in The Netherlands. Differences in seroprevalence may indicate different exposure routes or transmission dynamics within pig herds for HEV. In 2004, serum samples of 846 fattening pigs were obtained from farms that applied conventional (265 pigs at 24 farms), organic (417 pigs at 42 farms), and free-range (164 pigs at 12 farms) farming. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in samples from all conventional and free-range pig farms and in 41 of 42 organic pig farms, indicating that the probability of introducing HEV on a farm appeared to be equal for the different farming types. The estimated average within-herd seroprevalence was significantly higher for pigs raised on organic farms (89%) than for pigs raised on conventional farms (72%, P = 0.04) and nearly significant for pigs raised on free-range farms (76%, P = 0.06). Six of ten organic farms were estimated to have a withinherd seroprevalence of >95%, compared with 1 of 10 and 4 of 10 of the free-range and conventional pig farms, respectively. This suggests a higher force of infection with HEV for pigs reared on organic farms compared with pigs reared on conventional or free-range farms. This may be due to repetitive exposure to HEV caused by farming system-specific housing conditions, such as a greater contact frequency between pigs and more exposure to pig manure, increasing the transmission rate.
.... Others asked that the definition be expanded to include equines moving to auctions specifically. These... During Commercial Transportation to Slaughter,'' J. Anim. Sci. 77:2925-2933; Temple Grandin, Livestock...
Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene
Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097
Sloot, Peter M. A.
Astronomers of the Maya and babylonian civilizations were brilliant in predicting astronomical events. For instance, from meticulous observations of the sun, Moon, Venus, and Jupiter they were able to predict with astonishing accuracy the 584-day cycle of Venus or the details of the celestial track of Jupiter. Yet they had no clue about our heliocentric solar system, they believed that the earth was flat, and they were completely ignorant of the real movement of stars and planets while being convinced that the sky was supported by four jaguars, each holding up a corner of the sky. if we would be sent back in time and speak to them about the planets orbiting the sun, they would laugh at us and challenge us to come with the accurate predictions that they were able to make. With all our knowledge, but without thousands of years of technological development, we would not be able to come close to any of their predictions. so being laughed at would be a small punishment, more likely we would be ritually slaughtered...
Torrey, S; Bergeron, R; Faucitano, L; Widowski, T; Lewis, N; Crowe, T; Correa, J A; Brown, J; Hayne, S; Gonyou, H W
Transportation of pigs to slaughter has the potential to negatively impact animal welfare, particularly in hot temperatures and over long transport durations. The objective of this experiment was to determine if season and location within vehicle influenced the behavior of market-weight pigs during loading, transit, unloading, and lairage after a long-distance trip to slaughter. On a pot-belly truck, 1,170 pigs were transported (n = 195 pigs/wk in 7 experimental compartments) for 8 h to a commercial abattoir in summer (6 wk) and winter (5 wk). Pig behavior was observed at loading, in transit, at unloading, and in lairage. Handler intervention at loading was observed, and the time to load and unload was recorded. Although season did not (P = 0.91) affect loading time, more prods (P = 0.014) were necessary to load pigs in summer than winter. Loading in winter also tended to be longer (P = 0.071) into compartments involving internal ramps. In transit, more pigs (P = 0.025) were standing in winter compared with summer. Unloading took longer (P < 0.006) in winter than in summer and from compartments where pigs had to negotiate ramps and 180° turns. Furthermore, pigs in summer experienced more slipping (P = 0.032), falling (P = 0.004), overlapping (P < 0.001), and walking backward (P < 0.001) than pigs in winter. Pigs unloading from compartments with internal ramps slipped more (P < 0.0001) than other pigs. Season influenced latency to rest in lairage, with those transported in summer resting sooner (P < 0.0001) than those in winter. In conclusion, season and location within trucks differentially affect pig behavior before, during, and after long-distance transportation. Differences in lighting and temperature between seasons and the inclusion of internal ramps within vehicles may play important roles in the welfare of pigs transported to slaughter.
Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda
This study assessed the effect of halal slaughter and anesthesia pre-slaughter followed by bleeding on meat quality characteristics of goats. Eleven male Boer cross goats were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter (HS) or anesthesia with halothane and propofol pre-slaughter (AS). At pre-rigor, HS had significantly lower (P < 0.05) muscle pH and glycogen than AS. However, no significant difference was observed in the pH and glycogen content between the treatments on 1, 3 and 7 days post mortem. The drip loss of HS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of AS at all aging periods. Treatment had no effect on sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and shear force values, loss of thiol groups and degradation of major myofibrillar proteins. It can be concluded that HS did not have deleterious effect on meat quality traits of goat when compared to AS.
Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B
The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.
Beloeil, P A; Chauvin, C; Proux, K; Rose, N; Queguiner, S; Eveno, E; Houdayer, C; Rose, V; Fravalo, P; Madec, F
A longitudinal survey was conducted in France in a subclinically Salmonella-infected farrow-to-finish pig farm to describe the time-course of the serological response to Salmonella enterica in growing pigs. We used three batches of sows and their corresponding litters (n = 31 litters). Among these, 256 pigs randomly selected and individually identified were followed from the first week of age until slaughter. Serial individual blood samples were submitted to indirect Salmonella-ELISA testing. Salmonella shedding was investigated by bacteriological testing of faecal material regularly collected from the sows and pigs and by environment swabs taken from the pens. Caecal contamination was checked at the slaughterhouse. Information about litter composition (filiation), location of the pigs in post-weaning and fattening pens, sanitary events, sex and body weights was recorded. 11.6% of the pigs shed S. enterica; 52% of pigs seroconverted before slaughter. The age-related variation of the natural logarithm of calibrated optical densities (COD) of pigs was described with two linear mixed models. From 8 to 61 days of age, the decrease in COD with age was fitted with a model including random effects of the animal and the dam on the intercept and slope, a batch random effect on the intercept and an individual birth-weight fixed effect on the intercept. The dam random effect was explained by the parity of the sow, Salmonella shedding by the sow during the farrowing phase and the value of the optical density of colostrum collected at parturition. A second model fitting the increase in COD from 61 days of age until slaughter included the random effect on intercept of the batch and the random effects on slope and intercept of the animal, the dam and the pen in which the followed animals were located during the fattening phase and the environmental contamination as fixed effect. In this second model, no relation was found between individual slaughter-bacteriological results and
Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper
Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349
Dearden, Jeannette; Stig-Nielsen, Karin
This is one of a series of self-teaching textbooks initially prepared for the Armed Forces and now offered to the public. The text is designed to be used with a native speaker of Danish or with the accompanying recordings. The textbook is divided into three major sections, each consisting of five learning units and one unit for review. Each unit…
Whitehead, John S.
The paper is a supplement to an earlier paper in the same series which reviews Danish higher education until 1977. Expansion in higher education in the last 20 years, approaching the scale of mass higher education, culminated in a crisis in 1977. At that time, a trend toward self-government and participatory governing boards was seen as the end of…
Rasschaert, G; Houf, K; De Zutter, L
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of Salmonella present on the slaughter line before processing on broiler carcass contamination during processing. Three Belgian broiler slaughterhouses were each visited twice. Samples were taken from the slaughter line after the cleaning and the disinfection process and before slaughter of the first flock. During the slaughter of the first flock, feathers and neck skins were collected at various points of the slaughter process. Swab samples were also taken from the crates in which the birds were transported. In two slaughterhouses, the slaughter line was contaminated with Salmonella before the onset of slaughter, especially the shackles, conveyer belt and the plucking machine in the dirty zone. During slaughter, the carcasses of the first Salmonella-free flock became contaminated with the same strains as isolated previously from the slaughter line. Contamination of the slaughter line with Salmonella leads to carcass contamination. Implementation of logistic slaughter is only successful when the cleaning and disinfection process completely eliminates the Salmonella contamination of the slaughter line. Only if this is achieved, will the slaughter of Salmonella-free flocks result in the absence of Salmonella on the carcasses after slaughter.
Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R
The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness.
Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari
The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter.
Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( < 0.001) during unloading and a greater ( = 0.02) frequency of falls in the stunning chute. A greater ( = 0.02) reluctance to move at loading was found in CON pigs loaded by driver A compared with driver B, whereas a greater ( < 0.001) reluctance to move was found in these pigs at unloading when they were unloaded by driver B. Drip loss was higher ( = 0.003) and pale, soft, and exudative pork percentage was greater ( < 0.001) in the LL muscle of the heavier AWIRS pigs. The GHO principle was best correlated with pHu ( = -0.75, = 0.01) and Minolta L* value ( = 0.87, < 0.001) of the LL muscle. Overall, drip
Waltz, Xavier; Baillot, Michelle; Connes, Philippe; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; Philibert, Lucien; Beltan, Eric; Chalabi, Tawfik; Renaudeau, David
The main objectives of the present work were to test the effects of heat stress on blood rheology and to determine whether the responses can change according to the pig breeds. Thirty-six pigs from three pig's lines (n = 12 for each line) with assumed different tolerance to heat stress were compared: Large White (LW, little tolerance), Creole (CR, good tolerance) and LW × CR pigs (produced from a cross between LW and CR lines). In a first period, all pigs were exposed to a 9-d period of thermo-neutral environment (24°C; d-9 to d-1; P0). At the end of P0, six pigs from each line were slaughtered (n = 18). Then in a second period, the remaining pigs (6/breed; n = 18) were exposed to a 5-d period of heat stress (32°C; d + 1 -d + 5; P1) and thereafter slaughtered at d + 5. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory rate, were recorded on d-1 and d + 5. At slaughter, blood was sampled for hematological and hemorheological measurements. Heat stress caused a rise of the skin temperature and respiratory rate without any changes in the rectal temperature or on the hematological and hemorheological parameters when all pigs' lines were considered. We observed a pig line effect on blood viscosity at high shear rate (375 s-1) and red blood cell deformability at 30 Pa with CR pigs having lower blood viscosity and higher red blood cell deformability than LW pigs. While the changes of blood viscosity under heat stress did not reach statistical significance in LW and CR lines, blood viscosity (at 375 s-1) increased above the temperate values in the LW × CR line. Red blood cell deformability at 30 Pa was higher in CR pigs exposed to heat stress compared to LW pigs in the same condition. In conclusion, thermal loading caused physiological stress but did not widely change the hematological and hemorheological profiles. Although some blood rheological parameters seem to vary with the pig breeds, the responses to heat stress are very similar.
Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria
Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To
Pesciaroli, M; Cucco, L; De Luca, S; Massacci, F R; Maresca, C; Medici, L; Paniccià, M; Scoccia, E; Staffolani, M; Pezzotti, G; Magistrali, C F
Contaminated pork is a significant source of foodborne Salmonella infections. Pork is contaminated at the slaughterhouse; however, the mechanisms driving Salmonella contamination of carcasses are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the amount of Salmonella carried by slaughtered pigs in their guts has an influence on carcass contamination. On that account, we tested whether the number of carcasses contaminated during a slaughter day was associated with the prevalence of highly contaminated pigs (HCP: Salmonella caecal loads ≥3log/g), or with the prevalence of pigs that simply carry Salmonella spp. in their guts. Three hundred and six pigs were sampled in a slaughterhouse from Central Italy. Salmonella loads in the caecum and on the carcass of each pig were estimated by the most probable number (MPN) technique. The overall prevalence of Salmonella was 34.64% and 7.19% for the caeca and carcasses, respectively. S. Derby and Salmonella enterica 4,,12:i:- were the most frequently isolated serovars. The prevalence of HCP was 11.44%. We found a higher number of contaminated carcasses on days of high prevalence of HCP than on days of low prevalence of HCP (p=0.0011). Conversely, carcass contamination did not vary with the prevalence of pigs that simply carried Salmonella spp. in their guts (p=0.7970). Therefore, the prevalence of HCP, but not the prevalence of pigs carrying Salmonella spp., was related to carcass contamination. Taken together, these findings suggest that reduction of Salmonella loads in the guts of slaughtered pigs would result in fewer contaminated carcasses, and consequently, help to minimise the risk of human infection due to the consumption of contaminated pork.
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.
Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international
Sithole, F; Toribio, J; Schembri, N; Holyoake, P K
To gather demographic data on live pig sales through a peri-urban saleyard in Camden, New South Wales, and to demonstrate the difficulties in tracing the subsequent movements of pigs, particularly weaner pigs. Records of pig sales held weekly at the Camden saleyards for the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 financial years were analysed. Saleyard data on a number of variables were entered into a purpose-designed database. Distributions of pig sales according to pig class (weaner/porker/baconer/backfatter), purchaser type (butcher/non-butcher), and transaction type (cash/account) were determined. More weaners (3192 in 2003/2004 and 3940 in 2004/2005) were sold than any other class of pig, accounting for 45% of the total pigs sold during this period. During 2003/2004, 3802 pigs were bought by 329 non-butcher purchasers including 1631 weaners (43%) purchased by 153 non-butchers (47%). The majority of these non-butchers during the study period (86%) paid cash for their pigs and did not provide the necessary information to allow the end destination of pigs to be determined. Location data was available for all vendors but only 25% of purchasers. This study highlights the challenges posed in tracing movement of pigs following sale by auction. A high proportion of weaners sold at this peri-urban saleyard would not have been slaughtered immediately. This study highlights the potential difficulties in tracing pig movements after sale, for disease control purposes. We recommend that legislation be amended requiring the identification of weaner pigs sold live at auction in all states of Australia and the recording of the property identification code of all vendors and purchasers of pigs sold live at auction.
Conte, S; Lawlor, P G; O'Connell, N; Boyle, L A
The aim of this study was to compare a split marketing (SM) strategy, in which the heaviest pigs in a group are removed and slaughtered earlier than the others, with an all-out (AO) marketing strategy, in which all pigs are removed from the pen simultaneously and slaughtered on the same day, in terms of welfare, performance, and carcass traits of noncastrated (i.e., intact) male and female pigs. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial array with 1) marketing strategy (SM vs. AO) and 2) sex (males vs. females), which yielded 4 treatment groups of 14 pigs (73.1 ± 4.8 kg): male SM, male AO, female SM, and female AO (7 replicates/group). Pigs in AO groups were all slaughtered after 6 wk on trial, whereas in SM groups the 3 heaviest pigs were removed and slaughtered 2 wk before the remainder of the group, which were slaughtered at the same time as the AO pigs. Pigs were fed a liquid diet from a long trough 3 times daily. Behavioral observations were conducted before and after SM, the day of SM, and 1 and 2 wk later. Behavior was recorded both during and between feed events, and skin lesions were scored on all, except the 3 pigs removed from SM groups before and 2 wk after SM. Growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were recorded. The number of aggressive interactions during feed events decreased after the 3 pigs were removed from SM groups. This reduction in aggressive interactions was observed on the day of SM in male groups (before SM: 24.3 vs. the day of SM: 14.7, SED = 3.31, P < 0.05 for interaction) and in subsequent observations in female groups (before SM: 21.4 vs. days after SM: 13.4, SED = 3.31, P < 0.05 for interaction). However, SM had no effect on behaviors recorded between feed events or on the number and severity of skin lesions (P > 0.10). There were no differences between the 11 remaining pigs in SM groups and the 14 pigs in AO groups in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of female or
Woods, G. T.; Jensen, A. H.; Gossling, Jennifer; Rhoades, H. E.; Nickelson, W. F.
Antimicrobial agents were added to the feed of swine for three weeks to determine the interrelationships of potentially pathogenic agents in the nasal tract, turbinate atrophy and weight gains. Bordetella bronchiseptica was not isolated from the groups fed the combination of chlortetracycline, penicillin and sulfamethazine. B. bronchiseptica was found in some pigs after the feeding trail, but this organism was not significantly associated with turbinate atrophy at the time of slaughter. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was not found in the nasal passages of the pigs that received feed containing high concentration chlortetracycline but was found in pigs that received other diets. Hemophilus suis was not significantly reduced by any of the treatments used. The organisms studied in the pigs were not isolated from the personnel handling the pigs. PMID:4258545
Warriss, P D; Pope, S J; Brown, S N; Wilkins, L J; Knowles, T G
Measurements on 28 pens of pigs containing 384 animals to be slaughtered at a commercial abattoir showed that the mean ear temperatures of the pigs in each pen, measured with a thermal imaging camera, were significantly correlated (r=0.71, P<0.001) with the mean temperature of the blood the pigs lost at exsanguination. In measurements on 220 pigs in 16 of the 28 pens, the mean activity of serum creatine kinase was positively correlated with the mean ear temperature (r=0.55, P<0.05) and the mean concentration of serum cortisol was positively correlated with the mean blood temperature (r=0.50, P<0.05), suggesting that the hotter pigs were suffering from a higher level of stress.
Danish as a second language textbooks published over the last 15 years have presented the Danish cultural identity as a homogenous and purely national phenomenon. Research into teaching theory, on the other hand, has been more broad-minded, and is based on interactivity. The aim of this paper is to explain this divergence. (Contains 2 notes.)
Davidson-York, D; Galey, F D; Blanchard, P; Gardner, I A
In May 1996, 150 grower pigs in 5 California counties were exposed to selenium-contaminated feed distributed by a single feed company. Feed samples from 20 herds had a mean selenium concentration of 121.7 ppm dry weight (range, 22.1-531 ppm). In San Luis Obispo County, 52 pigs in 24 herds were exposed to the feed, and 8 pigs died with signs of paralysis. Bilateral symmetrical poliomyelomalacia involving the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescence was evident on histologic examination of spinal cord from affected pigs. Of 44 surviving exposed pigs, 33 (75%) exhibited signs of selenosis, including anorexia, alopecia, and hoof lesions. Thirty-nine of 44 pigs (88.6%) had elevated (>1 ppm) blood selenium concentrations. Surviving exposed pigs were changed to a standard commercial ration containing approximately 0.5 ppm (dry weight) selenium. Blood selenium concentrations were determined weekly for 46 days following removal of the contaminated feed and were compared with values of 20 control pigs fed a standard commercial ration. Mean (+/-SD) blood selenium concentrations of exposed pigs were 3.2 +/- 2.6 ppm at the initial sampling and 0.4 +/- 0.1 ppm after 46 days. Mean blood selenium concentrations of < or = 0.3 ppm for control pigs at all samplings were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than concentrations for exposed pigs. Muscle and liver samples of 22 of the 44 exposed pigs were collected at slaughter approximately 72 days after withdrawal of the selenium-contaminated feed. Muscle samples had a mean selenium concentration of 0.36 ppm (wet weight). Liver samples had a mean selenium concentration of 1.26 ppm (wet weight). One liver sample had a selenium value in the toxic range for pigs (3.3 ppm wet weight; reference range, 0.4-1.2 ppm). A 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model of selenium elimination in exposed pigs was generated, and the geometric mean blood selenium elimination half-life was estimated to be 12 days. The 60-day withdrawal time recommended
... upland game bird, commercial waterfowl, meat-type chicken, and meat-type turkey slaughter plants that are... upland game bird and commercial waterfowl slaughter plants must follow the relevant special provisions in...
