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Sample records for danish urban population

  1. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  2. Population, migration and urbanization.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  3. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  4. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such as the Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing the size of the reference population for Danish Jerseys. The first ap...

  5. Determinants of sunbed use in a population of Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Joan; Krarup, Anne F; Castberg, Ida-Marie; Jensen, Poul D; Philip, Anja

    2013-03-01

    In Denmark, melanoma is the most common type of cancer in individuals aged 15-34 years. Ultraviolet radiation from sunbeds is a risk factor for melanoma. Knowledge of the characteristics of sunbed users is important in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of sunbed use. The objective of this study was to examine sunbed use and its association with smoking, parental socioeconomic status (SES), friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, and school environment among adolescents aged 14-18 years at continuation schools in Denmark. We conducted a survey among adolescents in Danish continuation schools in 2011. We examined sunbed use and its association with age, smoking, friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, parental SES, and shared environment of the continuation school, using logistic regression. Within the past 12 months, 38% of the pupils had used a sunbed (70% girls and 28% boys). There was no difference in sunbed use according to age. Smoking and friends' positive attitudes towards, and higher use of sunbeds were associated with increased use of sunbeds. High SES of mothers' was associated with lower odds for sunbed use among girls. The association of school environment with sunbed use was modest compared with the other variables. Adolescents in continuation schools report a higher use of sunbeds than Danish adolescents as such. Educational interventions should be targeted at preteens, as sunbed use is common in 14-year-olds. Special educational tools are tested in the continuation school environment and may prove effective in this population.

  6. Capital, population and urban patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    1994-04-01

    The author develops an approach to urban dynamics with endogenous capital and population growth, synthesizing the Alonso location model, the two-sector neoclassical growth model, and endogenous population theory. A dynamic model for an isolated island economy with endogenous capital, population, and residential structure is developed on the basis of Alonso's residential model and the two-sector neoclassical growth model. The model describes the interdependence between residential structure, economic growth, population growth, and economic structure over time and space. It has a unique long-run equilibrium, which may be either stable or unstable, depending upon the population dynamics. Applying the Hopf theorem, the author also shows that when the system is unstable, the economic geography exhibits permanent endogenous oscillations.

  7. Validation of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Emtekaer Haesum, Lisa Korsbakke; Ehlers, Lars; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2015-09-01

    To describe how the original American full-length version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was translated and adapted for use in the Danish setting and culture. A reliable Danish version of the TOFHLA was created and pretested using patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as case group. Forty-two patients with COPD completed the Danish TOFHLA and participated in a face-to-face interview concerning their basic demographics. Statistical analyses were conducted to explore the demographic data provided by the participants and to determine the internal consistency and reliability of the Danish TOFHLA. The mean age of sample was 68.7 years (range 34-86). The face validity, internal consistency and item to scale correlations of the Danish TOFHLA were determined and found to fulfil well-established criteria; on this basis, we found the reliability and consistency of the Danish TOFHLA to be satisfying. The Danish TOFHLA is now ready for application in future research projects, which test levels of functional health literacy in an elderly Danish population at risk of chronic diseases. The evolvement in the measurement of health literacy is still ongoing, as there is a need to refine existing methods. Until recently, there has been a total lack of instruments for assessing health literacy in Scandinavia; it is hoped that this development of the Danish TOFHLA will promote further research within the field of health literacy in Scandinavia and other European countries. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Perspectives on urban conditions and population health.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Gibble, Emily; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the world's population will live in cities in the next few years and the pace of urbanization worldwide will continue to accelerate over the coming decades. While the number of megacities is projected to increase, the largest population growth is expected to be in cities of less than one million people. Such a dramatic demographic shift can be expected to have an impact on population health. Although there has been historic interest in how city living affects health, a cogent framework that enables systematic study of urban health across time and place has yet to emerge. Four alternate but complementary approaches to the study of urban health today are presented (urban health penalty, urban health advantage, urban sprawl, and an integrative urban conditions model) followed by three key questions that may help guide the study and practice of urban health in coming decades.

  9. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers: a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kaerlev, L; Hansen, J; Hansen, H; Nielsen, P

    2005-01-01

    Aims: Seafarers aboard oil and chemical tankers may be exposed to many chemicals, including substances like benzene that are known to be carcinogenic. Other seafarers are exposed to engine exhaust, different oil products, and chemicals used aboard and some years ago asbestos was also used extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. Methods: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986–1999 (33 340 men; 11 291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517 518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. Results: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among maintenance crew. Non-officers had a 1.5 times higher lung cancer risk than officers. No increased occurrence of all lymphatic and haematopoietic malignancies combined was found for employees on tankers, but the number of cases was limited to a total of 7. Conclusions: Danish seafarers, especially men, face an increased overall cancer risk, in particular a risk for lung cancer and other tobacco associated cancers. PMID:16234401

  10. Improving genomic prediction for Danish Jersey using a joint Danish-US reference population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accuracy of genomic prediction depends on the information in the reference population. Achieving an adequate sized reference population is a challenge for genomic prediction in small cattle populations. One way to increase the size of reference population is to combine reference data from different ...

  11. [The population of China, fertility and urbanization].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Y

    1985-04-01

    China is a huge country with more than 1 billion population. During some 30 years since 1949 when the new China was established, the population of China experienced several influences from political, economic, and social fluctuations on its fertility, mortality, and migration. Recently, the government of China is taking a unique policy for its fertility, so-called "only 1 child per couple" policy, having remarkable effects on actual birthrate. Trend of migration in China is also noteworthy. The number of migrants from rural to urban areas has not been large, and the proportion of urban population has not risen rapidly. There are several reasons behind this. Recently, the government has started policies to encourage sideline business of farmers to utilize effectively surplus labor in agriculture. By this way not only transfer of labor force from agriculture can be realized but also transfer of population from rural to urban areas can be realized. The target of urbanization in China is not the establishment of large cities but the creation of small cities and towns related closely with villages. The author was given the opportunity to attend the Beijing International Symposium on Population and Development, which was held in December 1984. At that Symposium many valuable papers were presented by Chinese scholars, using the latest demographic data of population census, fertility survey, and civil registration. The author shares this information with those who are concerned with the population of China in this short paper, especially putting focus on China's fertility and urbanization.

  12. Heritability of eleven metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins: a cross-population comparison.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxia; Duan, Hongmei; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Tan, Qihua; Kruse, Torben A; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2013-09-01

    A twin-based comparative study on the genetic influences in metabolic endophenotypes in two populations of substantial ethnic, environmental, and cultural differences was performed. Data on 11 metabolic phenotypes including anthropometric measures, blood glucose, and lipids levels as well as blood pressure were available from 756 pairs of Danish twins (309 monozygotic and 447 dizygotic twin pairs) with a mean age of 38 years (range: 18-67) and from 325 pairs of Chinese twins (183 monozygotic and 142 dizygotic twin pairs) with a mean age of 40.5 years (range: 18-69). Twin modeling was performed on full and nested models with the best fitting models selected. Heritability estimates were compared between Danish and Chinese samples to identify differential genetic influences on each of the phenotypes. Except for hip circumference, all other body measures exhibited similar heritability patterns in the two samples with body weight showing only a slight difference. Higher genetic influences were estimated for fasting blood glucose level in Chinese twins, whereas the Danish twins showed more genetic regulation over most lipids phenotypes. Systolic blood pressure was more genetically controlled in Danish than in Chinese twins. Metabolic endophenotypes show disparity in their genetic determinants in populations under distinct environmental conditions. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  13. The rural-urban population balance again.

    PubMed

    Simon, H A

    1982-11-01

    "This paper explores further the economics of the rural-urban population balance, using the method of comparative statics. It confirms the results obtained by Artle and his colleagues, using the method of excess demand analysis, thus demonstrating that the two methods of analysis are equivalent in this context. In analysing the effects of non-neutral technological change upon urbanization, it is essential to distinguish between the total elasticity of demand for manufactured products, and the income and (compensated) price elasticities, respectively. The empirical plausibility is questioned of assuming that total demand for the aggregate of manufactured goods is elastic."

  14. [A study of urban population migration and urbanization in China].

    PubMed

    Ma, X

    1988-03-01

    Under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and UN funding, a study was undertaken to assess Chinese urban migration and urbanization. A 2% random sample was taken of 74 cities of varying densities (divided into 5 categories ranging from "especially large city" to "town") from 16 provinces. This encompassed 23,895 households, 1,643 collectives and 100,167 people. Major data include: 38% of the subjects had migrated at least once; 7.58% lived away from home for at least 1 year; 23.98% were temporarily away from home at the time of the study; 3.6% were at home. With the exception of the "especially large city," which absorbed 46.5% of urban migrants, more migrants entered "towns" than they did "large city." Migration to the "especially large city" fell from 56.6% in the 1950s to 32.5% between 1981-86, whereas migration into the other categories increased. For example, population movement into towns jumped from 12.3% in the 1950s to 28.6% in 1981-86. In all 5 categories, intra-province migration was larger than inter-province migration. Over half of the urban migrants moved from villages to towns. More men migrated to cities than women, but slightly more women than men migrated from villages to cities (due to marriage customs). 56.6% of migrants were between 15-30 years; 23.34% were workers; 21.54% were farmers. Reasons given for moving were many, but the most often cited was work related. Work related moves often meant that such migration was dictated, rather than voluntary. Also, social, economic and political upheavals directly affected the pattern of urban migration from 1949-86. Current government policy is to develop smaller cities and to limit the growth of already densely populated areas. Until cities can provide adequate housing, food and jobs for its inhabitants, governmental intervention in some areas will continue to be necessary.

  15. Testing the validity of the Danish urban myth that alcohol can be absorbed through feet: open labelled self experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Færch, Louise Holmsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol. Design Open labelled, self experimental study, with no control group. Setting Office of a Danish hospital. Participants Three adults, median age 32 (range 31-35), free of chronic skin and liver disease and non-dependent on alcohol and psychoactive drugs. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the concentration of plasma ethanol (detection limit 2.2 mmol/L (10 mg/100 mL)), measured every 30 minutes for three hours while feet were submerged in a washing-up bowl containing the contents of three 700 mL bottles of vodka. The secondary outcome was self assessment of intoxication related symptoms (self confidence, urge to speak, and number of spontaneous hugs), scored on a scale of 0 to 10. Results Plasma ethanol concentrations were below the detection limit of 2.2 mmol/L (10 mg/100 mL) throughout the experiment. No significant changes were observed in the intoxication related symptoms, although self confidence and urge to speak increased slightly at the start of the study, probably due to the setup. Conclusion Our results suggest that feet are impenetrable to the alcohol component of vodka. We therefore conclude that the Danish urban myth of being able to get drunk by submerging feet in alcoholic beverages is just that; a myth. The implications of the study are many though. PMID:21156749

  16. The admixed population structure in Danish Jersey dairy cattle challenges accurate genomic predictions.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, J R; Sørensen, A C; Su, G; Madsen, P; Lund, M S; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2013-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the population structure in Danish Jersey (DJ) known from the history of the breed also is reflected in its genomic structure. This is done by comparing the linkage disequilibrium and persistence of phase for subgroups of Jersey animals with high proportions of Danish (DNK) or United States (USJ) origin. Furthermore, it is investigated whether a model explicitly incorporating breed origin of animals, inferred either through the known pedigree or from SNP marker data, leads to improved genomic predictions compared with a model ignoring breed origin. The study of the population structure incorporated 1,730 genotyped Jersey animals. In total 39,542 SNP markers were included in the analysis. The 1,079 genotyped bulls with de-regressed proof for udder health were used in the analysis for the predictions of the genomic breeding values. A range of random regressions models that included the breed origin were analyzed and compared with a basic genomic model that assumes a homogeneous breed structure. The main finding in this study is that the importation of germplasm from the USJ population is readily reflected in the genomes of modern DJ animals. First, linkage disequilibrium in the group of admixed DJ animals is lower compared with the groups of the original DNK and USJ animals. Second, persistence of linkage disequilibrium phase is not conserved for longer marker distances between animals with mainly Danish or United States origin. Third, the STRUCTURE analysis could retrieve genomic-based breed proportions in alignment to the pedigree-based breed proportions. However, including this population structure in a random regression prediction model did not clearly improve the reliabilities of the genomic predictions compared with a basic genomic model.

  17. Population viability analysis of American mink (Neovison vison) escaped from Danish mink farms.

    PubMed

    Pertoldi, C; Rødjajn, S; Zalewski, A; Demontis, D; Loeschcke, V; Kjærsgaard, A

    2013-06-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced to Danish fur farms in the 1930s. An unknown number of mink have managed to escape these farms over the years. Today feral mink are found in the wild in most parts of Denmark. A population viability analysis (PVA) was performed using VORTEX, a stochastic population simulation software, to 1) predict the viability and potential population expansion from different sizes of founding populations of farm escapees, 2) investigate which parameters mostly affect the viability, 3) assess the effects of continuous escapes on the feral populations and how the feral populations are affected by management programs, and 4) discuss eradication strategies and their efficiency in management of the feral American mink population in Denmark. The simulations showed that juvenile mortality had the greatest effect on population viability followed by fecundity, adult mortality, and initial population size. Populations supplemented yearly by escapees all reached the carrying capacity and gained genetic variability over the years. Harvesting was modeled as the yearly number of mink caught in Denmark. Most of the simulated harvested populations crashed within few years after the first harvesting event. This indicates that the feral number of mink in Denmark is sustained due to supplements from mink farms and no true feral population exists. To manage the number of feral mink in Denmark it is essential to prevent escapees. The eradication effort would be most effective if focused on late summer and autumn when juvenile mink leave the maternal territory.

  18. ALS and the Military: A Population-Based Study in the Danish Registries

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan M.; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Gredal, Ole; Hansen, Johnni; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have suggested that military service may be associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Denmark to assess whether occupation in the Danish military is associated with an increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Methods There were 3,650 incident cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry between 1982 and 2009. Each case was matched to 100 age- and sex-matched population controls alive and free of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on the date of the case diagnosis. Comprehensive occupational history was obtained from the Danish Pension Fund database, which began in 1964. Results 2.4% (n=8,922) of controls had a history of employment in the military prior to the index date. Military employees overall had an elevated rate of ALS (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6). A ten-year increase in years employed by the military was associated with an odds ratio of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0-1.4), and all quartiles of time employed were elevated. There was little suggestion of a pattern across calendar year of first employment, but there was some evidence that increasing age at first employment was associated with increased ALS rates. Rates were highest in the decade immediately following the end of employment (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2). Conclusions In this large population-based case-control study, employment by the military is associated with increased rates of ALS. These findings are consistent with earlier findings that military service or employment may entail exposure to risk factors for ALS. PMID:26583610

  19. Prevalence of depression, quality of life and antidepressant treatment in the Danish General Suburban Population Study.

    PubMed

    Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan; Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bech, Per

    2014-10-01

    The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS), the objective of which is to facilitate epidemiological and genetic research, has included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) among the medical health questionnaires. We were thus in a position to compare the 2-week prevalence of ICD-10 depression in the period from 2010 to 2012 with our previous Danish general population study from 2003, in which the MDI was also included. The aim of our analysis was not only to evaluate the point prevalence of ICD-10 depression but also to describe the prevalence of antidepressants received by the respondents in the GESUS study and the correspondence to their subjective well-being on the WHO-5 questionnaire. To evaluate the validity (scalability) of the MDI and the WHO-5 in the GESUS study we performed the non-parametric Mokken analysis. The scalability of the MDI and the WHO-5 was quite acceptable. In total, 14,787 respondents were available from a response rate of 50%. The 2-week prevalence of ICD-10 depression was 2.3%, which is rather similar to the 2.8% in our 2003 study. The rate of people receiving antidepressants increased consistently with increasing severity of ICD-10 depression. This study has confirmed that the use of the MDI to obtain an ICD-10 depression diagnosis gives rather conservative estimates of the 2-week prevalence of depression in the Danish general population. The prescription of antidepressants depends on the severity of the ICD-10 depression diagnosis.

  20. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and the Military: A Population-based Study in the Danish Registries.

    PubMed

    Seals, Ryan M; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-03-01

    Prior studies have suggested that military service may be associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We conducted a population-based case-control study in Denmark to assess whether occupation in the Danish military is associated with an increased risk of developing ALS. There were 3,650 incident cases of ALS recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry between 1982 and 2009. Each case was matched to 100 age- and sex-matched population controls alive and free of ALS on the date of the case diagnosis. Comprehensive occupational history was obtained from the Danish Pension Fund database, which began in 1964. 2.4% (n = 8,922) of controls had a history of employment in the military before the index date. Military employees overall had an elevated rate of ALS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 1.6). A 10-year increase in years employed by the military was associated with an OR of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4), and all quartiles of time employed were elevated. There was little suggestion of a pattern across calendar year of first employment, but there was some evidence that increasing age at first employment was associated with increased ALS rates. Rates were highest in the decade immediately following the end of employment (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.2). In this large population-based case-control study, employment by the military is associated with increased rates of ALS. These findings are consistent with earlier findings that military service or employment may entail exposure to risk factors for ALS.

  1. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This United Nation's publication presents data on the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world and contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations that had at least one million inhabitants in 1990. Chapter 1 presents levels of urbanization and future trends for urban and rural…

  2. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This United Nation's publication presents data on the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world and contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations that had at least one million inhabitants in 1990. Chapter 1 presents levels of urbanization and future trends for urban and rural…

  3. Safeguarding slaves: smallpox, vaccination, and governmental health policies among the enslaved population in the Danish West Indies, 1803-1848.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2009-01-01

    During the first half of the nineteenth century, a unique system of vaccination against smallpox was developed in the island of St. Croix in the Danish West Indies. The primary intention was to protect the population of enslaved workers, which was of fundamental importance to the economy of the colony. However, because the Danish abolition of the slave trade in 1803 had stopped the imports of new enslaved workers from Africa, the population was also decreasing. The vaccination system's success was due to a high degree of governmental control of the enslaved population that was virtually unseen anywhere else in the Caribbean.

  4. The impact of comorbidity on mortality in multiple myeloma: a Danish nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Henrik; Vangsted, Annette Juul; Abildgaard, Niels; Andersen, Niels Frost; Pedersen, Robert Schou; Frølund, Ulf Christian; Helleberg, Carsten; Broch, Bettina; Pedersen, Per Trøllund; Gimsing, Peter; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt

    2017-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of comorbidity and its impact on survival in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients compared with population controls. Cases of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma during the 2005-2012 period were identified in the Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry. For each myeloma patient, 10 members of the general population matched by age and sex were chosen from the national Civil Registration System. Data on comorbidity in the myeloma patients and the general population comparison cohort were collected by linkage to the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic significance of comorbidity. The study included 2190 cases of multiple myeloma and 21,900 population controls. The comorbidity was increased in multiple myeloma patients compared with population controls, odds ratio (OR) 1.4 (1.1-1.7). The registration of comorbidity was highly increased within the year preceding diagnosis of multiple myeloma (OR 3.0 [2.5-3.5]), which was attributable to an increased registration of various diseases, in particular, renal disease with OR 11.0 (8.1-14.9). The median follow-up time from diagnosis of multiple myeloma for patients alive was 4.3 years (interquartile range 2.4-6.3). Patients with registered comorbidity had increased mortality compared with patients without comorbidity, hazard ratio 1.6 (1.5-1.8). Multiple myeloma patients have increased comorbidity compared with the background population, in particular during the year preceding the diagnosis of myeloma. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study.

    PubMed

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob; Toft Kristensen, Tina; Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  6. Physical Trauma and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Population-Based Study Using Danish National Registries

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan M.; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that physical trauma might be associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We conducted a population-based, individually matched case-control study in Denmark to assess whether hospitalization for trauma is associated with a higher risk of developing ALS. There were 3,650 incident cases of ALS in the Danish National Patient Register from 1982 to 2009. We used risk-set sampling to match each case to 100 age- and sex-matched population controls alive on the date of the case's diagnosis. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a conditional logistic regression model. History of trauma diagnosis was also obtained from the Danish Patient Register. When traumas in the 5 years prior to the index date were excluded, there was a borderline association between any trauma and ALS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.19). A first trauma before age 55 years was associated with ALS (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37), whereas first traumas at older ages were not (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.10). Our data suggest that physical trauma at earlier ages is associated with ALS risk. Age at first trauma could help explain discrepancies in results of past studies of trauma and ALS. PMID:26825926

  7. Full spectrum of psychiatric disorders related to foreign migration: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2013-04-01

    Although increased risk for schizophrenia among immigrants is well established, knowledge of the broader spectrum of psychiatric disorders associated with a foreign migration background is lacking. To examine the full range of psychiatric disorders associated with any type of foreign migration background among persons residing in Denmark, including foreign-born adoptees, first- and second-generation immigrants, native Danes with a history of foreign residence, and persons born abroad to Danish expatriates. Danish population-based cohort study. Persons were followed up from their 10th birthday for the development of mental disorders based on outpatient and inpatient data. All persons born between January 1, 1971, and December 31, 2000 (N = 1 859 419) residing in Denmark by their 10th birthday with follow-up data to December 31, 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative incidences for psychiatric outcomes. All categories of foreign migration background, except persons born abroad to Danish expatriates, were associated with increased risk for at least 1 psychiatric disorder. Foreign-born adoptees had increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders and had the highest IRRs for these disorders compared with other foreign migration categories. First- and second-generation immigrants having 2 foreign-born parents had significantly increased IRRs for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and had similar risk magnitudes. Second-generation immigrants having 1 foreign-born parent had significantly increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders. Native Danes with a history of foreign residence had increased IRRs for bipolar affective disorder, affective disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The extent to which a background of foreign migration confers an increased risk for the broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders varies according to parental origin, with greatest risks for foreign-born adoptees. The spectrum of psychiatric

  8. Novel variation and de novo mutation rates in population-wide de novo assembled Danish trios

    PubMed Central

    Besenbacher, Søren; Liu, Siyang; Izarzugaza, José M. G.; Grove, Jakob; Belling, Kirstine; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Huang, Shujia; Als, Thomas D.; Li, Shengting; Yadav, Rachita; Rubio-García, Arcadio; Lescai, Francesco; Demontis, Ditte; Rao, Junhua; Ye, Weijian; Mailund, Thomas; Friborg, Rune M.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.; Xu, Ruiqi; Sun, Jihua; Liu, Hao; Wang, Ou; Cheng, Xiaofang; Flores, David; Rydza, Emil; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Damm Sørensen, John; Chmura, Piotr; Westergaard, David; Dworzynski, Piotr; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Lund, Ole; Hansen, Torben; Xu, Xun; Li, Ning; Bolund, Lars; Pedersen, Oluf; Eiberg, Hans; Krogh, Anders; Børglum, Anders D.; Brunak, Søren; Kristiansen, Karsten; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Wang, Jun; Gupta, Ramneek; Villesen, Palle; Rasmussen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Building a population-specific catalogue of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and structural variants (SVs) with frequencies, termed a national pan-genome, is critical for further advancing clinical and public health genetics in large cohorts. Here we report a Danish pan-genome obtained from sequencing 10 trios to high depth (50 × ). We report 536k novel SNVs and 283k novel short indels from mapping approaches and develop a population-wide de novo assembly approach to identify 132k novel indels larger than 10 nucleotides with low false discovery rates. We identify a higher proportion of indels and SVs than previous efforts showing the merits of high coverage and de novo assembly approaches. In addition, we use trio information to identify de novo mutations and use a probabilistic method to provide direct estimates of 1.27e−8 and 1.5e−9 per nucleotide per generation for SNVs and indels, respectively. PMID:25597990

  9. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  10. Concordance Rates of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in a Danish Twin Population.

    PubMed

    Simony, Ane; Carreon, Leah Y; Hjmark, Karen; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Andersen, Mikkel Ø

    2016-10-01

    Clinical, radiological, and genetic determination of zygosity of twin pairs from the Danish Twin Registry who self-reported having adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To establish concordance rates of AIS. The etiology of and the true mode of inheritance of AIS remain unclear. Studies on concordance in twin pairs provide a basis for analyzing the influence of genetic versus environmental factors. In 2007, using self-report of AIS from the Danish Twin Registry, concordance rates of 0.13 in monozygotic twins and 0.00 in dizygotic twins were reported. All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a survey, which included questions about scoliosis. The survey was returned by 34,944 individuals (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs. From the present study, 548 individuals representing 274 complete twin pairs in which at least one twin self-reported having scoliosis were invited to a clinical and radiological examination. Zygosity was established by genetic testing. A total of 182 individuals (33.2%) of the original cohort agreed to participate, 128 of whom had scoliosis by self-report. There were 91 twin pairs, in which one or both twins had reported scoliosis and 36 individuals whose twin did not want to participate. Only 35 (27%) of the 128 participants with self-reported scoliosis had a clinically and radiologically confirmed curve. Calculating concordance in twins with Cobb angles greater than 10°, we found that the pairwise concordance rate was 0.4 (0.10-0.70) for monozygotic and 0.05 (-0.05-0.15) for dizygotic twins, P = 0.05, probandwise concordance was 0.45 (0.16-0.74) for monozygotic and 0.1 (-0.03-0.23) for dizygotic pairs. Concordance rates in a Danish twin population using genetic testing for zygosity are higher than previously reported using self-report. Although not statistically significant, the differences in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs indicate that genetic factors may be of importance for scoliosis. 3.

  11. 'Make it another for me and my mates': Does social capital encourage risky drinking among the Danish general population?

    PubMed

    Seid, Abdu K; Hesse, Morten; Bloomfield, Kim

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between several indicators of social capital and risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) in a representative survey sample of the Danish general population. Data from the 2011 Danish national survey (n=2569) with respondents aged 15-79 years were used. Ordered logit modelling was applied to investigate the influence of social networks, social support, social participation and trust on RSOD. A strong positive relationship was found between frequency of contact with male friends and RSOD between both sexes. Furthermore, social trust among men and membership in voluntary organisations among women was significantly associated with RSOD. Additionally, contact with male family members for women and active participation in religious services for both sexes were strongly and negatively correlated with RSOD. Some aspects of social capital can be positively related to at-risk health behaviours, as was found for RSOD in the Danish general population. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Urbanization and de-urbanization of the black population before the Civil War.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, J R

    1976-08-01

    Pre-Civil War black urbanization is examined using data from federal census records, 1790 to 1860. The black population is found to be as urban as the white population initially, but its urbanization underwent relative decline in the last two decades before the Civil War. Foreshadowing current patterns, the northern black population was heavily concentrated in the largest cities, and the free black population was the most urban of all groups. The timing of black urban decline in the North, as well as regional and size of place differences in that decline, suggest that both competition with immigrants in major eastern seaboard cities and the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850 contributed to black de-urbanization. For the South, the explanations of black urban decline proposed by Wade, Conrad and Meyer, Goldin, and Bonacich are evaluated, and Bonacich's split labor market theory is judged to be most consistent with the demographic trends.

  13. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients: a nationwide Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. Data were obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and personality disorders since 1969. The prevalence of SUDs was examined for the following psychoactive substances: alcohol, opioids, cannabis, sedatives, cocaine, psycho-stimulants and hallucinogens. A total of 463,003 patients were included in the analysis. The prevalence of any lifetime SUD was: 37 % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients). Patients with SUDs were more often men, had fewer years of formal education, more often received disability pension and died due to unnatural causes. The study was the most comprehensive of its kind so far to estimate the prevalence of SUDs in an unselected population-based cohort, and it revealed remarkably high prevalence among the psychiatric patients. The results should encourage continuous focus on possible comorbidity of psychiatric patients, as well as specialised and integrated treatment along with increased support of patients with comorbid disorders.

  14. Orders of magnitude of the world's urban population in history.

    PubMed

    Grauman, J V

    1976-01-01

    This article claims to be 1 of the first to attempt precise estimates of urban populations at different periods of history and to date the onset of the modern urban revolution. The few existing studies with numerical estimates for the past are first examined, and a definition of urban which includes places of 5000 or more inhabitants and with defined outer contours is advanced. The main source of data is a recently published list of population estimates for a variety o fdates beginning in 1360 BC for many cities, to which mathematical formulas are applied to derive estimates of the combined urban population of the world. The rank-size rule, which holds that the size of each city tends to be in inverse proportion to its rank, is the main principle upon which the various estimates of total urban population are based. Comparison of the results obtained using different estimation procedures and different sources of data, and a discussion of uncertainties and shortcomings in the results are included. High, low and medium estimates of the world's urban population and the assumed percentage margins of error are provided for various dates. The medium estimates of urban population are then compared to available estimates of total world population at different dates to yield an estimate of the proportions urban. Although several sources of bias occur, the results suggest that little change in the level of world urbanization occurred between 0 and 1800 AD.

  15. High urban population density of birds reflects their timing of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Diaz, Mario; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Grim, Tomas; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Mänd, Raivo; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    Living organisms generally occur at the highest population density in the most suitable habitat. Therefore, invasion of and adaptation to novel habitats imply a gradual increase in population density, from that at or below what was found in the ancestral habitat to a density that may reach higher levels in the novel habitat following adaptation to that habitat. We tested this prediction of invasion biology by analyzing data on population density of breeding birds in their ancestral rural habitats and in matched nearby urban habitats that have been colonized recently across a continental latitudinal gradient. We estimated population density in the two types of habitats using extensive point census bird counts, and we obtained information on the year of urbanization when population density in urban habitats reached levels higher than that of the ancestral rural habitat from published records and estimates by experienced ornithologists. Both the difference in population density between urban and rural habitats and the year of urbanization were significantly repeatable when analyzing multiple populations of the same species across Europe. Population density was on average 30 % higher in urban than in rural habitats, although density reached as much as 100-fold higher in urban habitats in some species. Invasive urban bird species that colonized urban environments over a long period achieved the largest increases in population density compared to their ancestral rural habitats. This was independent of whether species were anciently or recently urbanized, providing a unique cross-validation of timing of urban invasions. These results suggest that successful invasion of urban habitats was associated with gradual adaptation to these habitats as shown by a significant increase in population density in urban habitats over time.

  16. Urban Ecology: Patterns of Population Growth and Ecological Effects

    Treesearch

    Wayne C. Zipperer; Steward T.A. Pickett

    2012-01-01

    Currently, over 50% of the world’s population lives in urban areas. By 2050, this estimate is expected to be 70%. This urban growth, however, is not uniformly distributed around the world. The majority of it will occur in developing nations and create megacities whose populations exceed at least 10 million people. Not all urban areas, however, are growing. Some are...

  17. PCB concentrations and dioxin-like activity in blood samples from Danish school children and their mothers living in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai; Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Flemming; Siersma, Volkert D; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of major concern due to a diversity of adverse effects from prolonged exposure and bioaccumulation. Manufacturing of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a subgroup of POPs, has been prohibited for many decades; however, human exposure still occurs due to the persistent nature of the chemicals. The concentrations of the dioxin-like PCB congeners 105, 118 and 156 and the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, HCB and β-HCH as well as the dioxin-like activity using the AhR transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were significantly higher in schoolchildren living in the urban area compared with the rural, and for AhR-TEQ, a strong correlation between the mothers and children was observed. We found a significant negative correlation between BMI and PCB concentrations in the children. Finally, in the mothers, there was a positive association between age and PCB concentration. These results show that both PCBs and dioxin-like activity can be measured as biomarkers of exposure and effects in blood samples from children and women. The results indicate that people living in urban areas may be exposed to higher concentrations of PCBs, dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, which may lead to a greater risk of adverse effects for urban populations.

  18. Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders and the Risk of Subsequent Anorexia Nervosa: A Danish Population Register Study.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa.

  19. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children with Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…

  20. Population dynamics of bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in Danish wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-15

    The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Population dynamics of filamentous bacteria in Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Kragelund, Caroline; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2012-08-01

    Bulking and foaming are two frequently occurring operational problems in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants, and these problems are mainly associated with excessive growth of filamentous bacteria. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the identity and population dynamics of filamentous bacteria in 28 Danish municipal treatment plants with nutrient removal has been carried out over three years. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify more than twenty probe-defined populations of filamentous bacteria that in total constituted a large fraction of the entire microbial community, on average 24%. Despite the majority being present within the flocs, they occasionally caused settling problems in most of the plants. A low diversity of probe-defined filamentous bacteria was found in the plants with Microthrix and various species belonging to phylum Chloroflexi (e.g., type 0803 and type 0092) as the most abundant. Few other filamentous probe-defined species were found revealing a large similarity between the filamentous populations in the plants investigated. The composition of filamentous populations was stable in each plant with only minor changes in relative abundances observed during the three-year study period. The relative composition of the different species was unique to each plant giving a characteristic "fingerprint". Comprehensive statistical analyses of the presence and abundance of the filamentous organisms did not reveal many correlations with a particular plant design or process parameter.

  2. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise.

  3. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  4. Occupational Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, < 5, 5-14, and ≥ 15 years in the job, respectively. Data was analysed by a mixed random effect logistic regression model. The age-standardised COPD study prevalence was 5.0%. Of 372 DISCO-88 codes 72 were identified with relevant exposure to VGDF. 46% of the participants reported at least one occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.

  5. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten; Vangsted, Annette J; Østergaard, Brian; Gregersen, Henrik; Frølund, Ulf Christian; Andersen, Niels F; Helleberg, Carsten; Andersen, Kristian T; Pedersen, Robert S; Pedersen, Per; Abildgaard, Niels; Gimsing, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have been proposed; however, all have been developed using single-center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to multiple myeloma (MM) for SMM, we analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort of 321 patients with newly diagnosed SMM registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis significantly influenced TTP (HR 2.7, 95%CI (1.5;4.7), P = 0.001, and HR 3.3, 95%CI (1.4;7.8), P = 0.002, respectively). High free light chain (FLC) ratio did not significantly influence TTP in our cohort. Therefore, our data do not support recent IMWG proposal of identifying patients with FLC ratio above 100 as having ultra high-risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥30 g/L, we created a scoring system to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SMM. This first population-based study of patients with SMM confirms that an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression to MM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nitrate exposure from drinking water and diet in a Danish rural population.

    PubMed

    Møller, H; Landt, J; Jensen, P; Pedersen, E; Autrup, H; Jensen, O M

    1989-03-01

    Increasing levels of nitrate (NO3-) in drinking water in Denmark is of concern due to the possibility of an associated increase in long-term exposure to endogeneously formed N-nitroso compounds. Using a duplicate portion technique in combination with a qualitative description of diet and other background variables, the total nitrate intake in a Danish rural population and the contribution of drinking water to the total nitrate exposure is estimated. People drinking nitrate-free water have an intake of 37 mg NO3- per day. At 47 mg NO3- per litre, the exposure is increased to 89 mg, about 60% of which originates from the water. At 84 mg NO3- per litre, the daily exposure is 123 mg, 70% of which originates from the drinking water. These crude comparisons between three groups of people are supplemented with quantitative modelling of nitrate exposure at individual level. Apart from drinking water, consumption of vegetables is a major source of nitrate in this population. Using nitrate in overnight urine samples to quantify exposure is less accurate than the duplicate dietary portion technique and tends, in the present study, to underestimate the contribution of water-derived nitrate to total nitrate intake.

  7. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in a Danish 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Cohort Compared to the Total Danish Population--A Nationwide Register Study.

    PubMed

    Vangkilde, Anders; Olsen, Line; Hoeffding, Louise K; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mortensen, Preben B; Werge, Thomas; Trabjerg, Betina

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We, therefore, conducted the first large-scale population based study on the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia in persons identified with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all Danish citizens born during 1955-2004 and the cohort was followed from January 1, 1994 until December 31, 2013. Data were analyzed using survival analyses and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, and parental mental health history. A total of 156 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were identified, out of which 6 individuals were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders following identification with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Identified carriers of 22q11.2 deletion had an 8.13(95% CI: 3.65-18.09) fold increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Carriers of a 22q11.2 deletion who had been clinically identified had a highly increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, J; Dawson, D A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way among different urbanization classes. Principal coordinate analyses did not support the hypothesis that urban/suburban and rural populations comprise two distinct genetic clusters. Comparison of FST values at different hierarchical scales revealed drift as an important force of population differentiation. Redundancy analyses revealed that genetic structure was strongly affected by both spatial variation and level of urbanization. The results shown here can be used as baseline information for future genetic monitoring programmes and provide additional insights into contemporary house sparrow dynamics along urbanization gradients. PMID:22588131

  9. Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations.

    PubMed

    Serieys, Laurel E K; Lea, Amanda; Pollinger, John P; Riley, Seth P D; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996 to 2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite loci. We found that two freeways are significant barriers to gene flow. Further, a 3-year disease epizootic, associated with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, caused a population bottleneck that led to significant genetic differentiation between pre- and post-disease populations that was greater than that between populations separated by major freeways for >60 years. However, balancing selection acted on immune-linked loci during the epizootic, maintaining variation at functional regions. Conservation assessments need to assay loci that are potentially under selection to better preserve the adaptive potential of populations at the urban-wildland interface. Further, interconnected regions that contain appropriate habitat for wildlife will be critical to the long-term viability of animal populations in urban landscapes.

  10. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J F; Cederkvist, L; Andersen, K K; Dalton, S O; Appel, C W; Rechnitzer, C; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C

    2015-03-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. Overall, childhood cancer survivors were at increased risk of having antidepressants prescribed (HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-1.5). The excess absolute risk of antidepressant use was 2.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.7-3.3), equivalent to an excess of 2.5 survivors for every 100 survivors followed for 10years. Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk was most pronounced for children treated in the most recent calendar periods (test for interaction between cancer and calendar periods: P<0.001), especially for survivors of haematological cancers (P=0.007). Interaction analysis of the effect of parental socioeconomic position and psychiatric disease on the association between childhood cancer and antidepressant use indicated no modifying effect. Childhood cancer survivors should be followed-up for depression. Our results indicate an increasing need for follow-up especially in survivors treated by more recent, intensive anticancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rural and urban traffic fatalities, vehicle miles, and population density.

    PubMed

    Clark, David E; Cushing, Brad M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of population density on the rates of motor vehicle mortality in rural and urban areas, while controlling for vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Rural and urban data for traffic mortality, VMT, and population were obtained for each state from the Federal Highway Administration for 1998-2000. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of population density, VMT per capita, southern location, and presence of a trauma system on mortality. Variation in rural mortality rate (per 100,000 population) was proportional to rural VMT per capita, but population density and southern location were also independent predictors, together accounting for 91% of this variation. Variation in urban mortality rates was not affected by population density, but urban rates were also higher in the south. The exposure-based rural mortality rate (deaths per 100 million VMT) was inversely proportional to population density, which along with southern location explained 41% of the variation from state to state. The presence of a state trauma system did not measurably affect mortality. After controlling for VMT and southern location, state population density was a moderately strong predictor of rural but not urban traffic mortality rates.

  12. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. Objectives We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. Methods A total of 52,061 subjects (50–65 years of age) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen, reported data on physical activity in 1993–1997 and were followed until 2010. High exposure to air pollution was defined as the upper 25th percentile of modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels at residential addresses. We associated participation in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking with total and cause-specific mortality by Cox regression, and introduced NO2 as an interaction term. Results In total, 5,534 subjects died: 2,864 from cancer, 1,285 from cardiovascular disease, 354 from respiratory disease, and 122 from diabetes. Significant inverse associations of participation in sports, cycling, and gardening with total, cardiovascular, and diabetes mortality were not modified by NO2. Reductions in respiratory mortality associated with cycling and gardening were more pronounced among participants with moderate/low NO2 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.72 and 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.73, respectively] than with high NO2 exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations, indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel findings require replication in other study populations. Citation Andersen ZJ, de Nazelle A, Mendez MA, Garcia-Aymerich J, Hertel O, Tjønneland A, Overvad

  13. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1994 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This publication presents data from the current revision of estimates and projections of the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world. The publication also contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations of at least 750,000 inhabitants in 1994. The revisions are part of a series of…

  14. Associations between stress disorders and cardiovascular disease events in the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Svensson, Elisabeth; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L; Milstein, Arnold; Adler, Nancy; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-documented risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unknown whether another common stress disorder—adjustment disorder—is also associated with an increased risk of CVD and whether gender modifies these associations. The aim of this study was to examine the overall and gender-stratified associations between PTSD and adjustment disorder and 4 CVD events. Design Prospective cohort study utilising Danish national registry data. Setting The general population of Denmark. Participants PTSD (n=4724) and adjustment disorder (n=64 855) cohorts compared with the general population of Denmark from 1995 to 2011. Primary outcome measures CVD events including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, ischaemic stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Standardised incidence rates and 95% CIs were calculated. Results Associations were found between PTSD and all 4 CVD events ranging from 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.9) for MI to 2.1 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.7) for VTE. Associations that were similar in magnitude were also found for adjustment disorder and all 4 CVD events: 1.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.6) for MI to 1.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.0) for VTE. No gender differences were noted. Conclusions By expanding beyond PTSD and examining a second stress disorder—adjustment disorder—this study provides evidence that stress-related psychopathology is associated with CVD events. Further, limited evidence of gender differences in associations for either of the stress disorders and CVD was found. PMID:26667014

  15. Disordered Gambling Prevalence: Methodological Innovations in a General Danish Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Glenn W; Jessen, Lasse J; Lau, Morten I; Ross, Don

    2017-07-13

    We study Danish adult gambling behavior with an emphasis on discovering patterns relevant to public health forecasting and economic welfare assessment of policy. Methodological innovations include measurement of formative in addition to reflective constructs, estimation of prospective risk for developing gambling disorder rather than risk of being falsely negatively diagnosed, analysis with attention to sample weights and correction for sample selection bias, estimation of the impact of trigger questions on prevalence estimates and sample characteristics, and distinguishing between total and marginal effects of risk-indicating factors. The most significant novelty in our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a 'trigger' or 'gateway' question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects and estimate prospective risk for disordered gambling. We find that 87.6% of the population is indicated for no detectable risk, 5.4% is indicated for early risk, 1.7% is indicated for intermediate risk, 2.6% is indicated for advanced risk, and 2.6% is indicated for disordered gambling. Correcting for sample weights and controlling for sample selection has a significant effect on prevalence rates. Although these estimates of the 'at risk' fraction of the population are significantly higher than conventionally reported, we infer a significant decrease in overall prevalence rates of detectable risk with these corrections, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.

  16. Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations

    PubMed Central

    Serieys, Laurel E K; Lea, Amanda; Pollinger, John P; Riley, Seth P D; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996 to 2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite loci. We found that two freeways are significant barriers to gene flow. Further, a 3-year disease epizootic, associated with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, caused a population bottleneck that led to significant genetic differentiation between pre- and post-disease populations that was greater than that between populations separated by major freeways for >60 years. However, balancing selection acted on immune-linked loci during the epizootic, maintaining variation at functional regions. Conservation assessments need to assay loci that are potentially under selection to better preserve the adaptive potential of populations at the urban–wildland interface. Further, interconnected regions that contain appropriate habitat for wildlife will be critical to the long-term viability of animal populations in urban landscapes. PMID:25667604

  17. Do major roads reduce gene flow in urban bird populations?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Suo, Mingli; Liu, Shenglin; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Although the negative effects of roads on the genetics of animal populations have been extensively reported, the question of whether roads reduce gene flow in volant, urban bird populations has so far not been addressed. In this study, we assess whether highways decreased gene flow and genetic variation in a small passerine bird, the tree sparrow (Passer montanus). We assessed genetic differences among tree sparrows (Passer montanus) sampled at 19 sites within Beijing Municipality, China, using 7 DNA microsatellites as genetic markers. AMOVA showed that genetic variation between sites, between urban and rural populations, and between opposite sides of the same highway, were very weak. Mantel tests on all samples, and on urban samples only, indicated that the age and number of highways, and the number of ordinary roads, were uncorrelated with genetic differences (F ST) among tree sparrows from different urban sites. Birds sampled at urban sites had similar levels of genetic diversity to those at rural sites. There was, however, evidence of some weak genetic structure between urban sites. Firstly, there were significant genetic differences (F ST) between birds from opposite sides of the same highway, but no significant F ST values between those from sites that were not separated by highways. Secondly, birds from eleven urban sites had loci that significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but no such deviation was found in birds from rural sites. We cannot, therefore, conclusively reject the hypothesis that highways have no effect on the gene flow of tree sparrow populations. Furthermore, since the significance of these results may increase with time, we suggested that research on the influence of highways on gene flow in urban bird populations needs to be conducted over several decades.

  18. Do Major Roads Reduce Gene Flow in Urban Bird Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuping; Suo, Mingli; Liu, Shenglin; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the negative effects of roads on the genetics of animal populations have been extensively reported, the question of whether roads reduce gene flow in volant, urban bird populations has so far not been addressed. In this study, we assess whether highways decreased gene flow and genetic variation in a small passerine bird, the tree sparrow (Passer montanus). Methodology We assessed genetic differences among tree sparrows (Passer montanus) sampled at 19 sites within Beijing Municipality, China, using 7 DNA microsatellites as genetic markers. Results AMOVA showed that genetic variation between sites, between urban and rural populations, and between opposite sides of the same highway, were very weak. Mantel tests on all samples, and on urban samples only, indicated that the age and number of highways, and the number of ordinary roads, were uncorrelated with genetic differences (FST) among tree sparrows from different urban sites. Birds sampled at urban sites had similar levels of genetic diversity to those at rural sites. There was, however, evidence of some weak genetic structure between urban sites. Firstly, there were significant genetic differences (FST) between birds from opposite sides of the same highway, but no significant FST values between those from sites that were not separated by highways. Secondly, birds from eleven urban sites had loci that significantly deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium but no such deviation was found in birds from rural sites. Conclusion We cannot, therefore, conclusively reject the hypothesis that highways have no effect on the gene flow of tree sparrow populations. Furthermore, since the significance of these results may increase with time, we suggested that research on the influence of highways on gene flow in urban bird populations needs to be conducted over several decades. PMID:24204724

  19. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  20. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  1. Mineral lung burden of an urban population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; Falchi, M.; Batisti, D.; Carrieri, M. P.; Petrelli, M. G.; Ciallella, C.; Donelli, G.

