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Sample records for danish wheat varieties

  1. Variation of volatile compounds among wheat varieties and landraces.

    PubMed

    Starr, G; Petersen, M A; Jespersen, B M; Hansen, Å S

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of volatile compounds was performed on 81 wheat varieties and landraces, grown under controlled greenhouse conditions, in order to investigate the possibility of differentiating wheat varieties according to their volatile compound profiles. Volatile compounds from wheat samples were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-two volatile compounds were identified in the wheat samples. Multivariate analysis of the data showed a large diversity in volatile profiles between samples. Differences occurred between samples from Austria compared to British, French and Danish varieties. Landraces were distinguishable from modern varieties and they were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for esters, alcohols, and some furans. Modern varieties were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for terpenes, pyrazines and straight-chained aldehydes. Differences in volatile profiles are demonstrated between wheat samples for the first time, based on variety. These results are significant to plant breeders and commercial users of wheat.

  2. Recognition of wheat varieties by image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhanming; Zhao, Renyong; Wang, Bingxi

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a rapid, objective, and easy method for recognizing wheat varieties, which is important for breeding, milling and marketing. The method can be used in place of the existing procedures to remove subjectivity from wheat variety recognition. In contrast to previous work, most of which has focused on wheat morphological characteristics, the features utilized in this paper are based mainly on kernel color. Varietal classification is performed by using Support Vector Machines (SVMs) method. More than 96% correct recognition rates are achieved with bulk samples involving 16 varieties representing a wide range of wheat varieties, wheat class, and kernel types. The proportion of single wheat kernels correctly recognized ranges from 87% to 93%. The results were encouraging since the method proposed here can be easily conducted in routine inspection.

  3. Selecting wheat varieties for tortilla production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat flour tortillas are the second most consumed bread product behind white pan bread. Manufactured tortillas are formulated with highly viscoelastic hard red wheat flours selected and grown for bread making. However, the inherent properties of the bread making flours require costly reducing agent...

  4. Advances in cold-resistant wheat varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two lines of research have been pursued to increase the understanding and utility of the existing levels of winterhardiness of winter wheat. Much progress has been made from agronomic approaches such that in a recent review, it was observed that, while western Canada and Siberia have the coldest cli...

  5. Making better decisions: 2014 Colorado winter wheat variety performance trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farmers need timely reports of varietal performance for making informed variety selection for their farms each year. The objective of this document is to provide a yield and performance summary of the last three years of winter wheat variety trials run at multiple locations in eastern Colorado. Fort...

  6. Characterization of Wheat Varieties Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis were explored to discriminate eight wheat varieties. The absorption spectra were measured using THz time-domain spectroscopy from 0.2 to 2.0 THz. Using partial least squares (PLS), a regression model for discriminating wheat varieties was developed. The coefficient of correlation in cross validation (R) and root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) were 0.985 and 1.162, respectively. In addition, interval PLS was applied to optimize the models by selecting the most appropriate regions in the spectra, improving the prediction accuracy (R = 0.992 and RMSECV = 0.967). Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis can provide rapid, nondestructive discrimination of wheat varieties. PMID:26024421

  7. The Waterlogging Tolerance of Wheat Varieties in Western of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavas, Ilkay; Unay, Aydin; Aydin, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the wheat varieties against waterlogging which was clearly increased in recent years. For this purpose, this study was performed at Field Crops and Soil Science Department of Agricultural Faculty of Adnan Menderes University during wheat growth stages of 2007-2008. The experimental design was randomized complete block design with split split plot arrangements. The main plots were temperature applications (heat and normal), the growth periods (Zadoks scale; GS14, GS32, GS14 + GS32, and control) were split plots and varieties were split-split plots. The eight different wheat varieties were evaluated in the pots. The waterlogging was performed during GS14, GS32 and GS14 + GS32. In a pot experiment, plants were subjected to waterlogging to the soil surface for 10 days. All applications and varieties decreased the single plant yield. The waterlogging caused a yield loss compared with wheat grown on well-drained soil. In this study, the crop loss due to waterlogging is highly temperature dependent. The severity of the effects of the waterlogging depends on the growth stage of the plot. When all applications were compared with control by means of yield performance, Sagittario and Basribey varieties were less affected than the others. PMID:22645429

  8. Spectral behavior of wheat yield variety trials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Little variation between varieties is seen at jointing, but the variability is found to increase during grain filling and decline again at maturity. No relationship is found between spectral response and yield, and when yields are segregated into various classes the spectral response is the same. Spring and winter nurseries are found to separate during the reproductive stage because of differences in dates of heading and maturity, but they exhibit similar spectral responses. The transformed normalized difference is at a minimum after the maximum grain weight occurs and the leaves begin to brown and fall off. These data of 100% ground cover demonstrate that it is not possible to predict grain yield from only spectral data. This, however, may not apply when reduced yields are caused by less-than-full ground cover

  9. Changes in the phenolic composition of pancake fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of two wheat varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we investigated the changes in the levels of phenolic acids during pancake preparation from refined and whole-wheat flours of two wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenolic acids, namely ultrasonic-assisted extrac...

  10. Fusarium head blight resistance loci in a stratified population of wheat landraces and varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine if Chinese and Japanese wheat landraces and varieties have unique sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, an association mapping panel of 195 wheat accessions including both commercial varieties and landraces was genotyped with 364 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) and ...

  11. Identification of wheat varieties with a parallel-plate capacitance sensor using fisher linear discriminant analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fisher’s linear discriminant (FLD) models for wheat variety classification were developed and validated. The inputs to the FLD models were the capacitance (C), impedance (Z), and phase angle ('), measured at two frequencies. Classification of wheat varieties was obtained as output of the FLD mod...

  12. Evaluation of broiler performance when fed Roundup-Ready wheat (event MON 71800), control, and commercial wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kan, C A; Hartnell, G F

    2004-08-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 40% wheat grain from Roundup Ready wheat (MON 71800), its similar nontransgenic control (MON 71900), or reference commercial wheat varieties. The feeding trial lasted 40 d, and each treatment consisted of 10 replicates of 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers (5 pens of males and 5 pens of females). Each pen contained 12 birds, and at d 13 birds were randomly removed until 9 birds remained. Body weight and feed intake were measured on pen basis at 40 d. At d 41, four broilers per pen were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected, and cut-up yields were determined. Dry matter, protein, and fat contents of breast meat were determined. The data were analyzed by an ANOVA procedure. The BW and feed conversion at d 40 averaged 2,450 g and 1.52, respectively. There were no significant treatment x sex interactions, except for evisceration yield with significant differences (P < 0.05) in yield between birds fed 2 commercial wheat varieties. Data for final BW, feed conversion, carcass yield, and breast meat were not statistically different (P < 0.05) between broilers fed MON 71800 or MON 71900 or the population of birds fed commercial wheat varieties, except a lower carcass yield at d 41 for birds fed the nontransgenic control wheat. Thus MON 71800 was nutritionally equivalent to nongenetically modified wheat varieties when fed to broilers.

  13. Targeted and efficient transfer of multiple value-added genes into wheat varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With an objective to optimize an approach to transfer multiple value added genes to a wheat variety while maintaining and improving agronomic performance, two alleles with mutations in the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene located on wheat chromosomes 6B and 6D providing tolerance to imidazolinone (I...

  14. Registration of isogenic HMW-GS Ax1 protein deficient lines of an elite wheat variety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded on the A-genome of an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. This set of A-genome encoded HMW-GS defi...

  15. Fast neutron radiation induced Glu-B1 deficient lines of an elite bread wheat variety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded by the B-genome were identified from a fast-neutron radiation-mutagenized population of Summit, an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The mutant lines differ from the wild-type progenit...

  16. Metabolic Biomarker Panels of Response to Fusarium Head Blight Infection in Different Wheat Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Forseille, Lily; Boyle, Kerry; Merkley, Nadine; Burton, Ian; Fobert, Pierre R.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic changes in spikelets of wheat varieties FL62R1, Stettler, Muchmore and Sumai3 following Fusarium graminearum infection were explored using NMR analysis. Extensive 1D and 2D 1H NMR measurements provided information for detailed metabolite assignment and quantification leading to possible metabolic markers discriminating resistance level in wheat subtypes. In addition, metabolic changes that are observed in all studied varieties as well as wheat variety specific changes have been determined and discussed. A new method for metabolite quantification from NMR data that automatically aligns spectra of standards and samples prior to quantification using multivariate linear regression optimization of spectra of assigned metabolites to samples’ 1D spectra is described and utilized. Fusarium infection-induced metabolic changes in different wheat varieties are discussed in the context of metabolic network and resistance. PMID:27101152

  17. Physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions.

    PubMed

    Nitika; Punia, Darshan; Khetarpaul, N

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the investigation was to analyse physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions. The seeds of five varieties of wheat (C-306, WH-283, WH-711, WH-896 and WH-912) grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions were ground in a Junior Mill to pass through 60-mesh sieves and were stored in air-tight containers until use. Standard methods were used to estimate the physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient composition. Consumer acceptability was studied by carrying out the organoleptic evaluation of wheat chapatis, a common item in diets of the Indian population. The results of study revealed that inorganically grown wheat varieties had significantly higher 1,000-grain weight and more grain hardness as compared with organically grown wheat varieties, and a non-significant difference was observed in their gluten content, water absorption capacity and hydration capacity. On average, wheat varieties grown under inorganic conditions contained significantly higher protein and crude fibre content as compared with varieties grown under organic conditions. WH-711 variety had maximum protein content. Protein fractions (i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) were significantly higher in varieties grown under inorganic conditions than those of varieties grown under organic conditions. The variety WH-711 had the highest total soluble sugars and variety WH-912 had the highest starch content. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents were significantly higher in inorganically grown wheat varieties as compared with organically grown wheat varieties. The wheat varieties grown under organic conditions had significantly higher protein and starch digestibility than the wheat grown under inorganic conditions. The data revealed that there were significant differences in total calcium and phosphorus contents of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic

  18. Assessment of chapatti quality of wheat varieties based on physicochemical, rheological and sensory traits.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Manju; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh; Gulia, Neelam

    2017-07-01

    Fifty wheat varieties were assessed for chapatti quality using grain characteristics, dough rheological properties and pasting characteristics. Results revealed that 88% of wheat varieties studied were medium-hard to hard based on kernel texture. Water absorption and damaged starch were found to be important parameters for chapatti quality as both parameters had significant positive effect on the pliability and puffing height of chapatti. Protein content and gluten strength parameters like SDS sedimentation volume, dough stability and gluten index were found to have a negative impact on chapatti quality. Based on chapatti quality assessment the wheat varieties were classified into four distinct clusters viz. good, acceptable, fair and poor for chapatti making. It was elucidated that 46% of the varieties studied were good to acceptable for chapatti making, while 54% resulted in fair or poor chapatti quality thereby clearly indicating the need to establish and substantiate the development of product-specific varieties.

  19. Bioavailability to rats of iron in six varieties of wheat grain intrinsically labeled with radioiron

    SciTech Connect

    House, W.A.; Welch, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    Bioavailability to anemic rats of iron in six varieties of wheat grain was assessed by a whole-body radioassay procedure. Intrinsically labeled kernels were harvested from plants grown in /sup 59/Fe-labeled nutrient solutions. The varieties used were selected from 18 varieties of field-grown wheat grain that were analyzed for iron, protein and phytate content. Concentrations of iron, phytate and protein in grain of field-grown varieties ranged from 34 to 55 ppm, 0.7 to 1.2% dry wt and 11.3 to 15.4% dry wt, respectively. In grain from varieties grown in nutrient solutions, iron, phytate and protein concentrations ranged from 35 to 50 ppm, 1 to 1.2% dry wt, and 13.8 to 16.8% dry wt, respectively. Depending on the variety of intrinsically labeled grain fed in test meals to anemic rats (hemoglobin averaged 5.8 g/dL), absorption of /sup 59/Fe ranged from about 62 to 74% of the dose; differences among varieties were not significant (P greater than 0.05). Rats fed /sup 59/Fe-labeled FeCl/sub 3/ absorbed about 71% of the dose, which was similar to the average amount (69% of dose) absorbed by rats fed wheat. We concluded that selection of wheat varieties for increased yield or protein content has not adversely affected the bioavailability of iron in the grain.

  20. Effect of Processing on phenolic acid composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of three wheat varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we investigated the effect of bread-making on the assay of phenolic acids of whole and refined wheat from three wheat varieties, comparing refined (RF) and whole wheat (WW) flour, dough, and bread fractions. The efficacy of two common base hydrolysis methods for phenolic acid analysis...

  1. Thermal, pasting and morphological properties of starch granules of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Khatkar, B S

    2017-07-01

    Large (A) and small (B) granules of wheat starch were separated and their morphological, thermal, structural and pasting properties were investigated. The pasting properties of starches from two wheat varieties showed significant differences. For wheat variety C-306, the unfractionated starch showed higher peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities than the starch isolated from wheat variety WH-147. On the contrary, unfractionated starch of variety WH-147 has higher pasting temperature than the starch of the variety C-306. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that unfractionated starch exhibited the higher gelatinization enthalpy, peak and conclusion temperatures than the isolated A- and B-starch granules from both the varieties. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that large A-granules appeared to be smooth and displayed disk or lenticular shape having diameter 13-35 μm, while B-granules showed a spherical shape with diameter of 2-6 μm. The variations in structures and content would result in starch granules with different chemical and physical properties.

  2. [Competitiveness of hard wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth)].

    PubMed

    Hamal, A; Benbella, M; Rzozi, S B; Bouhache, M; Msatef, Y

    2001-01-01

    Varieties with an excellent competitiveness against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) would be very important to reinforce others methods to control ripgut brome weed. This study was carried out in 1999-2000 season in a greenhouse experiment to test the aggressiveness degree of six varieties of hard wheat (Oum Rabia, Isly, Marzak, Karim, Sebou, and Massa) combined with ripgut brome. Plant density was fixed at 16 plants of wheat or Bromus for pure crop and 8 plants for wheat and 8 for Bromus mixture. The results showed that the numbers of kernels/spikes were higher in the mixture for on pure composition. For the kernel weight, the result was opposite except for Isly and Marzak varieties. Karim and Isly varieties obtained the highest grain yield and were more competitive in mixture composition but Sebou and Massa varieties were less competitive against ripgut brome. Results of ripgut brome productivity and water use efficiency were similar and were used to determine the aggressiveness coefficient of hard wheat varieties against ripgut brome. The reduction of the shoot dry matter of brome was 22 to 56% at flowering. The grain yield of brome was reduced from 57 to 81%.

  3. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative.

  4. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  5. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  6. RNA interference targeting rye secalins alters flour protein composition in a wheat variety carrying a 1Bl.1RS translocation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat varieties carrying chromosome translocations from rye are part of the international wheat breeding pool, despite being associated with defects in dough processing quality. Among the proposed causes for the quality defects of flours from such wheats is the presence of the secalins, encoded by ...

  7. Exclusion of solar UV radiation improves photosynthetic performance and yield of wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

    2015-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the potential for alterations in photosynthetic performance and grain yield of four wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties of India- Vidisha, Purna, Swarna and Naveen Chandausi by ambient ultraviolet radiation (UV). The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (<315 nm), UV-A/B (<400 nm) or transmitted ambient UV or lacked filters. The results indicated that solar UV exclusion increased the leaf mass per area ratio, leaf weight ratio and chlorophylls per unit area of flag leaves in all the four varieties of wheat. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from the flag leaves of UV excluded wheat plants gave a higher fluorescence yield. Exclusion of solar UV significantly enhanced photosynthetic performance as a consequence of increased efficiency of PS II, performance index (PIABS) and rate of photosynthesis in the flag leaves of wheat varieties along with a remarkable increase in carbonic anhydrase, Rubisco and nitrate reductase activities. This additional fixation of carbon and nitrogen by exclusion of UV was channelized towards the improvement in grain yield of wheat varieties as there was a decrease in the UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble protein content in flag leaves of all the four varieties of wheat. The magnitude of response for UV exclusion for all the measured parameters was higher in two varieties of wheat Vidisha and Purna as compared to Swarna and Naveen Chandausi. Cumulative stress response index (CSRI) for each variety was developed from the cumulative sum of physiological and yield parameters such as leaf mass area ratio of flag leaf, total chlorophyll content, performance index at absorption basis, rate of photosynthesis and grain yield. All the varieties had a negative CSRI, demonstrating a negative impact of ambient UV radiation. Naveen Chandausi and Swarna are less sensitive to ambient UV radiation; Vidisha is more

  8. Repeatability of Mice Consumption Discrimination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties across Field Experiments and Mouse Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Kiszonas, Alecia M; Fuerst, E Patrick; Morris, Craig F

    2015-07-01

    Whole grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) foods can provide critical nutrients for health and nutrition in the human diet. Potential flavor differences among varieties can be examined using consumption discrimination of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. This study examines consistency and repeatability of the mouse model and potentially, wheat grain flavor. A single elimination tournament design was used to measure relative consumption preference for hard red spring and hard white spring varieties across all 3 experiments in combination with 2 mouse cohorts. Fifteen replicate mice were used in 24-h trials to examine differences in preference among paired wheat varieties until an overall "winner" was established as the most highly preferred variety of wheat. In all 3 experiment-cohort combinations, the same varieties were preferred as the "winner" of both the hard red spring and hard white spring wheat varieties, Hollis and BR 7030, respectively. Despite the consistent preference for these varieties across experiments, the degree (magnitude) to which the mice preferred these varieties varied across experiments. For the hard white spring wheat varieties, the small number of varieties and confounding effects of experiment and cohort limited our ability to accurately gauge repeatability. Conversely, for the hard red spring wheat varieties, consumption preferences were consistent across experiments and mice cohorts. The single-elimination tournament model was effective in providing repeatable results in an effort to more fully understand the mouse model system and possible flavor differences among wheat varieties. The mouse model system used here is effective in identifying wheat varieties that may be more or less desirable to humans in whole wheat foods. The system identifies consistent differences across different mouse cohorts and crop years. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Suitability of spring wheat varieties for the production of best quality pizza.

    PubMed

    Tehseen, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Pasha, Imran; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Saeed, Farhan

    2014-08-01

    The selection of appropriate wheat cultivars is an imperative issue in product development and realization. The nutritional profiling of plants and their cultivars along with their suitability for development of specific products is of considerable interests for multi-national food chains. In this project, Pizza-Hut Pakistan provided funds for the selection of suitable newly developed Pakistani spring variety for pizza production. In this regard, the recent varieties were selected and evaluated for nutritional and functional properties for pizza production. Additionally, emphasis has been paid to assess all varieties for their physico-chemical attributes, rheological parameters and mineral content. Furthermore, pizza prepared from respective flour samples were further evaluated for sensory attributes Results showed that Anmool, Abadgar, Imdad, SKD-1, Shafaq and Moomal have higher values for protein, gluten content, pelshenke value and SDS sedimentation and these were relatively better in studied parameters as compared to other varieties although which were considered best for good quality pizza production. TD-1 got significantly highest score for flavor of pizza and lowest score was observed from wheat variety Kiran. Moreover, it is concluded from current study that all wheat varieties except TJ-83 and Kiran exhibited better results for flavor.

  10. Effect of waterlogging at different growth stages on some morphological traits of wheat varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi, Mohammad Eghbal; Ghobadi, Mokhtar; Zebarjadi, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Excess rainfalls may be the cause of waterlogging in soil, which affects the growth and development of wheat. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effects of waterlogging on shoot and root growth and physiological characteristics of wheat. Three experiments were conducted: experiment 1 (E1): evaluation of seedling growth on ten Iranian winter wheat varieties with waterlogging periods (1-4, 4-8, 8-12, and 12-16 days starting from seed germination). Seminal roots and plumule were investigated at seedling. The others are E2: pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and stem elongation stages and its effects on shoot and root growth at anthesis stage and experiment 3 (E3): pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and jointing stages and its effects on yield and yield components and also evaluation of stress tolerance indexes. The results of the seedling growth test (E1) showed that 1-4- and 4-8-day waterlogging severity reduced seminal root length (94.5 to 93.7 %) and plumule length (86.2 to 50.0 %) compared to control. Results of E2 indicated that waterlogging stress decreased shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total secondary root length, and chlorophyll a + b content of flag leaf by 28-31, 44-35, 20-31, and 28-35 %, respectively. Also, result of E3 showed that the grain yields of wheat varieties at two conditions of stress were different in base tolerance indexes. In general, the responses of wheat varieties to waterlogging were different at the three experiments. The varieties that had the most of dry weight and length of the root were tolerant. Thus, it is possible to use these characteristics as an index for selecting the varieties with tolerance to waterlogging.

  11. Effect of waterlogging at different growth stages on some morphological traits of wheat varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi, Mohammad Eghbal; Ghobadi, Mokhtar; Zebarjadi, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    Excess rainfalls may be the cause of waterlogging in soil, which affects the growth and development of wheat. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effects of waterlogging on shoot and root growth and physiological characteristics of wheat. Three experiments were conducted: experiment 1 (E1): evaluation of seedling growth on ten Iranian winter wheat varieties with waterlogging periods (1-4, 4-8, 8-12, and 12-16 days starting from seed germination). Seminal roots and plumule were investigated at seedling. The others are E2: pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and stem elongation stages and its effects on shoot and root growth at anthesis stage and experiment 3 (E3): pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and jointing stages and its effects on yield and yield components and also evaluation of stress tolerance indexes. The results of the seedling growth test (E1) showed that 1-4- and 4-8-day waterlogging severity reduced seminal root length (94.5 to 93.7 %) and plumule length (86.2 to 50.0 %) compared to control. Results of E2 indicated that waterlogging stress decreased shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total secondary root length, and chlorophyll a + b content of flag leaf by 28-31, 44-35, 20-31, and 28-35 %, respectively. Also, result of E3 showed that the grain yields of wheat varieties at two conditions of stress were different in base tolerance indexes. In general, the responses of wheat varieties to waterlogging were different at the three experiments. The varieties that had the most of dry weight and length of the root were tolerant. Thus, it is possible to use these characteristics as an index for selecting the varieties with tolerance to waterlogging.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of European hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of European Hexaploid Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents. PMID:24718292

  14. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of observed bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency

  15. Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A.; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  16. Molecular order and functional properties of starches from three waxy wheat varieties grown in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Jinrong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Caili; Yu, Jinglin; Wang, Shuo

    2015-08-15

    Molecular order and functional properties of starch from three waxy wheat varieties grown in China were investigated by a combination of various technical analyses. The total starch content of the waxy wheat ranged between 54.1% and 55.0%, and the amylose content of the starch was between 0.71% and 1.63%. Average particle diameter of the three starches varied between 16.5 and 17.4 μm. Three waxy wheat starches presented the typical A-type X-ray diffraction pattern, with relative crystallinity between 38.7% and 40.0%. No significant differences were observed in relative crystallinity, IR ratios of 1047/1022 cm(-1) and 1022/995 cm(-1), and FWHH of the band at 480 cm(-1), indicating the similarity in long-range order of crystallites and short-range order of double helices of three starch granules. Small differences were observed in swelling power, gelatinization parameters, pasting viscosities, and in vitro enzymatic digestibility of three waxy wheat starches. Under the stored condition, no retrogradation occurred for three waxy wheat starches.

  17. Joining smallholder farmers' traditional knowledge with metric traits to select better varieties of Ethiopian wheat.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Chiara; Kidane, Yosef G; Mengistu, Dejene K; Pè, Mario Enrico; Fadda, Carlo; Dell'Acqua, Matteo

    2017-08-22

    Smallholder farming communities face highly variable climatic conditions that threaten locally adapted, low-input agriculture. The benefits of modern crop breeding may fail to reach their fields when broadly adapted genetic materials do not address local requirements. To date, participatory methods only scratched the surface of the exploitability of farmers' traditional knowledge in breeding. In this study, 30 smallholder farmers in each of two locations in Ethiopia provided quantitative evaluations of earliness, spike morphology, tillering capacity and overall quality on 400 wheat genotypes, mostly traditional varieties, yielding altogether 192,000 data points. Metric measurements of ten agronomic traits were simultaneously collected, allowing to systematically break down farmers' preferences on quantitative phenotypes. Results showed that the relative importance of wheat traits differed by gender and location. Farmer traits were variously contributed by metric traits, and could only partially be explained by them. Eventually, farmer trait values were used to produce a ranking of the 400 wheat varieties identifying the trait combinations most desired by farmers. The study scale and methods lead to a better understanding of the quantitative basis of Ethiopian smallholder farmer preference in wheat, broadening the discussion for the future of local, sustainable breeding efforts accommodating farmers' knowledge.

  18. Influence of cultivated landscape composition on variety resistance: an assessment based on wheat leaf rust epidemics.

    PubMed

    Papaïx, Julien; Goyeau, Henriette; Du Cheyron, Philippe; Monod, Hervé; Lannou, Christian

    2011-09-01

    In plant pathology, the idea of designing variety management strategies at the scale of cultivated landscapes is gaining more and more attention. This requires the identification of effects that take place at large scales on host and pathogen populations. Here, we show how the landscape varietal composition influences the resistance level (as measured in the field) of the most grown wheat varieties by altering the structure of the pathogen populations. For this purpose, we jointly analysed three large datasets describing the wheat leaf rust pathosystem (Puccinia triticina/Triticum aestivum) at the country scale of France with a Bayesian hierarchical model. We showed that among all compatible pathotypes, some were preferentially associated with a variety, that the pathotype frequencies on a variety were affected by the landscape varietal composition, and that the observed resistance level of a variety was linked to the frequency of the most aggressive pathotypes among all compatible pathotypes. This data exploration establishes a link between the observed resistance level of a variety and landscape composition at the national scale. It illustrates that the quantitative aspects of the host-pathogen relationship have to be considered in addition to the major resistance/virulence factors in landscape epidemiology approaches. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Classification of wheat varieties by isoelectric focusing patterns of gliadins and neural network.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, I; Jensen, K; Krath, B N

    1994-05-01

    Classification of wheat varieties, using isoelectric focusing patterns of the gliadins, image processing and neural networks, is described. The method was compared to a statistical classification method, discriminant analysis. The isoelectric point and the area of each band were calculated by image processing. Different methods of presenting the electrophoretic patterns to the neural network were studied. The most effective method was transformation of the electrophoretic pattern to a small (11 x 47 pixels) representation of the original digitized image, which was presented to the neural network as a vector. The neural network was trained with a number of patterns and tested with new patterns from different electrophoretic runs of the same wheat varieties. In this study we used ten different wheat varieties and the neural network was able to classify 95.5% of the patterns correctly. The statistical classification method classified the same data set 91.8% correctly. We conclude that both the neural network and discriminant analysis were able to classify the patterns correctly with a high degree of certainty. The patterns that were misclassified were indistinguishable by visual inspection.