Potes, Y; Oliván, M; Rubio-González, A; de Luxán-Delgado, B; Díaz, F; Sierra, V; Arroyo, L; Peña, R; Bassols, A; González, J; Carreras, R; Velarde, A; Muñoz-Torres, M; Coto-Montes, A
Slaughter is a crucial step in the meat production chain that could induce psychological stress on each animal, resulting in a physiological response that can differ among individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an animal's emotional state, the subsequent psychological stress at slaughter and the cellular damage as an effect. In all, 36 entire male pigs were reared at an experimental farm and a cognitive bias test was used to classify them into positive bias (PB) or negative bias (NB) groups depending on their decision-making capabilities. Half of the animals, slaughtered in the same batch, were used for a complete study of biomarkers of stress, including brain neurotransmitters and some muscle biomarkers of oxidative stress. After slaughter, specific brain areas were excised and the levels of catecholamines (noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA)) and indoleamines (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and serotonin (5HT)) were analyzed. In addition, muscle proteasome activity (20S), antioxidant defence (total antioxidant activity (TAA)), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO)) and autophagy biomarkers (Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3-I) and LC3-II) were monitored during early postmortem maturation (0 to 24 h). Compared with PB animals, NB pigs were more susceptible to stress, showing higher 5HT levels (P<0.01) in the hippocampus and lower DA (P<0.001) in the pre-frontal cortex. Furthermore, NB pigs had more intense proteolytic processes and triggered primary muscle cell survival mechanisms immediately after slaughter (0 h postmortem), thus showing higher TAA (P<0.001) and earlier proteasome activity (P<0.001) and autophagy (Beclin-1, P<0.05; LC3-II/LC3-I, P<0.001) than PB pigs, in order to counteract the induced increase in oxidative stress, that was significantly higher in the muscle of NB pigs at 0 h postmortem (LPO, P<0.001). Our study is the first to demonstrate that pig's cognitive bias influences
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements at a slaughtering facility. 88.5 Section 88.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements at a slaughtering facility. 88.5 Section 88.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements at a slaughtering facility. 88.5 Section 88.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...
A machine vision system was developed and evaluated for the automation of online inspection to differentiate freshly slaughtered wholesome chickens from systemically diseased chickens. The system consisted of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device camera used with an imaging spectrograph and ...
Most H5N1 human infections have occurred following exposure to H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus-infected poultry, especially when poultry are home slaughtered or slaughtered in live poultry markets. Previous studies have demonstrated that slaughter of clade 1 isolate A/Vietnam/1...
... participating flocks and slaughter plants. 146.4 Section 146.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and slaughter plants. (a) Records that establish the identity of products handled shall be maintained... classification may include in their advertising reference to associated or franchised slaughter or...
Kich, Jalusa D; Coldebella, Arlei; Morés, Nelson; Nogueira, Mariana Gomes; Cardoso, Marisa; Fratamico, Pina M; Call, Jeffrey E; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Luchansky, John B
Swine can carry Salmonella strains that may be transmitted to humans by pork products. This investigation determined the distribution and types of Salmonella in 12 swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 1258 samples, consisting of environmental, feed, carcass, lymph node, and fecal material were collected and submitted to bacteriological isolation of Salmonella. From 487 positive samples, 1255 isolates were recovered and confirmed to be Salmonella. The distribution of positive samples was as follows: finishing pen floors 26% (16/61); feed 29% (42/143); feces 44% (52/119); pooled feces 59% (35/59); slaughter holding pens 90% (36/40); lymph nodes 46% (220/478); pre-chilled carcass surfaces 24% (24/98); and post-chilled carcass surfaces 24% (62/260). The most prevalent serovars were Typhimurium, Panama, Senftenberg, Derby, and Mbandaka. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, 1071 isolates were subtyped using XbaI, and duplicate isolates were removed. From the remaining 747 isolates, 163 macrorestriction profiles (pulsotypes) were identified. Six pulsotypes were considered very frequent, occurring in 33 isolates or more. The multiple correspondence analyses showed correlations between pulsotypes from shedding pigs (feces), herd environment (pen floors), and subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes and between lairage and carcass surface samples before and after chilling. All sources of Salmonella investigated contributed to the carrier state; however, pre-slaughter contamination at lairage was the variable most strongly associated with carcass contamination. A total of 59 different antimicrobial resistance profiles were observed in 572 Salmonella isolates. From these isolates, 17% (97/572) were susceptible to all 15 antibiotics tested, 83% (475/572) were resistant to at least one, and 43% (246/572) were resistant to four or more antibiotics (multi-resistant). The AmpGenKanTet profile was the most prevalent in carcass isolates and
Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Heldmer, Eva; Österberg, Julia; Ekman, Stina
Free-range housing, in which pigs have access to both indoor and outdoor areas, is mandatory in organic pig production in Europe, but little is known about the effects of this housing on joint health in pigs. A high level of joint condemnations at slaughter has been reported in organic free-range pigs in Sweden, compared with pigs raised in conventional confined housing. We hypothesised that biomechanical forces imposed on the joints of pigs that range freely promote the development of osteochondrosis and lead to joint condemnation. We compared the prevalence of osteochondrosis and other joint lesions (e.g. arthritis, traumatic) in the elbow and hock joints of 91 crossbred Hampshire (Yorkshire × Landrace) fattening pigs that were housed in a free-range indoor/outdoor system with that in 45 pigs housed in confined indoor pens. A larger proportion of free-range than confined pigs had osteochondrosis in the elbow joints (69 vs. 50%, p < 0.05), and a higher proportion of these joints in free-range pigs showed moderate or severe lesions (33 vs. 16%, p < 0.05). The free-range pigs also showed a higher prevalence of osteochondrosis in the hock joints (83 vs. 62%, p < 0.05) and a larger proportion of these joints had moderate or severe lesions (69 vs. 33%, p < 0.001). At slaughter, 4.2% of the free-range pigs had condemned joints, all of which showed severe osteochondrosis, while no joints of confined pigs were condemned. In this experiment the prevalence of osteochondrosis in the elbow and the hock was higher, and lesions were more severe, in free-range than in confined pigs, suggesting that free-range housing increases the risk of acquiring osteochondrosis. Increased biomechanical stress to vulnerable joint structures may be the mechanism behind this effect, however more studies are needed to verify these results. This study suggests that modification of housing, and breeding for joints that are more adapted to free-range movement may be needed in free-range pig
Boerlin, P; Wissing, A; Aarestrup, F M; Frey, J; Nicolet, J
Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs.
Saunders, J. R.; Osborne, A. D.; K-Sebunya, T.
A 1978-79 survey of the incidence of thoracic cavity lesions at slaughter had shown that the overall incidence of pleurisy in Saskatchewan swine was low (2%). Therefore, in the summer of 1979 a comparison was made between the incidence of pleurisy in a herd of pigs chronically affected with Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae pneumonia and in animals from other herds slaughtered at the same time. The incidence of pleurisy in control pigs (3.6%) was slightly higher than in the large scale survey but in the pigs from the Haemophilus infected herd it was almost four times as great (13.3%). In the same herd the survivors of a batch of pigs which had been decimated by more severe disease showed an incidence of 32% pleurisy. The economic implications of these findings are detailed and discussed. PMID:7340926
Wang, Bing; Wesley, Irene V; McKean, James D; O'Connor, Annette M
The aim of this study was to assess the value of deep systemic sub-iliac lymph nodes collected at slaughter as predictors of Salmonella prevalence in live hogs. An observational study was conducted on 24 farms from September 2006 to February 2009. At least one cohort of market-weight pigs was visited for each farm. Within each cohort, 30 farm fecal samples on farm and 30 sub-iliac lymph nodes from matched pigs at slaughter were collected. Samples were cultured for Salmonella enterica and serotyped by conventional methods. Overall, 3.4% (51 of 1490) of farm feces and 0.06% (1 of 1739) of sub-iliac lymph nodes were Salmonella positive; 71.4% (15 of 21) of farms had at least one positive fecal sample, and 4.2% (1 of 24) had at least one positive sub-iliac lymph node. The median within-farm prevalence of Salmonella in farm fecal samples was 1.7%, ranging from 0% to 38.3%; for sub-iliac lymph nodes the median was 0%, ranging from 0% to 1.1%. The median within-cohort prevalence in farm fecal samples was 0%, ranging from 0% to 43.3%; for sub-iliac lymph nodes the median was 0%, ranging from 0% to 4%. The predominant serotype detected was Derby, followed by Anatum and Typhimurium (Copenhagen). Salmonella Braenderup was recovered from the sub-iliac lymph node. The low detection rate of Salmonella in sub-iliac lymph nodes (0.06%) limits its usefulness as a dependable predictor of Salmonella contamination originating on farm (3.4%).
Fuchs, Thilo; Nathues, Heiko; Koehrmann, Annika; Andrews, Stuart; Brock, Fiona; Klein, Günter; grosse Beilage, Elisabeth
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of using a gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine on growth performance of male pigs. Vaccinated pigs were compared with surgically castrated pigs and entire males under conventionally managed farm conditions. Male pigs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: pigs surgically castrated during the first week of life (group "C", n=274), pigs immunised twice during the fattening period with a GnRF vaccine, the first when 13-14 weeks of age and the second when 20-21 weeks of age (group "V" n=280) and entire males (group "E", n=56). Average daily weight gain (ADG) was measured during the study. Additionally, feed conversion ratio (FCR) as defined by feed intake/weight gain and feed consumption was assessed during the fattening period. No difference in the ADG during the fattening period could be determined between "C" and "V". From the start of the study until slaughter at study day 160/173 the ADG in group "E" was lower (625 g/day; P) than in group "C" (681 g/day; P < 0.001) and group "V" (675 g/day; P < 0.01). The FCR during the fattening period until study day 160, three days before the first batch of pigs were slaughtered at 24-25 weeks of age, was higher in group"C" (2.72 kg feed intake/kg weight gain) compared with group "V" (2.44 kg feed intake/kg weight gain; P < 0.001) and group "E" (2.44 kg feed intake/kg weight gain; P <0.01). Pigs in group "V" performed similarly to those in group "E" until the second vaccination (day 135) after which time they showed a substantial increase in feed intake and ADG, while retaining an FCR advantage over group C.
Bonardi, Silvia; Bruini, Ilaria; Magnani, Rossella; Cannistrà, Nicolò; Brindani, Franco
In order to evaluate Salmonella carrier status of cull dairy cattle at slaughter, 125 animals were randomly selected during the period February-May 2016. Dairy cows were reared in 89 farms located in two regions of Northern Italy (Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions), where bovine milk is primarily used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese and Grana Padano cheese production. Samples were collected by swabbing a 400-cm2 area of the brisket hide and by rectoanal mucosal swabs. They were tested following the reference ISO 6579 method and the isolates were serotyped following the Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme and genotyped by XbaI PFGE. Salmonella was detected in 1.6% of the brisket hide samples (2/125) (95% CI: 0.4-5.6) and never found in faecal samples (95% CI: 0-3%). The positive cattle were reared in two farms located only in Emilia-Romagna region. The isolates were typed as S. Derby and S. Seftenberg. The comparison of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the bovine strains with all the PFGE patterns of the same serotypes responsible for human salmonellosis cases notified in Emilia-Romagna region in the years 2013-2015 did not find any correspondence. Therefore, the role of cull dairy cattle in transmitting Salmonella to humans seems to be less important than those of pigs and poultry in EU, but more data are needed for completing attribution source studies. PMID:28299287
Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald
Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (P<0.001) and M. hyopneumoniae-loads (P<0.008) differed significantly among the vaccination groups, with the most severe cases and highest amounts occurring in V1. Histological alterations differed (P<0.001) between V1 and V3. Lung lesion scores and histopathological changes were significantly correlated, with prevalence and load of M. hyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination.
Miraglia, Fabiana; Moreno, Andréa Mike; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Paixão, Renata; Liuson, Esequiel; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Maiorka, Paulo; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda
With the aim of isolating Leptospira spp., blood serum, kidney, liver and genital tract of 137 female swine (40 sows and 97 gilts) and also urine samples from 22 sows were collected in a slaughterhouse in the State of São Paulo, from April 2003 to August 2004. Four isolates were obtained from animals that presented microagglutination test (MAT) titers ≥ 100 for the serovar Pomona and one was obtained from an animal negative by MAT in which Leptospira was isolated from the liver and reproductive tract. The presence of leptospiral DNA was investigated by PCR, and positive results were found in kidneys of 11 females, liver of two, genital tract of two and urine of one of them. Nephrosis, interstitial multifocal nephritis, moderate to severe changing, hyalines cylinders and hemorrhagic focuses, hepatic and uterine horns congestion were histological lesions observed in higher frequency in animals positive for leptospira. The silver impregnation (Warthin Starry) confirmed the presence of spirochetes in renal tubules of four females with positive leptospira cultures from kidneys. The serogroup of the five isolates was identified as Pomona by cross agglutination with reference polyclonal antibodies. Molecular characterization of the isolates was carried out by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis. All the isolates revealed a pattern distinct from the L. interrogans Pomona type strain, but identical to a previously identified pattern from strains isolated in Argentina belonging to serovar Pomona. PMID:24031254
Borges, Clarissa Araújo; Beraldo, Lívia Gerbasi; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Cardozo, Marita Vedovelli; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; de Ávila, Fernando Antônio
Escherichia coli is a pathogen of major importance in swine and public health. To determine the prevalence of Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), samples were collected from the feces and carcasses of swines. In total, 441 samples were collected in four samplings, of which 141 samples tested positive for either the stx1, stx2, and/or eae genes. From the positive samples, one STEC and 15 atypical EPEC (aEPEC) isolates were obtained, and all originated from the same sampling. In addition to eae, lpfA(O157/OI-141), ehxA, toxB, and lpfA(O113) were present in the aEPEC isolates. The only stx2-containing isolate carried stx2e and belonged to serotype O103:HNT. Resistance to four or more antimicrobials was found in almost half of the isolates, and some isolates shared the same fingerprint patterns by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The presence of certain virulence genes and the high level of resistance to antimicrobials, as well as the possible fecal contamination of carcasses showed that some of the isolates are of public health concern.
Armocida, A; Beskow, P; Amcoff, P; Kallner, A; Ekman, S
Four litters (41 pigs) of cross-bred pigs were studied from 6 to 26 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected at 6, 13, 21 and 26 weeks of age and analysed for contents of vitamin C, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The pigs were examined clinically for foreleg weakness at the ages of 21 and 26 weeks. At the age of 26 weeks the pigs were slaughtered and the right forelegs were examined macroscopically and selected samples were collected for radiological, histological and ultrastructural examination. The prevalence of foreleg lesions was high, with lesions of dyschondroplasia of the distal growth plate of the ulna in 30 pigs, synovitis of the elbow joint in 24 pigs and osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow joint in 25 pigs. At the ages of 21 and 26 weeks, five pigs had evidently crooked forelegs and 14 pigs (age 21 weeks) and 25 pigs (age 26 weeks) had mildly deformed forelegs. The serum levels of Ca, P and ALP were within normal values for growing-finishing pigs. The range of vitamin C concentrations in plasma showed a wide difference (7.1-49.8 mumol/l) but was not associated with deformed forelegs. The serum concentrations of Ca, P and ALP and the plasma concentration of vitamin C differed significantly (P = 0.05) between age groups and there was a significant (P = 0.001) positive correlation between the levels of vitamin C in plasma and the serum levels of ALP at 6 weeks of age. The aim of the present study was to determine if there was any association between the plasma levels of vitamin C and the extent of crooked or deviated forelegs in growing-finishing pigs. We could not find a vitamin C deficiency during the study and no association between low levels of vitamin C in plasma and the presence of deformed forelegs of these 40 pigs.
van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P
The EU prescribes that food business operators must use food chain information to assist in food safety control. This study analyses usefulness of food chain information about antibiotic usage covering the 60-day period prior to delivery of pigs to slaughter in the control of antibiotic residues in pork. A dataset with 479 test results for antibiotic residues in tissue samples of finishing pigs delivered to a Dutch slaughter company was linked to information provided by pig producers about antibiotic usage in these finishing pigs. Results show that twice as many producers reported using antibiotics in the group of 82 producers with antibiotic residues (11.0%) compared to the group without antibiotic residues (5.5%) (p=0.0686). For 89% of consignments with a finishing pig with antibiotic residues, the producer reported 'did not use antibiotics'. Food chain information about antibiotic usage provided by Dutch pig producers was no guarantee for absence of antibiotic residues in delivered finishing pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lebret, B; Heyer, A; Gondret, F; Louveau, I
Muscle lipid concentration is known to influence pork eating quality. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of a restriction-re-alimentation feeding strategy on intramuscular fat deposition in pigs. A total of 70 Duroc × (Large White × Landrace) pigs (castrated males and females) were used. Ten pigs were first slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (LW) to determine initial body and muscle composition. From 30 to 80 kg LW (growing period), pigs were either fed ad libitum (AL) or restricted to 70% of the ad libitum intake of AL pigs (RA). From 80 to 110 kg LW (finishing period), both AL and RA pigs were fed ad libitum. In each group, pigs were slaughtered at 80 kg (n = 10) and at 110 kg (n = 20) LW. During the growing period, the growth rate of RA pigs was reduced by 30% (P < 0.001) compared with AL pigs. During the finishing period, RA pigs had a 7% (P = 0.09) higher growth rate than AL pigs due to compensatory feed intake (+14%). Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration was lower in RA pigs at 80 kg LW, but markedly increased after re-alimentation up to the level observed in AL pigs (P < 0.001). At 80 kg, the leaner carcasses of RA pigs resulted from a more pronounced reduction in fat than in lean tissue deposition rates. Re-alimentation of RA pigs increased fat tissue deposition (+160% for females, P < 0.01) but not lean deposition in the carcass, leading to limited differences in carcass composition between RA and AL pigs at 110 kg LW. Regarding tissue deposition rates, the response to feeding strategy differs between muscles. In the m. biceps femoris (BF), restriction affected lipid (-50%, P < 0.001) and protein (-25%, P < 0.001) deposition, whereas re-alimentation increased lipid (+62%, P < 0.05) but not protein deposition rates. At market weight, the extent of the difference in BF lipid concentration between RA and AL pigs was strongly reduced, but still significant. By contrast, in the m. longissimus, restriction decreased protein but not lipid
Alexander, B M; Ingold, B C; Young, J L; Fensterseifer, S R; Wechsler, P J; Austin, K J; Larson-Meyer, D E
Traditional confinement practices limit exposure to sunlight and vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs on a vitamin D sufficient diet. White-pigmented grower pigs (29.7 ± 2.3 kg) fed 15% CP diet ad libitum providing >1,200 IU vitamin D3/kg of feed were exposed to sunlight for 1 h each day at solar noon for 14 d at the spring equinox (March pigs, n = 10) or summer solstice (June pigs, n = 5) and again before slaughter in June (March pigs) and September (June pigs). Blood for the analysis of 25(OH)D was collected before and after sunlight exposure. Traditionally housed pigs served as controls. After initial sun exposure, blood samples were collected from June pigs daily for 5 d and weekly for 8 wk to determine vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D decay, respectively. Kidney and liver samples were collected from the June pigs at slaughter after sun exposure for analysis of messenger RNA expression of vitamin D binding protein and synthesizing/degrading enzymes. Average daily gain (ADG) was not influenced (P > 0.5) by sunlight exposure. June pigs had fewer days on feed, lower (P = 0.003) ADG and were slaughtered at a lighter (P < 0.001) weight. Exposure to sunlight increased (P < 0.001) 25(OH) vitamin D for all pigs. March pigs, obtained from a Midwest producer, had lower (P < 0.001) concentration of 25(OH)D than June pigs born on-farm. Initial sunlight exposure increased serum concentration of 25(OH)D in March pigs by 200% and June pigs by 67%. Serum concentration of vitamin D3 was decreased (P < 0.05) by 72 h with 25(OH)D decreased (P < 0.05) by wk 4 after exposure. Expression of vitamin D binding protein, vitamin D synthesizing CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP2D25, or degrading enzyme CYP24A1 were not influenced (P ≥ 0.19) by sunlight
..., or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter. 313.50... compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter. When an inspector observes... establishment operator of the incident and request that the operator take the necessary steps to prevent a...