    A study was carried out on mineral lung burden in 85 autopsy cases who died accidentally. Subjects of both sexes aged from 15 to 70 years were selected from all the autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rome. These subjects were living in an urban area and were not affected by neoplasm diseases. All selected subjects were residing in Rome at the time of their death. Information on years of legal residence in urban areas, smoking habits and occupational history were obtained by interviews with relatives. Lung parenchyma samples were obtained from the right upper lobe. The mineral particulate matter present in the tissue samples was studied by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) techniques: 16 mineral varieties and 22 metallic elements were identified. Smoke, age and residence seem to have influence on the lung burden.

  2. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Kroman, Niels; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen is an established growth factor in breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that pregnancy associated estrogens may increase the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. In 1997 we published a population-based Danish study indicating no negative prognostic effect of pregnancy after breast cancer treatment. The present study is a ten-year update. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group has since 1977 collected population-based data on tumour characteristics, treatment regimes, and follow-up status on Danish women with breast cancer. Pregnancy history was added from the Danish Civil Registration System, the National Birth Registry, and the National Induced Abortion registry. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk ratio of dying among women with a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment compared with women without such experience. In all, 10 236 women with primary breast cancer aged 45 years or less at the time of diagnosis were followed for 95 616 person years. Among these, 371 women experienced pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer. In a multivariate analysis that included age at diagnosis, stage of disease, and pregnancy history prior to diagnosis, women who had a full-term pregnancy subsequent to breast cancer treatment were found to have a reduced risk of dying (relative risk: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.99) compared with other women with breast cancer. The effect was not significantly modified by age at diagnosis, tumour size, nodal status, or pregnancy history before diagnosis of breast cancer. Neither spontaneous abortions nor induced abortions subsequent to breast cancer treatment had a negative impact on prognosis. In line with our previous study, but based on more than twice the patient material, we found no evidence that a pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer has a negative influence the prognosis.

  3. Preconception maternal bereavement and infant and childhood mortality: A Danish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Class, Quetzal A.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Dalman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Khashan, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, though these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Methods Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979–2009 (N=1,865,454), we predicted neonatal (0–28 days), post-neonatal infant (29–364 days), and early childhood (1–5 years) mortality following maternal bereavement in the preconception (6–0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regression that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. Results We identified 6,541 (0.004%) neonates, 3,538 (0.002%) post-neonates, and 2,132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 to 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with an increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.53–2.30) and post-neonatal infant mortality (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02). Associations were timing-specific (6 months prior to pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality, however this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Conclusions Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately prior to pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality. PMID:26374948

  4. HLA Associations and Risk of Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Danish Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Strandhave, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Esben; Bendix, Knud; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Andersen, Claus; Møller, Michael Boe; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Kampmann, Jan; Eiskjær, Hans; Iversen, Martin; Weinreich, Ilse Duus; Møller, Bjarne; Jespersen, Bente; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a feared complication to organ transplantation, associated with substantial morbidity and inferior survival. Risk factors for PTLD include T cell–depleting induction therapy and primary infection or reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus. Possible associations between certain HLA types and the risk of developing PTLD have been reported by other investigators; however, results are conflicting. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based study on 4295 Danish solid organ transplant patients from the Scandiatransplant database. Having identified 93 PTLD patients in the cohort, we investigated the association of HLA types with PTLD, Epstein-Barr virus status and time to PTLD onset. The outcomes survival and PTLD were evaluated using Cox regression; mismatching, and the PTLD-specific mortality were evaluated in a competing risk analysis. Results Risk of PTLD was associated with male sex (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.71), and, in women, HLA-DR13 conferred an increased risk (odds ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-7.31). In multivariate analysis, HLA-B45 and HLA-DR13 remained independent predictive factors of PTLD. Mismatching in the B locus was associated with a reduced risk of PTLD (P < 0.001). Overall survival was poor after a PTLD diagnosis and was significantly worse than that in the remaining transplant cohort (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our data indicate risk-modifying HLA associations, which can be clinically useful after transplantation in personalized monitoring schemes. Given the strong linkage disequilibrium in the HLA region, the associations must be interpreted carefully. The large size, virtually complete ascertainment of cases and no loss to follow-up remain important strengths of the study. PMID:27500227

  5. Urban waterfowl population: Ecological evaluation of management and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, David M.

    1982-05-01

    An urban population of ducks in Puyallup, Washington, USA was studied for 14 consecutive months beginning in November 1978. Observations were made weekly from four study sites where ducks would congregate at early morning hours. Factors contributing to the presence of waterfowl in Puyallyup included abundant food supplies and a creek corridor that connected fragmented habitats in the urban area to the larger rural populations of waterfowl. Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos) were the most abundant of the 13 species observed and were the only ducks remaining during the nesting season. Habitat size and complexity were important factors influencing the species diversity of a particular site. Nesting success of mallards was poor due to limited distribution of nesting habitat, intraspecific aggression, and human disturbance. Both site-specific and more broad-based strategies are suggested for managing and planning for duck populations in urban areas.

  6. Conceptualizing Astronomical Distances for Urban Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popinchalk, Mark; Olson, Kristen; Ingber, Jenny; O'Brien, Mariel

    2017-01-01

    Students living in urban environments may have a washed-out night sky, but their enthusiasm for astronomy can still shine bright. As an educator, it can sometimes be a challenge to see the opportunities afforded by city living to the teaching of astronomy; however, several benefits can be identified. For example, the intrinsic understanding children have of the distances and scales involved in their everyday life is enhanced when they live in a regimented urban structure. This existing understanding of scale is critical to building a foundation for later conceptualizing of the universe.Leveraging the assets of New York City and the resources found in the American Museum of Natural History, The Science and Nature Program offers students (PreK through 8th grade) robust science learning experiences. To address concepts important for studying astronomy, we present a novel twist on the classic lesson “Earth as a Peppercorn,” by scaling the solar system to the size of New York City. Using local landmarks and their distance in relation to the Museum to represent the planets, students can use their prior knowledge of their surroundings to appreciate the impressive scale of our neighborhood in space in the context of their own neighborhoods. We correlate the activity with NGSS standards, present preliminary feedback on it’s success, and discuss the opportunities to apply a similar model lesson to other astronomical systems.

  7. Descriptive characteristics of colon and rectal cancer recurrence in a Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ashley C; Riis, Anders H; Erichsen, Rune; Fedirko, Veronika; Ostenfeld, Eva Bjerre; Vyberg, Mogens; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Lash, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Recurrence is a common outcome among patients that have undergone an intended curative resection for colorectal cancer. However, data on factors that influence colorectal cancer recurrence are sparse. We report descriptive characteristics of both colon and rectal cancer recurrence in an unselected population. We identified 21,152 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between May 2001 and December 2011 and registered with the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group. Recurrences were identified in 3198 colon and 1838 rectal cancer patients during follow-up. We calculated the frequency, proportion, and incidence rates of colon and rectal cancer recurrence within descriptive categories, and the cumulative five- and ten-year incidences of recurrence, treating death as a competing risk. We used a Cox proportional hazard model to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Recurrence risk was highest in the first three years of follow-up. Patients <55 years old at initial diagnosis (incidence rate for colon: 7.2 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 6.5-7.9; rectum: 8.1 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 7.2-9.0) and patients diagnosed with stage III cancer (colon HR: 5.70; 95% CI: 4.61-7.06; rectal HR: 7.02; 95% CI: 5.58-8.82) had increased risk of recurrence. Patients diagnosed with stage III cancer from 2009 to 2011 had a lower incidence of recurrence than those diagnosed with stage III cancer in the years before. Cumulative incidences of colon and rectal cancer recurrence were similar for both cancer types among each descriptive category. In this population, increases in colorectal cancer recurrence risk were associated with younger age and increasing stage at diagnosis. Cumulative incidence of recurrence did not differ by cancer type. Descriptive characteristics of colon and rectal cancer recurrence may help to inform patient-physician decision-making, and could be used to determine adjuvant therapies or tailor surveillance strategies so that recurrence may be

  8. Association between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Kirsten T; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50-65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993-1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI  =  1.1-7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear.

  9. Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50–65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993–1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI  =  1.1–7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear. PMID:23441227

  10. Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Soraia A; Silva, Fabiana L; Carvalho Neta, Alcina C; Bueno, Regina; Guerra, Rita M S N C; Abreu-Silva, Ana L; Santos, Renato L

    2008-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease of major public health and veterinary importance, affecting 88 countries with up to 2 million cases per year. This review emphasizes the animal reservoirs and spreading of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas, particularly in two Brazilian metropolitan areas, namely São Luis and Belo Horizonte, where the disease has become endemic in the past few years. Urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil during the last decades has created favorable epidemiological conditions for maintenance of the disease, with dense human populations sharing a tropical environment with abundant populations of the mammalian reservoir and the invertebrate vector, facilitating transmission of the disease.

  11. Social Determinants of the Health of Urban Populations: Methodologic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Caiaffa, Waleska T.; Vlahov, David

    2007-01-01

    A full understanding of the role of the urban environment in shaping the health of populations requires consideration of different features of the urban environment that may influence population health. The social environment is key to understanding the way in which cities affect the health of populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) are important, generally, yet can have different effects in different settings from urban to rural, between countries, between cities, and within cities. Failure to acknowledge, and more importantly, to understand the role of SDH in health and access to health and social services will hamper any effort to improve the health of the population. In this paper, we will briefly summarize a few key SDH and their measurement. We will also consider methodologic tools and some methodologic challenges. The concepts presented here are broadly applicable to a variety of settings: developed and developing countries, slum areas, inner cities, middle income neighborhoods, and even higher income neighborhoods. However, our focus will be on some of the more vulnerable urban populations who are most profoundly affected by SDH. PMID:17458704

  12. Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Relation to the Danish Results in TIMMS Population 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and other measures of achievement show that the achievement of Danish students is below the international TIMSS average when considered by age, but above the TIMSS average when considered by grade. Discusses results in the context of the later entrance to school in Denmark…

  13. Distribution of subjective health complaints, and their association with register based sickness absence in the Danish working population.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Persson, Roger; Kristiansen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis; Villadsen, Ebbe; Ørbæk, Palle

    2013-03-01

    To describe the distribution of subjective health complaints (SHCs) in a Danish working population and the associations between SHC and register based sickness absence. The study entailed 2876 men and 3574 women aged 18-59 years that constituted the 2005 panel in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS). All had completed a subjective health complaints inventory and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Seven SHC/NMQ indices were constructed and merged with subsequently collected data on prolonged sickness absence periods (each period > 14 days) that was registered in the national Danish register on social transfer payments: the DREAM register. Ordinal logistic regression was used to model the cumulative odds for sickness absence as a function of strata. The majority of participants reported at least one SHC during a 30-day period (circa 89% of the men and 95% of the women). The reports of severe SHC, defined as recurring SHC within the 30-day period, were less common. About 55% of the men and 68% of the women reported at least one severe SHC during a 30-day period. The odds ratios of sickness absence increased with the number of SHC a participant acknowledged. The odds ratios were slightly reduced after adjusting for age, disease history and social class. The majority of the working population in Denmark report at least one SHC during a 30-day period. Roughly half of the population report having at least one recurrent (often to very often) SHC during the last 30-days (severe SHC). Reporting the presence of several SHCs increases the likelihood of having more prospectively registered periods of sickness absence above two weeks.

  14. Unseen Community: Marginal Urban Populations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Behavioral Sciences Inst., La Jolla, CA.

    In this report, an ethnographic study of the aged population of 12 hotels in downtown San Diego is described. The life styles and support groups of residents of "single room occupancy" (SRO) hotels are compared to skid-row hotels and middle class retirement hotels in the immediate neighborhood. Methodology in the study consisted of…

  15. Hypothyroidism and pregnancy loss: comparison with hyperthyroidism and diabetes in a Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease. The frequency of pregnancy loss in women with known hypothyroidism as opposed to women with a later diagnosis of hypothyroidism has not been evaluated and compared with other common endocrine diseases. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All pregnancies in Denmark, 1997-2008, resulting in live birth (n = 732 533), spontaneous abortion (n = 112 487) or stillbirth (n = 2937) were identified together with information on maternal hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and diabetes. Cox model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, reference: no hypo- or hyperthyroidism or diabetes (n = 824 310). We identified 4951 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed before the pregnancy (group 1) and 2464 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (group 2). In group 1, 825 pregnancies (16·7%) resulted in spontaneous abortion which was more frequent than in nonexposed (13·2%), (aHR 1·19 (95%CI 1·12-1·27)), and of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (17·2%, P = 0·5) and diabetes (17·5%, P = 0·2) diagnosed before the pregnancy. In group 2, the frequency was 12·2% (aHR 0·92 (0·84-1·02)). In group 2, 16 pregnancies (0·65%) resulted in stillbirth which was more frequent than in nonexposed (0·36%), (aHR 1·81 (1·11-2·97)), of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (0·82%, P = 0·5) and less frequent than in diabetes (2·9%, P < 0·001) diagnosed after the pregnancy. In group 1, the frequency was 0·40% (aHR 1·11 (0·68-1·82)). Hypothyroidism increased the risk of both early and late pregnancy loss as did hyperthyroidism and in particular diabetes. We hypothesize that undetected or insufficiently treated maternal disease in the pregnancy may be of causal importance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Population growth, urban expansion, and private forestry in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    Private forestlands in the United States face increasing pressures from growing populations, resulting in greater numbers of people living in closer proximity to forests. What often is called the "wildland/urban interface" is characterized by expansion of residential and other developed land uses onto forested landscapes in a manner that threatens forestlands...

  17. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.

  18. A study of the combined effects of physical activity and air pollution on mortality in elderly urban residents: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. A total of 52,061 subjects (50-65 years of age) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen, reported data on physical activity in 1993-1997 and were followed until 2010. High exposure to air pollution was defined as the upper 25th percentile of modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels at residential addresses. We associated participation in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking with total and cause-specific mortality by Cox regression, and introduced NO2 as an interaction term. In total, 5,534 subjects died: 2,864 from cancer, 1,285 from cardiovascular disease, 354 from respiratory disease, and 122 from diabetes. Significant inverse associations of participation in sports, cycling, and gardening with total, cardiovascular, and diabetes mortality were not modified by NO2. Reductions in respiratory mortality associated with cycling and gardening were more pronounced among participants with moderate/low NO2 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.72 and 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.73, respectively] than with high NO2 exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations, indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel findings require replication in other study populations.

  19. [The rural population. The great change toward urbanization].

    PubMed

    Lopez, M P

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the population dynamics of rural areas in Mexico, defined as those with fewer than 2500 inhabitants. Mexico in recent decades has undergone a process of rapid urban industrial development. Participation in the primary sector of the economy declined steadily from 15.6% in 1960 to 11.2% in 1970, 8.2% in 1980, and 8.5% in 1987. Average annual growth rates of the total and economically active population between 1950 and 1980 exceeded 3%, compared to just 1.4% for the rural population and 0.6% for the active population in agriculture. The slower growth of rural and agricultural sectors resulted from urban migration and the weak employment generation capacity of the agricultural sector. The proportion of the economically active population in agriculture declined from 58.3% in 1950 to 29.2% in 1980. Some 70% of the population lived in rural areas around 1900, but accelerating urbanization beginning in the 1940s led to declines from 65% in 1940 to 32% by 1985. The average rural woman had 8.2 births in 1966-70, while urban women had 6.3. The slower rural fertility decline and the migration to cities primarily of young adults of working age have led to a larger proportion of the population in the 0-14 age group in rural areas. In 1985, slightly over 23 million Mexicans were estimated to live in rural areas. In 1987, only 10.7% of rural households had potable water, electric light, and sewage services, compared to 78.9% in medium sized cities and 95.3% in metropolitan areas.

  20. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) into Danish populations of sea beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcangeli).

    PubMed

    Andersen, N S; Siegismund, H R; Meyer, V; Jørgensen, R B

    2005-04-01

    Gene flow from sugar beets to sea beets occurs in the seed propagation areas in southern Europe. Some seed propagation also takes place in Denmark, but here the crop-wild gene flow has not been investigated. Hence, we studied gene flow to sea beet populations from sugar beet lines used in Danish seed propagation areas. A set of 12 Danish, two Swedish, one French, one Italian, one Dutch, and one Irish populations of sea beets, and four lines of sugar beet were analysed. To evaluate the genetic variation and gene flow, eight microsatellite loci were screened. This analysis revealed hybridization with cultivated beet in one of the sea beet populations from the centre of the Danish seed propagation area. Triploid hybrids found in this population were verified with flow cytometry. Possible hybrids or introgressed plants were also found in the French and Italian populations. However, individual assignment test using a Bayesian method provided 100% assignment success of diploid individuals into their correct subspecies of origin, and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MC MC) approach revealed clear distinction of individuals into groups according to their subspecies of origin, with a zero level of genetic admixture among subspecies. This underlines that introgression beyond the first hybridization is not extensive. The overall pattern of genetic distance and structure showed that Danish and Swedish sea beet populations were closely related to each other, and they are both more closely related to the population from Ireland than to the populations from France, the Netherlands, and Italy.

  1. Going public: accessing urban data and producing population estimates using the urban FIA database

    Treesearch

    Chris Edgar; Mark. Hatfield

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we describe the urban forest inventory database (U-FIADB) and demonstrate how to use the database to produce population estimates. Examples from the recently completed City of Austin inventory will be used to demonstrate the capabilities of the database. We will identify several features of U-FIADB that are different from the FIA database (FIADB)...

  2. Epigenetic variation between urban and rural populations of Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    McNew, Sabrina M; Beck, Daniel; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Knutie, Sarah A; Koop, Jennifer A H; Clayton, Dale H; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-08-24

    The molecular basis of evolutionary change is assumed to be genetic variation. However, growing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may also be involved in rapid adaptation to new environments. An important first step in evaluating this hypothesis is to test for the presence of epigenetic variation between natural populations living under different environmental conditions. In the current study we explored variation between populations of Darwin's finches, which comprise one of the best-studied examples of adaptive radiation. We tested for morphological, genetic, and epigenetic differences between adjacent "urban" and "rural" populations of each of two species of ground finches, Geospiza fortis and G. fuliginosa, on Santa Cruz Island in the Galápagos. Using data collected from more than 1000 birds, we found significant morphological differences between populations of G. fortis, but not G. fuliginosa. We did not find large size copy number variation (CNV) genetic differences between populations of either species. However, other genetic variants were not investigated. In contrast, we did find dramatic epigenetic differences between the urban and rural populations of both species, based on DNA methylation analysis. We explored genomic features and gene associations of the differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR), as well as their possible functional significance. In summary, our study documents local population epigenetic variation within each of two species of Darwin's finches.

  3. Living Near to Attractive Nature? A Well-Being Indicator for Ranking Dutch, Danish, and German Functional Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Daams, Michiel N; Veneri, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    While nature is widely acknowledged to contribute to people's well-being, nature based well-being indicators at city-level appear to be underprovided. This study aims at filling this gap by introducing a novel indicator based on the proximity of city-residents to nature that is of high-amenity. High-amenity nature is operationalized by combining unique systematic data on people's perceptions of what are the locations of attractive natural areas with data on natural land cover. The proposed indicator departs from the usual assumption of equal well-being from any nature, as it approximates the 'actual' subjective quality of nature near people's homes in a spatially explicit way. Such indicator is used to rank 148 'cities' in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany. International comparability of the indicator is enhanced by the use of a definition of cities as functional urban areas (FUAs), which are consistently identified across countries. Results demonstrate that the average 'nearness' of FUA populations to high amenity nature varies widely across the observed FUAs. A key finding, that complements insights from existing city-level indicators, is that while populations of FUAs with higher population densities may live relatively far from nature in general, they also live, on average, closer to high-amenity nature than inhabitants of lower density FUAs. Our results may stimulate policy-debates on how to combine urban agglomeration with access to natural amenities in order to account for people's wellbeing.

  4. Colonization and persistence of urban ant populations as revealed by joint estimation of kinship and population genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Uchida, Kei; Takami, Yasuoki

    2013-01-01

    The decrease in biodiversity due to increasing urbanization has been well documented, but the processes of colonization and maintenance of wildlife populations in urban areas remain poorly understood. We address this issue using 462 individuals from 10 urban populations of the ant Formica japonica in Kobe City, Japan. We sampled workers regardless of colony identity, genotyped them using 6 microsatellite loci, and estimated allele frequencies and genotypes of reproductive individuals, together with other population genetic parameters, by estimating kinship structure using a likelihood method. Estimated genetic diversity and effective size of populations were not associated with environmental parameters, suggesting that populations are unaffected by urbanization. However, effective population sizes were small, and frequent population bottlenecks were detected. These results suggest that urban F. japonica populations are unstable, and the possibility of frequent extinctions and recolonizations in urban habitats. Populations were moderately differentiated without isolation by distance, suggesting a strong dispersal ability that enables colonization of urban habitats. Dispersal was male biased. Collectively, F. japonica was regarded as an urban adapter, which can colonize urban habitats by virtue of its preference for open ground and high dispersal ability but can persist in urban populations for only a short time, showing a tendency as a temporary urban inhabitant.

  5. Methamphetamine use in urban gay and bisexual populations.

    PubMed

    Shoptaw, Steven

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that the use of methamphetamine is 5- to 10-times more common in urban gay and bisexual men than in the general US population. Given its effects in stimulating energy, confidence, and libido, as well as its relative inexpensiveness, the drug can efficiently address serious problems in functioning among HIV-infected men, who may suffer significant symptoms of depression or fatigue associated with chronic illness and HIV-related drug treatments. Long-term methamphetamine use is associated with physical, psychologic, and social adverse effects. Increased use of the drug associates with more frequent sexual risk behaviors and increased risks for HIV transmission. Behavioral therapies, notably the approach of contingency management, are being investigated for reducing methamphetamine use and risk behaviors in the urban gay population.

  6. Study protocol: a cross-sectional survey of seasonal affective disorder in Danish populations with and without severe visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    People with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) experience recurrent seasonal fluctuations in energy, mood and appetite. Retinal light exposure is suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of SAD. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairments or blindness and to compare the results to a control group without visual impairments. Moreover, the authors wish to investigate whether SAD is correlated to the degree of impairment or to the diagnosis. 2781 persons with visual impairments ranging from total blindness to Snellen visual acuity 6/60 receive information letter and questionnaire by post. Completed questionnaires can be returned by post, email or telephone. For each respondent, all eye-related diagnoses will be obtained from national registries. Normally sighted and demographically matched control respondents will be contacted in a similar manner the subsequent winter season. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire rates seasonal variation within the six items: sleep, appetite, social activity, mood, energy and body weight. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire yields a Global Seasonal Score and a prevalence of SAD. Outcomes from the two groups will be compared. Moreover, outcomes from subgroups of the visually impaired population will be compared. The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Results will be published in a relevant scientific journal and be communicated to respondents and relevant institutions through cooperation with the Danish Association of the Blind.

  7. Study protocol: a cross-sectional survey of seasonal affective disorder in Danish populations with and without severe visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Introduction People with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) experience recurrent seasonal fluctuations in energy, mood and appetite. Retinal light exposure is suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of SAD. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairments or blindness and to compare the results to a control group without visual impairments. Moreover, the authors wish to investigate whether SAD is correlated to the degree of impairment or to the diagnosis. Methods and analysis 2781 persons with visual impairments ranging from total blindness to Snellen visual acuity 6/60 receive information letter and questionnaire by post. Completed questionnaires can be returned by post, email or telephone. For each respondent, all eye-related diagnoses will be obtained from national registries. Normally sighted and demographically matched control respondents will be contacted in a similar manner the subsequent winter season. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire rates seasonal variation within the six items: sleep, appetite, social activity, mood, energy and body weight. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire yields a Global Seasonal Score and a prevalence of SAD. Outcomes from the two groups will be compared. Moreover, outcomes from subgroups of the visually impaired population will be compared. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Results will be published in a relevant scientific journal and be communicated to respondents and relevant institutions through cooperation with the Danish Association of the Blind. PMID:22422921

  8. Survival after colorectal cancer in patients with Crohn's disease: A nationwide population-based Danish follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mette; Mose, Hanne; Gislum, Mette; Skriver, Mette V; Jepsen, Peter; Nørgård, Bente; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2007-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known about the impact of CD on CRC prognosis. Based on nationwide population-based registries, we compared survival among CRC patients with CD and CRC patients without CD. We used the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Hospital Discharge Registry to identify all patients diagnosed with CRC, with and without CD, in Denmark between 1977 and 1999. We ascertained the stage distribution at the time of CRC diagnosis and 1- and 5-yr survival both for patients with Crohn-associated CRC and patients with non-Crohn CRC. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for gender, age, calendar year, and stage. We identified 100 CRC patients with CD and 71,438 CRC patients without CD. At the time of diagnosis, patients with CD were younger, but stage distributions were similar in the two groups. The overall HR for CRC with CD compared to CRC without CD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.36-2.43) after 1 yr of follow-up, and 1.57 (95% CI 1.24-1.99) after 5 yr of follow-up. Subanalyses showed that the effect of CD on CRC survival was more pronounced in the youngest patients (0-59 yr), in men, and in patients whose tumors had regional spread. We found that CD worsens the prognosis of CRC, particularly CRC with regional spread.

  9. Mental illness in metropolitan, urban and rural Georgia populations.

    PubMed

    Reeves, William C; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Nater, Urs M

    2013-04-30

    Mental illness represents an important public health problem. Local-level data concerning mental illness in different populations (e.g., socio-demographics and residence--metropolitan/urban/rural) provides the evidence-base for public health authorities to plan, implement and evaluate control programs. This paper describes prevalence and covariates of psychiatric conditions in Georgia populations in three defined geographic areas. Data came from the Georgia population-based random-digit-dialing study investigating unwellness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia populations of three defined geographic areas (metropolitan, urban, and rural). Respondents were screened for symptoms of fatigue, sleep, cognition, and pain at household screening interviews, and a randomly selected sample completed detailed individual phone interviews. Based on the detailed phone interviews, we conducted one-day clinical evaluations of 292 detailed interview participants classified as unwell with a probable CFS (i.e. CFS-like; a functional somatic syndrome), 268 classified as other unwell, and 223 well (matched to CFS-like). Clinical evaluation included psychiatric classification by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). To derive prevalence estimates we used sample weighting to account for the complexity of the multistage sampling design. We used 2- and 3-way table analyses to examine socio-demographic and urbanicity specific associations and multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common psychiatric conditions. Nineteen percent of participants suffered a current anxiety disorder, 18% a mood disorder and 10% had two or more conditions. There was a significant linear trend in occurrence of anxiety or mood disorders from well to CFS-like. The most common anxiety disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (5.8%). Logistic regression showed that

  10. Utilization of psychotropic drugs prescribed to persons with and without HIV infection: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L D; Obel, D; Kronborg, G; Larsen, C S; Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Obel, N

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to estimate the utilization of psychotropic drugs in HIV-infected individuals compared with that in the background population. Using data obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish National Prescription Registry, we analysed aggregated data on redeemed prescription of psychotropic drugs during 1995-2009. We primarily focused our analyses on HIV-infected individuals with no history of injecting drug use (IDU) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Drug utilization was expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 person-days (DDD/1000PD). The utilization rate ratio (URR) was calculated as utilization in the HIV-infected cohort compared with that in the comparison cohort. We estimated longitudinal trends in utilization and potential associations with HIV and exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially efavirenz. During 1995-2009, 54.5% of the HIV-infected cohort (3615 non-IDU/non-HCV-infected HIV-infected individuals) and 29.2% of the comparison cohort (32 535 individuals) had at least one prescription of a psychotropic drug. HIV infection was associated with a URR of 1.13 for antipsychotics, 1.76 for anxiolytics, 4.42 for hypnotics and sedatives, and 2.28 for antidepressants. Antidepressants were confined primarily to men who have sex with men (MSM). Older age, more recent calendar time, and increased time after HIV diagnosis were associated with increased drug utilization. However, no association with exposure to HAART or efavirenz was found. HIV-infected individuals had a higher utilization of psychotropic drugs than the background population, which was not confined to individuals with a history of IDU or HCV infection. This emphasizes the need to focus on diagnosis of, and appropriate psychopharmacological interventions for, mental disorders in this population. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  11. Population admixture and high larval viability among urban toads

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Kazuko; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    In terms of evolutionary biology, a population admixture of more than two distinct lineages may lead to strengthened genetic variation through hybridization. However, a population admixture arising from artificial secondary contact poses significant problems in conservation biology. In urban Tokyo, a population admixture has emerged from two lineages of Japanese common toad: native Bufo japonicus formosus and nonnative B. japonicus japonicus, of which the latter was introduced in the early 20th century. To evaluate the degree of genetic disturbance in the admixed population of these two subspecies, we analyzed genotypes of toads distributed within and outside Tokyo by assessing mtDNA and seven microsatellite loci. We found that the introduced B. japonicus japonicus genotype dominates six local populations in the Tokyo admixture zone and was clearly derived from past introgressive hybridization between the two subspecies. These observations were supported by morphological assessments. Furthermore, the average larval survival rate in Tokyo was significantly higher than that outside Tokyo, suggesting that the temporary contribution of introduced toads occurred through introgression. The fitness of toads in urban Tokyo may thus be increasing with the assistance of nonnative individuals. PMID:23789077

  12. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  13. Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  14. The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kabaria, Caroline W; Gilbert, Marius; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine

    2017-01-26

    Although malaria has been traditionally regarded as less of a problem in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas, the risk of malaria infection continues to exist in densely populated, urban areas of Africa. Despite the recognition that urbanization influences the epidemiology of malaria, there is little consensus on urbanization relevant for malaria parasite mapping. Previous studies examining the relationship between urbanization and malaria transmission have used products defining urbanization at global/continental scales developed in the early 2000s, that overestimate actual urban extents while the population estimates are over 15 years old and estimated at administrative unit level. This study sought to discriminate an urbanization definition that is most relevant for malaria parasite mapping using individual level malaria infection data obtained from nationally representative household-based surveys. Boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to determine the effect of urbanization on malaria transmission and if this effect varied with urbanization definition. In addition, the most recent high resolution population distribution data was used to determine whether population density had significant effect on malaria parasite prevalence and if so, could population density replace urban classifications in modelling malaria transmission patterns. The risk of malaria infection was shown to decline from rural areas through peri-urban settlements to urban central areas. Population density was found to be an important predictor of malaria risk. The final boosted regression trees (BRT) model with urbanization and population density gave the best model fit (Tukey test p value <0.05) compared to the models with urbanization only. Given the challenges in uniformly classifying urban areas across different countries, population density provides a reliable metric to adjust for the patterns of malaria risk in densely populated urban areas. Future malaria risk

  15. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites, phenols and parabens in rural and urban Danish mother-child pairs.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Jeanette Kolstrup Søgaard; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Hansen, Pernille Winton; Jensen, Janne Fangel; Nielsen, Ole; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-11-01

    Some phthalates, parabens and phenols have shown adverse endocrine disrupting effects in animal studies and are also suspected to be involved in human reproductive problems. However, knowledge about exposure sources and biomonitoring data in different subsets of populations are still scarce. Thus, in this study first morning urine samples were collected from 6 to 11 years Danish children and their mothers. The content of seven parabens, nine phenols and metabolites of eight different phthalates were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Two parabens, six phenols and metabolites from six phthalate diesters were measurable in more than 50%, 75% and 90% of the participants, respectively. Thus the children and their mothers were generally exposed simultaneously to a range of phthalates, phenols and parabens. In general, the levels were low but for several of the compounds extreme creatinine adjusted concentrations 100-500-fold higher than the median level were seen in some participants. Children were significantly higher exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and some of the phthalates (DiBP, DnBP, BBzP, DEHP and DiNP) than their mothers, whereas mothers were higher exposed to compounds related to cosmetics and personal care products such as parabens (MeP, EtP and n-PrP), benzophenone-3, triclosan and diethyl phthalate. However, a very high correlation between mothers and their children was observed for all chemicals. A high individual exposure to one chemical was often associated with a high exposure to other of the chemicals and the possibility of combination effects of multiple simultaneous exposures cannot be excluded. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Elder abuse and neglect in an urban chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A; Gorbien, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in an urban Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed in a major urban medical center in NanJing, China. A total of 412 participants completed the survey and 145 (35%) participants screened positive for elder abuse and neglect. The mean age of the victims was 69 years and 59% were male. Caregiver neglect was the most common form of abuse, followed by financial exploitation, psychological abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and abandonment. Thirty-six percent of the victims suffered multiple forms of abuse and neglect. In the logistical regression analyses of the data, female gender, lower education and lower income were demographic risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect. A better understanding of these and additional risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect in older Chinese people is needed.

  17. Mammographic density and urbanization: a population-based screening study.

    PubMed

    Viel, Jean-François; Rymzhanova, Raouchan

    2012-03-01

    The high incidence of female breast cancer that has been consistently reported in urban areas could be mediated by breast density, which is considered to reflect the cumulative exposure of breast tissues to hormones. The aim of this study was to assess how mammographic density varies by the degree of urbanization. The population consisted of 55,597 cancer-free women, aged 50-59 years, who participated in a French breast cancer screening programme (Franche-Comté region) between 2005 and 2009. Ordered logistic regression was run with mammographic density as the outcome, and degree of urbanization as the independent variable, while adjusting for some known confounding factors. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data. A significant positive linear trend with urbanization was found in a univariate approach (P trend <10(-3)), and after adjusting for risk factors (P trend = 10(-3)). A negative and highly significant association with mammographic density was highlighted both for age at the time of mammography (odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.43, per 10 years), and for low socioeconomic status (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.75). The OR for hormone replacement therapy use was 1.51 (95% CI 1.43-1.58). Knowledge of this urbanization gradient in density (whatever its mechanism) may help to identify women who may require full-field digital mammography for the early detection of breast cancer, and could assist primary care providers in recommending the best screening strategy in a risk factor-based approach.

  18. An Equilibrium Model of Urban Population and the Distribution of Income. Discussion Paper 355-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John; Danziger, Sheldon

    The relationship between the level of income and the population of an urban area is a familiar concern in urban economics. Existing models of the relationship between income levels and urban population are considered to assume that there is a homogeneous labor force and, hence, a world in which there is no inequality in the size distribution of…

  19. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and associated factors in an otherwise healthy population: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Didriksen, Maria; Rigas, Andreas S; Allen, Richard P; Burchell, Brendan J; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Nielsen, Maria H; Jennum, Poul; Werge, Thomas; Erikstrup, Christian; Pedersen, Ole B; Bruun, Mie T; Burgdorf, Kristoffer S; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs. RLS often occurs as a comorbid condition. Besides an increased risk of iron deficiency, blood donors are considered to be generally healthy. Blood donors are therefore an ideal population for studying factors associated with RLS occurrence, herein the role of iron. It is suggested that RLS is linked to sex, age, low socioeconomic status, unhealthy lifestyle, and iron deficiency. The objective of this study is therefore to estimate the RLS prevalence and identify associated biological, sociodemographic, economic, and lifestyle factors in a population of blood donors. A total of 13,448 blood donors enrolled in the Danish Blood Donor Study from May 2015 to May 2016. RLS cases were identified using the validated Cambridge-Hopkins RLS-questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the relationship between RLS and data on socially related factors collected using questionnaires and population registers. In this study, 7.2% women and 4.5% men were classified with RLS. RLS was associated with: female sex, high age, smoking, frequent alcohol consumption, and low education. RLS-related symptoms were associated with obesity, parity and donation intensity three years prior to inclusion among women. RLS was not related to: reduced plasma ferritin, employment status, and income. RLS is a frequent disorder in otherwise healthy individuals. The associations discovered in this study can be utilized in preventing or reducing RLS symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Initiation and persistence with dual antiplatelet therapy after acute myocardial infarction: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Anders; Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Diness, Thomas Goldin; Emneus, Martha; Hasvold, Pål; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study investigated dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) patterns over time and patient characteristics associated with the various treatments in a myocardial infarction (MI) population. Design A registry-based observational cohort study was performed using antecedent data. Setting This study linked morbidity, mortality and medication data from Danish national registries. Participants All 28 449 patients admitted to a Danish hospital with a first-time MI and alive at discharge from 2009 through 2012 were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was initiation of DAPT and secondary outcomes comprised persistence in DAPT treatment and switches between DAPT treatments. Results The overall proportion of patients prescribed DAPT increased from 68% (CL 95% 67–69%) to 73% (CL 95% 72–74%) from 2009 to 2012. For treatment of patients with and without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the corresponding numbers were from 87% (CL 95% 86–88%) to 91% (CL 95% 90–92%) and from 49% (CL 95% 47–50%) to 52% (CL 95% 51–54%), respectively. Non-PCI patients had a higher cardiovascular risk compared with PCI patients. Among PCI patients, age>75 years, atrial fibrillation, diabetes and peripheral arterial disease were associated with a higher risk of treatment breaks for DAPT. Among patients without PCI, ticagrelor treatment was associated with an increased risk of treatment breaks during the first 12 months compared with clopidogrel treatment. Conclusions From 2009 to 2012, there was an increase in the proportion of patients with MI receiving DAPT, and a longer duration of DAPT. Still, a large proportion of patients without PCI are discharged either without DAPT or with a short DAPT duration. These findings may indicate the need for more careful attention to DAPT for patients with MI not undergoing PCI in Denmark. PMID:27173812

  1. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    eastern coastline of the Roskilde fjord on the Danish island Zealand. The tower is surrounded by the fjord, by agricultural area, forests and, in the South by the urban area of the City of Roskilde. The City of Roskilde operates a waste incinerator and a waste water treatment plant, which drains treated waste water into the fjord. The level of the measured flux values was generally relatively low. Based on the clear definition of the lag time between N2O concentrations and the vertical wind speed, fluxes were measureable over larger periods. The fluxes showed clear directional relationships indicating their large spatial and temporal variability in the landscape. Footprint calculations were performed to attribute source areas to the measured fluxes ...(Kormann and Meixner, 2001; Neftel et al., 2008). The footprint of the flux measurement included areas between 200 m and several kilometres distance from the tower. A preliminary approach was developed to generate monthly maps of N2O fluxes around the tower. Here we present the results from the first seven months of flux measurements. Based on these results we discuss the potential and the limitations of tall tower eddy covariance measurements to estimate maps of N2O fluxes and the integral value of the landscape N2O flux. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the EU-FP7 InGOS project. We thank Ebba Dellwik (Technical University of Denmark) for providing sonic anemometer data. References: Kormann, R. and Meixner, F.X., 2001. An Analytical Footprint Model For Non-Neutral Stratification. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 99(2): 207-224. Neftel, A., Spirig, C. and Ammann, C., 2008. Application and test of a simple tool for operational footprint evaluations. Environmental Pollution, 152(3): 644-652.

  2. Thimerosal and the occurrence of autism: negative ecological evidence from Danish population-based data.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Kreesten M; Lauritsen, Marlene B; Pedersen, Carsten B; Thorsen, Poul; Plesner, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Peter H; Mortensen, Preben B

    2003-09-01

    It has been suggested that thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative in vaccines, is a risk factor for the development of autism. We examined whether discontinuing the use of thimerosal-containing vaccines in Denmark led to a decrease in the incidence of autism. Analysis of data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register recording all psychiatric admissions since 1971, and all outpatient contacts in psychiatric departments in Denmark since 1995. All children between 2 and 10 years old who were diagnosed with autism during the period from 1971-2000. Annual and age-specific incidence for first day of first recorded admission with a diagnosis of autism in children between 2 and 10 years old. A total of 956 children with a male-to-female ratio of 3.5:1 had been diagnosed with autism during the period from 1971-2000. There was no trend toward an increase in the incidence of autism during that period when thimerosal was used in Denmark, up through 1990. From 1991 until 2000 the incidence increased and continued to rise after the removal of thimerosal from vaccines, including increases among children born after the discontinuation of thimerosal. The discontinuation of thimerosal-containing vaccines in Denmark in 1992 was followed by an increase in the incidence of autism. Our ecological data do not support a correlation between thimerosal-containing vaccines and the incidence of autism.

  3. Population dynamics and epidemiology of Toxocara canis in Danish red foxes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Isam S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2006-12-01

    Toxocara canis, an intestinal helminth of canids with zoonotic potential, was found in 618 (59%) of 1,040 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) collected from all Danish provinces (1997-2002). The prevalence and average worm burden were significantly higher for cubs than older foxes and in males than in females. A multiple logistic regression demonstrated that the prevalence was influenced significantly by sex and age of foxes in addition to location, season, and year of collection. The highest prevalence and worm burden were found in rural areas. The size and number of female worms was positively correlated to the fecal egg excretion. The length and fecundity of the worms was significantly higher in male foxes, and a general intensity dependence was suggested from a negative correlation between worm numbers and worm lengths. As compared to intestinal recovery of worms, somatic larvae were recovered from 20% of muscle samples and fecal eggs in 41% of fecal samples. The consistent finding of T. canis larvae in somatic tissues of naturally infected foxes is new.

  4. Common breast cancer risk alleles and risk assessment: a study on 35 441 individuals from the Danish general population.

    PubMed

    Näslund-Koch, C; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that common breast cancer risk alleles are associated with incidences of breast cancer and other cancers in the general population, and identify low risk women among those invited for screening mammography. About 35 441 individuals from the Danish general population were followed in Danish health registries for up to 21 years after blood sampling. After genotyping 72 breast cancer risk loci, each with 0–2 alleles, the sum for each individual was calculated. We used the simple allele sum instead of the conventional polygenic risk score, as it is likely more sensitive in detecting associations with risks of other endpoints than breast cancer. Breast cancer incidence in the 19 010 women was increased across allele sum quintiles (log-rank trend test; P = 1×10 − 12), but not incidence of other cancers (P = 0.41). Age- and study-adjusted hazard ratio for the fifth versus the first allele sum quintile was 1.82 (95% confidence interval; 1.53–2.18). Corresponding hazard ratios per allele were 1.04 (1.03–1.05) and 1.05 (1.02–1.08) for breast cancer incidence and mortality, similar across risk factors. In 50-year-old women, the starting age for screening mammography in Denmark, the average 5-year breast cancer risk was 1.5%, overall and 1.1%, 1.4%, 1.6%, 1.7%, 2.1%, for the first through fifth quintile, respectively. Based on age, nulliparity, familial history, and allele sum, 25% of women aged 50–69 years, and 94% of women aged 40–49 years, had absolute 5-year breast cancer risks ≤ 1.5%. Using polygenic risk score led to similar results. Common breast cancer risk alleles are associated with incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the general population, but not with other cancers. After including breast cancer allele sum in risk assessment, 25% of women currently being offered screening mammography had an absolute 5-year risk below the cutoff of average risk for a 50-year-old woman.

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among an Urban Population in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kaduka, Lydia U.; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K.; Bukania, Zipporah N.; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P < 0.001). The most frequently observed features were raised blood pressure, a higher waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol (men: 96.2, 80.8, and 80%; women: 89.8, 97.2, and 96.3%, respectively), whereas raised fasting glucose and TAGs were observed less frequently (men: 26.9 and 63.3%; women: 26.9 and 30.6%, respectively). The main factors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome were increasing age, socioeconomic status, and education. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this urban population, especially among women, but the incidence of individual factors suggests that poor glycemic control is not the major contributor. Longitudinal studies are required to establish true causes of metabolic syndrome in Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs. PMID:22374643

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P < 0.001). The most frequently observed features were raised blood pressure, a higher waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol (men: 96.2, 80.8, and 80%; women: 89.8, 97.2, and 96.3%, respectively), whereas raised fasting glucose and TAGs were observed less frequently (men: 26.9 and 63.3%; women: 26.9 and 30.6%, respectively). The main factors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome were increasing age, socioeconomic status, and education. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this urban population, especially among women, but the incidence of individual factors suggests that poor glycemic control is not the major contributor. Longitudinal studies are required to establish true causes of metabolic syndrome in Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  7. BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations and cancer risks: impact in the western Danish population.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Nilbert, Mef; Petersen, Janne; Ladelund, Steen; Thomassen, Mads; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Hansen, Thomas V O; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Borg, Åke; Therkildsen, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly contribute to hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer, but the phenotypic effect from different mutations is insufficiently recognized. We used a western Danish clinic-based cohort of 299 BRCA families to study the female cancer risk in mutation carriers and their untested first-degree relatives. Founder mutations were characterized and the risk of cancer was assessed in relation to the specific mutations. In BRCA1, the cumulative cancer risk at age 70 was 35 % for breast cancer and 29 % for ovarian cancer. In BRCA2, the cumulative risk was 44 % for breast cancer and 15 % for ovarian cancer. We identified 47 distinct BRCA1 mutations and 48 distinct mutations in BRCA2. Among these, 8 founder mutations [BRCA1 c.81-?_4986+?del, c.3319G>T (p.Glu1107*), c.3874delT and c.5213G>A (p.Gly1738Glu) and BRCA2 c.6373delA, c.7008-1G>A, c.7617+1G>A and c.8474delC] were found to account for 23 % of the BRCA1 mutations and for 32 % of the BRCA2 mutations. The BRCA1 mutation c.3319G>T was, compared to other BRCA1 mutations, associated with a higher risk for ovarian cancer. In conclusion, founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to up to one-third of the families in western Denmark and among these the BRCA1 c.3319G>T mutation is potentially linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

  8. Micronucleus frequency in Danish schoolchildren and their mothers from the DEMOCOPHES population.

    PubMed

    Mørck, Thit A; Loock, Kim Vande; Poulsen, Maria Bech; Siersma, Volkert D; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Hertel, Ole; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2016-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) frequency is a biomarker for early genetic effects which is often used in human biomonitoring studies. Increased frequency of micronuclei has been associated with high levels of traffic exposure. Further high MN frequency was found predictive for cancer development in several studies of adults. In the present study, the MN frequency in blood samples from the Danish participants of the European pilot project DEMOCOPHES was analysed and related to the area of residence, self-reported and calculated exposure to road traffic as well as to mercury in hair and blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and dioxin-like activity measured in the same participants. The MN frequency analysis was performed with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and included 100 children and 119 mothers. We found a significant correlation between mothers and children in the levels of micronuclei in 1000 binucleated T lymphocytes (‰MNBN) and in the proliferation index. Further the levels of ‰MNBN were significantly higher in mothers compared with their children. No significant associations were found for ‰MNBN for traffic related exposure in neither children nor their mothers. In children, a 2.5 times higher micronuclei in mononuclear T lymphocytes were found in children living within 50 m of a busy road, however, this was not found in mothers or in MNBN and the effect of exposure to road traffic on MN frequency needs further investigation. No significant associations were found between MN frequencies and the other biomarkers measured in the same participants.