  20. Environment and genotype effects on antioxidant properties of organically grown wheat varieties: a 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Di Silvestro, Raffaella; Di Loreto, Alessandro; Bosi, Sara; Bregola, Valeria; Marotti, Ilaria; Benedettelli, Stefano; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses significant amounts of antioxidants that contribute to the dietary antiradical protection against a number of chronic diseases. Despite the increasing interest in organic food among both consumers and scientists, the availability of literature studies concerning the environment effect under organic management is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat varieties by considering the genotype response to different environmental factors under biodynamic management. The soluble fraction of phenolic compounds was mainly determined by the environment, whereas a major genotypic effect was observed for the bound forms, which were present at higher amounts in red grain varieties. Moreover, a predominant effect of genotype was observed for yellow pigment content and antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP method. Despite some changes induced by environment, most genotypes had stable antioxidant properties and different phenolic profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for the old variety Inallettabile, which was the most sensitive to environmental fluctuations. The red grain varieties Andriolo, Gentil rosso and Verna were identified as the most promising breeding material for the development of varieties with high nutraceutical value under low-input management. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Repeatability of mice consumption discrimination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties across field experiments and mouse cohorts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) foods can provide critical nutrients for health and nutrition in the human diet. However, undesirable flavors are often suggested as a barrier to increased whole-grain consumption, yet flavor differences among wheat varieties have not been widely studied. Pot...

  2. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties I: flour and protein characteristics.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-03-01

    The relationships of polymeric as well as monomeric proteins (unextractable and extractable) with various flour properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Unextractable polymeric proteins and unextractable monomeric proteins in flours ranged from 23.83% to 51.97% and 48.03% to 76.17%, respectively. Varieties with higher grain hardness index resulted into flours with higher a(∗), ash content and protein content. Unextractable polymeric and monomeric proteins were related to grain hardness index. Unextractable polymeric proteins showed a positive correlation with gluten index and LASRC. Majority of varieties with HMW-GS combinations of 91kDa+80kDa+78kDa+74kDa PPs showed very high grain hardness index (97-100).

  3. Drought-induced changes in photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant components of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M; Rustamova, Samira M; Suleymanov, Saftar Y; Aliyeva, Durna R; Mammadov, Alamdar Ch; Aliyev, Jalal A

    2016-12-01

    Water deficit is a key factor influencing the yield and quality of crops. In the present study, the photosynthetic responses by means of chlorophyll fluorescence of chloroplasts, thylakoid membrane proteins, and antioxidant components were analyzed in wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) plants differing in their tolerance to drought. Two durum winter wheat varieties, Barakatli 95 (drought tolerant) and Garagylchyg 2 (drought sensitive) were grown under field well-watered and drought conditions. It was found that contents of the PS I core (CPI) with Mr of 123 kD and apoprotein P700 with Mr of 63 kD were relatively higher in Barakatli 95 variety under drought stress compared with the control plants. Synthesis of α- and β-subunits of CF1 ATP-synthase complex with Mr of 55 and 53.5 kD also slightly increased in the tolerant Barakatli 95 and decreased in the drought sensitive variety Garagylchyg 2. A decrease in the intensity of 30 kD band and a significant increase were found in the content of the 25-16 kD region in Garagylchyg 2 variety. The synthesis of 60 kD and content of low molecular mass polypeptides (21.5 and 12 kD) were increased in the tolerant genotype Barakatli 95. The intensity of peaks at 687, 695, and 742 nm considerably increases in the fluorescence spectra (77 K) of chloroplasts isolated from the sensitive variety Garagylchyg 2, and there is a stimulation of the ratio of fluorescence band intensity F687/F740. At the same time, higher level of glycine betaine was found in the drought tolerant variety compared with the control one throughout the different periods of growth.

  4. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  5. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.

  6. Relationship of various flour properties with noodle making characteristics among durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Davinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2015-12-01

    The grain, flour, dough and noodle making properties of Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated. Varieties having higher grain weight had lower hardness and higher yellow pigment content. Gluten performance index showed positive correlation with α-helix and negative with intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets in gluten. The proportion of extracted polymeric proteins was related to dough strength. Elastic (G') and loss (G″) modulus of dough were positively correlated to intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets and negatively with β-turn+ β-sheets proportion of dough and gluten. PDW291 with exceptionally higher G' and G″ and best noodle making properties showed the presence 90 kDa and 88 kDa polypeptides corresponding to 14+15 and type 2 banding pattern.

  7. Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Hein C.; Salentijn, Elma M. J.; Dekking, Liesbeth; Bosch, Dirk; Hamer, Rob J.; Gilissen, Ludovicus J. W. J.; van der Meer, Ingrid M.; Smulders, Marinus J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the prevalence of CD. This may partly be attributed to an increase in awareness and to improved diagnostic techniques, but increased wheat and gluten consumption is also considered a major cause. To analyze whether wheat breeding contributed to the increase of the prevalence of CD, we have compared the genetic diversity of gluten proteins for the presence of two CD epitopes (Glia-α9 and Glia-α20) in 36 modern European wheat varieties and in 50 landraces representing the wheat varieties grown up to around a century ago. Glia-α9 is a major (immunodominant) epitope that is recognized by the majority of CD patients. The minor Glia-α20 was included as a technical reference. Overall, the presence of the Glia-α9 epitope was higher in the modern varieties, whereas the presence of the Glia-α20 epitope was lower, as compared to the landraces. This suggests that modern wheat breeding practices may have led to an increased exposure to CD epitopes. On the other hand, some modern varieties and landraces have been identified that have relatively low contents of both epitopes. Such selected lines may serve as a start to breed wheat for the introduction of ‘low CD toxic’ as a new breeding trait. Large-scale culture and consumption of such varieties would considerably aid in decreasing the prevalence of CD. PMID:20664999

  8. SSR allelic diversity changes in 480 European bread wheat varieties released from 1840 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Roussel, V; Leisova, L; Exbrayat, F; Stehno, Z; Balfourier, F

    2005-06-01

    A sample of 480 bread wheat varieties originating from 15 European geographical areas and released from 1840 to 2000 were analysed with a set of 39 microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles ranged from 4 to 40, with an average of 16.4 alleles per locus. When seven successive periods of release were considered, the total number of alleles was quite stable until the 1960s, from which time it regularly decreased. Clustering analysis on Nei's distance matrix between these seven temporal groups showed a clear separation between groups of varieties registered before and after 1970. Analysis of qualitative variation over time in allelic composition of the accessions indicated that, on average, the more recent the European varieties, the more similar they were to each other. However, European accessions appear to be more differentiated as a function of their geographical origin than of their registration period. On average, western European countries (France, The Netherlands, Great Britain, Belgium) displayed a lower number of alleles than southeastern European countries (former Yugoslavia, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary) and than the Mediterranean area (Italy, Spain and Portugal), which had a higher number. A hierarchical tree on Nei's distance matrix between the 15 geographical groups of accessions exhibited clear opposition between the geographical areas north and south of the arc formed by the Alps and the Carpathian mountains. These results suggest that diversity in European wheat accessions is not randomly distributed but can be explained both by temporal and geographical variation trends linked to breeding practices and agriculture policies in different countries.

  9. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Guo, P P; Li, P L; Li, Z C; Stein, H H; Liu, L; Xia, T; Yang, Y Y; Ma, Y X

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (p<0.01) by 5.74%, 7.60%, 3.75%, 3.88%, 3.50%, 2.47%, 26.22%, 27.62%, and 3.94%, respectively. But the digestibility of NDF changed quadratically (p<0.01). There was an interaction between wheat variety and storage time for CP digestibility (p<0.05), such that the CP digestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME of wheat

  10. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, P. P.; Li, P. L.; Li, Z. C.; Stein, H. H.; Liu, L.; Xia, T.; Yang, Y. Y.; Ma, Y. X.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (p<0.01) by 5.74%, 7.60%, 3.75%, 3.88%, 3.50%, 2.47%, 26.22%, 27.62%, and 3.94%, respectively. But the digestibility of NDF changed quadratically (p<0.01). There was an interaction between wheat variety and storage time for CP digestibility (p<0.05), such that the CP digestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME of wheat

  11. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Salentijn, Elma Mj; Esselink, Danny G; Goryunova, Svetlana V; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Gilissen, Luud J W J; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2013-12-19

    Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses in the small intestine. Various peptides with three major T cell epitopes involved in CD are derived from alpha-gliadin fraction of gluten. Alpha-gliadins are encoded by a large multigene family and amino acid variation in the CD epitopes is known to influence the immunogenicity of individual gene family members. Current commercial methods of gluten detection are unable to distinguish between immunogenic and non-immunogenic CD epitope variants and thus to accurately quantify the overall CD epitope load of a given wheat variety. Such quantification is indispensable for correct selection of wheat varieties with low potential to cause CD. A 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method was developed for alpha-gliadin transcripts encompassing the three major CD epitopes and their variants. The method was used to screen developing grains on plants of 61 different durum wheat cultivars and accessions. A dedicated sequence analysis pipeline returned a total of 304 unique alpha-gliadin transcripts, corresponding to a total of 171 'unique deduced protein fragments' of alpha-gliadins. The numbers of these fragments obtained in each plant were used to calculate quantitative and quantitative differences between the CD epitopes expressed in the endosperm of these wheat plants. A few plants showed a lower fraction of CD epitope-encoding alpha-gliadin transcripts, but none were free of CD epitopes. The dedicated 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method enables 1) the grouping of wheat plants according to the genetic variation in alpha-gliadin transcripts, and 2) the screening for plants which are potentially less CD-immunogenic. The resulting alpha-gliadin sequence database will be useful as a reference in

  12. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: Paste, dough and muffin making properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-15

    The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55 μm size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, α-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G″ were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91 kDa + 84 kDa + 78 kDa + 74 kDa showed lower G' and G″. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC.

  13. Differential contribution of two Ppd-1 homoeoalleles to early-flowering phenotype in Nepalese and Japanese varieties of common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh T.; Iehisa, Julio C. M.; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nitta, Miyuki; Nasuda, Shuhei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    Wheat landraces carry abundant genetic variation in heading and flowering times. Here, we studied flowering-related traits of two Nepalese varieties, KU-4770 and KU-180 and a Japanese wheat cultivar, Shiroganekomugi (SGK). These three wheat varieties showed similar flowering time in a common garden experiment. In total, five significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for three examined traits, the heading, flowering and maturation times, were detected using an F2 population of SGK/KU-4770. The QTLs were found at the Ppd-1 loci on chromosomes 2B and 2D and the 2B QTL was also confirmed in another F2 population of SGK/KU-180. The Ppd-D1 allele from SGK and the Ppd-B1 alleles from the two Nepalese varieties might be causal for early-flowering phenotype. The SGK Ppd-D1 allele contained a 2-kb deletion in the 5′ upstream region, indicating a photoperiod-insensitive Ppd-D1a allele. Real-time PCR analysis estimating the Ppd-B1 copy number revealed that the two Nepalese varieties included two intact Ppd-B1 copies, putatively resulting in photoperiod insensitivity and an early-flowering phenotype. The two photoperiod-insensitive Ppd-1 homoeoalleles could independently contribute to segregation of early-flowering individuals in the two F2 populations. Therefore, wheat landraces are genetic resources for discovery of alleles useful for improving wheat heading or flowering times. PMID:24399909

  14. Differential contribution of two Ppd-1 homoeoalleles to early-flowering phenotype in Nepalese and Japanese varieties of common wheat.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh T; Iehisa, Julio C M; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nitta, Miyuki; Nasuda, Shuhei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2013-12-01

    Wheat landraces carry abundant genetic variation in heading and flowering times. Here, we studied flowering-related traits of two Nepalese varieties, KU-4770 and KU-180 and a Japanese wheat cultivar, Shiroganekomugi (SGK). These three wheat varieties showed similar flowering time in a common garden experiment. In total, five significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for three examined traits, the heading, flowering and maturation times, were detected using an F2 population of SGK/KU-4770. The QTLs were found at the Ppd-1 loci on chromosomes 2B and 2D and the 2B QTL was also confirmed in another F2 population of SGK/KU-180. The Ppd-D1 allele from SGK and the Ppd-B1 alleles from the two Nepalese varieties might be causal for early-flowering phenotype. The SGK Ppd-D1 allele contained a 2-kb deletion in the 5' upstream region, indicating a photoperiod-insensitive Ppd-D1a allele. Real-time PCR analysis estimating the Ppd-B1 copy number revealed that the two Nepalese varieties included two intact Ppd-B1 copies, putatively resulting in photoperiod insensitivity and an early-flowering phenotype. The two photoperiod-insensitive Ppd-1 homoeoalleles could independently contribute to segregation of early-flowering individuals in the two F2 populations. Therefore, wheat landraces are genetic resources for discovery of alleles useful for improving wheat heading or flowering times.

  15. QTL conferring fusarium crown rot resistance in the elite bread wheat variety EGA Wylie.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Kilian, Andrzej; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2, respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs.

  16. Relation between polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity of different Argentinean wheat varieties. A Boosted Regression Trees study.

    PubMed

    Podio, Natalia S; Baroni, María V; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2017-10-01

    We report the polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity (AC) of 12 Argentinean wheat varieties from different regions. The polyphenol profile was studied by HPLC-MS. The AC was measured by TEAC and FRAP. Twenty-five polyphenols were identified. ACA 315 and KLEIN GUERRERO varieties showed the highest content of polyphenols, whereas BIOINTA 3004, KLEIN CAPRICORNIO and LE 2330 showed the lowest one. ACA 315 presented the highest AC, while BIOINTA 3004 and KLEIN CAPRICORNIO showed the lowest one. Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) analyses helped finding significant correlations between AC and polyphenol profile, being hydroxybenzoic acid diglucoside, tryptophan, chrysoeriol-6,8-di-C-pentoside and isomers 4, 5, 9 and 12 of diferulic acids key compounds to explain the observed AC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the interaction between the environment and wheat genotypes evaluated by BRT, showing how the whole polyphenol profile can explain the AC in wheat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: Composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Chopra, Nidhi; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2017-10-01

    Hard wheat (HW), medium-hard wheat (MHW) and extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex-SW) varieties with grain hardness index (GHI) of 83 to 95, 72 to 80, 17 to 29 were evaluated for pasting, protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, dough rheology and baking properties. Flours from varieties with higher GHI had more protein content, ash content and paste viscosities. Ex-SW had more glutenins proportion as compared to HW and MHW. Flours from Ex-SW varieties showed lower NaSRC, WA and mixographic parameters as compared to HW and MHW. Dough from flours milled from Ex-SW had higher Intermolecular-β-sheets (IM-β-sheets) than those from MHW and HW. Muffins volume increased with decrease in GHI, Ex-SW varieties had more muffin volume and less air space. The accumulation of polypeptides (PPs) varied significantly in different varieties. Ex-SW variety (QBP12-10) showed accumulation of 98, 90, 81 and 79kDa PPs, which was unique and was different from other varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Variety and Growing Conditions on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat for Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. E. E.; Owens, B.; McCracken, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed

  19. Aromatic and proteomic analyses corroborate the distinction between Mediterranean landraces and modern varieties of durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Federico; Taiti, Cosimo; Pompeiano, Antonio; Gu, Zuguang; Lo Presti, Emilio; Whitney, Larisa; Monti, Michele; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Giambalvo, Dario; Ruisi, Paolo; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from durum wheat cultivars and landraces were analyzed using PTR-TOF-MS. The aim was to characterize the VOC’s profile of the wholemeal flour and of the kernel to find out if any VOCs were specific to varieties and sample matrices. The VOC data is accompanied by SDS-PAGE analyses of the storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins). Statistical analyses was carried out both on the signals obtained by MS and on the protein profiles. The difference between the VOC profile of two cultivars or two preparations of the same sample - matrices, in this case kernel vs wholemeal flour - can be very subtle; the high resolution of PTR-TOF-MS - down to levels as low as pptv - made it possible to recognize these differences. The effects of grinding on the VOC profiles were analyzed using SIMPER and Tanglegram statistical methods. Our results show that it is possible describe samples using VOC profiles and protein data. PMID:27708424

  20. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking.

  1. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties.

  2. The resistance and correlation analysis to three species of cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on 10 wheat varieties or lines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2013-08-01

    Winter wheat resistance is an efficient and environmentally friendly means to controlling aphids. By using principal component analysis and correlation analysis, we evaluated the resistance of 10 winter wheat varieties or lines from three countries to the following three aphid species: Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum. The data show that Batis was susceptible to Si. avenae and R. padi, but had adverse effect on the development of Sc. graminum; Astron was advantageous to WG and r(m) of Si. avenae and R. padi, but not to Sc. graminum; Amigo was resistant to Sc. graminum and R. padi, but susceptible to Si. avenae; 98-10-35 was resistant to Si. avenae and R. padi, but not to Sc. graminum; 98-10-30 was adverse to growth and fecundity of Si. avenae, but better for Sc. graminum and R. padi; Xiaoyan22 was susceptible to Sc. graminum, but not to R. padi; Ww2730 were resistant to Si. avenae, but susceptible to Sc. graminum; 186tm was susceptible to R. padi, but caused high mortality for Si. avenae and Sc. graminum. Correlation analysis suggests the wheat varieties or lines that were resistant to Si. avenae were always resistant to R. padi, but susceptible to Sc. graminum. However, the overall similarities in resistance classifications were not because of the same phenotypic characters of the wheat varieties or lines. We conclude that the wheat varieties or lines had specific different resistances to the three aphid species, and the resistant traits (antibiosis) can be defined at two or more hierarchical levels. There was even a stronger "trade-off" for the comparison of Si. avenae versus Sc. graminum and R. padi versus Sc. graminum.

  3. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses in the small intestine. Various peptides with three major T cell epitopes involved in CD are derived from alpha-gliadin fraction of gluten. Alpha-gliadins are encoded by a large multigene family and amino acid variation in the CD epitopes is known to influence the immunogenicity of individual gene family members. Current commercial methods of gluten detection are unable to distinguish between immunogenic and non-immunogenic CD epitope variants and thus to accurately quantify the overall CD epitope load of a given wheat variety. Such quantification is indispensable for correct selection of wheat varieties with low potential to cause CD. Results A 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method was developed for alpha-gliadin transcripts encompassing the three major CD epitopes and their variants. The method was used to screen developing grains on plants of 61 different durum wheat cultivars and accessions. A dedicated sequence analysis pipeline returned a total of 304 unique alpha-gliadin transcripts, corresponding to a total of 171 ‘unique deduced protein fragments’ of alpha-gliadins. The numbers of these fragments obtained in each plant were used to calculate quantitative and quantitative differences between the CD epitopes expressed in the endosperm of these wheat plants. A few plants showed a lower fraction of CD epitope-encoding alpha-gliadin transcripts, but none were free of CD epitopes. Conclusions The dedicated 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method enables 1) the grouping of wheat plants according to the genetic variation in alpha-gliadin transcripts, and 2) the screening for plants which are potentially less CD-immunogenic. The resulting alpha-gliadin sequence database will

  4. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiubo; Wang, Lifang; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (Gs), but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE). At the meantime, the nitrogen (N) supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII), and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root-shoot ratio (R/S) increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root-shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency.

  5. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiubo; Wang, Lifang; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (Gs), but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE). At the meantime, the nitrogen (N) supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII), and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root–shoot ratio (R/S) increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root–shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency. PMID:27802318

  6. Generation of marker-free transgenic hexaploid wheat via an Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation strategy in commercial Chinese wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Huiyun; Du, Lipu; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-11-10

    Genotype specificity is a big problem lagging the development of efficient hexaploid wheat transformation system. Increasingly, the biosecurity of genetically modified organisms is garnering public attention, so the generation of marker-free transgenic plants is very important to the eventual potential commercial release of transgenic wheat. In this study, 15 commercial Chinese hexaploid wheat varieties were successfully transformed via an Agrobacterium-mediated method, with efficiency of up to 37.7%, as confirmed by the use of Quickstix strips, histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blotting. Of particular interest, marker-free transgenic wheat plants from various commercial Chinese varieties and their F1 hybrids were successfully obtained for the first time, with a frequency of 4.3%, using a plasmid harbouring two independent T-DNA regions. The average co-integration frequency of the gus and the bar genes located on the two independent T-DNA regions was 49.0% in T0 plants. We further found that the efficiency of generating marker-free plants was related to the number of bar gene copies integrated in the genome. Marker-free transgenic wheat plants were identified in the progeny of three transgenic lines that had only one or two bar gene copies. Moreover, silencing of the bar gene was detected in 30.7% of T1 positive plants, but the gus gene was never found to be silenced in T1 plants. Bisulphite genomic sequencing suggested that DNA methylation in the 35S promoter of the bar gene regulatory region might be the main reason for bar gene silencing in the transgenic plants.

  7. Differences in glucose yield of residues from among varieties of rice, wheat, and sorghum after dilute acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Matsuda, Fumio; Kikuchi, Jun; Shirai, Tomokazu; Sazuka, Takashi; Yamasaki, Masanori; Takumi, Shigeo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-08-01

    Bio-refinery processes require use of the most suitable lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation. Glucose yield from biomass solid fractions obtained after dilute sulfuric acid (1%) pretreatment (at 180 °C) was investigated using 14, 8, and 16 varieties of rice, wheat, and sorghum, respectively. Biomass solid fractions of each crop showed similar cellulose content. However, glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading at 6.6 filter paper unit/g-biomass) was different among the varieties of each crop, indicating genotypic differences for rice, wheat, and sorghum. Nuclear magnetic resonance method revealed that the high residual level of lignin aromatic regions decreased glucose yield from solid fraction of sorghum.

  8. Tetraploid and hexaploid wheat varieties reveal large differences in expression of alpha-gliadins from homoeologous Gli-2 loci

    PubMed Central

    Salentijn, Elma MJ; Goryunova, Svetlana V; Bas, Noor; van der Meer, Ingrid M; van den Broeck, Hetty C; Bastien, Thomas; Gilissen, Luud JWJ; Smulders, Marinus JM

    2009-01-01

    Background Α-gliadins form a multigene protein family encoded by multiple α-gliadin (Gli-2) genes at three genomic loci, Gli-A2, Gli-B2 and Gli-D2, respectively located on the homoeologous wheat chromosomes 6AS, 6BS, and 6DS. These proteins contain a number of important celiac disease (CD)-immunogenic domains. The α-gliadins expressed from the Gli-B2 locus harbour fewer conserved CD-epitopes than those from Gli-A2, whereas the Gli-D2 gliadins have the highest CD-immunogenic potential. In order to detect differences in the highly CD-immunogenic α-gliadin fraction we determined the relative expression level from the homoeologous Gli-2 loci in various tetraploid and hexaploid wheat genotypes by using a quantitative pyrosequencing method and by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. Results We detected large differences in relative expression levels of α-gliadin genes from the three homoeologous loci among wheat genotypes, both as relative numbers of expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from specific varieties and when using a quantitative pyrosequencing assay specific for Gli-A2 genes. The relative Gli-A2 expression level in a tetraploid durum wheat cultivar ('Probstdorfer Pandur') was 41%. In genotypes derived from landraces, the Gli-A2 frequency varied between 12% and 58%. In some advanced hexaploid bread wheat cultivars the genes from locus Gli-B2 were hardly expressed (e.g., less than 5% in 'Lavett') but in others they made up more than 40% (e.g., in 'Baldus'). Conclusion Here, we have shown that large differences exist in relative expression levels of α-gliadins from the homoeologous Gli-2 loci among wheat genotypes. Since the homoelogous genes differ in the amount of conserved CD-epitopes, screening for differential expression from the homoeologous Gli-2 loci can be employed for the pre-selection of wheat varieties in the search for varieties with very low CD-immunogenic potential. Pyrosequencing is a method that can be employed for such a

  9. Physical, Textural, and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Waxy Wheat Flour Snack Supplemented with Several Varieties of Bran.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Emily F; Kowalski, Ryan J; Morris, Craig F; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Chongjun; Ganjyal, Girish; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-09-28

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties. Results showed that high fiber concentrations altered several pasting properties, reduced expansion ratios (P < 0.0001), and created denser products (P < 0.0001), especially for white bran supplemented extrudates. Purple bran supplemented extrudates produced harder products compared to white and red bran treatments (P < 0.0001). Extrudates produced with 37.5% (w/w) of each bran variety absorbed more water than the control with no added bran. The oxygen radical absorption capacity assay, expressed as Trolox Equivalents, showed that extrudates made with addition of red (37.5%) and purple (37.5%) bran had higher values compared to the other treatments; the control, red, and white bran treatments had less antioxidant activity after extrusion (P < 0.0001) compared to purple bran supplemented extrudates. Purple and red brans may serve as viable functional ingredients in extruded foods given their higher antioxidant activities. Future studies could evaluate how bran variety and concentration, extruded shape, and flavor influence consumer acceptance.

  10. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization on leaf photosynthesis and respiration of different drought-resistance winter wheat varieties].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xucheng; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2006-11-01

    Under field condition, this paper measured the leaf gas exchange parameters and photosynthetic pigments content of different drought-resistance wheat varieties at all growth stages, with their responses to different nitrogen fertilization levels studied. The results showed that in treatment N180, the leaf G(s), P(n), and total photosynthetic pigments content of dry land varieties increased by 43.75%, 18.54% and 49.66% , while those of watered land varieties increased by 12.12% , 20.88% and 29.25%, respectively, compared with control. On the contrary, the respiration rate of dry land and watered land varieties decreased by 4.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Nitrogen supply accelerated the photosynthetic carbon assimilation, because the gas exchange capacity and photosynthetic pigments content increased while the respiration rate decreased with increasing nitrogen supply. The difference in photosynthetic capacity between different winter varieties was mainly dependent on non - stomatal factors. The dry land varieties had higher capacities of light energy absorption and photosynthetic carbon assimilation, because they had higher leaf photosynthetic pigments content but lower respiration rate. Compared with watered land varieties, dry land varieties had an 8.9% decrease of respiration rate and a 14.12% increase of P(n). At the same growth stage, the photosynthetic and respiration rates in the control varied consistently, while in treatments N180 and N360, the photosynthetic rate increased but the respiration rate decreased. Nitrogen fertilization promoted the absorbed light energy allocating to the process of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. It could be concluded that nitrogen supply was favorable to the improvement of winter wheat drought-resistance, because it could improve leaf gas exchange capacity, increase leaf photosynthetic pigments content, and optimize the allocation of absorbed light energy.