..., or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter. 313.50... compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter. When an inspector observes... establishment operator of the incident and request that the operator take the necessary steps to prevent a...
..., or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter. 313.50... compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling in connection with slaughter. When an inspector observes... establishment operator of the incident and request that the operator take the necessary steps to prevent a...
Bochicchio, D; Comellini, M; Lambertini, P; Marchetto, G; Della Casa, G
The mobilization of fatty acids during food deprivation is a selective process studied in different species (humans, rodents, birds, viverrids). The aim of this work was to study the effect of fasting on selective mobilization in commercial pigs. A total of 16 barrows (Large White×Landrace (167 kg±12.5 kg live weight) were subdivided into two homogeneous groups, one subjected to 12 h and the other to 60 h of fasting (fasting time) before slaughtering. For each pig inner and outer backfat layer were sampled at slaughter and at ham trimming 24 h later (sampling time). Increasing the fasting time and the sampling time after slaughter caused an increase in the amount of free fatty acids in both layers. Therefore it can be argued that during fasting lipolysis is stimulated and remains active also after slaughtering. The factors that stimulate lipolysis determine a greater mobilization of unsaturated fatty acids than saturated ones. Thus fasting time may influence the suitability of pork for processing and conservation, since free fatty acids are more suitable for oxidation than the esterified ones.
Aim of database The Danish Nephrology Registry’s (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities’ quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. Study population The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964. Main variables DNR registers patient data (eg, age, sex, renal diagnosis, and comorbidity), predialysis specialist treatment, details of eight dialysis modalities (three hemodialysis and five peritoneal dialysis), all transplantation courses, dialysis access at first dialysis, treatment complications, and biochemical variables. The database is complete (<1% missing data). Patients are followed until death or emigration. Descriptive data DNR now contains 18,120 patients, and an average of 678 is added annually. Data for each transplantation course include donor details, tissue type, time to onset of graft function, and cause of graft loss. Registered complications include peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, causes of peritoneal dialysis technique failure, and transplant rejections. Fifteen biochemical variables are registered, mainly describing anemia control, mineral and bone disease, nutritional and uremia status. Date and cause of death are also included. Six quality indicators are published annually, and have been associated with improvements in patient results, eg, a reduction in dialysis patient mortality, improved graft survival, and earlier referral to specialist care. Approximately, ten articles, mainly epidemiological, are published each year. Conclusion DNR contains a complete description of end-stage renal disease patients in Denmark, their treatment, and prognosis. The stated aims are fulfilled. PMID:27843345
Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Gislason, Gunnar
Aim The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population All adult (≥15 years) patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR). For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing) of each procedure (>90%) when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have a high level of completeness for surgery since 2000, and for CAG and PCI since 2010. Conclusion The DHR contains valuable data on cardiac invasive procedures, which makes it an important national monitoring and quality system and at the same time serves as a platform for research projects in the cardiovascular field. PMID:27822091
Fadda, A.; Bärtschi, M.; Hemphill, A.; Widmer, H. R.; Zurbriggen, A.; Perona, P.; Vidondo, B.; Oevermann, A.
Neurological disorders in ruminants have an important impact on veterinary health, but very few host-specific in vitro models have been established to study diseases affecting the nervous system. Here we describe a primary neuronal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) culture derived from calves after being conventionally slaughtered for food consumption. The study focuses on the in vitro characterization of bovine DRG cell populations by immunofluorescence analysis. The effects of various growth factors on neuron viability, neurite outgrowth and arborisation were evaluated by morphological analysis. Bovine DRG neurons are able to survive for more than 4 weeks in culture. GF supplementation is not required for neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. However, exogenously added growth factors promote neurite outgrowth. DRG cultures from regularly slaughtered calves represent a promising and sustainable host specific model for the investigation of pain and neurological diseases in bovines. PMID:27936156
Radkowski, M; Siemionek, J
Conditions of trading and handling of animals during transportation are regulated by numerous norms which cover the humanitarian, sanitary, veterinary as well as technical and construction requirements to transportation means. Veterinary services play a particular role in trade of slaughter animals due to their controlling authority. They execute sanitary supervision over animal trading according to the regulations. Polish legislation related to the transport of animals is adjusted to the European Union standards.
Shahdan, Intan Azura; Regenstein, Joe Mac; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur
This study proposes critical limits (CL) for control points for halal slaughter (CPHS). Previously, 6 control points (CP) were determined, and CL for these 6 CPHS are suggested based on: 1) a literature survey for the CL for CP 1 (poultry breeding, rearing, and poultry feed) and CP 2 (welfare of poultry during transportation and lairage); 2) a field survey of slaughter plants in Kuantan (Malaysia) for CP 3 (immobilization), CP 4 (slaughter), CP 5 (time for full bleed-out), and CP 6 (washing and packaging); and 3) controlled experiments to refine the CL for CP 3, 4, and 5. The CL for CP 1 focused on stress reduction during rearing and use of substances that could compromise poultry meat wholesomeness. The CL for CP 2 emphasizes humane best-practices for handling poultry during lairage. The CL for CP 3 suggests a gap of 5 s between 2 shackles if only one shackler is employed and shackling times of <1 min for live chickens. In countries permitting water-bath electrical stunning of halal poultry, the stunning current needed to induce unconsciousness must be defined for the breed and bird size but not cause any chicken deaths. The CL for CP 4 mandates the recitation of the tasmiyah (the invocation), which if done for every chicken, will require ≥5 s between stunning and neck cutting. The CL for CP 4 also includes information about the slaughter knife. In CP 5 the recommended minimum time between neck cutting and scalding is 9.5 min. Finally, the CL for CP 6 emphasizes good supply chain hygiene and zero adulteration from haram species and substances.
Correa, J A; Torrey, S; Devillers, N; Laforest, J P; Gonyou, H W; Faucitano, L
Although there is increasing evidence regarding the negative welfare and meat quality implications of electric prod use for slaughter-weight pigs, this handling tool continues to be used. Therefore, the behavioral and physiological response and carcass and meat quality of 360 pigs being loaded onto a truck for transportation to slaughter according to 3 handling procedures were studied. The 3 handling procedures were 1) moving with an electric prod and board from the finishing pen to the truck (EP); 2) moving with a board and a paddle from the finishing pen to the truck (PAD); 3) moving with a board and a paddle from the finishing pen and using a compressed air prod in the ramp before going into the truck (CAP). A subpopulation of 144 pigs (48 pigs/treatment) was equipped with heart rate monitors. Blood samples were collected from the same animals at exsanguination for the analysis of creatine phosphokinase and lactate. Data were analyzed using an ANOVA for factorial design, with the animal as the experimental unit. Behavior was analyzed with MIXED model procedure with treatment as a fixed effect. During loading, EP pigs slipped and fell (P < 0.001) and overlapped (P = 0.03) more often, but stopped (P < 0.001) and attempted turns (P = 0.01) less often than CAP or PAD. With CAP, pigs made more 180° turns (P = 0.01) than with PAD or EP. Loading with EP led to more and longer vocalizations (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively) than loading with CAP or PAD. Loading took longest with CAP and was quickest with EP (P = 0.01). Pigs handled with EP had a greater heart rate than those moved with PAD and CAP at loading (P < 0.001), wait at loading (P < 0.001), at unloading (P = 0.05), and in lairage (P = 0.02). Pigs loaded with EP had greater (P = 0.05) lactate concentrations in blood at exsanguination compared with pigs handled with CAP, with pigs loaded with PAD being intermediate. Furthermore, ultimate pH values in the semimembranosus and adductor muscles of EP pigs were
Mandolini, Nicholas Aconiti; Marinsalti, Maria; Cammertoni, Natalina; Loschi, Anna Rita; Rea, Stefano
The Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009 requires slaughterhouse managers to implement specific standard operating procedures for all pre-slaughter stages considered at risk, aimed at achieving adequate levels of animal welfare. This survey was aimed at testing the applicability to an abattoir for heavy pigs of an assessment system of animal welfare through animal-based measures. In the monitoring of handling operations, the number of animals fallen/slipped and prodded, and that of vocalising pigs were recorded. In the monitoring of the immobilisation stage, carried out on the same pigs, vocalisations were recorded at the entrance to the box and falls/slips occurring inside it. Animal welfare assessment during the stunning-sticking-bleeding steps, was carried out by recording the head-only electrical stunning basic parameters set by legislation, vocalisations resulting from hot wanding, and clinical signs of consciousness, sensibility and certain death. Except for immobilisation, the percentage of occurrence of these events above acceptability limits was detected in all other pre-slaughter steps. The most critical stages were: handling in the unloading area and along the single-file chute, stunning and especially bleeding, where 84.13% of animals showed one or more signs of consciousness and/or sensibility recovery. Wrong placement of electrodes observed in 53.98% of the animals, insufficient voltage and low amperage may explain why a high percentage of pigs recovered consciousness and/or sensibility before death. Some simple restructuring of unloading area, slowdown of slaughter line speed, increase of personnel involved in pre-slaughter management and regular calibration of the electrical stunning device could be effectively corrective measures aimed at raising the animal welfare level at the slaughterhouse under study. PMID:27800319
Yi, Linxian; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yanling; Liu, Yiyun; Doi, Yohei; Wu, Renjie; Zeng, Zhenling; Liang, Zisen
We detected the mcr-1 gene in 21 (14.8%) Salmonella isolates from pigs at slaughter; 19 were serovar Typhimurium sequence type 34. The gene was located on IncHI2-like plasmids that also harbored IncF replicons and lacked a conjugative transfer region. These findings highlight the need to prevent further spread of colistin resistance in animals and humans. PMID:28098547
Nollet, Nathalie; Houf, Kurt; Dewulf, Jeroen; Duchateau, Luc; De Zutter, Lieven; De Kruif, Aart; Maes, Dominiek
The aims of this study were to investigate patterns of Salmonella shedding in finishing pigs and to study the role of the sow in the transmission of Salmonella to her offspring. In each of the three herds (A, B, and C), one cohort of sows (n = 34, n = 40, n = 32, respectively) together with three piglets of their offspring (n = 102, n = 120, n = 96, respectively) were selected. Individual fecal and blood samples were taken from the sows at different times during one production cycle and from the piglets from weaning until slaughter. At slaughter, contents from the jejunum, colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes were collected. Fecal samples, as well as the jejunum, colon, and mesenteric lymph node samples collected at slaughter, were submitted to a qualitative Salmonella analysis. Isolates were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA, and if necessary, further characterization was done by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In herds A and B, Salmonella shedding began in the nursery. A significant increase in the number of Salmonella shedders was seen after transferring pigs to the growing unit in herd B (P = 0.003) and to the finishing unit in herds A (P < 0.001) and B (P = 0.013). None of the fattening pigs in herd C were shedding Salmonella. This study reveals that transferring pigs is an important trigger to induce Salmonella shedding, leading to horizontal spread. Direct transmission of Salmonella from the sows to their piglets could not be demonstrated, but the similarities between the isolates found in the sows and those found during the nursery and finishing periods and at slaughter suggested indirect transmission.
Swai, Emmanuel S; Hayghaimo, Abdu A; Hassan, Ayubu A; Mhina, Bartholomeo S
Information on the level of foetal wastage in slaughtered cattle in Tanzania is limited. A three-month observational study (April - June 2014) of animals slaughtered at the Tanga abattoir in Tanga region, Tanzania was carried out to determine the number of pregnant cows slaughtered. The total number of cattle slaughtered during the study period was 3643, representing a monthly kill average of 1214 and a daily kill average of 40. Over 98% of the cattle presented to the abattoir for slaughter were local breed (Tanzania shorthorn zebu) and most were above 3 years of age. Improved breeds of cattle represented only 1.3% of all slaughters. Of the cattle slaughtered, 2256 (61.9%) were female and 1387 (38.1%) were male. A total of 655 slaughtered cows were pregnant, representing a foetal wastage of 29.1%. Of the 655 recovered foetuses, 333 (50.8%) were male and 322 (49.2%) were female. Of the recovered foetuses, 25.8% were recovered in the first, 42.7% in the second and 31.6% in the third trimester. This study indicates cases of significant foetal losses, negatively impacting future replacement stock as a result of the slaughter of pregnant animals. The indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows suggests that existing animal welfare legislation is not sufficiently enforced and routine veterinary ante-mortem inspection of trade animals is failing to prevent the high level of foetal wastage.
Sabow, A B; Sazili, A Q; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Ab Kadir, M Z A; Abdulla, N R; Nakyinsige, K; Kaka, U; Adeyemi, K D
The study assessed the effect of conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia on bleeding efficiency of goats and keeping quality of goat meat. Ten Boer cross bucks were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or minimal anesthesia prior to slaughter (AS). The blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of hemoglobin and myoglobin content in longissimus lumborum muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and lipid oxidation. Blood loss at exsanguination, residual hemoglobin and lipid oxidation were not significantly different (p>0.05) between HS and AS. Lactic acid bacteria was the only microbe that was significantly elevated after 24h of storage at 4°C in the AS group. In conclusion, slaughtering goats under minimal anesthesia or fully conscious did not affect bleeding efficiency and keeping quality of goat meat.
Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared with the DK and TH pig diets. From the known diet composition using standard table values on chemical and nutrient digestibly, high accuracy (bias) and low variation was found and the results could be used for prediction on chemical composition and excretion in faeces and urine in growing pigs. Calculation based on standard values regarding nutrient retention in the pig body as used in the Danish manure normative system (DMNS) showed likewise to be quite useful for quantifying the total excretion of N and P. Overall, the results demonstrate that simple models that require cheap and normally available information on dietary nutrients can give useful information on nutrient excretion in growing pigs. PMID:24206677
Jørgensen, Henry; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, Van Thi Khanh; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard
Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values.Nine female growing pigs were used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined.Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared with the DK and TH pig diets. From the known diet composition using standard table values on chemical and nutrient digestibly, high accuracy (bias) and low variation was found and the results could be used for prediction on chemical composition and excretion in faeces and urine in growing pigs. Calculation based on standard values regarding nutrient retention in the pig body as used in the Danish manure normative system (DMNS) showed likewise to be quite useful for quantifying the total excretion of N and P.Overall, the results demonstrate that simple models that require cheap and normally available information on dietary nutrients can give useful information on nutrient excretion in growing pigs.
Millet, S; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Goddeeris, B M; Janssens, G P J
The effect of organic or conventional feeding on the immune response of pigs was determined using organic or conventional housing in a pig fattening unit. The experimental design involved four pens of four animals per housing and diet combination (organic housing and organic nutrition; organic housing and conventional nutrition; conventional housing and organic nutrition and conventional housing and conventional nutrition). The IgM, IgA and IgG responses against intramuscularly injected bovine thyroglobulin were determined as indicators of the antigen-specific immune responsiveness. Some general health and welfare related parameters were evaluated by measuring haptoglobin concentrations at selected times; blood lactate concentration was measured at slaughter. Conventional housing led to a higher IgG response three weeks after the first immunisation. Organic housing led to lower haptoglobin and lactate concentrations at slaughter, indicating a higher stress resistance in these pigs. No major differences between the two feeding types were found. We conclude that the immune responses following either a conventional or an organic diet are comparable, whereas organic housing can increase stress resistance at slaughter compared to conventional housing.
Albrecht, Anna; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Henning, Martina; Bekendorf, Torsten; Krieter, Joachim
The present study assessed the effects of using Improvac (Pfizer Animal Health, Germany) on growth performance and meat characteristics in cross-bred male pigs. In addition average daily weight gain of immunised and surgically castrated males was estimated in order to demonstrate differences in growing patterns in these two treatment groups. The study was carried out in two identical batches. Pigs within batches (n = 446) were allocated to two different treatment groups: immunisation (IM) versus surgical castration (CM). Within treatment groups pigs were randomly assigned to two different diets (low- and high-lysine diet) in order to examine interactions of growth performance and castration technique. Vaccination was performed on the day of entry to the fattening unit and four to six weeks prior to slaughter. At the second vaccination IM-pigs showed significantly lower body weights than the control group (p < 0.05) in both batches. Throughout the whole fattening period CM-pigs tended to have a higher feed intake than IM-pigs while IM-pigs had a significantly lower (better) feed conversion ratio than CM-pigs (p < 0.05).The different lysine content of the diets had no coherent effect on any of the growth performance parameters analysed. Immunised pigs of both feeding groups and in both batches showed a tendency towards a lower carcass weight, back fat values and dressing percentages than surgically castrated pigs.The castration technique had no significant effect on meat quality parameters such as drip loss, shear force or cooking loss while intramuscular fat content (IMF) in immunised pigs fed high-lysine diets (IM(high)) tended to be higher than IMF in immunised pigs fed low-lysine diets (IM(low)). This effect was not seen in surgical castrates in either batch. Immunisation against GnRH offers a good approach to produce taint-free pork while ensuring boar-like growth for a large part of the fattening period.
Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank
Simple Summary Pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) have an increased feed intake, growth rate, back fat and fat deposition compared to entire males. A previous experiment found that Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) has the potential to reduce feed intake and fat deposition in IC males. The current experiment aimed to develop a dietary management strategy using albus lupins for either 14 or 28 days pre-slaughter to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in IC males. Abstract Two hundred and ninety four pigs were used with the aim to develop a dietary management strategy using Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) and entire male pigs in the late finishing stage. From day (d) 0 to 28, IC males fed the control diet grew faster (p = 0.009) than entire males fed the control diet but there was no difference in growth rate between sexes for pigs fed albus lupins for 14 days pre-slaughter (Albus 14) or pigs fed albus lupins for 28 days pre-slaughter (Albus 28). From d 15 to 28, IC males receiving the Albus 14 diet grew more slowly (p < 0.001) than entire males receiving the Albus 14 diet. From d 15 to 28 (p < 0.001), IC males fed the control diet ate more feed than entire males fed the control diet, although there was no difference between sexes in feed intake of the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diet. Immunocastrates had a lower backfat when fed either Albus 14 or Albus 28 compared to the control diet, although there was no difference between diets for entire males. There was also a trend for pigs on the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diets to have a higher lean deposition (p = 0.055) and a lower fat deposition (p = 0.056) compared to the pigs on the control diet. Pigs fed the Albus 28 diet had a lower plasma ghrelin concentration compared to pigs
Rout, M; Saikumar, G
Classical swine fever (CSF) is an endemic disease in India, but the real magnitude of the problem is not known as only outbreaks of acute CSF are reported and many cases of chronic and clinically inapparent forms of the disease, which manifest a confusing clinical picture, remain undiagnosed. The real status of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection can only be known by testing pigs with highly specific and sensitive diagnostic assays. To obtain the baseline prevalence of CSFV infection among pigs in an endemic region where no vaccination was being performed, a real-time PCR assay was used to detect viral genetic material in tissue samples collected from a slaughterhouse in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh in India. In total, 1120 slaughtered pigs were examined for the presence of CSF suggestive pathological lesions and tissues from suspected cases were tested for the presence of CSFV antigen and nucleic acids by indirect immuno-peroxidase test and real-time PCR, respectively. Based on the detection of viral genetic material in the tonsils, the prevalence of CSFV infection among slaughtered pigs was found to be 7.67%. Pigs detected positive for viral genome by quantitative real-time PCR assay when categorized into different forms of CSF, depending upon the pathological lesions observed, the viral load in the tonsils of some of the pigs with chronic or clinically inapparent form of the disease was similar to that detected in pigs with acute CSF. The results of the study suggested that the risk posed by pigs with chronic disease or those infected but showing no clinical disease may be relatively higher as they can transmit the virus to new susceptible hosts over a longer period of time. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Bahnson, P B; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Ladely, S R; Mateus-Pinilla, N E
Midwest U.S. herds (n=63) were studied to identify risk factors for harboring Salmonella enterica among slaughter-weight pigs. Samples collected on farms (feces) and at slaughter (distal colonic content, cecal content and ileocolic lymph nodes) were cultured using conventional means. Approximately 15 pigs were studied per herd, for a total of 3754 samples. The proportion of pigs positive in one or more samples was calculated for each herd. Herd characteristics were described by a combination of interview and written survey. Logistic regression was used to detect relationships between the detection of Salmonella and potential herd-level risk factors. The mean individual pig prevalence was 5% for feces, 4% for distal colonic content, 15% for ileocolic lymph nodes, and 17% for cecal contents. One or more Salmonella isolates were detected in at least one sample type in every herd. The five most common serovars were S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Typhimurium and S. Senftenberg, with 25 additional serovars detected. Salmonella prevalence estimates were positively correlated among all samples except distal colonic content and ileocolic lymph nodes. Pigs with culture positive fecal samples were at increased odds of being detected positive for each of the slaughter-collected samples examined, namely distal colonic content (OR=30.5), ileocolic lymph nodes (OR=12.9) and cecal content (OR=23.2). Herds with positive fecal sample(s) had increased odds of having positive cecal content (OR>1.5), distal colonic content (OR=15.3) and ileocolic lymph nodes (OR=12.7). Pigs from herds with at least some bowl drinkers had eight-fold higher odds of testing Salmonella positive than did pigs from herds with only nipple drinkers. Pigs from herds with only dry feeders had five-fold higher odds of testing Salmonella positive when compared with pigs from herds with combinations of wet/dry style feeders. Interventions at these two points should be considered when designing growing
Hamann, C; Plunkett, K
Three alternative accounts of subject omission, pragmatic, processing and grammatical, are considered from the perspective of child Danish. Longitudinal data for two Danish children are analyzed for subject omission, finite and infinitival verb usage and discourse anchorage of sentence subjects (overt and missing). The data exhibit a well-defined phase of subject omission which coincides with a well-defined phase of infinitival verbal utterances. No evidence is found for input driven accounts of subject omission. Danish adults rarely omit subjects from utterance initial position. Neither is there any evidence to support the claim that omitted subjects are anchored in previous discourse. Evidence supporting a processing constraint explanation of missing subjects is equivocal. The pattern of subject omission, infinitival usage and third person pronoun and past tense usage points to a grammatical explanation of the phenomenon. However, current grammatical accounts have difficulty accommodating several aspects of the data reported. Contrary to structure building theories, the Danish children do not exhibit a phase of development where only uninflected verb forms are used. Danish children also omit subjects from finite utterances. Furthermore, the decline of subject omissions in finite utterances coincides with decline in usage of infinitival utterances. These findings challenge tense-based accounts of children's subject omission. Finally, Danish children exhibit an asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type; subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Given the language typology associated with Danish, this asymmetry is difficult to accommodate within truncation and tense or number-based accounts of subject omission. We suggest that a proper treatment of child subject omission will involve an integration of grammatical and discourse-based approaches.
Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, R M; McMunn, K A; Richert, B T
A pure form of salbutamol has the potential to deliver positive production benefits to the swine industry. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effects of salbutamol on growth, carcass measures, and health of finishing pigs. The study used 192 pigs (89 ± 1 kg BW) housed in groups of 6 in 32 pens and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) control (CTL), 0 mg/kg salbutamol; 2) 2R, control diet with 2 mg/kg of the pure R-enantiomer of salbutamol; 3) 4R, control diet with 4 mg/kg of pure R-salbutamol; or 4) 8RS, control diet with 8 mg/kg of a 50:50 mixture of the R- and S-enantiomers. All diets were offered ad libitum for 4 wk. All pigs were weighed and pen feed intakes were recorded weekly. At slaughter, individual HCW and measurements of the 10th-rib loin muscle area (LMA), color, marbling, firmness, and back fat, last lumbar, and midline back fat depths were collected. Data were analyzed using Proc GLM of SAS, with pen as the experimental unit. Overall, 2R and 4R pigs had greater ADG than CTL pigs (P < 0.05) and, at slaughter, were heavier than CTL pigs (P < 0.01). Overall, 8RS pigs had decreased ADFI (P < 0.05), and CTL pigs had poorer G:F (P < 0.001) than the other 3 treatments. All salbutamol-fed pigs had 5 to 6 kg greater HCW (P < 0.001), 2% to 3% increased carcass yield (P < 0.001), 5.6 cm(2) larger LMA (P < 0.01), 3 to 4 mm less 10th-rib back fat (P < 0.01), and 2 mm less lumbar back fat (P < 0.05) than CTL pigs. However, control pigs had greater loin muscle color scores (P < 0.05) and marbling scores (P < 0.001) than all salbutamol-treated pigs. Taken together, these data indicate that as little as 2 mg/kg R-salbutamol has a positive effect on pig growth and carcass composition. However, the effects of salbutamol on meat quality require further research.
Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due
The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217
Sabow, A B; Goh, Y M; Zulkifli, I; Sazili, A Q; Kaka, U; Kadi, M Z A Ab; Ebrahimi, M; Nakyinsige, K; Adeyemi, K D
The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rocha, L M; Dionne, A; Saucier, L; Nannoni, E; Faucitano, L
The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between blood lactate variation measured at the plant, and pork quality variation on a large sample size and under commercial preslaughter handling conditions. A total of 600 pigs were randomly chosen on arrival at a commercial slaughter plant and blood samples taken from the ear vein at unloading (UN), after lairage (LA), in the restrainer (RE; before stunning) and at exsanguination (EX) were analysed for lactate content using a Lactate Scout Analyzer (LSA). In order to have a large range of measures, pigs were distributed into two groups; one kept in lairage overnight (G1) and the other for 2 to 3 h (G2) before slaughter. Meat quality was assessed in the Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semimembranosus (SM) and Adductor (AD) muscles by measuring the pH 30 min postmortem (pH1) and at 24 h postmortem (pHu), the colour and the drip loss. Blood lactate levels did not differ between G1 and G2 (P>0.05). A reduced muscle lactate and glucose contents (P=0.02 and P=0.004, respectively) resulting in a lower (P<0.001) glycolytic potential (GP) was observed in the LT muscle of G1 pigs when compared with G2 loins. In the LT muscle of G1 pigs, the lower GP resulted in an increased pHu (r=-0.67; P<0.001), decreased drip loss (r=0.57; P<0.001) and darker colour (r=0.50; P<0.001) compared with G2. In both G1 and G2 pigs, the lower GP was correlated to higher pHu value in the SM and AD muscles (r=-0.73; P<0.001). The greatest correlation was observed in G2 between blood lactate levels at LA and pHu value of the SM and AD muscles (r=0.46 and r=0.44, respectively; P<0.001 for both muscles). The second greatest correlation was found between blood lactate levels at EX and pH1 value in the SM muscle in both groups (r=-0.37 and r=-0.41, respectively; P<0.001 for both groups). Based on the results of this study, it appears that blood lactate levels, as measured by the LSA, reliably reflect the physiological response of pigs to
Stygar, A H; Dolecheck, K A; Kristensen, A R
Frequent BW monitoring of growing pigs can be useful for identifying production (e.g. feeding), health and welfare problems. However, in order to construct a tool which will properly recognize abnormalities in pigs' growth a precise description of the growth process should be used. In this study we proposed a new model of pig growth accounting for daily fluctuations in BW. Body weight measurements of 1710 pigs (865 gilts and 843 barrows) originating from five consecutive batches from a Danish commercial farm were collected. Pigs were inserted into a large pen (maximum capacity=400) between November 2014 and September 2015. On average, each pig was observed for 42 days and weighed 3.6 times a day when passing from the resting to feeding area. Altogether, 243,160 BW measurements were recorded. A multilevel model of pig growth was constructed and fitted to available data. The BW of pigs was modeled as a quadratic function of time. A diurnal pattern was incorporated into the model by a cosine wave with known length (24 h). The model included pig effect which was defined as a random autoregressive process with exponential correlation. Variance of within-pigs error was assumed to increase with time. Because only five batches were observed, it was not possible to obtain the random effect for batch. However, in order to account for the batch effect the model included interactions between batch and fixed parameters: intercept, time, square value of time and cosine wave. The gender effect was not significant and was removed from the final model. For all batches, morning and afternoon peaks in the frequency of visits to the feeding area could be distinguished. According to results, pigs were lighter in the morning and heavier in the evening (minimum BW was reached around 1000 h and maximum around 2200 h). However, the exact time of obtaining maximum and minimum BW during the day differed between batches. Pigs had access to natural light and, therefore, existing differences
Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H. Morgan; Morrow, William M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina
The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P < 0.001). Salmonella was isolated from all stages at slaughter, including the postchill step, in the two production systems. Salmonella prevalence was significantly higher in MLN extracted from conventional carcasses than those extracted from ABF carcasses (P < 0.001). We identified a total of 24 different serotypes, with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum, Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Derby being predominant. The highest frequencies of antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were
Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H Morgan; Morrow, William M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Thakur, Siddhartha
The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P < 0.001). Salmonella was isolated from all stages at slaughter, including the postchill step, in the two production systems. Salmonella prevalence was significantly higher in MLN extracted from conventional carcasses than those extracted from ABF carcasses (P < 0.001). We identified a total of 24 different serotypes, with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum, Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Derby being predominant. The highest frequencies of antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were
Dayao, Denise Ann E; Dawson, Susan; Kienzle, Marco Jean-Paul; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny
Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial porcine respiratory pathogens has been shown to exist in many countries. However, little is known about the variability in antimicrobial susceptibility within a population of a single bacterial respiratory pathogen on a pig farm. This study examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using multiple isolates within a pig and across the pigs in three different slaughter batches. Initially, the isolates from the three batches were identified, serotyped, and subsample genotyped. All the 367 isolates were identified as A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1, and only a single genetic profile was detected in the 74 examined isolates. The susceptibility of the 367 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae to ampicillin, tetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by a disc diffusion technique. For tilmicosin, the three batches were found to consist of a mix of susceptible and resistant isolates. The zone diameters of the three antimicrobials varied considerably among isolates in the second sampling. In addition, the second sampling provided statistically significant evidence of bimodal populations in terms of zone diameters for both tilmicosin and ampicillin. The results support the hypothesis that the antimicrobial susceptibility of one population of a porcine respiratory pathogen can vary within a batch of pigs on a farm.
Brand, T S; Jordaan, J W; Bhiya, C S; Aucamp, B B
1. The effects of different slaughter ages and sex on the yield and quality of economically important end-products of slaughtered ostriches was examined to determine the most economic slaughter age for growing/finishing ostriches. Two batches of 4- and 6-month-old ostriches were assigned to 10 treatment groups and fed ad libitum up to slaughter ages of 8·5, 10·5, 12·5, 14·5 and 16·5 months. Slaughter weight, cold carcase yield, skin surface area, dry skin grade, feather yield and feed intake of ostriches were measured for each age. 2. Cold carcase yields and total feather yields of males were higher than females but yields of other products were similar. 3. Slaughter weight, cold carcase yield, skin surface area, dry skin grade, feather yield and feed intake increased with age with significant differences between most age groups. Cold carcase weight increased by approximately 2·2 kg and skin surface area increased by 3·1 dm³ with each additional month of growth but the quality (grade) of skins and the proportion of first grade skins decreased with increasing age. This, together with an increase in feed intake associated with age to slaughtering should be taken into account when determining the optimal slaughter age. 4. The set of biological variables established in this study can be used to determine the most economical slaughter age under varying market conditions.
von Altrock, Alexandra; Hamedy, Ahmad; Merle, Roswitha; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on surfaces of slaughtered pig livers. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter coli isolates. Additionally, C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the broth dilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for erythromycin, gentamicin, ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Samples were taken during the slaughtering process in a slaughterhouse in Lower Saxony, Germany. Altogether, 10% of 1500 surfaces of pig livers from 50 fattening herds was found to be Campylobacter positive, with C. coli as the predominant species (76%) followed by C. jejuni (21%). Resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was higher in C. jejuni compared to C. coli, whereas C. coli were more resistant to quinolone compared to C. jejuni. Fluoroquinolone resistance is usually associated with cross-resistance to quinolone, but in the presented investigation C. coli as well as C. jejuni showed a higher resistance to ciprofloxacin (28.6% and 20.0%, respectively) than to nalidixic acid (9.5% and 0%, respectively). A high genetic diversity of the C. coli isolates was demonstrated by MLST. Differences in STs and antimicrobial resistance pattern indicate that the Campylobacter strains originated from the pig itself and not from the slaughterhouse. A comparison of the STs with those reported in the C. jejuni/coli PubMLST database showed an overlap of porcine and human isolates, indicating that C. coli isolates from pigs should be considered as potential sources of human infection.
Kahsay, Tesfay; Negash, Guesh; Hagos, Yohannes; Hadush, Birhanu
Skins and hides are perishable resources that can be damaged by parasitic diseases and human error, which result in downgrading or rejection. This study was conducted to identify defect types and to determine their prevalence in pickled sheep and wet blue goat skins and wet blue hides. Each selected skin or hide was examined for defects in natural light and the defects were graded according to established quality criteria in Ethiopian standard manuals. Major defects were captured by digital photography. The major pre-slaughter defects included scratches (64.2%), cockle (ekek) (32.8%), wounds or scars (12.6%), lesions from pox or lumpy skin disease (6.1%), poor substance (5%), branding marks (2.3%) and tick bites (1.5%). The presence of grain scratches in wet blue hides (76.3%) was significantly higher than in pickled sheep (67.2%) and wet blue goat (59.1%) skins. The major slaughter defects included flay cuts or scores, holes, poor pattern and vein marks, with a higher occurrence in wet blue goat skins (28.7%; P < 0.001) than in wet blue hides (22.8%) and pickled sheep skins (11.1%). The most prevalent postslaughter defects were grain cracks (14.9%), hide beetle damage (8%), damage caused by heat or putrefaction (3.7%) and machine-induced defects (0.5%). Grain cracks (27.04%) and hide beetle damage (13.9%) in wet blue goat skins were significantly more common than in wet blue hides and pickled sheep skins. These defects cause depreciation in the value of the hides and skins. Statistically significant (P < 0.001) higher rejection rates were recorded for wet blue hides (82.9%) than for pickled sheep skins (18.3%) and wet blue goat skins (8.5%). Improved animal health service delivery, effective disease control strategies and strong collaboration between stakeholders are suggested to enhance the quality of skins and hides.
Bozzo, Giancarlo; Di Pinto, Angela; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Ceci, Edmondo; Mottola, Anna; Roma, Rocco; Capozza, Paolo; Samoilis, Giorgio; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Celano, Gaetano Vitale
Slaughter by Jewish religious rite is the killing of an animal by cutting the trachea and oesophagus and major blood vessels using a very sharp blade. This operation is subject to strict rules laid down by religious authorities that characterize its sacredness. The aim of the study was to evaluate the specific criteria inherent in the Jewish religious rite, by analysing reject rates during the different phases. In this study, 52.4% of the carcasses failed to quality as Kosher, with 22.9% being rejected due to pulmonary lesions and only 3% for miscuts. The study also revealed legal vacuums in the field of labelling rules.
Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed
The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.
Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang
Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111
Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P
Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.
Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Tománek, M; Valis, L
The effect of the preweaning housing system on the stress response of pigs before weaning and during fattening was studied in 33 litters of domestic pigs. Three preweaning housing systems were compared: barren crate (standard farrowing crate without straw), enriched crate (20% larger crate, with straw), and as a control, a farrowing pen (pen, 60% larger than the barren crate, with straw). At 25 d of age, pigs were tested with an isolation test and 1 d later with a human approach test (HumanT). Pigs were weaned at 28 d of age. At 3 and 6 mo of age, pigs were tested with an isolation-human approach test. The latency and frequency of squeal calls and locomotor activity were analyzed for all 3 tests, whereas physical contact with the human was also analyzed for the HumanT and isolation-human approach test. At 6 mo of age, the pigs were transported to a slaughterhouse. One day before transport, immediately after transport, and 1 h after transport, saliva samples were taken for cortisol analysis. The pH of the LM was also measured 45 min after slaughter. Preweaning housing system affected (P < 0.05) the probability of squeal vocalizations, the latency of locomotion, and the duration of locomotion during the HumanT. Pigs from the enriched pens vocalized less, had a longer latency to move, and performed less overall locomotion than pigs from the barren crates. Preweaning housing system did not affect behavior of fattening pigs. Cortisol concentrations before and after transport were not affected by preweaning housing system. An interaction of cortisol concentrations and housing systems was observed between the control sample and the sample taken immediately after transport in pigs from the barren crates (P < 0.05) compared with pigs from the enriched housing systems. Meat from pigs reared in the barren crate tended to have lower pH (P < 0.10) and that of pigs reared in enriched crates had lower pH (P < 0.05) than meat of pigs reared in enriched pens. No differences were
Bulens, A; Van Beirendonck, S; Van Thielen, J; Buys, N; Driessen, B
Concurrent with a tendency toward higher slaughter weights of fattening pigs, minimum requirements for space allowance are increasing. Allowing pigs more space in existing standard pens, however, leads to a decrease in the number of pigs per pen, which jeopardizes the economic viability of the pig farm. A possible solution includes creating a two-level pen by constructing a second level in an existing pen, to enable an increase in space allowance per pig with the same number of pigs. We investigated the effect of such a pen on the behavior, performance, and postslaughter results of fattening pigs during the entire fattening period (30 to 110 kg). A total of 444 pigs were distributed over standard control pens (0.74 m/pig) and two-level pens (0.99 m/pig). Feed was provided only in a trough at the ground level of the pen. The results show that the increased space allowance and choice of levels in two-level pens influenced the pigs' behavior in a positive way, as they performed less manipulation of pen mates ( < 0.0001). Moreover, pigs lay down more ( = 0.0007) and showed less head knocking ( = 0.005) in two-level pens, suggesting that they were calmer. In line with the behavioral results, pigs in two-level pens had fewer lesions on tails ( = 0.006), ears ( = 0.008), and shoulders ( = 0.01). Growth performance was not affected ( > 0.05), but postslaughter measurements revealed fewer livers with white spots in pigs from two-level pens. This result might be related to lower disease pressure in pens with lower stocking densities. In conclusion, a two-level pen seemed to have positive effects on the behavior of pigs (in terms of pen mate manipulation) and the increase in space allowance seemed to make the pigs calmer. The use of the second level by heavier pigs should, however, be further studied to investigate whether this extra space could be fully counted for the minimal space requirements.
Di Ciccio, Pierluigi; Ossiprandi, Maria Cristina; Zanardi, Emanuela; Ghidini, Sergio; Belluzzi, Giancarlo; Vergara, Alberto; Ianieri, Adriana
The aim of this survey was to obtain data on microbiological contamination of pig carcasses and environments in three large-scale Italian slaughterhouses (identified as A-B-C) located in Northern Italy. Each slaughterhouse was visited six times. Five carcasses and three different sites of the slaughterhouse (before and during slaughter) were sampled on each sampling day. A single pooled caecal sample was taken on each sampling day. A total of 90 carcasses, 108 environmental samples and 18 caecal samples were collected. Samples from pig carcasses and slaughterhouse environment were analyzed for total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae count (EBC) and Salmonella. The caecal contents were examined for Salmonella. Carcasses from slaughterhouse A presented the greatest TVC and EBC mean log value, whereas environmental samples collected during slaughter activities from slaughterhouse C showed the greatest TVC and EBC mean log value. As far as the environmental samples collected before slaughter activities are concerned, an average up to 6 log10 colony forming unit (CFU)/cm2 TVC in two slaughter plants (A and C) and 5 log10 CFU/cm2 TVC in one slaughter plant (B) was detected. Salmonella was recovered in two slaughterhouses (A and B). Four different Salmonella serotypes were detected in the positive samples (11). Within serotype S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium monophasic-variant isolates, two pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were identified. The findings in this survey suggest that carcass contamination is influenced by the slaughterhouse plant and this could be a result of differences in line speed. The results of environmental sampling have not shown an association with the slaughterhouse plant. PMID:28058247
Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T
Thirty-two halothane-negative pigs (109 +/- 0.6 kg of BW) were used to determine the effect of pig age at marketing (and thus growth rate), and magnesium supplementation through drinking water, on pork quality. Two initial groups of 50 pigs that differed by 30 +/- 2 d of age were fed diets to meet or exceed nutrient requirements beginning at 28 kg of BW. Sixteen average, representative pigs were selected from each group to represent older, slow-growing pigs and younger, fast-growing pigs. For the duration of the study, pigs were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily, and allowed free access to water. After 7 d of adjustment, pigs were blocked by sex and BW and allotted to 0 or 900 mg of supplemental Mg/L as MgSO4 in drinking water for 2 d before slaughter. All 32 pigs were then transported (110 km) to a commercial abattoir on the same day and slaughtered 2.5 h after arrival. Longissimus and semimembranosus (SM) chops were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for fluid loss and Minolta color determinations at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. Two remaining sections of the LM were vacuum-packaged and stored at 4 degrees C for 25 or 50 d. Fast- (younger) and slow- (older) growing pigs differed by 27 +/- 0.3 d of age (153 and 180 +/- 0.3 d; P < 0.001) at similar BW (108 and 110 +/- 0.6 kg of BW; P = 0.13). Supplementation of Mg tended to increase plasma Mg concentration (24.1 vs. 21.8 +/- 0.8 ppm; P = 0.06) but did not affect Mg concentration in LM or SM. Fluid loss of displayed LM or SM, and purge loss, color, and oxidation of vacuum-packaged LM or SM were not affected by age or Mg (P > 0.10). Surface exudate of the SM from older pigs was lower than that of younger pigs (61 vs. 74 +/- 6 mg; P = 0.05) but was not different for the LM (P = 0.22). The LM from older pigs displayed for 4 and 8 d; P < 0.05) were less yellow (lower b*) than younger pigs. The SM from older pigs had lower lightness (L*) initially (47.9 vs. 49.5 +/- 0.4) and after 2 d (49
Kells, N J; Beausoleil, N J; Johnson, C B; Sutherland, M A; Morrison, R S; Roe, W
Tail docking of pigs is commonly performed to reduce the incidence of unwanted tail-biting behaviour. Two docking methods are commonly used: blunt trauma cutting (i.e. using side clippers), or cutting and concurrent cauterisation using a hot cautery iron. A potential consequence of tail amputation is the development of neuromas at the docking site. Neuromas have been linked to neuropathic pain, which can influence the longer-term welfare of affected individuals. To determine whether method of tail docking influences the extent of neuroma formation, 75 pigs were allocated to one of three treatments at birth: tail docked using clippers; tail docked using cautery iron; tail left intact. Tail docking was performed at 2 days of age and pigs were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 21 weeks of age. Tails were removed following slaughter and subjected to histological examination. Nerve histomorphology was scored according to the following scale: 1=discrete well-organised nerve bundles; 2=moderate neural proliferation and disorganisation affecting more than half of the circumference of the tail; 3=marked neural proliferation to form almost continuous disorganised bundles or non-continuous enlarged bundles compressing the surrounding connective tissue. Scores of 2 or 3 indicated neuroma formation. Scores were higher in docked pigs than undocked pigs (P<0.001), but did not differ between pigs docked using clippers and those docked using cautery (P=0.23). The results indicate that tail docking using either clippers or cautery results in neuroma formation, thus having the potential to affect long-term pig welfare.
Knecht, Damian; Popiołek, Marcin; Zaleśny, Grzegorz
The aim of the present paper was to determine an influence of the presence and a level of intestine parasites infection on the quality of pork carcass expressed by the content of meat in carcass (meatiness) in pigs. The experimental part of the study was conducted on pigs farm produced in a closed cycle. The population in the study included 120 fattening pigs maintained in two keeping systems: group I--60 individuals kept on slatted floor, and group II--60 individuals kept on deep litter. All the experimental animals were treated in the same manner. The analysed fatteners were slaughtered in Meat Processing Plant when their body mass reached 110 kg, and the post-slaughter assessment was conducted according to the EUROP classification of pigs carcass using the Ultra-Fom 300 device. The study concerning the internal parasites were conducted basing on coproscopic quantitative McMaster method. As a results, the eggs of three nematode taxa were isolated and identified: Oesophagostomum spp., Ascaris suum and Strongyloides ransomi. Overall prevalence of infection of fatteners kept on litter was lower (25%±11.2) as compared to those kept on slatted floor (38.3%±12.6), however the differences were not statistically significant (χ(2)=2.465; df=1; P=0.116). The mean value of meatiness for pigs free from parasites was 53.68, while in the case of infected pigs the meatiness was statistically lower and was 52.12 (t=2.35; P=0.02). The analysed pigs were classified into three categories and conducted analysis of an influence of parasites on meatiness demonstrate the relationship that is statistically significant. The analysis of correlation between meatiness and an average number of helminth eggs also demonstrated the negative, statistically significant, relationship (F=5.52; P=0.020), i.e. in fatteners with higher EPG value the meatiness was lower.
Escobar, Gabriela I; Jacob, Néstor R; López, Gustavo; Ayala, Sandra M; Whatmore, Adrian M; Lucero, Nidia E
Seventeen workers in a pig slaughterhouse with signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis were clinically examined at the outpatient service of different health institutions and studied by serological tests during the period 2005-2011. Eleven blood cultures were taken and six Brucella suis strains were isolated, three biovar 1 and three with atypical characteristics. In order to confirm that these cases had no common source, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on 5 of the 6 strains whose results showed substantial heterogeneity in the genotypes, thereby demonstrating that the immediate origin was not the same. Two hundred adult pigs admitted for slaughter at the plant were sampled by convenience and tested by buffered antigen plate test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-mercapto-ethanol test (MET). Seven of 62 males (11%) and 25/138 (18%) females tested positive. The study results contribute information on risk scenarios for packing plant workers and underscore the need to improve plant workers' education on appropriate containment measures and to actively screen animals for swine brucellosis.
Shahdan, I A; Regenstein, J M; Shahabuddin, A S M; Rahman, M T
Halal (permissible or lawful) poultry meat production must meet industry, economic, and production needs, and government health requirements without compromising the Islamic religious requirements derived from the Qur'an and the Hadiths (the actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him). Halal certification authorities may vary in their interpretation of these teachings, which leads to differences in halal slaughter requirements. The current study proposes 6 control points (CP) for halal poultry meat production based on the most commonly used halal production systems. CP 1 describes what is allowed and prohibited, such as blood and animal manure, and feed ingredients for halal poultry meat production. CP 2 describes the requirements for humane handling during lairage. CP 3 describes different methods for immobilizing poultry, when immobilization is used, such as water bath stunning. CP 4 describes the importance of intention, details of the halal slaughter, and the equipment permitted. CP 5 and CP 6 describe the requirements after the neck cut has been made such as the time needed before the carcasses can enter the scalding tank, and the potential for meat adulteration with fecal residues and blood. It is important to note that the proposed halal CP program is presented as a starting point for any individual halal certifying body to improve its practices.
Joutsen, Suvi; Eklund, Kirsi-Maria; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Stephan, Roger; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria
Yersinia enterocolitica is a heterogeneous species including non-pathogenic strains belonging to biotype 1A and pathogenic strains belonging to biotypes 1B and 2-5. Pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-4 carrying the ail virulence gene have frequently been isolated from domestic pigs at slaughter. In sheep, mostly non-pathogenic biotype 1A strains have been reported. In our study, the prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was studied by PCR and culturing in 406 young sheep (<1year of age) and 139 older sheep at slaughter in Finland. When using PCR, the detection rate was 11% (45/406) in young sheep originating from 11 (18%) farms. Surprisingly, Y. enterocolitica belonging to bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3, carrying both chromosomal and plasmid-borne virulence genes, were isolated from the fecal samples of 10 (2%) and 23 (4%) sheep, respectively. All isolates of bioserotypes 2/O:9 (19 isolates) and 5/O:3 (53 isolates) carried the chromosomal virulence genes ail, inv, ystA, and myfA, and almost all isolates (71/72) also carried the virulence genes virF and yadA located on the virulence plasmid. The isolates showed high susceptibility to tested antimicrobials and low genetic diversity by PFGE. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 5/O:3 is a very rare bioserotype, and has earlier only sporadically been reported in European wildlife and in sheep in Australia and New Zealand. Bioserotype 2/O:9 is a common bioserotype found in humans with yersiniosis, and has sporadically been isolated in wild and domestic animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The pork-processing industry has been possibly the fastest growing sector of the food industry in recent years. Specialization, genetic homogenization of the pig population, high density of the breeding population, reduced human-animal interactions, slaughter at a lower age and increased international trade of live animals and pork are parameters that affect, positively or negatively, the emergence of novel pig-borne pathogens, many of which are pig-specific, and many of which have significant zoonotic potential, as observed in recent outbreaks of Nipah virus and Streptococcus suis in Southeast Asia and China, respectively. Numerous other pathogens are transmitted to humans through direct contact with or consumption of pig products, and globalization trends in trade and human population movements have resulted in outbreaks of pig-borne diseases even in Muslim countries and in Israel, where pork consumption is religiously prohibited. The role of pigs as potential reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens or genes encoding resistance, and the role of feral pigs as a reservoir of zoonotic disease, are scientific fields in direct need of further research.
Van Lunen, T. A.
Three hundred and eighty-four pigs, mean initial live weight of 20.8 kg, were assigned randomly to groups of 24 (12 females, 12 castrated males). Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments consisting of the same commercial barley-based diet, with or without the addition of tylosin phosphate. The barn where the animals were housed operates as an all-in all-out facility, and all pigs arrived on the same day as part of a group of 960 pigs. No new pigs were introduced into the facility during the period of this trial and pigs were sent to market over a 4-week period upon achieving a live weight of 110 kg. The pigs were weighed at the beginning of the trial and when they left the facility for slaughter. Feed consumption and incidence of disease, mortality, or both were recorded daily. At slaughter, carcass backfat depth over the last rib, 6.5 cm ventral to the dorsal midline (P-2 site); loin depth; carcass weight; predicted lean yield; and grade index were recorded. The sow herd supplying pigs to the unit was known to be free of the major swine diseases such as swine influenza, mycoplasma pneumonia, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), necroproliferative enteritis, and ascarids. A strict biosecurity protocol was employed to minimize the risk of introducing disease organisms into the unit. Prior to this study, no subtherapeutic antibiotics had been used in this facility. Tylosin phosphate supplementation had no significant effect on final weight, days on test, total gain, and daily gain. In both treatments, the pigs reached a mean market weight of 110.2 kg within 94.1 days, resulting in daily gains of the order of 950 grams per day. Due to the design of the trial, it was difficult to measure significant feed consumption effects. Feed consumption and conversion appeared to be similar for pigs in both treatment groups. At slaughter, tylosin phosphate supplementation appeared to significantly increase lean muscle content of the carcass as
Tadee, Pakpoom; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Patchanee, Prapas
Salmonella spp. is one of the important foodborne pathogens, and the slaughtering process is recognized as a potential point of contamination and the spread of the pathogens. The three objectives of this study are first, to quantify the contamination levels of Salmonella spp. in pig skins and carcasses, second, to evaluate the outcomes from different pig supply sources and different practices at three critical steps (scalding, splitting, and washing) for Salmonella spp. contamination, and third, to assess risk of Salmonella spp. contamination in pork products after slaughtering level. The study was performed in three representative slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand. Investigation conducted from May 2013 through October 2013 found the overall prevalence and contamination levels mean to be 11.85% and 0.34 MPN/cm2, respectively. There was no statistically significant in Salmonella spp. prevalence and contamination levels detected with different patterns at the slaughterhouses which were supplied pigs from either co-operative or integrated farms. Factors found to reduce Salmonella spp. loads on carcasses included good practices, e.g., regular changing of water in the scalding tank after each batch and the use of chlorine in the washing step. Risk of Salmonella spp. contamination of pork products at the final stage of slaughtering was nearly 10%. Good practices and proper hygiene measures should be applied to minimize the risk of Salmonella spp. exposure in the slaughtering line, which can reduce the contamination pressure downstream at retail shops as well as for end consumers.
Carabús, A; Sainz, R D; Oltjen, J W; Gispert, M; Font-i-Furnols, M
The aim of the present study was to find single equations to predict the amounts of fat, lean, and the weights of the primal cuts (ham, loin, belly, and shoulder) as well as ham composition of pigs from 30 to 120 kg BW of different genotypes (GEN; Exp. 1) and sexual conditions (SEX; Exp. 2). Two types of regression equations, taking into account different work situations, were developed: 1) research applications, using computed tomography (CT) parameters, and 2) potential on-farm applications, which could be obtained using easily accessible equipment. Two data sets were used: Exp. 1 included 90 gilts from 3 different GEN: 30 Duroc × (Landrace × Large White), 30 Pietrain × (Landrace × Large White), and 30 Landrace × Large White, and Exp. 2 included 92 Pietrain × (Landrace × Duroc) pigs of different SEX: 24 each of females, entire males, castrated males, and 20 immunocastrated males. Pigs were fully CT scanned in vivo at 30, 70, 100, and 120 kg BW. A subsample of pigs of each GEN ( = 5) or SEX ( = 4) were slaughtered at 30, 70, and 100 kg BW, and all remaining pigs were slaughtered after weighing and scanning at 120 kg BW. For all the slaughtered pigs, the 4 main cuts were fully (GEN) or partially dissected (SEX). CT images were analyzed and used to predict the lean and fat contents as well as the weights of the primal cuts and the composition of the ham. Total amounts of fat and lean for both populations were predicted with high levels of accuracy ( = 0.994 and 0.993, respectively) and proportions of random error for GEN and SEX effects (0.998 and 0.946 for the fat and 0.997 and 0.836 for the lean predictions, respectively). Moreover, the composition of ham (fat, lean, and bone) was very well predicted with high proportions (> 80%) of random error for GEN and SEX effect using CT and potential on-farm predictors.
La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J
Swine dysentery (SD) results from infection of the porcine large intestine with the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Diagnosis of SD traditionally has relied on detecting the spirochaete in the faeces of acutely affected pigs. To date simple and reliable serological assays that can be applied as a diagnostic tool at the herd level have not been available. In the current study a recombinant histidine tagged 29.7 kDa lipoprotein of B. hyodysenteriae (His6-Bhlp29.7) was used as an ELISA plate-coating antigen. Sera (n=1121) from slaughter-aged pigs on 19 farms were tested in this ELISA. Following optimization of the ELISA conditions using hyperimmune control sera, a set of 464 sera from slaughter-aged pigs from five herds where SD did not occur was tested. From these results a suitable cut-off value for herd negativity was defined as the mean optical density reading plus three standard deviations. Testing of 337 pig sera from six farms with SD then showed that the sensitivity of the test at the herd level was 100%, with all six farms having one or more serum samples exceeding the cut-off value for negativity. Finally, 320 sera from eight herds suspected of having SD were examined. Four of these herds were shown to have pigs with titres consistent with SD. The true health status of the other four herds that were serologically negative could not be confirmed. In conclusion, when used on sets of 40 sera from slaughter-aged pigs the His6-Bhlp29.7 ELISA as established proved to be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SD at the herd level.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue sample collection; 9 FSIS also has...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
With implementation of farm slaughter, scalding and defeathering could be delayed for a minimum of 2 to 4 h. This research evaluated the potential for delaying scalding and defeathering up to 8 h after slaughter. Following 12 h feed withdrawal broilers were cooped and transported to the pilot plan...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating slaughter plants. 146.6 Section 146.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... General Provisions § 146.6 Specific provisions for participating slaughter plants. (a) Only...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General provisions for all participating flocks and slaughter plants. 146.4 Section 146.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and slaughter plants. (a) Records that establish the identity of products handled shall be...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. (a) Any person moving livestock or... in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section 9 within their facility for blood and tissue...
Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Sheppard, Samuel K; Layton, Ruth; Maiden, Martin C J
Relatively little is known about the Campylobacter genotypes colonizing extensively reared broiler flocks and their survival through the slaughter process, despite the increasing demand for free-range and organic products by the consumer. Campylobacter isolates from a free-range boiler flock, sampled before and after slaughter, were genotyped by MLST (multilocus sequence typing) and sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR). The Campylobacter genotypes isolated before and after slaughter were diverse, with up to five sequence types (STs) (seven-locus allelic profiles resulting from MLST) identified per live bird, up to eight STs identified per carcass and 31 STs identified in all. The majority (72.0%) of isolates sampled from carcasses post-slaughter were indistinguishable from those isolated from the live flock before slaughter by ST and flaA SVR type, however, sampling 'on-farm' failed to capture all of the diversity seen post-slaughter. There were statistically significant increases in the genetic diversity of Campylobacter (p=0.005) and the proportion of C. coli (p=0.002), with some evidence for differential survival of genotypes contaminating the end product. C. coli genotypes isolated after slaughter were more similar to those from free-range and organic meat products sampled nationally, than from the live flock sampled previously. This study demonstrated the utility of MLST in detecting genetic diversity before and after the slaughter process.
Simultaneous occurrence of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica along the pork production chain from farm to meat processing in five conventional fattening pig herds in Lower Saxony.
Niemann, Jana-Kristin; Alter, Thomas; Gölz, Greta; Tietze, Erhard; Fruth, Angelika; Rabsch, Wolfgang; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar
The objectives of this study were to gather data on the occurrence of Salmonella (S.) enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica along the pork production chain and to further analyze detected Salmonella isolates by additionally applying MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis). In total, 336 samples were collected at primary production, slaughter and meat processing from five conventional fattening pig farms and one common slaughterhouse. At farm level, S. enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica were detected in 19.4%, 38.9% and 11.1% of pooled fecal samples of fattening pigs. At slaughter, more than two-thirds of examined carcasses, 24% of carcass surfaces samples and about 60% of cecal content samples were positive for at least one of the examined pathogens. An amount of 4% of meat samples were positive for non-human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Identical MLVA patterns of Salmonella isolates from farm- and associated slaughterhouse samples demonstrated transmission across both production stages. Other MLVA patterns found at slaughter indicated possible colonization of pigs during transport or lairage and/or cross-contamination during slaughter. Identical MLVA patterns from risk tissues and the nearby carcass surface evidenced a direct contamination of carcasses as well. Overall, our data showed wide distribution ranges for all three examined pathogens within the pig production chain and underline the need for appropriate intervention strategies at pre- and postharvest.
Jakobsen, Malene; Preda, Teodora; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik
Consumers’ motivations for buying organic products include a wish of acquiring healthy, environmentally friendly products from production systems that also ensure a high level of animal welfare. However, the current Danish organic pig production faces important challenges regarding environmental impact of the system. High ammonia emissions arise from outdoor concrete areas with growing-finishing pigs and sows on pasture possess an increased risk of nitrogen (N) leaching. Direct foraging in the range area is suggested as a way to improve the nutrient efficiency at farm level and to support a more natural behavior of the pig. Thus, by modeling, we investigated the environmental consequences of two alternative scenarios with growing-finishing pigs foraging in the range area and different levels of crops available for foraging; grass-clover (lowest integration of forage) or a combination of lucerne, grass-clover and Jerusalem artichokes (highest integration of forage). It was possible to have growing-finishing pigs on free-range without increasing N leaching compared to the current practice. The alternative system with lucerne, grass-clover and Jerusalem artichokes showed the lowest carbon footprint with 3.12 CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig compared to the current Danish pasture based system with 3.69 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. Due to positive impact on soil carbon sequestration, the second alternative system based on grass-clover showed a similar carbon foot print compared to current practice with 3.68 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. It is concluded that in practice there is room for development of organic pig production systems where direct foraging plays a central role. PMID:28231226
Boughton, Claire; Egan, John; Kelly, Gabrielle; Markey, Bryan; Leonard, Nola
Pigs reared in an environment free of Salmonella species or on farms with low levels of infection may acquire infection during transport to the abattoir or while held in lairage. We designed a study to determine if pigs could become infected with S. Typhimurium when placed in a contaminated environment similar to that observed in commercial lairage. In addition, quantitative examination of salmonellae in all environmental and animal samples was undertaken. In order to simulate a naturally contaminated environment, animals experimentally infected with a challenge strain of S. Typhimurium (PT12) were used to seed the trial pen environment with salmonellae. In trial 1, pigs were exposed to a highly contaminated environment (5.4 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2)) for 2, 3, or 24 hours. Following these exposure periods, pigs were euthanized and samples including gastrointestinal and associated lymphoid tissue were analyzed for the challenge strain. S. Typhimuirum PT12 was detected in at least one sample type analyzed from each pig after exposure for > or =2 hours. The most frequently contaminated samples were tonsils (100% positive), followed by segments of the ileocecal junction (94.4% positive) and cecal contents (89% positive). Quantitative analysis conducted on cecal contents and ilocaecal junction segments revealed that similar numbers of organisms (1.1-2 log (10) /g) were isolated at all timepoints. In trial 2, pigs were exposed to a less contaminated environment (2.65 log (10) CFU/100 cm(2)) for periods of 1, 3, 6, or 24 hours. S. Typhimuirum PT12 was not detected in any sample from pigs euthanized after exposure of 1 hour. The challenge strain was recovered from the cecal contents of pigs after exposures of 3, 6, and 24 hours, and from the tonsil of one pig after exposure for 6 hours. These results highlight the need to reduce the environmental load of Salmonella spp. in lairage holding pens in order to reduce the numbers of infected pigs entering the slaughter process.
Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Reichel, Michael Philipp
The objective of the current survey was to provide an update on pig farming practices in the Jayawijaya region, Papua Province, Indonesia. A structured semi-close-ended questionnaire was used to interview 367 farmers across the Jayawijaya region. Results showed that farms, on average, comprised of 8.8 pigs (CI 8.5-9.1). The average litter size was 6.0 (CI 5.7-6.3) piglets, the farrowing frequency was once a year, and the annual mortality rate was 50.2% (CI 48.4-51.9). On average, 43.4% farms (CI 36.4-50.7) allowed pigs to roam freely during daylight hours. Farmers used pigs for their own consumption (62.4%, CI 57.4-67.4), as a gift (56.6%, CI 51.5-61.7), or for sale (50.7%, CI 45.6-55.8). Veterinary services were used intensively by just 11.7% of farmers (CI 8.2-16.5). Furthermore, 34.2% (CI 29.3-39) of farmers would sell sick pigs, and 63.1% (CI 58.2-68.1) would slaughter and consume them. It was also recorded that 68.6% of farmers (CI 63.7-73.4) would eat sick pigs that had died naturally. These findings suggest that traditional pig farms in Jayawijaya are of low productivity. Moreover, the free roaming of pigs and the sale and consumption of sick pigs have the potential to allow pathogens to circulate between pig and human populations.
Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723
Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy.
Carroll, G A; Boyle, L A; Teixeira, D L; van Staaveren, N; Hanlon, A; O'Connell, N E
There is increasing interest in developing abattoir-based measures to assist in determining the welfare status of pigs. The primary aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate place on the slaughter line to conduct assessments of welfare-related lesions, namely apparent aggression-related skin lesions (hereafter referred to as 'skin lesions'), loin bruising and apparent tail biting damage. The study also lent itself to an assessment of the prevalence of these lesions, and the extent to which they were linked with production variables. Finishing pigs processed at two abattoirs on the Island of Ireland (n=1950 in abattoir A, and n=1939 in abattoir B) were used. Data were collected over 6 days in each abattoir in July 2014. Lesion scoring took place at two points on the slaughter line: (1) at exsanguination (slaughter stage 1 (SS1)), and (2) following scalding and dehairing of carcasses (slaughter stage 2 (SS2)). At both points, each carcass was assigned a skin and tail lesion score ranging from 0 (lesion absent) to 3 or 4 (severe lesions), respectively. Loin bruising was recorded as present or absent. Differences in the percentage of pigs with observable lesions of each type were compared between SS1 and SS2 using McNemar/McNemar-Bowker tests. The associations between each lesion type, and both cold carcass weight and condemnations, were examined at batch level using Pearson's correlations. Batch was defined as the group of animals with a particular farm identification code on a given day. The overall percentage of pigs with a visible skin lesion (i.e. score>0) decreased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). However, the percentage of pigs with a severe skin lesion increased numerically from SS1 to SS2. The percentage of pigs with a visible tail lesion and with loin bruising also increased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the percentage of carcasses that were partially condemned, and the percentage of pigs with skin lesions
Jiménez Rodríguez, J A; Arteaga, I D; Rojas Wastavino, G; Salazar Schettino, P M
It was determined the presence of posoncospheres in muscular tissues in 20 natural cysticercotic pigs and in 20 pigs apparently free of Taenia solium metacestodes. Ten differents anatomical regions were dissected, giving 400 samples in total. The animals were slaughtered in Ecatepec, Mexico State, Mexico. The samples were kept in bottles with saline and were processed in the Laboratorio de Biología de Parásitos, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM); cysticercus were counted and later on the resulting muscular mass was grinded and observations were made in the sediment, for posoncospheres search. Mann-Whitney statistical method revealed meaningful differences between postoncospheres in cysticercotic pigs and not apparently cysticercotic pigs. The Linear Correlation Analysis showed no relation between cysticercus quantity and postoncospheres quantity in the same samples. Postoncospheres were found in cysticercotic animals and in those apparently free of cysticercus, in the last group the quantity was bigger.
Pascotto, Ernesto; Capraro, Diego; Tomè, Paolo; Spanghero, Mauro
The aim of this paper was to determine the topographic distribution of gastritis lesions in pigs through an open source geographic information system (GIS) software analysis. The stomachs of 146 Italian heavy pigs were collected at slaughter and subjected to macroscopic pathological examination of the internal mucosa. A total of 623 lesions were either classified as hyperplastic or follicular (97%) with the remaining minority of lesions categorised as atrophic and simple. The hyperplastic gastritis lesions had an average surface of 77.8 cm2 and were mainly located in an oval shaped area of the fundus region of the stomach near the Curvatura ventriculi major. The follicular gastritis lesions had generally a smaller surface (40.3 cm2) and were concentrated in two distinct small areas of the pyloric region. The GIS analysis provided the opportunity to produce useful maps showing the distribution and characteristics of gastritis in pigs.
Hernández-Jover, M; Wu, M; Schembri, N; Holyoake, P K; Toribio, J-A L M L
A study was undertaken at 2 saleyard (1 domestic, DS, and 1 export, ES) and 2 abattoir (1 domestic, DA, and 1 export, EA) locations in New South Wales, Australia, to assess the compliance (presence) and readability of body tattoos used to identify individual pigs presented for sale or slaughter. Each location was visited on 3 trading or slaughter days, and tattoo presence and readability of porkers (25 to 60 kg of BW), baconers (60 to 90 kg of BW), backfatters (>90 kg of BW but not for breeding), and breeders were recorded. A total of 4,655 pigs were inspected, including 158 DS, 1,599 ES, 1,257 DA, and 1,641 EA. Tattoo performance at the saleyards was influenced by producer (P < 0.05). Average brand presence at the DS (93.0%) did not differ (P = 0.28) from ES (74.2%). Tattoo compliance ranged from 88.3 to 100% of pigs across pig classes (P > 0.05) at DS. At the ES, tattoo compliance among baconers, backfatters, and breeding stock ranged from 82.4 to 88.3% and was greater (P < 0.05) than that of porkers (70.3%). Average readability was 85.4% at ES and 77.6% at DS (P > 0.05). Tattoo compliance differed (P < 0.05) between abattoirs (98.7% at DA and 92.6% at EA). Readability was greater (P < 0.05) at the EA (80.1%) than at the DA (72.0%). Final performance, as readable brands among animals sold or slaughtered, of the official tattoo system was similar between locations and ranged from 63 to 74%. Our results suggest that current compliance and readability of tattoos would compromise traceback to the farm of origin in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak. Education activities on legislation requirements and tattoo procedure would likely increase compliance and performance of the system.
The use of acute phase proteins for monitoring animal health and welfare in the pig production chain: the validation of an immunochromatographic method for the detection of elevated levels of pig-MAP.
Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Vizcaíno, Elena; Murillo, José Alberto; Klauke, Thorsten; Petersen, Brigitte; Piñeiro, Carlos
The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases in the presence of disease or stress, which makes APPs notable parameters for the global assessment of animal health and welfare. A rapid, immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of elevated levels of pig Major Acute-phase Protein (pig-MAP), one of the main APPs in pigs, was evaluated in more than 1400 pig serum samples obtained from commercial farms. The ICT showed a good performance with a relative sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of 94 and 97%, respectively, for a threshold of 1.5mg/mL (comparison with ELISA). Differences in the pig-MAP levels and the number of positive samples with the ICT were observed within the season of sampling, farms, and age groups at one farm, according to the presence of disease or lesions. The ICT was also evaluated in blood samples obtained at slaughter in association with the carcase inspection. The results from this study indicate that the ICT may be used for the evaluation of groups of pigs, after analysing one sub-sample of these pigs, and might be a useful tool in routine health and welfare monitoring programmes aimed to improve the quality of pig production.
Koomkrong, Nunyarat; Boonkaewwan, Chaiwat; Laenoi, Watchara; Kayan, Autchara
An experiment was conducted to study the blood haematology, muscle pH and serum cortisol changes in pigs with different levels of drip loss. Two groups (low and high) of 20 animals were selected from 100 pigs based on drip loss. All [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] pigs were slaughtered according to standard slaughtering procedures. At exsanguinations, blood samples were taken for the haematological parameters and serum cortisol analysis. The muscle samples were taken from longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate the muscle pH and drip loss. Haematological parameters of low drip loss group showed higher content of white blood cells and monocytes than high drip loss group (p<0.05). The low drip loss group was higher muscle pH at 45 min (p<0.05) and 24 h (p<0.001) post-mortem than the high drip loss group. However, there was no significant difference in serum cortisol levels (p>0.05). Drip loss is mainly affected by the muscle pH decline after slaughter and might be affected on white blood cells and monocytes.
... Service 7 CFR Part 205 National Organic Program; Notice on the Ruminant Slaughter Stock Provision of the... National Organic Program (NOP) to amend the provision on ruminant slaughter stock under the NOP regulations... ruminant slaughter stock requirements as codified by the final rule on access to pasture published...
One factor that could impact the feasibility of commercial on-farm slaughter of broilers is the time delay from on-farm slaughter to scalding and defeathering in the commercial plant that could be 4 h or more. This experiment evaluated feather retention force (FRF) in broilers that were slaughtered ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... slaughter line configurations are specified in the following table. These maximum rates will not be...
Gibson, Troy J; Bedford, Elisabeth M; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina
Forty-six equines were observed during routine commercial slaughter in an abattoir. The animals were shot once with a .22 calibre long rifle with hollow point rounds. Indicators of sensibility/insensibility were evaluated immediately after the shot (prior to exsanguination) and the resulting pathophysiology of free-bullet injury was assessed. All animals were rendered immediately insensible, with only one pony showing signs of a shallow depth of concussion, with an intermittently positive palpebral reflex but no other signs of brainstem function. All animals (100%) had some degree of damage to the structures of the brainstem or lobes of the cerebrums, while 41 (89%) had damage to the thalamus/hypothalamus. The bullet in one pony missed the brain but still caused mild damage to the thalamus, midbrain, pons and cerebellum, this animal had no signs of sensibility. The findings confirm that free-bullet shooting is an effective dispatch method for horses and ponies.
Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Boqvist, Sofia; Albihn, Ann; Sokerya, Seng; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Magnusson, Ulf
Keeping pigs in urban and peri-urban areas may not only provide many benefits for the urban households, but may also be challenging and a potential health hazard. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe household characteristics and to evaluate perceived benefits and constraints among pig-keepers in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study included 204 households and a structured questionnaire was used to interview the household member responsible for taking care of the pigs. Descriptive analyses showed that most households kept between 5 and 15 pigs and that all households kept their pigs in confinement. About 97% of the households owned the pigs themselves and the pigs were generally managed by female household members (43%). Pigs were mainly kept for commercial purposes and more than 60% of the households stated that income from pig-keeping was the main or one of the main sources of revenue for the household. More than 82% reported that they had experienced disease outbreaks among their pigs during the past three years and disease outbreaks were more commonly reported in households with lower socio-economic position (P = 0.025). Disease outbreaks were considered one of the main constraints, along with expensive feed and low payment prices for the slaughter pigs, but few households considered sanitary or other public health issues problematic. Thus, pig-keeping makes an important contribution to the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban households, but many households face external constraints on their production, such as diseases and low revenues, which may have a negative impact on their livelihoods. PMID:28813530
Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F
To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls.
Steinparzer, R; Reisp, K; Grünberger, B; Köfer, J; Schmoll, F; Sattler, T
Toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of the zoonotic disease toxoplasmosis and transmitted among other ways by chemically and physically untreated, that is, raw pork to humans. The detection of Toxoplasma gondii is impossible by currently practiced meat inspection, but serological tests can be used to detect Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pig herds and can consequently be helpful to identify potentially contaminated pork. Therefore, appropriate serological tests are required. In this study, serum samples of 1368 naturally exposed slaughter pigs from 73 Austrian farms were collected. Serum samples of at least 16 slaughter pigs per farm were tested. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum was measured by a commercial available modified agglutination test (MAT) and compared to three different commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The MAT detected 6.5%, ELISA I 6.7%, ELISA II 4.8% and ELISA III 4.3% of the pigs as Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive. The agreement, according to the kappa coefficient (κ), was substantial between the MAT and ELISA I (κ = 0.62), II (κ = 0.64) and III (κ = 0.67). A better agreement was determined between ELISA I and II (κ = 0.715), ELISA I and III (κ = 0.747) and ELISA II and III (κ = 0.865). At least one pig per farm was detected Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive in 17 (23.3%) farms by the MAT, 26 (35.6%) farms by ELISA I, 16 (21.9%) farms by ELISA II and 11 (15.1%) farms by ELISA III. Pig farms with a high number of Toxoplasma gondii antibody-positive pigs or high antibody titres were identified by all of the four used serological tests. Concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Austrian pig farms, a monitoring and surveillance programme would be reasonable to find high-risk farms. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Rosenberg, J.S.; Lockyear, K.W.