  9. The effects of urbanization on population density, occupancy, and detection probability of wild felids.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jesse S; Logan, Kenneth A; Alldredge, Mat W; Bailey, Larissa L; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    Urbanization is a primary driver of landscape conversion, with far-reaching effects on landscape pattern and process, particularly related to the population characteristics of animals. Urbanization can alter animal movement and habitat quality, both of which can influence population abundance and persistence. We evaluated three important population characteristics (population density, site occupancy, and species detection probability) of a medium-sized and a large carnivore across varying levels of urbanization. Specifically, we studied bobcat and puma populations across wildland, exurban development, and wildland-urban interface (WUI) sampling grids to test hypotheses evaluating how urbanization affects wild felid populations and their prey. Exurban development appeared to have a greater impact on felid populations than did habitat adjacent to a major urban area (i.e., WUI); estimates of population density for both bobcats and pumas were lower in areas of exurban development compared to wildland areas, whereas population density was similar between WUI and wildland habitat. Bobcats and pumas were less likely to be detected in habitat as the amount of human disturbance associated with residential development increased at a site, which was potentially related to reduced habitat quality resulting from urbanization. However, occupancy of both felids was similar between grids in both study areas, indicating that this population metric was less sensitive than density. At the scale of the sampling grid, detection probability for bobcats in urbanized habitat was greater than in wildland areas, potentially due to restrictive movement corridors and funneling of animal movements in landscapes influenced by urbanization. Occupancy of important felid prey (cottontail rabbits and mule deer) was similar across levels of urbanization, although elk occupancy was lower in urbanized areas. Our study indicates that the conservation of medium- and large-sized felids associated with

  10. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    PubMed

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of population system, constant movements of the individuals between the groups as a respond to the signals of urboenvironment significant changes. The "urban" variant of the population system organization turns out to be opposite to that of the same species in the non-urban habitats. After formation of the urban types by the species and successful developing of the town, the urban population becomes separated from the maternal local population and begins to exist independently in the urban landscape. The variety of adaptation aberrations in ecology, behavior, and mode of life of urban birds is the population system stability function in the urban landscape and is not a results of individual selection. It is shown that the urbanization process of the species goes firstly on the population level being the system structure transformation developed by the species towards the most stable state in the town (city) territory. Only after the appearance of stable urban population, the urban individuals show the rapid growth of different changes in ecology, behavior, mode of life that was traditionally described by naturalists as species adaptation to the

  11. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST, and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and

  12. Population genomics of the Anthropocene: urbanization is negatively associated with genome-wide variation in white-footed mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason; Zolnik, Christine P; Harris, Stephen E

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization results in pervasive habitat fragmentation and reduces standing genetic variation through bottlenecks and drift. Loss of genomewide variation may ultimately reduce the evolutionary potential of animal populations experiencing rapidly changing conditions. In this study, we examined genomewide variation among 23 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations sampled along an urbanization gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Genomewide variation was estimated as a proxy for evolutionary potential using more than 10 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by ddRAD-Seq. We found that genomewide variation is inversely related to urbanization as measured by percent impervious surface cover, and to a lesser extent, human population density. We also report that urbanization results in enhanced genomewide differentiation between populations in cities. There was no pattern of isolation by distance among these populations, but an isolation by resistance model based on impervious surface significantly explained patterns of genetic differentiation. Isolation by environment modeling also indicated that urban populations deviate much more strongly from global allele frequencies than suburban or rural populations. This study is the first to examine loss of genomewide SNP variation along an urban-to-rural gradient and quantify urbanization as a driver of population genomic patterns.

  13. [Cities and oil. Historical and prospective aspects of the urban population of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Papail, J; Picquet, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a historical overview of urbanization in Venezuela. The impact of the oil economy on population change and spatial distribution is emphasized. A typology of cities based on socioeconomic function and on a demographic classification of urban centers is devised. Future trends in urbanization are also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. The Black Urban Population of the Pre-civil War South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Jane Riblett

    1976-01-01

    Examines the urbanization of blacks in the slave states from 1790 to 1860. Changes in the geographic distribution and demographic structure of the black urban population provide new evidence to evaluate the causes of the decline of urban blacks and reveal the likelihood of a disproportionate incidence of incomplete families for both slave and free…

  15. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

  16. Prevalence of risk factors for fractures and use of DXA scanning in Danish women. A regional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rubin, K H; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P; Bech, M; Gram, J; Brixen, K

    2011-05-01

    To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated with the use of DXA. To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40-90 years living in the region of Southern Denmark to receive a mailed questionnaire concerning risk factors for fractures. The respondents rate was 84% and 77% of the invited population were available for analysis. A total of 10.3% of the women without risk factors and only 36% of the women with three or more risk factors had a history of DXA. The likelihood of a history of DXA was higher with increasing FRAX(™) 10-year risk; i.e., 8.7% and 30.2% in patients with a 10-year fracture risk of 0-14.9% and 25-100%, respectively. In women with less than 10 km to nearest DXA facility, 20.2% had a history of DXA, while 11.5% of those with more than 40 km to the nearest scanner had a history of DXA. Logistic regression analysis showed that distance, fracture risk, oral glucocorticoids, low-energy fracture, conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis, low BMI, history of falls, age 65-79 years, spouse status, and income were significantly associated with having a history of DXA. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and a number of socio-economic factors are associated with the use of DXA.

  17. Reproductive history patterns and long-term mortality rates: a Danish, population-based record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Priscilla K; Reardon, David C; Calhoun, Byron C

    2013-08-01

    Inconsistent definitions and incomplete data have left society largely in the dark regarding mortality risks generally associated with pregnancy and with particular outcomes, immediately after resolution and over the long-term. Population-based record-linkage studies provide an accurate means for deriving maternal mortality rate data. In this Danish population-based study, records of women born between 1962 and 1993 (n = 1,001,266) were examined to identify associations between patterns of pregnancy resolution and mortality rates across 25 years. With statistical controls for number of pregnancies, birth year and age at last pregnancy, the combination of induced abortion(s) and natural loss(es) was associated with more than three times higher mortality rate than only birth(s). Moderate risks were identified with only induced abortion, only natural loss and having experienced all outcomes compared with only birth(s). Risk of death was more than six times greater among women who had never been pregnant compared with those who only had birth(s). Increased risks of death were 45%, 114% and 191% for 1, 2 and 3 abortions, respectively, compared with no abortions after controlling for other reproductive outcomes and last pregnancy age. Increased risks of death were equal to 44%, 86% and 150% for 1, 2 and 3 natural losses, respectively, compared with none after including statistical controls. Finally, decreased mortality risks were observed for women who had experienced two and three or more births compared with no births. This study offers a broad perspective on reproductive history and mortality rates, with the results indicating a need for further research on possible underlying mechanisms.

  18. Quantitative estimation of 21st-century urban greenspace changes in Chinese populous cities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Nie, Zhen; Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing

    2017-12-31

    Understanding the spatiotemporal changes of urban greenspace is a critical requirement for supporting urban planning and maintaining the function of urbanities. Although plenty of previous studies have attempted to estimate urban greenspace changes in China, there still remain shortcomings such as inconsistent surveying procedures and insufficient spatial resolution and city samples. Using cloud-free Landsat image composites in circa years 2000 and 2014, and Defense Meteorological Program Satellite Program's Operational Line-scan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights dataset, we quantitatively estimated the urban greenspace changes regarding both administrative divisions and urban core boundaries across 98 Chinese populous cities. Results showed that a consistent decline of urban greenspace coverage was identified at both old and new urban areas in the majority of analyzed cities (i.e., 81.63% of cities regarding the administrative boundaries, and 86.73% of cities regarding the urban core boundaries). Partial correlation analysis also revealed that total urban greenspace area shrank as a linear function of the core urban expansion (R(2)=0.28, P<0.001), and a significant correlation was confirmed between population change and urban greenspace change across those Chinese populous cities included in this study (R(2)=0.11, P<0.001). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Recurrence risk for offspring of twins discordant for oral cleft: a population-based cohort study of the Danish 1936-2004 cleft twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Grosen, Dorthe; Bille, Camilla; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Skytthe, Axel; Murray, Jeffrey C; Christensen, Kaare

    2010-10-01

    Our objective in this Danish population-based cohort study was to estimate the recurrence risk of isolated oral cleft (OC) for offspring of the unaffected co-twins of OC discordant twin pairs and to compare this risk to the recurrence risk in the offspring of the affected co-twin as well as to the risk in the background population. During 1936-2004, 207 twin pairs were ascertained, among whom at least one twin had an OC. The index persons were twins discordant for OC who had children (N=117), and their offspring (N=239). The participants were ascertained by linkage between The Danish Facial Cleft Database, The Danish Twin Registry and The Danish Civil Registration System. In the study OC recurrence risk for offspring of the affected and unaffected twin and relative risk were compared to the background prevalence. We found that among 110 children of the 54 OC affected twins, two (1.8%) children had OC corresponding to a significantly increased relative risk (RR=10; 95% CI 1.2-35) when compared to the frequency in the background population. Among the 129 children of the 63 unaffected twins, three (2.3%) children were affected, corresponding to a significantly increased relative risk (RR=13; 95% CI 2.6-36) when compared the background prevalence. We concluded that in OC discordant twin pairs similar increased recurrence risks were found among offspring of both OC affected and OC unaffected twins. This provides further evidence for a genetic component in cleft etiology and is useful information for genetic counseling of twin pairs discordant for clefting. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Recurrence Risk for Offspring of Twins Discordant for Oral Cleft - A Population-based Cohort Study of the Danish 1936–2004 Cleft Twin Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grosen, Dorthe; Bille, Camilla; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Skytthe, Axel; Murray, Jeffrey C; Christensen, Kaare

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this Danish population-based cohort study was to estimate the recurrence risk of isolated oral cleft (OC) for offspring of the unaffected co-twins of OC discordant twin pairs and to compare this risk to the recurrence risk in the offspring of the affected co-twin as well as to the risk in the background population. During 1936–2004, 207 twin pairs were ascertained, among whom at least one twin had an OC. The index persons were twins discordant for OC who had children (N=117), and their offspring (N=239). The participants were ascertained by linkage between The Danish Facial Cleft Database, The Danish Twin Registry and The Danish Civil Registration System. In the study OC recurrence risk for offspring of the affected and unaffected twin and relative risk were compared to the background prevalence. We found that among 110 children of the 54 OC affected twins, two (1.8%) children had OC corresponding to a significantly increased relative risk (RR = 10; 95% CI 1.2 to 35) when compared to the frequency in the background population. Among the 129 children of the 63 unaffected twins, three (2.3%) children were affected, corresponding to a significantly increased relative risk (RR = 13; 95% CI 2.6 to 36) when compared the background prevalence. We concluded that in OC discordant twin pairs similar increased recurrence risks were found among offspring of both OC affected and OC unaffected twins. This provides further evidence for a genetic component in cleft etiology and is useful information for genetic counseling of twin pairs discordant for clefting. PMID:20799319

  1. Regional and urban population size weights in Saudi Arabia, 1962-1974.

    PubMed

    Makki, M S

    1986-09-01

    "The aim of this paper is to study the development of population weights for regions and urban centres in Saudi Arabia through the period 1962-1974. In order to achieve this aim some non-parametric statistical rules have been used such as rank-size rule and the four-city index. The results show non-balanced distribution of population on both regional and urban scales. The concentration of people in urban centres is more pronounced than the concentration in regions. This is due to internal and external movement of population towards large-sized urban centres." excerpt

  2. Prevalence of Glaucoma in an Urban West African Population

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.; Barton, Keith; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Schiffman, Joyce; Bandi, Jagadeesh; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Kim, Hanna; Hay-Smith, Graham; Tielsch, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Multiple studies have found an increased prevalence, younger age at onset, and more severe course of glaucoma in people of African descent, but these findings are based on studies conducted outside Africa. Objective To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in an urban West African population of adults. Design and Setting A population-based, cross-sectional study of adults 40 years and older conducted from September 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, from 5 communities in Tema, Ghana. Participants Participants from randomly selected clusters underwent a screening examination that consisted of visual acuity, frequency doubling perimetry, applanation tonometry, and optic disc photography. Participants who failed any of these tests were referred for complete examination, including gonioscopy, standard automated perimetry, and stereoscopic optic disc photography. Results A total of 6806 eligible participants were identified, and 5603 (82.3%) were enrolled in the study. The field examination referred 1869 participants (33.3%) to the clinic examination, and 1538 (82.2%) came for complete examination. A total of 362 participants were identified as having glaucoma of any type and category. Primary open-angle glaucoma was the underlying diagnosis in 342 participants (94.5%). The prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma was 6.8% overall, increasing from 3.7% among those 40 to 49 years old to 14.6% among those 80 years and older, and was higher in men than in women in all age groups, with an overall male-female prevalence ratio of 1.5. Of the participants with glaucoma, 9 (2.5%) were blind using World Health Organization criteria, and only 12 (3.3%) were aware that they had glaucoma. Conclusions and Relevance The prevalence of glaucoma is higher in this urban West African population than in previous studies of people of East or South African and of non-African descent. Strategies to identify affected persons and effectively manage the burden of glaucoma are needed

  3. Urbanization and industrialization versus biological status of human populations.

    PubMed

    Siniarska, A; Antoszewska, A; Dziewiecki, C

    1992-01-01

    The paper concerns the biological status of the Polish population. A comparison was made for inhabitants of towns, villages, and areas under different levels of industrialization and environmental pollution. It has been found that urban populations as compared with rural ones were characterized by a smaller number of children within a family, higher natural abortion rate, and higher infant mortality (estimated during the first 24 hours of life). An analysis of birth rate in three groups of birth weight has shown that rural habitats were more suitable for prenatal development than urban habitats, as a higher proportion of newborns had optimum body weight at birth in villages. It has been observed that the biological status of fetus (estimated as the body weight at birth) depended on the socio-economic conditions (a relatively high birth rate with optimum body weight in the first half of the 1970s, and a low birth rate in the years of the social crisis in Poland in 1981-82). Moreover, it has been found that in agricultural areas relatively little polluted (the Suwałki region), birth rate and total mortality were high, respiratory traits reached highest values, and blood pressure was low as compared with values of these traits in other areas of Poland. The inhabitants of industrial centers (Puchaczów, Bukowno) were exposed to heavier environmental pollution than the rural population, and at Puchaczów they were characterized by a short stature and low body weight. The seaside region (Jastarnia) was over-crowded and also affected by the pollution of the Puck Bay. Both these factors could account for a high mortality and emigration rate. Inhabitants of the areas being industrialized (Bełchatów) were characterized by a low total mortality, below average for infants, poor development of the respiratory system, but a high psychomotor fitness. In the city of Lódź and in Strzemieszyce, environmental pollution was very high, which was combined with a very high total

  4. Left-handedness and neurotic disturbances in adult urban population.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sanja; Brkić, Milica; Belojević, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Controversial results on the relationship between the left-handedness and neurotic disturbances have been obtained in so far investigations. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between the left-handedness and neurotic disturbances in an adult urban population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 1,202 adult residents of the Stari Grad municipality in Belgrade, out of which 401 were males (33.4%) and 801 were females (66.6%). A questionnaire was used as an investigation instrument, with questions concerning age, gender, writing hand and neurotic disturbances: tension, agressiveness, anger, nervousness, weepiness and seclusion. Left-handedness was found in 60 subjects (5%) and it was statistically more frequent in males (7.7%) compared to females (3.6%) (p = 0.003). A decreasing trend of proportion of left-handed males was found in relation to aging. In the age group 18 to 39 years, agressiveness, as a specific neurotic disturbance, was significantly more frequent in left-handed males in comparison to right-handers (p = 0.035). In the age group 40 to 59 years, neurotic disturbances were more common among left-handed males compared to right-handers (p = 0.030).There were no significant diferences in the proportion of neurotic disturbances between the left-handed and the right-handed females. From a public health point of view, left-handed men may be regarded as a relatively vulnerable population category concerning mental health.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  6. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  7. Secular trends in acute myocardial infarction in relation to physical activity in the general Danish population.

    PubMed

    Sjøl, A; Thomsen, K K; Schroll, M; Andersen, L B

    2003-08-01

    Secular trends in AMI rates were analyzed in relation to physical activity levels. The population attributable risk of physical inactivity was calculated. Participants were randomly selected subjects from a suburb of Copenhagen, Denmark, screened during the years 1964-1991. Occupational physical activity and in leisure time were assessed 1964, 1974, 1976, 1982, 1987 and 1991 by self-administered questionnaire along with smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Blood pressure, weight, height and serum lipids were measured according to WHO-standards. Mortality data were obtained from death certificates, from hospital records or autopsies. Acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) 1964-1994 were included. 13.925 men and women aged 30, 40, 50 and 60 years, were drawn as random samples from a background population of 300.000 inhabitants. A cohort born in 1914 was examined in 1964 and 1974, a cohort born in 1936, was examined in 1976 and 1987; Monica (Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular diseases) I cohort were examined in 1982 and 1987; MONICA II in 1986, and MONICA III in 1991. Mean physical activity level at leisure adjusted for age and sex increased over time (P < 0001). 25% of the men were sedentary, and more women reported a sedentary lifestyle than men. The overall trend was from 1964 to 1992 a decline in physical activity at work (P < 0001) in both gender and all age groups. The difference in AMI incidence rates between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) levels increased over time. No change was found in AMI rates comparing sedentary in different time periods. A remarkable decrease over time in the AMI incidence rate was found in physically active during leisure time. Population attributable risk (PAR) exceeded 40% in both genders in the late 1980s. In conclusion the difference in AMI rates between LTPA subgroups has increased over time. The low AMI rates observed among the most physically active reveal a substantial potential for the prevention of AMI

  8. Advancing Community–Based Research with Urban American Indian Populations: Multidisciplinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, William E.; Wendt, Dennis C.; Saftner, Melissa A.; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. has witnessed significant growth among urban AI populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations. PMID:24659391

  9. Advancing community-based research with urban American Indian populations: multidisciplinary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, William E; Wendt, Dennis C; Saftner, Melissa A; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    The US has witnessed significant growth among urban American Indian (AI) populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations.

  10. Validating the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2) in two Danish samples: a comparison between female eating disorder patients and females from the general population.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2009-11-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory, Version 2 (EDI-2) is a questionnaire used clinically and in research all over the world. EDI-2 is cross-culturally valid, yet normative values may depend on culture. Norms and reliability of the Danish version have to date been lacking, and will be presented in this article, comparing patients (N = 575) and controls (N = 881). Also, internal reliability of scales is tested for both groups. Differences between norms of the Danish and the North American version of EDI were small but significant for all scales except asceticism (eating disorder patients) and ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust and maturity fears (normal controls). For both groups the internal consistency was >0.70 for all subscales except asceticism. Although differences across the eating disorder diagnostic groups were dubious, the EDI-2 is useful to screen for eating problems in the general population as well as to rate progress and outcome among eating disorder patients.

  11. Urban habitat fragmentation and genetic population structure of bobcats in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruell, E.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Douglas, M.R.; Antolin, M.F.; Pollinger, J.R.; Tracey, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is recognized as a primary threat to biodiversity, the effects of urban development on genetic population structure vary among species and landscapes and are not yet well understood. Here we use non-invasive genetic sampling to compare the effects of fragmentation by major roads and urban development on levels of dispersal, genetic diversity, and relatedness between paired bobcat populations in replicate landscapes in coastal southern California. We hypothesized that bobcat populations in sites surrounded by urbanization would experience reduced functional connectivity relative to less isolated nearby populations. Our results show that bobcat genetic population structure is affected by roads and development but not always as predicted by the degree that these landscape features surround fragments. Instead, we suggest that urban development may affect functional connectivity between bobcat populations more by limiting the number and genetic diversity of source populations of migrants than by creating impermeable barriers to dispersal.

  12. Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth and Hyperthyroidism: A Danish Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pregnancy loss in women suffering from hyperthyroidism has been described in case reports, but the risk of pregnancy loss caused by maternal hyperthyroidism in a population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal hyperthyroidism and pregnancy loss in a population-based cohort study. Study Design All pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 leading to hospital visits (n = 1,062,862) were identified in nationwide registers together with information on maternal hyperthyroidism for up to 2 years after the pregnancy [hospital diagnosis/prescription of antithyroid drug (ATD)]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for spontaneous abortion (gestational age <22 weeks) and stillbirth (≥22 weeks), reference: no maternal thyroid dysfunction. Results When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before/during the pregnancy (n = 5,229), spontaneous abortion occurred more often both in women treated before the pregnancy alone [aHR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18-1.40)] and in women treated with ATD in early pregnancy [1.18 (1.07-1.31)]. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and treated for the first time in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (n = 2,361), there was a high risk that the pregnancy under study had terminated with a stillbirth [2.12 (1.30-3.47)]. Conclusions Both early (spontaneous abortion) and late (stillbirth) pregnancy loss were more common in women suffering from hyperthyroidism. Inadequately treated hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may have been involved in spontaneous abortion, and undetected high maternal thyroid hormone levels present in late pregnancy may have attributed to an increased risk of stillbirth. PMID:25538898

  13. A viable population of the European red squirrel in an urban park.

    PubMed

    Rézouki, Célia; Dozières, Anne; Le Cœur, Christie; Thibault, Sophie; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Whether urban parks can maintain viable and self-sustaining populations over the long term is questionable. In highly urbanized landscapes, urban parks could play a role in biodiversity conservation by providing habitat and resources to native species. However, populations inhabiting urban parks are usually small and isolated, leading to increased demographic stochasticity and genetic drift, with expected negative consequences on their viability. Here, we investigated a European red squirrel population located in an urban park close to Paris, France (Parc de Sceaux; 184 ha) to assess its viability. Using mitochondrial D-loop sequences and 13 microsatellite loci, we showed that the population presented high levels of genetic variation and no evidence of inbreeding. The size of the population was estimated at 100-120 individuals based on the comparison of two census techniques, Distance Sampling and Capture-Mark-Recapture. The estimated heterozygosity level and population size were integrated in a Population Viability Analysis to project the likelihood of the population's persistence over time. Results indicate that the red squirrel population of this urban park can be viable on the long term (i.e. 20 years) for a range of realistic demographic parameters (juvenile survival at least >40%) and immigration rates (at least one immigration event every two years). This study highlights that urban parks can be potential suitable refuges for the red squirrel, a locally threatened species across western European countries, provided that ecological corridors are maintained.

  14. A Viable Population of the European Red Squirrel in an Urban Park

    PubMed Central

    Rézouki, Célia; Dozières, Anne; Le Cœur, Christie; Thibault, Sophie; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Whether urban parks can maintain viable and self-sustaining populations over the long term is questionable. In highly urbanized landscapes, urban parks could play a role in biodiversity conservation by providing habitat and resources to native species. However, populations inhabiting urban parks are usually small and isolated, leading to increased demographic stochasticity and genetic drift, with expected negative consequences on their viability. Here, we investigated a European red squirrel population located in an urban park close to Paris, France (Parc de Sceaux; 184 ha) to assess its viability. Using mitochondrial D-loop sequences and 13 microsatellite loci, we showed that the population presented high levels of genetic variation and no evidence of inbreeding. The size of the population was estimated at 100–120 individuals based on the comparison of two census techniques, Distance Sampling and Capture-Mark-Recapture. The estimated heterozygosity level and population size were integrated in a Population Viability Analysis to project the likelihood of the population's persistence over time. Results indicate that the red squirrel population of this urban park can be viable on the long term (i.e. 20 years) for a range of realistic demographic parameters (juvenile survival at least >40%) and immigration rates (at least one immigration event every two years). This study highlights that urban parks can be potential suitable refuges for the red squirrel, a locally threatened species across western European countries, provided that ecological corridors are maintained. PMID:25126848

  15. Pre-eclampsia and first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes: a Danish population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, V.; Laursen, T. M.; Johannsen, B. M. W.; Kushner, S. A.; Meltzer-Brody, S.; Munk-Olsen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that postpartum psychiatric episodes may share similar etiological mechanisms with immune-related disorders. Pre-eclampsia is one of the most prevalent immune-related disorders of pregnancy. Multiple clinical features are shared between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric disorders, most prominently a strong link to first pregnancies. Therefore, we aimed to study if pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. Method We conducted a cohort study using the Danish population registry, with a total of 400 717 primiparous women with a singleton delivery between 1995 and 2011. First-lifetime childbirth was the main exposure variable and the outcome of interest was first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. The main outcome measures were monthly incidence rate ratios (IRRs), with the period 11–12 months after birth as the reference category. Adjustments were made for age, calendar period, reproductive history, and perinatal maternal health including somatic and obstetric co-morbidity. Results Primiparous women were at particularly high risk of first-onset psychiatric episodes during the first month postpartum [IRR 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.53–3.40] and pre-eclampsia added to that risk (IRR 4.21, 95% CI 2.89–6.13). Having both pre-eclampsia and a somatic co-morbidity resulted in the highest risk of psychiatric episodes during the 3-month period after childbirth (IRR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72–8.50). Conclusions We confirmed an association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric episodes. The possible explanations for this association, which are not mutually exclusive, include the psychological impact of a serious medical condition such as pre-eclampsia and the neurobiological impact of pre-eclampsia-related vascular pathology and inflammation. PMID:26243040

  16. Pre-eclampsia and first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bergink, V; Laursen, T M; Johannsen, B M W; Kushner, S A; Meltzer-Brody, S; Munk-Olsen, T

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that postpartum psychiatric episodes may share similar etiological mechanisms with immune-related disorders. Pre-eclampsia is one of the most prevalent immune-related disorders of pregnancy. Multiple clinical features are shared between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric disorders, most prominently a strong link to first pregnancies. Therefore, we aimed to study if pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. We conducted a cohort study using the Danish population registry, with a total of 400 717 primiparous women with a singleton delivery between 1995 and 2011. First-lifetime childbirth was the main exposure variable and the outcome of interest was first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. The main outcome measures were monthly incidence rate ratios (IRRs), with the period 11-12 months after birth as the reference category. Adjustments were made for age, calendar period, reproductive history, and perinatal maternal health including somatic and obstetric co-morbidity. Primiparous women were at particularly high risk of first-onset psychiatric episodes during the first month postpartum [IRR 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.53-3.40] and pre-eclampsia added to that risk (IRR 4.21, 95% CI 2.89-6.13). Having both pre-eclampsia and a somatic co-morbidity resulted in the highest risk of psychiatric episodes during the 3-month period after childbirth (IRR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72-8.50). We confirmed an association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric episodes. The possible explanations for this association, which are not mutually exclusive, include the psychological impact of a serious medical condition such as pre-eclampsia and the neurobiological impact of pre-eclampsia-related vascular pathology and inflammation.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population.

    PubMed

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rayman, Margaret P; Guallar, Eliseo; Nybo, Mads; Griffin, Bruce A; Stranges, Saverio; Cold, Søren

    2015-12-14

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium) pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01819649) was a 5-year randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with four groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1:1). Men and women aged 60-74 years (n 491) were randomised to 100 (n 124), 200 (n 122) or 300 (n 119) μg Se-enriched yeast or matching placebo-yeast tablets (n 126) daily for 5 years. A total of 468 participants continued the study for 6 months and 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, continued for 5 years. Plasma samples were analysed for total and HDL-cholesterol and for total Se concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 5 years. The effect of different doses of Se supplementation on plasma lipid and Se concentrations was estimated by using linear mixed models. Plasma Se concentration increased significantly and dose-dependently in the intervention groups after 6 months and 5 years. Total cholesterol decreased significantly both in the intervention groups and in the placebo group after 6 months and 5 years, with small and nonsignificant differences in changes in plasma concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population.

  18. Dementia is not inevitable: a population-based study of Danish centenarians.

    PubMed

    Andersen-Ranberg, K; Vasegaard, L; Jeune, B

    2001-05-01

    The authors evaluated the prevalence of dementia in centenarians. In this population-based survey, persons living in Denmark who turned 100 during the period April 1, 1995--May 31, 1996 (N = 276) were interviewed and examined at their residences. Additional health information was retrieved from medical files, including the National Discharge Registry. A participation rate was 75%, and no differences were found between participants and nonparticipants regarding sex and type of housing. The prevalence of mild to severe dementia in centenarians was 51%; 37% had no signs of dementia. Among the 105 demented centenarians, 13 (12%) had diseases (vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies, hypothyroidism, Parkinson's disease) that could contribute to a dementia diagnosis. Of the remaining 92 demented participants, 46 (50%) had 1 one or more cerebro- or cardiovascular diseases known to be risk factors in the development of dementia. The prevalence of these risk factors was the same in demented and nondemented participants, whereas hypertension was significantly more frequent in nondemented than demented participants. Dementia is common but not inevitable in centenarians. Cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases are equally common in demented and nondemented persons.

  19. SLE disease patterns in a Danish population-based lupus cohort: an 8-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laustrup, H; Voss, A; Green, A; Junker, P

    2010-03-01

    In 1995 all systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the county of Funen were retrieved from four separate and independent sources as part of an 8-year prospective study to determine the pattern of disease activity and damage accumulation in a community based lupus cohort of predominantly Scandinavian ancestry. Incident cases were subsequently identified by surveillance of these sources. Established and new cases underwent annual, structured interviews, clinical examination and blood sampling. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Diseases Activity Index SLEDAI and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics SLICC scores were calculated. Flares were defined as modified - SLEDAI >or= 4. The annual flare rate in definite SLE (D-SLE) was 0.21 (95%CI 0.18-0.24) versus 0.03 (95%CI 0.01-0.07) in incomplete SLE (I-SLE). Forty-three per cent of the entire study population had no disease exacerbations. Infections requiring hospital admission and thrombocytopenia were significantly more frequent among patients with relapsing disease (p < 0.04-0.01). Patients with flares had slightly shorter disease duration and were younger at disease onset than patients with a quiescent course. The most recently diagnosed patients had the lowest annual rate of damage accrual. According to flare rate, two major subsets of almost equal size were identified - one having a long quiescent course, the other exhibiting relapses alternating with remissions. An increased risk of flares was associated with short disease duration and younger age at disease onset, infections requiring hospital admission and thrombocytopenia. Temporal damage increment was the lowest in the most recently diagnosed patients.

  20. Assessment of heterogeneity between European Populations: a Baltic and Danish replication case-control study of SNPs from a recent European ulcerative colitis genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs. Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively

  1. Population-based assessment of heartburn in urban Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, F K; Makipour, K; Palit, A; Shah, S; Vanar, V; Richter, J E

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence data for heartburn in the urban Black American community is lacking. In order to estimate prevalence for this community, we analyzed data from an ongoing cohort study in progress at our hospital. Comprehensive interviews allowed for exploration of factors associated with heartburn. Complex, stratified sampling design was the method used. Survey invitations are hand-delivered to random blocks in a single zip code tabulation area. One member per eligible household is invited to complete a computer-based survey. Heartburn was defined as ≥ 3 days/week of symptoms as defined by the Montreal Definition and Classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scaling and weighting factors were utilized to estimate population level prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictor variables for heartburn. Enrolled 379 participants corresponding to a weighted sample size of 22,409 (20,888-23,930) citizens. Demographic characteristics of the sample closely matched those of the entire targeted population. Overall, the weighted prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week was 17.6% (16.4-18.8%). Variables independently associated with heartburn were body mass index, daily caloric and fat intake, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 2.95; 2.59-3.36), cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 2.55; 2.25-2.89). Factors inversely associated included illicit drug use and increased physical activity. Waist : hip ratio showed no relationship. The prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week is high in the Black American community. Adverse lifestyle behaviors showed particularly important associations. Our study needs to be replicated in other communities with similar demographics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. Diabetes mellitus in an urban population in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Waspadji, S; Ranakusuma, A B; Suyono, S; Supartondo, S; Sukaton, U

    1983-12-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in an urban population in Koja Utara subdistrict of Jakarta is 1.63%. The prevalence of diabetes increases with age. The tendency toward bimodality in the 55-64 age group of our study lends support to the usefulness of the WHO criteria 1980. There is no difference between the sexes. Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. There is a higher prevalence of diabetes among the obese, and the obese and overweight comprise 65.9% of diabetics. Obesity seems to be an important risk factor in the development of diabetes. There was a higher prevalence of diabetes in the high socio-economic level group than in the low one. The group of Chinese origin showed a higher prevalence of diabetes than the other groups. A positive family history of diabetes was found in 27% of our diabetic patients. Dietary recall analysis revealed no significant difference in the percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat, or in the percentage of refined carbohydrate. However, total caloric intake was significantly higher in the high socio-economic-diabetic group. Total caloric intake seemed to be more important than quantitative dietary factors.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Positive predictive value of cardiac examination, procedure and surgery codes in the Danish National Patient Registry: a population-based validation study

    PubMed Central

    Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Munch, Troels; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Schmidt, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Objective Danish medical registries are widely used for cardiovascular research, but little is known about the data quality of cardiac interventions. We computed positive predictive values (PPVs) of codes for cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries registered in the Danish National Patient Registry during 2010–2012. Design Population-based validation study. Setting We randomly sampled patients from 1 university hospital and 2 regional hospitals in the Central Denmark Region. Participants 1239 patients undergoing different cardiac interventions. Main outcome measure PPVs with medical record review as reference standard. Results A total of 1233 medical records (99% of the total sample) were available for review. PPVs ranged from 83% to 100%. For examinations, the PPV was overall 98%, reflecting PPVs of 97% for echocardiography, 97% for right heart catheterisation and 100% for coronary angiogram. For procedures, the PPV was 98% overall, with PPVs of 98% for thrombolysis, 92% for cardioversion, 100% for radiofrequency ablation, 98% for percutaneous coronary intervention, and 100% for both cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators. For cardiac surgery, the overall PPVs was 99%, encompassing PPVs of 100% for mitral valve surgery, 99% for aortic valve surgery, 98% for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 100% for heart transplantation. The accuracy of coding was consistent within age, sex, and calendar year categories, and the agreement between independent reviewers was high (99%). Conclusions Cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries have high PPVs in the Danish National Patient Registry. PMID:27940630

  5. The Dynamics of Cities: Assessing Scaling Relations of Past and Projected Urban Population and Infrastructure to Analyze Trajectories of Urbanization in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Future projections of population estimate that Earth will add 2.5 billion urban inhabitants by 2050. Rapid urbanization will occur to meet the demands of increasing populations. Bettencourt's theory of urban scaling states (1) that properties of urban infrastructure (Y) are power law functions of population (N), described as Y=Y0Nβ, where β < 1.0 for urban infrastructure, and (2) that the relationship is scale-invariant. Studies by Bettencourt and colleagues provide evidence to support urban scaling using a range of urban infrastructure variables, such as impervious surface area or road volume as a power law function of population size. We tested the theory of urban scaling using, as a metric of urban infrastructure, the percent developed imperviousness (%ISA) data product at 30 m spatial resolution from the USGS National Land Cover Database for 2001, 2006, and 2011. We examined the scaling relations between %ISA and population for all metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the conterminous U.S. We compared the parameter coefficients derived from data in the recent past (2001-2011) to the parameter coefficients estimated using two different urban growth projections for 2010-2100. Both urban growth datasets included projections based on the IPCC SRES storylines. As expected, we found β < 1.0 for urban infrastructure properties using both the recent data and future projections. We found β to decrease over time for both urban projection datasets, suggesting increased densification of MSAs in the future. We calculated change in %ISA and population to investigate the impacts of the SRES storylines on future urban density. We found three major patterns in projections of future urban area and population by MSA: (1) increased densification of urban areas along the border with Mexico; (2) stagnant to decreasing population by 2100 yet increasing %ISA (small MSAs); and (3) a linear trend where increases in population coincide with increases in %ISA.

  6. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. Objectives: We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. Methods: We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Conclusions: Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Citation: Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of

  7. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  8. Correlation of a resistance-associated Rdl mutation in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L), with persistent dieldrin resistance in two Danish field populations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kenneth Klingenberg; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2005-08-01

    Danish Blattella germanica (L) populations carry the resistance-associated mutation A302S within the Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene. The mutation has remained in field populations long after the discontinuation of dieldrin for cockroach control. The mutation has also persisted in our laboratory strains with high and intermediate frequencies for more than 8 years without selection. The toxicity of dieldrin was tested by topical application to male cockroaches in the susceptible strain DPIL-SUS and two field strains, Zo960302 and Su960304, which were 1270- and 15-fold resistant to dieldrin at LD50. We report the sequencing of exon 7 of the B. germanica Rdl gene and the finding of the putative resistance-associated A302S mutation. We have developed and implemented a PCR-based diagnostic method with the detection of a restriction endonuclease polymorphism, which allows for easy discrimination of susceptible, resistant and heterozygote genotypes. The frequency of the resistance-associate allele A302S was 0.97 and 0.38 in the Zo960302 and Su960304 populations, respectively. The cockroach Rdl A302S allele confers high dieldrin resistance in homozygotes and intermediate resistance in heterozygotes, and its presence is responsible for the persisting dieldrin resistance in Danish populations of B. germanica.

  9. Seasonal associations with urban light pollution for nocturnally migrating bird populations.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A

    2017-11-01

    The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Characteristics of vegetarian adolescents in a multiethnic urban population.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Mcguire, M T; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Story, M

    2001-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of adolescents' vegetarianism in a multiethnic, urban population, and its correlates with demographic, personal, weight-related, and behavioral factors. Self-report and anthropometric data were collected from a representative sample of 4746 adolescents from 31 public middle schools and high schools in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota. Students answered questions concerning vegetarianism, food and weight, and health behaviors. Height and weight were directly measured. Comparisons were made between self-reported vegetarians and nonvegetarians; these analyses also assessed gender and race/ethnicity interactions. In the second set of analyses, demographic and behavioral characteristics of more restricted and semi-vegetarians were examined. Analyses were done by logistic regression. Teenage vegetarians comprise about 6% of the sample. The vegetarians were more likely than nonvegetarians to be female, not black, weight- and body-conscious, dissatisfied with their bodies, and involved in a variety of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Vegetarians more often reported having been told by a physician that they had an eating disorder and were more likely to have contemplated and attempted suicide. Vegetarian males were found to be an especially high risk group for unhealthy weight control practices. Few ethnic group differences among vegetarians were noted. Adolescents who did not eat chicken and fish were at lower risk than those who also ate chicken and fish. Adolescent vegetarians are at greater risk than others for involvement in unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors. Vegetarian males are at particularly high risk. Vegetarianism among adolescents may therefore be a signal for preventive intervention. Adolescents who choose to become vegetarians may also need to learn how to healthfully do so.

  11. Periodontal status in an urban adult population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Söder, P O; Jin, L J; Söder, B; Wikner, S

    1994-04-01

    The purpose was to describe the current periodontal status in a Swedish urban population aged 31-40 yr. 1681 individuals, 840 men and 841 women, participated in the study. 68.5% of the subjects had low amount of plaque, 82.8% low level of calculus and 28.9% healthy gingiva or mild gingivitis. 82.8% of the subjects had no pockets with probing depth (PD) > or = 5 mm. 4.9% of the subjects had one tooth with PD > or = 5 mm, 6.7% 2-5 teeth, 2.4% 6-9 teeth and 3.2% > or = 10 teeth with pockets. 55.8% of the subjects had no missing teeth, third molars excluded. 16.5% had one tooth missing, 23.8% 2-5 teeth, 2.7% 6-9 teeth and 1.2% > or = 10 teeth. 8.6% of the subjects had at least one front tooth missing, 28.7% one premolar and 24.1% one molar missing. Men had significantly higher scores than women for plaque (DI-S), calculus (CI-S), gingivitis (GI-M), and number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm. Smokers had significantly higher scores than non-smokers for DI-S, CI-S, GI-M, number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm, and number of missing teeth. The individuals who visited the dentist every year had better oral hygiene and gingival status than those who attended for > 3 yr. The multiple regression analysis showed that calculus (P = 0.0001) smoking (P = 0.001), and dental visits (P = 0.0284) were significantly correlated to the number of teeth with PD > or = 5 mm.

  12. Endless urban growth? On the mismatch of population, household and urban land area growth and its effects on the urban debate.

    PubMed

    Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret

    2013-01-01

    In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these "double-declining" cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number "automatically" solve the global problem of land consumption.

  13. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089

  14. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population

    PubMed Central

    Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc’h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  15. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population.

    PubMed

    Desvars-Larrive, Amélie; Pascal, Michel; Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  16. Issues in Urban Vocational Education for Special Populations. TASPP Brief. Volume 2, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Jeanne

    1990-01-01

    Families in urban areas struggle with drug abuse, poverty, increasing housing costs, and lack of affordable child care. The challenges confronting urban schools include a higher dropout rate, higher youth unemployment, and the need to address a variety of special needs of their student population, such as programs for pregnant students, dropouts,…

  17. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity.

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Guerra, Carlos A; Kabaria, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Hay, Simon I

    2008-10-27

    The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs) for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed significant differences between author-defined 'urban

  18. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Guerra, Carlos A; Kabaria, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Hay, Simon I

    2008-01-01

    Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. Methods First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs) for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Results Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed significant differences

  19. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Kanavos, Panos

    2012-09-18

    Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as "excellent or good" and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  20. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality. PMID:22989200

  1. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Urban population density may influence transportation demand, e.g., as expressed through average daily vehicle-kilometers traveled in private motor vehicles per capita. In turn, changes in transportation demand influence total passenger vehicle emissions to which populations are exposed. Population density can also influence the fraction of total emissions that are inhaled by the exposed urban population. Equations are presented that describe these relationships for an idealized representation of an urban area. Using analytic solutions to these equations, we investigate the effect of three changes in urban population and urban land area (infill, sprawl, and constant-density growth) on per capita inhalation intake of primary pollutants from passenger vehicles. For the system considered, the magnitude of these effects depends on density-emissions elasticity (εe) , a normalized derivative relating change in population density to change in vehicle emissions. For example, based on the idealized representation of the emissions-to-intake relationship presented herein, if urban population increases, then per capita intake is less with infill development than with constant-density growth if εe is <-0.5, while for εe >-0.5, the reverse is true.

  2. Living in the city: resource availability, predation, and bird population dynamics in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Anderies, John M; Katti, Madhusudan; Shochat, Eyal

    2007-07-07

    This article explores factors that shape population structure in novel environments that have received scant theoretical attention: cities. Urban bird populations exhibit higher densities and lower diversity. Some work suggests this may result from lower predation pressure and more predictable and abundant resources. These factors may lead to populations with few winners and many losers regarding access to food, body condition, and reproductive success. We explore these hypotheses with an individual-energy-based competition model with two phenotypes of differing foraging ability. We show that low frequency resource fluctuations favor strong competitors and vice versa. We show that low predation skews equilibrium populations in favor of weak competitors and vice versa. Increasing the time between resource pulses can thus shift population structure from weak to strong competitor dominance. Given recent evidence for more constant resource input and lower predation in urban areas, the model helps understand observed urban bird population structure.

  3. Grid cells analysis of urban growth using remote sensing and population census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Urban growth and sprawl have drastically altered the ecosystems and ecosystem services. Urban areas are an increasingly important component of the global environment, yet they remain one of the most challenging areas for conducting research. Remote sensing based information is one of the most important resources to support urban planning and administration in megacities. It is possible to provide the up-to-date information regarding the extent, growth, and physical characteristics of urban land. Remote sensing provides spatially consistent image information that covers broad areas with both high spatial resolution and high temporal frequency. Therefore, remote sensing is an important tool for providing information on urban land-cover characteristics and their changes over time at various spatial and temporal scales. Urban land-use and land-cover changes are linked to socio-economic activities. Urbanization includes both the physical growth of a city and the movement of people to urban areas. As a consequence, it is essential to combine remote sensing derived parameters with socio-economic parameter to analyze the spatial-temporal changes and interaction of both factors. The aim of the research was to use1-km2 grid cells to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of urban growth in the world mega cities. The research was conducted in the 50 global cities using Landsat ETM/TM remote sensing imagery from 1985 - 2011, and time series population census data (1-km2 resolution gridded population census data of Japan and 2.5 arc-minute resolutions Gridded Population of the World). First, maximum likelihood classification (MLC) method were used to produce land cover maps by using Landsat images. Then intersect the land cover maps with 1-km2 grid cell maps to represents the proportion of each land cover category within each 1-km2 grid cell. Finally, we combined the proportional land cover maps with gridded population census data on 1-km2 resolution grid cells to

  4. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-08-01

    In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.