  11. Location, seeding date, and variety interactions on winter wheat yield in Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Southeast US, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a crop grown during the winter when climate conditions are usually influenced by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Therefore, an understanding of how management practices can be adjusted to reduce the impact of climate-related risks became impo...

  12. Effects of Planting Date and Barley Variety on Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, P A; Hein, G L; Peairs, F B; Smith, C M

    2014-10-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest in the western Great Plains of the United States, where it causes hundreds of millions of dollars of losses to barley and wheat production through reduced yields. Experiments to evaluate the effect of early planting and resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on D. noxia were conducted at Fort Collins, CO; Tribune, KS; and Sidney, NE, in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Treatments included two planting dates and four cultivars, the D. noxia-resistant barley cultivars 'Stoneham' (Otis*4/STARS 9577B) and 'Sidney' (Otis*4/STARS 9301B), the susceptible cultivar 'Otis', and Otis treated with thiamethoxam. In tiller samples collected from May through early July, consistently lower D. noxia populations were found in plots planted ≍30 d earlier than normal at Fort Collins in all three years, and at Tribune in 2007. With one location-year exception, lower D. noxia populations occurred on plants of resistant varieties or the susceptible variety Otis treated with thiamethoxam than on untreated Otis plants. There were no significant differences in D. noxia populations produced on plants of either resistant variety and susceptible Otis plants treated with thiamethoxam. Interactions between resistant varieties and early planting resulted in reduced D. noxia populations at Fort Collins in 2007 and 2009, and at Tribune and Sidney in 2007. Planting D. noxia-resistant barley varieties, planting varieties earlier than normal, and the synergistic effect of resistant variety and early planting can significantly reduce D. noxia infestations on barley in the western High Plains. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  13. [Drought-resistance of local wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of China: a comprehensive evaluation by using GGE biplot and subordinate function].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-wen; Zhu, Jun-gang; Wang, Shu-guang; Sun, Dai-zhen; ShiI, Yu-gang; Chen, Wei-guo

    2013-04-01

    Taking 7 local wheat varieties in Shanxi Province of China and two other control varieties as test materials, this paper studied their morphological and physiological traits under normal and water stress field conditions. The drought-resistance coefficient of each index of the traits was calculated. On the basis of principal component analysis, the correlations between the drought-resistance indices and their relationships with the drought-resistance of different varieties were analyzed by GGE biplot, and the drought resistance of the wheat varieties was comprehensively evaluated with the combination of subordinate function and drought resistance index analysis. The main morphological and physiological factors affecting the drought-resistance of the wheat varieties were uppermost internode length, plant height, internode length, leaf area, leaf POD and SOD activities, and leaf relative water content and relative electric conductivity. There existed different degrees of correlation between these indices, and each index had different effects on the drought resistance of the varieties, being the main cause for the different drought resistance of the wheat varieties. Based on the drought-resistance, the test varieties could be classified into three groups, i. e. , drought-resistance group, intermediate group, and sensitive group. Two highly drought-resistance cultivars, Baiheshangtou and Zhuganqing, whose drought-resistance was similar to that of drought-resistant Jinmai 47, could be used as the parent materials for breeding drought-resistance wheat.

  14. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity distribution in roller-milled and pearled fractions of conventional and pigmented wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Debora; Locatelli, Monica; Travaglia, Fabiano; Bordiga, Matteo; Reyneri, Amedeo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Blandino, Massimo

    2017-10-15

    In this study, the chemical composition of pigmented wheats (yellow, purple and blue types), and the distribution of the bioactive compounds in their roller-milled and pearled fractions, were compared with conventional wheats (red and white types). Roller-milling promoted the recovery of total dietary fiber, β-glucans, phenolic acids and anthocyanins in the bran fraction, which resulted also in a higher total antioxidant activity than the refined flour. Conversely, lutein resulted mainly concentrated in the refined flour. In the same way, the distribution pattern in the pearled fractions differ depending on the bioactive considered. The study highlights that a careful selection of the most appropriate fractionation process should be performed to produce flours rich in bioactive compounds. Roller-milling resulted useful for the production of refined flours rich in xanthophylls, with particular emphasis to the yellow-grained wheats. Contrarily, pearling could be more useful in the valorization of the health potential of anthocyanin-pigmented varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic lines obtained based on hybridization of self-fertilized offspring of barley-wheat (Hordeum vulgare L. x Triticum aestivum L.) amphiploid with common wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 and Pyrotrix 28].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Trubacheeva, N V; Kravtsova, L A; Dobrovol'skaia, O B

    2012-12-01

    The problems of fertility restoration in the progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. vulgare x T. aestivum) are explained by incompatibility between the cytoplasm of cultivated barley and the nuclear genome of common wheat. Suitable models for studying these problems are alloplasmic lines that combine the cytoplasm of barley and the nuclear genome of wheat. In this work, the specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic common wheat lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum were studied depending on the influence of wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 (Sar29) and Pyrotrix 28 (Pyr28) used to produce these lines. The alloplasmic lines were created using hybrids between the 48-chromosome offspring (Amph1) of the barley-wheat amphiploid H. vulgare (ya-319) x T. aestivum (Sar29) and these wheat varieties. Backcrossing of the Amph1 (2n = 48) x Sar29 hybrid with the wheat variety Sar29 resulted in the complete sterility in the (H. vulgare)-Sar29 line, which suggests the incompatibility of the nuclear genome of the common wheat variety Sar29 with the cytoplasm of H. vulgare. Crossing of Amph1 (2n = 48) with Pyr28 resulted in the restoration of self-fertility in the hybrid with 2n = 44. In the alloplasmic lines (2n = 42) formed based on plants of the self-fertilized generations of this hybrid, the barley chromosomes were eliminated, and recombination between the nuclear genomes of the parental wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28 took place. Alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with different levels of fertility were isolated. As was shown by the SSR analysis, differences in the fertility traits between these lines are determined by variations in the content of the genetic material from the wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28. The complete restoration of fertility in these alloplasmic recombinant lines is accompanied by the formation of a nuclear genome in which the genetic material of Pyr28 significantly prevails. The conclusion is made that the common wheat variety

  16. The use of certified seeds of improved wheat varieties in farms and the contributions of certified seed usage to enterprise economies: the case of Ankara province in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tanrivermiş, Harun; Akdoğan, Ilyas

    2007-12-15

    In this research, the use of certificated seeds of improved wheat varieties in farms of Ankara, which have an important share in wheat production of Turkey and the contributions of the certified seeds usage to enterprise economy have been evaluated by using data collected from farms via a questionnaire. The low level of use of certificated wheat seed in farms is associated with many factors, such as price of the seed (cost), yield gains and suitability of the varieties for the farming aims of producers. Average productivity is 49.5% and average net profit is 39.7% higher in the production of wheat with certificated seeds of improved varieties in farms in comparison to farming with traditional varieties. Average productivity in wheat production with uncertified seeds of improved varieties is 24.9% and net profit per unit area is 24.3% higher than wheat production with traditional varieties. The net economic benefit of wheat production using certificated seeds of improved varieties and that of wheat farming with uncertified seeds has been estimated at $ 102.40 and $ 62.70 ha(-1), respectively. Some $ 6.4 benefit is generated in return for $ 1 of expense in wheat farming with certificated seeds of improved varieties instead of traditional varieties. In the absence of state subsidies for certificated seeds the use of uncertified seeds seems to be advantageous for producers. While the amount of subsidy per hectare will be a minimum of $ 101 for certificated seeds per hectare of planting area (as technological improvement), the support will be encouraging for usage of certified seeds. Many variables, such as farm size, use of certified seeds, topography of land, production system, education level and frequency of visiting the agriculture organizations of the producers influence the level of gross profit per unit area in wheat farming. Low level of use of certificated seed in farms decreases the economic benefit of new varieties which are developed as a result of long

  17. Effect of Stay-Green Wheat, a Novel Variety of Wheat in China, on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jinshan; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Ruijuan; Wang, Zhenlin; Fan, Daidi; Yang, Haixia; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-06-26

    The use of natural hypoglycemic compounds is important in preventing and managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-180 g were divided into four groups to investigate the effects of the compounds in stay-green wheat (SGW), a novel variety of wheat in China, on T2DM rats. The control group (NDC) was fed with a standard diet, while T2DM was induced in the rats belonging to the other three groups by a high-fat diet followed by a streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The T2DM rats were further divided into a T2DM control group (DC), which was fed with the normal diet containing 50% common wheat flour, a high dose SGW group (HGW) fed with a diet containing 50% SGW flour, and a low dose SGW group (LGW) fed with a diet containing 25% SGW flour and 25% common wheat flour. Our results showed that SGW contained cereal antioxidants, particularly high in flavonoids and anthocyanins (46.14 ± 1.80 mg GAE/100 g DW and 1.73 ± 0.14 mg CGE/100 g DW, respectively). Furthermore, SGW exhibited a strong antioxidant activity in vitro (30.33 ± 2.66 μg TE/g DW, p < 0.01). Administration of the SGW at a high and low dose showed significant down-regulatory effects on fasting blood glucose (decreasing by 11.3% and 7.0%, respectively), insulin levels (decreasing by 12.3% and 9.7%, respectively), and lipid status (decreasing by 9.1% and 7.5%, respectively) in T2DM rats (p < 0.01). In addition, the T2DM groups treated with SGW at a high and low dose showed a significant increase in the blood superoxide dismutase (1.17 fold and 1.15 fold, respectively) and glutathione peroxidase activities (1.37 fold and 1.30 fold, respectively) compared with the DC group (p < 0.01). The normalized impaired antioxidant status of the pancreatic islet and of the liver compared with the DC group was also significantly increased. Our results indicated that SGW components exerting a glycemic control and a serum lipid regulation effect may be due to their free radical scavenging

  18. Variation between Ethiopian and North American barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in response to Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations.

    PubMed

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-03-15

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia.

  19. Stability, across environments, of grain and alcohol yield, in soft wheat varieties grown for grain distilling or bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Swanston, John Stuart; Smith, Pauline L; Thomas, William Tb; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Kindred, Daniel; Brosnan, James M; Bringhurst, Thomas A; Agu, Reginald C

    2014-12-01

    Soft-milling wheat has potential use for both grain whisky distilling and bioethanol production. Varietal comparisons over wide-ranging environments would permit assessment of both grain and alcohol yield potential and also permit the stability across environments, for these parameters, to be compared. For 12 varieties, analysis of variance showed highly significant effects of variety, site, season and fertiliser application on grain and alcohol yield. There were also significant interactions between these factors and, consequently, varieties varied in stability across environments as well as in mean values for the parameters assessed. Alcohol production per hectare was affected more strongly by variation in grain yield than alcohol yield, but increasing grain protein content reduced alcohol yield and, therefore, utility for grain distilling. To maximise energy production, the best varieties for bioethanol would combine high and stable grain yield with slower reduction of alcohol yield as grain protein increases. For grain distilling, where the energy balance is less important, high alcohol yield will remain the key factor. Data derived using near infrared spectroscopy can be valuable in assessing stability of quality traits across environments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Clinostating effects on biochemical characteristics and productivity of healthy and virus-infected wheat plants of dwarf apogee variety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, L. T.; Silayeva, A. M.; Mishchenko, I. A.; Boyko, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of clinostating on physiological processes and biochemical characteristics of wheat plants ( Triticum aestivum L.) both healthy and infected by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) were studied. In six experiments, each lasting over 30 days, healthy and infected plants of the dwarf Apogee variety were grown under conditions of continuous horizontal and vertical clinostating with 2 rpm at 21 ± 2 °C and 6000 lx (the optimal moisture of a substrate being maintained). The control variants (healthy and infected) were simultaneously grown under the same conditions of temperature and illumination in stationary containers and in open pots. During the experiment, visual observations were carried out over the state of tested plants. After completing the experiment, biometric indices, pigment, carbohydrate and dry matter contents were determined in all the plants. It was shown that clinostating sharply reduced the reproductive function of healthy plants and considerably affected their biomass (productivity) and concentration of chlorophylls and sugars. The viral infection resulted in further reduction of these characteristics. In control variants the viral effect was more significant. We speculate that clinostating reduced the rate of reproduction and spread of the virus.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Albumins and Globulins from Wheat Variety Chinese Spring and Its Fine Deletion Line 3BS-8

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao-Ying; Gao, Li-Yan; Li, Ning; Li, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Wu-Jun; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between chromosome deletion in wheat and protein expression were investigated using Chinese Spring and fine deletion line 3BS-8. Through 2-DE (2-D electrophoresis) analysis, no differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in leaf samples; however, 47 DEPs showed at least two-fold abundance variation (p < 0.05) in matured wheat grains and 21 spots were identified by tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Among the identified spots, four were cultivar-specific, including three (spots B15, B16, and B21) in Chinese Spring and one in 3BS-8 (spot B10). Among variety-different DEPs between Chinese Spring and 3BS-8, most spots showed a higher express profile in CS; only four spots showed up-regulated expression tendency in 3BS-8. An interesting observation was that more than half of the identified protein spots were involved in storage proteins, of which 11 spots were identified as globulins. According to these results, we can presume that the encoded genes of protein spots B15, B16, and B21 were located on the chromosome segment deleted in 3BS-8. PMID:23202959

  2. Proteomic analysis of albumins and globulins from wheat variety Chinese Spring and its fine deletion line 3BS-8.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao-Ying; Gao, Li-Yan; Li, Ning; Li, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Wu-Jun; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2012-10-18

    The relationship between chromosome deletion in wheat and protein expression were investigated using Chinese Spring and fine deletion line 3BS-8. Through 2-DE (2-D electrophoresis) analysis, no differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in leaf samples; however, 47 DEPs showed at least two-fold abundance variation (p < 0.05) in matured wheat grains and 21 spots were identified by tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Among the identified spots, four were cultivar-specific, including three (spots B15, B16, and B21) in Chinese Spring and one in 3BS-8 (spot B10). Among variety-different DEPs between Chinese Spring and 3BS-8, most spots showed a higher express profile in CS; only four spots showed up-regulated expression tendency in 3BS-8. An interesting observation was that more than half of the identified protein spots were involved in storage proteins, of which 11 spots were identified as globulins. According to these results, we can presume that the encoded genes of protein spots B15, B16, and B21 were located on the chromosome segment deleted in 3BS-8.

  3. A rapid (less than 10 minute) electrophoresis method for identification of wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, C W; Gore, P J; Manusu, H P

    1991-05-01

    Conventional procedures for electrophoretic identification of grain samples according to variety are too slow to permit checking at the time of delivery. The method described permits electrophoretic identification within an hour. It involves extraction of gliadin proteins from crushed grain with 6% urea solution or ethylene glycol, cathodic electrophoresis for 9 min at 300 V in a Micrograd gel (MG 315 from Gradipore Ltd, Sydney, Australia) using sodium lactate buffer (pH 3.1), and staining in Gradipore (at about 50 degrees C). Distinction between a set of Australian varieties was similar to that obtainable with the Australian Standard Procedure.

  4. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches.

  5. Profiles of phenolic compounds in modern and old common wheat varieties determined by liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dinelli, Giovanni; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Di Silvestro, Raffaella; Marotti, Ilaria; Arráez-Román, David; Benedettelli, Stefano; Ghiselli, Lisetta; Fernadez-Gutierrez, Alberto

    2011-10-21

    The health-promoting properties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been largely attributed to the presence of unique phytochemicals of whole grains. The aim of this study was to profile the phenolic content of 16 old and 6 modern Italian wheat varieties, cropped in the same location and growing season. High variability was observed among the investigated wheat genotypes, both in the free and bound phenolic extracts. The total polyphenol content ranged from 885.5 to 1715.9 μmol GAE/100 g of grain and, on average, the bound fraction contributed for 72.0% to the total phenolic content. As regards the flavonoid content, the free fraction ranged from 50.7 to 106.1 μmol CE/100 g of grain and the bound fraction from 78.3 to 148.9 μmol CE/100 g of grain. Moreover, the interpretation of the mass spectra allowed the characterization of 34 phenolic compounds (104 including isomer forms) belonging to the phenolic acid, flavonoid, coumarin, stilbene, proanthocyanidin and lignan chemical classes. HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis highlighted remarkable differences in the phytochemical fingerprints of old and modern wheat varieties. Six ancient wheat genotypes (Bianco Nostrale, Frassineto, Gentil Rosso, Gentil Rosso Mutico, Marzuolo d'Aqui, Verna) showed phenolic profiles with a number of total compounds and isomer forms much higher than that identified in the modern cultivars. The present findings confirm that ancient wheat may represent a valuable source of biodiversity, especially as regards phenolic compounds. The investigated old wheat genotypes may be successfully used in breeding programs for developing bread wheat varieties with added value in terms of health-promoting phytochemicals.

  6. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  7. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    PubMed

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  8. [Photosynthetic damage induced by elevated O3 in two varieties of winter wheat with free air controlled enrichment approach].

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Zeng, Qing; Feng, Zhao-Zhong; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Tang, Hao-Ye; Chen, Xi; Xie, Zu-Bin; Liu, Gang; Kobayashi, Kazhuhiko

    2009-02-15

    O3-FACE (ozone-free air controlled enrichment) platform has been established for observing the photosynthetic damage induced by elevated O3 in functional leaves of two winter wheat (Tritcium aestivum L.) varieties (Yangmai 16 and Yannong 19) during grain filling stage. The results showed that the response trend of all the parameters was similar: (1) The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased gradually and after 35 days of O3 treatment, Pn decreased by 56.21% and 21.82% for Yannong 19 and Yangmai 16, respectively. (2) Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters changed as decreased in Fv/Fm (maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in the dark), qp (photochemical quenching), Phiexe (excitation capture efficiency of PS II or intrinsic PS II efficiency), PhiPSII (actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light), and increased in NPQ (non-photochemical quenching); Energy distribution parameters changed as rose in % D (fraction of light absorbed in PS II that is dissipated in the PS II antenna), reduced in % P (fraction of light absorbed that is used in photochemistry), and no significant changed in % X (fraction of light absorbed that is not used or dissipated in the PS II antenna). After 35 days of O3 treatment, the actual photochemical efficiency of PS II of Yannong 19 and Yangmai 16 were reduced by 24.42% and 9.97%, respectively.(3) It was declined in Chlt/Car (total chlorophyll content/carotinoid content) while the ratio of Chla/Chlb (chlorophyll a content/chlorophyll b content) was increased. There was a growth in Mg2+, Ca2+-ATPase, activities and ATP contents in chloroplast. The extent of variation in the above parameters and the differences between the two varieties were enlarged as the O3 treatment time increasing and it could be found a more serious damage effect in Yannong 19 than that of in Yangmai 16. In conclusion, the responses of the capacities of defense and repair systems of the two varieties to elevated O3 were reflected by increase in heat

  9. Swedish spring wheat varieties with the rare high grain protein allele of NAM-B1 differ in leaf senescence and grain mineral content.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes.

  10. [On-farm conservation and utilization of paddy rice, wheat and maize landrace varieties in 15 unique ethnic groups in Yunnan, China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-Rong; Yang, Ya-Yun; Zhang, En-Lai; A, Xin-Xiang; Tang, Cui-Feng; Dong, Chao; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Liu, Xu; Dai, Lu-Yuan

    2012-11-01

    On-farm conservation and utilization of crop landraces have been proposed as means of conserving plant germplasm, in contrast to ex situ germplasm conservation, but little is known about the effectiveness of this approach. This paper reports the findings from a survey conducted in 15 unique ethnic groups of the Yunnan Province on the conservation and utilization of paddy rice, wheat (including wheat, barley, oats, and rye) and maize landrace varieties through participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and questionnaires. The surveyed regions covered 306 villages (the village group) from 237 administrative villages in 124 towns (township) distributed in 36 counties of 11 prefectures (city) in Yunnan Province. The survey showed that 44.8%, 77.5%, and 37.3% of the visited villages had lost their paddy rice, wheat, and maize landraces, respectively. A total of 901 landraces were collected, including 371 rice, 119 wheat, and 411 maize varieties, respectively. There were 2.9 on-farm varieties on average per village, 3.3, 8.0 and 5.2 varieties on average per 100 households, 1 000 peasants and 100 Ha farmland areas, respectively. Among the 306 villages, two villages (Laomian and Qingkou) maintained the highest crop diversity with 18 varieties (including 10 rice and 8 maize varieties) and 14 paddy rice varieties. Also, on-farm varieties in different ethnic groups varied significantly from each other, ranging from 16 to 120 varieties per group. The diversity of paddy rice varieties was the highest, ranging from 1 to 72, and the diversity was mainly distributed in southern, southwest Yunnan of tropical, subtropical ethnic regions. The wheat varieties ranged from 0 to 47 and distributed in northern, northwest Yunnan of high altitude, temperature, and cold ethnic regions. The maize varieties ranged from 4 to 40. These patterns of variation in on-farm varieties are directly associated with traditional culture and custom for the ethnic minorities and reflect the lack of improved

  11. [Evaluating the response of yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and the adaptation by adjusting crop variety to climate change in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shi; Mo, Xing-guo; Lin, Zhong-hui

    2015-04-01

    Based on the multi-model datasets of three representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios from IPCC5, the response of yield and accumulative evapotranspiration (ET) of winter wheat to climate change in the future were assessed by VIP model. The results showed that if effects of CO2 enrichment were excluded, temperature rise would lead to a reduction in the length of the growing period for wheat under the three climate change scenarios, and the wheat yield and ET presented a decrease tendency. The positive effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment could offset most negative effect introduced by temperature rising, indicating that atmospheric CO2 enrichment would be the prime reason of the wheat yield rising in future. In 2050s, wheat yield would increase 14.8% (decrease 2.5% without CO2 fertilization) , and ET would decrease 2.1% under RCP4.5. By adoption of new crop variety with enhanced requirement on accumulative temperature, the wheat yield would increase more significantly with CO2 fertilization, but the water consumption would also increase. Therefore, cultivar breeding new irrigation techniques and agronomical management should be explored under the challenges of climate change in the future.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, "C 306" and a poor chapatti variety, "Sonalika." About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2'-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be "variety or genotype" specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P.; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, “C 306” and a poor chapatti variety, “Sonalika.” About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2′-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be “variety or genotype” specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding

  14. Characterization of a mini core collection of Japanese wheat varieties using single-nucleotide polymorphisms generated by genotyping-by-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Fuminori; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Katayose, Yuichi; Handa, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    A core collection of Japanese wheat varieties (JWC) consisting of 96 accessions was established based on their passport data and breeding pedigrees. To clarify the molecular basis of the JWC collection, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed using the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. Phylogenetic tree and population structure analyses using these SNP data revealed the genetic diversity and relationships among the JWC accessions, classifying them into four groups; “varieties in the Hokkaido area”, “modern varieties in the northeast part of Japan”, “modern varieties in the southwest part of Japan” and “classical varieties including landraces”. This clustering closely reflected the history of wheat breeding in Japan. Furthermore, to demonstrate the utility of the JWC collection, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for three traits, namely, “days to heading in autumn sowing”, “days to heading in spring sowing” and “culm length”. We found significantly associated SNP markers with each trait, and some of these were closely linked to known major genes for heading date or culm length on the genetic map. Our study indicates that this JWC collection is a useful set of germplasm for basic and applied research aimed at understanding and utilizing the genetic diversity among Japanese wheat varieties. PMID:27162493

  15. Heavy metal and metalloid concentrations in components of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiqin; Zhang, Hongyi; Scheckel, Kirk G; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Soil contamination and human impacts have been reported in the vicinity of lead (Pb) smelters in Henan, China. However, no information is available on crop uptake of soil contaminants near these smelters. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of wheat were more susceptible to uptake. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in whole grain flour were 0.0915, 0.192, 3.22, 0.280, and 32.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Grain concentrations of all 25 varieties for Cd as well as 16 varieties for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for consumption. Mean pollution indexes (MPI) (element concentration of wheat grain/MPC for As, Cd or Pb) of the grains varied 0.562-2.15. As, Pb, and Cd contributed 5.22, 40.0, and 54.8 % to the MPI for all 25 varieties, respectively. This survey highlights Cd and Pb contamination of wheat grains in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan Province, and likely other farm villages in the area. Further work is needed to examine uptake and contamination of other crops and vegetables impacted from the lead smelters in Henan Province and the absorption of toxic elements from food sources by local inhabitants.

  16. Nitrogen stress-induced alterations in the leaf proteome of two wheat varieties grown at different nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Ruby; Ahmad, Altaf

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nitrogen (N) is a key limiting factor of the agricultural productivity. Nitrogen utilization efficiency has significant impact on crop growth and yield as well as on the reduction in production cost. The excessive nitrogen application is accompanied with severe negative impact on environment. Thus to reduce the environmental contamination, improving NUE is need of an hour. In our study we have deployed comparative proteome analysis using 2-DE to investigate the effect of the nitrogen nutrition on differential expression pattern of leaf proteins in low-N sensitive and low-N tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Results showed a comprehensive picture of the post-transcriptional response to different nitrogen regimes administered which would be expected to serve as a basic platform for further characterization of gene function and regulation. We detected proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, nitrogen metabolism, sulphur metabolism and defence. Our results provide new insights towards the altered protein pattern in response to N stress. Through this study we suggest that genes functioning in many physiological events coordinate the response to availability of nitrogen and also for the improvement of NUE of crops.