This patent describes an improved pipeline caliper pig for providing indications of the deviations of an inner wall of a pipeline from a nominal cross-sectional configuration. It comprises: a pig body assembly having a longitudinal axis and means for supporting the pig body assembly in a pipeline and for impeding the flow of fluid therepast so that the pig body is propelled by such fluid along the pipeline; an integrator plate carried by the pig body assembly; means for deflecting the integrator plate in response to deviations in the internal pipeline wall; means for axial oriented detection of the deflection of the integrator plate and for recording the detected deflections; and means for simultaneously determining and recording the orientation of the pig body assembly about its longitudinal axis relative to the vertical whereby the axial orientation of detected deviations is determinable.
Kristensen, L; Therkildsen, M; Riis, B; Sørensen, M T; Oksbjerg, N; Purslow, P P; Ertbjerg, P
The effects of various growth rates in pigs induced by four different feeding strategies on the activity of the calpain system and on postmortem (PM) muscle proteolysis and tenderness development were studied. An increased growth rate may be caused by an increased protein turnover, which results in up-regulated levels of proteolytic enzymes in vivo that, in turn, possibly will affect PM tenderness development. It can be hypothesized that increased proteolytic activity pre-slaughter will increase the PM tenderization rate. From postnatal d 28 to d 90 (phase 1) the pigs were divided into two groups, given either ad libitum (A) or restricted (R, 60% of ad libitum) access to feed. The two groups were then divided into two subgroups, given either restricted or ad libitum access to feed from d 91 to slaughter at d 165 (phase 2). Measurements of the activity of mu-calpain, m-calpain, and calpastatin; concentrations of total collagen and the percent of soluble collagen; and RNA, DNA, and elongation factor-2 where made at slaugther. Myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) was determined at slaughter and 24 h PM. Warner-Braztler shear force was determined 1 d and 4 d PM. Pigs fed restricted diets in phase 1 and fed ad libitum in phase 2 (RA pigs) had increased growth rates in the last phase compared to pigs fed ad libitum during both phase 1 and phase 2 (AA pigs). The increased growth rate (compensatory growth) was followed by an increased proteolytic potential (mu-calpain:calpastatin ratio), increased MFI values, and higher tenderization rates. There was a positive correlation between the activities of m-calpain and growth rates (r = 0.35, P = 0.03), and between RNA levels and growth rates (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). The proposed hypothesis is largely supported by the results. The activities of both mu- and m-calpain at slaughter were highest in fast-growing pigs. The calpain activity was highest in RA pigs, which in turn also had the fastest growth rates prior tslaughter among
Poletto, R; Rostagno, M H; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N
Increasing concern for animal well-being and food safety has stimulated the investigation of feed additives such as ractopamine (RAC), a beta-agonist widely used to improve production performance of finishing pigs. The objective of this study was to determine effects of RAC feeding, delivered as a "step-up" program (5 mg/kg for 2 wk followed by 10 mg/kg for 2 wk), on growth performance, Enterobacteriaceae shedding, including Salmonella, and hoof lesions, also taking into account sex and social rank of pigs. A total of 64 barrows and gilts (balanced by treatment and sex) were assigned to pens of 4 (by sex) as either control (CTL) or RAC treatment. Social ranks (dominant, intermediate, and subordinate) of pigs in each pen were determined by behavioral observation during 48 h post-mixing. Fecal samples were collected once per week for 5 wk. At slaughter, the 32 dominant and subordinate barrows and gilts (16/sex) were examined for hoof lesions, and luminal contents from ileum, cecum, and rectum were collected. Pigs fed RAC had increased growth performance (P < 0.05) with social rank of animals affecting overall ADG (P < 0.05). Gilts gained more backfat than barrows when comparing to baseline values at both 10th and last ribs (P < 0.05), whereas loin eye area increased at a similar rate for both barrows and gilts (P > 0.10). No significant effect of RAC feeding was found on backfat or loin eye area (P > 0.10). At slaughter, RAC-fed pigs had greater BW (P < 0.05). Despite the positive effects of RAC feeding on growth performance, pigs fed the compound had a greater frequency of front and rear hoof lesions as did barrows and dominant individuals (P < 0.05). Detectable concentrations of Salmonella shedding were not identified at any time during the experiment. Enterobacteriaceae shedding concentrations from RAC-fed pigs peaked at the first week of feeding and progressively decreased until slaughter. At slaughter, rectal and cecal Enterobacteriaceae concentrations were less
Piras, Francesca; Fois, Federica; Mazza, Roberta; Putzolu, Miriam; Delogu, Maria Luisa; Lochi, Pier Giorgio; Pani, Sergio Pino; Mazzette, Rina
In seven EC swine abattoirs Salmonella prevalence (ISO 6579/2002) and serotypes of 25 piglets, 61 finishing pigs (lymph nodes, colon content, carcass and liver surface) and slaughterhouse environments (scalding water, surfaces in contact with meat and not in contact with meat) were investigated. Moreover, aerobic colony count [total viable count (TVC); ISO 4833] and Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-2) of piglets and finishing pigs' carcasses were evaluated, and the results compared with EU process hygiene criteria (Reg. EC 2073/2005). Salmonella was not isolated in any of the piglets samples. Prevalence differed between slaughterhouses (P<0.5), and Salmonella was isolated from 39 of 244 samples of finishing slaughtered pigs (15.9%) and from 4 of 45 environmental samples (8.9%). In pig samples, carcasses showed the highest prevalence (18%) followed by colon content (14.8%), lymph nodes (13%) and liver (1.6%). S. Anatum was the most prevalent serotype (71.8%), followed by S. Derby (33.3%), S. Bredeney (5%) and S. Holcomb (2.5%). Between environmental samples, S. Anatum (50%), S. Bredeney and S. Derby (25%) were identified. Total viable mean counts (log10 CFU/cm(2)) of carcass surfaces ranged from 4.6 and 5.7 for piglets, and from 4.6 and 5.9 for finishing pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 1.1 and 5 for piglets and between 2.1 and 5.3 for finishing pigs. These results were not in compliance with EU performance criteria. Total aerobic viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae mean levels of environmental samples appeared critical, particularly referred to surfaces in contact with meat (splitting equipment) and indicated an inadequate application of good manufacturing and hygiene practices during slaughtering and sanitisation.
James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C
Three experiments using 1,356 pigs (C22 × 336 PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. Experiments were arranged as factorials with main effects of L-carnitine and RAC; L-carnitine levels were 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 and 0 or 50 mg/kg in Exp. 3, and RAC levels of 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 1 and 0 or 10 mg/kg in Exp. 2 and 3. Dietary L-carnitine was fed from 38 kg to slaughter (109 and 118 kg in Exp. 1 and 3, respectively) or for 4 wk before slaughter (109 kg in Exp. 2). Ractopamine HCl was fed for 4 wk in all experiments. Exp. 1 and 2 were conducted at university research facilities (2 pigs per pen), and Exp. 3 was conducted in a commercial research barn (23 pigs per pen). In Exp. 1, an L-carnitine × RAC interaction (P < 0.02) was observed for LM visual color, L*, and a*/b*. In pigs fed RAC, increasing L-carnitine decreased L* and increased visual color scores and a*/b* compared with pigs not fed RAC. Ultimate pH tended to increase (linear, P < 0.07) with increasing L-carnitine. Drip loss decreased (linear, P < 0.04) in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine. In Exp. 2, firmness scores decreased in pigs fed increasing L-carnitine when not fed RAC, but firmness scores increased and drip losses decreased with increasing L-carnitine when RAC was added to the diet (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.04). Percentage lean was greater (P < 0.01) for pigs fed RAC in Exp. 2. In Exp. 3, fat thickness decreased and lean percentage increased in pigs fed L-carnitine or RAC, but the responses were not additive (L-carnitine × RAC interaction, P < 0.03). Furthermore, pigs fed L-carnitine tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased LM drip loss percentage whereas pigs fed RAC had decreased (P < 0.05) 10th rib and average backfat and decreased drip loss than pigs fed diets without RAC. These results suggest that dietary RAC increased carcass
Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Killefer, J; Baker, D H; Ellis, M; McKeith, F K
Forty-eight barrows and forty-eight gilts (PIC 337 sires x PIC C22 dams) were evaluated to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) and different cereal grains on the carcass and fat quality in late finishing pigs. The study was carried out using four replicates with 24 animals in each replicate (four pigs per pen, six pens per replicate, two replicates per slaughter date, 12 pens per slaughter date). Treatments for the experiment included corn, wheat, and barley (early finisher period); and corn, corn + RAC, wheat, wheat + RAC, barley, and barley + RAC for the late finisher period. Ractopamine was fed at the level of 10 mg/kg (as-fed basis) of feed. Pigs were allotted to early finisher period treatments at approximately 45 kg BW. Pigs were then given late finisher period treatments at approximately 80 kg BW and fed for 28 d. The dietary digestible lysine level for all diets was maintained at 2.7 g/Mcal of ME. Pigs fed the wheat and corn diets during the late finisher period had a greater (P <0.05) G:F than those fed the barley diets. Pigs fed diets with RAC had lower (P <0.05) leaf fat weights, 10th-rib fat, last-rib fat, and belly firmness and had improved (P <0.05) dressing percents and loin muscle areas compared with those not receiving RAC. Pigs fed the wheat diets had a greater (P <0.05) dressing percent than those receiving the barley diets, but pigs fed the barley diets had a higher (P <0.05) Minolta L* for fat color than pigs fed wheat. Pigs fed diets containing RAC produced pork that was less tender (P <0.05) compared with pigs that did not receive RAC. Linoleic acid percent values were higher (P <0.05) for pigs fed diets with RAC than in those that did not. Feeding RAC improved G:F and lowered feed intake of pigs during the late finisher period (P <0.05). Feeding diets equal in lysine (2.7 g/Mcal of ME) but varying in ME, whether based on corn, wheat, or barley with or without RAC, had little to no effect on carcass, meat, or fat
Jørgensen, Anker Helms
This paper reports on the development of Nimbi, which is an early computer game implemented at the Danish Computer Company Regnecentralen in 1962-63. Nimbi is a variant of the ancient game Nim. The paper traces the primary origins of the development of Nimbi. These include a mathematical analysis from 1901 of Nim that “killed the game” as the outcome could be predicted quite easily; the desire of the Danish inventor Piet Hein to make a game that eluded such analyses; and the desire of Piet Hein to have computers play games against humans. The development of Nimbi was successful in spite of considerable technical obstacles. However, it seems that the game was not used for publicizing the capabilities of computers - at least not widely - as was the case with earlier Nim implementations, such as the British Nim-playing computer Nimrod in 1951.
Qekwana, Daniel N; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Oguttu, James W; Grace, Delia; Cenci-Goga, Beniamino T
Goats are traditionally slaughtered to celebrate marriages and births, venerate ancestors, address personal problems, or perform a ritual during funerals. The objective of this study was to assess nonhuman animal welfare issues associated with the traditional slaughter of goats in and around Pretoria, South Africa. Participatory research methods were used to interview 105 respondents. Four of those interviewed were visited to observe the slaughter process. The most common method of transport was a vehicle (47%), followed by transport on foot (30%). The distance traveled (68%) was usually less than 10 km, and in all cases, it was less than 50 km. The most common (57%) method of restraining goats during transport was tying all 4 legs together. During slaughter, assistants held the head and legs of the goat (55%). Prior to slaughter, the majority of goats were tied under a tree (66%). In total, 97% of the goats were slaughtered within 24 hr, and no stunning was performed. In this study, animal welfare problems were widespread. Research should be undertaken to find practical ways to address animal welfare issues during traditional slaughter.
Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L
Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs
Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob
The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.
Nold, R A; Romans, J R; Costello, W J; Henson, J A; Libal, G W
The objective of this study was to determine consumer reaction to boar (BO), barrow (BA), and gilt (G) meat from pigs grown and finished on high- (HI) and low- (LO) protein diets and slaughtered at 100 and 110 kg BW. Within each of two trials, 54 BO, BA, and G were allotted within sexes to HI or LO protein sequences for growing and finishing: 19 and 17% (BOHI), 18 and 16% (BOLO), 17 and 15% (GHI), 16 and 14% (GLO), 15 and 13% (BAHI), and 14 and 12% (BALO). Backfat skatole and salivary gland 16-androstene concentrations were measured from samples taken at slaughter. Longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (ST) chops from 24 pigs (with equal representation across diet and sex groups) were evaluated by trained panelists for tenderness, juiciness, and off-flavor. Consumer panelists evaluated acceptability of LM chops. In the 100-kg trial, HI diets improved (P < .05) carcass leanness in BO and BA but not in G. In both trials, BO were leaner (P < .05) than G, and both were leaner (P < .05) than BA. Skatole and 16-androstene concentrations were similar (P > .05) among sexes in both trials. In the 100-kg trial, trained panelists found BOLO chops had more (P < .05) off-flavor. In the 110-kg trial, all BO had more off-flavor (P < .05) than BAHI, BALO, and GHI but were similar (P > .05) to GLO. In both trials, BA chops were more tender (P < .05) than G and BO chops and LM chops had less off-flavor (P < .05) than ST chops. In the 110-kg trial, skatole was correlated (r = .28, P < .001) to off-flavor. A relationship may exist among diet, skatole deposition, and off-flavor. Untrained consumers reported all chops were equally acceptable (P > .05).
Morales, J; Martínez, J J; Garcia-Castella, J; Peña, N; Maza, V; Villalobos, N; Aluja, A S; Fleury, A; Fragoso, G; Larralde, C; Sciutto, E
If a programme for the control of pig cysticercosis is to be effective it has to be based on good data on the local epidemiology of Taenia solium. In 2002-2003, in a cross-sectional study of pig cysticercosis in the Mexican state of Morelos, 1747 pigs that had been born and reared in rural areas of the state were checked for T. solium infection by tongue inspection. The prevalence of cysticercosis in the pigs was found to vary from 0% to 30% according to the municipality from which the pigs came. Although prevalence appeared to be unaffected by the socio-economic status of the municipality, it was relatively high in areas that lacked latrines, and in pigs that were castrated, pregnant and/or of the native (rather than an imported) breed. The results of questionnaire-based interviews with pig owners revealed that most (64.5%) of the rural pigs, whether infected or not, are slaughtered and consumed within the locality where they were reared. The other pigs are sold at low prices to organised traffickers who take the uninspected pigs to neighbouring urban areas for sale. The observed complexity in the factors affecting the transmission of T. solium to the pigs of Morelos state calls for an intervention strategy of matching complexity, initially targeted at those villages with the highest prevalences of pig cysticercosis. The road transport of pigs needs to be better regulated, and the vaccination and genetic improvement of the rural pigs, and delaying the castration of the boars, should all be considered.
Wang, Min-Qi; Li, Hui; He, Yu-Dan; Wang, Chao; Tao, Wen-Jing; Du, Yong-Jie
The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different forms of trivalent chromium (Cr) supplementation on tissue chromium deposition in finishing pigs. A total of 96 pigs with an initial average body mass 65.57±1.05 kg were blocked by body mass and randomly assigned to four treatments with three replicates. Pigs were offered one of four diets including a control diet or the control diet supplemented with 200 μg/kg chromium from either chromium chloride (CrCl(3)), chromium picolinate (CrPic) or chromium nanocomposite (CrNano) for 40 days. During the trial, all pigs were given free access to feed and water. After feeding trial, eight pigs from each treatment were slaughtered for samples collection. The results showed that supplemental CrNano increased Cr content in blood, longissimus muscle, heart, liver, kidney, jejunum, and ileum (P<0.05). Supplemental Cr from three sources increased Cr excretion from all feces (P<0.05). Urinary Cr excretion was increased by CrNano or CrPic supplementation significantly. These results suggested that chromium nanocomposite exhibited more effective on tissue Cr deposition in pigs, which indicated higher absorption compared with CrCl(3) and CrPic.
In Peru pork supplied through regulated slaughterhouses is primarily restricted to the large cities on the coast. Approximately 65% of the pork consumed in the country is obtained through informal channels that are not inspected or supervised. The pathways via which pigs are commercialized were studied in Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian Sierra where cysticercosis is endemic. Official purchase, slaughter, and market records were reviewed. Also, direct surveys and participant observation were carried out at two local live pig markets and at two informal meat markets. Pigs were not processed in local slaughterhouses; instead, they were butchered informally. The proportion of cysticercotic pigs detected by tongue examination ranged from 14% to 25% of the total sold. Since cysticercotic pigs and pork are sold through informal markets, surveys of abattoirs and meat markets are not a reliable way to monitor the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Peru. We estimate that 48% of the pork traded informally and 23% of the total pork consumed in Huancayo is derived from pigs that are infected with cysticercosis. PMID:8490986
In Peru pork supplied through regulated slaughterhouses is primarily restricted to the large cities on the coast. Approximately 65% of the pork consumed in the country is obtained through informal channels that are not inspected or supervised. The pathways via which pigs are commercialized were studied in Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian Sierra where cysticercosis is endemic. Official purchase, slaughter, and market records were reviewed. Also, direct surveys and participant observation were carried out at two local live pig markets and at two informal meat markets. Pigs were not processed in local slaughterhouses; instead, they were butchered informally. The proportion of cysticercotic pigs detected by tongue examination ranged from 14% to 25% of the total sold. Since cysticercotic pigs and pork are sold through informal markets, surveys of abattoirs and meat markets are not a reliable way to monitor the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Peru. We estimate that 48% of the pork traded informally and 23% of the total pork consumed in Huancayo is derived from pigs that are infected with cysticercosis.
Fombad, R B; Bryant, M J
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of including cottonseed cake in rations for weaned growing pigs. Thirty-two Landrace x Large White pigs, weighing 20-24 kg, were included in four blocks formed on the basis of initial weight within sex in an otherwise completely randomized block design. The pigs were killed when they reached a live weight of 75.0 +/- 2.0 kg and the half carcases were analysed into cuts and the weights of the organs were recorded. An estimate of the productivity of the pigs on each diet was calculated. Cottonseed cake reduced the voluntary feed intake (p < 0.001) and live weight gains p < 0.001) and increased the heart, kidney and liver weights (p < 0.01). The pigs on the soya bean-based control diet took the shortest time to reach slaughter weight. The result was probably in part due to lysine deficiency and in part to the effect of free gossypol. It was found that it is at present cost-effective to include cottonseed cake in pig weaner-grower diets up to 300 g/kg in Cameroon.