  5. A prospective evaluation of the Chronic Pain Self-Management Programme in a Danish population of chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Mehlsen, Mimi; Heegaard, Lea; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility and changes in pain, pain cognition, and distress during a patient education course and a 5-month follow-up period. The Chronic Pain Self-Management Programme (CPSMP) is a lay-led patient education consisting of six manualized sessions. A Danish adaptation of the CPSMP was tested in four municipalities. The sample consisted of 74 women and 13 men between 26 and 80 years with a long pain history (+10 years). Participants completed questionnaires before the CPSMP, immediately after and 5 months after the program. The study showed that the Danish version of the CPSMP was feasible. The sample was heterogeneous with respect to age, education, duration and causes of pain but all participants reported serious pain and most experienced high levels of distress and disability. Participants evaluated the CPSMP as satisfying and more than 75% would recommend the program to other patients. Participants showed significant improvements on pain, disability, catastrophizing, depression, anxiety, and health worry, and changes were stable through the follow-up period. A consistent pattern of stable improvements in pain, pain cognition and distress was observed but the scope of changes was modest. The Danish version of the CPSMP is feasible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rural-urban differentials in marital fertility in four Muslim populations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S

    1985-04-01

    An analysis based on data collected as a part of the World Fertility Survey program in 4 Muslim populations Bangladesh, Java, Jordan and Pakistan does not show a consistent pattern in rural-urban differentials in marital fertility. While no significant diiferential in current fertility by place of current residence is noticeable in Bangladesh and Pakistan, urban women in Jordan showed lower fertility than their rural counterparts. Cumulative fertility, when controlled for duration of marriage, was found to be higher in urban than in rural areas of Bangladesh and Pakistan, but no clear pattern emerged in Jordan. In Java, both current and cumulative fertility were higher in urban than in rural areas; urban women who had spent their childhood and were brought up in the urban environment showed, in most instances, higher fertility than the other residence groups. (author's modified

  7. High Resolution Urban Feature Extraction for Global Population Mapping using High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2007-01-01

    The advent of high spatial resolution satellite imagery like Quick Bird (0.6 meter) and IKONOS (1 meter) has provided a new data source for high resolution urban land cover mapping. Extracting accurate urban regions from high resolution images has many applications and is essential to the population mapping efforts of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) LandScan population distribution program. This paper discusses an automated parallel algorithm that has been implemented on a high performance computing environment to extract urban regions from high resolution images using texture and spectral features

  8. Constructing an urban population model for medical insurance scheme using microsimulation techniques.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Linping; Zhang, Lulu; Tang, Weidong; Ma, Yuqin

    2012-01-01

    China launched a pilot project of medical insurance reform in 79 cities in 2007 to cover urban nonworking residents. An urban population model was created in this paper for China's medical insurance scheme using microsimulation model techniques. The model made it clear for the policy makers the population distributions of different groups of people, the potential urban residents entering the medical insurance scheme. The income trends of units of individuals and families were also obtained. These factors are essential in making the challenging policy decisions when considering to balance the long-term financial sustainability of the medical insurance scheme.

  9. Comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis and mortality in persons infected and uninfected with HIV: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Nielsen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in individuals infected with HIV. This cohort study compared 2 different cohorts. The prospective population-based nationwide observational Danish HIV Cohort Study was used to compare all adults diagnosed with HIV in Denmark from 1997 with a matched general population cohort. Comorbidity history was ascertained from the Danish National Patient Registry and vital statistics obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cox regression was used to estimate the impact of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and hepatitis C virus coinfection on mortality, and population attributable risk was used to assess the proportional impact of comorbidity on mortality. CCI comorbidity was present before HIV diagnosis in 11.3% of 1638 persons with HIV, and in 8.0% of 156,506 persons in the general population. The risk for death in patients with HIV with at least 1 CCI point was 1.84 times higher than in those with no CCI points (adjusted mortality rate ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.32 to 2.57). The annual risk of dying for patients with HIV vs general population with 0, 1, 2, and 3+ CCI points was 1.70% (1.44 to 2.00) vs 0.27% (0.26 to 0.28), 4.37% (3.01 to 6.32) vs 1.36% (1.26 to 1.47), 8.06% (4.94 to 13.16) vs 2.44% (2.22 to 2.68), and 10.15% (5.08 to 20.30) vs 5.84% (5.19 to 6.58), respectively. Comorbidity acquired before HIV, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and background mortality accounted for 45% of total mortality in the population infected with HIV. Almost half of deaths in persons diagnosed with HIV in a health care setting with free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy stemmed from factors unrelated to HIV disease.

  10. The Danish Melanoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097

  11. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    PubMed

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    While the population of Ghana is expected to double in 25 years at the current rate of increase (approximately 2.5% per annum), the population of urban centers is increasing even faster. The 1970 census shows the urban population growing by 4.8% per annum. This is mainly the result of rural to urban migration and, to a smaller extent, the increase in the number of urban centers from 39 in 1948 to 98 in 1960 to 135 in 1970. In the 1970 census only 57.1% of the population were enumerated in their locality of birth and only 20.9% in a locality other than their place of birth but in the same region. 4.1% were born outside Ghana, mostly in another West African country. 1 striking difference between urban and rural areas is the differing sex ratio of the working population. In rural areas there are 91.0 males aged 15-64 years for every 100 females while in urban areas there are 107.1. Most migration in Africa is for employment and those most likely to migrate are working-age males. Because secondary schools are scarce in rural areas, urban dwellers generally have a higher education level. There are no significant differences between overall labor force participation rates for females. The nationwide participation rate was 38.9% for both males and females (males 43.8%, females 34.1%); in urban areas the total was 40.0% (males 46.3%, females 33.7%) and in rural areas 38.5% (males 42.7%, females 34.3%). Ghanaian women have traditionally occupied a prominent place in the labor force. The theory that urban migration is due to urban-rural income disparities is not confirmed by figures. Considering the high amount of unemployment in urban areas, a rural dweller can average as much as a city dweller. In fact, poorly educated migrants are the ones most affected by urban unemployment. A recent study by Kodwo Ewusi considered the impact of many variables on migration; he found depressed social conditions at the place of origin are more compelling motivations than economic factors

  12. Endogenous and Antipsychotic-Related Risks for Diabetes Mellitus in Young People With Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Wimberley, Theresa; Cohen, Dan; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes to excessive cardiovascular deaths and reduced life expectancy in schizophrenia. This population-based cohort study investigated the endogenous risk for diabetes in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia and evaluated the risks added by starting antipsychotic treatment in people with schizophrenia. The study followed all people born in Denmark on or after Jan. 1, 1977, until Jan. 1, 2013 (N=2,736,510). The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register ascertained schizophrenia diagnoses. The Danish National Prescription Registry provided data on prescriptions of antipsychotics. Diabetes was ascertained from the Danish National Patient Register and Danish National Prescription Registry. The authors estimated the endogenous and antipsychotic-related risks for diabetes by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, while accounting for potential confounders. Of the cohort members, 14,118 (0.52%) developed diabetes, and 8,945 (0.33%) developed schizophrenia during follow-up (49,582,279 person-years). The adjusted hazard ratio for diabetes was 3.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-5.41) in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia compared with the general population. The risk for diabetes after starting antipsychotic treatment was significantly higher (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.95-6.82) than the risk in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia, after adjustment for family history of diabetes and other potential confounders. First-line treatment with either first-generation antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.32-7.05) or second-generation antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.73-6.83) increased the risk for diabetes without a statistically significant difference. Appropriate sensitivity analyses limited to type 2 diabetes corroborated these results. Schizophrenia confers a high endogenous risk for diabetes, and the risk is further increased by both first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics

  13. Personality Traits and Behavioral Syndromes in Differently Urbanized Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes. PMID:22574204

  14. The problem of paralytic poliomyelitis in the urban and rural population around Lucknow, India.

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, U. C.; Mathur, A.; Singh, U. K.; Kushwaha, M. R.; Mehrotra, R. M.; Kapoor, A. K.; Rai, S.; Gurha, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    A house to house survey was done from October 1972 to March 1974, covering 528952 individuals of urban population at Lucknow and 50,156 individuals of rural population of Unnao district, to find out the incidence of polio-like paralysis in our population. Among 12874 urban children up to 8 years old 8.2/1000 had polio-like paralysis while 4.6/1000 children of the rural population of 13554 children were affected. The incidence was significantly higher in the urban population. In the preschool age group almost 1 out of every 100 children was affected. A higher number of children were affected during 1968-9 and 1971-2, though it did not reach epidemic proportion. The findings show that paralytic polio is a serious problem in our country where poliomyelitis is endemic: this is contrary to the views generally held so far. PMID:701784

  15. Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene, MBL2, Polymorphisms Do Not Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Meningococcal Disease in a Population of Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Lundbo, Lene F.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Clausen, Louise N.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Konradsen, Helle B.; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Nørgaard, Mette; Benfield, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of meningococcal bacteremia and meningitis, and nasopharyngeal colonization with this pathogen is common. The incidence of invasive disease is highest in infants, whereas adolescents more often are carriers. Altered regulation or dysfunction of the innate immune system may predispose to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In this study, we investigated the effect of genetic variation in the mannose-binding lectin gene, MBL2, and its promoter on susceptibility to IMD and IMD-associated mortality among children. Methods. Children (<5 years) diagnosed during 1982–2007 with IMD and controls were identified through Danish national registries. DNA was obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. The associations between MBL2 diplotypes and IMD susceptibility and 30- and 90-day mortality were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results. We included 1351 children: 406 with meningitis, 272 with bacteremia, and 673 age- and sex-matched controls. Of the children studied, 1292 (96%) were successfully genotyped and assigned MBL2 diplotypes. The median age in IMD cases was 19.1 months (interquartile range [IQR], 8.8–32.2 months). Children with defective MBL2 diplotypes were not at higher risk for meningococcal meningitis than children with intermediate and normal diplotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.02). Similar results were found for children with bacteremia and defective diplotypes (OR = 0.84; 95% CI, .53–1.32) as well as for all cases (OR = 0.75; 95% CI, .56–1.01). There was no association between MBL2 diplotypes and mortality. Conclusions. Defective MBL2 diplotypes did not predict either an increased IMD susceptibility or mortality in a Danish population of children. PMID:26464842

  16. Racial Differences in Suicidality in an Older Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; Colemon, Yolonda; Yaffee, Robert; Casimir, Georges J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study used epidemiological data of older African Americans and Caucasians living in an urban community to compare those factors associated with active or passive suicidal ideation in each racial group. Design and Methods: Using 1990 census data for Brooklyn, New York, we attempted to interview all cognitively intact adults aged 55 or…

  17. Racial Differences in Suicidality in an Older Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; Colemon, Yolonda; Yaffee, Robert; Casimir, Georges J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study used epidemiological data of older African Americans and Caucasians living in an urban community to compare those factors associated with active or passive suicidal ideation in each racial group. Design and Methods: Using 1990 census data for Brooklyn, New York, we attempted to interview all cognitively intact adults aged 55 or…

  18. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  19. Taste preference for sweetness in urban and rural populations in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Jamel, H A; Sheiham, A; Cowell, C R; Watt, R G

    1996-11-01

    The consumption of sweetened foods is influenced by a variety of biological, psychological, sociological, and environmental factors. On an individual level, taste preference for sweetness has been shown to have an influence on food consumption, although this may be affected by social and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the taste preference for sweetness in urban and rural populations in Iraq. The hypothesis was that sweet preference and the consumption of sugar increase with urbanization. The sample was composed of 4152 individuals who were divided into urban and rural subgroups based on their place of residence. Sweet preference was assessed by means of a tested Sweet Preference Inventory. Results revealed statistically significant differences between urban and rural populations in preference for sweetness and in actual sugar consumption. Individuals from urban locations showed a much higher preference for sweetness than their rural counterparts and consumed more sugar. Within the urban population, those individuals who had lived in the city longer and who were from families with lower educational qualifications preferred the highest levels of sugar. The findings support the hypothesis that urbanization influences sweet preference and sugar consumption.

  20. Analysis of Urban Growth in Edwardsville Illinois Using Remote Sensing and Population Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuoha, Hilda U.

    Rapid urbanization is one of the many critical, global issues. This very significant social and economic phenomenon has brought about much debate in the past twenty years and has become a very important policy issue. Understanding its dynamics and patterns is important to develop appropriate policies and make more informed planning decisions. Many dimensions to the urban land growth have been identified in related literature including drivers, relationship with other factors like population, impacts, and methods of measurement. In this study, urban growth in the Edwardsville area (composed of Edwardsville and Glen Carbon, Illinois) is analyzed spatio-temporally using remote sensing and population change from 1990 to 2015. The objectives of this study are (a) identifying the major land use changes in the Edwardsville area from 1990 to 2015, (b) analyzing the rate of urban growth and its relationship to population change in the area from 1990 to 2015, (c) identifying the general pattern and direction of urban growth in the study area. Using multi-temporal satellite images to classify and derive changes in land cover classes during the study period, results showed that the land cover classes with major changes are the urban/built-up land and agricultural/grassland, with a steady increase in the former and steady decrease in the later. Results also show the highest rate of increase in urban land was between 2000 and 2010. In comparison to population, the both show increase over the study years but urban land shows a higher rate of increase indicating dispersion. To analyze urban growth pattern in the area, the study area was divided into three zones: NE, SE, and W. The SE zone showed the highest amount of the growth and from the results, the infill type of growth was inferred.

  1. Economic impact of dyspepsia in rural and urban malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference.

  2. Economic Impact of Dyspepsia in Rural and Urban Malaysia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Methods Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. Results The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. Conclusions The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference. PMID:22323987

  3. Freshwater mussels in an urban watershed: Impacts of anthropogenic inputs and habitat alterations on populations.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Patricia L; McInnis, Rodney; Salerno, Joseph; de Solla, Shane R; Servos, Mark R; Leonard, Erin M

    2017-01-01

    The substantial increase in urbanization worldwide has resulted in higher emissions of wastewater to riverine systems near urban centers, which often impairs aquatic populations and communities. This study examined the effect of urbanization on freshwater mussel populations, including Species at Risk in two rivers receiving wastewater. The influence of anthropogenic activities was assessed in a watershed in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, one that historically supported one of the most diverse mussel faunas in Canada. In the Grand River (ON), four sites along a 60km reach spanning from an upstream reference site to an urban-impacted downstream area were examined. In the Speed River, mussel populations at six sites along a 10km reach, selected to bracket specific anthropogenic inputs and structures were assessed. A semi-quantitative visual search method revealed that catch per unit effort in the Grand River declined by >60% from the upstream reference site to the area downstream of an urban center. The size (length) frequency distribution of the most abundant species, Lasmigona costata, was significantly (p≤0.008) different upstream of the majority of urban inputs (45-130mm) compared to downstream of the cities (85-115mm). In the Speed River, impoundments and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) reduced both the diversity and catch per effort. Most striking were 84 and 95% changes in the number of mussels found on either side of two impoundments, and a 98% drop in mussels immediately downstream of a WWTP outfall. These population level effects of decreased abundance and underrepresentation of smaller mussels downstream of the urban area correspond to previously documented impacts at the biochemical and whole organism level of biological organization in wild mussels at this location. Our results demonstrate that poor water quality and physical barriers in urban environments continue to impair susceptible populations and communities of aquatic animals. Crown

  4. Sun exposure behaviour among subgroups of the Danish population. Based on personal electronic UVR dosimetry and corresponding exposure diaries.

    PubMed

    Thieden, Elisabeth

    2008-02-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the most important etiological factor in skin cancer development. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve an objective, basic knowledge of the individual UVR exposure dose pattern and to reveal the factors and with which power they influence on the UVR dose among the Danes. Eight open prospective, observational studies and one study analyzing the compliance and reliability of data were performed in healthy Danish volunteers with an age range of 4-68 years. The subjects were chosen to cover an age span group of children, adolescents, and indoor workers and in addition, groups with expected high UVR exposure, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners. We developed a personal, electronic UVR dosimeter in a wristwatch (SunSaver). The subjects wore the UVR dosimeter that measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED) and completed diaries with data on their sun exposure behaviour. This resulted in corresponding UVR dosimeter and diary data from 346 sun-years where one sun-year is one person participating in one summer half-year (median 119 days). The annual UVR doses were calculated based on the personal and ambient measured UVR doses. We found a huge variation in annual UVR exposure dose within the total population sample, median 173 SED (range, 17-980 SED). The inter-group variation in annual UVR dose was from median 132 SED among indoor workers to median 224 SED among gardeners. No significant correlation was found between annual UVR dose and age either within the total population or among the adults. But the subjects below 20 years of age had an increase in annual UVR dose of 5 SED per year. Young people before the age of 20 years did not get a higher proportion of the lifetime UVR dose than expected (25%) when assuming a life expectancy of 80 years. There was no significant difference in annual UVR dose between males and females in the total population sample. But, among children, girls

  5. The Danish Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349

  6. Crowding as a risk factor of meningococcal disease in Danish preschool children: a nationwide population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Susanna; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Schønheyeder, Henrik C; Ostergaard, Lars; Nørgård, Bente; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2004-01-01

    Meningococcal disease (MD) remains an important health problem. Crowding has been suggested to be a risk factor for MD in children, but the evidence is relatively sparse. We performed a nationwide nested case-control study comprising 1222 children with MD and 24,549 population controls. We identified MD cases younger than 6 y in the Danish National Hospital Discharge Registry from 1980 to 1999, and obtained information on household density as a measure of crowding, per capita income and other potential confounders through The Danish Civil Registration System and social registries. The risk of MD associated with household density was estimated by conditional logistic regression for children less than 1 y of age (infants) and children aged 1 to 5 y, respectively. The risk of MD increased with increasing household density. In both age groups, the crude OR was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-2.3) at a density of less than 20 m2 per person compared with the reference of more than 50 m2 per person. The adjusted OR for MD was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) for infants, and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0) for children older than 1 y. Household density appears to be a risk factor of MD in preschool children.

  7. Scaling relationship for NO2 pollution and urban population size: a satellite perspective.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, L N; Martin, R V; Parrish, D D; Krotkov, N A

    2013-07-16

    Concern is growing about the effects of urbanization on air pollution and health. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) released primarily from combustion processes, such as traffic, is a short-lived atmospheric pollutant that serves as an air-quality indicator and is itself a health concern. We derive a global distribution of ground-level NO2 concentrations from tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Local scaling factors from a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model (GEOS-Chem) are used to relate the OMI NO2 columns to ground-level concentrations. The OMI-derived surface NO2 data are significantly correlated (r = 0.69) with in situ surface measurements. We examine how the OMI-derived ground-level NO2 concentrations, OMI NO2 columns, and bottom-up NOx emission inventories relate to urban population. Emission hot spots, such as power plants, are excluded to focus on urban relationships. The correlation of surface NO2 with population is significant for the three countries and one continent examined here: United States (r = 0.71), Europe (r = 0.67), China (r = 0.69), and India (r = 0.59). Urban NO2 pollution, like other urban properties, is a power law scaling function of the population size: NO2 concentration increases proportional to population raised to an exponent. The value of the exponent varies by region from 0.36 for India to 0.66 for China, reflecting regional differences in industrial development and per capita emissions. It has been generally established that energy efficiency increases and, therefore, per capita NOx emissions decrease with urban population; here, we show how outdoor ambient NO2 concentrations depend upon urban population in different global regions.

  8. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  9. Problem Gambling Associated with Violent and Criminal Behaviour: A Danish Population-Based Survey and Register Study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Juel, Knud

    2016-03-01

    This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes such as violent crimes. A cohort study was carried out, based on data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010, which were linked at the individual level with data from The Danish National Criminal Register. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between problem gambling and charges for different categories of crime. We found that problem gamblers had significantly higher odds of being charged than non-problem gamblers (adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95 % confidence interval 1.1-1.9). The odds ratio for economic crime charges was 2.6 (1.5-4.5), for violence charges 2.2 (1.1-4.5), and for drug charges 3.7 (1.7-8.0). For road traffic charges the odds ratio was 1.3 (1.0-1.8). Hence, there was a strong association between problem gambling and being charged except for road traffic charges; however the association was not stronger for economic charges than for violence and drug charges.

  10. Influence of urbanity on perception of mental illness stigma: a population based study in urban and rural Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Zieger, Aron; Schomerus, Georg; Cao, Tien Duc; Dettling, Michael; Do, Xuan Tinh; Mungee, Aditya; Diefenbacher, Albert; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Hahn, Eric

    2016-12-01

    To examine, for the first time in Vietnam, whether urbanity of respondents among other socio-demographic factors affects the public perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness in Hanoi. A general population-based survey was carried out in 2013 in the greater Hanoi area. The perception of stigma attached to people with mental illness was elicited using Link's perceived discrimination and devaluation scale (PDDS) carried out in Vietnamese language. The survey sample (n = 806) was stratified for gender, urban/rural location, age, household size and marital status, in accordance with the 2013 Vietnamese census. Comparing the total score of the PDDS and its single items, we found less perceived stigma and discrimination among the rural population of Hanoi and in respondents who reported religious attainment to either Buddhism or Christianity. Logistic regression analyses found no significant influences of gender, age, household size or marital status regarding the perceived stigma toward persons with mental illness. Less negative perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness that was observed among the rural population in the Hanoi area may be interpreted in the light of possibly more demanding living conditions in modern urban Vietnam with less opportunities for mentally ill patients and points toward a dynamic interaction with rapidly changing living conditions in Asian megacities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Dynamics and forecasting of population growth and urban expansion in Srinagar City - A Geospatial Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, M.; Muslim, M.

    2014-11-01

    The urban areas of developing countries are densely populated and need the use of sophisticated monitoring systems, such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS). The urban sprawl of a city is best understood by studying the dynamics of LULC change which can be easily generated by using sequential satellite images, required for the prediction of urban growth. Multivariate statistical techniques and regression models have been used to establish the relationship between the urban growth and its causative factors and for forecast of the population growth and urban expansion. In Srinagar city, one of the fastest growing metropolitan cities situated in Jammu and Kashmir State of India, sprawl is taking its toll on the natural resources at an alarming pace. The present study was carried over a period of 40 years (1971-2011), to understand the dynamics of spatial and temporal variability of urban sprawl. The results reveal that built-up area has increased by 585.08 % while as the population has increased by 214.75 %. The forecast showed an increase of 246.84 km2 in built-up area which exceeds the overall carrying capacity of the city. The most common conversions were also evaluated.

  12. Effects of urbanization on prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in intermediate host populations.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Kenneth F; Page, L Kristen; Downey, Mark; McCord, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is an intestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) that can also infect humans and a wide range of wildlife species. Prevalence of B. procyonis in raccoon populations appears to decrease as the landscape urbanizes, but less is known about prevalence in the small-mammal intermediate hosts of the parasite. We measured prevalence of B. procyonis in populations of mice (Peromyscus spp.) in forest preserves along a gradient of urbanization in Illinois. Prevalence in the mouse intermediate host exhibited a trend opposite raccoons: prevalence increased as surrounding human population density increased. This counterintuitive result may be due to higher overall environmental loads of B. procyonis in urban areas due to higher raccoon densities. Our results emphasize the need to understand fully the transmission dynamics of B. procyonis in its definitive and intermediate hosts in order to design and implement effective strategies to mitigate zoonotic risks to humans.

  13. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixin; Tian, Ye; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wenliang; Lin, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR) images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3). Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI) yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex) in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI) outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT) in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE) of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable. PMID:27775670

  14. National indicators of health literacy: ability to understand health information and to engage actively with healthcare providers - a population-based survey among Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Bo, Anne; Friis, Karina; Osborne, Richard H; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-10-22

    Health literacy is a multidimensional concept covering a range of cognitive and social skills necessary for participation in health care. Knowledge of health literacy levels in general populations and how health literacy levels impacts on social health inequity is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to perform a population-based assessment of dimensions of health literacy related to understanding health information and to engaging with healthcare providers. Secondly, the aim was to examine associations between socio-economic characteristics with these dimensions of health literacy. A population-based survey was conducted between January and April 2013 in the Central Denmark Region. Postal invitations were sent to a random sample of 46,354 individuals >25 years of age. Two health literacy dimensions were selected from the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ™): i) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do (5 items), and ii) Ability to actively engage with health care providers (5 items). Response options ranged from 1 (very difficult) to 4 (very easy). We investigated the level of perceived difficulty of each task, and the associations between the two dimensions and socio-economic characteristics. A total of 29,473 (63.6%) responded to the survey. Between 8.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-9.2 and 20.2%, 95% CI: 19.6-20.8 of the general population perceived the health literacy tasks as difficult or very difficult at the individual item level. On the scale level, the mean rating for i) understanding health information was 3.10, 95% CI: 3.09-3.10, and 3.07, 95% CI: 3.07-3.08 for ii) engagement with health care providers. Low levels of the two dimensions were associated with low income, low education level, living alone, and to non-Danish ethnicity. Associations with sex and age differed by the specific health literacy dimension. Estimates on two key dimensions of health literacy in a general population are now available. A substantial proportion of the

  15. The role of population density on the impact of urbaniza-tion on GHG emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonghong; Gao, Chaochao; Lu, Yingying

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization directly drives rural to urban population migration and indirectly causes west to east migration in China, two phenomena that may significantly impact China's greenhouse gas emissions given its huge population and vast difference between the western rural and eastern urban areas. These two phenomena were analyzed by using emissions as a per capita term, and extending the impact from the traditional urbanization rate effect to include population density effect. The results show that population density has actually been the dominant demographic player in changing per capita emissions for the past two decades in China, and its elasticity changed from positive in economically less-developed provinces to negative for the developed provinces. This study provides a new perspective in the study of the relationship between urbanization and greenhouse gas emissions, and the results indicate that population density change should be taken into account to accurately assess the impact of urbanization.

  16. Patient satisfaction with community pharmacy: comparing urban and suburban chain-pharmacy populations.

    PubMed

    Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Delays in accessing electroconvulsive therapy: a comparison between two urban and two rural populations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of the timing, rates and characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy use between urban and rural populations. The medical records of patients who received an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy at two rural and two urban psychiatric hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the time from symptom onset, diagnosis and admission to commencing electroconvulsive therapy. Rates of use of electroconvulsive therapy were also compared between rural and urban hospitals using NSW statewide data. There was a significant delay in the time it took for rural patients to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared with urban patients when measured both from the time of symptom onset and from when they received a diagnosis. There were corresponding delays in the time taken for rural patients to be admitted to hospital compared with urban patients. There was no difference in the time it took to commence electroconvulsive therapy once a patient was admitted to hospital. NSW statewide urban-rural comparisons showed rates of electroconvulsive therapy treatment were significantly higher in urban hospitals. Patients in rural areas receive electroconvulsive therapy later in their acute illness due to delays in being admitted to hospital. The rate of use of electroconvulsive therapy also differs geographically. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  19. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change from 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  20. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, A.; Tanaka, K.; Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2015-11-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  1. Strategies to reduce exclusion among populations living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2009-08-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4-5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak.

  2. Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

  3. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sewon; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-06-22

    Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT) was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  4. Urban plants as genetic reservoirs or threats to the integrity of bushland plant populations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David G; Ayre, David J; Whelan, Robert J

    2007-06-01

    Remnant plants in urban fringes and native plants in gardens have the potential to contribute to the conservation of threatened plants by increasing genetic diversity, effective size of populations, and levels of genetic connectedness. But they also pose a threat through the disruption of locally adapted gene pools. At Hyams Beach, New South Wales, Australia, four bushland stands of the rare shrub, Grevillea macleayana McGillivray, surround an urban area containing remnant and cultivated specimens of this species. Numbers of inflorescences per plant, fruits per plant, and visits by pollinators were similar for plants in urban gardens and bushland. Urban plants represented a substantial but complex genetic resource, displaying more genetic diversity than bushland plants judged byH(e), numbers of alleles per locus, and number of private alleles. Of 27 private alleles in urban plants, 17 occurred in a set of 19 exotic plants. Excluding the exotic plants, all five stands displayed a moderate differentiation (F(ST)= 0.14 +/- 0.02), although the urban remnants clustered with two of the bushland stands. These patterns may be explained by high levels of selfing and inbreeding in this species and by long-distance dispersal (several seeds in the urban stand were fathered by plants in other stands). Genetic leakage (gene flow) from exotic plants to 321 seeds on surrounding remnant or bushland plants has not occurred. Our results demonstrate the conservation value of this group of urban plants, which are viable, productive, genetically diverse, and interconnected with bushland plants. Gene flow has apparently not yet led to genetic contamination of bushland populations, but high levels of inbreeding would make this a rare event and difficult to detect.

  5. Recent Patterns of Population Change in America's Urban Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    Current U.S. settlement patterns have begun to exhibit a significant shift away from very large metropolitan centers toward more thinly settled peripheral areas. This new trend has been the subject of many recent studies which have considered data on the county level but have been unable to detect population movement within counties and among…

  6. Recent Patterns of Population Change in America's Urban Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    Current U.S. settlement patterns have begun to exhibit a significant shift away from very large metropolitan centers toward more thinly settled peripheral areas. This new trend has been the subject of many recent studies which have considered data on the county level but have been unable to detect population movement within counties and among…

  7. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    Treesearch

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Aelred D. Geis; Patricia A. Healy

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD. were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m × 91 m proved better than point...

  8. No survival benefit associated with routine surveillance imaging for Hodgkin lymphoma in first remission: a Danish-Swedish population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lasse H; Hutchings, Martin; de Nully Brown, Peter; Linderoth, Johan; Mylam, Karen J; Molin, Daniel; Johnsen, Hans E; Bøgsted, Martin; Jerkeman, Mats; El-Galaly, Tarec C

    2016-04-01

    The use of routine imaging for patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in complete remission (CR) is controversial. In a population-based study, we examined the post-remission survival of Danish and Swedish HL patients for whom follow-up practices were different. Follow-up in Denmark included routine imaging, usually for a minimum of 2 years, whereas clinical follow-up without routine imaging was standard in Sweden. A total of 317 Danish and 454 Swedish comparable HL patients aged 18-65 years, diagnosed in the period 2007-2012 and having achieved CR following ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine)/BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) therapy, were included in the study. The cumulative progression rates in the first 2 years were 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-7) for patients with stage I-II disease vs. 12% (95% CI 6-18) for patients with stage III-IV disease. An imaging-based follow-up practice was not associated with a better post-remission survival in general (P = 0·2) or in stage-specific subgroups (P = 0·5 for I-II and P = 0·4 for III-IV). Age ≥45 years was the only independent adverse prognostic factor for survival. In conclusion, relapse of HL patients with CR is infrequent and systematic use of routine imaging in these patients does not improve post-remission survival. The present study supports clinical follow-up without routine imaging, as encouraged by the recent Lugano classification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Testing the hypothesis that treatment can eliminate HIV: a nationwide, population-based study of the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Justin T.; Robbins, Danielle; Palk, Laurence; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels; Blower, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide, ~35 million individuals are infected with HIV; ~25 million in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The WHO proposes using “treatment as prevention” (TasP) to eliminate HIV. Treatment suppresses viral load, decreasing the probability an individual transmits HIV. The elimination threshold is one new HIV infection per 1,000 individuals. Here, we test the hypothesis that TasP can substantially reduce epidemics and eliminate HIV. We estimate the impact of TasP, between 1996–2013, on the Danish HIV epidemic in Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men (MSM), an epidemic UNAIDS has identified as a priority for elimination. Methods We use a CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation approach to estimate incidence, and the “hidden epidemic” (the number of HIV-infected undiagnosed MSM). We use data from an ongoing nationwide population-based study: the Danish HIV Cohort Study. Findings Incidence, and the hidden epidemic, decreased substantially after treatment was introduced in 1996. By 2013, incidence was close to the elimination threshold: 1·4 (median, 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (BCI): 0·4–2·1) new HIV infections per 1,000 MSM. There were only 617 (median, 95% BCI: 264–858) undiagnosed MSM. Decreasing incidence and increasing treatment coverage are highly correlated; a threshold effect is apparent. Interpretation Our study is the first to show that TasP can substantially reduce a country’s HIV epidemic, and bring it close to elimination. However, we have shown the effectiveness of TasP under optimal conditions: very high treatment coverage, and exceptionally high (98%) viral suppression rate. Unless these extremely challenging conditions can be met in SSA, the WHO’s global elimination strategy is unlikely to succeed. Funding NIAID/NIH PMID:27174504

  10. Urban occupational health in the Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrant population: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gany, Francesca; Novo, Patricia; Dobslaw, Rebecca; Leng, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrants represent a rapidly growing population within the United States. The majority settle in urban areas. As a group, Mexican immigrants typically have low educational attainment and socioeconomic status, and limited English proficiency. These immigrants often find work in hazardous jobs, with high injury and fatality rates. They often have inadequate or no safety training, no personal protective equipment, limited understanding of workers’ rights, job insecurity, fear of report of undocumented status and lack health care benefits. This review includes what has been published on the urban occupational health of this population. The findings suggest that Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrants experience higher rates of workrelated fatalities and injuries compared to other populations, and may be less likely to report such incidents to employers or to apply for workers’ compensation. There is a strong need to develop effective programs to address the health and safety of this vulnerable population. PMID:23468371

  11. Smoking prevalence in urban and rural populations: findings from California between 2001 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianqi; Edland, Steven; Myers, Mark G; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and related health problems are still major public health concerns in the United States despite the declining smoking prevalence. This study explored differences in smoking prevalence between urban and rural areas potentially relevant to tobacco control efforts in California. Public use adult smoking data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) between 2001 and 2011-2012 were analyzed. A total of 282 931 adults were surveyed across the six CHIS cycles. A ZIP code-based geographic classification (Urban, Second-City, Suburban, and Town/Rural) was used to examine the association between smoking prevalence and area of residency. The overall smoking prevalence in California decreased from 17.0% in 2001 to 13.8% in 2011-2012. Within each CHIS cycle, the Town/Rural areas had the highest smoking prevalence, followed by Urban and Second-City areas, and Suburban areas had the lowest. Pooled data from all CHIS cycles showed a similar pattern, with rates in Urban, Second-City, Suburban and Town/Rural areas being 15.2%, 15.2%, 13.1% and 17.3%, respectively. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated significantly higher odds of smoking in Urban, Second-City and Town/Rural areas compared to Suburban areas (all adjusted odds ratios > 1.10), although this trend varied by race/ethnicity, being present in non-Hispanic Whites and not present in Hispanics. Town/Rural and Urban populations of California are consistently at higher risk of smoking than Suburban populations. These results indicate a need for population-specific tobacco control approaches that address the lifestyle, behavior, and education of disparate populations within the same state or region.

  12. The Prevalence and Incidence of Juvenile Rheumatiod Arthritis in an Urban Black Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, Marc C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted in an urban Black population in Baltimore, Maryland, suggests that the Black race is not associated with significantly increased risk of development of juvenile rheumatiod arthritis. The prevalence rate was estimated as 0.26 per 1,000 and the average annual incidence as 6.6 per 100,000/year. (GC)

  13. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  14. The importance of resident environmental awareness in conservation of urban wildlife populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proximity of humans and wildlife to each other along the wildland-urban interface results in constant potential conflict between human activity and wildlife populations. Since 2002, California biologists have observed a drastic increase in carnivore mortalities that are asso...

  15. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-01-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990–2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005–2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales. PMID:28358399

  16. The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol. 4, Population and Residential Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.; Vogel, Mary E.

    This analysis of Federal impacts on the urban residential sector focuses on: (1) the influence of Federal programs and policies on intermetropolitan population movements (migration from the North to the sunbelt); and (2) program and policy influences on the process of suburbanization (the flight of the affluent from central cities). Considered are…

  17. The importance of resident environmental awareness in conservation of urban wildlife populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proximity of humans and wildlife to each other along the wildland-urban interface results in constant potential conflict between human activity and wildlife populations. Since 2002, California biologists have observed a drastic increase in carnivore mortalities that are asso...

  18. Natural areas and urban populations: communication and environmental education challenges and actions in outdoor recreation

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2005-01-01

    Challenges, opportunities, and actions exist in areas where large urban populations interface with natural areas, such as outdoor recreation sites in southern California. Challenges in the interface include intense recreation use, public safety issues, and complex information strategies. Research results on communications and environmental education offer opportunities...

  19. The Prevalence and Incidence of Juvenile Rheumatiod Arthritis in an Urban Black Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, Marc C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted in an urban Black population in Baltimore, Maryland, suggests that the Black race is not associated with significantly increased risk of development of juvenile rheumatiod arthritis. The prevalence rate was estimated as 0.26 per 1,000 and the average annual incidence as 6.6 per 100,000/year. (GC)

  20. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-03-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990-2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005-2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  2. The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol. 4, Population and Residential Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.; Vogel, Mary E.

    This analysis of Federal impacts on the urban residential sector focuses on: (1) the influence of Federal programs and policies on intermetropolitan population movements (migration from the North to the sunbelt); and (2) program and policy influences on the process of suburbanization (the flight of the affluent from central cities). Considered are…

  3. Population, Behavioural and Physiological Responses of an Urban Population of Black Swans to an Intense Annual Noise Event

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Catherine J.; Jessop, Tim S.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A.

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated. PMID:23024783

  4. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    PubMed

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  5. Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J.; Kousa, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Matilainen, L.; Kangas, L.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Riikonen, K.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Rasila, T.; Hänninen, O.; Koskentalo, T.; Aarnio, M.; Hendriks, C.; Karppinen, A.

    2014-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area; the model is a refined version of a previously developed mathematical model EXPAND (EXposure model for Particulate matter And Nitrogen oxiDes). The model combines predicted concentrations, information on people's activities and location of the population to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments. The revisions of the modelling system containing the EXPAND model include improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, an improved treatment of the time use of population, and better treatment for the infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. The revised model version can also be used for estimating intake fractions for various pollutants, source categories and population subgroups. We present numerical results on annual spatial concentration, time activity and population exposures to PM2.5 in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and Helsinki for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Approximately 60% of the total exposure occurred at home, 17% at work, 4% in traffic and 19% in other microenvironments in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The population exposure originating from the long-range transported background concentrations was responsible for a major fraction, 86%, of the total exposure in Helsinki. The largest local contributors were vehicular emissions (12%) and shipping (2%).

  6. The rural-to-urban migrant population in China: gloomy prospects for tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Xu, Lingzhong; Song, Peipei; Huang, Yong

    2011-12-01

    The migrant population is a population with a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection and transmission. Globally, migration is likely to have a significant impact on TB epidemiology, particularly in countries that receive substantial numbers of migrants from countries with a high infection burden. China, a country with the world's second highest TB burden, faces a considerable increase in the number of rural-to-urban migrants. This population has a significant impact on urban TB epidemics and is specifically targeted by national guidelines for TB control. TB control among the migrant population has had relatively poor outcomes. Barriers to detection and treatment have both financial and non-financial aspects, such as the "migratory" nature of the migrant population, their marginalized working and living environment, poor financial status, little awareness of TB, inadequate referral to TB dispensaries, and potential social stigma in the workplace. Currently, the free TB treatment policy has limited ability to relieve the financial burden on most migrant TB patients as would allow optimal outcomes of TB detection and treatment. Universal health insurance coverage and fostering of personnel in community-based primary health care for the rural-to- urban migrant population represent two pillars of successful TB control.

  7. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    SciTech Connect

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  8. Home-based Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in an Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Natasha; Rolle, Andrew J.; Lee, Todd A.; Prasad, Bharati

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Home-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with portable monitoring (PM) is increasingly utilized, but remains understudied in underserved and minority populations. We tested the feasibility of home PM in an urban population at risk for OSA compared to in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and examined patient preference with respect to home PM versus PSG. Methods: Randomized crossover study of home PM (WatchPAT200) and in-laboratory simultaneous PSG and PM in 75 urban African Americans with high pre-test probability of OSA, identified with the Berlin questionnaire. Results: Fifty-seven of 75 participants were women, average age 45 ± 11 years (mean ± SD), 35% with ≤ high school education, and 76% with annual household income < $50,000. Technical failure rates were 5.3% for home vs. 3.1% for in-laboratory PM. There was good agreement between apnea hypopnea index on PSG; AHIPSG and AHI on home PM (mean ± 2 SD of the differences = 0.64 ± 46.5 and intraclass correlation coefficient; ICC = 0.73). The areas under the curve for the receiver-operator characteristic curves for home PM were 0.90 for AHIPSG ≥ 5, 0.95 for AHIPSG ≥ 10, and 0.92 for AHIPSG ≥ 15. 62/75 (82%) participants preferred home over in-laboratory testing. Conclusions: Home PM for diagnosis of OSA in a high risk urban population is feasible, accurate, and preferred by patients. As home PM may improve access to care, the cost-effectiveness of this diagnostic strategy for OSA should be examined in underserved urban and rural populations. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01997723 Citation: Garg N, Rolle AJ, Lee TA, Prasad B. Home-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in an urban population. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):879-885. PMID:25126034

  9. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations: impact of ethnicity and urbanization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Eis, Jeanette; Hansen, Andreas W; Larsson, Melanie W; Mwaniki, David L; Kilonzo, Beatrice; Tetens, Inge; Boit, Michael K; Kaduka, Lydia; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Friis, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition in rural and urban Kenya. In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Body mass index (BMI), arm fat area (AFA) and arm muscle area (AMA) were calculated. Among 1430 individuals (58.3% females) aged 17-68 years, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, BMI, AFA and waist circumference (WC) increased with age, and were highest in the Maasai and in the urban population. AMA was only higher with increasing age among males. The prevalence of overweight (BMI > or = 25) (39.8% vs. 15.8%) and obesity (BMI > or = 30) (15.5% vs. 5.1%) was highest in the urban vs. rural population. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was higher with urban residency. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. The Maasai had the highest overall fat accumulation.

  10. Cancer risk perceptions in an urban Mediterranean population.

    PubMed

    García, Montse; Fernández, Esteve; Borràs, Josep Maria; Nieto, F Javier; Schiaffino, Anna; Peris, Mercè; Pérez, Glòria; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2005-10-20

    The objective of our study was to analyze the perceived (belief) or adopted (behavior) measures to reduce cancer risk in a Spanish population. We used cross-sectional data from the Cornella Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study (CHIS.FU). We analyzed 1,438 subjects who in 2002 answered questions about risk perceptions on cancer and related behavior (668 males and 770 females). The benefits of avoiding cigarette smoking (95.8%), sunlight exposure (94.9%) and alcohol (81.0%) were widely recognized. On the other hand, electromagnetic fields (92.1%), food coloring and other food additives (78.4%) or pesticides (69.4%), whose role in cancer occurrence, if any, remain unproven, were clearly considered as cancer risk factors in this population. Compared to men, women more frequently reported healthy behaviors, and the role of exogenous factors (i.e., environmental risk factors) were widely popular. There was a socioeconomic gradient on cancer risk perception with respect to several lifestyle or dietary factors. Individuals with higher educational level scored lower in several risk factors than those with primary or less than primary school education. Smokers reported adopting fewer healthy behaviors than former or never smokers. How people perceive health issues and risk or make choices about their own behavior does not always follow a predictable or rational pattern.

  11. Definition and prevalence of sedentarism in an urban population.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, M S; Morabia, A; Sloutskis, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study sought to formulate a precise definition of sedentarism and to identify activities performed by active people that could serve as effective preventive goals. METHODS: A population-based sample of 919 residents of Geneva, Switzerland, aged 35 to 74 years, completed a 24-hour recall. Sedentary people were defined as those expending less than 10% of their daily energy in the performance of moderate- and high-intensity activities (at least 4 times the basal metabolism rate). RESULTS: The rates of sedentarism were 79.5% in men and 87.2% in women. Among sedentary and active men, average daily energy expenditures were 2600 kcal (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2552, 2648) and 3226 kcal (95% CI = 3110, 3346), respectively; the corresponding averages for women were 2092 kcal (95% CI = 2064, 2120) and 2356 kcal (95% CI = 2274, 2440). The main moderate- and high-intensity activities among active people were sports (tennis, gymnastics, skiing), walking, climbing stairs, gardening, and (for men only) occupational activities. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of sedentarism outlined in this article can be reproduced in other populations, allows comparisons across studies, and provides preventive guidelines in that the activities most frequently performed by active people are the ones most likely to be adopted by their sedentary peers. PMID:10358676

  12. [Trends in smoking in an urban population over recent decades].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartoll, Xavier; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-06

    The objective of this study is to describe the distribution of smoking in the population and to assess changes and trends over recent decades. Cross sectional study in a sample of the non-institutionalized resident population (n=3,509) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) using data from persons over 14 years of age from the health survey of 2011, and assessing trends for 1983-2011 using previous surveys. Dependent variables are having ever been a smoker, having quit, being a current smoker, and smoking daily. Independent variables include sex, age, and time. Prevalence and proportions are estimated, stratifying or adjusting for age. The prevalence of daily smokers is 18.8% in 2011: 22.2% for men and 15.9% for women. The age groups with higher smoking prevalence are 25-34 years for men and 15-24 for women. From 1983 to 2011 the reduction among men has been intense, and for women the prevalence has been decreasing since the survey of 2000. Among smokers, the proportion of both genders who do not smoke daily has increased. The smoking epidemic over the last years shows promising trends. The data do not lend support to the hardening hypothesis for current smokers. Smokers are a shrinking minority, although to improve public health it would be desirable to speed the process of change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding rural-urban differences in risk factors for breast cancer in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nagrani, Rajini; Mhatre, Sharayu; Boffetta, Paolo; Rajaraman, Preetha; Badwe, Rajendra; Gupta, Sudeep; Romieu, Isabelle; Parmar, Vani; Dikshit, Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    Although cancer registry data indicate that there are large differences in breast cancer (BC) rates between rural and urban regions of India, the reasons for these differences are not well understood. We conducted a hospital based case-control study (1,637 breast cancer cases; 1,515 visitor controls) in Mumbai, India, during the years 2009-2013. Extensive questionnaire data, anthropometry measurement and blood samples were collected on all participants. Using logistic regression models, we estimated risk based on odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for various reproductive and anthropometric measures, stratified by rural-urban status depending upon residence in first 20 years of life. Waist-to-hip ratio of ≥0.95 compared to ratio ≤0.84 was strongly associated with risk of BC in both rural and urban populations (ORurban = 4.10, 95 % CI 3.03-5.56; ORrural = 3.01, 95 % CI 1.85-4.90). First full-term pregnancy after the age of 25 compared to first full-term pregnancy below 20 years of age was associated with risk of BC in both urban and rural women (ORurban = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.32-2.41; ORrural = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.13-4.43). The prevalence of age at first full-term pregnancy was significantly lower in rural (mean age at first full-term pregnancy = 19.39 years) versus urban women (mean age at first full-term pregnancy = 22.62 years), whereas mean waist circumference was much higher in urban women (82.13 cm) compared to rural women (79.26 cm). We did not observe any association between breast feeding and risk of BC. Differences in the prevalence of central adiposity and age at first full-term pregnancy between rural and urban women from India may explain some differences in breast cancer rates between these two populations.