  17. Influence of atmospheric pollutants on agriculture in developing countries: a case study with three new wheat varieties in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wahid, A

    2006-12-01

    The performance of three wheat varieties (Inqilab-91, Punjab-96, Pasban-90) was investigated in open-top chambers with charcoal-filtered air (FA), unfiltered air (UFA) and unchambered field plots (AA) during the 2003-2004 season at a semi-urban site in Lahore, Pakistan. The 8-h daily mean O(3), NO(2) and SO(2) concentrations in UFA and AA remained 72, 28 and 15 ppb, respectively. Plants grown in UFA and AA showed stunted growth and accelerated rate of leaf senescence with pronounced reductions in stomatal conductance (7-24%), net photosynthetic rate (20-22%) and photosynthetic efficiency (9-17%) compared with FA plants. A mid-season harvest of 10-week-old plants revealed reduced plant fresh (14-37%) and dry weights (15-43) in UFA compared to FA counterparts. Grain yield recorded after a full season of growth was drastically reduced in UFA with 43% for Pasban-90, 39% for Punjab-91 and 18% for Inqilab-91 compared with FA control plants. Nutritional quality of seeds was also significantly reduced in UFA and AA with respect to starch, but not in protein and vitamin-E contents when compared with FA plants. This investigation carried out in a major developing country of southeast Asia has shown alarming effects of atmospheric pollutants on both yield and nutritional quality of an important cereal crop that needs urgent attention to maintain the agricultural systems with parallel efforts to reduce the emissions in the region.

  18. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water

  19. Influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit haplotypes on dough rheology in elite common wheat varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins. They are encoded by a multigene family located at the Glu-3 loci, and their allelic variation strongly influences wheat end-use quality. Due to ambiguities in the LMW-GS allele nomenclature and to the co...

  20. Breeding for the future: what are the potential impacts of future frost and heat events on sowing and flowering time requirements for Australian bread wheat (Triticum aestivium) varieties?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bangyou; Chenu, Karine; Fernanda Dreccer, M; Chapman, Scott C

    2012-09-01

    Extreme climate, especially temperature, can severely reduce wheat yield. As global warming has already begun to increase mean temperature and the occurrence of extreme temperatures, it has become urgent to accelerate the 5-20 year process of breeding for new wheat varieties, to adapt to future climate. We analyzed the patterns of frost and heat events across the Australian wheatbelt based on 50 years of historical records (1960-2009) for 2864 weather stations. Flowering dates of three contrasting-maturity wheat varieties were simulated for a wide range of sowing dates in 22 locations for 'current' climate (1960-2009) and eight future scenarios (high and low CO2 emission, dry and wet precipitation scenarios, in 2030 and 2050). The results highlighted the substantial spatial variability of frost and heat events across the Australian wheatbelt in current and future climates. As both 'last frost' and 'first heat' events would occur earlier in the season, the 'target' sowing and flowering windows (defined as risk less than 10% for frost (<0 °C) and less than 30% for heat (>35 °C) around flowering) would be shifted earlier by up to 2 and 1 month(s), respectively, in 2050. A short-season variety would require a shift in target sowing window 2-fold greater than long- and medium-season varieties by 2050 (8 vs. 4 days on average across locations and scenarios, respectively), but would suffer a lesser decrease in the length of the vegetative period (4 vs. 7 days). Overall, warmer winters would shorten the wheat season by up to 6 weeks, especially during preflowering. This faster crop cycle is associated with a reduced time for resource acquisition, and potential yield loss. As far as favourable rain and modern equipment would allow, early sowing and longer season varieties (i.e. in current climate) would be the best strategies to adapt to future climates.

  1. Anchoring durum wheat diversity in the reality of traditional agricultural systems: varieties, seed management, and farmers' perception in two Moroccan regions.

    PubMed

    Chentoufi, Lamyae; Sahri, Ali; Arbaoui, Mustapha; Belqadi, Loubna; Birouk, Ahmed; Roumet, Pierre; Muller, Marie-Hélène

    2014-07-15

    Traditional agrosystems are the places were crop species have evolved and continue to evolve under a combination of human and environmental pressures. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of crop diversity in these agrosystems is crucial to sustain food security and farmers' self-reliance. It requires as a first step, anchoring a description of the available diversity in its geographical, environmental, cultural and socio-economic context. We conducted interviews with farmers cultivating durum wheat in two contrasted traditional agrosystems of Morocco in the Pre-Rif (163 farmers) and in the oases of the Atlas Mountains (110 farmers). We documented the varietal diversity of durum wheat, the main characteristics of the farms, the farming and seed management practices applied to durum wheat, and the farmers' perception of their varieties. As expected in traditional agrosystems, farmers largely practiced diversified subsistence agriculture on small plots and relied on on-farm seed production or informal seed exchange networks. Heterogeneity nevertheless prevailed on many variables, especially on the modernization of practices in the Pre-Rif region. Fourteen (resp. 11) traditional and 5 (resp. 3) modern varieties were identified in the Pre-Rif region (resp. in the Atlas Mountains). The majority of farmers grew a single variety, and most traditional varieties were distributed in restricted geographical areas. At the farm level, more than half of the varieties were renewed in the last decade in the Pre-Rif, a more rapid renewal than in the Atlas Mountain. Modern varieties were more prevalent in the Pre-Rif region and were integrated in the traditional practices of seed production, selection and exchange. They were clearly distinguished by the farmers from the landraces, the last ones being appreciated for their quality traits. The surveyed traditional agrosystems constitute open, dynamic and heterogeneous entities. We suggest that competing factors

  2. Anchoring durum wheat diversity in the reality of traditional agricultural systems: varieties, seed management, and farmers’ perception in two Moroccan regions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional agrosystems are the places were crop species have evolved and continue to evolve under a combination of human and environmental pressures. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of crop diversity in these agrosystems is crucial to sustain food security and farmers’ self-reliance. It requires as a first step, anchoring a description of the available diversity in its geographical, environmental, cultural and socio-economic context. Methods We conducted interviews with farmers cultivating durum wheat in two contrasted traditional agrosystems of Morocco in the Pre-Rif (163 farmers) and in the oases of the Atlas Mountains (110 farmers). We documented the varietal diversity of durum wheat, the main characteristics of the farms, the farming and seed management practices applied to durum wheat, and the farmers’ perception of their varieties. Results As expected in traditional agrosystems, farmers largely practiced diversified subsistence agriculture on small plots and relied on on-farm seed production or informal seed exchange networks. Heterogeneity nevertheless prevailed on many variables, especially on the modernization of practices in the Pre-Rif region. Fourteen (resp. 11) traditional and 5 (resp. 3) modern varieties were identified in the Pre-Rif region (resp. in the Atlas Mountains). The majority of farmers grew a single variety, and most traditional varieties were distributed in restricted geographical areas. At the farm level, more than half of the varieties were renewed in the last decade in the Pre-Rif, a more rapid renewal than in the Atlas Mountain. Modern varieties were more prevalent in the Pre-Rif region and were integrated in the traditional practices of seed production, selection and exchange. They were clearly distinguished by the farmers from the landraces, the last ones being appreciated for their quality traits. Conclusions The surveyed traditional agrosystems constitute open, dynamic and heterogeneous

  3. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 83rd year in 2013. The nursery contained 29 entries submitted by 7 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks (Table 1). Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates ex...

  4. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 84th year in 2014. The nursery contained 26 entries submitted by 6 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks (Table 1). Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates ex...

  5. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 86th year in 2016. The nursery contained 26 entries submitted by 8 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks (Table 1). Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates ...

  6. Effect of wheat and corn variety on fiber digestion in beef steers fed high-grain diets.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Philippeau, C; Michalet-Doreau, B

    1999-08-01

    Six Salers steers, fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas, were used in a double 3x3 Latin square design to assess the depressive effect of the nature of wheat, flint corn, and dent corn on fiber digestion in animals fed high-concentrate diets, and to determine the mechanisms involved in these negative digestive effects. Diets were balanced to be equal in starch content (47.7+/-2.3%). The three cereals were characterized by ruminal starch digestibilities of 86.6, 60.8, and 34.8% for the wheat, dent corn, and flint corn, respectively. Ruminal digestion of NDF was lower with wheat- than with corn-based diets (49.4 vs. 55.2%; P<.001), and with dent corn than with flint corn (53 vs. 57.3%; P<.01). Degradability of hay in nylon bags was not affected by the grain source in the diet (P>.1). The mean retention time of forage particles in the rumen was similar between wheat and corn diets (P>.1), but it was lower for steers fed dent corn than for those fed flint corn (P<.05). Most fibrolytic activities of the solid-associated microorganisms were lower (P<.05) in animals fed wheat than in those fed corn. Differences in fibrolytic activities of the solid-associated microorganisms between the two corn genotypes were not statistically significant (P>.1), but activities of all fibrolytic enzymes were lower (P<.05) with the dent than with the flint corn diet. Protozoal number in ruminal fluid was lower in animals receiving wheat than in those fed corn (177 vs. 789x10(3)/mL; P<.001) and was related to the high ruminal acidity (P<.01) of the wheat diet. Large modifications in the rumen microbial ecosystem between the two corn genotypes were not visible in protozoal numbers or pH. Total-tract digestion of NDF was the same for wheat and for corn diets, averaging 55% for the three diets. A postruminal compensation of NDF digestion (14% of the total tract NDF digestion) seemed to occur with the wheat diet. The lack of any postruminal NDF digestion (0%) with the two corn diets may

  7. True metabolizable energy values of corn and different varieties of wheat and barley using normal and dwarf single comb White Leghorn Roosters.

    PubMed

    Boldaji, F; Roush, W B; Nakaue, H S; Arscott, G H

    1981-01-01

    An experiment with four trials was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy value of corn and different varieties of wheat and barley using normal and dwarf Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) roosters. Maxigene, Purple, Red, and Yamhill wheats and corn were assayed for TME using normal sized and dwarf roosters in Trials 1 and 2, respectively. Hannchen, No. 2 Western, Lady Godiva, and Hiproly barleys were assayed using normal sized and dwarf SCWL roosters in Trials 3 and 4, respectively. The pooled results indicated that normal sized roosters gave (P less than .01) significantly higher TME values than dwarf roosters. There was no significant difference in TME found between wheat and barley cultivars, although both types of grain were significantly (P less than .01) lower in TME than the value found for corn. Average dry matter TME values for corn, wheat, and barley were 4.17, 3.70, and 3.54, respectively. A bird x grain interaction was found to be significant (P less than .05).

  8. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  9. Evaluation of HMW-GS 20 and 2.2 from near isogenic lines of wheat variety HD2329 for bread quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sonia; Grewal, Sapna; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dominates the list of the most important human food sources ever. Its complex genetic background is the reason behind the wide diversity that exists in nutritional as well as food end-product quality. High-molecular-weight glutenin sub-units (HMW-GS) are the main grain storage proteins in the endosperm of wheat and related species. It is well established that the composition and quantity of allelic variation in HMW-GS genes substantially affect the taste and appearance of dough products and therefore work in this area is highly desired. A significant positive effect on wheat dough quality traits was observed among near isogenic lines of HMW-GS sub-units 20 and 2.2 in wheat variety HD2329 during quality evaluation of data generated over 2 years. A remarkably significant (P < 0.01) effect was observed on dough quality parameters like ratio of wet gluten/dry gluten, SDS sedimentation, farinogram parameters, and bread/chapatti traits whereas flour protein and dry gluten content showed an insignificant effect. HMW-GS 20 was found to be superior to HMW-GS 2.2 in terms of dough quality and both the near isogenic lines developed by us were found to be highly superior to the recurrent parent HD2329. As we know that the improvement of flour quality based on superior HMW-GS alleles is necessary to meet changing consumer demand, the study can be of immense use to future researchers who can target these HMW sub-units 20 and 2.2 in breeding programmes for the improvement of wheat end-product quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit haplotypes on dough rheology and baking quality in elite common wheat varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins directly involved in the formation of gluten. Depending on the first amino acid residue of the mature proteins, the LMW-GSs are divided into methionine, serine or isoleucine type. These proteins are encod...

  11. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers' practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation.

  12. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers’ practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  13. [PS II photochemical efficiency in flag leaf of wheat varieties and its adaptation to strong sun- light intensity on farmland of Xiangride in Qinghai Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Wen-Jie; Shi, Rui; Li, Miao; Zhang, Huai-Gang; Sun, Ya-Nan

    2014-09-01

    Taking four wheat varieties developed by Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, as test materials, with the measurement of content of photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, fresh and dry mass of flag leaf, the PS II photochemistry efficiency of abaxial and adaxial surface of flag leaf and its adaptation to strong solar radiation during the period of heading stage in Xiangride region were investigated with the pulse-modulated in-vivo chlorophyll fluorescence technique. The results indicated that flag leaf angle mainly grew in horizontal state in Gaoyuan 314, Gaoyuan 363 and Gaoyuan 584, and mainly in vertical state in Gaoyuan 913 because of its smaller leaf area and larger width. Photosynthetic pigments were different among the 4 varieties, and positively correlated with intrinsic PS II photochemistry efficiencies (Fv/Fm). In clear days, especially at noon, the photosynthetic photoinhibition was more serious in abaxial surface of flag leaf due to directly facing the solar radiation, but it could recover after reduction of sunlight intensity in the afternoon, which meant that no inactive damage happened in PS II reaction centers. There were significant differences of PS II actual and maximum photochemical efficiencies at the actinic light intensity (ΦPS II and Fv'/Fm') between abaxial and adaxial surface, and their relative variation trends were on the contrary. The photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and NPQ) had a similar tendency in both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. Although ΦPS II and qP were lower in adaxial surface of flag leaf, the Fv'/Fm' was significantly higher, which indicated that the potential PS II capture efficiency of excited energy was higher. The results demonstrated that process of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching could effectively dissipate excited energy caused by strong solar radiation, and there were higher adaptation capacities in wheat varieties natively cultivated in

  14. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design.

    PubMed

    Morris, Craig F; Fuerst, E Patrick; McLean, Derek J; Momont, Kathleen; James, Caleb P

    2014-11-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending results to human sensory analysis. Here, we examine the application of a single-elimination tournament design to the analysis of consumption preferences of a set of hard red and hard white spring wheat varieties. A single-elimination tournament design in this case pairs 2 wheat varieties and only 1 of the 2 is advanced to further tests. Preferred varieties were advanced until an overall "winner" was identified; conversely, less desirable varieties were advanced such that an overall "loser" was identified. Hollis and IDO702 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard red varieties, and Clear White 515 and WA8123 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard white varieties. When using the more powerful protocol of 14 mice and a 4-d trial, differences in mean daily consumption preferences of 2 varieties were separated at P-values as small as 2 × 10(-8) . The single-elimination tournament design is an efficient means of identifying the most and least desirable varieties among a larger set of samples. One application for identifying the 2 extremes in preference within a group of varieties would be to use them as parents of a population to identify quantitative trait loci for preference.

  15. The Analysis Of The Strain Influence On Some Yield Elemnts On An Assortment Of Isogenic Wheat Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Păniţă, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS were tested an assortment consists of 25 isogenic lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), with the combination of Rht1&rht8 genes, the analyzed characters being the hight of the strain (cm), the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters, links quantified by using the correlation. Regarding the classification based on the average high of the strain, it was found that that there is a strong link between some characters too. Based on component analysis, the no. of seeds/spike and the seeds weight/spikes are components that influence in excess of 83% variance analysis, a total of five genotypes having positive scores for both factors.

  16. Breeding progress, environmental variation and correlation of winter wheat yield and quality traits in German official variety trials and on-farm during 1983-2014.

    PubMed

    Laidig, Friedrich; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Rentel, Dirk; Drobek, Thomas; Meyer, Uwe; Huesken, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 32 years, a large gain in grain yield (24 %) was achieved in official German variety trials, and despite considerable loss in protein concentration (-7.9 %), winter wheat baking quality was partially improved over the last 32 years. On-farm gain in grain yield (32 %) exceeded gain in trials, but at yield level about 25 dt ha (-1) lower. Breeding progress was very successfully transferred into both progress in grain yield and on-farm baking quality. Long-term gains in grain yield and baking quality of 316 winter wheat varieties from German official trials were evaluated. We dissected progress into a genetic and a non-genetic part to quantify the contribution of genetic improvement. We further investigated the influence of genotype and environment on total variation by estimating variance components. We also estimated genetic and phenotypic correlation between quality traits. For trial data, we found a large gain in grain yield (24%), but a strong decline in protein concentration (-8.0%) and loaf volume (-8.5%) relative to 1983. Improvement of baking quality could be achieved for falling number (5.8%), sedimentation value (7.9%), hardness (13.4%), water absorption (1.2%) and milling yield (2.4%). Grain yield, falling number and protein concentration were highly influenced by environment, whereas for sedimentation value, hardness, water absorption and loaf volume genotypes accounted for more than 60% of total variation. Strong to very strong relations exist among protein concentration, sedimentation value, and loaf volume. On-farm yields were obtained from national statistics, and grain quality data from samples collected by national harvest survey. These on-farm data were compared with trial results. On-farm gain in grain yield was 31.6%, but at a mean level about 25 dt ha(-1) lower. Improvement of on-farm quality exceeded trial results considerably. A shift to varieties with improved baking quality can be considered as the main reason for this

  17. Rapid changes in leaf elongation, ABA and water status during the recovery phase following application of water stress in two durum wheat varieties differing in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mahdid, Mohamed; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ehlert, Christina; Simonneau, Thierry

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of Abscisic acid (ABA) in water potential and turgor variations as well as growth recovery during the first phase of a rapid water stress induced by PEG6000. Two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.), MBB (more tolerant) and OZ (less productive under drought), were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of the growing leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Water potential was measured using a pressure chamber; osmotic potential was estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone, turgor pressure of the same zone of leaf three was estimated directly by pressure probe. Growth rapidly ceased for a period of about one hour after the addition of PEG, gradual recovery was then observed for about 2 h. A significant difference was found in the % recovery of Leaf Elongation Rate (LER) and ABA between the two varieties, leading to better water status in MBB compared to OZ. The results of this study showed the possible role of ABA on growth resumption by the increase of relative water content and turgor via osmotic adjustment during the stress period in the leaves, which indicates the importance of OA in the resumption of LER even in the short term under conditions of water deficit. Full recovery of turgor but not of LER at the end stress period suggested the possible effect on cell wall extensibility (hardening) even at short term resulting from the rapid accumulation of ABA.

  18. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending res...

  19. Association of puroindoline b-2 variants with grain traits, yield components and flag leaf size in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of Yellow and Huai Valley of China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 169 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (landraces and cultivars) were used to asses the relationship between Puroindoline D1 alleles and Puroindoline b-B2 variants and grain hardness, other grain traits, grain yield components, and flag leaf size. Results indicated that the average SK...

  20. Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Chamekh, Zoubeir; Ayadi, Sawsen; Karmous, Chahine; Trifa, Youssef; Amara, Hajer; Boudabbous, Khaoula; Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Supplemental irrigation with low-quality water will be paramount in Mediterranean agriculture in the future, where durum wheat is a major crop. Breeding for salinity tolerance may contribute towards improving resilience to irrigation with brackish water. However, identification of appropriate phenotyping traits remains a bottleneck in breeding. A set of 25 genotypes, including 19 landraces and 6 improved varieties most cultivated in Tunisia, were grown in the field and irrigated with brackish water (6, 13 and 18dSm(-1)). Improved genotypes exhibited higher grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency at the crop level (WUEyield or 'water productivity'), shorter days to flowering (DTF), lower N concentration (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in mature kernels and lower nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in the flag leaf compared with landraces. GY was negatively correlated with DTF and the δ(13)C and N of mature kernels and was positively correlated with the δ(15)N of the flag leaf. Moreover, δ(13)C of mature kernels was negatively correlated with WUEyield. The results highlight the importance of shorter phenology together with photosynthetic resilience to salt-induced water stress (lower δ(13)C) and nitrogen metabolism (higher N and δ(15)N) for assessing genotypic performance to salinity.

  1. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  2. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  3. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ .

  4. A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hallström, Elinor; Sestili, Francesco; Lafiandra, Domenico; Björck, Inger; Östman, Elin

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that elevated amylose content in products from rice, corn, and barley induce lower postprandial glycaemic responses and higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates and RS has been associated with health benefits such as decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objective To evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in vivo to bread products based on a novel wheat genotype with elevated amylose content (38%). Design Bread was baked from a unique wheat genotype with elevated amylose content, using baking conditions known to promote amylose retrogradation. Included test products were bread based on whole grain wheat with elevated amylose content (EAW), EAW with added lactic acid (EAW-la), and ordinary whole grain wheat bread (WGW). All test breads were baked at pumpernickel conditions (20 hours, 120°C). A conventionally baked white wheat bread (REF) was used as reference. Resistant starch (RS) content was measured in vitro and postprandial glucose and insulin responses were tested in 14 healthy subjects. Results The results showed a significantly higher RS content (on total starch basis) in breads based on EAW than in WGW (p<0.001). Lactic acid further increased RS (p<0.001) compared with both WGW and EAW. Breads baked with EAW induced lower postprandial glucose response than REF during the first 120 min (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in insulin responses. Increased RS content per test portion was correlated to a reduced glycaemic index (GI) (r=−0.571, p<0.001). Conclusions This study indicates that wheat with elevated amylose content may be preferable to other wheat genotypes considering RS formation. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that bread with elevated amylose content can improve postprandial glycaemic response. PMID:21876685

  5. A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Elinor; Sestili, Francesco; Lafiandra, Domenico; Björck, Inger; Ostman, Elin

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that elevated amylose content in products from rice, corn, and barley induce lower postprandial glycaemic responses and higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates and RS has been associated with health benefits such as decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in vivo to bread products based on a novel wheat genotype with elevated amylose content (38%). Bread was baked from a unique wheat genotype with elevated amylose content, using baking conditions known to promote amylose retrogradation. Included test products were bread based on whole grain wheat with elevated amylose content (EAW), EAW with added lactic acid (EAW-la), and ordinary whole grain wheat bread (WGW). All test breads were baked at pumpernickel conditions (20 hours, 120°C). A conventionally baked white wheat bread (REF) was used as reference. Resistant starch (RS) content was measured in vitro and postprandial glucose and insulin responses were tested in 14 healthy subjects. The results showed a significantly higher RS content (on total starch basis) in breads based on EAW than in WGW (p<0.001). Lactic acid further increased RS (p<0.001) compared with both WGW and EAW. Breads baked with EAW induced lower postprandial glucose response than REF during the first 120 min (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in insulin responses. Increased RS content per test portion was correlated to a reduced glycaemic index (GI) (r=-0.571, p<0.001). This study indicates that wheat with elevated amylose content may be preferable to other wheat genotypes considering RS formation. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that bread with elevated amylose content can improve postprandial glycaemic response.

  6. Characterization of α/β- and γ-gliadins in commercial varieties and breeding lines of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF and A-PAGE gels.

    PubMed

    Marín, Santiago; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Hernando, Alberto; Barro, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    In this work, gliadin composition has been analyzed in 33 accessions of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF MS and compared with A-PAGE results. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra were 29,900-42,500 Da, which corresponds to the α/β- and γ-gliadin regions in A-PAGE. The average of gliadin peaks per line was 23 for MALDI-TOF MS and only 14.8 bands for A-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS identified 33 gliadin peaks in the durum wheat collection, 20 of which were unique peaks present in 7 lines. A-PAGE analysis identified 30 bands, of which only 4 were unique. Thus, the MALDI-TOF MS method was more sensitive than A-PAGE for identifying α/β- and γ-gliadins in the 33 durum wheat lines studied. Phylogenetic analyses performed using MALDI-TOF MS data assigned the durum wheat lines to two groups. The utility of MALDI-TOF MS to determine relationships among genotypes and for identification of durum wheat accessions is discussed.

  7. Definition of the low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene family members in a set of standard bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are a class of seed storage proteins that play a major role in the determination of the viscoelastic properties of wheat dough. Most of the LMW-GSs are encoded by a multi-gene family located on the short arms of the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, at...

  8. The Interactive Effects of Transgenically Overexpressed 1Ax1 with Various HMW-GS Combinations on Dough Quality by Introgression of Exogenous Subunits into an Elite Chinese Wheat Variety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs. PMID:24167625

  9. The interactive effects of transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 with various HMW-GS combinations on dough quality by introgression of exogenous subunits into an elite Chinese Wheat variety.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiang; Li, Yin; Zhao, Shasha; Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs.

  10. Role of fungicides, application of nozzle types, and the resistance level of wheat varieties in the control of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Mesterházy, Akos; Tóth, Beáta; Varga, Monika; Bartók, Tibor; Szabó-Hevér, Agnes; Farády, László; Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs

    2011-11-01

    Fungicide application is a key factor in the control of mycotoxin contamination in the harvested wheat grain. However, the practical results are often disappointing. In 2000-2004, 2006-2008 and 2007 and 2008, three experiments were made to test the efficacy of fungicide control on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in wheat and to find ways to improve control of the disease and toxin contamination. In a testing system we have used for 20 years, tebuconazole and tebuconazole + prothioconazole fungicides regularly reduced symptoms by about 80% with a correlating reduction in toxin contamination. Averages across the years normally show a correlation of r = 0.90 or higher. The stability differences (measured by the stability index) between the poorest and the best fungicides are about 10 or more times, differing slightly in mycotoxin accumulation, FHB index (severity) and Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK). The weak fungicides, like carbendazim, were effective only when no epidemic occurred or epidemic severity was at a very low level. Similar fungicide effects were seen on wheat cultivars which varied in FHB resistance. In this study, we found three fold differences in susceptibility to FHB between highly susceptible and moderately resistant cultivars when treated with fungicides. In the moderately resistant cultivars, about 50% of the fungicide treatments lowered the DON level below the regulatory limit. In the most susceptible cultivars, all fungicides failed to reduce mycotoxin levels low enough for grain acceptance, in spite of the fact that disease was significantly reduced. The results correlated well with the results of the large-scale field tests of fungicide application at the time of natural infection. The Turbo FloodJet nozzle reduced FHB incidence and DON contamination when compared to the TeeJet XR nozzle. Overall, the data suggest that significant decreases in FHB incidence and deoxynivalenol contamination in field situations are possible with proper fungicide

  11. Role of Fungicides, Application of Nozzle Types, and the Resistance Level of Wheat Varieties in the Control of Fusarium Head Blight and Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Mesterházy, Ákos; Tóth, Beáta; Varga, Monika; Bartók, Tibor; Szabó-Hevér, Ágnes; Farády, László; Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs

    2011-01-01

    Fungicide application is a key factor in the control of mycotoxin contamination in the harvested wheat grain. However, the practical results are often disappointing. In 2000-2004, 2006-2008 and 2007 and 2008, three experiments were made to test the efficacy of fungicide control on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in wheat and to find ways to improve control of the disease and toxin contamination. In a testing system we have used for 20 years, tebuconazole and tebuconazole + prothioconazole fungicides regularly reduced symptoms by about 80% with a correlating reduction in toxin contamination. Averages across the years normally show a correlation of r = 0.90 or higher. The stability differences (measured by the stability index) between the poorest and the best fungicides are about 10 or more times, differing slightly in mycotoxin accumulation, FHB index (severity) and Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK). The weak fungicides, like carbendazim, were effective only when no epidemic occurred or epidemic severity was at a very low level. Similar fungicide effects were seen on wheat cultivars which varied in FHB resistance. In this study, we found three fold differences in susceptibility to FHB between highly susceptible and moderately resistant cultivars when treated with fungicides. In the moderately resistant cultivars, about 50% of the fungicide treatments lowered the DON level below the regulatory limit. In the most susceptible cultivars, all fungicides failed to reduce mycotoxin levels low enough for grain acceptance, in spite of the fact that disease was significantly reduced. The results correlated well with the results of the large-scale field tests of fungicide application at the time of natural infection. The Turbo FloodJet nozzle reduced FHB incidence and DON contamination when compared to the TeeJet XR nozzle. Overall, the data suggest that significant decreases in FHB incidence and deoxynivalenol contamination in field situations are possible with proper fungicide

  12. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2014 Crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eleven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2014 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spr...