Hill, M A; Dalrymple, R H
Recently, beta-adrenergic agents, which repartition muscle and fat, have been used to develop more muscular carcasses in broilers, steers, lambs, and pigs. Cimaterol, one such repartitioning agent, effectively improves carcass quality in pigs. Since the mode of action of repartitioning agents is uncertain, and because they may indirectly affect skeletal development or the integrity of feet, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of cimaterol on selected growth cartilages and feet. Pigs were randomly placed in four groups and fed a ration that included Cimaterol at 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, or 1.00 mg/kg. At 100 kg live-weight, pigs were slaughtered and selected growth cartilages, bones, and feet were examined macroscopically, radiologically, and microscopically. Although the majority of pigs had lesions in feet, or had dyschondroplastic changes typical of osteochondrosis in many growth cartilages, particularly physes, there were no significant differences in frequency of pigs with lesions between groups. Cimaterol enhanced carcass quality with no detrimental effect on bones or feet. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 4c. Fig. 4d. PMID:2886205
Douglas, S L; Edwards, S A; Sutcliffe, E; Knap, P W; Kyriazakis, I
During the production period from birth to slaughter there are some pigs that grow markedly slower, despite conditions that seem to support the growth of their contemporaries. This reduction in growth inevitably leads to weight variation within a group, causes difficulties with management, and results in system inefficiencies. By understanding the factors that contribute to poor growth, the performance of these slow growing pigs might be improved, thereby decreasing the overall variability at slaughter. The aim of this paper was to analyze the factors associated with poor growth performance in pigs from birth to slaughter, determine the effect of piglet birth weight (BiW) and weaning weight (WW) on lifetime growth, and investigate the capacity of small piglets to compensate for any BW deficit. Two industry databases, with individual data for approximately 40,000 and 90,000 pigs, respectively, and containing BW profiles and relevant variables, were analyzed. Body weight at birth, weaning, intermediate, and finishing stages were available as well as sex, month of birth, litter size information (number born alive and total born including still born), sow parity number, and length of gestation. Absolute and relative growth rates, based on adjusted BW for age, were calculated for each time interval and 3 types of analysis were performed: a logistic regression, a continuous linear plateau model, and a weight category analysis. For both datasets poor absolute and relative growth from birth to final BW was associated with low BiW (P < 0.001), low WW (P < 0.001), sex (P < 0.001), breed code (P < 0.001), and month of birth (P < 0.001). The linear plateau model suggested that the relationship between BiW and lifetime growth was not linear beyond 1.91 (database 1) or 1.84 (database 2) kg; the same applied to the relationship between WW at 21 d and final BW (FW) growth, which was not linear beyond 7.53 kg. Finally, the weight category analysis revealed that piglets with the
Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören; Bengtsson, Björn
Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance.
Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören
Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance. PMID:27362262
Miao, Z-G; Wang, L-J; Xu, Z-R; Huang, J-F; Wang, Y-R
The present study was aimed to compare the developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality characteristics and organ weight in pigs of different breeds. Six pigs (sex balance) of each breed were slaughtered at 35, 80 and 125 days of age, respectively. The carcass was chilled and the left carcass side was dissected into bone, lean meat, fat and skin; additionally, organ weight and meat quality parameters were observed. Carcasses of the Jinhua pig were lighter (P < 0.001), contained less lean meat percentage (P < 0.01) and more carcass fat percentage (P < 0.05) than did carcasses of the Landrace. L*-values were lower in Jinhua pigs than in Landrace at 125 days of age (P < 0.05), but the Jinhua pig had higher a*-values compared with Landrace at the age of 80 days (P < 0.01) and 125 days (P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, Jinhua pigs showed lower colour scores (P < 0.05), higher intramuscular fat (IMF) percentage (P < 0.05), less marbling scores (P < 0.05) and lower drip loss (P < 0.05) than Landrace. For organ weight, Jinhua pigs had higher relative heart weight at the age of 80 days (P < 0.05) and 125 days (P < 0.001), and higher relative liver weight at 125 days of age (P < 0.01) than that of Landrace. In addition, the relative kidney weight was heavier (P < 0.001) in the Jinhua pig than in the Landrace during the whole experiment. These results indicated that developmental changes of carcass composition, meat quality parameters and organ weight displayed breed differences. Jinhua pigs were fatter than Landrace but the former had better quality characteristics in the meat.
Lund, V P; Kyvsgaard, N C; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M
1. The mortality of broilers during pre-slaughter handling, including harvesting and transport, is an issue of increasing public concern which has led to the adoption of Council Directive EC/43/2007 implementing abattoir surveillance regarding the number of dead-on-arrival (DOA) broilers. 2. Pathological lesions and causes of death of DOA broilers at a Danish abattoir were investigated in a cross-sectional study comprising 300 DOA broilers (25 broilers from each of 12 randomly selected flocks). Major pathological manifestations of DOA broilers included severe pulmonary congestion (51.5%), lung congestion in combination with trauma (12.5%), trauma (10.2%), nephropathy accompanied by dehydration and/or discolouration (8.8%), morbus cordis (2.0%), septicaemia (1.7%) and suspected septicaemia (1.0%). Lung congestion accompanied by circulatory disturbances in other tissues was suggested to be due to suffocation. 3. Analyses of pathological diagnoses revealed that DOA broilers can be divided into two main categories, lung congestion and trauma, based on the chronicity of the lesions, both of which are primarily related to management and handling procedures. Most DOA broilers examined (74.2%) were estimated to have died as a consequence of events during pre-slaughter handling underlining the importance of increased focus on handling-related factors to reduce DOA rate.
Jakobsen, Malene; Preda, Teodora; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik
Consumers' motivations for buying organic products include a wish of acquiring healthy, environmentally friendly products from production systems that also ensure a high level of animal welfare. However, the current Danish organic pig production faces important challenges regarding environmental impact of the system. High ammonia emissions arise from outdoor concrete areas with growing pigs and sows on pasture possess an increased risk of nitrogen (N) leaching. Direct foraging in the range area is suggested as a way to improve the nutrient efficiency at farm level and to support a more natural behavior of the pig. Thus, by modeling, we investigated the environmental consequences of two alternative scenarios with growing pigs foraging in the range area and different levels of crops available for foraging-grass-clover or a combination of Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne. It was possible to have growing pigs on free-range without increasing N leaching compared to the current practice. The alternative system with Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne (high integration of forage) showed the lowest carbon foot print with 3.12 CO₂ eq kg(-1) live weight pig compared to the current Danish pasture based system with 3.69 kg CO₂ eq kg(-1) live weight pig. Due to positive impact on soil carbon sequestration, the second alternative system based on grass-clover (low integration of forage) showed a similar carbon foot print compared to current practice with 3.68 kg CO₂ eq kg(-1) live weight pig. It is concluded that in practice there is room for development of organic farming systems where direct foraging plays a central role.
Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning
Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni
The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging. PMID:27035716
Okello, Anna; Tiemann, Tassilo Tamino; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Phengvilaysouk, Ammaly; Keonouchanh, Soukanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Blaszak, Kate; Blacksell, Stuart; Okello, Walter; Allen, John
Lao PDR's recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study describes the integration of market chain and zoonoses risk analyses at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses - including hepatitis E virus, Taenia solium and Trichinella - to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. Assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlights the importance of a systems-based approach to the detection and control of zoonotic disease, improving the understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector in accordance with the country's recent accession to the World Trade Organization.
Lara, G H B; Takai, S; Sasaki, Y; Kakuda, T; Listoni, F J P; Risseti, R M; de Morais, A B C; Ribeiro, M G
The virulence-plasmid profile of Rhodococcus equi strains isolated from Suidae and humans is similar. Recent evidence suggests that the consumption of pork products contaminated with faeces might be a potential source of R. equi infections in humans, mainly to patients with rhodococcosis without history of contact with pigs or pig farms. This study investigated the virulence-associated genes (vapA and vapB) and plasmid profiles of R. equi among the 150 samples of small intestinal content obtained from slaughtered pigs. In addition, all samples were subjected to microbiological culture in conventional sheep blood agar and CAZ-NB, TCP and TVP selective media. A total of 40 (26·7%) of the samples recovered R. equi, with two samples recovering isolates harbouring the VapB type 8 plasmid. Among the 150 pigs sampled herein, CAZ-NB was considered the best selective medium for the isolation of R. equi from faeces. Our results provide evidence that the contamination of slaughtered pig carcasses with pathogenic R. equi might occur through faeces, representing a public health concern. Furthermore, this study is the first description of R. equi strains carrying the VapB plasmid in the gut of pigs. Intermediately virulent (VapB) is a common plasmid-type harboured by R. equi isolated from pigs and humans with AIDS. Curiously, humans with rhodococcosis usually have no history of contact with pigs or pig farms. Virulence-plasmid profile of 40 R. equi isolated among 150 small intestine content samples from pigs revelled two carrying isolates with the VapB type-8 plasmids. Moreover, comparison of three selective culture media shows that CAZ-NB was the best. Our results provide evidence that contamination of slaughtered pig carcasses with pathogenic R. equi might occur through faeces, representing a public health concern. Furthermore, R. equi carrying VapB type-8 plasmids types are described for the first time in the gut of the pig. © 2015 The Society for Applied
In the 19th century professional dog slaughter and also the public sale of dog flesh arose. These slaughter and the sale was mainly practised by horse butchers. In Germany dogs had been mostly slaughtered in Sachsen, Schlesien, Anhalt and Bayern. From 1905 to 1940 the meat of 235.144 dogs was inspected. But the true number of slaughtered dogs was certainly larger. Yet in the fifties dogs were professionally slaughtered. After 1960 the slaughter dropped. Sporadically dog flesh was used as human food until 1985. The annual number of slaughtered dogs depended on economic factors like wages, prices of meat, availability of meat and dog tax. Dogs had been also slaughtered to produce dog fat for remedy. Slaughter of dogs has been already discussed in the 19th century. After 1930 it was called for abolishing the inspection order for dogs or for the prohibition of dog slaughter. After four bills of the years 1954, 1963 and 1985 the slaughter of dogs to produce human food was finally prohibited in 1986.
Nielsen, T D; Nielsen, L R; Toft, N
Specialised veal producers that purchase and raise calves from several dairy herds are potentially at high risk of delivering Salmonella-infected animals to slaughter. However, the true prevalence of Salmonella infected veal producing herds and the prevalence of infected calves delivered to slaughter from infected herds are unknown in Denmark. Due to uncertainties about test sensitivity and specificity, these prevalences are not straightforward to assess. The objective of this study was to estimate the within-herd- and between-herd prevalence of Salmonella in veal calves delivered for slaughter to abattoirs in Denmark. Furthermore, it was investigated to which extent the estimates differed between a setup using both serological tests and faecal culture, compared to just serological tests, and whether the applied sampling scheme in the national surveillance programme in Denmark was sufficient to establish high posterior estimates of freedom from infection in individual herds. We used Bayesian analysis to avoid bias as a result of fixed test validity estimates. Serological test results from 753 animals and faecal culture from 1233 animals from 68 randomly selected Danish veal producing herds that delivered more than 100 calves to slaughter per year were used to estimate the prevalences and estimates of freedom from Salmonella. Serological test results of 7726 animals from 185 herds were used to compare the difference in prevalence estimates between serology alone vs. faecal culture combined with serology. We estimated that 34-57% of specialised veal producing herds were infected with Salmonella. Within the infected herds, 21-49% of the animals were infected. Few herds obtained high posterior estimates for the probability of freedom from infection given the collected data, with only six of 68 herds obtaining posterior probability of being infected less than 10%. Furthermore, this study indicated that serology is sufficiently sensitive and specific to be used for
Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…
Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…
Postma, M; Vanderhaeghen, W; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D; Dewulf, J
Antimicrobial usage (AMU) has been described to be high in pig production. Although farmers are aware of the high usage, little is known about intervention to improve the situation. This study evaluated the extent to which AMU could be reduced in pig production by the optimization of herd management, biosecurity status, vaccination strategy, anthelmintic therapy and advice on prudent AMU. Furthermore, the effects of these interventions on the herd production results were explored. This intervention study was conducted on 61 Flemish pig herds and included three visits per herd. During the initial visit, information was gathered on herd management, biosecurity status (quantified by means of the Biocheck.UGent(™) risk-based scoring system), vaccination strategy, anthelmintic therapy and AMU. This info was then translated into a herd-specific action plan which was discussed with the farmer and herd veterinarian/other advisors during the second visit. In the final herd visit (±8 months later), comparable data were obtained to evaluate the progress. Overall, a significant improvement of 2.4 points external and 7 points internal biosecurity on the herds was obtained, combined with additional vaccination, anthelmintic therapy and prudent AMU. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in the AMU with a decrease of 52% for the pigs from birth till slaughter and 32% for breeding animals, based on treatment incidences (TIs) and included an important reduction in the use of critically important antimicrobials. More importantly, the increased biosecurity levels and decreased AMU were combined with significantly improved technical results such as the number of weaned piglets per sow per year (+1.1), daily weight gain (+5.9 g/day) and mortality in the finisher period (-0.6%). Guided interventions as a team effort of farmer and herd veterinarian/other advisors have shown to be a promising method in the reduction of AMU in pig production. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
A comment on the paper 'A comparison between lesions found during meat inspection of finishing pigs raised under organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions' by Alban et al. 2015.
Sørensen, Jan Tind
This is a critical comment on a paper published in Porcine Health Management in 2015, presenting a comparison between lesions from meat inspection at one abattoir on slaughter pigs classified in to two different production forms: organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions. The conclusion made by the paper that 13 lesion types has a higher prevalence in organic/free-range pigs and 4 lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers compared to conventional finishers is correct except that 5 (instead of 4) lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers. However, these five types of lesions represent 74 % of all lesions recorded among conventional indoor, conventional free-range and organic pigs in one slaughter house from October 1 2012 to September 26 2013.
de Aluja, A S
Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given.
D'Eath, R B; Niemi, J K; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Rutherford, K M D; Ison, S H; Turner, S P; Anker, H T; Jensen, T; Busch, M E; Jensen, K K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P
To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: 'Standard Docked', a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); 'Standard Undocked', which is the same as 'Standard Docked' but with no tail docking, 'Efficient Undocked' and 'Enhanced Undocked', which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per pig per day) and no tail docking. A decision tree model based on data from Danish and Finnish pig production suggests that Standard Docked provides the highest economic gross margin with the least tail biting. Given our assumptions, Enhanced Undocked is the least economic, although Efficient Undocked is better economically and both result in a lower incidence of tail biting than Standard Undocked but higher than Standard Docked. For a pig, being bitten is worse for welfare (repeated pain, risk of infections) than being docked, but to compare welfare consequences at a farm level means considering the number of affected pigs. Because of the high levels of biting in Standard Undocked, it has on average inferior welfare to Standard Docked, whereas the comparison of Standard Docked and Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked is more difficult. In Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked, more pigs than in Standard Docked suffer from being tail bitten, whereas all the pigs avoid the acute pain of docking endured by the pigs in Standard Docked. We illustrate and discuss this ethical balance using
Lammers, P J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Lonergan, S M; Prusa, K J; Ahn, D U; Stoffregen, W C; Dozier, W A; Honeyman, M S
The effects of dietary crude glycerin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology in growing pigs were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerin utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerin, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days postweaning, 96 pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, average BW of 7.9 +/- 0.4 kg) were allotted to 24 pens (4 pigs/pen), with sex and BW balanced at the start of the experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 5, and 10% crude glycerin inclusion in corn-soybean meal-based diets and were randomly assigned to pens. Diets were offered ad libitum in meal form and formulated to be equal in ME, sodium, chloride, and Lys, with other AA balanced on an ideal AA basis. Pigs and feeders were weighed every other week to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. At the end of the trial, all pigs were scanned using real-time ultrasound and subsequently slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Blood samples were collected pretransport and at the time of slaughter for plasma metabolite analysis. In addition, kidney, liver, and eye tissues were collected for subsequent examination for lesions characteristic of methanol toxicity. After an overnight chilling of the carcass, loins were removed for meat quality, sensory evaluation, and fatty acid profile analysis. Pig growth, feed intake, and G:F were not affected by dietary treatment. Dietary treatment did not affect 10th-rib backfat, LM area, percent fat free lean, meat quality, or sensory evaluation. Loin ultimate pH was increased (P = 0.06) in pigs fed the 5 and 10% crude glycerin compared with pigs fed no crude glycerin (5.65 and 5.65 versus 5.57, respectively). Fatty acid profile of the LM was slightly changed by diet with the LM from pigs fed 10% crude glycerin having less linoleic acid (P < 0.01) and more eicosapentaenoic acid (P = 0.02) than pigs fed the 0 or 5% crude glycerin diets. Dietary treatment did not affect blood metabolites or
Xie, Chen; Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (P<0·05). PS diet decreased the expression of the insulin receptor, and increased the expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 in liver compared with the WMS diet (P<0·05). These findings indicated that the diet with higher amylose content could down-regulate gluconeogenesis, and cause less fat deposition and more protein deposition by affecting the insulin/PI3K/protein kinase B signalling pathway in liver of finishing pigs.
Handling and stunning at slaughter plants has greatly improved through the use of numerical scoring. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the use of numerical scoring systems at the slaughter plants to assess conditions that compromise welfare that occurred either during transport or on the farm. Some of the transport problems that can be assessed are bruises, death losses, and injured animals. Welfare issues that occurred on the farm that can be assessed at the abattoir are body condition, lameness, lesions, injuries, animal cleanliness and internal pathology. There are important welfare issues that cannot be assessed at slaughter. They are on-farm euthanasia methods, use of analgesics during surgeries, and the type of animal housing systems. Welfare evaluations at slaughter have the potential to greatly improve welfare. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wilton, J W; Goddard, M E
Profit was defined as a function of the genotype of animals and variables controlled by management. Alternative parameterizations of management variables were examined to compare the effect of controlling age at slaughter, weight at slaughter, or fat depth at slaughter. The various parameterizations are shown to result in equivalent economic weights for genetic variables, provided management variables are optimized for the current genotype. The implication is that economic weights and selection indexes can be conveniently calculated for age constant end points even though commercial production may involve weight or backfat depth constant slaughter points. An example of selection for profit in the feedlot phase of beef production is presented. Three genotype-management combinations were considered. Economic weights and subsequent selection index weights were shown to depend on both average genotypic means and management (feeding and marketing program) factors.
... upland game bird, commercial waterfowl, meat-type chicken, and meat-type turkey slaughter plants that are... participate in the Plan. (b) To participate in the Plan, meat-type chicken, meat-type turkey, and commercial...
... upland game bird, commercial waterfowl, meat-type chicken, and meat-type turkey slaughter plants that are... participate in the Plan. (b) To participate in the Plan, meat-type chicken, meat-type turkey, and...
Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L
Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on
Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Overgaard, Søren
Aim of database The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. Study population The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995. All Danish orthopedic departments – both public and private – report to the register, and registration is compulsory. Main variables The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. Descriptive data A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995, completeness of procedure registration has been high, being 97.8% and 92.0% in 2014 for primary THAs and revisions, respectively. Several risk factors, such as comorbidity, age, specific primary diagnosis and fixation types for failure of primary THAs, and postoperative complications, have been identified through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. Conclusion The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data with long-term follow-up and high completeness. The register can be used for population-based epidemiology studies of THA surgery and can be linked to a range of other national databases. PMID:27822092
In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.