  14. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  15. Population based study of prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies in monozygotic and dizygotic Danish twin pairs with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, J. S.; Kyvik, K. O.; Bingley, P. J.; Gale, E. A.; Green, A.; Dyrberg, T.; Beck-Nielsen, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the comparative importance of environment and genes in the development of islet cell autoimmunity associated with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Population based study of diabetic twins. SETTING: Danish population. SUBJECTS: 18 monozygotic and 36 dizygotic twin pairs with one or both partners having insulin dependent diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) in serum samples from twin pairs 10 years (range 0-30 years) and 9.5 years (2-30 years) after onset of disease. RESULTS: In those with diabetes the prevalence of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in the 26 monozygotic twins was 38%, 85%, and 92%, respectively, and in the dizygotic twins was 57%, 70%, and 57%, respectively. In those without diabetes the proportions were 20%, 50%, and 40% in the 10 monozygotic twins and 26%, 49%, and 40% in the 35 dizygotic twins. CONCLUSION: There is no difference between the prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies in dizygotic and monozygotic twins without diabetes, suggesting that islet cell autoimmunity is environmentally rather than genetically determined. Furthermore, the prevalence of islet cell antibodies was higher in the non-diabetic twins than in other first degree relatives of patients with insulin dependent diabetes. This implies that the prenatal or early postnatal period during which twins are exposed to the same environment, in contrast with that experienced by first degree relatives, is of aetiological importance. PMID:9169400

  16. Improved survival for patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the era of chemo-immunotherapy: a Danish population-based study of 10455 patients

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha-Bang, C; Simonsen, J; Rostgaard, K; Geisler, C; Hjalgrim, H; Niemann, C U

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is in rapid transition, and during recent decades both combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy have been introduced. To evaluate the effects of this development, we identified all CLL patients registered in the nation-wide Danish Cancer Register between 1978 and 2013. We identified 10 455 CLL patients and 508 995 CLL-free control persons from the general population. Compared with the latter, the relative mortality rate between CLL patients and their controls decreased from 3.4 (95% CI 3.2–3.6) to 1.9 (95% CI 1.7–2.1) for patients diagnosed in 1978–1984 and 2006–2013, respectively. The improved survival corresponded to a decreasing risk of death from malignant hematological diseases, whereas the risk of death from infections was stable during the study period. These population-based data substantiate the improved survival for patients treated with chemo-immunotherapy demonstrated in clinical studies. PMID:27834937

  17. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2015-01-01

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. PMID:26729146

  18. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2015-12-30

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  19. The factors of urban population growth: net inmigration versus natural increase.

    PubMed

    Ledent, J

    1982-10-01

    "As a country evolves from a traditional to an advanced society, the part of urban growth that is due to net inmigration follows a simple pattern, which can be described by an inverted U-shaped curve: it first increases, then passes through a maximum, and decreases thereafter. This hypothesis is confirmed by quantitative analysis using time-series and cross-section data. The analysis suggests that in the second half of this century natural increase often provides a slightly higher contribution to urban population growth than net inmigration." (summary in FRE, ITA, JPN, )

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican middle-class urban population. The Lindavista Study. Baseline data.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Alejandra; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Salmean, Gabriela; Samaniego-Méndez, Virginia; Vela-Huerta, Agustín; Alcocer, Luis; Zárate-Chavarría, Elisa; Mendoza-Castelán, Emma; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martínez-Marroquín, Yolanda; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Meaney, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to describe the cardiovascular risk factors affecting a Mexican urban middle-class population. A convenience sample of 2602 middle class urban subjects composed the cohort of the Lindavista Study, a prospective study aimed to determine if conventional cardiovascular risks factors have the same prognosis impact as in other populations. For the baseline data, several measurements were done: obesity indexes, smoking, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides. This paper presents the basal values of this population, which represents a sample of the Mexican growing urban middle-class. The mean age in the sample was 50 years; 59% were females. Around 50% of the entire group were overweighed, while around 24% were obese. 32% smoked; 32% were hypertensive with a 20% rate of controlled pressure. 6% had diabetes, and 14% had impaired fasting glucose; 66% had total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL; 62% showed HDL-c levels<40 mg/dL; 52% triglycerides>150 mg/dL, and 34% levels of LDL-c ≥ 160 mg/dL. Half of the population studied had the metabolic syndrome. These data show a population with a high-risk profile, secondary to the agglomeration of several cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  2. Methods for successful follow-up of elusive urban populations: an ethnographic approach with homeless men.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, S.; Berkman, A.; Gheith, A.; Jahiel, R.; Stanley, D.; Geller, P. A.; Valencia, E.; Susser, E.

    1997-01-01

    Public health is paying increasing attention to elusive urban populations such as the homeless, street drug users, and illegal immigrants. Yet, valid data on the health of these populations remain scarce; longitudinal research, in particular, has been hampered by poor follow-up rates. This paper reports on the follow-up methods used in two randomized clinical trials among one such population, namely, homeless men with mental illness. Each of the two trials achieved virtually complete follow-up over 18 months. The authors describe the ethnographic approach to follow-up used in these trials and elaborate its application to four components of the follow-up: training interviewers, tracking participants, administering the research office, and conducting assessments. The ethnographic follow-up method is adaptable to other studies and other settings, and may provide a replicable model for achieving high follow-up rates in urban epidemiologic studies. PMID:9211004

  3. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Vladimir L; Vershinina, Svetlana D; Berzin, Dmitry L; Zmeeva, Darya V; Kinev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats.

  4. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Vershinin, Vladimir L.; Vershinina, Svetlana D.; Berzin, Dmitry L.; Zmeeva, Darya V.; Kinev, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats. PMID:25984350

  5. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershinin, Vladimir L.; Vershinina, Svetlana D.; Berzin, Dmitry L.; Zmeeva, Darya V.; Kinev, Alexander V.

    2015-05-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats.

  6. Sustainability of population growth: a case study of urban settlements in Israel.

    PubMed

    Portnov, B A; Pearlmutter, D

    1997-01-01

    "One of the most sensitive criteria for gauging the degree of socio-economic prosperity of an urban settlement is the ability to sustain stable rates of population growth by attracting newcomers and retaining existing population. The present paper argues that after reaching a particular size (on the average, 20-30,000 residents), urban localities in Israel tend to experience substantial changes in components of their annual population growth. Starting with this inflection point, the growth of settlements gradually becomes less dependent on natural causes (birth and death rates) than on the ability to attract newcomers and retain current residents. On the basis of this conclusion, a strategy of ¿redirecting priorities' to developing the peripheral regions of the country is suggested." excerpt

  7. Genetic structure and admixture in urban populations of the Argentine North-West.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, E L; Dipierri, J E; Gutiérrez, N I; Vullo, C M

    2005-01-01

    From the ethnic point of view, the Argentine North-West (ANW) constitutes one of the most noticeable areas in the country due to the cultural peculiarities that integrate it to the Andean world and the ethno-historical and demographic characteristics of how it became populated. The study analysed the genetic structure and diversity of the ANW urban populations, and the contribution of parental populations to its genetic pool. Previously reported data on allele frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B loci of 1293 individuals from Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca and La Rioja were used. Our estimates include: (a) genetic intra-population diversity; (b) genetic distances between populations; (c) linkage disequilibrium (LD); (d) admixture rates and genetic distances with respect to three parental populations (European, American Indian and African). Low intra-population genetic differentiation and low genetic distances between populations were found. Differential LD distribution varied according to province, with 60% variance due to intra-population differences. The Spanish contribution (50%) predominated in ANW, followed by the American Indian (40%) and African (10%) contributions, and a marked inter-population heterogeneity of genetic admixture rates was observed. The shortest genetic distance was found in the American Indian parental population, and the longest in the African parental population. Five hundred years after the Spanish conquest, urban populations at ANW that have probably been subject to the same evolutionary forces present low genetic diversity and a similar genetic structure. Genetic distances and admixture percentages observed agree with census and ethno-historical data on settlement in the region.

  8. Widening social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark. A register-based study on social composition and mortality trends for the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Baadsgaard, Mikkel

    2012-11-17

    Dynamics of the social composition of the population might influence the interpretation of statements of the increasing gap of social inequality in life expectancy. The aim of the study was to estimate trends during a quarter of a century in social inequality in life expectancy and to compare results based on different social stratifications. Life tables by sex and various levels of education and income were constructed for each year in the period 1987-2011 by linking individual data from nationwide registers comprising information on all Danish citizens on date of birth, date of death, education and income. Trends in life expectancies were compared for different categories of social grouping of the population. When categories of educational level were kept fixed, implying a decreasing proportion of persons with a short education, the educational inequality in life expectancy increased. Thus, the difference in life expectancy at age 30 between men with primary or lower secondary education and men with tertiary education increased from 4.8 years in 1987 to 6.4 years in 2011. For women the difference increased from 3.7 years in 1987 to 4.7 in 2011. A similar growing social disparity was observed when educational level was based on quartiles established from prescribed length of education. A considerable increasing inequality was reached for men when the population was divided in quartiles of equivalent disposable income, whereas the change was only modest for women. During the past 25 years, the social gap in life expectancy has widened in Denmark. This conclusion could not be explained by changes of the social compositions of the population.

  9. Widening social inequality in life expectancy in Denmark. A register-based study on social composition and mortality trends for the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dynamics of the social composition of the population might influence the interpretation of statements of the increasing gap of social inequality in life expectancy. The aim of the study was to estimate trends during a quarter of a century in social inequality in life expectancy and to compare results based on different social stratifications. Methods Life tables by sex and various levels of education and income were constructed for each year in the period 1987–2011 by linking individual data from nationwide registers comprising information on all Danish citizens on date of birth, date of death, education and income. Trends in life expectancies were compared for different categories of social grouping of the population. Results When categories of educational level were kept fixed, implying a decreasing proportion of persons with a short education, the educational inequality in life expectancy increased. Thus, the difference in life expectancy at age 30 between men with primary or lower secondary education and men with tertiary education increased from 4.8 years in 1987 to 6.4 years in 2011. For women the difference increased from 3.7 years in 1987 to 4.7 in 2011. A similar growing social disparity was observed when educational level was based on quartiles established from prescribed length of education. A considerable increasing inequality was reached for men when the population was divided in quartiles of equivalent disposable income, whereas the change was only modest for women. Conclusions During the past 25 years, the social gap in life expectancy has widened in Denmark. This conclusion could not be explained by changes of the social compositions of the population. PMID:23158780

  10. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  11. Prevalence of Depression in a Large Urban South Indian Population — The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (Cures – 70)

    PubMed Central

    Poongothai, Subramani; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Ganesan, Anbhazhagan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    Background In India there are very few population based data on prevalence of depression. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in an urban south Indian population. Methods and Findings Subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), involving 26,001 subjects randomly recruited from 46 of the 155 corporation wards of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in South India. 25,455 subjects participated in this study (response rate 97.9%). Depression was assessed using a self-reported and previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) – 12. Age adjustment was made according to the 2001 census of India. The overall prevalence of depression was 15.1% (age-adjusted, 15.9%) and was higher in females (females 16.3% vs. males 13.9%, p<0.0001). The odds ratio (OR) for depression in female subjects was 1.20 [Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.12–1.28, p<0.001] compared to male subjects. Depressed mood was the most common symptom (30.8%), followed by tiredness (30.0%) while more severe symptoms such as suicidal thoughts (12.4%) and speech and motor retardation (12.4%) were less common. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of depression with age among both female (p<0.001) and male subjects (p<0.001). The prevalence of depression was higher in the low income group (19.3%) compared to the higher income group (5.9%, p<0.001). Prevalence of depression was also higher among divorced (26.5%) and widowed (20%) compared to currently married subjects (15.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions This is the largest population-based study from India to report on prevalence of depression and shows that among urban south Indians, the prevalence of depression was 15.1%. Age, female gender and lower socio-economic status are some of the factors associated with depression in this population. PMID:19784380

  12. Population genetic structure of urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Ashwani; Dube, Madhulika; Gakhar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India because climatic condition and geography of India provide an ideal environment for development of malaria vector. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in India and its control has been hampered by insecticide resistance. In present study population genetic structure of A. stephensi is analyzed at macro geographic level using 13 microsatellite markers. Significantly high genetic differentiation was found in all studied populations with differentiation values (FST) ranging from 0.0398 to 0.1808. The geographic distance was found to be playing a major role in genetic differentiation between different populations. Overall three genetic pools were observed and population of central India was found to be coexisting in two genetic pools. High effective population size (Ne) was found in all the studied populations.

  13. PREVALENCE OF PRIMARY ALDOSTERONISM IN AN URBAN HYPERTENSIVE POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Galati, Sandi-Jo; Cheesman, Khadeen C; Springer-Miller, Ryan; Hopkins, Sarah M; Krakoff, Lawrence; Bagiella, Emilia; Zhuk, Rachel A; Ying, Tiffany K; Amer, Chelsey; Boyajian, Michael K; Inabnet, W B; Levine, Alice C

    2016-08-02

    To determine the prevalence of Primary Aldosteronism (PA) in hypertensive patients presenting to the primary care clinic at The Mount Sinai Hospital, regardless of the degree of hypertension and to identify clinical criteria that should prompt screening for PA. An ARR (cutoff ≥20, with PAC ≥ 10 and suppressed renin) was used to prospectively screen 296 hypertensive patients (BP ≥ 140/90) over the age of 18 from August 2012 through May 2013. Subjects who screened positive then underwent confirmatory oral salt load testing (OSLT). Of the 296 patients, fourteen screened positive for PA, an overall prevalence of 4.7%. Six of the fourteen cases underwent confirmatory OSLT upon which two confirmed positive, prevalence of 0.7%. Overall, patients with confirmed PA were more likely to have resistant hypertension (42.9% vs. 18.1% (p= 0.0334)) and require more anti-hypertensive agents (2.8 ±1.2 agents vs 2.1 ± 1.1 agents (p=0.0213)). There was a trend toward lower potassium values in the cases. The prevalence of PA in our clinic is much lower than in reports from certain "at-risk" populations. PA screening is indicated in patients with resistant hypertension, regardless of serum potassium levels.

  14. International travel and the risk of hospitalization with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. A Danish population-based cohort study, 1999-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information is sparse regarding the association between international travel and hospitalization with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion, risk factors and outcomes of travel-related non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. Methods We conducted a 10-year population-based cohort study of all patients hospitalized with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia in three Danish counties (population 1.6 million). We used denominator data on Danish travellers to assess the risk per 100,000 travellers according to age and travel destination. We used patients contemporaneously diagnosed with travel-related Salmonella gastroenteritis as reference patients to estimate the relative risk of presenting with travel-related bacteremia as compared with gastroenteritis. To evaluate clinical outcomes, we compared patients with travel-related bacteremia and patients with domestically acquired bacteremia in terms of length of hospital stay, number of extraintestinal focal infections and mortality after 30 and 90 days. Results We identified 311 patients hospitalized with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia of whom 76 (24.4%) had a history of international travel. The risk of travel-related bacteremia per traveller was highest in the age groups 15-24 years (0.8/100,000 travellers) and 65 years and above (1.2/100,000 travellers). The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of presenting with bacteremia was associated with travel to Sub-Saharan Africa (odds ratio 18.4; 95% confidence interval [6.9-49.5]), the Middle East (10.6; [2.1-53.2]) and South East Asia (4.0; [2.2-7.5]). We found high-risk countries in the same three regions when estimating the risk per traveller according to travel destination. Patients hospitalized with travel-related bacteremia had better clinical outcomes than patients with domestically acquired bacteremia, they had a shorter length of hospital stay (8 vs. 11 days), less extraintestinal focal infections (5 vs

  15. Determinants of infant sleep position in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Rachel Y; Omron, Rodney

    2002-10-01

    The incidence of SIDS has decreased by 40% since the Back to Sleep campaign was initiated. However, the rate of SIDS in the District of Columbia continues to be approximately double the national rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of prone sleeping among infants in the District of Columbia and to ascertain what information is being provided to parents by health care professionals by a cross-sectional survey of parents of infants 0-6 months of age presenting for well child care at Children's Health Center, Children's National Medical Center, in Washington, DC. We recruited a consecutive sample of 126 parent-infant pairs, of which 92.9% were African-American. The average infant was 73 days old, was 3,003 grams at birth, and was full term. When asked how the infants were placed for sleep the night before the interview, 34.1 % of parents had placed the infant supine, 50.8% side, and 15.1% prone. Nearly half (48%) of infants slept in an adult bed with the mother. More than one third of the infants had been placed prone for sleep at least once since hospital discharge. Most common reasons for sleeping supine included SIDS risk reduction or health care professional advice. Side sleepers did so primarily because of concern about vomiting, health care provider advice, or SIDS. Infants were placed prone primarily because the infant slept better. When asked about information received from a health care provider, 70.6% of parents stated that they had received information about sleep position and 64.3% about the hazards of passive smoking. Eight parents observed nursery personnel placing their infants prone. Only 16.7% of the total study population had received a Back to Sleep brochure, read it, and recalled that it recommended back sleeping. Infants were more likely to sleep prone if there was a grandparent in the home (OR 2.9, p<0.05) or if they were the firstborn (OR 2.17, p<0.05). Infants were more likely to sleep supine if

  16. PREVELENCE OF PRIMARY ALDOSTERONISM IN AN URBAN HYPERTENSIVE POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Galati, Sandi-Jo; Cheesman, Khadeen C; Springer-Miller, Ryan; Hopkins, Sarah M; Krakoff, Lawrence; Bagiella, Emilia; Zhuk, Rachel A; Ying, Tiffany K; Amer, Chelsey; Boyajian, Michael K; Inabnet, W B; Levine, Alice C

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in hypertensive patients presenting to the primary care clinic at The Mount Sinai Hospital, regardless of the degree of hypertension and to identify clinical criteria that should prompt screening for PA. An aldosterone:renin ratio (ARR, cutoff ≥20, with plasma aldosterone concentration [PAC] ≥10 and suppressed renin) was used to prospectively screen 296 hypertensive patients (blood pressure [BP] ≥140/90) over the age of 18 from August 2012 through May 2013. Subjects who screened positive then underwent confirmatory oral salt load testing (OSLT). Of the 296 patients, 14 screened positive for PA, an overall prevalence of 4.7%. Six of the 14 cases underwent confirmatory OSLT, upon which 2 were confirmed positive, for a prevalence of 0.7%. Overall, patients with confirmed PA were more likely to have resistant hypertension (42.9% vs. 18.1% (P = .0334)) and require more antihypertensive agents (2.8 ± 1.2 agents vs. 2.1 ± 1.1 agents, P = .0213). There was a trend toward lower potassium values in the cases. The prevalence of PA in our clinic is much lower than in reports from certain "at-risk" populations. PA screening is indicated in patients with resistant hypertension, regardless of serum potassium levels. ARR = aldosterone:renin ratio ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AVS = adrenal venous sampling BP = blood pressure MRA = mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist OSLT = oral salt load confirmatory test PA = primary aldosteronism PAC = plasma aldosterone concentration PCP = primary care provider PRA = plasma renin activity.

  17. Metal induced inhalation exposure in urban population: A probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widziewicz, Kamila; Loska, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    The paper was aimed at assessing the health risk in the populations of three Silesian cities: Bielsko-Biała, Częstochowa and Katowice exposed to the inhalation intake of cadmium, nickel and arsenic present in airborne particulate matter. In order to establish how the exposure parameters affects risk a probabilistic risk assessment framework was used. The risk model was based on the results of the annual measurements of As, Cd and Ni concentrations in PM2.5 and the sets of data on the concentrations of those elements in PM10 collected by the Voivodship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection over 2012-2013 period. The risk was calculated as an incremental lifetime risk of cancer (ILCR) in particular age groups (infants, children, adults) following Monte Carlo approach. With the aim of depicting the effect the variability of exposure parameters exerts on the risk, the initial parameters of the risk model: metals concentrations, its infiltration into indoor environment, exposure duration, exposure frequency, lung deposition efficiency, daily lung ventilation and body weight were modeled as random variables. The distribution of inhalation cancer risk due to exposure to ambient metals concentrations was LN (1.80 × 10-6 ± 2.89 × 10-6) and LN (6.17 × 10-7 ± 1.08 × 10-6) for PM2.5 and PM10-bound metals respectively and did not exceed the permissible limit of the acceptable risk. The highest probability of contracting cancer was observed for Katowice residents exposed to PM2.5 - LN (2.01 × 10-6 ± 3.24 × 10-6). Across the tested age groups adults were approximately one order of magnitude at higher risk compared to infants. Sensitivity analysis showed that exposure duration (ED) and body weight (BW) were the two variables, which contributed the most to the ILCR.

  18. Hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders, pregnancy losses and risk of autoimmune diseases in a Danish population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard; Jacobsen, Søren; Frisch, Morten

    2012-05-01

    The risk of some female predominant autoimmune diseases (ADs) has previously been shown to be higher in women who experience hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and idiopathic pregnancy losses. This study assessed the association between such pregnancy-related experiences and the subsequent risk of female predominant and other ADs. Our study cohort comprised 1.6 million Danish women born since 1955 for whom we had information about hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and pregnancy losses and subsequent hospital contacts for 31 ADs between 1982 and 2008. Ratios of first hospitalization rates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, birth cohort, calendar period, marital status and childbirths. During 27.0 million person-years of follow-up 51,732 women were hospitalized with one or more ADs. Overall, compared with women without the specific pregnancy experiences, the risk of any AD was significantly increased for women with hyperemesis (RR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.30-1.51), gestational hypertensive disorders (1.21; 1.16-1.26), spontaneous abortions (1.10; 1.07-1.14), missed abortions (1.09; 1.04-1.13), stillbirths (1.25; 1.12-1.40), ectopic pregnancies (1.08; 1.02-1.14) and induced abortions (1.07; 1.04-1.09). Associations with female predominant ADs (i.e., ADs with a female:male ratio >2:1) were strongest in the first five years after the studied pregnancy experiences, but overall there was little difference between the RRs for groups of female predominant ADs and other ADs. Strong and potentially biological associations were observed for a number of specific ADs; including systemic lupus erythematosus, Graves' disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and pernicious anemia, and for some specific ADs associations persisted even more than five years after the abnormal pregnancy experience. Abnormal pregnancies are associated with increased risk of certain ADs, possibly because of underlying

  19. Assessing urban population vulnerability and environmental risks across an urban area during heatwaves - Implications for health protection.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, H L; Heaviside, C; Taylor, J; Picetti, R; Symonds, P; Cai, X-M; Vardoulakis, S

    2017-08-17

    Heatwaves can lead to a range of adverse impacts including increased risk of illness and mortality; the heatwave in August 2003 has been associated with ~70,000 deaths across Europe. Due to climate change, heatwaves are likely to become more intense, more frequent and last longer in the future. A number of factors may influence risks associated with heat exposure, such as population age, housing type, and location within the Urban Heat Island, and such factors may not be evenly distributed spatially across a region. We simulated and analysed two major heatwaves in the UK, in August 2003 and July 2006, to assess spatial vulnerability to heat exposure across the West Midlands, an area containing ~5 million people, and how ambient temperature varies in relation to factors that influence heat-related health effects, through weighting of ambient temperatures according to distributions of these factors across an urban area. Additionally we present quantification of how particular centres such as hospitals are exposed to the UHI, by comparing temperatures at these locations with average temperatures across the region, and presenting these results for both day and night times. We find that UHI intensity was substantial during both heatwaves, reaching a maximum of +9.6°C in Birmingham in July 2006. Previous work has shown some housing types, such as flats and terraced houses, are associated with increased risk of overheating, and our results show that these housing types are generally located within the warmest parts of the city. Older age groups are more susceptible to the effects of heat. Our analysis of distribution of population based on age group showed there is only small spatial variation in ambient temperature that different age groups are exposed to. Analysis of relative deprivation across the region indicates more deprived populations are located in the warmest parts of the city. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data.

    Treesearch

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long history of ineffective land use planning. This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand how people use and develop the lands. We define three new regions for Puerto Rico: Urban (16%), Densely Populated Rural (36%), and Sparsely Populated Rural (48%). Eleven...

  1. Population Genetic Effects of Urban Habitat Fragmentation in the Perennial Herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Theresa M.; Sbita, Sarah J.; Wick, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Methods Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Key Results Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, Pp = 80·7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69·1 %) and among groups (22·2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean Fst was 0·308, indicating substantial population differentiation. Conclusions It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban

  2. Population genetic effects of urban habitat fragmentation in the perennial herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Culley, Theresa M; Sbita, Sarah J; Wick, Anne

    2007-07-01

    Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, P(p) = 80.7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69.1 %) and among groups (22.2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean F(st) was 0.308, indicating substantial population differentiation. It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban matrix may buffer populations against detrimental

  3. A dynamic urban air pollution population exposure assessment study using model and population density data derived by mobile phone traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Pelliccioni, Armando; Bolignano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic city-wide air pollution exposure assessment study has been carried out for the urban population of Rome, Italy, by using time resolved population distribution maps, derived by mobile phone traffic data, and modelled air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) concentrations obtained by an integrated air dispersion modelling system. More than a million of persons were tracked during two months (March and April 2015) for their position within the city and its surroundings areas, with a time resolution of 15 min and mapped over an irregular grid system with a minimum resolution of 0.26 × 0.34 Km2. In addition, demographics information (as gender and age ranges) were available in a separated dataset not connected with the total population one. Such BigData were matched in time and space with air pollution model results and then used to produce hourly and daily resolved cumulative population exposures during the studied period. A significant mobility of population was identified with higher population densities in downtown areas during daytime increasing of up to 1000 people/Km2 with respect to nigh-time one, likely produced by commuters, tourists and working age population. Strong variability (up to ±50% for NO2) of population exposures were detected as an effect of both mobility and time/spatial changing in pollutants concentrations. A comparison with the correspondent stationary approach based on National Census data, allows detecting the inability of latter in estimating the actual variability of population exposure. Significant underestimations of the amount of population exposed to daily PM2.5 WHO guideline was identified for the Census approach. Very small differences (up to a few μg/m3) on exposure were detected for gender and age ranges population classes.

  4. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighborhoods or valleys within neighborhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  5. Temporal variation in airborne microbial populations and microbially-derived allergens in a tropical urban landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Anthony C.; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Chan, Yuki; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Scott, James A.; Vrijmoed, Lilian L. P.; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-08-01

    The microbial component of outdoor aerosols was assessed along a gradient of urban development from inner-city to rural in the seasonal-tropical metropolis of Hong Kong. Sampling over a continuous one-year period was conducted, with molecular analyses to characterize bacterial and eukaryal microbial populations, immuno-assays to detect microbially-derived allergens and extensive environmental and meteorological observations. The data revealed bio-aerosol populations were not significantly impacted by the level of urban development as measured by anthropogenic pollutants and human population levels, but instead exhibited a strong seasonal trend related to general climatic variables. We applied back-trajectory analysis to establish sources of air masses and this allowed further explanation of urban bio-aerosols largely in terms of summer-marine and winter-continental origins. We also evaluated bio-aerosols for the potential to detect human health threats. Many samples supported bacterial and fungal phylotypes indicative of known pathogenic taxa, together with common indicators of human presence. The occurrence of allergenic endotoxins and beta-glucans generally tracked trends in microbial populations, with levels known to induce symptoms detected during summer months when microbial loading was higher. This strengthens calls for bio-aerosols to be considered in future risk assessments and surveillance of air quality, along with existing chemical and particulate indices.

  6. Access to healthful foods among an urban food insecure population: perceptions versus reality.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A

    2009-11-01

    The influence of local food environments on the risk for obesity is important overall, but may be particularly important for food insecure populations in urban settings. Access to healthful foods is most limited among racial and ethnic minorities and low-income populations; these same populations experience the highest rates of obesity and food insecurity. Few valid and reliable measures have been developed to assess the quality of local food environments. This research addresses this gap by introducing an inventory for measuring self-reported perceptions of food access and then compares the perceptions measure to objective assessments of local food environments. Data are focused on an urban population experiencing disproportionate rates of food insecurity. The four-item perceptions of food access inventory had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80). Participants' perceptions of access to healthful foods mirrored the reality of their food environment; however, perceptions of access to alcohol and tobacco were less accurate. Findings suggest that people living in low-income, urban, minority, and food insecure communities can validly assess (in)access to healthful foods. Future research is needed to further validate the perceptions of food access measure introduced and, more importantly, to develop strategies for increasing access to healthful foods in food insecure contexts.

  7. Tropical influenza and weather variability among children in an urban low-income population in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chisato; Brooks, W Abdullah; Chung, Yeonseung; Goswami, Doli; Anjali, Bilkis Ara; Dewan, Ashraf; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Influenza seasonality in the tropics is poorly understood and not as well documented as in temperate regions. In addition, low-income populations are considered highly vulnerable to such acute respiratory disease, owing to limited resources and overcrowding. Nonetheless, little is known about their actual disease burden for lack of data. We therefore investigated associations between tropical influenza incidence and weather variability among children under five in a poor urban area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Acute respiratory illness data were obtained from a population-based respiratory and febrile illness surveillance dataset of Kamalapur, a low-income urban area in southeast Dhaka. Analyzed data were from January 2005 through December 2008. Nasopharyngeal wash specimens were collected from every fifth eligible surveillance participant during clinic visits to identify influenza virus infection with viral culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Time series analysis was conducted to determine associations between the number of influenza cases per week and weather factors. Zero-inflated Poisson and generalized linear Poisson models were used in the analysis for influenza A and B, respectively. Influenza A had associations with minimum temperature, relative humidity (RH), sunlight duration, and rainfall, whereas only RH was associated with influenza B. Although associations of the other weather factors varied between the two subtypes, RH shared a similar positive association when humidity was approximately 50-70%. Our findings of a positive RH association is consistent with prior studies, and may suggest the viral response in the tropics. The characteristics of settlement areas, population demographics, and typical overcrowding of urban poverty may also contribute to different impacts of rainfall from higher economic population. Further investigations of associations between tropical influenza and weather variability for urban low-income populations

  8. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  9. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  10. How much urban population matters? Exploring the drivers of carbon emissions in 84 cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Lankao, P.

    2010-12-01

    Just as urban centers register different levels and paths of development, cities do not contribute at the same level to global warming. Carbon emissions per capita in cities from high-income countries such as Texas and the District of Columbia are 19-20 fold as high compared with those in Sao Paolo, Delhi and Kolkata. Yet, other wealthy cities such as Stockholm and Barcelona also have low levels of emissions per capita. This presentation will draw on results from a quantitative research effort covering 84 cities to show that population dynamics are not the only determinant of urban emissions. Many different factors account for the diverse levels and sources of urban carbon emissions: (a) differences both in their national/regional energy systems and in how energy generation, transportation and other emitters operate; (b) levels of economic development and affluence as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; (c) technology and technological innovations and acquisition; (d) climatic situation, altitude and location in relation to energy sources; (e) demographic structure and dynamics of a city; (f) urban function and city’s economic base; (g) urban form (spatial structure) and related to this, the lay out and structure of a city’s transportation system; and (h) the wider institutional setting of the city.

  11. Spatial distributions of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations in southeastern estuarine ecosystems influenced by urbanization

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.; Daugomah, J.; Devane, J.; Porter, D.; Edwards, D.

    1995-12-31

    Urbanization of coastal regions has resulted in the increased discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trace metals and habitat changes/modifications in adjacent upland areas which may affect grass shrimp populations. A study was conducted comparing larval abundance and adult grass shrimp biomass, abundance, size structure and sex ratios in an urbanized estuary, Murrells Inlet with pristine North Inlet, a NOAA national estuarine research reserve and sanctuary site. A total of 60 sites were sampled during the peak of grass shrimp abundance and compared in terms of spatial distributions and other relevant ancillary information. Factors such as sediment contaminant levels, physico-chemical parameters and land-use habitat modification were statistically compared using a Geographical Information Processing (GIP) techniques and appropriate spatial statistical methods. GIP results indicated similar levels of larval abundance in both estuaries and identified specific nursery ground regions in both estuaries. Adult grass shrimp abundances were greatly reduced in urban areas and grass shrimp desert regions were identified. These areas were correlated with regions having high levels of chemical contaminants and greatest physical disturbances. The mortality rate between larval and adult stages was much higher in urban areas suggesting that urbanization had a profound impact on grass shrimp.

  12. Population-Adjusted Street Connectivity, Urbanicity and Risk of Obesity in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fahui; Wen, Ming; Xu, Yanqing

    2013-01-01

    Street connectivity, defined as the number of (3-way or more) intersections per area unit, is an important index of built environments as a proxy for walkability in a neighborhood. This paper examines its geographic variations across the rural-urban continuum (urbanicity), major racial-ethnic groups and various poverty levels. The population-adjusted street connectivity index is proposed as a better measure than the regular index for a large area such as county due to likely concentration of population in limited space within the large area. Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), this paper uses multilevel modeling to analyze its association with physical activity and obesity while controlling for various individual and county-level variables. Analysis of data subsets indicates that the influences of individual and county-level variables on obesity risk vary across areas of different urbanization levels. The positive influence of street connectivity on obesity control is limited to the more but not the mostly urbanized areas. This demonstrates the value of obesogenic environment research in different geographic settings, helps us reconcile and synthesize some seemingly contradictory results reported in different studies, and also promotes that effective policies need to be highly sensitive to the diversity of demographic groups and geographically adaptable. PMID:23667278

  13. Three decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, S.J.; Dorcas, M.E.; Gallant, A.L.; Klaver, R.W.; Willson, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has become the dominant form of landscape disturbance in parts of the United States. Small streams in the Piedmont region of the eastern United States support high densities of salamanders and are often the first habitats to be affected by landscape-altering factors such as urbanization. We used US Geological Survey land cover data from 1972 to 2000 and a relation between stream salamanders and land cover, established from recent research, to estimate the impact of contemporary land-cover change on the abundance of stream salamanders near Davidson, North Carolina, a Piedmont locale that has experienced rapid urbanization during this time. Our analysis indicates that southern two-lined salamander (Eurycea cirrigera) populations have decreased from 32% to 44% while northern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) have decreased from 21% to 30% over the last three decades. Our results suggest that the widespread conversion of forest to urban land in small catchments has likely resulted in a substantial decline of populations of stream salamanders and could have serious effects on stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental timing of allergenic food introduction in urban and suburban populations.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Heather; Dodd, Caitlin; Rao, Marepalli; DeBlasio, Dominick; Labowsky, Christine; D'Souza, Sharon; Lenkauskas, Siga; Roeser, Eve; Heffernan, Alison; Assa'ad, Amal

    2016-07-01

    Recommendations on timing for introduction of allergenic foods in an infant diet have changed twice during the past decade. How families with different demographic characteristics implement the change has not been studied in the United States. To compare the age of introduction of allergenic foods between an urban Medicaid-based population and a suburban private insurance-based population in Cincinnati, Ohio. Two hundred parent surveys were distributed at well-child checkups between 4 and 36 months of age. Data were analyzed using distribution mapping to determine the difference in the age of introduction of infant formula, infant solids, whole cow's milk, eggs, peanut, and fish. Random forest analysis was used to determine the most important factors affecting the age of introduction for both populations. There was no statistically significant difference in the age of infant solid introduction, but urban populations introduced allergenic foods earlier than suburban populations, with a statistically significant difference in the age of introduction of infant formula, whole cow's milk, eggs, peanut, and fish. The most important factor for the timing of all food introductions was the recommended age of introduction from health care professionals. There is a difference between urban and suburban populations in the timing of introduction of allergenic foods but not in other infant solid foods. The reliance on physician recommendation for both populations supports the need for education and guidance to health care professionals on up-to-date guidance and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation in Urban and Indigenous Populations of Mexico: Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Lineages.

    PubMed

    González-Sobrino, Blanca Z; Pintado-Cortina, Ana P; Sebastián-Medina, Leticia; Morales-Mandujano, Fabiola; Contreras, Alejandra V; Aguilar, Yasnaya E; Chávez-Benavides, Juan; Carrillo-Rodríguez, Aurelio; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Medrano-González, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Aside from the admixture between indigenous people and people from overseas, populations in Mexico changed drastically after the Spanish conquest of the sixteenth century, forming an intricate history that has been underutilized in understanding the genetic population structure of Mexicans. To infer historical processes of isolation, dispersal, and assimilation, we examined the phylogeography of mitochondrial (mt) DNA and Y-chromosome lineages in 3,026 individuals from 10 urban and nine indigenous populations by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms. A geographic array with a predominance of Amerindian lineages was observed for mtDNA, with northern indigenous populations being divergent from the central and southern indigenous populations; urban populations showed low differentiation with isolation by distance. Y-chromosome variation distinguished urban and indigenous populations through the Amerindian haplogroup Q frequency. The MtDNA and the Y-chromosome together primarily distinguished urban and indigenous populations, with different geographic arrays for both. Gene flow across geographical distance and between the urban and indigenous realms appears to have altered the pre-Hispanic phylogeography in central and southern Mexico, mainly by displacement of women, while maintaining the indigenous isolation in the north, southeast, and Zapotec regions. Most Amerindian mtDNA diversity currently occurs in urban populations and appears to be reduced among indigenous people.

  16. High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina K; Heitmann, Berit L; Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Joensen, Ulla N; Lauritsen, Mette P; Christiansen, Peter; Dalgård, Christine; Lassen, Tina H; Jørgensen, Niels

    2013-02-01

    Saturated fat intake has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and cancer risk, and a newly published study found an association between saturated fat intake and a lower sperm concentration in infertile men. The objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2010. They delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire comprising a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire to assess food and nutrient intakes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with semen variables as outcomes and dietary fat intakes as exposure variables, adjusted for confounders. A lower sperm concentration and total sperm count in men with a high intake of saturated fat was found. A significant dose-response association was found, and men in the highest quartile of saturated fat intake had a 38% (95% CI: 0.1%, 61%) lower sperm concentration and a 41% (95% CI: 4%, 64%) lower total sperm count than did men in the lowest quartile. No association between semen quality and intake of other types of fat was found. Our findings are of potentially great public interest, because changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency of subnormal human sperm counts. A reduction in saturated fat intake may be beneficial for both general and reproductive health.

  17. Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in serum and its relation to sunshine, age and vitamin D intake in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Lund, B; Sørensen, O H

    1979-02-01

    A competitive protein-binding assay for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) based upon a specific binding protein in the cytosol from rachitic rat kidneys is described. A diethyl ether extraction followed by separation by freezing was used. The extracts were chromatographed on short silicic acid columns, which separated 25-hydroxycholecalciferol from cholecalciferol, 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. A small aliquot of the 25-OHD fraction was used in the assay and free and bound vitamin were separated by dextran coated charcoal. The lower detection limit was 0.8 ng/ml (2.0 nmol/l). The levels of 25-OHD were measured in 596 healthy subjects and a seasonal variation was demonstrated. This variation, however, was only found in those without regular vitamin D intake, whereas the level of 25-OHD remained constant throughout the year in subjects with regular vitamin D supplement. The levels of 25-OHD were lower in the elderly subjects compared to younger ones, but seasonal variation was observed in both groups. In the summer months there was a significant correlation between age and the 25-OHD level. The mean levels of 25-OHD in Denmark are within the range of means found in the United States and Sweden but are higher than those reported from England, Belgium and France. This indicates a relatively high vitamin D intake in the Danish population and a low risk of nutritional vitamin D deficiency.

  18. Cities of consumption: the impact of corporate practices on the health of urban populations.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro

    2008-07-01

    The increasing concentration of the world's population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health.

  19. Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health. PMID:18437582

  20. Rodentolepis straminea (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) in an urban population of Apodemus sylvaticus in the UK.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, R L; Boufana, B; Hall, J L; Brannan, V; Mastin, A; Birtles, R J; Craig, P S; Rogan, M T

    2016-07-01

    The presence of the cyclophyllidean cestode Rodentolepis straminea (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), was confirmed by molecular DNA analysis from a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) population inhabiting urban woodland in Salford, Greater Manchester (UK) with a prevalence of 27.8%. It would appear that the only previously published record of this species in A. sylvaticus in the British Isles is that from south-west Ireland, where 24% of the wood mice examined were infected with R. straminea. This species has been recorded in studies on A. sylvaticus in continental Europe. The current report represents a new record for R. straminea on mainland Britain and a first study of helminth parasites in an urban wood mouse population.

  1. [Marriage and Migratory Characteristics of the Urban Population of Karachay-Cherkessia (the End of the 20th Century)].

    PubMed

    El'chinova, G I; Zinchenko, R A

    2016-01-01

    As part of systematic research carried out by the Laboratory of Genetic Epidemiology of the Research Center for Medical Genetics, the marriage and migratory structure of the urban population of Karachay-Cherkessia was studied. Numerical estimates of the population-genetic parameters were obtained from 11346 marriage records for 1990-2000. The endogamy, ethnic assortativeness, miscegenation and local inbreeding intensities, and mean-square migration for the four cities--Cherkessk, Karachayevsk, Ust-Dzheguta, and Teberda were estimated. It is shown that the autochthonic urban population is highly miscegenated, despite the traditional preference for monoethnic marriages. Half of the Russian urban population is migrant; the autochthonic urban population is substantially formed of Karachay-Cherkessia natives of.

  2. [Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in two Chilean aboriginal populations living in urban zones].

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Elena P; Pérez, Francisco B; Angel, Bárbara B; Albala, Cecilia B; Santos, J Luis M; Larenas, Gladys Y; Montalvo, Domingo V

    2004-10-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing in aboriginal populations in Chile. To study the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and serum lipids in two aboriginal populations, Mapuche and Aymara, that were transferred from a rural to a urban environment. Two groups of subjects over 20 years were analyzed, Mapuche and Aymara. The Mapuche group was formed by 42 men and 105 women, living in four urban communities of Santiago, and an Aymara group formed by 42 men and 118 women, living in Arica, in Northern Chile. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin and serum leptin were determined. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 6.9% in Aymara and 8.2% in Mapuche subjects. The frequency of glucose intolerance was similar in both groups, but greater among men. A total blood cholesterol over 200 mg/dl was observed in 43.1% of Aymara and 27.9% of Mapuche subjects (p <0.008). Serum triglycerides over 150 mg/dl were observed in 16.9 and 23.1% of Aymara and Mapuche individuals, respectively (p= NS). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in turban aboriginal populations is higher than that of their rural counterparts. A possible explanation for these results are changes in lifestyles that come along with urbanization, characterized by a high consumption of saturated fat and refined sugars and a low level of physical activity.

  3. To mitigate, resist, or undo: addressing structural influences on the health of urban populations.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T

    2000-01-01

    Young to middle-aged residents of impoverished urban areas suffer extra-ordinary rates of excess mortality, to which deaths from chronic disease contribute heavily. Understanding of urban health disadvantages and attempts to reverse them will be incomplete if the structural factors that produced modern minority ghettos in central cities are not taken into account. Dynamic conceptions of the role of race/ethnicity in producing health inequalities must encompass (1) social relationship between majority and minority populations that privilege the majority population and (2) the autonomous institutions within minority populations that members develop and sustain to mitigate, resist, or undo the adverse effects of discrimination. Broad social and economic policies that intensify poverty or undermine autonomous protections can reap dire consequences for health. Following from this structural analysis and previous research, guiding principles for action and suggestions for continued research are proposed. Without taking poverty and race/ethnicity into account, public health professionals who hope to redress the health problems of urban life risk exaggerating the returns that can be expected of public health campaigns or overlooking important approaches for mounting successful interventions. PMID:10846503

  4. Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interface

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Erica A.; Khatchikian, Camilo E.; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Levy, Michael Z.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment have had devastating ecologic and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here we show that populations of Tria. Infestans in geographically distinct districts within and around this urban center share a common recent evolutionary history although current gene flow is restricted even between proximal sites. The population structure among the Tria. Infestans in different districts is not correlated with the geographic distance between districts. These data suggest that migration among the districts is mediated by factors beyond the short-range migratory capabilities of Tria. Infestans and that human movement has played a significant role in the structuring of the Tria. Infestans population in the region. Rapid urbanization across southern South America will continue to create suitable environments for Tria. Infestans and knowledge of its urban dispersal patterns may play a fundamental role in mitigating human disease risk. PMID:24103030

  5. Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interface.

    PubMed

    Foley, Erica A; Khatchikian, Camilo E; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R; Levy, Michael Z; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment has had devastating ecological and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here, we show that populations of Tria. infestans in geographically distinct districts within and around this urban centre share a common recent evolutionary history although current gene flow is restricted even between proximal sites. The population structure among the Tria. infestans in different districts is not correlated with the geographical distance between districts. These data suggest that migration among the districts is mediated by factors beyond the short-range migratory capabilities of Tria. infestans and that human movement has played a significant role in the structuring of the Tria. infestans population in the region. Rapid urbanization across southern South America will continue to create suitable environments for Tria. infestans, and knowledge of its urban dispersal patterns may play a fundamental role in mitigating human disease risk.