  13. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2015 Crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2015 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Sprin...

  14. Wheat curl mite resistance: interactions of mite feeding with wheat streak mosaic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Murugan, M; Sotelo Cardona, P; Duraimurugan, P; Whitfield, A E; Schneweis, D; Starkey, S; Smith, C M

    2011-08-01

    The majority of plant viruses are dependent on arthropod vectors for spread between plants. Wheat streak mosaic virus (family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus, WSMV) is transmitted by the wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, and this virus and vector cause extensive yield losses in most major wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-growing regions of the world. Many cultivars in use are susceptible to this vector-virus complex, and yield losses of 10-99% have been documented. wheat curl mite resistance genes have been identified in goat grass, Aegilops tauschii (Coss) Schmal., and transferred to hexaploid wheat, but very few varieties contain effectively wheat curl mite resistance, due to virulent wheat curl mite populations. However, wheat curl mite resistance remains an effective strategy to reduce losses due to WSMV. The goal of our project was to identify the most effective, reproducible, and rapid method for assessing wheat curl mite resistance. We also wanted to determine whether mite resistance is affected by WSMV infection, because the pathogen and pest commonly occur together. Single and group wheat curl mite infestations produced similar amounts of leaf rolling and folding on wheat curl mite-susceptible wheat varieties that were independent of initial wheat curl mite infestation. This finding will allow accurate, efficient, large-scale screening of wheat germplasm for wheat curl mite resistance by infesting plants with sections of wheat leaf tissue containing mixed stages of wheat curl mite. The wheat curl mite-resistant breeding line 'OK05312' displayed antibiosis (reduced wheat curl mite population development). The effect of WSMV infection on wheat curl mite reproduction was genotype-dependent. Mite populations increased on infected wheat curl mite- and WSMV-susceptible plants compared with uninfected plants, but WSMV infection had no significant effect on wheat curl mite populations on resistant plants. OK05312 is a strong source of wheat curl mite

  15. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Martin, C. R.; Steele, James L.; Dempster, Richard E.

    1992-03-01

    The development of new approaches for wheat hardness assessment may impact the grain industry in marketing, milling, and breeding. This study used image texture features for wheat hardness evaluation. Application of digital imaging to grain for grading purposes is principally based on morphometrical (shape and size) characteristics of the kernels. A composite sample of 320 kernels for 17 wheat varieties were collected after testing and crushing with a single kernel hardness characterization meter. Six wheat classes where represented: HRW, HRS, SRW, SWW, Durum, and Club. In this study, parameters which characterize texture or spatial distribution of gray levels of an image were determined and used to classify images of crushed wheat kernels. The texture parameters of crushed wheat kernel images were different depending on class, hardness and variety of the wheat. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels showed promise for use in class, hardness, milling quality, and variety discrimination.

  16. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  17. Registration of 'LCS Wizard' wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to develop widely adapted hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties to meet the needs of mills, bakeries, and consumers in the eastern and Great Plains regions of the United States. ‘LCS Wizard’ (Reg. No. CV-1111, PI 669574), a hard red winter (HRW) wheat,...

  18. Surface Variety

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    Mosaic of high-resolution images of Pluto, sent back from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft from Sept. 5 to 7, 2015. The image is dominated by the informally-named icy plain Sputnik Planum, the smooth, bright region across the center. This image also features a tremendous variety of other landscapes surrounding Sputnik. The smallest visible features are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometers) in size, and the mosaic covers a region roughly 1,000 miles (1600 kilometers) wide. The image was taken as New Horizons flew past Pluto on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19936

  19. Surface Variety

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    Mosaic of high-resolution images of Pluto, transmitted by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft from Sept. 5 to 7, 2015. The image is dominated by the informally-named icy plain Sputnik Planum, the smooth, bright region across the center. This image also features a tremendous variety of other landscapes surrounding Sputnik. The smallest visible features are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometers) in size, and the mosaic covers a region roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) wide. The image was taken as New Horizons flew past Pluto on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers). The two white rectangles show the locations of the two closeup views by New Horizons, released separately. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19935

  20. Resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus identified in synthetic wheat lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is a significant pathogen in wheat that causes economic loss each year. WSMV is typically controlled using cultural practices such as the removal of volunteer wheat. Genetic resistance is limited. Until recently, no varieties have been available with major resista...

  1. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  2. LC/MS analysis of proteolytic peptides in wheat extracts for determining the content of the allergen amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM3: influence of growing area and variety.

    PubMed

    Prandi, Barbara; Faccini, Andrea; Tedeschi, Tullia; Galaverna, Gianni; Sforza, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Food allergy from wheat is triggered by several protein classes, such as LTPs, ω5-gliadins and α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. The latter proteins, belonging to the prolamin superfamily, are mostly involved in baker's asthma, a form of occupational allergy in which the sensitization occurs through the respiratory tract. α-Amylase/trypsin inhibitors were also found to be involved in wheat-related atopic dermatitis. In this work, the allergen Tri a 30 (the CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor) was quantified in durum wheat salt soluble extracts using a peptidomic approach. CM3 protein identification was confirmed by using LTQ-OrbiTrap analysis on peptides obtained from the enzymatically digested protein separated by gel electrophoresis. Then, marker peptides derived from the protein after enzymatic cleavage of the full wheat extracts were identified by LC-MS/MS. One of them was used as marker for quantitative determination on an UPLC/ESI-MS system by using its isotopically labelled analogue as internal standard, allowing to assess the protein content in the different samples. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to greatly vary among different cultivation areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. WheatGenome.info: an integrated database and portal for wheat genome information.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao; Berkman, Paul J; Lorenc, Michal Tadeusz; Duran, Chris; Smits, Lars; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Edwards, David

    2012-02-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crop plants, globally providing staple food for a large proportion of the human population. However, improvement of this crop has been limited due to its large and complex genome. Advances in genomics are supporting wheat crop improvement. We provide a variety of web-based systems hosting wheat genome and genomic data to support wheat research and crop improvement. WheatGenome.info is an integrated database resource which includes multiple web-based applications. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second-generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This system includes links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/.

  4. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J

    2006-01-25

    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic.

  5. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

  6. [Development of Triticale and soft wheat forms with substituted wheat and rye chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Suvorova, E Iu; Cherednichenko, V N; Semenov, V I

    2000-01-01

    During hybridization between winter forms of hexaploid (6x) triticale and soft wheat varieties the intergenomic substitution of alian chromosomes occurs. As a result of these crosses the forms of 6x-triticale with D(R)-substitution of chromosomes in R-rye genome by wheat ones of D-genome and wheat revertants with rye chromosomes replacing the wheat ones are originated. This is the simplest and the most effective technique for developing of selected lines of triticale and soft wheat with alien substituted chromosomes and valuable genes transfer.

  7. Wheat Newsletter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  8. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  9. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheat-free diet is less restrictive than a gluten-free diet. Wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis Some people ... that it's always safe. Ingredients change. Shop for gluten-free foods. Some specialty stores and supermarkets offer gluten- ...

  10. Milling and Baking Test Results for Eastern Soft Wheats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Soft Wheat Quality Council (SWQC) will provide an organizataion structure to evaluate the quality of soft wheat experimental lines and varieties that may be grown in the traditional soft wheat growing regions of the U.S. The SWQC will also establish other activities as requested by the membersh...

  11. Stem rust resistance in 'Jagger' winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Jagger" has been utilized widely as a parent to develop hard red winter wheat varieties throughout the U.S. southern Great Plains. Jagger has resistance to stem rust pathogen race TTTTF, which is virulent to many winter wheat cultivars, yet the genetic basis of this resistance remains unknown. Mark...

  12. Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ondřej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin).

  13. [Wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis possibly sensitized by the hydrolyzed wheat proteins in a facial cleansing soap].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Miwa; Okura, Risa; Yoshioka, Haruna; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2012-03-01

    There are increasing cases of wheat dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) with transcutaneous or transmucosal sensitization. Hydrolyzed wheat included in a certain brand of soap was identified as a cause of sensitization. The useful clues to detect this disorder consist of the patient's past usage of a soap containing hydrolyzed wheat, the appearance of cutaneous or mucosal symptoms after the intake of wheat or washing with this soap, and a high level of specific IgE for wheat gluten. Because hydrolyzed wheat is used as an additive in a wide variety of cosmetics, we should pay careful attention to the ingredients of cosmetics when observing WDEIA.

  14. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  15. Wheat Landrace Genome Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wingen, Luzie U.; West, Claire; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Collier, Sarah; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Yang, Cai-Yun; King, Julie; Allen, Alexandra M.; Burridge, Amanda; Edwards, Keith J.; Griffiths, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focusing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating biparental populations was developed, mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity. A modern spring elite variety, “Paragon,” was used as common reference parent. Genetic maps were constructed following identical rules to make them comparable. In total, 1611 linkage groups were identified, based on recombination from an estimated 126,300 crossover events over the whole NAM panel. A consensus map, named landrace consensus map (LRC), was constructed and contained 2498 genetic loci. These newly developed genetics tools were used to investigate the rules underlying genome fluidity or rigidity, e.g., by comparing marker distances and marker orders. In general, marker order was highly correlated, which provides support for strong synteny between bread wheat accessions. However, many exceptional cases of incongruent linkage groups and increased marker distances were also found. Segregation distortion was detected for many markers, sometimes as hot spots present in different populations. Furthermore, evidence for translocations in at least 36 of the maps was found. These translocations fell, in general, into many different translocation classes, but a few translocation classes were found in several accessions, the most frequent one being the well-known T5B:7B translocation. Loci involved in recombination rate, which is an interesting trait for plant breeding, were identified by QTL analyses using the crossover counts as a

  16. Wheat Landrace Genome Diversity.

    PubMed

    Wingen, Luzie U; West, Claire; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Collier, Sarah; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Yang, Cai-Yun; King, Julie; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda; Edwards, Keith J; Griffiths, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focusing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating biparental populations was developed, mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity. A modern spring elite variety, "Paragon," was used as common reference parent. Genetic maps were constructed following identical rules to make them comparable. In total, 1611 linkage groups were identified, based on recombination from an estimated 126,300 crossover events over the whole NAM panel. A consensus map, named landrace consensus map (LRC), was constructed and contained 2498 genetic loci. These newly developed genetics tools were used to investigate the rules underlying genome fluidity or rigidity, e.g., by comparing marker distances and marker orders. In general, marker order was highly correlated, which provides support for strong synteny between bread wheat accessions. However, many exceptional cases of incongruent linkage groups and increased marker distances were also found. Segregation distortion was detected for many markers, sometimes as hot spots present in different populations. Furthermore, evidence for translocations in at least 36 of the maps was found. These translocations fell, in general, into many different translocation classes, but a few translocation classes were found in several accessions, the most frequent one being the well-known T5B:7B translocation. Loci involved in recombination rate, which is an interesting trait for plant breeding, were identified by QTL analyses using the crossover counts as a trait

  17. Wheat Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Raison, John K.; Chapman, Elza A.; White, P. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative activity and membrane lipid structure of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were measured as a function of temperature. The Arrhenius activation energy for the oxidation of both succinate and α-ketoglutarate was constant over the temperature range of 3 to 27 C. The activation energy for succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was also constant over the same temperature range. The concentration of mitochondria in the reaction, the degree of initial inhibition of state 3 respiration, and the time after isolation of mitochondria were each shown to be capable of causing a disproportionate decrease in the rate of oxidation at low temperatures which resulted in an apparent increase in the activation energy of oxidative activity. Using three spin-labeling techniques, wheat membrane lipids were shown to undergo phase changes at about 0 C and 30 C. It is concluded that the membrane lipids of wheat, a chillingresistant plant, undergo a phase transition similar to the transition observed in the membrane lipids of chilling-sensitive plants. For wheat, however, the transition is initiated at a lower temperature and extends over a wider temperature range. PMID:16659906

  18. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089

  19. Wheat Blast: A New Fungal Inhabitant to Bangladesh Threatening World Wheat Production.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Md Abu; Choi, Jaehyuk

    2017-04-01

    World wheat production is now under threat due to the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh in early March 2016. This is a new disease in this area, indicating the higher possibility of this pathogen spreading throughout the Asia, the world's largest wheat producing area. Occurrence of this disease caused ~3.5% reduction of the total wheat fields in Bangladesh. Its economic effect on the Bangladesh wheat market was little because wheat contributes to 3% of total cereal consumption, among which ~70% have been imported from other countries. However, as a long-term perspective, much greater losses will occur once this disease spreads to other major wheat producing areas of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan due to the existing favorable condition for the blast pathogen. The wheat blast pathogen belongs to the Magnaporthe oryzae species complex causing blast disease on multiple hosts in the Poaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bangladesh outbreak strains and the Brazil outbreak strains were the same phylogenetic lineage, suggesting that they might be migrated from Brazil to Bangladesh during the seed import. To protect wheat production of Bangladesh and its neighbors, several measures including rigorous testing of seed health, use of chemicals, crop rotation, reinforcement of quarantine procedures, and increased field monitoring should be implemented. Development of blast resistant wheat varieties should be a long-term solution and combination of different methods with partial resistant lines may suppress this disease for some time.

  20. Wheat Blast: A New Fungal Inhabitant to Bangladesh Threatening World Wheat Production

    PubMed Central

    Sadat, Md. Abu; Choi, Jaehyuk

    2017-01-01

    World wheat production is now under threat due to the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh in early March 2016. This is a new disease in this area, indicating the higher possibility of this pathogen spreading throughout the Asia, the world’s largest wheat producing area. Occurrence of this disease caused ~3.5% reduction of the total wheat fields in Bangladesh. Its economic effect on the Bangladesh wheat market was little because wheat contributes to 3% of total cereal consumption, among which ~70% have been imported from other countries. However, as a long-term perspective, much greater losses will occur once this disease spreads to other major wheat producing areas of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan due to the existing favorable condition for the blast pathogen. The wheat blast pathogen belongs to the Magnaporthe oryzae species complex causing blast disease on multiple hosts in the Poaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bangladesh outbreak strains and the Brazil outbreak strains were the same phylogenetic lineage, suggesting that they might be migrated from Brazil to Bangladesh during the seed import. To protect wheat production of Bangladesh and its neighbors, several measures including rigorous testing of seed health, use of chemicals, crop rotation, reinforcement of quarantine procedures, and increased field monitoring should be implemented. Development of blast resistant wheat varieties should be a long-term solution and combination of different methods with partial resistant lines may suppress this disease for some time. PMID:28381956

  1. The Danish Melanoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097

  2. The Danish Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349

  3. Spoken Danish. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Jeannette; Stig-Nielsen, Karin

    This is one of a series of self-teaching textbooks initially prepared for the Armed Forces and now offered to the public. The text is designed to be used with a native speaker of Danish or with the accompanying recordings. The textbook is divided into three major sections, each consisting of five learning units and one unit for review. Each unit…

  4. The Danish System Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    The paper is a supplement to an earlier paper in the same series which reviews Danish higher education until 1977. Expansion in higher education in the last 20 years, approaching the scale of mass higher education, culminated in a crisis in 1977. At that time, a trend toward self-government and participatory governing boards was seen as the end of…

  5. Spring Wheat Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  6. Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

  7. Genetics and mapping of stem rust resistance in MV Zelma winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seedling screening of winter wheat varieties identified Hungarian winter wheat cultivar MV Zelma as resistant to wheat stem rust after infection by P. graminis f. sp. tritici races TTKSK (Ug99), TTKST, TTTSK, and nine races from the United States. Though previous data suggest MV Zelma possessed stem...

  8. The Danish Adoption Register.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  9. Volatile organic compounds of whole grain soft winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aroma from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an indicator of grain soundness and also an important quality attribute of grain foods. To identify the inherent VOCs of wheat grain unaffected by fungal infestation and other extrinsic factors, grains of nine soft wheat varieties were collected at...

  10. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...

  11. Overseas Varietal Analysis: 2008 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2008 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties DK 9577, USG 3665, and USG 3350 from Arkansas, Jamestown, Tribute, and USG 3555 from Virginia, Branson, Magnolia, and Coker 9553 from North Carolina, and Bess from Missouri. Samples were evaluate...

  12. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...

  13. Registration of ‘Dy10-DLC’ wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dy10-DLC wheat (Triticum aestivum) was developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. Dy10-DLC was identified from an EMS-mutagenized population of an elite hexaploid wheat variety Summit by screening M3 seeds for altered storage protein profiles using one-dimensiona...

  14. Ancient wheat and health: a legend or the reality? A review on KAMUT khorasan wheat.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Danesi, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Taccari, Annalisa; Valli, Veronica

    2017-05-01

    After WWII, the industrialized agriculture selected modern varieties of Triticum turgidum spp. durum and spp. aestivum (durum wheat and common wheat) based on higher yields and technological characteristics. Nowadays, the use of whole ancient grains and pseudo cereals is considered nutritionally important. How ancient grains have positive effects is not entirely known, the fragmentation of the scientific knowledge being also related to the fact that ancient grains are not a homogeneous category. The KAMUT(®) trademark indicates a specific and ancient variety of grain (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum, commonly khorasan wheat), and guarantees certain attributes making studies sufficiently comparable. In this work, studies on KAMUT(®) khorasan wheat have been systematically reviewed, evidencing different aspects supporting its benefits. Although it is not possible to establish whether all ancient grains share these positive characteristics, in total or in part, this review provides further evidences supporting the consumption of ancient grains.

  15. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  16. Unlocking the genetic diversity of Creole wheats.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Prashant; Franco, Jorge; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan; Li, Huihui; Sehgal, Deepmala; Saint Pierre, Carolina; Ortiz, Cynthia; Sneller, Clay; Tattaris, Maria; Guzman, Carlos; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Fuentes-Davila, Guillermo; Reynolds, Matthew; Sonders, Kai; Singh, Pawan; Payne, Thomas; Wenzl, Peter; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej Singh; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Crossa, José; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-03-15

    Climate change and slow yield gains pose a major threat to global wheat production. Underutilized genetic resources including landraces and wild relatives are key elements for developing high-yielding and climate-resilient wheat varieties. Landraces introduced into Mexico from Europe, also known as Creole wheats, are adapted to a wide range of climatic regimes and represent a unique genetic resource. Eight thousand four hundred and sixteen wheat landraces representing all dimensions of Mexico were characterized through genotyping-by-sequencing technology. Results revealed sub-groups adapted to specific environments of Mexico. Broadly, accessions from north and south of Mexico showed considerable genetic differentiation. However, a large percentage of landrace accessions were genetically very close, although belonged to different regions most likely due to the recent (nearly five centuries before) introduction of wheat in Mexico. Some of the groups adapted to extreme environments and accumulated high number of rare alleles. Core reference sets were assembled simultaneously using multiple variables, capturing 89% of the rare alleles present in the complete set. Genetic information about Mexican wheat landraces and core reference set can be effectively utilized in next generation wheat varietal improvement.

  17. Unlocking the genetic diversity of Creole wheats

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Prashant; Franco, Jorge; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan; Li, Huihui; Sehgal, Deepmala; Saint Pierre, Carolina; Ortiz, Cynthia; Sneller, Clay; Tattaris, Maria; Guzman, Carlos; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Fuentes-Davila, Guillermo; Reynolds, Matthew; Sonders, Kai; Singh, Pawan; Payne, Thomas; Wenzl, Peter; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej Singh; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Crossa, José; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and slow yield gains pose a major threat to global wheat production. Underutilized genetic resources including landraces and wild relatives are key elements for developing high-yielding and climate-resilient wheat varieties. Landraces introduced into Mexico from Europe, also known as Creole wheats, are adapted to a wide range of climatic regimes and represent a unique genetic resource. Eight thousand four hundred and sixteen wheat landraces representing all dimensions of Mexico were characterized through genotyping-by-sequencing technology. Results revealed sub-groups adapted to specific environments of Mexico. Broadly, accessions from north and south of Mexico showed considerable genetic differentiation. However, a large percentage of landrace accessions were genetically very close, although belonged to different regions most likely due to the recent (nearly five centuries before) introduction of wheat in Mexico. Some of the groups adapted to extreme environments and accumulated high number of rare alleles. Core reference sets were assembled simultaneously using multiple variables, capturing 89% of the rare alleles present in the complete set. Genetic information about Mexican wheat landraces and core reference set can be effectively utilized in next generation wheat varietal improvement. PMID:26976656

  18. Wheat production in the controlled environments of space.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, B; Salisbury, F B

    1985-01-01

    Space agricultural research at the Utah State University includes studies of wheat growth in a controlled environment life support system. Wheat was chosen as a candidate for research in bioregenerative systems because it can be processed into a variety of foods, it is an efficient producer, it is a major world food crop, much is known about wheat genetics and breeding, it grows well in continuous light, and converts energy into a high grain yield. Studies examine quantum yield and short-term photosynthesis, growth rates, yield and harvest index, plant density and light intensity, carbon dioxide concentrations, and breeding wheat for space agriculture.

  19. Energy balance of wheat conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Stumborg, M.A.; Zentner, R.P.; Coxworth, E.

    1996-12-31

    The Western Canadian ethanol industry uses wheat as the preferred feed stock. The net energy balance of an ethanol system based on this starchy feed stock is of interest if Canada utilizes ethanol fuels from wheat as one of its measures to meet international commitments for greenhouse gas reduction and energy conservation under the Green Plan. The wheat to ethanol production systems for the Brown and Thin Black soil zones of the Canadian Prairies were analyzed from soil to processing completion to determine the net energy balance. The data clearly demonstrates the positive net energy balance, with the energy balance ranging from 1.32 to 1.63:1 for the Brown soil zone, and from 1.19 to 1.47:1 for the Thin Black soil zone. The final energy balance depends upon the agronomic practices and wheat variety assumed for the production system.

  20. Danish Cultural Identity and the Teaching of Danish to Foreigners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Hedwig

    2006-01-01

    Danish as a second language textbooks published over the last 15 years have presented the Danish cultural identity as a homogenous and purely national phenomenon. Research into teaching theory, on the other hand, has been more broad-minded, and is based on interactivity. The aim of this paper is to explain this divergence. (Contains 2 notes.)

  1. Crop production management: Organic wheat and small grains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Key management practices for organic wheat and small grain production are provided, including variety selection, planting date, seeding rate, drill calibration and operation, soil fertility, and management of weeds, insect pests, and diseases. ...

  2. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  3. Peanut variety tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  4. Peanut Variety Tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  5. Peanut variety tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 12 runner types, 4 Spanish types and 8 Virginia types...

  6. Peanut variety tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  7. Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  8. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  9. Own Variety Bias

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-01-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn’t claim a different variety as their own. PMID:27648211

  10. Effects of wheat bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) infestation in preharvest period on wheat technological quality and gluten composition.

    PubMed

    Torbica, Aleksandra M; Mastilović, Jasna S; Pojić, Milica M; Kevrešan, Zarko S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75 kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing.

  11. Identification of New Sources of Resistance to Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa in Winter Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa, has emerged as an important disease of wheat in the United States. Planting resistant varieties offers the best strategy to manage BLS in the absence of effective bactericides. However, most of the wheat varieties current...

  12. Quality requirements of soft red winter wheat for making northern-style Chinese steamed bread

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flours of 19 soft red winter (SRW) wheat varieties having protein contents of 6.6 to 9.9% were used to determine the suitability of SRW wheat for making steamed bread and the influences of flour characteristics on the quality attributes of steamed bread. Fourteen varieties produced steamed bread of ...

  13. Proteomics of wheat flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  14. Classification of 31 Korean Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars Based on the Chemical Compositions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chon-Sik; Lee, Choon-Kee; Kim, Sun-Lim

    2016-12-01

    Whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) is the entire grain (bran, endosperm, and germ) milled to make flour. The WGWF of 31 Korean wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were analyzed for the chemical compositions, and classified into groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCL). The average composition values showed a substantial variation among wheat varieties due to different wheat varieties. Wheat cv. Shinmichal1 (waxy wheat) had the highest ash, lipid, and total dietary fiber contents of 1.76, 3.14, and 15.49 g/100 g, respectively. Using HCL efficiently classified wheat cultivars into 7 clusters. Namhae, Sukang, Gobun, and Joeun contained higher protein values (12.88%) and dietary fiber (13.74 %). Regarding multi-trait crop breeding, the variation in chemical compositions found between the clusters might be attributed to wheat genotypes, which was an important factor in accumulating those chemicals in wheat grains. Thus, once wheat cultivars with agronomic characteristics were identified, those properties might be included in the breeding process to develop a new variety of wheat with the trait.

  15. Classification of 31 Korean Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars Based on the Chemical Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chon-Sik; Lee, Choon-Kee; Kim, Sun-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) is the entire grain (bran, endosperm, and germ) milled to make flour. The WGWF of 31 Korean wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were analyzed for the chemical compositions, and classified into groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCL). The average composition values showed a substantial variation among wheat varieties due to different wheat varieties. Wheat cv. Shinmichal1 (waxy wheat) had the highest ash, lipid, and total dietary fiber contents of 1.76, 3.14, and 15.49 g/100 g, respectively. Using HCL efficiently classified wheat cultivars into 7 clusters. Namhae, Sukang, Gobun, and Joeun contained higher protein values (12.88%) and dietary fiber (13.74 %). Regarding multi-trait crop breeding, the variation in chemical compositions found between the clusters might be attributed to wheat genotypes, which was an important factor in accumulating those chemicals in wheat grains. Thus, once wheat cultivars with agronomic characteristics were identified, those properties might be included in the breeding process to develop a new variety of wheat with the trait. PMID:28078265

  16. Physicochemical and dough-handling characteristics of Indian wheat and triticale cultivars.

    PubMed

    Naik, H R; Sekhon, K S; Wani, A Abbas

    2010-10-01

    Four bread wheat (PBW-138, PBW-299, PBW-343 and PBW-373), two durum wheat (PDW-215 and PDW-233) and two triticale cultivars (TL-419 and TL-1210) were investigated for physicochemical, milling and dough-handling properties for predicting end-use quality. Physical properties of durum wheat (PDW-215) and bread wheat (PBW-138, PBW-299 and PBW-343) cultivars were better than other wheat, durum and triticale cultivars. The compositional analysis revealed nonsignificant differences between the different cultivars; however, starch observed significant variation for different varieties. Particle size distribution indicated that triticale flours showed lower particle size than wheat and durum wheat. Dough-handling studies revealed triticale flours to be the weakest, while bread wheat flours were observed to be intermediate between durum and triticale. Among all the varieties, the bread wheat (PBW-138) variety was observed to be best, followed by PDW-215 durum wheat variety. Strong correlations were observed between physicochemical and dough-handling parameters, which can be used as quality parameter for suitable end-use.

  17. Identification of the VERNALIZATION 4 gene reveals the origin of spring growth habit in ancient wheats from South Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat varieties with a winter growth habit require long exposures to low temperatures (vernalization) to accelerate flowering. Natural variation in the vernalization genes regulating this requirement has favored wheat adaptation to different environments. The main wheat vernalization genes VRN1, V...

  18. Identification of SNPs, QTLs, and dominant markers associated with wheat flavor preference using genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole wheat products are well known to provide important nutrients in the human diet; however, consumer acceptance can be hindered by the flavor, aroma, and texture of whole wheat products. Flavor differences among wheat varieties have been observed, but are still little understood. A laboratory mou...

  19. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  20. Markers linked to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr11 effective to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TKTTF

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici can cause severe yield losses on susceptible wheat varieties and cultivars. Although stem rust can be controlled by the use of genetic resistance, population dynamics of P. graminis f. sp. tritici can frequently lead to defeat of wheat stem ...

  1. Markers linked to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr11 effective to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TKTTF

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici can cause severe yield losses on susceptible wheat varieties and cultivars. Although stem rust can be controlled by the use of genetic resistance, population dynamics of P. graminis f. sp. tritici can frequently lead to defeat of wheat stem ...

  2. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Algebraic Legendrian Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczyński, Jarosław

    2008-05-01

    Real Legendrian subvarieties are classical objects of differential geometry and classical mechanics and they have been studied since antiquity. However, complex Legendrian subvarieties are much more rigid and have more exceptional properties. The most remarkable case is the Legendrian subvarieties of projective space and prior to the author's research only few smooth examples of these were known. The first series of results of this thesis is related to the automorphism group of any Legendrian subvariety in any projective contact manifold. The connected component of this group (under suitable minor assumptions) is completely determined by the sections of the distinguished line bundle on the contact manifold vanishing on the Legendrian variety. Moreover its action preserves the contact structure. The second series of results is devoted to finding new examples of smooth Legendrian subvarieties of projective space. The contribution of this thesis is in three steps: First we find an example of a smooth toric surface. Next we find a smooth quasihomogeneous Fano 8-fold that admits a Legendrian embedding. Finally, we realise that both of these are special cases of a very general construction: a general hyperplane section of a smooth Legendrian variety, after a suitable projection, is a smooth Legendrian variety of smaller dimension. By applying this result to known examples and decomposable Legendrian varieties, we construct infinitely many new examples in every dimension, with various Picard rank, canonical degree, Kodaira dimension and other invariants.

  4. Grain yields and disease resistance as selection criteria for introduction of new varieties of small grain cereal in Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo.

    PubMed

    Mukobo, M R P; Ngongo, L M; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    Wheat production in African countries is a major challenge for their development, considering their increasing consumption of wheat flour products. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, wheat and wheat-based products are the important imported food products although there is a potential for the cultivation of small grain cereals such as durum wheat, wheat and triticale. Trials done in Lubumbashi in the Katanga Province have shown that Septoria Leaf Blotch, Septoria Glume Blotch and Fusarium head blight are the main constraints to the efficient development of these cultures. Some varieties of Elite Spring Wheat, High Rainfall Wheat, Triticale and Durum Wheat from CIMMYT were followed during 4 growing seasons and agronomic characteristics and their levels of disease resistance were recorded. Correlations of agronomic characteristics with yields showed that in most cases, thousand kernel weight is the parameter that has the most influence on the yield level (p < 0.0001). The analysis of variance for all diseases showed that there were significant effects related to the year, the species and the interaction years x species. Triticale varieties seem to have a better resistance against the two forms of Septoria compared to wheat varieties but, they seem to be more sensitive to Fusarium Head Blight than wheat varieties. However, the Fusarium Head Blight has a rather low incidence in Lubumbashi.

  5. The Danish Nephrology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Heaf, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nephrology Registry’s (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities’ quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. Study population The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964. Main variables DNR registers patient data (eg, age, sex, renal diagnosis, and comorbidity), predialysis specialist treatment, details of eight dialysis modalities (three hemodialysis and five peritoneal dialysis), all transplantation courses, dialysis access at first dialysis, treatment complications, and biochemical variables. The database is complete (<1% missing data). Patients are followed until death or emigration. Descriptive data DNR now contains 18,120 patients, and an average of 678 is added annually. Data for each transplantation course include donor details, tissue type, time to onset of graft function, and cause of graft loss. Registered complications include peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, causes of peritoneal dialysis technique failure, and transplant rejections. Fifteen biochemical variables are registered, mainly describing anemia control, mineral and bone disease, nutritional and uremia status. Date and cause of death are also included. Six quality indicators are published annually, and have been associated with improvements in patient results, eg, a reduction in dialysis patient mortality, improved graft survival, and earlier referral to specialist care. Approximately, ten articles, mainly epidemiological, are published each year. Conclusion DNR contains a complete description of end-stage renal disease patients in Denmark, their treatment, and prognosis. The stated aims are fulfilled. PMID:27843345

  6. The Danish Heart Registry

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population All adult (≥15 years) patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR). For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing) of each procedure (>90%) when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have a high level of completeness for surgery since 2000, and for CAG and PCI since 2010. Conclusion The DHR contains valuable data on cardiac invasive procedures, which makes it an important national monitoring and quality system and at the same time serves as a platform for research projects in the cardiovascular field. PMID:27822091

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  8. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  9. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  10. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance.

  11. Biodegradability of wheat gluten based bioplastics.

    PubMed

    Domenek, Sandra; Feuilloley, Pierre; Gratraud, Jean; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Guilbert, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    A large variety of wheat gluten based bioplastics, which were plasticized with glycerol, were subjected to biodegradation. The materials covered the total range available for the biochemical control parameter Fi, which expresses the percentage of aggregated proteins. This quantity can be related to the density of covalent crosslinks in the wheat gluten network, which are induced by technological treatments. The biodegradability tests were performed in liquid medium (modified Sturm test) and in farmland soil. All gluten materials were fully degraded after 36 days in aerobic fermentation and within 50 days in farmland soil. No significant differences were observed between the samples. The mineralization half-life time of 3.8 days in the modified Sturm test situated gluten materials among fast degrading polymers. The tests of microbial inhibition experiments revealed no toxic effects of the modified gluten or of its metabolites. Thus, the protein bulk of wheat gluten materials is non-toxic and fully biodegradable, whatever the technological process applied.

  12. Moisture content prediction of Iranian wheat using dielectric technique.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mahmoud; Alimardani, Fatemeh

    2014-11-01

    The moisture measurement is the most important criteria in harvesting and post harvesting processing of wheat. This paper investigates the moisture dependent dielectric constant and calibration equation of three most cultivated wheat varieties in Iran. An instrument with a cylindrical capacitive sensor was used to measure the dielectric constant of grain at different moisture contents. Samples were prepared at five levels of moisture content. To validate the proposed equations, the dried material dielectric constant was estimated and compared with the measured ones. Homographic regression models showed an acceptable prediction of dried wheat dielectric constant. Results showed that the calibration equation obtained for Shahriar variety was able to predict the moisture content of other varieties confidently. The lowest value of R (2) = 0.985 between predicted and reference moisture content for Tajan variety is still a good result.

  13. Subjectless sentences in child Danish.

    PubMed

    Hamann, C; Plunkett, K

    1998-11-01

    Three alternative accounts of subject omission, pragmatic, processing and grammatical, are considered from the perspective of child Danish. Longitudinal data for two Danish children are analyzed for subject omission, finite and infinitival verb usage and discourse anchorage of sentence subjects (overt and missing). The data exhibit a well-defined phase of subject omission which coincides with a well-defined phase of infinitival verbal utterances. No evidence is found for input driven accounts of subject omission. Danish adults rarely omit subjects from utterance initial position. Neither is there any evidence to support the claim that omitted subjects are anchored in previous discourse. Evidence supporting a processing constraint explanation of missing subjects is equivocal. The pattern of subject omission, infinitival usage and third person pronoun and past tense usage points to a grammatical explanation of the phenomenon. However, current grammatical accounts have difficulty accommodating several aspects of the data reported. Contrary to structure building theories, the Danish children do not exhibit a phase of development where only uninflected verb forms are used. Danish children also omit subjects from finite utterances. Furthermore, the decline of subject omissions in finite utterances coincides with decline in usage of infinitival utterances. These findings challenge tense-based accounts of children's subject omission. Finally, Danish children exhibit an asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type; subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Given the language typology associated with Danish, this asymmetry is difficult to accommodate within truncation and tense or number-based accounts of subject omission. We suggest that a proper treatment of child subject omission will involve an integration of grammatical and discourse-based approaches.

  14. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  15. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217

  16. Genome Evolution Due to Allopolyploidization in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A.

    2012-01-01

    The wheat group has evolved through allopolyploidization, namely, through hybridization among species from the plant genera Aegilops and Triticum followed by genome doubling. This speciation process has been associated with ecogeographical expansion and with domestication. In the past few decades, we have searched for explanations for this impressive success. Our studies attempted to probe the bases for the wide genetic variation characterizing these species, which accounts for their great adaptability and colonizing ability. Central to our work was the investigation of how allopolyploidization alters genome structure and expression. We found in wheat that allopolyploidy accelerated genome evolution in two ways: (1) it triggered rapid genome alterations through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic changes (which we termed “revolutionary” changes), and (2) it facilitated sporadic genomic changes throughout the species’ evolution (i.e., evolutionary changes), which are not attainable at the diploid level. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat indicate that these alterations have led to the cytological and genetic diploidization of the allopolyploids. These genetic and epigenetic changes reflect the dynamic structural and functional plasticity of the allopolyploid wheat genome. The significance of this plasticity for the successful establishment of wheat allopolyploids, in nature and under domestication, is discussed. PMID:23135324

  17. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-23

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  18. Proteome Profiling of Wheat Shoots from Different Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lam Dai; Verstraeten, Inge; Stes, Elisabeth; Van Bel, Michiel; Coppens, Frederik; Gevaert, Kris; De Smet, Ive

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is a cereal grain and one of the world’s major food crops. Recent advances in wheat genome sequencing are by now facilitating its genomic and proteomic analyses. However, little is known about possible differences in total protein levels of hexaploid versus tetraploid wheat cultivars, and also knowledge of phosphorylated wheat proteins is still limited. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the proteome of seedling leaves from two hexaploid wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. Pavon 76 and USU-Apogee) and one tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. Senatore Cappelli). Our shotgun proteomics data revealed that, whereas we observed some significant differences, overall a high similarity between hexaploid and tetraploid varieties with respect to protein abundance was observed. In addition, already at the seedling stage, a small set of proteins was differential between the small (USU-Apogee) and larger hexaploid wheat cultivars (Pavon 76), which could potentially act as growth predictors. Finally, the phosphosites identified in this study can be retrieved from the in-house developed plant PTM-Viewer (bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/ptm_viewer/), making this the first searchable repository for phosphorylated wheat proteins. This paves the way for further in depth, quantitative (phospho)proteome-wide differential analyses upon a specific trigger or environmental change. PMID:28348574

  19. A SNP-Based Molecular Barcode for Characterization of Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, LiFeng; Jia, JiZeng; Kong, XiuYing

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown as a staple crop worldwide. It is important to develop an effective genotyping tool for this cereal grain both to identify germplasm diversity and to protect the rights of breeders. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides a means for developing a practical, rapid, inexpensive and high-throughput assay. Here, we investigated SNPs as robust markers of genetic variation for typing wheat cultivars. We identified SNPs from an array of 9000 across a collection of 429 well-known wheat cultivars grown in China, of which 43 SNP markers with high minor allele frequency and variations discriminated the selected wheat varieties and their wild ancestors. This SNP-based barcode will allow for the rapid and precise identification of wheat germplasm resources and newly released varieties and will further assist in the wheat breeding program. PMID:26985664

  20. Danish Palliative Care Database

    PubMed Central

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111

  1. Wheat deficient in gliadins: promising tool for treatment of coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Frisoni, M; Corazza, G R; Lafiandra, D; De Ambrogio, E; Filipponi, C; Bonvicini, F; Borasio, E; Porceddu, E; Gasbarrini, G

    1995-03-01

    The toxicity of two varieties of bread wheat, one poor in alpha and beta gliadins and the other poor in alpha, beta, gamma, and omega gliadins, has been tested. The peptic-tryptic digest of these wheats was assessed using coeliac mucosa in an in vitro organ culture system. A significantly lower toxicity was found in respect of bread wheat containing all gliadin fractions. These results suggest new opportunities for the treatment of coeliac disease.

  2. Wheat deficient in gliadins: promising tool for treatment of coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frisoni, M; Corazza, G R; Lafiandra, D; De Ambrogio, E; Filipponi, C; Bonvicini, F; Borasio, E; Porceddu, E; Gasbarrini, G

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of two varieties of bread wheat, one poor in alpha and beta gliadins and the other poor in alpha, beta, gamma, and omega gliadins, has been tested. The peptic-tryptic digest of these wheats was assessed using coeliac mucosa in an in vitro organ culture system. A significantly lower toxicity was found in respect of bread wheat containing all gliadin fractions. These results suggest new opportunities for the treatment of coeliac disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7698695

  3. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  4. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  5. Agrometeorology and Wheat Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

  6. Wheat: Science and Trade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

  7. Registration of 'Ripper' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

  8. Registration of 'Snowmass' wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Snowmass’ (Reg. No. CV-1050, PI 658597) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

  9. Registration of 'Denali' wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Denali' (PI 664256) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released cooperatively by Colorado State University (CSU) and Kansas State University (KSU) August, 2011, through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research...

  10. Registration of 'Byrd' wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Byrd' (PI 664257) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released August, 2011, through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State University (CSU), USDA-ARS ...

  11. Wheat breadmaking properties in dependance on wheat enzymes status and climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Jelena; Torbica, Aleksandra; Popović, Ljiljana; Hristov, Nikola; Nikolovski, Branislava

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate albumins profile, proteolytic and amylolytic activity level and baking performance of wheat varieties grown in two production years with different climate conditions (2011 and 2012) in four locations. The results of ANOVA showed that variety, location, production year, and their interactions all had significant effects on all tested wheat quality parameters. The enzymatic activity and specific bread volume were mainly influenced by the variety. The samples from 2012 production year, had the lower values of albumin content, proteolytic and amylolytic activity, and bread specific volume. The correlation analysis, performed for 2011 production year, showed that albumin fraction (15-30 kDa) and proteolytic activity were negatively correlated with bread specific volume indicating the role of this fraction on lowering the crucial bread quality parameter. In 2012 production year, albumin fractions (5-15 kDa; 50-65 kDa) showed the most correlations, especially with parameters of bread quality.

  12. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-08-31

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL{sub 2}-varieties are considered.

  13. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Single Resistance Locus in a Crop-Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21, present in modern varieties of hexaploid wheat, originated in goatgrass Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D genome donor of wheat. The goatgrass donor was collected in Iran where it grows as a weed in wheat fields as part of the native agricultural ecosystem. In order to ...

  14. Prediction of wheat tortilla quality using multivariate modeling of kernel, flour and dough properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat grain attributes that influence tortilla quality are not fully understood. This impedes genetic improvement efforts to develop wheat varieties for the growing market. This study used a multivariate discriminant analysis to predict tortilla quality using a set of 16 variables derived from kerne...

  15. Exotic Scab Resistance Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Effects on Soft Red Winter Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a disease that periodically strikes the mid-Atlantic region of the USA. Breeding for resistant wheat varieties is an effective method of disease control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the eff...

  16. Identification of SNPs, QTLs, and dominant markers associated with wheat flavor using genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole grain foods are well known to provide important nutrients in the human diet; however, consumer acceptance can be hindered by the flavor, aroma, and texture of whole wheat products. Flavor differences among wheat varieties have been observed, but are still little understood. A lab mouse model s...

  17. Resistance to Ug99 stem rust in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 80% of wheat area worldwide is currently grown to varieties that are susceptible to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust fungus. Wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk and Ripper were resistant to Ug99 at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations...

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polypheol oxidase (PPO, Ec 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. PPO is a ubiquitous enzyme that occurs in the outer layers of wheat kernels. High levels of flour PPO have been associated with dimished end-product color and brightness in a variety of products,...

  19. Discovery and mapping of single feature polymorphisms in wheat using affymetrix arrays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) can be a rich source of markers for gene mapping and function studies. To explore the feasibility of using the Affymetrix GeneChip to discover and map SFPs in the large hexaploid wheat genome, six wheat varieties of diverse origins were analyzed for significant pr...

  20. ABA And GA Signaling, Bridging The Gap Between Wheat And Arabidopsis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat is subject to problems with drought stress as well as preharvest sprouting (PHS) on the mother plant when cool moist conditions persist close to the time of harvest. PHS is one barrier to the adoption of hard white wheat varieties as a new market class in the U.S. It is believed that problems ...

  1. ABA AND GA SIGNALING, BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN WHEAT AND ARABIDOPSIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat is subject to problems with preharvest sprouting (PHS) on the mother plant when cool moist conditions persist close to the time of harvest. This problem is one barrier to the adoption of hard white wheat varieties as a new market class in the U.S. It is believed that problems with PHS are due ...

  2. Sources of resistance to stem rust race Ug99 in spring wheat germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks & E. Henn.) race TTKSK (Ug99) with virulence to the majority of the world’s wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties has spread from Uganda throughout eastern and southern Africa, Yemen, and Iran. The identification and spread of vari...

  3. Milling and Baking Test REsults for Eastern Soft Winter Wheats Harvested in 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Soft Wheat Quality Council (SWQC) will provide an organization structure to evaluate the quality of soft wheat experimental lines and variety that may be grown in the traditional growing regions of the United States. The SWQC also will establish other activities as requested by the membership. ...

  4. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  5. Microstructural, thermal and IR spectroscopy characterisation of wheat gluten and its sub fractions.

    PubMed

    Dhaka, Vandana; Khatkar, B S

    2016-08-01

    The gluten and its sub-fractions of good and poor bread quality wheat varieties were studied using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and IR spectroscopy techniques. The gluten of good bread quality wheat variety showed organized foam like matrix, whereas that of poor demonstrated an open gluten matrix. The glutenin of good bread quality wheat (HI 977) exhibited a more striated, organised texture in contrast to a dense, unorganised structure visible in C306. Gliadins of poor bread quality wheat were self-assembled to form a sheet like structure, whereas the gliadin proteins of good bread quality wheat variety showed more open microstructure. DSC thermal profiles of gluten and glutenin proteins of poor bread quality wheat showed exothermic peaks at around 200 °C. A distinct endothermic peak was detected in the glutenin fraction of good bread quality wheat, suggesting greater thermostability. Amide I peak at ~1668 cm(-1) for gluten of good bread quality wheat variety showed higher relative intensities of β-turn as compared to observed for gluten of poor bread quality.

  6. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  7. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  8. Wheat-based foods and non celiac gluten/wheat sensitivity: Is drastic processing the main key issue?

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    While gluten and wheat must be absolutely avoided in coeliac disease and allergy, respectively, nutritional recommendations are largely more confused about non-coeliac wheat/gluten sensitivity (NCWGS). Today, some even recommend avoiding all cereal-based foods. In this paper, the increased NCWGS prevalence is hypothesized to parallel the use of more and more drastic processes applied to the original wheat grain. First, a parallel between gluten-related disorders and wheat processing and consumption evolution is briefly proposed. Notably, increased use of exogenous vital gluten is considered. Drastic processing in wheat technology are mainly grain fractionation and refining followed by recombination and salt, sugars and fats addition, being able to render ultra-processed cereal-based foods more prone to trigger chronic low-grade inflammation. Concerning bread, intensive kneading and the choice of wheat varieties with high baking quality may have rendered gluten less digestible, moving digestion from pancreatic to intestinal proteases. The hypothesis of a gluten resistant fraction reaching colon and interacting with microflora is also considered in relation with increased inflammation. Besides, wheat flour refining removes fiber co-passenger which have potential anti-inflammatory property able to protect digestive epithelium. Finally, some research tracks are proposed, notably the comparison of NCWGS prevalence in populations consuming ultra-versus minimally-processed cereal-based foods.

  9. Genetic transformation of wheat via particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    Since its first invention in the late 1980s the particle gun has evolved from a basic gunpowder driven machine firing tungsten particles to one more refined which uses helium gas as the propellant to launch alternative heavy metal particles such as gold and silver. The simple principle is that DNA-coated microscopic particles (microcarriers) are accelerated at high speed by helium gas within a vacuum and travel at such a velocity as to penetrate target cells. However, the process itself involves a range of parameters which are open to variation: microparticle type and size, gun settings (rupture pressure, target distance, vacuum drawn, etc.), preparation of components (e.g., gold coating), and preparation of plant tissues. Here is presented a method optimized for transformation of wheat immature embryos using the Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He particle gun to deliver gold particles coated with a gene of interest and the selectable marker gene bar at 650 psi rupture pressure. Following bombardment, various tissue culture phases are used to encourage embryogenic callus formation and regeneration of plantlets and subsequent selection using glufosinate ammonium causes suppression of non-transformed tissues, thus assisting the detection of transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transgenic plants for a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.).

  10. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon M.; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Würschum, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects. PMID:25346745

  11. Related physicochemical properties to microstructure of hard and soft wheat grains with different kernel thickness and specific density.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Weizhong; Lu, Daxin; Ding, Weimin

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical properties of wheat grains with largest kernel thickness always was lowest than the other sections, examination of microstructure of wheat grains can help us understand this phenomena. Two varieties of wheat, soft white winter wheat Yangmai 11 and hard white winter wheat Zhengmai 9023, were fractionated into five sections by kernel thickness. Then the fractionated wheat grains in 2.7-3.0 mm section were separated into three fractions by kernel specific density sequentially. Microstructure of the fractured surface were evaluated at different scale level to two varieties wheat with different kernel thickness and specific density by using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Compactness and size of endosperm cell tended to decrease with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Protein matrix tended to increase with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Size of starch granules and proportion for different type starch granules also varied with different wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Those microstructure properties of the fractured surface, formation of endosperm cells, protein matrix and starch granules were close related to rheological properties and pasting properties of wheat grains.

  12. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  13. Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Yu, Lu; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Liu, Linwei; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-11-15

    Ten soft wheat varieties grown in Maryland were compared for their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities. Free radical scavenging capacities were examined against DPPH(·), oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS(·+) radicals. Significant radical scavenging capacities were detected in all wheat flour extracts. Total phenolic content ranged from 1.66 to 2.01 mg of GAE/g wheat flour. The wheat flours contained 172.91-297.55 μg/g insoluble bound ferulic acid, contributing 89.74-94.29% of total ferulic acid on a per weight basis. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were 0.27-0.46 and 0.08-0.13 μg/g, respectively. In addition, the wheat flours had 0.30-0.59 and 0.07-0.29 μg/g α- and δ-tocopherols, respectively. Four wheat flour extracts were further examined for their antiproliferative activities. The Jamestown wheat flour showed significant antiproliferative activity against both HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells at the initial treatment concentration of 50 mg flour equivalents/ml, while USG3555 flour showed inhibitive effect only in HT-29 cancer cells, suggesting the different and possible selective antiproliferative property of the wheat flours. These results may be used to direct the breeding effects to produce soft winter wheat varieties with improved health properties.

  14. An Early Danish Computer Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    This paper reports on the development of Nimbi, which is an early computer game implemented at the Danish Computer Company Regnecentralen in 1962-63. Nimbi is a variant of the ancient game Nim. The paper traces the primary origins of the development of Nimbi. These include a mathematical analysis from 1901 of Nim that “killed the game” as the outcome could be predicted quite easily; the desire of the Danish inventor Piet Hein to make a game that eluded such analyses; and the desire of Piet Hein to have computers play games against humans. The development of Nimbi was successful in spite of considerable technical obstacles. However, it seems that the game was not used for publicizing the capabilities of computers - at least not widely - as was the case with earlier Nim implementations, such as the British Nim-playing computer Nimrod in 1951.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and....1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour and...

  16. The Danish Testicular Cancer database.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.

  17. Distribution of toxigenic Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin production in milling fractions of durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Barreau, Christian; Chaurand, Marc; Gregoire, Stephanie; Monmarson, Magalie; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2007-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive PCR assay to specifically detect trichothecene-producing Fusarium spp. in milling fractions and kernel tissue of naturally infected durum wheat is reported. Assays were based on a combination of primers derived from the trichodiene synthase and the beta-tubulin genes. The occurrence of toxigenic Fusarium spp. in semolina and wheat tissue (grain ends, crease, pericarp, aleurone layer, germ and albumen) was detected, even for a weakly contaminated wheat sample. Penetration of toxigenic Fusarium spp. into the interior of durum wheat kernel was demonstrated for the Nefer variety, indicating that none of the tissue structures within the wheat kernel acted as an effective barrier to fungal invasion. Moreover, after inoculation by toxigenic Fusarium strains, semolina was shown to allow high yields of trichothecenes, while bran was demonstrated to contain biochemical inhibitors able to significantly reduce trichothecene production. These results will be useful in improving breeding strategies to control trichothecene contamination of durum wheat kernels.