  6. Rural to Urban Population Density Scaling of Crime and Property Transactions in English and Welsh Parliamentary Constituencies

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Quentin S.; Lewis, Dan; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    Urban population scaling of resource use, creativity metrics, and human behaviors has been widely studied. These studies have not looked in detail at the full range of human environments which represent a continuum from the most rural to heavily urban. We examined monthly police crime reports and property transaction values across all 573 Parliamentary Constituencies in England and Wales, finding that scaling models based on population density provided a far superior framework to traditional population scaling. We found four types of scaling: i) non-urban scaling in which a single power law explained the relationship between the metrics and population density from the most rural to heavily urban environments, ii) accelerated scaling in which high population density was associated with an increase in the power-law exponent, iii) inhibited scaling where the urban environment resulted in a reduction in the power-law exponent but remained positive, and iv) collapsed scaling where transition to the high density environment resulted in a negative scaling exponent. Urban scaling transitions, when observed, took place universally between 10 and 70 people per hectare. This study significantly refines our understanding of urban scaling, making clear that some of what has been previously ascribed to urban environments may simply be the high density portion of non-urban scaling. It also makes clear that some metrics undergo specific transitions in urban environments and these transitions can include negative scaling exponents indicative of collapse. This study gives promise of far more sophisticated scale adjusted metrics and indicates that studies of urban scaling represent a high density subsection of overall scaling relationships which continue into rural environments. PMID:26886219

  7. Rural to Urban Population Density Scaling of Crime and Property Transactions in English and Welsh Parliamentary Constituencies.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Quentin S; Lewis, Dan; Ribeiro, Haroldo V

    2016-01-01

    Urban population scaling of resource use, creativity metrics, and human behaviors has been widely studied. These studies have not looked in detail at the full range of human environments which represent a continuum from the most rural to heavily urban. We examined monthly police crime reports and property transaction values across all 573 Parliamentary Constituencies in England and Wales, finding that scaling models based on population density provided a far superior framework to traditional population scaling. We found four types of scaling: i) non-urban scaling in which a single power law explained the relationship between the metrics and population density from the most rural to heavily urban environments, ii) accelerated scaling in which high population density was associated with an increase in the power-law exponent, iii) inhibited scaling where the urban environment resulted in a reduction in the power-law exponent but remained positive, and iv) collapsed scaling where transition to the high density environment resulted in a negative scaling exponent. Urban scaling transitions, when observed, took place universally between 10 and 70 people per hectare. This study significantly refines our understanding of urban scaling, making clear that some of what has been previously ascribed to urban environments may simply be the high density portion of non-urban scaling. It also makes clear that some metrics undergo specific transitions in urban environments and these transitions can include negative scaling exponents indicative of collapse. This study gives promise of far more sophisticated scale adjusted metrics and indicates that studies of urban scaling represent a high density subsection of overall scaling relationships which continue into rural environments.

  8. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRUG ABUSE IN URBAN POPULATION OF MADHYA PRADESH

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, R.; Rahman, I.; Naqvi, S.; Gupta, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The present epidemiological survey was carried out to estimate the prevalence and pattern of drug abuse in urban population of Madhya Pradesh because such studies were lacking from this state. In the population of 5326, we found that 38.6% were current users. In order of frequency, the drugs used were - tobacco (36.8%), alcohol (26.5%), painkillers (9.8%), cannabis (4.1%), tranquilizers (2.4%) and opium (1.6%). Among tobacco users, 52.4% were using gudakhu. PMID:21584124

  9. Low genetic variability, female-biased dispersal and high movement rates in an urban population of Eurasian badgers Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Reeve, John D; Frantz, Alain C; Dawson, Deborah A; Burke, Terry; Roper, Timothy J

    2008-09-01

    1. Urban and rural populations of animals can differ in their behaviour, both in order to meet their ecological requirements and due to the constraints imposed by different environments. The study of urban populations can therefore offer useful insights into the behavioural flexibility of a species as a whole, as well as indicating how the species in question adapts to a specifically urban environment. 2. The genetic structure of a population can provide information about social structure and movement patterns that is difficult to obtain by other means. Using non-invasively collected hair samples, we estimated the population size of Eurasian badgers Meles meles in the city of Brighton, England, and calculated population-specific parameters of genetic variability and sex-specific rates of outbreeding and dispersal. 3. Population density was high in the context of badger densities reported throughout their range. This was due to a high density of social groups rather than large numbers of individuals per group. 4. The allelic richness of the population was low compared with other British populations. However, the rate of extra-group paternity and the relatively frequent (mainly temporary) intergroup movements suggest that, on a local scale, the population was outbred. Although members of both sexes visited other groups, there was a trend for more females to make intergroup movements. 5. The results reveal that urban badgers can achieve high densities and suggest that while some population parameters are similar between urban and rural populations, the frequency of intergroup movements is higher among urban badgers. In a wider context, these results demonstrate the ability of non-invasive genetic sampling to provide information about the population density, social structure and behaviour of urban wildlife.

  10. Ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis risk for migrant groups - A population cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Peter; Thygesen, Malene; Das-Munshi, Jay; Becares, Laia; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2017-03-15

    Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years). Neighbourhood exposures were measured at age 15. For all groups incidence of non-affective psychosis was greater in lower ethnic density neighbourhoods. For migrants of African origin there was a 1.94-fold increase (95% CI, 1.17-3.23) comparing lowest and highest density quintiles; with similar effects for migrants from Europe (excluding Scandinavia): incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.99 (95% CI, 1.56-2.54); Asia: IRR 1.63 (95% CI, 1.02-2.59); and the Middle East: IRR 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19-2.38). This initial analysis found no evidence for an urbanicity effect for migrant groups. Adjusting for ethnic density revealed a positive association between level of urbanicity and psychosis for two groups, with a statistically significant linear trend (average effect of a one quintile increase) for migrants from Europe: IRR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.16) and the Middle East: IRR 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.23). In this first nationwide population-based study of ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis we show that lower ethnic density is associated with increased incidence of non-affective psychosis for different migrant groups; masking urban/rural differences in psychosis for some groups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    PubMed Central

    Gern, James E; Visness, Cynthia M; Gergen, Peter J; Wood, Robert A; Bloomberg, Gordon R; O'Connor, George T; Kattan, Meyer; Sampson, Hugh A; Witter, Frank R; Sandel, Megan T; Shreffler, Wayne G; Wright, Rosalind J; Arbes, Samuel J; Busse, William W

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses) that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma. PMID:19426496

  12. Improved outcome in acute myeloid leukemia patients enrolled in clinical trials: A national population-based cohort study of Danish intensive chemotherapy patients

    PubMed Central

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Mette; Sengeløv, Henrik; Medeiros, Bruno C.; Kjeldsen, Lars; Overgaard, Ulrik Malthe; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Marcher, Claus Werenberg; Jensen, Morten Krogh; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are critical to improve AML treatment. It remains, however, unclear if clinical trial participation per se affects prognosis and to what extent the patients selected for trials differ from those of patients receiving intensive therapy off-trial. We conducted a population-based cohort study of newly diagnosed Danish AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy between 2000–2013. We estimated accrual rates and compared characteristics, complete remission (CR) rates, and relative risks (RRs) of death at 90-day, 1-year, and 3-years in clinical trial patients to patients treated off-trial. Of 867 patients, 58.3% (n = 504) were included in a clinical trial. Accrual rates were similar across age groups (p = 0.55). Patients with poor performance status, comorbidity, therapy-related and secondary AML were less likely to be enrolled in trials. CR rates were 80.2% in trial-patients versus 68.6% in patients treated off- trial. Also, trial-patients had superior survival at 1-year; 72%, vs. 54% (adjusted RR of death 1.28(CI = 1.06–1.54)), and at 3 years; 45% vs. 29% (adjusted RR 1.14(CI = 1.03–1.26)) compared to patients treated off-trial. Despite high accrual rates, patients enrolled in clinical trials had a favorable prognostic profile and a better survival than patients treated off-trial. In conclusion, all trial results should be extrapolated with caution and population-based studies of “real world patients” have a prominent role in examining the prognosis of AML. PMID:27732947

  13. Population Density and AIDS-Related Stigma in Large-Urban, Small-Urban, and Rural Communities of the Southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth; Katner, Harold; Banas, Ellen; Kalichman, Moira

    2017-02-11

    AIDS stigmas delay HIV diagnosis, interfere with health care, and contribute to mental health problems among people living with HIV. While there are few studies of the geographical distribution of AIDS stigma, research suggests that AIDS stigmas are differentially experienced in rural and urban areas. We conducted computerized interviews with 696 men and women living with HIV in 113 different zip code areas that were classified as large-urban, small-urban, and rural areas in a southeast US state with high-HIV prevalence. Analyses conducted at the individual level (N = 696) accounting for clustering at the zip code level showed that internalized AIDS-related stigma (e.g., the sense of being inferior to others because of HIV) was experienced with greater magnitude in less densely populated communities. Multilevel models indicated that after adjusting for potential confounding factors, rural communities reported greater internalized AIDS-related stigma compared to large-urban areas and that small-urban areas indicated greater experiences of enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination) than large-urban areas. The associations between anticipated AIDS-related stigma (e.g., expecting discrimination) and population density at the community-level were not significant. Results suggest that people living in rural and small-urban settings experience greater AIDS-related internalized and enacted stigma than their counterparts living in large-urban centers. Research is needed to determine whether low-density population areas contribute to or are sought out by people who experienced greater AIDS-related stigma. Regardless of causal directions, interventions are needed to address AIDS-related stigma, especially among people in sparsely populated areas with limited resources.

  14. Understanding Reasons for Delay in Seeking Acute Stroke Care in an Underserved Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Amie W.; Castle, Amanda; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Brown, Nina C.; Higgins, Tara M.; Wallace, Jasmine L.; Koslosky, Sara S.; Gibbons, M. Chris; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Fokar, Ali; Shara, Nawar; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few patients arrive early enough at hospitals to be eligible for emergent stroke treatment. There may be barriers specific to underserved, urban populations that need to be identified before effective educational interventions to reduce delay times can be developed. Methods A survey of respondents’ likely action in a hypothetical stroke situation was given to 253 community volunteers in the catchment areas of a large urban community hospital. Concurrently, 100 structured interviews were conducted in the same hospital with acute stroke patients or proxy. Results In this predominantly urban, black population, if faced with a hypothetical stroke, 89% of community volunteers surveyed said they would call 911 first, and few felt any of the suggested potential barriers applied to them. However, only 12% of stroke patients interviewed actually called 911 first (OR 63.9; 95% CI 29.5 to 138.2). Instead, 75% called a relative/friend. Eighty-nine percent of stroke patients reported significant delay in seeking medical attention, and almost half said the reason for delay was thinking the symptoms were not serious and/or they would self-resolve. For those arriving by ambulance, only 25% did so because they thought it would be faster, while 35% cited having no other transportation options. Conclusions In this predominantly black urban population, while 89% of community volunteers report the intent of calling 911 during a stroke only 12% of actual stroke patients did so. Further research is needed to determine and conquer the barriers between behavioral intent and actual behavior to call 911 for witnessed stroke. PMID:21546471

  15. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Genetic Variants of TSLP and Asthma in an Admixed Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengling; Rogers, Linda; Cheng, Qinyi; Shao, Yongzhao; Fernandez-Beros, Maria Elena; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lyon, Helen N.; Gajdos, Zofia K. Z.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Gregersen, Peter; Seldin, Michael F.; Bleck, Bertram; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Laitinen, Tarja; Eriksson, Johan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Reibman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an IL7-like cytokine produced by bronchial epithelial cells is upregulated in asthma and induces dendritic cell maturation supporting a Th2 response. Environmental pollutants, including tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust particles upregulate TSLP suggesting that TSLP may be an interface between environmental pollution and immune responses in asthma. Since asthma is prevalent in urban communities, variants in the TSLP gene may be important in asthma susceptibility in these populations. Objectives To determine whether genetic variants in TSLP are associated with asthma in an urban admixed population. Methodology and Main Results Ten tag-SNPs in the TSLP gene were analyzed for association with asthma using 387 clinically diagnosed asthmatic cases and 212 healthy controls from an urban admixed population. One SNP (rs1898671) showed nominally significant association with asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.09–2.05, p = 0.01) after adjusting for age, BMI, income, education and population stratification. Association results were consistent using two different approaches to adjust for population stratification. When stratified by smoking status, the same SNP showed a significantly increased risk associated with asthma in ex-smokers (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.04–3.83, p = 0.04) but not significant in never-smokers (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.93–1.94, p = 0.11). Haplotype-specific score test indicated that an elevated risk for asthma was associated with a specific haplotype of TSLP involving SNP rs1898671 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.10–2.27, p = 0.01). Association of this SNP with asthma was confirmed in an independent large population-based cohort consortium study (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.23, p = 0.0003) and the results stratified by smoking status were also validated (ex-smokers: OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.08–1.34, p = 0.003; never-smokers: OR = 1.06, 95

  18. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.

  19. Population-Based Study of the Association between Urbanization and Kawasaki Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Pin; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    Background. It is unclear if the prevalence of Kawasaki disease (KD) correlates with the degree of urbanization. We hypothesized that the prevalence of KD is more pronounced in urban versus rural environments. Methods. The National Health Insurance (NHI) program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995 and covers most of the population (>99%). We used the NHI database to investigate the epidemiological features of KD. A total of 115 diagnosed patients with KD from 1997 to 2010 were included, together with 1,150 matched controls without KD. Chi-square analyses were performed to investigate the difference between modern city and rural environments. Results. Of the 1265 sampled subjects (claims data from 1,000,000 random subjects), the mean age of the KD study group and control group was 2.08 ± 1.66 and 2.08 ± 1.64 years, respectively. After matching for age, sex, and same index date, no statistically significant differences in urbanization level and geographical location of the patients' residence were observed. Conclusion. Urbanization did not appear to be an important effect modifier of Kawasaki disease in Taiwan. PMID:23864819

  20. Increased incidence of childhood leukemia in urban areas: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Costanzini, Sofia; Fabbri, Sara; Tezzi, Sergio; Palazzi, Giovanni; Arcolin, Elisa; Vinceti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a population-based case-control study to assess the possibility of an excess risk of childhood leukemia in urban areas, independently from road traffic pollution. Study subjects were the 111 cases of childhood leukemia diagnosed from 1998 to 2011 among residents of two provinces of the northern Italian Emilia-Romagna region, and 444 controls matched by age and sex. Through mapping of the region carried out by remote sensing, we examined the percentage of urban or rural area in the 100-meter circular buffer around each child's house. We also modeled annual average exposure to benzene and PM10 from vehicular traffic at each residence. In a multivariate model adjusting for benzene and PM10, the odds ratio of leukemia associated with residence in a highly urbanized area and residential area (≥95% land use of this type near the child's home) was 1.4 (95% confidence intervals 0.8-2.4) and 1.3 (0.8-2.2), respectively. An increased risk was also found in association with the proximity to «dumps, scrap yards, and building sites». No association emerged with residence in rural areas or near industrial plants. These results indicate that children living in urban areas experience an excess leukemia risk, independently from exposure to pollutants from vehicles.

  1. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population. PMID:21516266

  2. Building-Scale Atmospheric Modeling for Understanding and Anticipating Environmental Risks to Urban Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, T. T.; Swerdlin, S. P.; Chen, F.; Hayden, M.

    2009-05-01

    The innovative use of Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) models to define the building- and street-scale atmospheric environment in urban areas can benefit society in a number of ways. Design criteria used by architectural climatologists, who help plan the livable cities of the future, require information about air movement within street canyons for different seasons and weather regimes. Understanding indoor urban air- quality problems and their mitigation, especially for older buildings, requires data on air movement and associated dynamic pressures near buildings. Learning how heat waves and anthropogenic forcing in cities collectively affect the health of vulnerable residents is a problem in building thermodynamics, human behavior, and neighborhood-scale and street-canyon-scale atmospheric sciences. And, predicting the movement of plumes of hazardous material released in urban industrial or transportation accidents requires detailed information about vertical and horizontal air motions in the street canyons. These challenges are closer to being addressed because of advances in CFD modeling, the coupling of CFD models with models of indoor air motion and air quality, and the coupling of CFD models with mesoscale weather-prediction models. This paper will review some of the new knowledge and technologies that are being developed to meet these atmospheric-environment needs of our growing urban populations.

  3. The Rural Underclass: Examination of Multiple-Problem Populations in Urban and Rural Settings. Staff Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.; Curry-White, Brenda

    This study uses data from the U.S. Census' 1980 and 1990 Current Population Survey to examine characteristics of the underclass populations in rural and urban areas. The analysis assesses changes of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan underclass populations between 1980 and 1990, with special attention to race and geographic area. Underclass…

  4. Investigating the effect of clustering of the urban field on sustainable population growth of centrally located and peripheral towns.

    PubMed

    Portnov, B A; Erell, E; Bivand, R; Nilsen, A

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study (Portnov and Erell, 1998a), an Index of Clustering was defined, which allowed an analysis of the combined effect of spatial isolation and remoteness of peripheral towns on the long-term patterns of their population growth. In the present paper, the analysis of the effect of clustering of the urban field on the patterns of population growth is extended to centrally located urban places, and the validity of this index is tested in two unevenly populated countries--Israel and Norway. In both countries, the effect of clustering of the urban field on the patterns of urban growth is twofold. In sparsely populated areas, the presence of neighboring towns appears to increase their chances of attracting potential migrants due to inter-urban exchanges, while in more densely populated areas, increasing clustering tends to reduce migration influx to a given locality due to inter-town competition. Following this conclusion, a strategy of "redirecting priorities" leading to the formation of urban clusters is proposed, which may enhance the potential of urban growth in geographical areas where this is desirable.

  5. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate...

  6. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate...

  7. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Urban Expansion in Japan Using Gridded Land Use Data, Population Census Data and DMSP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Integration of population data, land-use data, and satellite images can be used to identify and characterize the spatio-temporal extent and expansion trends of urban growth. We provided an idea to investigate the spatio-temporal urban growth using satellite images with population data. We analyze the urban expansion in Japan from 1990 to 2005 by using gridded land-use data, population census data, and DMSP satellite images of nighttime lights. First, we mapped the DMSP nighttime lights and land-use data onto a grid based on the standard 1 km2grid cell system of Japan to determine the proportional areas of DMSP nighttime lights and urban land use within each grid cell. Then, we investigated the relationships among population density, DMSP nighttime lights area, and urban area. A rapid expansion of the urban/built-up area around megacities was associated with population increases; in contrast, population density dropped steeply in rural areas and in small towns. Spatial correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between population density and urban land use (r= 0.59). In addition, correlation coefficients between population density and DMSP data increased as the DMSP nighttime lights brightness value increased. We then used census population data as the base population input, and performed a linear multiple regression analysis to predict population density from the combination of urban land-use area and DMSP data in Hokkaido, Japan. Visual and numerical evaluation of the results showed that the combination of urban land-use data and DMSP data could be used to predict the spatial distribution of population density. The results from this study indicated the high correlation between these data and suggested the potentials of population density prediction using DMSP data and land use data. References Bagan, H., and Y. Yamagata. Land-cover change analysis in 50 global cities by using a combination of Landsat data and analysis of grid cell. Environmental

  8. Parkinson's disease and risk of prostate cancer: A Danish population-based case-control study, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Christina G; Nørgaard, Mette; Borre, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Prostate cancer growth and progression may be linked to neurogenesis and to medical anti- Parkinson treatment, but results are inconclusive. Therefore, we examined the association between Parkinson's disease and risk of prostate cancer in a population based case-control study. We identified 45,429 patients diagnosed with incident prostate cancer during 1997-2010 from the National Cancer Registry. Five age-matched population controls (n=227,145) were selected for each case. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age and comorbidity for prostate cancer associated with Parkinson's disease were computed using conditional logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by duration of Parkinson's disease and stage of prostate cancer (localized and advanced). In total, 245 patients (0,5%) and 1656 controls (0,7%) had Parkinson's disease. Overall, patients with Parkinson's disease had a 27% lower risk of prostate cancer compared with patients without Parkinson's disease (adjusted OR (ORa) 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.83). Risk of prostate cancer decreased with increasing duration of Parkinson's disease. The odds ratios were slightly lower for advanced prostate cancer (ORa, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.88) than for localized prostate cancer (ORa 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Parkinson's disease was associated with a risk reduction overall (27%), which decreased with increasing duration of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M.; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G.; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Method Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946–51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Results Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.31). Conclusions The absence of rural–urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography. PMID:26844118

  10. Mexican urban occupational health in the US: a population at risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Dobslaw, Rebecca; Ramirez, Julia; Tonda, Josana; Lobach, Iryna; Leng, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Mexicans are the largest immigrant group in the US. Little is known about their urban occupational health status. We assess occupational illness, injury, and safety training among New York City Mexican immigrants. This study is a consecutive sample of the Mexican immigrant population utilizing Mexican Consulate services in New York City over two weeks in March 2009. Bilingual research assistants approached persons waiting in line at the Consulate and administered an occupational health questionnaire. 185 people agreed to participate. Most work in restaurants (37%), cleaning (18%), construction (12%), babysitting/nanny (7%), retail (9%), and factories (5%). 22% had received safety training. 18% reported work-related pain or illness. 18% suffered from a job-related injury since immigrating. Most injuries were in construction, factories, and restaurants. 29% had not reported their injury. This study provides evidence that the urban Mexican immigrant population is at high risk for work-related illness and injury, is not receiving adequate safety training, and is under-reporting occupational injury. Culturally and linguistically responsive community outreach programs are needed to provide occupational health and safety information and resources for urban Mexican workers.

  11. Molecular evidence of HTLV-II subtype B among an urban population living in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Renner, Jane Dagmar Pollo; Laurino, Jomar Pereira; Menna-Barreto, Márcio; Schmitt, Virgínia Minghelli

    2006-04-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is a deltaretrovirus endemic in Indian populations living in Central and South America, among Pygmies tribes from Central Africa, and epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the United States, Europe, Southeast Asia, and South America. To date only the HTLV-IIa subtype has been demonstrated among Brazilians (Amazon basin Indians, blood donors, and IDUs). We analyzed HTLV-II isolates from 12 individuals living in the urban area of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, identified as seropositive for HTLVI/II in a blood donation. The HTLV-II long terminal repeat (LTR) region was sequenced and compared with nucleotide sequences of isolates HTLV-IIa (Mo), HTLV-IIb (NRA) prototypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the LTR region demonstrated that seven new isolates clustered together with American Indians HTLV-IIb isolates, and five new HTLV-IIa isolates clustered within the HTLV-IIa Brazilian subgroup, named the HTLV-IIc subtype. Both HTLV-IIa and IIb seem to be endemic in the urban area of Porto Alegre, South of Brazil, and could have reached this region via the Amazon basin and the Pacific Coast ancient human migratory pathways. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the presence of HTLV-IIb among the urban population in Brazil.

  12. Frequency of the delta ccr5 deletion allele in the urban Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Passos, G A; Picanço, V P

    1998-04-01

    Studies on screening genes conferring resistance to HIV-1 and AIDS onset have shown a direct relationship between a 32 base pair (bp) deletion in the CCR5 beta-chemokine receptor gene (delta ccr5 mutant allele) and long survival of HIV-1 infected individuals bearing this mutation. These findings led to an interest in studies of delta ccr5 allele distribution in human populations. In the present study, polymerase chain reactions (PCR) in genomic DNA samples, using specific CCR5 oligonucleotide primers surrounding the breakpoint deletion, detected a 193-bp product from the normal CCR5 allele and a 161-bp product from the 32-bp deletion allele. In an investigation of the urban Brazilian population we detected a 93% frequency of normal CCR5/CCR5 homozygous individuals and a 7% frequency of CCR5/delta ccr5 heterozygous individuals. The frequency of the delta ccr5 mutant allele in this population is 0.035; however, no homozygous delta ccr5 individual has been detected thus far. This is the first evidence for the contribution of the delta ccr5 allele to the genetic background of the urban Brazilian population, which is characterized by intense ethnic admixture. These findings open perspectives for further studies on the relationship between delta ccr5 allele frequency and AIDS onset in high-risk HIV-1 exposures individuals.

  13. Racial disparities in incidence of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Ilana; Varier, Indu; Zhang, David; Demicco, Elizabeth G; Posner, Marshall R; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof; Genden, Eric M; Miles, Brett A; Teng, Marita S; Sikora, Andrew G

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that rates of human papillomavirus related oropharyngeal cancer (HPVOPC) in the US are higher in Caucasians than minorities. We hypothesized that this disparity would be less marked in a racially and ethnically diverse population from New York City. This is a retrospective chart review of 210 patients with biopsied or surgically treated OPC at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) between 1999 and 2013. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of HPV-DNA in paraffin-embedded tumor blocks. Incidence of HPV-positive cancers was compared between Caucasians and minorities (defined as African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics) using Fisher's exact test. We found a higher incidence of HPV-positive OPC in Caucasians than racial minorities within the ISMMS population (p=0.002). HPV incidence detected by PCR was 139/165 [84.2%] for Caucasians and 28/45 [62.2%] for minorities. Specifically, there was a higher rate in Caucasians compared to African Americans (p=0.017), but no significant difference between Caucasians and Hispanics (p=0.087). We documented a disparity in incidence of HPVOPC amongst racial groups, consistent with previously reported trends from study populations in less urbanized areas. Thus we conclude that the factors underlying racial/ethnic disparities in HPVOPC incidence are likely to be similar across communities with different levels of urbanization and population diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome in an Impoverished Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tamara; Skelton, Kelly; Phifer, Justine; Jovanovic, Tanja; Gillespie, Charles F.; Smith, Alicia; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and has increased prevalence in low-income African-Americans, which constitutes a significant health disparity. The mechanisms responsible for this disparity remain unclear; the current study investigated the relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and metabolic syndrome. Method We assessed childhood and adult trauma history, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), PTSD, and the components of metabolic syndrome in an urban population. We recruited 245 low socio-economic status (SES), primarily African American subjects from general medical clinics in an inner-city hospital. Results Trauma exposure was extremely prevalent, with 90.6% of subjects reporting at least one significant trauma, and 18.8% of subjects meeting criteria for a current PTSD. Metabolic syndrome was also prevalent in this population (33.2%), with significantly higher rates among patients with current PTSD (47.8%, p<.05). After controlling for demographics, smoking history, antipsychotic use, depression, and exercise, current PTSD remained the only significant predictor of metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). Conclusions PTSD is associated with increased rates of metabolic syndrome within a traumatized, impoverished urban population. Further studies should investigate if PTSD treatment may reduce the rates of metabolic syndrome, improve overall health outcomes, and decrease healthcare disparities in minority populations. PMID:21596206

  15. Heart Score Estimation by Specialized Nurses in a Greek Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evaggelia; Meidani, Maria; Boutsikou, Maria; Papaspiropoulou, Pinelopi; Kelaiditou, Theodosia; Koukouzli, Afedia; Tapola, Anastasia; Voudoufianaki, Ioanna; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Katsiki, Niki; Kolovou, Genovefa; Lekakis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Specialized nurses estimated the HeartScore in an urban Greek population by recognizing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the setting of the Onassis Cardiovascular Prevention Program (OCPP). They also provided nursing consultation and assessed the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the studied population. Individuals were recruited through TV announcements and via the website of the Onassis Cardiac Surgery Centre. All participants visited the Onassis Cardiac Centre from 20 September to 30 October 2011. Overall, 2,145 individuals were included in the study. CVD risk was calculated by the HeartScore and serum total cholesterol was measured (mean: 193±43 mg/dl). Although 33% of the participants reported dyslipidaemia, only 17% were on hypolipidaemic treatment. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia frequency increased with age. In the present study, specialized nurses estimated the HeartScore in a Greek urban population. The majority of the studied population was undiagnosed and untreated. These results highlight the necessity for both primary and secondary prevention programs that can be carried out by specialized nurses. Such programs may improve the diagnosis and treatment of CVD risk factors; early initiation and optimization of therapy as well as management of drug intolerance (e.g. statins) can contribute to CVD risk reduction.

  16. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  17. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighbourhoods or valleys within neighbourhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Exploration of management workflow of cataract surgery in an impoverished population in urban China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haofeng; Lin, Haotian; Qu, Bo; Chen, Weirong

    2014-06-01

    To explore and establish a rational management workflow for a free cataract surgery program for the poor population in urban China, aiming to improve surgical efficiency. Establishment of a management workflow mainly includes system design and an auxiliary facility. System design procedures consist of outpatient screening, outpatient physical examination, surgical procedures, and postoperative clinic visits. After establishing the management workflow of cataract surgery, a free cataract surgery program was conducted for 15 months. Based upon the established management mode, 9003 patients received preoperative screening and 2358 underwent cataract surgery. During the 15-month investigation, each procedure was successfully conducted, the efficiency of screening and operation attained the highest standards in China, and no surgical malpractice occurred intraoperatively. In this study, a management workflow for cataract surgery was designed for a poverty relief project in urban China. During the 15-month project, the degree of patient satisfaction was enhanced without disrupting the normal practice and safety of the sponsor hospital.

  19. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    PubMed

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  20. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years: A general population study of prevalence and risk factors from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC 2000).

    PubMed

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Houman, Tine; Goodman, Robert; Mette Skovgaard, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from preschool to school. A sample of 1585 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC2000 aged 5-7 years was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) with diagnostic classification by experienced clinicians. Perinatal, sociodemographic and socio-economic data was obtained from Danish national registries. The prevalence of any ICD-10 psychiatric disorder was 5.7% (95%CI: 4.4-7.1). Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) were found in 1.3% (95%CI: 0.8-1.8) and behavioural and hyperkinetic disorders were found in 1.5% (95%CI: 0.9-2.1) and 1.0% (95%CI: 0.4-1.6), respectively. Emotional disorders were found in 2.9% (95%CI: 1.9-40). More boys were diagnosed with PDD, behavioural disorders and tics. No gender differences were found in hyperactivity disorders (HD) and emotional disorders. Co-morbidity was frequent, in particular between HD and PDD, but also between HD and emotional disorder and behavioural disorder. Teenage mothers, single parents and low household income the first two years after the child's birth were associated with a three-to fourfold increased risk of psychiatric disorder in the child at age 5-7 years. The study results point to two "windows of opportunity" for prevention. In the earliest postnatal years, prevention should target families at socio-economic risk; and in the years before schooling, intervention should focus on children with symptoms of PDD, HD, and behavioural disorders.

  1. Association studies of genetic scores of serum vitamin B12 and folate levels with symptoms of depression and anxiety in two danish population studies.

    PubMed

    Møllehave, L T; Skaaby, T; Simonsen, K S; Thuesen, B H; Mortensen, E L; Sandholt, C H; Pedersen, O; Grarup, N; Hansen, T; Linneberg, A

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies have suggested low serum levels of vitamin B12 or folate to be risk factors of depression and anxiety. However, these results may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization studies are not subject to these limitations. The aim was to examine the association of genetic scores of vitamin B12 and folate-associated alleles with depression and anxiety. The study included 4126 participants from two Danish population-based studies. Serum vitamin B12 and folate were measured. Weighed allele scores were calculated as the sum of weights (genetic effect sizes) for 12 and two variants increasing circulating levels of vitamin B12 and folate, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by the Symptom Check List (SCL)-90-R, and self-reported doctor-diagnosed depression and anxiety. An increased weighed allele score for serum vitamin B12 was associated with decreased odds of a SCL-90-R score above the 90th percentile (OR 0.540 (95%CI 0.302-0.967)) in Health2006 but not in Inter99, in the pooled analysis (OR 0.817 (95%CI 0.331-2.018)) or with other outcomes. The weighed allele score for serum folate was not associated with any of the measured outcome variables: SCL-90-R scores of depression (pooled OR 0.603 (95%CI 0.101-3.602)), anxiety (pooled OR 0.619 (95%CI 0.110-3.495)), combined score or history of doctor-diagnosed depression or anxiety. Our results do not provide evidence for a causal effect of circulating folate or vitamin B12 on the risk of depression or anxiety. However, we cannot rule out small to moderate effects, and thus large scale studies are needed.

  2. The alternative DSM-5 personality disorder traits criterion: A comparative examination of three self-report forms in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Bach, Bo; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric qualities of all 3 PID-5 forms, simultaneously, based on a Danish sample (N = 1376) of 451 psychiatric outpatients and 925 community-dwelling participants. Scale reliability and factorial validity were satisfactory across all 3 PID-5 forms. The correlational profiles of the short and brief PID-5 forms with clinician-rated PD dimensions were nearly identical with that of the original PID-5 (rICC = .99 and .95, respectively). All 3 forms discriminated appropriately between psychiatric patients and community-dwelling individuals. This supports that all 3 PID-5 forms can be used to reliably and validly assess PD traits and provides initial support for the use of the abbreviated PID-5 forms in a European population. However, only the original 220-item form and the short 100-item form capture all 25 trait facets, and the brief 25-item form may be ideally limited to preliminary screening or situations with substantial time restrictions.

  3. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Allison; Cunningham, Joan; Maple-Brown, Louise; Dunbar, Terry; O'Dea, Kerin

    2011-02-02

    Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES). Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes) Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15-81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice). SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend <0.001), lycopene (p trend = 0.001), α- and ß-carotene (p trend = 0.019 and 0.026 respectively), after adjusting for age, sex, glucose tolerance status, smoking, alcohol use, hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, self-reported health, waist to hip ratio and body mass index. These associations remained after adjustment for self-reported frequency of intake of fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods and fruit juice, which all showed some association with plasma carotenoids. Even in the highest SES quintile, concentrations of all carotenoids (except lycopene) were lower than the mean concentrations in a non-Indigenous population. Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing

  4. Urbanization-induced population migration has reduced ambient PM2.5 concentrations in China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Chen, Yilin; Ciais, Philippe; Güneralp, Burak; Ru, Muye; Zhong, Qirui; Yun, Xiao; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Tao, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Liu, Junfeng; Zhao, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    Direct residential and transportation energy consumption (RTC) contributes significantly to ambient fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in China. During massive rural-urban migration, population and pollutant emissions from RTC have evolved in terms of magnitude and geographic distribution, which was thought to worsen PM2.5 levels in cities but has not been quantitatively addressed. We quantify the temporal trends and spatial patterns of migration to cities and evaluate their associated pollutant emissions from RTC and subsequent health impact from 1980 to 2030. We show that, despite increased urban RTC emissions due to migration, the net effect of migration in China has been a reduction of PM2.5 exposure, primarily because of an unequal distribution of RTC energy mixes between urban and rural areas. After migration, people have switched to cleaner fuel types, which considerably lessened regional emissions. Consequently, the national average PM2.5 exposure concentration in 2010 was reduced by 3.9 μg/m3 (90% confidence interval, 3.0 to 5.4 μg/m3) due to migration, corresponding to an annual reduction of 36,000 (19,000 to 47,000) premature deaths. This reduction was the result of an increase in deaths by 142,000 (78,000 to 181,000) due to migrants swarming into cities and decreases in deaths by 148,000 (76,000 to 194,000) and 29,000 (15,000 to 39,000) due to transitions to a cleaner energy mix and lower urban population densities, respectively. Locally, however, megacities such as Beijing and Shanghai experienced increases in PM2.5 exposure associated with migration because these cities received massive immigration, which has driven a large increase in local emissions. PMID:28776030

  5. Per-capita Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Increases Systematically with Urban Population Size: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Patterson-Lomba, Oscar; Goldstein, Edward; Gómez-Liévano, Andrés; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Towers, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rampant urbanization rates across the globe demand that we improve our understanding of how infectious diseases spread in modern urban landscapes, where larger and more connected host populations enhance the thriving capacity of certain pathogens. Methods A data-driven approach is employed to study the ability of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to thrive in urban areas. The conduciveness of population size of urban areas and their socio-economic characteristics are used as predictors of disease incidence, using confirmed-case data on STDs in the United States as a case study. Results A superlinear relation between STD incidence and urban population size is found, even after controlling for various socio-economic aspects, suggesting that doubling the population size of a city results in an expected increase in STD incidence larger than twofold, provided that all other socio-economic aspects remain fixed. Additionally, the percentage of African Americans, income inequalities, education, and per capita income are found to have a significant impact on the incidence of each of the three STDs studied. Conclusions STDs disproportionally concentrate in larger cities. Hence, larger urban areas merit extra prevention and treatment efforts, especially in developing countries where urbanization rates are higher. PMID:25921021

  6. Mortality among Patients with Cleared Hepatitis C Virus Infection Compared to the General Population: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter; Weis, Nina; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Background The increased mortality in HCV-infected individuals partly stems from viral damage to the liver and partly from risk-taking behaviours. We examined mortality in patients who cleared their HCV-infection, comparing it to that of the general population. We also addressed the question whether prognosis differed according to age, substance abuse (alcohol abuse and injection drug use) and comorbidity. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients with cleared HCV-infection were categorized into one of 8 groups according to age (20–39 years or 40–69 years) and patient characteristics (no substance abuse/no comorbidity; substance abuse/no comorbidity; no substance abuse/comorbidity; and substance abuse/comorbidity). For each patient, 4 age- and gender-matched individuals without substance abuse or comorbidity were selected from the general population, comprising a total of 8 comparison cohorts. We analyzed 10-year survival and used stratified Cox Regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs), comparing mortality between the 8 patient groups and the comparison cohorts, adjusting for personal income. Among patients without substance abuse or comorbidity, those aged 40–69 years had the same mortality as the comparison cohort (10-year survival: 95% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93%–97%), MRR: 1.3 (95% CI: 0.8–2.3)), whereas those aged 20–39 years had higher mortality than the comparison cohort (10-year survival: 93% versus 99%, MRR: 5.7 (95% CI: 2.3–14.0). For both age categories, substance abuse and comorbidity decreased survival and increased MRRs. Patients aged 40–69 years with substance abuse and comorbidity suffered from substantial mortality (MRR: 12.5 (95% CI: 5.1–30.6)). Conclusions Mortality in patients aged 40–69 years with cleared HCV-infection is comparable to individuals without HCV, provided they have no substance abuse or comorbidity. Any substance abuse and/or comorbidity not captured in the registries used for our study

  7. Epidemiology of blood parasitic infections in the urban rat population in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Alias, S N; Sahimin, N; Edah, M A; Mohd-Zain, S N

    2014-06-01

    A total of 719 wild rats were captured from four localities representing the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) to determine the diversity of blood protozoan from the urban wild rat population in peninsular Malaysia. Five rat species were recovered with Rattus rattus diardii being the most dominant species, followed by Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans, Rattus annandalei and Rattus argentiventer. Two blood protozoan species were found infecting the rodent population namely, Plasmodium sp. (42.1%) and Trypanosoma lewisi (25.0%). This study reports the presence of Plasmodium sp. for the first time in the rodent population in Malaysia. Two main intrinsic factors were identified affecting the parasitic infections. Trypanosoma lewisi infections were influenced by host age and sex with infections observed higher in male and juvenile rats meanwhile Plasmodium sp. infections were observed almost similar in both sexes. However, infections were higher in sub-adult rats.

  8. The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Behaviour in People with Diabetes: A Danish Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet) in people with diabetes. Methods. The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes (n = 1685). Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: “understand health information” and “actively engage with healthcare providers.” We used logistic regression to examine the association between health literacy and health behaviour. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, individuals with diabetes who found it difficult to understand information about health had higher odds of being physically inactive (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 2.14–5.51) and having unhealthy dietary habits (OR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.63–5.58). Similar results were observed for individuals who found it difficult to actively engage with healthcare providers. No associations were found between the two dimensions of health literacy and smoking and alcohol consumption. Conclusion. When developing health services and interventions to improve health behaviour among people with diabetes, our results suggest that they may benefit by including focus on health literacy. PMID:27761473

  9. The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Behaviour in People with Diabetes: A Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Friis, Karina; Vind, Benedicte Donslund; Simmons, Rebecca K; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    Background. People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet) in people with diabetes. Methods. The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes (n = 1685). Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: "understand health information" and "actively engage with healthcare providers." We used logistic regression to examine the association between health literacy and health behaviour. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, individuals with diabetes who found it difficult to understand information about health had higher odds of being physically inactive (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 2.14-5.51) and having unhealthy dietary habits (OR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.63-5.58). Similar results were observed for individuals who found it difficult to actively engage with healthcare providers. No associations were found between the two dimensions of health literacy and smoking and alcohol consumption. Conclusion. When developing health services and interventions to improve health behaviour among people with diabetes, our results suggest that they may benefit by including focus on health literacy.

  10. Risk of cryptorchidism and hypospadias among boys of maternal hairdressers - a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Toft, Gunnar Vase; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sørig

    2013-05-01

    Pregnant hairdressers may be exposed to a mixture of chemicals in their working environment. The possible relationship between these chemical agents and male reproductive tract malformations has raised concern that the working environment of hairdressers might have adverse effects on fetal development. This study assessed the risk of cryptorchidism and hypospadias among boys of maternal hairdressers. National population-based registers were used to determine maternal occupation and identify cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias. The cohort comprised all children born in Denmark from 1980-2007. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for hospitalization for cryptorchidism and hypospadias from 1980-2009. Boys of hairdressers were not at increased risk of cryptorchidism (134 cases, HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.77-1.08) or hypospadias (33 cases, HR 1.27; 95% CI 0.90-1.79) compared to children of mothers in other occupations (14 988 and 2556 cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias, respectively). Additional analyses using children of shop assistants and receptionists as controls and restricted to (i) firstborns, (ii) cryptorchidism cases with corrective surgery, (iii) specific birth years, and (iv) women without social benefit payments in gestational weeks 8-14 produced consistent results of no increased risk. Our nationwide cohort study shows that, despite exposure to a complex chemical milieu, hairdressers do not have an increased risk of having boys with cryptorchidism and hypospadias.

  11. The impact of urban street canyons on population exposure to traffic-related primary pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Levy, Jonathan I.

    The relationship between emissions and population exposures to traffic-related air pollutants is a necessary component of any assessment of mobile source control strategies. In this analysis, part of the New York Metropolitan Exposure to Traffic Study (NYMETS), we simulated atmospheric dispersion and population exposure in densely populated street canyons in mid-town Manhattan. We estimated population exposure using the concept of an intake fraction (iF), defined as the fraction of material released from a source that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population. We applied the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) for inert pollutants (e.g., CO, PM 2.5), reactive pollutants (e.g., NO and NO 2), and ultrafine particles. Concentrations were linked with different subpopulations, including residents, workers, and pedestrians, incorporating time-activity patterns and differential breathing rates. For the base case scenario, the total iF for a 100-m-long street canyon including the contribution of different subpopulations is on the order of 10 -3. Daytime office workers and pedestrians contribute most to the overall iF, together contributing over 80% for all pollutants. Univariate sensitivity analyses show that iFs are sensitive to the street configuration and slightly sensitive to traffic volume, speed, and percent of trucks. Our iF estimates are similar in magnitude to those found for indoor environmental tobacco smoke and are substantially higher than previous mobile source estimates, mainly due to the higher population density in street canyons. Our findings emphasize the importance of controlling emissions in urban street canyons, and the need to study high-resolution near-source exposures for primary pollutants in urban settings to inform cost-benefit analyses.

  12. Population Density, Climate Variables and Poverty Synergistically Structure Spatial Risk in Urban Malaria in India

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Bouma, Menno J; Kohli, Vijay; Pascual, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Background The world is rapidly becoming urban with the global population living in cities projected to double by 2050. This increase in urbanization poses new challenges for the spread and control of communicable diseases such as malaria. In particular, urban environments create highly heterogeneous socio-economic and environmental conditions that can affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases dependent on human water storage and waste water management. Interestingly India, as opposed to Africa, harbors a mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi, which thrives in the man-made environments of cities and acts as the vector for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, making the malaria problem a truly urban phenomenon. Here we address the role and determinants of within-city spatial heterogeneity in the incidence patterns of vivax malaria, and then draw comparisons with results for falciparum malaria. Methodology/principal findings Statistical analyses and a phenomenological transmission model are applied to an extensive spatio-temporal dataset on cases of Plasmodium vivax in the city of Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India) that spans 12 years monthly at the level of wards. A spatial pattern in malaria incidence is described that is largely stationary in time for this parasite. Malaria risk is then shown to be associated with socioeconomic indicators and environmental parameters, temperature and humidity. In a more dynamical perspective, an Inhomogeneous Markov Chain Model is used to predict vivax malaria risk. Models that account for climate factors, socioeconomic level and population size show the highest predictive skill. A comparison to the transmission dynamics of falciparum malaria reinforces the conclusion that the spatio-temporal patterns of risk are strongly driven by extrinsic factors. Conclusion/significance Climate forcing and socio-economic heterogeneity act synergistically at local scales on the population dynamics of urban malaria in this city. The

  13. Population Density, Climate Variables and Poverty Synergistically Structure Spatial Risk in Urban Malaria in India.

    PubMed

    Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Bouma, Menno J; Kohli, Vijay; Pascual, Mercedes

    2016-12-01

    The world is rapidly becoming urban with the global population living in cities projected to double by 2050. This increase in urbanization poses new challenges for the spread and control of communicable diseases such as malaria. In particular, urban environments create highly heterogeneous socio-economic and environmental conditions that can affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases dependent on human water storage and waste water management. Interestingly India, as opposed to Africa, harbors a mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi, which thrives in the man-made environments of cities and acts as the vector for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, making the malaria problem a truly urban phenomenon. Here we address the role and determinants of within-city spatial heterogeneity in the incidence patterns of vivax malaria, and then draw comparisons with results for falciparum malaria. Statistical analyses and a phenomenological transmission model are applied to an extensive spatio-temporal dataset on cases of Plasmodium vivax in the city of Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India) that spans 12 years monthly at the level of wards. A spatial pattern in malaria incidence is described that is largely stationary in time for this parasite. Malaria risk is then shown to be associated with socioeconomic indicators and environmental parameters, temperature and humidity. In a more dynamical perspective, an Inhomogeneous Markov Chain Model is used to predict vivax malaria risk. Models that account for climate factors, socioeconomic level and population size show the highest predictive skill. A comparison to the transmission dynamics of falciparum malaria reinforces the conclusion that the spatio-temporal patterns of risk are strongly driven by extrinsic factors. Climate forcing and socio-economic heterogeneity act synergistically at local scales on the population dynamics of urban malaria in this city. The stationarity of malaria risk patterns provides a basis for more

  14. Association of the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia with mortality and suicidal behavior - A Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Thomas M; Trabjerg, Betina B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Meier, Sandra M; Byrne, Enda M; Mortensen, Preben B; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben

    2017-06-01

    It is unknown whether an increased genetic liability to schizophrenia influences the risk of dying early. The aim of the study was to determine whether the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is associated with the risk of dying early and experience a suicide attempt. Case control study, Denmark. The main measure was the mortality rate ratios (MRR) for deaths and odds ratios (OR) for multiple suicide attempts, associated with one standard deviations increase of the polygenic risk-score for schizophrenia (PRS). We replicated the high mortality MRR=9.01 (95% CI: 3.56-22.80), and high risk of multiple suicide attempts OR=33.16 (95% CI: 20.97-52.43) associated with schizophrenia compared to the general population. However, there was no effect of the PRS on mortality MRR=1.00 (95% CI 0.71-1.40) in the case-control setup or in cases only, MRR=1.05 (95% CI 0.73-1.51). Similar, no association between the PRS and multiple suicide attempts was found in the adjusted models, but in contrast, family history of mental disorders was associated with both outcomes. A genetic predisposition for schizophrenia, measured by PRS, has little influence on the excess mortality or the risk of suicide attempts. In contrast there is a strong significant effect of family history of mental disorders. Our findings could reflect that the common variants detected by recent PRS only explain a small proportion of risk of schizophrenia, and that future, more powerful PRS instruments may be able to predict excess mortality within this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii Isolates from the Urban Rat Populations of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Benacer, Douadi; Zain, Siti Nursheena Mohd; Amran, Fairuz; Galloway, Renee L.; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Rats are considered the principal maintenance hosts of Leptospira. The objectives of this study were isolation and identification of Leptospira serovars circulating among urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur. Three hundred urban rats (73% Rattus rattus and 27% R. norvegicus) from three different sites were trapped. Twenty cultures were positive for Leptospira using dark-field microscopy. R. rattus was the dominant carrier (70%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that all isolates were pathogenic Leptospira species. Two Leptospira serogroups, Javanica and Bataviae, were identified using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified two serovars in the urban rat populations: L. borgpetersenii serovar Javanica (85%) and L. interrogans serovar Bataviae (15%). We conclude that these two serovars are the major serovars circulating among the urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur. Despite the low infection rate reported, the high pathogenicity of these serovars raises concern of public health risks caused by rodent transmission of leptospirosis. PMID:23358635

  16. Urbanization and Mental Health in China: Linking the 2010 Population Census with a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

    2015-07-31

    Along with the rapid urbanization in China, the state of mental health also receives growing attention. Empirical measures, however, have not been developed to assess the impact of urbanization on mental health and the dramatic spatial variations. Innovatively linking the 2010 Chinese Population Census with a 2011 national survey of urban residents, we first assess the impact of urbanization on depressive symptoms measured by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) of 1288 survey respondents. We then retrieve county-level characteristics from the 2010 Chinese Population Census that match the individual characteristics in the survey, so as to create a profile of the "average person" for each of the 2869 counties or city districts, and predict a county-specific CES-D score. We use this county-specific CES-D score to compute the CES-D score for the urban population at the prefectural level, and to demonstrate the dramatic spatial variations in urbanization and mental health across China: highly populated cities along the eastern coast such as Shenyang and Shanghai show high CES-D scores, as do cities in western China with high population density and a high proportion of educated ethnic minorities.