  18. Lunasin in wheat: a chemical and molecular study on its presence or absence.

    PubMed

    Dinelli, Giovanni; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; Simonetti, Emanuela; Trozzi, Caterina; Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Massaccesi, Luca; Malaguti, Marco; Quinn, Robert; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-05-15

    Lunasin is a peptide whose anticancer properties are widely reported. Originally isolated from soybean seeds, lunasin was also found in cereal (wheat, rye, barley and Triticale), Solanum and amaranthus seeds. However, it was recently reported that searches of transcript and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals failed to identify sequences with similarity to those encoding the lunasin peptide in soy. In order to clarify the presence or absence of lunasin in wheat varieties, a broad investigation based on chemical (LC-ESI-MS) and molecular (PCR) analyses was conducted. Both approaches pointed out the absence of lunasin in the investigated wheat genotypes; in particular no compounds with a molecular weight similar to that of lunasin standard and no lunasin-related sequences were found in the analysed wheat samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis, reported in recent researches, that lunasin is not a wheat-derived peptide.

  19. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Leach, Lindsey J; Belfield, Eric J; Jiang, Caifu; Brown, Carly; Mithani, Aziz; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2014-04-11

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution 'nullisomic-tetrasomic' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  20. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution ‘nullisomic-tetrasomic’ lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. Results We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. Conclusions We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution. PMID:24726045

  1. [Hydrous and photosynthetic adaptations of common and durum wheat to saline stress].

    PubMed

    Alem, Chakib; Labhilili, Mustapha; Brahmi, Kouider; Jlibene, Mohamed; Nasrallah, Nasralhaq; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim

    2002-11-01

    Seven varieties of bred wheat and seven varieties of durum wheat were cultivated in three different sites from the area of Errachidia (southeastern Morocco). These sites differ by the degree of salinity in the irrigation water. Results obtained showed that the reduction in leaf area is the principal strategy that makes it possible to attenuate the effects of the reduction in the availability of water under saline stress. Bread wheat, which limited the reduction in the leaf area, with the risk to undergo some hydrous problems, seems to better preserve its photosynthetic potentialities and grain productivity.

  2. [Adaptability of APSIM model in Southwestern China: A case study of winter wheat in Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Dai, Tong; Wang, Jing; He, Di; Zhang, Jian-ping; Wang, Na

    2015-04-01

    Field experimental data of winter wheat and parallel daily meteorological data at four typical stations in Chongqing City were used to calibrate and validate APSIM-wheat model and determine the genetic parameters for 12 varieties of winter wheat. The results showed that there was a good agreement between the simulated and observed growth periods from sowing to emergence, flowering and maturity of wheat. Root mean squared errors (RMSEs) between simulated and observed emergence, flowering and maturity were 0-3, 1-8, and 0-8 d, respectively. Normalized root mean squared errors (NRMSEs) between simulated and observed above-ground biomass for 12 study varieties were less than 30%. NRMSE between simulated and observed yields for 10 varieties out of 12 study varieties were less than 30%. APSIM-wheat model performed well in simulating phenology, aboveground biomass and yield of winter wheat in Chongqing City, which could provide a foundational support for assessing the impact of climate change on wheat production in the study area based on the model.

  3. Wheat streak mosaic virus resistance in eight wheat germplasm lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) disease is an important disease in wheat. Use of resistant cultivars is the most effective approach to reduce the yield losses caused by the disease. To identify new sources of resistance to WSMV, eight resistant wheat lines that were selected based on the results fr...

  4. Behavioural responses of wheat stem sawflies to wheat volatiles

    Treesearch

    D. Piesik; D. K. Weaver; J. B. Runyon; M. Buteler; G. E. Peck; W. L. Morrill

    2008-01-01

    1) Adult wheat stem sawflies Cephus cinctus, pests of cultivated cereals that also infests wild grasses, migrate into wheat fields where they oviposit in elongating, succulent stems. 2) Volatiles released by wheat plants at susceptible stages were analyzed to determine potential semiochemical compounds. Seven major compounds were identified and...

  5. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  6. 7 CFR 906.13 - Variety or varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variety or varieties. 906.13 Section 906.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... oranges; (d) white seeded grapefruit; (e) white seedless grapefruit; (f) pink and red seeded...

  7. 7 CFR 906.13 - Variety or varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety or varieties. 906.13 Section 906.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... oranges; (d) white seeded grapefruit; (e) white seedless grapefruit; (f) pink and red seeded grapefruit...

  8. Development of taxon-specific sequences of common wheat for the detection of genetically modified wheat.

    PubMed

    Iida, Mayu; Yamashiro, Satomi; Yamakawa, Hirohito; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Kuribara, Hideo; Kodama, Takashi; Furui, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Hino, Akihiro

    2005-08-10

    Qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems aimed at the specific detection and quantification of common wheat DNA are described. Many countries have issued regulations to label foods that include genetically modified organisms (GMOs). PCR technology is widely recognized as a reliable and useful technique for the qualitative and quantitative detection of GMOs. Detection methods are needed to amplify a target GM gene, and the amplified results should be compared with those of the corresponding taxon-specific reference gene to obtain reliable results. This paper describes the development of a specific DNA sequence in the waxy-D1 gene for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the design of a specific primer pair and TaqMan probe on the waxy-D1 gene for PCR analysis. The primers amplified a product (Wx012) of 102 bp. It is indicated that the Wx012 DNA sequence is specific to common wheat, showing homogeneity in qualitative PCR results and very similar quantification accuracy along 19 distantly related common wheat varieties. In Southern blot and real-time PCR analyses, this sequence showed either a single or a low number of copy genes. In addition, by qualitative and quantitative PCR using wx012 primers and a wx012-T probe, the limits of detection of the common wheat genome were found to be about 15 copies, and the reproducibility was reliable. In consequence, the PCR system using wx012 primers and wx012-T probe is considered to be suitable for use as a common wheat-specific taxon-specific reference gene in DNA analyses, including GMO tests.

  9. RNAi mediated, stable resistance to Triticum mosaic virus in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), discovered in 2006, affects wheat production systems in the Great Plains of the United States. There are no available TriMV resistant commercial varieties. RNA interference (RNAi) was evaluated as an alternative strategy to generate resistance to TriMV. An RNAi pANDA...

  10. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of scab in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delwiche, Stephen R.; Kim, Moon S.

    2000-12-01

    Scab (Fusarium head blight) is a disease that causes wheat kernels to be shriveled, underweight, and difficult to mill. Scab is also a health concern because of the possible concomitant production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Current official inspection procedures entail manual human inspection. A study was undertaken to explore the possibility of detecting scab-damaged wheat kernels by machine vision. A custom-made hyperspectral imaging system, possessing a wavelength range of 425 to 860 nm with neighboring bands 3.7 nm apart, a spatial resolution of 0.022 mm2/pixel, and 16-bit per pixel dynamic range, gathered images of non-touching kernels from three wheat varieties. Each variety was represented by 32 normal and 32 scab-damaged kernels. From a search of wavelengths that could be used to separate the two classes (normal vs. scab), a linear discriminant function was constructed from the best R((lambda) 1)/R((lambda) 2), based on the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution for each class and the pooling of the covariance error that averaged between 2 and 17%, dependent on wheat variety. With expansion to the testing of more varieties, a two-to-four wavelength machine vision system appears to be a feasible alternative to manual inspection.

  11. NIRS method for precise identification of Fusarium damaged wheat kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of scab resistant wheat varieties may be enhanced by non-destructive evaluation of kernels for Fusarium damaged kernels (FDKs) and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels. Fusarium infection generally affects kernel appearance, but insect damage and other fungi can cause similar symptoms. Also, some...

  12. Frequency of the high-molecular-weight glutenin allele in Asian hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the transmission route through which the wheat may have reached Japan, the most geographically remote region of wheat production in the world.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiro

    2002-11-06

    The frequency of the Glu-D1f allele in Japanese, Chinese, and other Asian hexaploid wheat varieties was analyzed in order to investigate a possible transmission route for hexaploid wheat to the Far East, Japan. The 1380 published data sets were compared to the results for 1107 hexaploid Asian wheat varieties which were determined in this study. The frequency of the Glu-D1f allele was clearly different between areas; the allele was present from northern and southern Japan, from Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Beijing in China, and from Afghanistan. A high frequency of the high-molecular-weight glutenin Glu-D1f allele was found predominantly in southern Japan. This distribution of an adaptively neutral character suggests a specific route of transmission for hexaploid wheat to eastern China and the Far East, Japan. It was introduced from Afghanistan, carried to Xinjiang (in northwest China), Jiangsu, and Zhejiang (in southeast China), and then to southern Japan along the so-called Silk Road. It is believed that cultivated hexaploid wheat originated in the Middle East and the Near East and was carried along the Silk Road through China to the Far East, Japan. Japan is the most geographically remote region of wheat production in the world. During the course of its long journey and its adaptation to diverse local environments, Japanese hexaploid wheat has developed a unique composition of glutenin Glu-D1 alleles. The frequency of this allele in different wheat varieties allowed us to hypothesize a possible route for the transmission of hexaploid wheat into the Far East, Japan.

  13. Toward Cost-Effective Fingerprinting Methodology to Distinguish Maize Open-Pollinated Varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Africa, many smallholder farmers grow open pollinated maize varieties (OPVs), as they allow seed recycling and out-yield traditional farmer’s (unimproved) landraces. One popular OPV, ZM521 released by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), has been provided to farmers, o...

  14. What Is a Varieties Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durmuller, Urs

    A varieties grammar (VG) attempts to provide a unifying apparatus for various kinds of language varieties: diatopic, diastratic, and diatypic. The notion of "family grammar" appears to be especially useful in that process since it permits the postulation of a supergrammar for the whole family as well as that of subgrammars for the individual…

  15. Study on the sensitivity of three oat varieties to the saddle gall midge, haplodiplosis margina ta (von Roser) (Diptera: cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Censier, F; Chavalle, S; G, San Martin Y Gomez; De Proft, M; Bodson, B

    2013-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginota (von Roser, 1840) is a univoltine pest of cereals which occurs in Europe. The larvae feed on stems and attractive saddle-shaped depressions, driving to important yield losses when the galls are numerous. After 40 years without any reporting, large populations of H. marginata and important damage have been observed since 2010 in wheat crops in Belgium, especially in the Flemish Polders where clay soils and intensive farming of cereals favour heavy infestations. According to some research conducted in the 1960s during the last outbreak, oat (Avena sativa L.) is known to be one of the less favourable hosts to the saddle gall midge. Our study was performed in order to assess the host sensitivity of three oat varieties currently grown in Belgium: EVITA, EFFEKTIv and FREDDY. Therefore, oat varieties were sown on infested soil in two separate enclosures in a glasshouse. In the first enclosure, only the three oat varieties were grown; in the second one, these three oat varieties were grown together with two varieties of spring wheat: GRANNY and KWS CHAMSIN. TWO parameters were measured: the percentage of leaves with laid eggs, and the number of galls per stem. The percentage of leaves with eggs showed that the infestation was significantly lower on oats when they were in presence of wheat. The egg infestation was also significantly higher on wheat than on oat, which means oat is a much less favourable host plant than spring wheat for egg laying. Oat varieties were significantly different from each other regarding the number of galls per stem, but with very little damage compared to wheat. The FREDDY variety even seemed to be completely resistant to saddle gall midge, as no galls were observed although there was a similar percentage of leaves with eggs for the three oat varieties. Cropping oat could thus contribute to reduce infestations of H. morginato.

  16. Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat.

    PubMed

    von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J F; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-06-23

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore-natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid-parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited.

  17. [Microbiological quality of wheat flour consumed in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Ennadir, Jihane; Hassikou, Rachida; Ohmani, Farida; Hammamouchi, Jamila; Bouazza, Fatima; Qasmaoui, Aicha; Mennane, Zakaria; Touhami, Amina Ouazzani; Charof, Reda; Khedid, Khadija

    2012-02-01

    Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.

  18. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. Study population The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995. All Danish orthopedic departments – both public and private – report to the register, and registration is compulsory. Main variables The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. Descriptive data A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995, completeness of procedure registration has been high, being 97.8% and 92.0% in 2014 for primary THAs and revisions, respectively. Several risk factors, such as comorbidity, age, specific primary diagnosis and fixation types for failure of primary THAs, and postoperative complications, have been identified through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. Conclusion The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data with long-term follow-up and high completeness. The register can be used for population-based epidemiology studies of THA surgery and can be linked to a range of other national databases. PMID:27822092

  19. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  20. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    PubMed

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to <2% since 2013. The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an

  1. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Nidhi; Sehgal, Sunish K; Joshi, Anupama; Rothe, Nolan; Wilson, Duane L; McGraw, Nathan; Vadlani, Praveen V; Li, Wanlong; Gill, Bikram S

    2012-11-07

    Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability.

  2. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability. PMID:23134614

  3. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  4. Physiochemical and thermal characteristics of starch isolated from a waxy wheat genotype exhibiting partial expression of Wx proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique wheat genotype carrying waxy type allelic composition at the Wx loci, Gunji-1, was developed and its starch properties were evaluated in comparison to parental waxy and wild type wheat varieties. Gunji-1 was null in all three of the Wx genes, but exhibited a lower level of Wx proteins than ...

  5. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relati...

  6. Selection for water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation and investigation of genetic × environment interactions in an elite wheat breeding population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential to increase the genetic capacity for water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) accumulation is an opportunity to improve the drought tolerance capability of rainfed wheat varieties, particularly in Australia where terminal drought is a significant constraint to wheat production. A population of...

  7. Cereal cyst nematode screening in locally adapted spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm of the Pacific Northwest, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field screenings were performed to determine if there is resistance to Heterodera filipjevi in locally adapted wheat germplasm which could be introgressed into new WA wheat varieties. A field naturally infested with Heterodera filipjevi located in Colton, WA, was selected for this experiment. Cultiv...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  12. Characterization of a Wheat Breeders' Array suitable for high-throughput SNP genotyping of global accessions of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra M; Winfield, Mark O; Burridge, Amanda J; Downie, Rowena C; Benbow, Harriet R; Barker, Gary L A; Wilkinson, Paul A; Coghill, Jane; Waterfall, Christy; Davassi, Alessandro; Scopes, Geoff; Pirani, Ali; Webster, Teresa; Brew, Fiona; Bloor, Claire; Griffiths, Simon; Bentley, Alison R; Alda, Mark; Jack, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L; Edwards, Keith J

    2017-03-01

    Targeted selection and inbreeding have resulted in a lack of genetic diversity in elite hexaploid bread wheat accessions. Reduced diversity can be a limiting factor in the breeding of high yielding varieties and crucially can mean reduced resilience in the face of changing climate and resource pressures. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of molecular markers for use in the assessment and utilization of genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat. Starting with a large collection of 819 571 previously characterized wheat markers, here we describe the identification of 35 143 single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers, which are highly suited to the genotyping of elite hexaploid wheat accessions. To assess their suitability, the markers have been validated using a commercial high-density Affymetrix Axiom(®) genotyping array (the Wheat Breeders' Array), in a high-throughput 384 microplate configuration, to characterize a diverse global collection of wheat accessions including landraces and elite lines derived from commercial breeding communities. We demonstrate that the Wheat Breeders' Array is also suitable for generating high-density genetic maps of previously uncharacterized populations and for characterizing novel genetic diversity produced by mutagenesis. To facilitate the use of the array by the wheat community, the markers, the associated sequence and the genotype information have been made available through the interactive web site 'CerealsDB'.

  13. Pratylenchus thornei Associated with Reduced Wheat Yield in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Richard W.; Whittaker, Ruth G.; Gourlie, Jennifer A.; Easley, Sandra A.

    2005-01-01

    Pratylenchus thornei reaches high population densities in non-irrigated annual cropping systems in low-rainfall regions of the Pacific Northwest. Two spring wheat varieties with different levels of tolerance and susceptibility to P. thornei were treated or not treated with aldicarb in three experiments. Grain yield was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) with pre-plant populations of P. thornei in soil and with P. thornei density in mature roots. As population of P. thornei increased, yield of the moderately tolerant/moderately susceptible variety Krichauff was generally more stable than for the intolerant/susceptible variety Machete. The reproductive factor (Pf/Pi) was generally lower (P < 0.05) for Krichauff than Machete. Aldicarb improved wheat yield (P < 0.05) in highly infested fields by an average of 67% for Krichauff and 113% for Machete. Aldicarb increased (P < 0.05) numbers of headed tillers, plant height, and grain test weight and kernel weight, and reduced (P < 0.05) the density of P. thornei in mature wheat roots, variability in height of heads, and leaf canopy temperature. Aldicarb did not improve yield in a soil with a low population of P. thornei. This is the first report that P. thornei causes economic damage to wheat in the Pacific Northwest. PMID:19262842

  14. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  15. Registration of 'Cowboy' wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Cowboy' (Reg. No. CV-1095, PI 668564) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released cooperatively by Colorado State University (CSU) and the University of Wyoming (UWYO) in August 2011. In addition to researchers at CSU and U...

  16. Registration of 'Otto' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to strawbreaker foot rot (caused by Oculimacula yallundae Crous & W. Gams and O. acuformis Crous & W. Gams) and to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) are important traits for winter wheat cultivars produced in the Pacifi Northwest region of the Uni...

  17. Modelling Wheat Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

  18. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  19. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...

  20. Registration of Colter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colter’ (Reg. No. CV-1099, PI 670156) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Stations in September 2013. Colter was derived from the cross MT9982*2/BZ9W96-895. MT9982 is a sib selection of 'Yellowstone', and BZ9W96-895 is an unr...

  1. Registration of Camelot Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Camelot ' (PI 653832) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2008. In addition to researchers at the releasing institutions, USDA-ARS researchers at Manhattan, KS, and St. Paul, MN, ...

  2. Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

  3. Registration of Warhorse wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  4. The composition of grain and forage from glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is equivalent to that of conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Obert, Janet C; Ridley, William P; Schneider, Ronald W; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy; Astwood, James D

    2004-03-10

    Glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800, simply referred to as MON 71800, contains a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that has a reduced affinity for glyphosate as compared to the endogenous plant EPSPS enzyme. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the compositional equivalence of MON 71800 to its nontransgenic parent as well as to conventional wheat varieties. The compositional assessment evaluated the levels of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients in wheat forage and grain grown during two field seasons across a total of eight sites in the United States and Canada. These data demonstrated that with respect to these important nutritional components, the forage and grain from MON 71800 were equivalent to those of its nontransgenic parent and commercial wheat varieties. These data, together with the previously established safety of the CP4 EPSPS protein, support the conclusion that glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is as safe and nutritious as commercial wheat varieties.

  5. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  6. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  7. Wheat Genotypes With Combined Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite, Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus, Wheat Mosaic Virus, and Triticum Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Po; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Khalaf, Luaay Kahtan; Zhang, Guorong; Fritz, Allan K; Whitfield, Anna E; Smith, C Michael

    2017-01-13

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, (WCM) is a global pest of bread wheat that reduces yields significantly. In addition, WCM carries Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus), the most significant wheat virus in North America; High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV, genus Emaravirus, formerly High plains virus); and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, family Potyviridae, genus Poacevirus). Viruses carried by WCM have reduced wheat yields throughout the U.S. Great Plains for >50 yr, with average yield losses of 2-3% and occasional yield losses of 7-10%. Acaricides are ineffective against WCM, and delayed planting of winter wheat is not feasible. Five wheat breeding lines containing Cmc4, a WCM resistance gene from Aegilops tauschii, and Wsm2, a WSMV resistance gene from wheat germplasm CO960293-2 were selected from the breeding process and assessed for phenotypic reaction to WCM feeding, population increase, and the degree of WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection. Experiments determined that all five lines are resistant to WCM biotype 1 feeding and population increase, and that two breeding lines contain resistance to WSMV, HPWMoV, and TriMV infection as well. These WCM-, WSMV-, HPWMoV-, and TriMV-resistant genotypes can be used improve management of wheat yield losses from WCM-virus complexes.

  8. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lv, Jialong; Dai, Yunchao; Zhang, Hong; Cao, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22) were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops) and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:27518712

  9. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    PubMed Central

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish

  10. Agility - The Danish Way (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Agility - The Danish Way Dr. William Mitchell Dept. for Joint Operations | C2 & Intelligence | Royal Danish Defence College Ryvangs Allé 1...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Royal Danish Defence College,Dept...Establish presence in Mogadishu and expand with main effort in Southern Somalia. •MD2- Establish small military presence in Somaliland. • P/SD1-ID Clan

  11. Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication.

    PubMed

    Avni, Raz; Nave, Moran; Barad, Omer; Baruch, Kobi; Twardziok, Sven O; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hale, Iago; Mascher, Martin; Spannagl, Manuel; Wiebe, Krystalee; Jordan, Katherine W; Golan, Guy; Deek, Jasline; Ben-Zvi, Batsheva; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Himmelbach, Axel; MacLachlan, Ron P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Fritz, Allan; Ben-David, Roi; Budak, Hikmet; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham; Faris, Justin D; Hernandez, Alvaro; Mikel, Mark A; Levy, Avraham A; Steffenson, Brian; Maccaferri, Marco; Tuberosa, Roberto; Cattivelli, Luigi; Faccioli, Primetta; Ceriotti, Aldo; Kashkush, Khalil; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Komatsuda, Takao; Eilam, Tamar; Sela, Hanan; Sharon, Amir; Ohad, Nir; Chamovitz, Daniel A; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Ronen, Gil; Peleg, Zvi; Pozniak, Curtis J; Akhunov, Eduard D; Distelfeld, Assaf

    2017-07-07

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent more than 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge about the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 (TtBtr1) genes controlling shattering, a key domestication trait. A study of genomic diversity among wild and domesticated accessions revealed genomic regions bearing the signature of selection under domestication. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-07-08

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of spring and winter wheat: Comparison of net energy yields.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Bárbara; Heaven, Sonia; Salter, Andrew M; Banks, Charles J

    2016-10-14

    Anaerobic digestion of wheat was investigated under batch conditions. The article compares the potential net energy yield between a winter wheat (sown in the autumn) and a spring wheat (sown in the spring) grown in the same year and harvested at the same growth stage in the same farm. The spring wheat had a slightly higher biochemical methane potential and required lower energy inputs in cultivation, but produced a lower dry biomass yield per hectare, which resulted in winter wheat providing the best overall net energy yield. The difference was small; both varieties gave a good net energy yield. Spring sowing may also offer the opportunity for growing an additional over-winter catch crop for spring harvest, thus increasing the overall biomass yield per hectare, with both crops being potential digester feedstocks.

  14. A Pest Management Approach to the Control of Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Van Gundy, S. D.; Perez B., J. G.; Stolzy, L. H.; Thomason, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei, was clearly demonstrated as a parasite of wheat. It reduced plant stands and stunted plants in the field under the environmental conditions found in Sonora, Mexico. Other soil organisms also may have contributed to the problem. The nematode is widely distributed throughout the wheat-growing region, and may be a problem each growing season. Nematicides controlled the nematode and increased yields, but they were not economical. No resistance was found in existing commercial wheat cultivars. A pest management approach using variety selection, nitrogen fertilizer, planting in cool soil (15 C) and a crop rotation avoiding wheat after wheat was the most practical solution to this problem on a commercial scale. PMID:19308110

  15. Thinopyrum ponticum chromatin-integrated wheat genome shows salt-tolerance at germination stage.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wen-Ye; Tomita, Motonori

    2015-02-26

    A wild wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70), which exhibits substantially higher levels of salt tolerance than cultivated wheat, was employed to transfer its salt tolerance to common wheat by means of wide hybridization. A highly salt-tolerant wheat line S148 (2n = 42) was obtained from the BC3F2 progenies between Triticum aestivum (2n = 42) and Th. ponticum. In the cross of S148 × salt-sensitive wheat variety Chinese Spring, the BC4F2 seeds at germination stage segregated into a ratio of 3 salt tolerant to 1 salt sensitive, indicating that the salt tolerance was conferred by a dominant gene block. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis revealed that S148 had a single pair of Th. ponticum-T. aestivum translocated chromosomes bearing the salt-tolerance. This is an initial step of molecular breeding for salt-tolerant wheat.

  16. Fundamental wheat stripe rust research in the 21(st) century.

    PubMed

    Schwessinger, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Contents 1625 I. 1625 II. 1626 III. 1626 IV. 1626 V. 1628 VI. 1629 VII. 1629 1630 References 1630 SUMMARY: In the 21(st) century, the wheat stripe rust fungus has evolved to be the largest biotic limitation to global wheat production. New pathogen genotypes are more aggressive and able to infect previously resistant wheat varieties, leading to rapid pathogen migration across and between continents. We now know the full life cycle, microevolutionary relationships and past migration routes on a global scale. Current sequencing technologies have provided the first fungal draft genomes and simplified plant resistance gene cloning. Yet, we know nothing about the molecular and microevolutionary mechanisms that facilitate the infection process and cause new devastating pathogen races. These are the questions that need to be addressed by exploiting the synergies between novel 21(st) century biology tools and decades of dedicated pathology work.