  17. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant (P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI (P < 0.01), SBP (P < 0.05), and NC (P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95(th) percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95(th) percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP.

  18. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Results: Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant (P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI (P < 0.01), SBP (P < 0.05), and NC (P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95th percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95th percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Conclusion: Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP. PMID:28781477

  19. Urbanization and Mental Health in China: Linking the 2010 Population Census with a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F.

    2015-01-01

    Along with the rapid urbanization in China, the state of mental health also receives growing attention. Empirical measures, however, have not been developed to assess the impact of urbanization on mental health and the dramatic spatial variations. Innovatively linking the 2010 Chinese Population Census with a 2011 national survey of urban residents, we first assess the impact of urbanization on depressive symptoms measured by the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) of 1288 survey respondents. We then retrieve county-level characteristics from the 2010 Chinese Population Census that match the individual characteristics in the survey, so as to create a profile of the “average person” for each of the 2869 counties or city districts, and predict a county-specific CES-D score. We use this county-specific CES-D score to compute the CES-D score for the urban population at the prefectural level, and to demonstrate the dramatic spatial variations in urbanization and mental health across China: highly populated cities along the eastern coast such as Shenyang and Shanghai show high CES-D scores, as do cities in western China with high population density and a high proportion of educated ethnic minorities. PMID:26264013

  20. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban population: The Chennai Glaucoma Study.

    PubMed

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam Ve

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban south Indian population. Population-based cross-sectional study. Exactly 3850 subjects aged 40 years and above from Chennai city were examined at a dedicated facility in the base hospital. All subjects had a complete ophthalmic examination that included best-corrected visual acuity. Low vision and blindness were defined using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The influence of age, gender, literacy, and occupation was assessed using multiple logistic regression. Chi-square test, t-test, and multivariate analysis were used. Of the 4800 enumerated subjects, 3850 subjects (1710 males, 2140 females) were examined (response rate, 80.2%). The prevalence of blindness was 0.85% (95% CI 0.6-1.1%) and was positively associated with age and illiteracy. Cataract was the leading cause (57.6%) and glaucoma was the second cause (16.7%) for blindness. The prevalence of low vision was 2.9% (95% CI 2.4-3.4%) and visual impairment (blindness + low vision) was 3.8% (95% CI 3.2-4.4%). The primary causes for low vision were refractive errors (68%) and cataract (22%). In this urban population based study, cataract was the leading cause for blindness and refractive error was the main reason for low vision.

  1. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species

    PubMed Central

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal’s tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual’s lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide. PMID:27499420

  2. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban population: The Chennai Glaucoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam Ve

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban south Indian population. Settings and Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Exactly 3850 subjects aged 40 years and above from Chennai city were examined at a dedicated facility in the base hospital. Materials and Methods: All subjects had a complete ophthalmic examination that included best-corrected visual acuity. Low vision and blindness were defined using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The influence of age, gender, literacy, and occupation was assessed using multiple logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, t-test, and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Of the 4800 enumerated subjects, 3850 subjects (1710 males, 2140 females) were examined (response rate, 80.2%). The prevalence of blindness was 0.85% (95% CI 0.6–1.1%) and was positively associated with age and illiteracy. Cataract was the leading cause (57.6%) and glaucoma was the second cause (16.7%) for blindness. The prevalence of low vision was 2.9% (95% CI 2.4–3.4%) and visual impairment (blindness + low vision) was 3.8% (95% CI 3.2–4.4%). The primary causes for low vision were refractive errors (68%) and cataract (22%). Conclusions: In this urban population based study, cataract was the leading cause for blindness and refractive error was the main reason for low vision. PMID:23619490

  3. Status of urban populations of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ilham, Kurnia; Rizaldi; Nurdin, Jabang; Tsuji, Yamato

    2017-04-01

    We studied long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia, focusing on the effect of human provisioning on their demography and dietary composition. We conducted a field survey at three sites in the city: Gunung Meru, Gunung Padang, and Gunung Panggilun. Mean troop size (range 28-68) and infant ratio (range 0.38-1.00) were greater in Gunung Meru, where the macaques have been highly provisioned, than at the other two study sites (troop size 10-15; infant ratio 0.00-0.33). The macaques at all sites consumed both natural and human foods, but dependence on the latter differed among sites: three-quarters of the diet of macaques in Gunung Meru consisted of human foods, while human foods comprised less than 5% of the macaque diet at the other sites. The ability of macaques to modify the proportion of human food is a behavioral flexibility that facilitates the survival of the long-tailed macaque in urban habitats. Without restrictions on provisioning, the degree of dependence of macaques on human foods and population size could increase, especially in Gunung Meru, and human-macaque conflict could escalate. In order to create an effective management policy for urbanized monkeys, long-term quantitative data on macaque behavior and monitoring of population parameters are required.

  4. Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defries, Ruth S.; Rudel, Thomas; Uriarte, Maria; Hansen, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    Reducing atmospheric carbon emissions from tropical deforestation is at present considered a cost-effective option for mitigating climate change. However, the forces associated with tropical forest loss are uncertain. Here we use satellite-based estimates of forest loss for 2000 to 2005 (ref. 2) to assess economic, agricultural and demographic correlates across 41 countries in the humid tropics. Two methods of analysis-linear regression and regression tree-show that forest loss is positively correlated with urban population growth and exports of agricultural products for this time period. Rural population growth is not associated with forest loss, indicating the importance of urban-based and international demands for agricultural products as drivers of deforestation. The strong trend in movement of people to cities in the tropics is, counter-intuitively, likely to be associated with greater pressures for clearing tropical forests. We therefore suggest that policies to reduce deforestation among local, rural populations will not address the main cause of deforestation in the future. Rather, efforts need to focus on reducing deforestation for industrial-scale, export-oriented agricultural production, concomitant with efforts to increase yields in non-forested lands to satisfy demands for agricultural products.

  5. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L

    2016-08-08

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal's tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual's lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide.

  6. Cancer risk and mortality after kidney transplantation: a population-based study on differences between Danish centres using standard immunosuppression with and without glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Bistrup, Claus; Heaf, James; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte; Hansen, Jesper Melchior; Svensson, My; Green, Anders; Marckmann, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Kidney recipients receive immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, and long-term outcomes such as post-transplant cancer and mortality may vary according to the different protocols of immunosuppression. A national register-based historical cohort study was conducted to examine whether post-transplant cancer and all-cause mortality differed between Danish renal transplantation centres using standard immunosuppressive protocols including steroids (Centres 2, 3, 4) or a steroid-free protocol (Centre 1). The Danish Nephrology Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Cancer Registry and the Danish National Patient Register were used. A historical cohort of 1450 kidney recipients transplanted in 1995-2005 was followed up with respect to post-transplant cancer and death until 31 December 2011. Compared with Center 1 the adjusted post-transplant cancer risk was 6-39% lower in Centre 3 [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.32], in Centre 2 (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.98) and in Centre 4 (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44-0.83). Compared with Center 1, the adjusted post-transplant mortality was 21-55% higher in Centre 4 (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.91-1.61), in Centre 3 (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98-1.86) and in Centre 2 (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.17-2.05). On average, post-transplant cancer was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of death (HR 4.25, 95% CI 3.36-5.38). There was a tendency of a higher post-transplant cancer occurrence, but lower all-cause mortality, in the Danish transplantation centre that adhered to a standard steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Ebeltoft project: baseline data from a five-year randomized, controlled, prospective health promotion study in a Danish population.

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, T; Leboeuf-Yde, C; Lunde, I M; Nielsen, K D

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. There is increasing political pressure on the medical profession to approach welfare diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, through prevention. General practitioners are required to offer regular health checks to healthy people, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence for the universal need, usefulness and side effects of such an intervention. Randomized controlled trials are needed. AIM. A study was carried out to investigate people's interest in participating in health checks and in discussions about health with their own general practitioner, participants' health status, the proportion who received health advice following health checks, and the lifestyle goals they set following discussion with their general practitioner. This study reports the baseline data from a five-year randomized, controlled, prospective, population-based study in general practices in Ebeltoft, Denmark. METHOD. All general practitioners from the four practices in Ebeltoft and a random sample of 2000 people aged between 30 and 50 years were invited to participate. Participants were randomly divided into three groups--one control group and two intervention groups. One intervention group were given a health check which included being screened for cardiovascular risk factors, lung and liver function, fitness, sight and hearing and an optional test for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); this group received written feedback from the general practitioner. The other intervention group were also given a health check and written feedback; in addition, they were given the opportunity to attend their general practitioner to discuss preventive health. RESULTS. A total of 1370 people participated in the study (69% response rate). Health advice was given to 76% of 905 participants following health checks. Almost all of the 456 participants (96%) who were offered the opportunity of discussing their health with their general practitioner took up the offer; 64% of the

  8. Home Fire Safety Practices and Smoke Detector Program Awareness in an Urban Pediatric Emergency Department Population.

    PubMed

    Wood, Rachel Lynn; Teach, Stephen J; Rucker, Alexandra; Lall, Ambika; Chamberlain, James M; Ryan, Leticia Manning

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for residential fire death (young age, minority race/ethnicity, and low socioeconomic status) are common among urban pediatric emergency department (ED) patients. Community-based resources are available in our region to provide free smoke detector installation. The objective of our study was to describe awareness of these resources and home fire safety practices in this vulnerable population. In this cross-sectional study, a brief survey was administered to a convenience sample of caregivers accompanying patients 19 years of age or younger in an urban pediatric ED in Washington, DC. Survey contents focused on participant knowledge of available community-based resources and risk factors for residential fire injury. Five hundred eleven eligible caregivers were approached, and 401 (78.5%) agreed to participate. Patients accompanying the caregivers were 48% male, 77% African American, and had a mean (SD) age of 6.5 (5.9) years. Of study participants, 256 (63.8%) lived with children younger than 5 years. When asked about available community-based resources for smoke detectors, 240 (59.9%) were unaware of these programs, 319 (79.6%) were interested in participating, and 221 (55.1%) enrolled. Presence of a home smoke detector was reported by 396 respondents (98.7%); however, 346 (86.3%) reported testing these less often than monthly. Two hundred fifty-six 256 (63.8%) lacked a carbon monoxide detector, and 202 (50.4%) had no fire escape plan. Sixty-five (16%) reported indoor smoking, and 92 (22.9%) reported space heater use. In this urban pediatric ED population, there is limited awareness of community-based resources but high rates of interest in participating once informed. Whereas the self-reported prevalence of home smoke detectors is high in our study population, other fire safety practices are suboptimal.

  9. Toolbox for Urban Mobility Simulation: High Resolution Population Dynamics for Global Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Lu, W.; Liu, C.; Thakur, G.; Karthik, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this rapidly urbanizing world, unprecedented rate of population growth is not only mirrored by increasing demand for energy, food, water, and other natural resources, but has detrimental impacts on environmental and human security. Transportation simulations are frequently used for mobility assessment in urban planning, traffic operation, and emergency management. Previous research, involving purely analytical techniques to simulations capturing behavior, has investigated questions and scenarios regarding the relationships among energy, emissions, air quality, and transportation. Primary limitations of past attempts have been availability of input data, useful "energy and behavior focused" models, validation data, and adequate computational capability that allows adequate understanding of the interdependencies of our transportation system. With increasing availability and quality of traditional and crowdsourced data, we have utilized the OpenStreetMap roads network, and has integrated high resolution population data with traffic simulation to create a Toolbox for Urban Mobility Simulations (TUMS) at global scale. TUMS consists of three major components: data processing, traffic simulation models, and Internet-based visualizations. It integrates OpenStreetMap, LandScanTM population, and other open data (Census Transportation Planning Products, National household Travel Survey, etc.) to generate both normal traffic operation and emergency evacuation scenarios. TUMS integrates TRANSIMS and MITSIM as traffic simulation engines, which are open-source and widely-accepted for scalable traffic simulations. Consistent data and simulation platform allows quick adaption to various geographic areas that has been demonstrated for multiple cities across the world. We are combining the strengths of geospatial data sciences, high performance simulations, transportation planning, and emissions, vehicle and energy technology development to design and develop a simulation

  10. Rural-Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population.

    PubMed

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural-urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 1052 young residents, aged 16-25 years. Data were obtained concerning: 1) exposures-migration (defined as an occasion when a young person, born in a more rural area moves for the first time into Greater Bangkok) and age at migration. 2) outcomes-child abuse experiences were assessed with an anonymous self report adapted from the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). There were 8.4%. 16.6% and 56.0% reporting sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, respectively. Forty six percent of adolescents had migrated from rural areas to Bangkok, mostly independently at the age of 15 or after to seek work. Although there were trends towards higher prevalences of the three categories of abuse among early migrants, who moved to Bangkok before the age of 15, being early migrants was independently associated with experiences of physical abuse (OR 1.9 95%CI 1.1-3.2) and emotional abuse (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3-3.0) only. Our results suggest that rural-urban migration at an early age may place children at higher risk of physical and emotional abuse. This may have policy implications for the prevention of childhood abuse particularly among young people on the move.

  11. Patterns of dynamic urban population growth in Russia, 1989-1996: a research report.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R H

    1997-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to investigate locations in which rapid urban growth occurred in Russia over the period 1989 to 1996....Particular emphasis will be given to the geographical patterns, economic functions, and population size of rapidly growing towns. In addition, the discussion of trends for 1989-1996 also will be briefly preceded by and compared to those of 1979-1989, although the paper will emphasize trends during the 1990s. Furthermore, the topic of ¿new towns', which themselves often are rapidly growing centers, will be addressed as well."

  12. Prayer Attendance and General Health in the Iranian Adult Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Sotodehasl, Nemat; Ghorbani, Raheb; Mahdavi-Nejad, Gholamhosein; Haji-Aghajani, Saeed; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between prayer attendance and general health among adult urban population in Iran. A total of 470 males older than 17 years, chosen by multistage sampling, were investigated. The results showed that people who did not perform prayers compared to those who said prayers on time and performed Nafilahs (supererogatory prayers) were 2.87 (OR 2.87, 95 % CI 1.23-6.70, p = 0.015) times at risk of general health problems. In conclusion, the findings show that increasing the degree of people's belief in prayer can lead to improve general health.

  13. Trends in population exposure to particulate matter in urban areas of Greece during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Aleksandropoulou, V; Lazaridis, M

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of population exposure is very important for the evaluation of the adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) ambient levels. In this work population exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 has been evaluated in outdoor environments in the Athens (AMA) and Thessaloniki (TMA) metropolitan areas during the period 2001-2010. The methodology used is based on combining spatiotemporally allocated PM10 and PM2.5 concentration fields with the geographical distribution of population. The results showed that the number of people living in the AMA exposed to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations above the annual air quality standards (AQS), has dropped 18% since 2001 and 98% since 2008, respectively. Likewise, in 2010 8% less, compared to 2001, of the AMA population lived in areas where the daily AQS for PM10 was exceeded >35 times a year. The results as regards TMA indicated a decrease in the number of people exposed to PM10 concentrations over the annual AQS value (78% decrease). However, the number of people living in areas with PM10 concentrations over the daily AQS for >35 times in a year doubled since 2001. Finally, the spatial distribution of the normalised population load which reflects populated areas with concentrations above the daily AQS was evaluated. The hot spots for both AMA and TMA areas correspond to urban areas and areas with significant primary PM10 emissions.

  14. Conservation genetics of extremely isolated urban populations of the northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) in New York City.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason; Zak, Yana; Pehek, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five remnant urban populations of dusky salamanders in NYC. These genetic measures provide information on isolation, prevalence of inbreeding, long-term prospects for population persistence, and potential for evolutionary responses to future environmental change. All populations were genetically differentiated from each other, and the most isolated populations in Manhattan have maintained very little genetic variation (i.e. <20% heterozygosity). A majority of the populations also exhibited evidence of genetic bottlenecks. These findings contrast with published estimates of high genetic variation within and lack of structure between populations of other desmognathine salamanders sampled over similar or larger spatial scales. Declines in genetic variation likely resulted from population extirpations and the degradation of stream and terrestrial paths for dispersal in NYC. Loss of genetic variability in populations isolated by human development may be an underappreciated cause and/or consequence of the decline of this species in urbanized areas of the northeast USA.

  15. Conservation genetics of extremely isolated urban populations of the northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Yana; Pehek, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five remnant urban populations of dusky salamanders in NYC. These genetic measures provide information on isolation, prevalence of inbreeding, long-term prospects for population persistence, and potential for evolutionary responses to future environmental change. All populations were genetically differentiated from each other, and the most isolated populations in Manhattan have maintained very little genetic variation (i.e. <20% heterozygosity). A majority of the populations also exhibited evidence of genetic bottlenecks. These findings contrast with published estimates of high genetic variation within and lack of structure between populations of other desmognathine salamanders sampled over similar or larger spatial scales. Declines in genetic variation likely resulted from population extirpations and the degradation of stream and terrestrial paths for dispersal in NYC. Loss of genetic variability in populations isolated by human development may be an underappreciated cause and/or consequence of the decline of this species in urbanized areas of the northeast USA. PMID:23646283

  16. The relationship between access and quality of urban green space with population physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hillsdon, M; Panter, J; Foster, C; Jones, A

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the association between access to quality urban green space and levels of physical activity. A cross-sectional examination of the relationship between access to quality urban green space and level of recreational physical activity in 4950 middle-aged (40-70 years) respondents from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who resided in Norwich, UK. Using geographic information systems (GIS), three measures of access to open green space were calculated based on distance only, distance and size of green space and distance, size and quality of green space. Multiple regression models were used to determine the relationship between the three indicators of access to open green space and level of recreational physical activity. There was no evidence of clear relationships between recreational activity and access to green spaces. Non-significant associations were apparent for all variables, and there was no evidence of a clear trend in regression coefficients across quartiles of access for either the distance, size adjusted, and quality and size-adjusted models. Furthermore, the neighbourhood measures of access to green spaces showed non-significant associations with recreational physical activity. Access to urban green spaces does not appear to be associated with population levels of recreational physical activity in our sample of middle-aged adults.

  17. Ecotypic differentiation between urban and rural populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus relative to climate and habitat fragmentation.

    PubMed

    San Martin Y Gomez, Gilles; Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Urbanization alters environmental conditions in multiple ways and offers an ecological or evolutionary challenge for organisms to cope with. Urban areas typically have a warmer climate and strongly fragmented herbaceous vegetation; the urban landscape matrix is often assumed to be hostile for many organisms. Here, we addressed the issue of evolutionary differentiation between urban and rural populations of an ectotherm insect, the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. We compared mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits measured on the first generation offspring of grasshoppers from urban and rural populations reared in a common garden laboratory experiment. We predicted (1) the urban phenotype to be more mobile (i.e., lower mass allocation to the abdomen, longer relative femur and wing lengths) than the rural phenotype; (2) the urban phenotype to be more warm adapted (e.g., higher female body mass); and (3) further evidence of local adaptation in the form of significant interaction effects between landscape of origin and breeding temperature. Both males and females of urban origin had significantly longer relative femur and wing lengths and lower mass allocation to the abdomen (i.e., higher investment in thorax and flight muscles) relative to individuals of rural origin. The results were overall significant but small (2-4%). Body mass and larval growth rate were much higher (+10%) in females of urban origin. For the life history traits, we did not find evidence for significant interaction effects between the landscape of origin and the two breeding temperatures. Our results point to ecotypic differentiation with urbanization for mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits. We argue that the warmer urban environment has an indirect effect through longer growth season rather than direct effects on the development.

  18. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  19. Rapid, pervasive genetic differentiation of urban white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason; Kharchenko, Katerina

    2010-10-01

    We investigated genetic diversity and structure of urban white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, populations in New York City (NYC) using variation at 18 microsatellite loci. White-footed mice are 'urban adapters' that occur at higher population densities as habitat fragments are reduced in area but have a limited ability to disperse through urbanized areas. We hypothesized that this combination of traits has produced substantial genetic structure but minimal loss of genetic variation over the last century in NYC. Allelic diversity and heterozygosity in 14 NYC populations were high, and nearly all of our NYC study sites contained genetically distinct populations of white-footed mice as measured by pairwise FST , assignment tests, and Bayesian clustering analyses performed by Structure and baps. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that genetic differences between populations separated by a few kilometres are more significant than differences between prehistorically isolated landmasses (i.e. Bronx, Queens, and Manhattan). Allele size permutation tests and lack of isolation by distance indicated that mutation and migration are less important than drift as explanations for structure in urban, fragmented P. leucopus populations. Peromyscus often exhibit little genetic structure over even regional scales, prompting us to conclude that urbanization is a particularly potent driver of genetic differentiation compared to natural fragmentation.

  20. Coupling SLEUTH model and population projection to simulate urban growth of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Y.; Zhao, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study used two modelling approaches to predict future urban landscapes for the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. In the first approach, we implemented traditional SLEUTH urban simulation model by using publicly available and locally-developed land cover and transportation data. Historical land cover data from 1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used to calibrate the SLEUTH model and predict urban growth from 2011 to 2070. The SLEUTH model achieved 94.8% overall accuracy for validation year 2014. For the second modelling approach, we used a future population projection for 2050, aided by a strong population-imperviousness statistical relationship (R2 ~ 0.95), to predict impervious surface density for each county. These population-predicted impervious surface density values were compared to SLEUTH model output, at the county spatial scale. R2 of 0.84 suggested general agreement of overall pattern, although SLEUTH generated higher impervious surface density values for 36 out of 40 counties. For population-predicted impervious surface density, we further developed a lookup table approach to integrate SLEUTH output and generated a spatially explicit urban map for 2050. This lookup table approach has high potential to integrate population-predicted and SLEUTH-predicted urban landscape, especially when future population can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Mapping and modeling the urban landscape in Bangkok, Thailand: Physical-spectral-spatial relations of population-environmental interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang

    This research focuses on the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems, statistical modeling, and spatial analysis to examine the dynamics of urban land cover, urban structure, and population-environment interactions in Bangkok, Thailand, with an emphasis on rural-to-urban migration from rural Nang Rong District, Northeast Thailand to the primate city of Bangkok. The dissertation consists of four main sections: (1) development of remote sensing image classification and change-detection methods for characterizing imperviousness for Bangkok, Thailand from 1993-2002; (2) development of 3-D urban mapping methods, using high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite images, to assess high-rises and other urban structures; (3) assessment of urban spatial structure from 2-D and 3-D perspectives; and (4) an analysis of the spatial clustering of migrants from Nang Rong District in Bangkok and the neighborhood environments of migrants' locations. Techniques are developed to improve the accuracy of the neural network classification approach for the analysis of remote sensing data, with an emphasis on the spectral unmixing problem. The 3-D building heights are derived using the shadow information on the high-resolution IKONOS image. The results from the 2-D and 3-D mapping are further examined to assess urban structure and urban feature identification. This research contributes to image processing of remotely-sensed images and urban studies. The rural-urban migration process and migrants' settlement patterns are examined using spatial statistics, GIS, and remote sensing perspectives. The results show that migrants' spatial clustering in urban space is associated with the source village and a number of socio-demographic variables. In addition, the migrants' neighborhood environments in urban setting are modeled using a set of geographic and socio-demographic variables, and the results are scale-dependent.

  2. The Danish Nephrology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Heaf, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nephrology Registry’s (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities’ quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. Study population The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964. Main variables DNR registers patient data (eg, age, sex, renal diagnosis, and comorbidity), predialysis specialist treatment, details of eight dialysis modalities (three hemodialysis and five peritoneal dialysis), all transplantation courses, dialysis access at first dialysis, treatment complications, and biochemical variables. The database is complete (<1% missing data). Patients are followed until death or emigration. Descriptive data DNR now contains 18,120 patients, and an average of 678 is added annually. Data for each transplantation course include donor details, tissue type, time to onset of graft function, and cause of graft loss. Registered complications include peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, causes of peritoneal dialysis technique failure, and transplant rejections. Fifteen biochemical variables are registered, mainly describing anemia control, mineral and bone disease, nutritional and uremia status. Date and cause of death are also included. Six quality indicators are published annually, and have been associated with improvements in patient results, eg, a reduction in dialysis patient mortality, improved graft survival, and earlier referral to specialist care. Approximately, ten articles, mainly epidemiological, are published each year. Conclusion DNR contains a complete description of end-stage renal disease patients in Denmark, their treatment, and prognosis. The stated aims are fulfilled. PMID:27843345

  3. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  4. Factors associated with pneumococcal vaccination among an urban elderly population in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shijun; Xu, Erping; Liu, Yan; Xu, Yuyang; Wang, Jun; Du, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Che, Xinren; Gu, Wenwen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the coverage of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23-PPV) in the Chinese urban elderly population and to understand the attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of this population toward the 23-PPV vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional approach was employed to survey the willingness of this population to receive the 23-PPV vaccination. Two thousand 9 hundred 2 six subjects over the age of 60 y were enrolled via a multi-stage random sampling method from the urban community population in Hangzhou, China. The relationships between the variables and the willingness to receive the 23-PPV vaccination were computed as odds ratios (ORs) by multivariate analysis. Results Of the participants, 21.77% were willing to undergo 23-PPV vaccination, and 61.65% of the subjects agreed that pneumonia is a serious disease among elderly people. The rate of reasonable perceptions about vaccination, including the perception about vaccine efficacy and safety, among the subjects was below 50%. Only 1.23% of subjects had been vaccinated with 23-PPV, and a similarly low rate was observed for the seasonal influenza vaccine (4.17%). The factors that were independently related to the willingness to receive the 23-PPV vaccine included consensus with the hazards of pneumonia (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.28 – 2.17), the safety of vaccination (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.54 – 2.59), advice about the 23-PPV vaccination from family members (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.39 – 4.40), influenza vaccination history (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.66 – 3.98) and pneumococcal vaccination history (OR = 7.48, 95% CI: 2.4–22.92). Conclusion: The administration of the 23-PPV vaccine among the urban elderly population is not optimistic in China. Emphasis on persuasion from families and the improvement of knowledge about vaccination might encourage elderly people to get the 23-PPV vaccination. Suggestions from physicians did not affect the participants’ willingness to get the 23-PPV vaccination

  5. Using population statistics for a first look at the utility of Landsat data for urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landini, A. J.; Mcleod, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the Image Based Information System (IBIS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) which provided the city of Los Angeles with Landsat land use data in a format compatible with the city's land use and population files. Landsat data are compared to other land use files and the comparisons are discussed as an attempt to establish a level of validity. Relationships between population and Landsat data are investigated and reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the use of such data for urban areas. Finally, it is noted that the project verified the flexibility of IBIS for reducing and delivering Landsat data to users lacking the ability to process raw satellite data tapes and points to the system as a model for a potential national census of land use.

  6. Individual behaviors dominate the dynamics of an urban mountain lion population isolated by roads.

    PubMed

    Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pollinger, John P; Sikich, Jeffrey A; Dalbeck, Lisa; Wayne, Robert K; Ernest, Holly B

    2014-09-08

    Large carnivores can be particularly sensitive to the effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity [1, 2]. The Santa Monica Mountains (SMMs), a large natural area within Greater Los Angeles, is completely isolated by urban development and the 101 freeway to the north. Yet the SMMs support a population of mountain lions (Puma concolor), a very rare example of a large carnivore persisting within the boundaries of a megacity. GPS locations of radio-collared lions indicate that freeways are a near-absolute barrier to movement. We genotyped 42 lions using 54 microsatellite loci and found that genetic diversity in SMM lions, prior to 2009, was lower than that for any population in North America except in southern Florida, where inbreeding depression led to reproductive failure [3-5]. We document multiple instances of father-daughter inbreeding and high levels of intraspecific strife, including the unexpected behavior of a male killing two of his offspring and a mate and his son killing two of his brothers. Overall, no individuals from the SMMs have successfully dispersed. Gene flow is critical for this population, and we show that a single male immigrated in 2009, successfully mated, and substantially enhanced genetic diversity. Our results imply that individual behaviors, most likely caused by limited area and reduced opportunities to disperse, may dominate the fate of small, isolated populations of large carnivores. Consequently, comprehensive behavioral monitoring can suggest novel solutions for the persistence of small populations, such as the transfer of individuals across dispersal barriers.

  7. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sabbah, Ibtissam; Drouby, Nabil; Sabbah, Sanaa; Retel-Rude, Nathalie; Mercier, Mariette

    2003-01-01

    Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL) studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model) was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas) on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items). Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70), factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL. PMID:12952543

  8. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2017-09-21

    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  9. Attitudes towards suicide in urban and rural China: a population based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yaming; Leung, Ricky; Lin, Shao; Yang, Mingan; Lu, Tao; Li, Xianyun; Gu, Jing; Hao, Chun; Dong, Guanghui; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-05-26

    Suicide intervention programs have been guided by findings that attitude towards suicide and suicidal behavior may be causally linked. These findings also make it imperative to identify the factors that influence attitudes towards suicide. However, there has been little research on attitudes towards suicide among the general population, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. This population-based, cross-sectional study investigated the associated factors of attitudes towards suicide among a representative sample of urban and rural adult residents in China. A multi-stage, stratified random sampling approach was implemented to select participants. Data were collected by a survey using the Scale of Public Attitudes about Suicide (SPAS). The survey also collected some socio-demographic factors and suicidal history of participants. Statistical tests were conducted to identify associated factors that account for variations in attitudes towards suicide. The residents in China generally hold a neutral attitude towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide among Chinese residents were associated with age, duration of formal education, marital status, job and suicidal ideation. Different attitudinal subscales seemed not to share the same risk factors. However, gender, ethnicity, religious belief, housing style and economic status might not influence residents' attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide among Chinese urban and rural residents generally had no statistical difference with one notable exception: opinions on whether or not suicides and suicide attempts are different phenomena. Age, duration of formal education, marital status, job and suicidal ideation seem to have an impact on attitudes towards suicide among residents. Urban and rural residents have similar attitudes towards suicide with the only statistically significance difference being their opinions on whether or not suicides and suicide attempts are different phenomena.

  10. Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Urban Sikh Population of Amritsar.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrinder; Shenoy, Shweta; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of Hyperglycemia. More than 60% of the world's population with diabetes comes from Asia. To study the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Sikh individuals living in the urban localities of Amritsar. The study was designed in the Faculty of Sports Medicine & Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The data collection was carried out in various urban localities of Amritsar. Blood samples were analyzed in the Biochemistry laboratory, whereas data analysis and article preparation was carried out in the Faculty of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy. Multi-stage random sampling was done with a sample size of 1089 patients. The data was analyzed in Stata 11.2 software. Various tests used in the study are Mean ± SD, Pearson Chi Square Test, Students' t test and multiple logistic regression test. Our study showed that the prevalence rate of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is 23.2% with the confidence interval of 20.7-25.7. Proportionately more patients with T2DM had hypertension (46.6%). Likewise proportionately more patients, 67.5% had hypertrigylerdemia, 67.6% had low HDL levels, 59.2 % had hypercholesterolemia and 73.1% suffered from metabolic syndrome. Our study clearly indicates that the young Sikh adults below 40 years of age have similar high BMI, WC and WHR to that of the older adults above 40 years of age. It is necessary to adopt appropriate preventive strategies and interventions in high-risk individuals to curb the growing epidemic of diabetes. Innovative community outreach programs need to be designed and implemented to create awareness and early screening and treatment of diabetes, especially in the urban population.

  11. Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Z.; Nissinen, A.; Vartiainen, E.; Song, G.; Guo, Z.; Zheng, G.; Tuomilehto, J.; Tian, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, stratified by sex and 10-year age groups, was drawn randomly from urban areas of the city. The present study covers respondents aged 25-69 years (1615 men and 1592 women). Four socioeconomic indicators (education, occupation, income, and marital status), blood pressure, body mass index, and cigarette smoking were determined in the survey. RESULTS: Educational level seemed to be the most important measure of the four socioeconomic indicators in relation to the cardiovascular risk factors in the study population. People with lower socioeconomic status had higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors. The association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors was more consistent among women than men. DISCUSSION: Our findings do not seem to differ from those observed in developed countries. PMID:11143189

  12. Will AIDS be contained within U.S. minority urban populations?

    PubMed

    Wallace, R; Fullilove, M; Fullilove, R; Gould, P; Wallace, D

    1994-10-01

    Recent empirical research, and a simple stochastic modeling exercise, suggest that affluent suburban communities are at increased risk for the diffusion of HIV from present inner city epicenters, while the 'core group' construct of sexually transmitted disease theory suggests, somewhat counter-intuitively, that the hypercongregated and strongly self-interacting nature of affluent heterosexual elites in the U.S. places them at significant and increasing risk as well. In turn, a growing body of work strongly associates high HIV prevalence in minority urban populations with the processes of coupled physical and social disintegration which have produced the now-common and politically-generated 'hollowed out' pattern of U.S. cities. We conclude that a return to the principles of the Great Reform Movement, which first brought public health and public order to U.S. urban areas, is a necessary, but at present largely unrecognized, component to any successful national program to control AIDS in the United States, and particularly to stem the diffusion of HIV into heterosexual populations outside present diseases epicenters.

  13. Prevalence of sexual violence and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban African-American population.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2014-12-01

    Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. In 2008-2009, 1,306 African-Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3 % for women and 5.1 % for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African-Americans.

  14. Prevalence and risk of cysticercosis and taeniasis in an urban population of soldiers and their relatives.

    PubMed

    García-García, M L; Torres, M; Correa, D; Flisser, A; Sosa-Lechuga, A; Velasco, O; Meza-Lucas, A; Plancarte, A; Avila, G; Tapia, R; Aguilar, L; Mandujano, A; Alcántara, I; Morales, Z; Salcedo, A; Mañon, M D; Valdespino-Gomez, J L

    1999-09-01

    To determine markers of Taenia solium transmission and risk factors in an urban community, we studied 1,000 soldiers from a military camp in Mexico City and their relatives. Serum samples were used to detect antigens and antibodies and fecal specimens were examined for Taenia coproantigens and helminth eggs. Prevalences of 12.2% and 5.8% for cysticercosis were found among soldiers and their relatives, respectively. Taeniasis was found in 0.5% and none of the groups, respectively. Relatives of soldiers positive for cysticercosis and taeniasis markers ate more pork from street stores than restaurants or markets compared with relatives of soldiers without these indicators of infection. Also, 12.0% of the relatives of positive soldiers had a history of expelling tapeworm proglottids in the feces in contrast to 3.7% of the family members of the control group. Prevalence values and risk factors in this urban population are similar to those of previous studies performed in rural populations.

  15. Differences in the social patterning of active travel between urban and rural populations: findings from a large UK household survey.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Jayne; White, Piran C L; Graham, Hilary

    2014-12-01

    To determine the social patterning of active travel of short journeys for urban and rural residents in a large UK representative sample. Associations between frequently walking or cycling short journeys and socio-demographic factors in the UK Household Longitudinal Study were determined using logistic regression. Urban residents were 64 % more likely to frequently engage in active travel than rural residents (95 % CI 1.52, 1.77). Being younger, male, without full-time employment and having a lower income independently predicted greater active travel for both urban and rural residents. Degree level education and not having children were independent predictors for urban, but not rural residents. Actively travelling short journeys is less common and independently associated with fewer socio-demographic factors in rural than in urban populations.

  16. A Nationwide Population-Based Study Identifying Health Disparities Between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the General Populations Living in Select Urban Counties

    PubMed Central

    Castor, Mei L.; Smyser, Michael S.; Taualii, Maile M.; Park, Alice N.; Lawson, Shelley A.; Forquera, Ralph A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Despite their increasing numbers, little is known about the health of American Indians/Alaska Natives living in urban areas. We examined the health status of American Indian/Alaska Native populations served by 34 federally funded urban Indian health organizations. Methods. We analyzed US census data and vital statistics data for the period 1990 to 2000. Results. Disparities were revealed in socioeconomic, maternal and child health, and mortality indicators between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the general populations in urban Indian health organization service areas and nationwide. American Indians/Alaska Natives were approximately twice as likely as these general populations to be poor, to be unemployed, and to not have a college degree. Similar differences were observed in births among mothers who received late or no prenatal care or consumed alcohol and in mortality attributed to sudden infant death syndrome, chronic liver disease, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions. We found health disparities between American Indians/Alaska Natives and the general populations living in selected urban areas and nationwide. Such disparities can be addressed through improvements in health care access, high-quality data collection, and policy initiatives designed to provide sufficient resources and a more unified vision of the health of urban American Indians/Alaska Natives. PMID:16571711

  17. The influence of age and gender on skin-associated microbial communities in urban and rural human populations

    DOE PAGES

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan -Ning; Chi, Liang; ...

    2015-10-28

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroupmore » variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Lastly, skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~ 5x greater than random.« less

  18. The influence of age and gender on skin-associated microbial communities in urban and rural human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan -Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe -Xue; Badger, Jonathan H.

    2015-10-28

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Lastly, skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~ 5x greater than random.

  19. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  20. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random.

  1. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  2. Evaluation of VOC measurments in the EXPOLIS study. Air Pollution Exposure Distributions within Adult Urban Urban Populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jurvelin, J; Edwards, R; Saarela, K; Laine-Ylijoki, J; De Bortoli, M; Oglesby, L; Schläpfer, K; Georgoulis, L; Tischerova, E; Hänninen, O; Jantunen, M

    2001-02-01

    Personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations of 30 target VOCs were measured for 401 participants living in five European cities as a part of the EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distributions within Adult Urban Populations in Europe) study. Measurements in Basel used an active charcoal (Carbotech) adsorbent as opposed to the Tenax TA used in the other study centres. In addition, within each centre, personal and microenvironment VOC sampling required different sampling pumps and, because of different sampling durations, different sampling flow rates. Thus, careful testing of the sampling and analysis procedures was required to ensure accuracy and comparability of collected data. Monitor comparison tests using Tenax TA showed a mean VOC concentration ratio of 0.95 between the personal and microenvironment monitors. The LODs for the target VOCs using Tenax TA ranged from 0.7 to 5.2 microg m(-3). The LODs for the 14 target compounds quantifiable using Carbotech ranged from 0.9 to 3.2 microg m(-3). Tenax TA field blanks showed no remarkable contamination with the target VOCs, except benzaldehyde, a known artefact with this adsorbent. Thus, the diffusion barrier system used prevented contamination of Tenax TA samples by passive diffusion during non-sampling periods. Duplicate and parallel evaluations of the Tenax TA and Carbotech showed an average difference of < 17% in VOC concentrations within the sampling methods, but a systematic difference between the methods (Tenax TA: Carbotech concentration ratio = 1.18-2.36). These field evaluations and quality assurance tests showed that interpretation and comparison of the results in any VOC monitoring exercise should be done on a compound by compound basis. It is also apparent that carefully planned and realised QA and QC (QA/QC) procedures are needed in multi-centre studies, where a common sampling method and laboratory analysis technique are not used, to strengthen and simplify the interpretation of observed VOC

  3. Trends in obesity and diabetes prevalence in a Chilean urban population: 1993-2001.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Ada; Molina, Alfredo; Rigotti, Attilio; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Marshall, Guillermo; Reyes, Soledad; Nervi, Flavio

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, the Chilean population has suffered significant lifestyle changes associated with the rapid socioeconomic development of the country. These changes can induce a significant increase in the prevalence of some chronic diseases, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia trends in a Chilean urban population followed between 1993 and 2001. A total of 1584 adults, living in Santiago, the capital of Chile, were randomly enrolled in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study in 1993. The same population was re-evaluated in 2001, recruiting 964 individuals from the original sample. Prevalences of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia were determined according to standard criteria. We tested the significance of the differences between the observed prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia in the 964 subjects evaluated in 2001 compared with the expected prevalence according to population aging based in data from 1993. In 1993, 3.8% of the sample population had diabetes mellitus, 21.8% had obesity, and 37.3 % exhibited hypercholesterolemia. In 2001, the observed prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia was 10.1%, 32%, and 58%, respectively. The latter percentages were significantly higher than the expected prevalence according to the aging of the population (6.5% for diabetes mellitus, 27.7% for obesity, and 47.7 for hypercholesteromia). Our findings indicate that Chilean population has suffered an accelerated increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia, due to the ongoing epidemiological transition that will lead to an enormous public health burden in the near future.

  4. Urban park characteristics, genetic variation, and historical demography of white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason; Nagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban green spaces required to conserve genetic variation. In this study, we examine whether isolation in New York City (NYC) parks results in genetic bottlenecks in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and test the hypotheses that park size and time since isolation are associated with genetic variability using nonlinear regression and information-theoretic model selection. White-footed mice have previously been documented to exhibit male-biased dispersal, which may create disparities in genetic variation between males and females in urban parks. We use genotypes of 18 neutral microsatellite data and four different statistical tests to assess this prediction. Given that sex-biased dispersal may create disparities between population genetic patterns inferred from bi- vs. uni-parentally inherited markers, we also sequenced a 324 bp segment of the mitochondrial D-loop for independent inferences of historical demography in urban P. leucopus. We report that isolation in urban parks does not necessarily result in genetic bottlenecks; only three out of 14 populations in NYC parks exhibited a signature of a recent bottleneck at 18 neutral microsatellite loci. Mouse populations in larger urban parks, or parks that have been isolated for shorter periods of time, also do not generally contain greater genetic variation than populations in smaller parks. These results suggest that even small networks of green spaces may be sufficient to maintain the evolutionary potential of native species with certain characteristics. We also found that isolation in urban parks results in weak to nonexistent sex-biased dispersal in a species known to exhibit male-biased dispersal in less fragmented environments. In contrast to nuclear loci

  5. Urban park characteristics, genetic variation, and historical demography of white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban green spaces required to conserve genetic variation. In this study, we examine whether isolation in New York City (NYC) parks results in genetic bottlenecks in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and test the hypotheses that park size and time since isolation are associated with genetic variability using nonlinear regression and information-theoretic model selection. White-footed mice have previously been documented to exhibit male-biased dispersal, which may create disparities in genetic variation between males and females in urban parks. We use genotypes of 18 neutral microsatellite data and four different statistical tests to assess this prediction. Given that sex-biased dispersal may create disparities between population genetic patterns inferred from bi- vs. uni-parentally inherited markers, we also sequenced a 324 bp segment of the mitochondrial D-loop for independent inferences of historical demography in urban P. leucopus. We report that isolation in urban parks does not necessarily result in genetic bottlenecks; only three out of 14 populations in NYC parks exhibited a signature of a recent bottleneck at 18 neutral microsatellite loci. Mouse populations in larger urban parks, or parks that have been isolated for shorter periods of time, also do not generally contain greater genetic variation than populations in smaller parks. These results suggest that even small networks of green spaces may be sufficient to maintain the evolutionary potential of native species with certain characteristics. We also found that isolation in urban parks results in weak to nonexistent sex-biased dispersal in a species known to exhibit male-biased dispersal in less fragmented environments. In contrast to nuclear loci

  6. Individual and environmental factors associated for overweight in urban population of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Larissa L; Nogueira, Helena; Padez, Cristina; Ferrao, Maria; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2013-10-21

    Obesity is a significant global public health problem and the main cause of many chronic diseases in both developed and developing countries. The increase in obesity in different populations worldwide cannot be explained solely by metabolic and genetic factors; environmental and social factors also have a strong association with obesity. Thus, it is believed that the current obesity epidemic is the result of a complex combination of genetic factors and an obesogenic environment .The purpose of this study was to evaluate individual variables and variables within the built and social environment for their potential association with overweight and obesity in an urban Brazilian population. Cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 3404 adults living in the urban area of the city. Information from the surveillance system for chronic diseases of Brazilian Ministry of Health was used and individual data was collected by telephone interviews. The database was geocoded using the Brazilian System of Postal Codes for participant residences. An updated, existing list based on the current addresses of supermarkets and hypermarkets in the city was used as an indicator variable of the availability and access to food. Georeferenced information on parks, public squares, places for practicing physical activity and the population density were also used to create data on the built environment. To characterize the social environment, we used the health vulnerability index (HVI) and georeferenced data for homicide locations. The prevalence was 44% for overweight, poisson regression was used to create the final model. The environment variables that independently associated with overweight were the highest population density, very high health vulnerability index and the homicide rate adjusted for individuals variables. The results of the current study illustrate and confirm some important associations between individual and environmental variables and overweight in a

  7. A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is associated with sero-negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Magdalena J; Hansen, Bettina; Troldborg, Anne; Lorenzen, Tove; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter; Nexø, Bjørn A; Lindegaard, Hanne M

    2014-10-10

    It has been suggested that polymorphisms in Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) are associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), but the implicated alleles have differed between studies. The aim of this investigation was to explore whether polymorphisms of TLR genes are associated with RA in a predominantly Caucasian population from Denmark using a case-control approach. DNA samples (3 university hospital outpatient clinics) were obtained from patients with RA (n = 704) and healthy controls (n = 639) in a Danish population. TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected based on the previously reported associations with chronic autoimmune diseases. Genotyping for the TLR SNPs was performed using Sequenom Multiplex technology.We identified one SNP in TLR3, [(rs3775291, P = 0.02, OR (95% CI) 1.31 (1.1087-1.5493)] significantly associated with the whole RA cohort. Subgroup analysis according to IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrinullated peptide (CCP) status suggested a significant association of sero-negative RA with the rs3775291 A allele and disease activity in this subset. These observations on a RA population of Danish ancestry suggest that variations in the TLR3 locus may be implicated in the pathogenesis of sero-negative RA. Since this TLR3 SNP has previously been associated with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), the present findings support the notion that TLR3 genetic variants may represent a common risk factor in different chronic inflammatory conditions, including RA and SLE.

  8. Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Toward Urban Family Physician Program: A Population Based Study in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Behnam; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Ghahramani, Sulmaz; Akbari, Maryam; Tabrizi, Reza; Bagheri, Zahra; Poostforoushfard, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Background: A national project of extending a family physician program to urban areas has been started since May 2013 in Iran. The present study aimed to detect correlates of people's satisfaction and dissatisfaction about urban family physician program. Methods: This cross-sectional and population-based study was conducted in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Multistage and proportional to size random sampling were used. Different items about satisfaction and dissatisfaction toward urban family physician program were queried. Single variable and then multiple variable analyses of data were done using SPSS software (Chicago, IL. USA). Results: Mean age of 1257 participants in the study was 38.1 ± 13.2 years. Respondents included men (634; 50.4%), married (882; 70.2%), those who were educated at universities (529; 42%) and self-employed groups (405; 32.2%). One thousand fifty-eight (84.1%) were covered by the family physician program. Mean of referral times to a family physician was 2.2 ± 2.9 during the year before the study. Satisfaction toward urban family physician program was high in 198 (15.8%), moderate in 394 (31.3%), and low in 391 (31.1%). Dissatisfaction about this program was more among younger than 51-year-old groups (for 31–50 years odds ratio [OR] =2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.4–3.7, P < 0.001 and for 18–30 years OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4, P = 0.005), less knowledgeable ones (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3–3.6, P = 0.001), singles (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4, P = 0.003), and those with more than 4 of family members (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1–1.7, P = 0.05). Conclusions: Overall, the majority of the people are not very satisfied with the urban family physician program. This shows the need for a multi-disciplinary approach including training, improvement of infrastructures and referral system, continuous supervision, and frequent monitoring of user's and provider's feedback about this program. According the results, the family physician program should be

  9. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414 Delaware...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414 Delaware...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414 Delaware...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414 Delaware...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to the 1990 Decennial Census by the Bureau of the.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of... Unincorporated urbanized population California Los Angeles 886,780 Sacramento 594,889 San Diego 250,414 Delaware...

  14. Cityscape genetics: structural vs. functional connectivity of an urban lizard population.

    PubMed

    Beninde, Joscha; Feldmeier, Stephan; Werner, Maike; Peroverde, Daniel; Schulte, Ulrich; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Functional connectivity is essential for the long-term persistence of populations. However, many studies assess connectivity with a focus on structural connectivity only. Cityscapes, namely urban landscapes, are particularly dynamic and include numerous potential anthropogenic barriers to animal movements, such as roads, traffic or buildings. To assess and compare structural connectivity of habitats and functional connectivity of gene flow of an urban lizard, we here combined species distribution models (SDMs) with an individual-based landscape genetic optimization procedure. The most important environmental factors of the SDMs are structural diversity and substrate type, with high and medium levels of structural diversity as well as open and rocky/gravel substrates contributing most to structural connectivity. By contrast, water cover was the best model of all environmental factors following landscape genetic optimization. The river is thus a major barrier to gene flow, while of the typical anthropogenic factors only buildings showed an effect. Nonetheless, using SDMs as a basis for landscape genetic optimization provided the highest ranked model for functional connectivity. Optimizing SDMs in this way can provide a sound basis for models of gene flow of the cityscape, and elsewhere, while presence-only and presence-absence modelling approaches showed differences in performance. Additionally, interpretation of results based on SDM factor importance can be misleading, dictating more thorough analyses following optimization of SDMs. Such approaches can be adopted for management strategies, for example aiming to connect native common wall lizard populations or disconnect them from non-native introduced populations, which are currently spreading in many cities in Central Europe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Differential exposure of the urban population to vehicular air pollution in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaopeng; Lam, Kin-che; Yu, Qi

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to characterize the spatial variations in, and examine the influence of socio-economic class on, the exposure of urban population of Hong Kong to air pollution from vehicular sources. Hong Kong provides a unique and interesting case for an in-depth study of environmental inequality because of its dense environment and housing provision mechanism through which about half of the population is accommodated in public housing estates provided by the government. To estimate the exposure of the urban population to vehicular air pollution, the IMMIS(net) air dispersion model developed for city-wide air quality assessment was used. The annual mean concentrations of CO, NO(x), SO(2) and PM(10) were estimated for various assessment points of 275 public and 295 private building groups. The results show more pronounced inequality among residents living in private than in public housing estates. Elderly people and those of lower socio-economic status were found to be exposed to relatively higher levels of vehicular air pollution compared with groups of higher socio-economic status. However, when all the residents in Hong Kong were pooled together for analysis, no distinct class-biased patterns were found. This could be ascribed to the housing provision mechanism, in which less well-off people are accommodated in public housing estates where the air quality is relatively better. This study highlights the importance of government intervention in housing provision, through which the deprived groups in Hong Kong are inadvertently more protected from air pollution exposure.

  16. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published.

  17. An optimum city size? The scaling relationship for urban population and fine particulate (PM(2.5)) concentration.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T A; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    We utilize the distribution of PM2.5 concentration and population in large cities at the global scale to illustrate the relationship between urbanization and urban air quality. We found: 1) The relationship varies greatly among continents and countries. Large cities in North America, Europe, and Latin America have better air quality than those in other continents, while those in China and India have the worst air quality. 2) The relationships between urban population size and PM2.5 concentration in large cities of different continents or countries were different. PM2.5 concentration in large cities in North America, Europe, and Latin America showed little fluctuation or a small increasing trend, but those in Africa and India represent a "U" type relationship and in China represent an inverse "U" type relationship. 3) The potential contribution of population to PM2.5 concentration was higher in the large cities in China and India, but lower in other large cities.

  18. Blood donation in a large urban centre of southeast Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, E C; Bolina-Santos, E; Mendes-Oliveira, F; Miranda, C; Sabino, E C; Cioffi, J G M; Camargos, V; Caiaffa, W; Xavier, C C; Proietti, F A; Carneiro-Proietti, A B de Freitas

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and characterise potential blood donors and non-donors in a well-populated and representative urban area of Southeastern Brazil. Studies on blood donation usually evaluate individuals who donate. Population-based studies may contribute to characterise those who never reach the blood centre, trying to increase the range of donors. This was a secondary analysis of a population-based survey and a blood donor motivation study [Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation study (REDS II) International]. In a cross-sectional study 4047 individuals representing a metropolitan area answered the question 'Have you ever donated blood at least once in your life?'. The profiles ('Yes/No') were compared. Non-donors from this reference population were compared with donors of a local blood center, in a case control analysis. A total of 69·0% of the population had never donated blood and was composed mostly of women, younger than 30 years old, people not contributing to social security and not subscribing to newspapers. In the case-control study, the likelihood of donating was higher for: men, younger than 50 years old, longer time of education, married, participating in political campaigns and with a good self-perception of health. The factors associated with no blood donation were: self-reported mixed or white race/ethnicity, income higher than two minimum wages and belonging to trade union, political, religious/spiritual, or other social group and worse self perception of health. This population-based study allowed us to characterise a high proportion of people that never reaches the blood centre. The results may be used to diversify the donor profile, creating strategies to target those least likely to donate blood, as women, white people and those with higher income and purchasing power. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Trichococcus populations dominate the microbial community within urban sewer infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    VandeWalle, J. L.; Goetz, G.W.; Huse, S.M.; Morrison, H. G.; Sogin, M.L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Yan, K.; McLellan, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the dominant community members within sewage influent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Milwaukee, WI. We generated >1.1M bacterial pyrotag sequences from the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes from 38 influent samples and two samples taken upstream in the sanitary sewer system. Only a small fraction of pyrotags from influent samples (~15%) matched sequences from human fecal samples. The fecal components of the sewage samples included enriched pyrotag populations from Lactococcus and Enterobacteriaceae relative to their fractional representation in human fecal samples. In contrast to the large number of distinct pyrotags that represent fecal bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroides, only one or two unique V6 sequences represented Acinetobacter, Trichococcus and Aeromonas, which collectively account for nearly 35% of the total sewage community. Two dominant Acinetobacter V6 pyrotags (designated Acineto tag 1 and Acineto tag 2) fluctuated inversely with a seasonal pattern over a 3-year period, suggesting two distinct Acinetobacter populations respond differently to ecological forcings in the system. A single nucleotide change in the V6 pyrotags accounted for the difference in these populations and corresponded to two phylogenically distinct clades based on full-length sequences. Analysis of wavelet functions, derived from a mathematical model of temporal fluctuations, demonstrated that other abundant sewer associated populations including Trichococcus and Aeromonas had temporal patterns similar to either Acineto tag 1 or Acineto tag 2. Populations with related temporal fluctuations were found to significantly correlate with the same WWTP variables (5-day BOD, flow, ammonia, total phosphorous, and suspended solids). These findings illustrate that small differences in V6 sequences can represent phylogenetically and ecologically distinct taxa. This work provides insight into

  20. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Trichococcus populations dominate the microbial community within urban sewer infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, J L; Goetz, G W; Huse, S M; Morrison, H G; Sogin, M L; Hoffmann, R G; Yan, K; McLellan, S L

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the dominant community members within sewage influent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Milwaukee, WI. We generated > 1.1 M bacterial pyrotag sequences from the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes from 38 influent samples and two samples taken upstream in the sanitary sewer system. Only a small fraction of pyrotags from influent samples (∼ 15%) matched sequences from human faecal samples. The faecal components of the sewage samples included enriched pyrotag populations from Lactococcus and Enterobacteriaceae relative to their fractional representation in human faecal samples. In contrast to the large number of distinct pyrotags that represent faecal bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroides, only one or two unique V6 sequences represented Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Trichococcus, which collectively account for nearly 35% of the total sewage community. Two dominant Acinetobacter V6 pyrotags (designated Acineto tag 1 and Acineto tag 2) fluctuated inversely with a seasonal pattern over a 3-year period, suggesting two distinct Acinetobacter populations respond differently to ecological forcings in the system. A single nucleotide change in the V6 pyrotags accounted for the difference in these populations and corresponded to two phylogenetically distinct clades based on full-length sequences. Analysis of wavelet functions, derived from a mathematical model of temporal fluctuations, demonstrated that other abundant sewer associated populations including Trichococcus and Aeromonas had temporal patterns similar to either Acineto tag 1 or Acineto tag 2. Populations with related temporal fluctuations were found to significantly correlate with the same WWTP variables (5-day BOD, flow, ammonia, total phosphorous and suspended solids). These findings illustrate that small differences in V6 sequences can represent phylogenetically and ecologically distinct taxa. This work provides insight

  1. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  2. The Danish Heart Registry

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population All adult (≥15 years) patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR). For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing) of each procedure (>90%) when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have a high level of completeness for surgery since 2000, and for CAG and PCI since 2010. Conclusion The DHR contains valuable data on cardiac invasive procedures, which makes it an important national monitoring and quality system and at the same time serves as a platform for research projects in the cardiovascular field. PMID:27822091

  3. Population genetics of the olive-winged bulbul (Pycnonotus plumosus) in a tropical urban-fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Tang, Grace S Y; Sadanandan, Keren R; Rheindt, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    With increasing urbanization, urban-fragmented landscapes are becoming more and more prevalent worldwide. Such fragmentation may lead to small, isolated populations that face great threats from genetic factors that affect even avian species with high dispersal propensities. Yet few studies have investigated the population genetics of species living within urban-fragmented landscapes in the Old World tropics, in spite of the high levels of deforestation and fragmentation within this region. We investigated the evolutionary history and population genetics of the olive-winged bulbul (Pycnonotus plumosus) in Singapore, a highly urbanized island which retains <5% of its original forest cover in fragments. Combining our own collected and sequenced samples with those from the literature, we conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. We revealed high genetic diversity, evidence for population expansion, and potential presence of pronounced gene flow across the population in Singapore. This suggests increased chances of long-term persistence for the olive-winged bulbul and the ecosystem services it provides within this landscape.

  4. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.; Shahbazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. PMID:26752897

  5. Per capita incidence of sexually transmitted infections increases systematically with urban population size: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Lomba, Oscar; Goldstein, Edward; Gómez-Liévano, Andrés; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Towers, Sherry

    2015-12-01

    Rampant urbanisation rates across the globe demand that we improve our understanding of how infectious diseases spread in modern urban landscapes, where larger and more connected host populations enhance the thriving capacity of certain pathogens. A data-driven approach is employed to study the ability of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to thrive in urban areas. The conduciveness of population size of urban areas and their socioeconomic characteristics are used as predictors of disease incidence, using confirmed-case data on STDs in the USA as a case study. A superlinear relation between STD incidence and urban population size is found, even after controlling for various socioeconomic aspects, suggesting that doubling the population size of a city results in an expected increase in STD incidence larger than twofold, provided that all other socioeconomic aspects remain fixed. Additionally, the percentage of African-Americans, income inequalities, education and per capita income are found to have a significant impact on the incidence of each of the three STDs studied. STDs disproportionately concentrate in larger cities. Hence, larger urban areas merit extra prevention and treatment efforts, especially in low-income and middle-income countries where urbanisation rates are higher. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Population redistribution within the rural-urban fringe: a typology of small towns and rural municipalities in the state of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Airola, T M; Parker, R A

    1983-11-01

    Population redistribution within the rural-urban fringe of the United States is examined using the state of New Jersey over the period 1970-1980 as an example. "This article provides additional evidence for the redistribution of population to the rural-urban fringe and identifies those types of municipalities that experienced the greatest growth during the 1970s. Furthermore, it finds that the factors that account for population growth at the rural-urban fringe are not only those associated with suburbanization, but also those associated with nonmetropolitan growth. It also demonstrates that population growth at the rural-urban fringe varies not only by municipal type but also by race."

  7. The use of COSAS in the analysis of vaccination coverage in urban, peri-urban and rural populations in the Edendale/Vulindlela district of KwaZulu.

    PubMed

    Dammann, D F; Solarsh, G C

    1992-08-01

    A repeat vaccination coverage survey has been conducted in the Edendale/Vulindlela district of KwaZulu. The survey data were processed using the Coverage Survey Analysis System (COSAS) developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) through its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). A modified random cluster sampling method was used to select 281 children between the ages of 12 and 23 months. Of the children surveyed, 83% were in possession of Road-to-Health cards (RTHCs). The best estimate of overall coverage for doses up to and including the second doses of polio and diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) was 85% or higher, but estimates for polio 3 and measles, at 72% and 67% respectively, remain suboptimal. Stratification of coverage into urban, peri-urban and rural categories revealed that the major contribution to the fall-off in coverage, after the second dose of polio and DPT, came from children in the peri-urban category with estimates of 52% for polio 3 and 38% for measles. The fact that coverage in the peri-urban population for doses up to and including polio 2 was 78% or higher indicated that the peri-urban influence responsible for this drop-out effect occurred between the approximate ages of 5 and 8 months. This identified populations in informal peri-urban settlements as a priority group for urgent intervention and further study. The estimation of missed opportunities at visits when vaccinations are normally given, found in this survey to occur in 17% of children, was a useful feature of COSAS and provided a basis for a specific intervention.

  8. Population cardiovascular health and urban environments: the Heart Healthy Hoods exploratory study in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Usama; Díez, Julia; Alfayate, Silvia; Gullón, Pedro; Del Cura, Isabel; Escobar, Francisco; Sandín, María; Franco, Manuel

    2016-08-22

    Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood's social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain). We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System. We used several quantitative audit tools to assess: the type and location of food outlets and healthy food availability; tobacco and alcohol points of sale; walkability of all streets and use of parks and public spaces. We also conducted 11 qualitative interviews with key informants to help understanding the relationships between urban environment and cardiovascular behaviors. We integrated quantitative and qualitative data following a mixed-methods merging approach. Electronic Health Records of the entire population of the area showed similar prevalence of risk factors compared to the rest of Madrid/Spain (prevalence of diabetes: 12 %, hypertension: 34 %, dyslipidemia: 32 %, smoking: 10 %, obesity: 20 %). The food environment was very dense, with many small stores (n = 44) and a large food market with 112 stalls. Residents highlighted the importance of these small stores for buying healthy foods. Alcohol and tobacco environments were also very dense (n = 91 and 64, respectively), dominated by bars and restaurants (n = 53) that also acted as food services. Neighbors emphasized the importance of drinking as a socialization mechanism. Public open spaces were mostly used by seniors that remarked the importance of accessibility to these spaces and the availability of destinations to walk to. This experience allowed testing and refining measurement tools, drawn from epidemiology, geography, sociology and

  9. Understanding of and attitudes toward epilepsy among the urban Chinese population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S S; Alen, Y K S; Wayne, W G W; Ahmadi, K; Anwar, M; Goh, G K

    2010-04-01

    People with epilepsy are socially discriminated against on the grounds of widespread negative public attitudes, misunderstandings and defensive behaviour. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the public understanding of and attitudes toward epilepsy among the Chinese population in Malaysia. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprising 23 questions was utilised to evaluate the understanding of and attitudes toward epilepsy among randomly approached respondents from the Chinese population living in the urban areas of Penang, Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur and Sibu in Malaysia. Out of 1,000 people approached, 697 (69.7 percent) respondents agreed to participate in the study. When asked whether people with epilepsy are slow learners and have intellectual functioning below normal, 448 (64.3 percent) respondents answered 'no'. This positive answer was mainly provided by female (35.6 percent) as compared to male (28.6 percent) respondents. Moreover, more than half responded positively to the following statements: people with epilepsy should not be isolated from the normal population; epileptics can perform daily activities; epileptics can receive academic education; and epileptics can become useful members of society. In addition, significant associations were discovered between the education level of the respondents and several statements, including whether epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p-value is 0.009), whether epilepsy can be treated with drugs (p-value is 0.037) and whether epileptics can be as successful as other people in their chosen career (p-value is 0.009). Positive responses were mainly acquired from those with secondary education and above. A large number of the respondents felt that people with epilepsy should not be employed as lorry drivers, firefighters, doctors and army personnel. The general Chinese population in the urban areas of Malaysia had, at the time of the investigation, a relatively high level of

  10. Ectoparasite loads in sympatric urban populations of the northern white-breasted and the European hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Dziemian, Sylwia; Sikora, Bożena; Piłacińska, Barbara; Michalik, Jerzy; Zwolak, Rafał

    2015-06-01

    We investigated abundance and prevalence of ticks and fleas infesting urban populations of two species of hedgehogs: the northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). The hedgehogs were captured in the city of Poznań (western Poland) over the period of 4 years. Both species of hedgehogs were infested with the castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus), the hedgehog tick (Ixodes hexagonus), and the hedgehog flea (Archeopsylla erinacei). The northern white-breasted hedgehog had higher loads of I. ricinus and A. erinacei than the European hedgehog. The abundance and prevalence of I. hexagonus were similar on both species of hosts. Co-infestation with the two species of ticks was more frequent on the northern white-breasted hedgehog than on the European hedgehog. Therefore, these two closely related species of hedgehogs differ in their importance as hosts of arthropod vectors of pathogens in urban areas and might play a different role in the dynamics of zoonotic diseases.

  11. The Prevalence and Distribution of Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities among Urban Community Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Yue, Song; Wu, Jingyang; Zhang, Jiahua; Lian, Jie; Huang, Desheng; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the prevalence and distribution of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VIAs) among urban community population in Shenyang, China. According to the WHO criteria, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 304 Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and 304 people without diabetes as control over 45 years old. The presence of VIAs was determined by standardized grading of macular optical coherence tomography (Optovue OCT; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA) scans and two-field fundus photographs in at least one eye. For both men and women, high prevalence of VIAs (70.79%) was observed among over 65-years-old T2D patients. Prevalence of VIAs was observed to be high among T2D patients in all age groups compared to normal subjects. Prevalence of VIAs increased with age in all subjects. Prevalence of components of VIAs was epiretinal membrane (ERM) 11.43%, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) 17.76%, vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMT) 5.67%, macular cysts/macular edema (MC/ME) 4.61%, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) 0.82%, and partial thickness macular hole (PTMH) 0.74% in any eye, respectively. ERM and MC/ME were more prevalent in T2D in both males and females. The results highlight the need for early detection using OCT and approaches for the prevention of VIAs of diabetes in urban community. PMID:26759726

  12. Phytoestrogens levels determination in the cord blood from Malaysia rural and urban populations

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.M. . E-mail: mustafa@ummc.edu.my; Malintan, N.T.; Seelan, S.; Zhan, Z.; Mohamed, Z.; Hassan, J.; Pendek, R.; Hussain, R.; Ito, N.

    2007-07-01

    This study is a result of an analysis of free and conjugated phytoestrogens daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin and coumesterol in human cord blood plasma using LCMS. Cord blood was collected from urban and rural populations of Malaysia (n = 300) to establish a simple preliminary database on the levels of the analyzed compounds in the collected samples. The study also aimed to look at the levels of phytoestrogens in babies during birth as this may have a profound effect on the developmental process. The sample clean up was carried out by solid-phase extraction using C18 column and passed through DEAE sephadex gel before analysis by LCMS. The mean concentrations of total phytoestrogens were daidzein (1.4 {+-} 2.9 ng/ml), genistein (3.7 {+-} 2.8 ng/ml), daidzin (3.5 {+-} 3.1 ng/ml), genistin (19.5 {+-} 4.2 ng/ml) and coumesterol (3.3 {+-} 3.3 ng/ml). Distribution of phytoestrogen was found to be higher in samples collected from rural areas compared to that of urban areas.

  13. Life after Stroke in an Urban Minority Population: A Photovoice Project

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Revathi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Negron, Rennie; Fei, Kezhen; Goldfinger, Judith Z.; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability in the United States and disproportionately affects minority populations. We sought to explore the quality of life in urban, minority stroke survivors through their own photos and narratives. Using the Photovoice method, seventeen stroke survivors were instructed to take pictures reflecting their experience living with and recovering from stroke. Key photographs were discussed in detail; participants brainstormed ways to improve their lives and presented their work in clinical and community sites. Group discussions were recorded, transcribed, and coded transcripts were reviewed with written narratives to identify themes. Participants conveyed recovery from stroke in three stages: learning to navigate the initial physical and emotional impact of the stroke; coping with newfound physical and emotional barriers; and long-term adaptation to physical impairment and/or chronic disease. Participants navigated this stage-based model to varying degrees of success and identified barriers and facilitators to this process. Barriers included limited access for disabled and limited healthy food choices unique to the urban setting; facilitators included presence of social support and community engagement. Using Photovoice, diverse stroke survivors were able to identify common challenges in adapting to life after stroke and important factors for recovery of quality of life. PMID:28287467

  14. Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among the Urban Adult Population in South India.

    PubMed

    Sivaprasad, M; Shalini, T; Balakrishna, N; Sudarshan, M; Lopamudra, P; Suryanarayana, P; Arlappa, N; Ravikumar, B P; Radhika, M S; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) leads to a wide spectrum of disorders that affect all age groups. However, reports on B12 and FA status in healthy adults in India are limited. Hence, we determined the plasma levels and dietary intake of B12 and FA in the adult population. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in an urban setup among 630 apparently healthy adults distributed into 3 age groups: 21-40, 41-60 and >60 years. Plasma concentrations of B12 and FA were analyzed by radio immunoassay and dietary intake by 24-hour recall method. The overall prevalence of FA deficiency was 12%, but there was no significant difference in plasma FA concentrations among the groups. While the overall prevalence of B12 deficiency was 35%, it was significantly higher in the 21-40 (44%) and 41-60 age groups (40%) when compared with the >60 group (30%). B12 deficiency was higher in vegetarians (54%) compared to those consuming mixed diet (31%), and the reverse was the case with FA. However, the dietary intakes of FA and B12 were not significantly different among the groups. These results indicate a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency in apparently healthy adults in an urban setup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. [Levels of physical activity in an urban population from Temuco, Chile].

    PubMed

    Serón, Pamela; Muñoz, Sergio; Lanas, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    Physical activity plays a crucial role in the protection against cardiovascular diseases. To assess the level of physical activity in a group of subjects living in urban Temuco. Cross sectional study in a random sample of 1091 women aged 52 ± 10 years and 444 men aged 54 ± 10 years , living in Temuco, Chile. The level of physical activity was measured using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Age, gender, educational and socioeconomic level were also determined in study subjects. Median energy expenditure was 2150 and 1600 MET-minute/ week in men and women, respectively (p = 0,001). It decreased with age from a median of 1965 MET-minute/ week in those younger than 50 years old to 1647 MET-minute/ week among subjects aged between 51 and 60 years old and to 1485 MET-minute/ week among those older than 60 years. (p = 0,001). The frequency of high, moderate and low physical activity levels were 15.6, 66 and 18.4 % respectively. These levels were associated with gender, age, educational and socioeconomic level. There was a high frequency of low and moderate levels of physical activity in the urban population of Temuco, associated with female gender, advanced age and middle socioeconomic level.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population.

    PubMed

    Albin, Stephanie; Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p < 0.0001), and there were significantly fewer Asians with penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance.

  17. Heterosexual behaviour and condom usage in an urban population of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Mehra, M; Badhan, S K; Gulati, N

    1997-06-01

    A survey conducted among the lower-class urban population of Delhi, India to describe the heterosexual behaviour, condom usage and awareness about STDs/AIDS revealed that 4.4% respondents had sex outside/before marriage. Female commercial sex workers, friends and neighbours were the important sexual partners. Heterosexual activity was significantly higher among males, unmarried, literates and middle/higher income groups. Almost half of those who had sex before/outside marriage never used a condom during the sexual encounter. Though only a small fraction of the population was found to be engaged in extra-/pre-marital sex, the overall impact of this may be multifold, given the nature and modes of HIV transmission. The superficial and inadequate knowledge regarding STDs/AIDS among this population, especially among those having extra-/pre-marital sex, indicates an urgent need for appropriately targeted health education and condom promotion activities in the community with an endeavour to increase awareness about STDs and HIV/AIDS and motivate people towards healthy sexual lifestyles.

  18. Subjective social status and maternal health in a low income urban population.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Erika Fitzpatrick; Webb, David A; Lorch, Scott A; Mathew, Leny; Bloch, Joan R; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2012-05-01

    Appropriate measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research can be problematic. Conventional SES measures based on 'objective' indicators such as income, education, or occupation may have questionable validity in certain populations. The objective of this investigation was to determine if a relatively new measurement of SES, subjective social status (SSS), was more consistently and strongly associated with multiple health outcomes for low income mothers. Data available from a large scale community-based study examining maternal and infant health for a low income urban population were used to examine relationships between SSS and a wide range of postpartum physical and emotional health outcomes. Crosstabulations and multivariate analyses focused on the breadth and depth of these relationships; in addition, the relative strength of the relationships between SSS and the health outcomes was compared to that of conventional measures of SES, including both income and education. SSS was significantly related to all physical and emotional health outcomes examined. The overall pattern of findings indicated that these relationships were independent of, as well as more consistent and stronger than, those between conventional measures of SES and postpartum health outcomes. SSS represents an important dimension of the relationship between SES and postpartum physical and emotional health. In low income populations the failure to account for this dimension likely underestimates the influence of SES on postpartum health. This has important implications for the interpretation of findings in empirical studies which seek to control for the effects of SES on maternal health outcomes.

  19. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an elderly urban Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Han-Ik; Eun Kim, Jung; Woong Kim, Ki; Jung Kim, Yu; Lee, Keun-Wook; Hyun Kim, Jee; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2011-09-01

    Research on the epidemiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MGUS in an elderly urban Korean population. A random sample of 1118 Korean elders was selected from residents aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea 1 year from August 2005. We obtained plasma samples remaining after scheduled tests for the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. The mean age of the study population was 72 years (range, 65-97 years). To screen for MGUS, immunofixation and free light-chain (FLC) assays were performed. Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted MGUS prevalence rates in 680 responders were estimated as 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.6%], and the estimated age-adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 4.3% in men (95% CI = 1.9-6.6%) and 2.6% in women (95% CI = 1.0-4.2%). Abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 10% of MGUS cases. Multivariate analysis of 945 participants revealed that significant risk factors for MGUS included advanced age, male sex, hyperproteinemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and abnormal FLC ratio. MGUS is less prevalent among elderly Koreans (3.3%) than other races. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of MGUS in the Korean elderly population. Our findings should be confirmed with additional studies analyzing follow-up samples from 2010.

  20. Co-circulation of diverse paramyxoviruses in an urban African fruit bat population

    PubMed Central

    Baker, K. S.; Todd, S.; Marsh, G.; Fernandez-Loras, A.; Suu-Ire, R.; Wood, J. L. N.; Wang, L. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bats constitute a reservoir of zoonotic infections and some bat paramyxoviruses are capable of cross-species transmission, often with fatal consequences. Determining the level of viral diversity in reservoir populations is fundamental to understanding and predicting viral emergence. This is particularly relevant for RNA viruses where the adaptive mutations required for cross-species transmission can be present in the reservoir host. We report the use of non-invasively collected, pooled, neat urine samples as a robust sample type for investigating paramyxoviruses in bat populations. Using consensus PCR assays we have detected a high incidence and genetic diversity of novel paramyxoviruses in an urban fruit bat population over a short period of time. This may suggest a similarly unique relationship between bats and the members of the family Paramyxoviridae as proposed for some other viral families. Additionally, the high rate of bat–human contact at the study site calls for the zoonotic potential of the detected viruses to be investigated further. PMID:22205718

  1. Medical Cannabis in Serbia: The Survey of Knowledge and Attitudes in an Urban Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Prpic, Milica; Maric, Gorica; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija

    2017-01-01

    There are some indices in which legalization of medical cannabis in the Republic of Serbia might be considered. The purpose of this research was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards medical cannabis in an urban adult population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2015 and January 2016. A convenience sample of study participants comprised users of the Community Health Center. A total of 360 adults were invited to participate. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants (77.1%) answered correctly that cancer was indicative of medical cannabis treatment, while the remaining conditions were less frequently recognized. A total of 42% answered correctly that adverse effects of cannabis were hallucinations and dizziness. Persons who previously used cannabis were more knowledgeable on conditions for medical cannabis treatment (ρ = 0.155; p = 0.006). Study respondents expressed positive attitude towards legalization of medical cannabis (median 5 out of 5) and negative towards legalization of recreational cannabis (median 2 out of 5). In conclusion, the adult population in Belgrade had some knowledge of medical cannabis. The overall attitude of our population regarding legalization of medical cannabis was positive, while the attitude towards legalization of cannabis for recreational purposes was negative.

  2. Accidental poisoning in childhood: five year urban population study with 15 year analysis of fatality.

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Ansford, A; Corcoran, A

    1984-01-01

    Patterns of accidental poisoning in children are changing dramatically. A five year population study (1977-81) was undertaken in urban children from Brisbane (population 1 000 000). A total of 2098 children were poisoned during this period with only one fatality, which represents a dramatic reduction in mortality. Over the past 15 years (1968-82) 13 children have died from accidental poisoning from this population, and two were murdered with drugs. A study of secular trends has indicated that peak incidence occurred in 1979, and the rate has been falling progressively since. The current age corrected rate of poisoning is 393 per 100 000 children per year (0-5 year olds). The rank order of poisons, drugs, and chemicals causing hospital admission and death is: petroleum distillates 13%; antihistamines 9%; benzodiazepines 9%; bleach and detergents 7%; and aspirin 6%. The ratio of fatalities to ingestions requiring hospital admission was calculated to give an index of a practical danger of noxious agents to which children are currently exposed and the rank order is: cardiotoxic drugs, one fatality to 25 ingestions; tricyclic antidepressants, one to 44; sympathomimetic drugs, one to 54; caustic soda, one to 68; aspirin, one fatality to 350 ingestions. Accidental poisoning of children leading to death has been reduced because patterns of drug prescriptions have changed, packaging of dangerous drugs has been made safer, and substances such as kerosene have been coloured blue. PMID:6140065

  3. From rodent utopia to urban hell: population, pathology, and the crowded rats of NIMH.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2011-12-01

    In a series of experiments at the National Institute of Mental Health, the animal ecologist John B. Calhoun offered rats everything they needed, except space. The resulting population explosion was followed by a series of "social pathologies"--violence, sexual deviance, and withdrawal. This essay examines the influence of Calhoun's experiments among psychologists and sociologists concerned with the effects of the built environment on health and behavior. Some saw evidence of the danger of the crowd in Calhoun's "rat cities" and fastened on a method of analysis that could be transferred to the study of urban man. Others, however, cautioned against drawing analogies between rodents and humans. The ensuing dispute saw social scientists involved in a careful negotiation over the structure and meaning of Calhoun's experimental systems and, with it, over the significance of the crowd in the laboratory, institution, and city.

  4. National-, regional- and urban-scale population deconcentration in West Germany.

    PubMed

    Kontuly, T

    1992-01-01

    "Internal migration patterns during the second half of the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s are evaluated at a regional scale intermediate to those utilized in previous core-to-periphery and urbanization-to-counterurbanization studies of West Germany. A spatial deconcentration of the West German population is evident in the form of redistribution down the metropolitan size hierarchy....A spatial deconcentration of manufacturing and service employment partially explains the net migration losses experienced by the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhine-Main-Neckar [regions].... This study provides an alternative core-periphery delimitation scheme which can be applied to the metropolitan system in the western part of newly unified Germany." excerpt

  5. Increasing skin cancer incidence in young, affluent, urban populations: a challenge for prevention.

    PubMed

    Deady, S; Sharp, L; Comber, H

    2014-08-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in white people, but is registered inconsistently by population-based registries. To analyse the changing profile of NMSC in a national population, to interpret evolving patterns of sun exposure and to recommend measures to reduce risk. We analysed trends in the demographic, clinical and socioeconomic profile of > 50 000 cases of NMSC registered between 1994 and 2011 by the Irish National Cancer Registry, which aims to register all episodes of NMSC in the Irish population to a high degree of completeness. The incidence of cutaneous basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was stable from 1994 to 2002, but increased significantly (BCC more than SCC) in the subsequent decade. The largest relative increases in the incidence of BCC were in younger populations and in clothed body sites. The incidence of both cancers was lower in rural areas. Incidence of BCC and, to a lesser extent, of SCC, increased with increasing affluence in urban, but not in rural, areas. Recent increases in skin cancers on the trunk and limbs in younger people appear to be related to increasing affluence and consequent leisure-related, episodic sun exposure. This population is at high risk of subsequent skin cancers throughout life and will need active surveillance. As preventive programmes are cost-effective in lowering the incidence of NMSC, they should be targeted at leisure exposure in young people. The recording of consistent international data on NMSC should also be a priority. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  7. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a semi-urban population of Western India.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Hargovind; Vanikar, Aruna; Patel, Himanshu; Kanodia, Kamal; Kute, Vivek; Nigam, Lovelesh; Suthar, Kamlesh; Thakkar, Umang; Sutariya, Harsh; Gandhi, Shruti

    2016-06-01

    Globally there is an increase in incidence of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and stone diseases are the major risk factors for CKD. We organized kidney disease screening camps in a semi-urban population of Gujarat, India on the occasion of World Kidney Day (WKD). Voluntary participants from six towns were screened. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula and CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or albuminuria ≥1+. Urogenital ultrasonography was performed with emphasis on stone burden. Participants with known diabetes, stone diseases, hypertension, kidney/liver/cardiac disease, hepatitis, HIV, transplant recipients, pregnant women and those <18 years were excluded from the study. Of the 2350 participants (1438 men), CKD was found in 20.93% and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was noted in 8.29% of participants. The prevalence of CKD peaked after the seventh decade of life in both genders. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CKD between coastal and non-coastal regions, however, obesity, hypertension and diabetes were more common in the coastal belt, whereas stone burden was greater in the non-coastal region. The prevalence of CKD in a semi-urban apparently healthy Indian population was higher than the reported prevalence in developed countries. Significant differences between regions point to the need to evaluate and correctregion-specific risk factors.

  8. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a semi-urban population of Western India

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hargovind; Vanikar, Aruna; Patel, Himanshu; Kanodia, Kamal; Kute, Vivek; Nigam, Lovelesh; Suthar, Kamlesh; Thakkar, Umang; Sutariya, Harsh; Gandhi, Shruti

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally there is an increase in incidence of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and stone diseases are the major risk factors for CKD. We organized kidney disease screening camps in a semi-urban population of Gujarat, India on the occasion of World Kidney Day (WKD). Methods Voluntary participants from six towns were screened. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula and CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria ≥1+. Urogenital ultrasonography was performed with emphasis on stone burden. Participants with known diabetes, stone diseases, hypertension, kidney/liver/cardiac disease, hepatitis, HIV, transplant recipients, pregnant women and those <18 years were excluded from the study. Results Of the 2350 participants (1438 men), CKD was found in 20.93% and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was noted in 8.29% of participants. The prevalence of CKD peaked after the seventh decade of life in both genders. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CKD between coastal and non-coastal regions, however, obesity, hypertension and diabetes were more common in the coastal belt, whereas stone burden was greater in the non-coastal region. Conclusions The prevalence of CKD in a semi-urban apparently healthy Indian population was higher than the reported prevalence in developed countries. Significant differences between regions point to the need to evaluate and correctregion-specific risk factors. PMID:27274831

  9. Prevalence of primary angle-closure disease in an urban south Indian population and comparison with a rural population. The Chennai Glaucoma Study.

    PubMed

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Arvind, Hemamalini; Baskaran, M; Ve Ramesh, S; Raju, Prema; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine

    2008-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), primary angle closure (PAC), and PAC suspect (PACS) in an urban population, and to compare prevalence and associated risk factors with a rural population. Population-based cross-sectional study. Four thousand eight hundred subjects 40 years or older were selected from Chennai city using multistage random cluster sampling. All subjects had a complete ophthalmic examination that included logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, grading of lens opacities, dilated fundus examination, optic disc photography, and visual fields. Glaucoma was diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology classification. Three thousand eight hundred fifty (80.2%) responded; 34 subjects (17 female, 17 male) had PACG (0.88%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.16). The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was 26.0+/-14.9 mmHg. Five subjects (14.7%) had been previously diagnosed to have glaucoma, 1 of whom had undergone glaucoma surgery and 2 of whom had been diagnosed to have open-angle glaucoma. Two subjects (5.9%) were bilaterally and 3 subjects (8.8%) were unilaterally blind. One hundred six subjects (2.75%; 95% CI, 2.01-3.49) were diagnosed to have PAC (62 female, 44 male). Thirty-nine subjects (36.8%) had presenting IOP > 24 mmHg, 83 (78.3%) had peripheral anterior synechiae, and 16 (15.1%) had both. Two hundred seventy-eight subjects (7.24%; 95% CI, 6.38-8.02) had PACS (183 female, 95 male). Prevalences of PACG and PACS were similar in the urban and rural populations. Primary angle closure prevalence was higher in the urban population (P<0.0001). Primary angle closure and PACG were positively associated with increasing age and IOP in both populations and were more common in rural women (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% CI, 2.2-8.3). Association with hyperopia was seen only in the urban population (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1

  10. Geo-ethical dimension of community's safety: rural and urban population vulnerability analysis methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro; Kopachevsky, Ivan; Yuschenko, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    calculate a distribution of losses connected with decision making in land-use is demonstrated. Rural community's vulnerability determines by water availability, quality of soils, effectiveness of land use (including climate change adaptation), intensity of pollutions, crop productivity variations during the period of crop rotation, annual national distribution of crops output, and distance to city centres. It should noted here that "distance to city centres" is not comprehensive indicator of market accessibility in general case: quality and availability of transport infrastructure should be described more detailed on the next stages of analysis. Urban population vulnerability determines by distribution of urban fractures and quality urban environment: density, quality and availability of infrastructure, balance between industrial, residential and recreational zones, effectiveness of urban land use and landscape management, and social policy, particularly, employment. Population density is closely connected with social density, with communications and decision making. Social learning, as the function of social communications, is the way to increase sustainability. Also it possible to say that social sustainability is a function of intensity and efficiency of communications between interlinked and interacted networks in the heterogeneous environment. Therefore the results of study demonstrated that risk management study should includes issues of risk and threats perception, which should be described in framework of appropriate tools and approaches connected with ethical dimension of vulnerability. For instance, problems of accessibility and availability of safety resources in view of social fairness and socio-economic dynamics should be included into future studies in field of risk analysis.

  11. [Traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes in Tianjin urban population].

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xin-yue

    2009-09-01

    To explore the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes in Tianjin urban population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on hospital patients with type 2 diabetes in TCM hospitals of different levels in Tianjin from 2003 to 2007. The multiphasic stratified cluster sampling method was adopted in selecting the target hospital. Finally 3,496 patients were selected as the survey sample. Then the constituent ratios of diabetes in different syndrome types were calculated. In this study, the descending sort proportion of TCM syndrome types of type 2 diabetes in Tianjin urban population was deficiency of both qi and yin, stagnation of phlegm-dampness, exuberant heat due to yin deficiency, deficiency of both yin and yang, and blood stasis and qi stagnation. Most of the diabetes patients with deficiency of both qi and yin, deficiency of both yin and yang, and stagnation of phlegm-dampness were older than 60 years. Most of the diabetes patients with exuberant heat due to yin deficiency were 50 to 59 years old, while the diabetes patients with blood stasis and qi stagnation were 40 to 49 years old. The frequency of Danggui (Angelica sinensis) use was high in the diabetes patients with deficiency of both qi and yin; the frequency of Chenpi (Citrus reticulate Blanco) use was high in the diabetes patients with exuberant heat due to yin deficiency; the frequency of Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba) use was high in the diabetes patients with deficiency of both qi and yin; the frequency of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) use was high in the diabetes patients with stagnation of phlegm-dampness; and the frequency of Xingren (Semen Armeniacae) use was high in the diabetes patients with blood stasis and qi stagnation. The main syndrome types of diabetes patients in Tianjin urban area are deficiency of both qi and yin, stagnation of phlegm-dampness and exuberant heat due to yin deficiency. And the patients are mainly older than 50 years. The most frequently

  12. Hepatitis A in a Chinese urban population: the spectrum of social and behavioural risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mäusezahl, D; Cheng, F; Zhang, S Q; Tanner, M

    1996-12-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in China. Hepatitis A infections represent a substantial proportion of these, particularly in urban centres. Little is known about the social and behavioural factors in the urban household environment that influence the transmission of hepatitis A. We conducted a register-based case-control study to investigate the risk factor patterns for hepatitis A in the general population of the City of Wuhan, in the PR China. Cases were selected from district-based health registers. One control, matched for sex and age, was identified from the case's neighbourhood. Home-based interviews combined with household observation were performed to obtain information on social, behavioural and economic risk factors and the household's indoor and outdoor environment. Analysis included conditional logistic regression. Hepatitis A infection was associated with a variety of social and household-related factors, like handwashing habits (after working in the garden: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 8.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-44.2, before food preparation: OR = 4.68, 95% CI: 1.8-12.0; before eating: OR = 4.92, 95% CI: 1.5-15.7), and the source of fresh vegetables (OR = 3.90, 95% CI: 1.6-9.8). Hygiene in the kitchen and the household surroundings and the disposal of children's stools in vegetable gardens or refuse pits were significantly associated with univariate analysis only. The lack of possession of luxury consumer items as a surrogate indicator for income was significantly associated with the disease (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.0-6.1). The study clearly established that exposure to health and hygiene education was less in the group of hepatitis A cases when compared to healthy controls (OR = 2.80, 95% CI: 0.9-8.3). The results of this study underline how social and behavioural factors are important determinants for hepatitis A in urban Chinese populations. These issues could be addressed by appropriate health and hygiene education

  13. Human fetal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in an urban population from Brooklyn, New York.

    PubMed

    Pycke, Benny F G; Geer, Laura A; Dalloul, Mudar; Abulafia, Ovadia; Jenck, Alizee M; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are antimicrobial agents formulated in a wide variety of consumer products (including soaps, toothpaste, medical devices, plastics, and fabrics) that are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In late 2014, the FDA will consider regulating the use of both chemicals, which are under scrutiny regarding lack of effectiveness, potential for endocrine disruption, and potential contribution to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Here, we report on body burdens of TCS and TCC resulting from real-world exposures during pregnancy. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the concentrations of TCS, TCC, and its human metabolites (2'-hydroxy-TCC and 3'-hydroxy-TCC) as well as the manufacturing byproduct (3'-chloro-TCC) as total concentrations (Σ-) after conjugate hydrolysis in mate