  17. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi; Nørgaard, Mette; Thind, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. Study population All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47%) patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC) and 512 (53%) were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). A total of 300 (31%) patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50%) received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5) in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31) in 2013. Conclusion This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and monitor treatment and mortality. In the future, DaBlaCa-data will be a valuable data source and expansive observational studies on BC will be available. PMID:27822081

  18. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346

  19. An assessment of wheat breeding gains in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdji, S. M.; Mathews, K.; Reynolds, M.; Crossa, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wheat, a critical crop for ensuring global food security, has the lowest optimum temperatures among the major cereals, and is already grown in many heat stress areas, thereby increasing risks to production from a warming climate. Historical spring wheat trial data from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) was used to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and yield in major wheat-growing areas, assess the response to future warming, and identify different rates of genetic gains due to variety improvement across environments and breeding nurseries. Results were compared for two nurseries: 1) the Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT), which aims to improve yield potential under optimal environmental conditions, and 2) the Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), where improvements are targeted in semi-arid, rainfed environments, frequently subject to heat and water stress. Yields from 25 years of trial data were paired with reconstructed daily weather data in an empirical model with environmental variables averaged by growth stage. Temperature, radiation, day length and interaction terms between temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were all determined to be significant terms in the model. Results show a detrimental response to warming across all temperatures in the grain-filling, or final growth stage, particularly under low VPD/ humid conditions. A negative response to warming was also observed in the reproductive stage after ~14C, although high VPD conferred no additional benefit, perhaps due to a higher sensitivity and/or exposure to water stress during this period. A projected 2C season average warming was seen to have differential effects between ESWYT and SAWYT, with SAWYT germplasm less sensitive to warming up until ~21C, but an equally negative response to further warming for both nurseries. The regions where wheat is already grown under hot, and sometimes humid, conditions, particularly in south and south

  20. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  1. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  2. Brunei English: A Developing Variety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara-Davies, Breda

    2010-01-01

    A considerable amount of time has elapsed since the existence of a distinct variety of English, Brunei English (BNE), was mooted in the early 1990s. A subsequent study conducted by Svalberg in 1998 suggested that BNE was then in its infancy and that its speakers were largely unaware of the differences between it and Standard British English (STE).…

  3. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  4. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  5. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  6. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  7. Assessment of the quality of durum wheat products by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence video image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novales, Bruno; Abecassis, Joel; Bertrand, Dominique; Devaux, Marie-Francoise; Robert, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Because assessment of Durum wheat semolina purity by standard ash-test has been widely criticized, we attempted to characterize products of a semolina mill by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging. A collection of milled wheat products ranging from very pure semolina to brans were chosen for this study. Multidimensional statistical analyses (Principal component analyses) were applied to the spectral and image data. Maps showing a classification of the products according to purity were obtained without biochemical calibration. Principal component regression was applied to the data in order to test the relationship of aleurone fluorescence to ash content. Both spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging gave similar results with good determination coefficients (r2 equals 0.97 and 0.92) for the study of a single wheat variety. Products obtained from different wheat varieties were more difficult to compare.

  8. Structural and physiological characterization during wheat pericarp development.

    PubMed

    Xiong, F; Yu, X R; Zhou, L; Wang, F; Xiong, A S

    2013-08-01

    The cytological and physiological features of developing wheat pericarp were clearly characterized in this report. Our results may be helpful to articulate the functions of pericarp during the seed development. Although wheat pericarp has been well studied, knowledge of the sequence of events in the process of pericarp development is incomplete. In the present study, the structural development process of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pericarp was investigated in detail using resin microtomy and microscopy. Chlorophyll contents, and photosynthetic and respiratory rates, in pericarp were determined using spectrophotometer and an oxygen electrode, respectively. Mineral nutrient contents were also determined using scanning electron microscopy. The main results are as follows: (1) based on the structures and physiological characteristics observed, the developmental process of pericarp was divided into four stages, growth, formation, extinction and maturation stages, pericarp exhibited specific features at each stage. (2) Pericarp development differed in different parts, or varieties, of wheat. The dorsal pericarp had fewer starch grains and slower rates of apoptosis than the abdominal mesocarp. The cross cells in dorsal pericarp had an irregular outline. When compared with soft wheat cv. Yangmai 11, mesocarp cells in hard wheat cv. Xumai 30 had more starch grains, larger cell size and longer development duration. (3) The chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate and respiratory rate in pericarp increased gradually, reaching a maximum about 16 days after anthesis, and later decreased continually. The photosynthetic rate in pericarp was lower than the respiration rate. (4) The contents of mineral elements in pericarp, such as calcium, zinc, iron and potassium were higher than those in the inner endosperm. The data indicate that wheat pericarp has many functions, e.g. protection, photosynthesis, mineral accumulation, synthesis and degradation of starch.

  9. Wheat yield forecasts using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Several considerations of winter wheat yield prediction using LANDSAT data were discussed. In addition, a simple technique which permits direct early season forecasts of wheat production was described.

  10. The Future of the Danish Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    as a natural consequence of being a co-founder of the United Nations, focused on promoting peace and stability in the world, as a relatively large...Soviet invasion to a more expeditionary course of deploying forces to promote peace and stability around the globe. As a result, Danish defense policy...Danish government including the armed forces. As a consequence Defense Agreement 2010 – 2014 was replaced by Defense Agreement 2013 – 2017 including

  11. Racialised Entanglements of Teacher Professionalisation and Problematised Immigrant Schoolchildren: Crafting a Danish Welfare Nation-State, 1970-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Modern welfare states emerged as a response to the social question and were crafted through the educationalisation of society engendering a need for a variety of professionals who could take care of citizens of concern. This article revisits the social question in a post-1970 Danish context of a growing non-western immigrant and refugee population…

  12. Racialised Entanglements of Teacher Professionalisation and Problematised Immigrant Schoolchildren: Crafting a Danish Welfare Nation-State, 1970-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Modern welfare states emerged as a response to the social question and were crafted through the educationalisation of society engendering a need for a variety of professionals who could take care of citizens of concern. This article revisits the social question in a post-1970 Danish context of a growing non-western immigrant and refugee population…

  13. Naked oats: metabolisable energy yield from a range of varieties in broilers, cockerels and turkeys.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, M G; Valentine, J; Cowan, A; Wade, A; McNeill, L; Bernard, K

    2008-05-01

    1. Naked oats belong to the same species as 'common oats', Avena sativa, but have a non-lignified husk which readily becomes detached during harvesting. The absence of the indigestible husk can be predicted to give an increased metabolisable energy (ME) content for poultry. 2. Measurements of true metabolisable energy (TME(N)) were performed on 3-week-old broiler chicks (Cobb males), adult cockerels (ISA Brown, greater than one year old) and 7-week-old turkeys (BUT T8 males). The measurements were repeated in 2000, 2001 and 2002, with some measurements on a subset of varieties in 2004. 3. High-oil naked oat lines yielded 12% more energy (TME(N)) than wheat. Naked oats, excluding the experimental high-oil lines, yielded 8.5% more energy than simultaneously assayed wheat samples. 4. In samples from the 2004 harvest, conventional oats gave TME(N) values about 13% lower than those of wheat. 5. The addition of beta-glucanase produced an increase of about 4% in the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of oats for broiler chickens. This effect was associated with a 70% decrease in the jejunal viscosity of broilers receiving a 500 g/kg naked-oat diet. 6. The oil content of naked oats was about 5 times greater than that of wheat, with the high-oil lines rising to more than 6 times greater. Naked oats had a lower starch content than wheat but not sufficiently lower to negate the energy benefits of the higher oil content. The crude protein (CP) contents of naked oats were similar to those of wheat, with the high-oil varieties tending to be higher in CP also.

  14. Impacts of climate change on wheat in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Mikhail A

    2009-04-06

    The frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events are likely to increase with global warming. However, it is not clear how these events might affect agricultural crops and whether yield losses resulting from severe droughts or heat stress will increase in the future. The aim of this paper is to analyse changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of two impact indices for wheat: the probability of heat stress around flowering and the severity of drought stress. To compute these indices, we used a wheat simulation model combined with high-resolution climate scenarios based on the output from the Hadley Centre regional climate model at 18 sites in England and Wales. Despite higher temperature and lower summer precipitation predicted in the UK for the 2050s, the impact of drought stress on simulated wheat yield is predicted to be smaller than that at present, because wheat will mature earlier in a warmer climate and avoid severe summer drought. However, the probability of heat stress around flowering that might result in considerable yield losses is predicted to increase significantly. Breeding strategies for the future climate might need to focus on wheat varieties tolerant to high temperature rather than to drought.

  15. Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits

    PubMed Central

    Monneveux, Philippe; Jing, Ruilian; Misra, Satish C.

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice) and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production, however, slowed after 1980, except in China, India, and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, wheat is grown on more land area worldwide than any other crop, including in drought prone areas. In these marginal rain-fed environments where at least 60 m ha of wheat is grown, amount and distribution of rainfall are the predominant factors influencing yield variability. Intensive work has been carried out in the area of drought adaptation over the last decades. Breeding strategies for drought tolerance improvement include: definition of the target environment, choice and characterization of the testing environment, water stress management and characterization, and use of phenotyping traits with high heritability. The use of integrative traits, facilitated by the development and application of new technologies (thermal imaging, spectral reflectance, stable isotopes) is facilitating high throughput phenotyping and indirect selection, consequently favoring yield improvement in drought prone environments. PMID:23181021

  16. Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits.

    PubMed

    Monneveux, Philippe; Jing, Ruilian; Misra, Satish C

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice) and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production, however, slowed after 1980, except in China, India, and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, wheat is grown on more land area worldwide than any other crop, including in drought prone areas. In these marginal rain-fed environments where at least 60 m ha of wheat is grown, amount and distribution of rainfall are the predominant factors influencing yield variability. Intensive work has been carried out in the area of drought adaptation over the last decades. Breeding strategies for drought tolerance improvement include: definition of the target environment, choice and characterization of the testing environment, water stress management and characterization, and use of phenotyping traits with high heritability. The use of integrative traits, facilitated by the development and application of new technologies (thermal imaging, spectral reflectance, stable isotopes) is facilitating high throughput phenotyping and indirect selection, consequently favoring yield improvement in drought prone environments.

  17. RNA Sequencing and Co-expressed Long Non-coding RNA in Modern and Wild Wheats.

    PubMed

    Cagirici, Halise Busra; Alptekin, Burcu; Budak, Hikmet

    2017-09-06

    There is an urgent need for the improvement of drought-tolerant bread and durum wheat. The huge and complex genome of bread wheat (BBAADD genome) stands as a vital obstruction for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying drought tolerance. However, tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp., BBAA genome) is an ancestor of modern bread wheat and offers an important model for studying the drought response due to its less complex genome. Additionally, several wild relatives of tetraploid wheat have already shown a significant drought tolerance. We sequenced root transcriptome of three tetraploid wheat varieties with varying stress tolerance profiles, and built differential expression library of their transcripts under control and drought conditions. More than 5,000 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from each genotype. Functional characterization of transcripts specific to drought-tolerant genotype, revealed their association with osmolytes production and secondary metabolite pathways. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes and their non-coding RNA partners, long noncoding RNAs and microRNAs, provided valuable insight to gene expression regulation in response to drought stress. LncRNAs as well as coding transcripts share similar structural features in different tetraploid species; yet, lncRNAs slightly differ from coding transcripts. Several miRNA-lncRNA target pairs were detected as differentially expressed in drought stress. Overall, this study suggested an important pool of transcripts where their manipulations confer a better performance of wheat varieties under drought stress.

  18. A step change in the transfer of interspecific variation into wheat from Amblyopyrum muticum.

    PubMed

    King, Julie; Grewal, Surbhi; Yang, Cai-Yun; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Ashling, Stephen; Edwards, Keith J; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda; Bloor, Claire; Davassi, Alessandro; da Silva, Glacy J; Chalmers, Ken; King, Ian P

    2017-02-01

    Despite some notable successes, only a fraction of the genetic variation available in wild relatives has been utilized to produce superior wheat varieties. This is as a direct result of the lack of availability of suitable high-throughput technologies to detect wheat/wild relative introgressions when they occur. Here, we report on the use of a new SNP array to detect wheat/wild relative introgressions in backcross progenies derived from interspecific hexaploid wheat/Ambylopyrum muticum F1 hybrids. The array enabled the detection and characterization of 218 genomewide wheat/Am. muticum introgressions, that is a significant step change in the generation and detection of introgressions compared to previous work in the field. Furthermore, the frequency of introgressions detected was sufficiently high to enable the construction of seven linkage groups of the Am. muticum genome, thus enabling the syntenic relationship between the wild relative and hexaploid wheat to be determined. The importance of the genetic variation from Am. muticum introduced into wheat for the development of superior varieties is discussed.

  19. Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) lines show different abilities to form masked mycotoxins under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2013-12-24

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  20. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall’Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G. PMID:24368326

  1. Are Danish doctors comfortable teaching in English?

    PubMed

    Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D

    2016-08-27

    From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.

  2. [The importance of the wheat harvest in the expedition of Mopox in Cuba (1797-1799)].

    PubMed

    Misas Jimémez, R E

    1995-01-01

    The expedition of Mopox gathers, during their stay in the island of Cuba, a variety of acclimatized wheat that constituted a rarity of the agricultural flora of the Habana. The gathering work carried out by the naturalist and expeditionary Baltasar Boldo, favored the description that Mariano Lagasca fulfill later in the Royal Botanical Garden from Madrid. The effort of the Spanish botanists has served in order to identify the wheat that continued cultivating in the region of Villa Clara in the XIXth century, and in order to recommend to the agricultural Cuban institutions the cultivation of a type of wheat similar to that which Boldo found in the vicinity of the Habana.

  3. Competitive Expression of Endogenous Wheat CENH3 May Lead to Suppression of Alien ZmCENH3 in Transgenic Wheat × Maize Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Qilin; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Xing, Liping; Chen, Peidu; Jin, Weiwei; Wang, Xiu-E

    2015-11-20

    Uniparental chromosome elimination in wheat × maize hybrid embryos is widely used in double haploid production of wheat. Several explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon, one of which is that the lack of cross-species CENH3 incorporation may act as a barrier to interspecies hybridization. However, it is unknown if this mechanism applies universally. To study the role of CENH3 in maize chromosome elimination of wheat × maize hybrid embryos, maize ZmCENH3 and wheat αTaCENH3-B driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were transformed into wheat variety Yangmai 158. Five transgenic lines for ZmCENH3 and six transgenic lines for αTaCENH3-B were identified. RT-PCR analysis showed that the transgene could be transcribed at a low level in all ZmCENH3 transgenic lines, whereas transcription of endogenous wheat CENH3 was significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, the expression levels of both wheat CENH3 and ZmCENH3 in the ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat × maize hybrid embryos were higher than those in the non-transformed Yangmai 158 × maize hybrid embryos. This indicates that the alien ZmCENH3 in wheat may induce competitive expression of endogenous wheat CENH3, leading to suppression of ZmCENH3 over-expression. Eliminations of maize chromosomes in hybrid embryos of ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat × maize and Yangmai 158 × maize were compared by observations on micronuclei presence, by marker analysis using maize SSRs (simple sequence repeats), and by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) using 45S rDNA as a probe. The results indicate that maize chromosome elimination events in the two crosses are not significantly different. Fusion protein ZmCENH3-YFP could not be detected in ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat by either Western blotting or immnunostaining, whereas accumulation and loading of the αTaCENH3-B-GFP fusion protein was normal in αTaCENH3-B transgenic lines. As ZmCENH3-YFP did not accumulate after AM114 treatment, we speculate that low levels of Zm

  4. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-02

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields.

  5. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985–2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September−May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  6. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of no-bake wheat-soy snack bars.

    PubMed

    Aramouni, Fadi M; Abu-Ghoush, Mahmoud H

    2011-01-15

    Health and wellness is a trend observed throughout ready-to-eat cereals, cereal health bars. Therefore, the main objectives of this research were to produce a low cost, acceptable, nutritious and healthy wheat- and soy-based bar under no-bake conditions. Also, the physical, chemical, microbial, acceptability and the nutritional value of this product were studied. Six different bars were produced: a wheat bar (WB), a wheat bar with coating (WBC), a wheat and soy bar with coating (WSBC), a soy bar with coating (SBC), a wheat bar with 3% glycerin (WB3%), and a wheat bar with 6% glycerine (WB6%). WB and WBC had the highest water activities while WSBC had the lowest. The three bars with coating had higher L and lower b values, which indicates that they were lighter and not as highly yellow coloured as the wheat samples. WSBC had the lowest value for hardness while the SBC and WBC had the highest. SBC received the highest scores for overall acceptability, appearance, sweetness, flavour and texture while WSBC received the second highest score in all categories. It appears that consumers prefer the soy varieties to the wheat bars. These types of bars can aid in feeding the general population, which is becoming increasingly concerned with nutrition and convenience. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. An Aegilops ventricosa Translocation Confers Resistance Against Root-knot Nematodes to Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Valerie M.; Thomas, Varghese; Ferris, Howard; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) cause severe losses worldwide to a wide range of crops. Crop rotations with resistant hosts can be used to control losses, but the wide host range of RKN limits this option. In this study, we found that the wheat cultivar Lassik is resistant to several isolates of the RKN species M. incognita and M. javanica, including those that can reproduce on tomato with the resistance gene Mi-1. Comparison of near-isogenic lines of wheat showed that the wheat resistance gene(s) is localized within a segment of the short arm of chromosome 2N from Aegilops ventricosa (Zhuk.) Chennav translocated into common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome arm 2AS and is associated with a highly significant decrease in RKN eggs in the roots. This RKN resistance gene has been assigned the name Rkn3. While wheat itself is tolerant of RKN infection, a microplot experiment coupled with tomato bioassays showed less RKN root galling in the tomato samples grown in soil from the previous microplots including RKN resistant wheat varieties than in those including a susceptible wheat isogenic line. This result suggests that rotation with Rkn3 resistant wheat cultivars has the potential to be a valuable component of nematode management for crops that are highly susceptible to nematode damage and for which alternative strategies are limited. PMID:27182071

  8. Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults: a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Camilla; Gøbel, Rikke; Kristensen, Mette; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Christensen, Tue; Trolle, Ellen; Fagt, Sisse; Madsen, Mia Linda; Husby, Steffen

    2017-02-01

    Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20-75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities. Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th-90th percentiles; 5.4-16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20-75 years; P < 0.0001); however, this difference was eliminated when adjusting for energy intake. Intake of different gluten sources tended to be higher in men than in women with the exception of gluten from barley. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age (P < 0.0001) as did gluten intake from wheat (P < 0.0001), whereas intake of gluten from rye (P < 0.0001) and barley (P = 0.001) increased with increasing age, also when adjusted for energy intake or body weight. This study presents representative population-based data on gluten intake in Danish adults. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age.

  9. Senescence, nutrient remobilization, and yield in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Distelfeld, Assaf; Avni, Raz; Fischer, Andreas M

    2014-07-01

    Cereals including wheat and barley are of primary importance to ensure food security for the 21st century. A combination of lab- and field-based approaches has led to a considerably improved understanding of the importance of organ and particularly of whole-plant (monocarpic) senescence for wheat and barley yield and quality. A delicate balance between senescence timing, grain nutrient content, nutrient-use efficiency, and yield needs to be considered to (further) improve cereal varieties for a given environment and end use. The recent characterization of the Gpc-1 (NAM-1) genes in wheat and barley demonstrates the interdependence of these traits. Lines or varieties with functional Gpc-1 genes demonstrate earlier senescence and enhanced grain protein and micronutrient content but, depending on the environment, somewhat reduced yields. A major effort is needed to dissect regulatory networks centred on additional wheat and barley transcription factors and signalling pathways influencing the senescence process. Similarly, while important molecular details of nutrient (particularly nitrogen) remobilization from senescing organs to developing grains have been identified, important knowledge gaps remain. The genes coding for the major proteases involved in senescence-associated plastidial protein degradation are largely unknown. Membrane transport proteins involved in the different transport steps occurring between senescing organ (such as leaf mesophyll) cells and protein bodies in the endosperm of developing grains remain to be identified or further characterized. Existing data suggest that an improved understanding of all these steps will reveal additional, important targets for continued cereal improvement.

  10. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  11. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  12. Wheat landraces: A mini review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farmers developed and utilized diverse wheat landraces to meet the complexity of a multitude of spatio-temporal, agro-ecological systems and to provide reliable sustenance and a sustainable food source to local communities. The genetic structure of wheat landraces is an evolutionary approach to surv...

  13. Registration of 'Bill Brown' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

  14. Registration of 'Bill Brown' wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

  15. Registration of 'Rollag' spring wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe) is a disease that annually threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the northern plains of the United States. Resistance to this disease is a high priority trait in the University of Minnesota’s spring wheat breedi...

  16. Registration of 'Thunder CL' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Thunder CL' (Reg. No. CV- , PI XXXXXX) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2008 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

  17. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. PMID:27822082

  18. New insights into wheat toxicity: Breeding did not seem to contribute to a prevalence of potential celiac disease's immunostimulatory epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Rodriguez-Quijano, Marta; Nunes, Fernando M; Carrillo, Jose Maria; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2016-12-15

    Gluten proteins, namely gliadins, are the primary trigger of the abnormal immune response in celiac disease. It has been hypothesised that modern wheat breeding practices may have contributed to the increase in celiac disease prevalence during the latter half of the 20th century. Our results do not support this hypothesis as Triticum aestivum spp. vulgare landraces, which were not subjected to breeding practices, presented higher amounts of potential celiac disease's immunostimulatory epitopes when compared to modern varieties. Furthermore, high variation between wheat varieties concerning the toxic epitopes amount was observed. We carried out quantitative analysis of gliadin types by RP-HPLC to verify its correlation with the amount of toxic epitopes: ω-type gliadins content explain about 40% of the variation of toxic epitopes in tetraploid wheat varieties. This research provides new insights regarding wheat toxicity and into the controversial idea that human practices may have conducted to an increased exposure to toxic epitopes.

  19. Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in wheat curl mites recovered from maturing winter wheat spikes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations i...

  20. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so...

  1. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so...

  2. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so...

  3. Dielectric studies of wheat in powder form at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Jain, Ritu; Bhargava, Nidhi; Sharma, Ritu; Sharma, K S

    2010-10-01

    Dielectric constant and loss factor of Raj-4120 variety of Indian wheat were determined in powder form (grain size 125 to 150 micron) at room temperature. Microwaves at three different frequencies were employed in C-band, X-band and Ku-band respectively for investigating frequency dependence of dielectric parameters of the sample. Bulk dielectric values of the sample were determined by employing the dielectric mixture relations, such as, half power mixture equation, Landau and Lifshitz, Looyenga equation etc.

  4. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published.

  5. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  6. Tracking wheat rust on a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, James A

    2005-08-01

    The rusts of wheat are important fungal plant pathogens that can be disseminated thousands of kilometers across continents and oceans by wind. Rusts are obligate parasites that interact with resistance genes in wheat in a gene-for-gene manner. New races of rust develop by mutation and selection for virulence against rust resistance genes in wheat. In recent years, new races of wheat leaf rust, wheat stripe rust, and wheat stem rust have been introduced into wheat production areas in different continents. These introductions have complicated efforts to develop wheat cultivars with durable rust resistance and have reduced the number of effective rust-resistance genes that are available for use. The migration patterns of wheat rusts are characterized by identifying their virulence against important rust resistance genes in wheat and by the use of molecular markers.

  7. Cyclical partenogenetic reproduction in the Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States: Sexual reproduction and its outcome on biotypic diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) (Diuraphis noxia Kurd.) is an invasive species detected in the United States (US) in 1986. It soon became a serious threat to cereal production in the western US and more recently diversified into biotypes capable of killing resistant wheat varieties in the field. Aphids ...

  8. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed color and hardness genes on the consumption preference of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  9. Genome-wide associations for water-soluble carbohydrate concentration and relative maturity in wheat using SNP and DArT marker arrays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving water-use efficiency by incorporating drought avoidance traits into new wheat varieties is an important objective for wheat breeding in water-limited environments. This study uses genome wide association studies (GWAS) to identify candidate loci for water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation,...

  10. Thymol-based sub-micron emulsions exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum and inhibit Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium graminearum is a very destructive fungal pathogen that leads to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat, a disease that costs growers millions of dollars annually both in crop losses and control measures. Current countermeasures include the deployment of wheat varieties with some resistance to ...

  11. Characterization of selenium-enriched wheat by agronomic biofortification.

    PubMed

    Galinha, Catarina; Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pacheco, Adriano M G; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Coutinho, José; Maçãs, Benvindo; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Pérez-Corona, María Teresa; Madrid, Yolanda; Wolterbeek, Hubert T

    2015-07-01

    Agronomic biofortification of staple crops is an effective way to enhance their contents in essential nutrients up the food chain, with a view to correcting for their deficiencies in animal or human status. Selenium (Se) is one such case, for its uneven distribution in the continental crust and, therefore, in agricultural lands easily translates into substantial variation in nutritional intakes. Cereals are far from being the main sources of Se on a content basis, but they are likely the major contributors to intake on a dietary basis. To assess their potential to assimilate and biotransform Se, bread and durum wheat were enriched with Se through foliar and soil addition at an equivalent field rate of 100 g of Se per hectare (ha), using sodium selenate and sodium selenite as Se-supplementation matrices, in actual field conditions throughout. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated by using HPLC-ICP-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis for Se-species extraction in the resulting mature wheat grains. Selenomethionine and Se(VI) were identified and quantified: the former was the predominant species, representing 70-100 % of the total Se in samples; the maximum amount of inorganic Se was below 5 %. These results were similar for both supplementation methods and for both wheat varieties. Judging from the present results, one can conclude that agronomic biofortification of wheat may improve the nutritional quality of wheat grains with significant amounts of selenomethionine, which is an attractive option for increasing the Se status in human diets through Se-enriched, wheat-based foodstuff.

  12. Genetic relationships and structure among open pollinated maize varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa using microsatellite markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in collaboration with the national agricultural systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), have developed various stress-tolerant and more nutritious open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) of maize that are suitable for smallholder farmers’ g...

  13. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  14. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence.

    PubMed

    Ausubel, Jesse H; Waggoner, Paul E

    2008-09-02

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006.

  15. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Ausubel, Jesse H.; Waggoner, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006. PMID:18728190

  16. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study population Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Main variables Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Descriptive data Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. Conclusion The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients. PMID:27822083

  17. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database.

    PubMed

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients.

  18. Oxalate oxidases and differentiating surface structure in wheat: germins.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B G

    2000-01-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OXOs) have been found to be concentrated in the surface tissues of wheat embryos and grains: germin is concentrated in root and leaf sheaths that surround germinated embryos; pseudogermin (OXO-psi) is concentrated in the epidermis and bracts that 'encircle' mature grains. Most strikingly, the epidermal accumulation of OXO-psi was found to presage the transition of a delicate 'skin', similar to the fragile epidermis of human skin, into the tough shell (the miller's 'beeswing') that is typical of mature wheat grains. A narrow range of oxalate concentration (1--2 mM) in the hydrated tissues of major crop cereals (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat) contrasted with wide variations in their OXO expression, e.g. cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties of maize have similar oxalate contents but the former was found to contain approx. 20-fold more germin than did the latter. Well-known OXOs in sorghum, a minor cereal, and beet, a dicotyledon, were found to have little antigenic relatedness to the germins, but the beet enzyme did share some of the unique stability properties that are peculiar to the germin-like OXOs that are found only in the major crop cereals. Their concentration in surface structures of domesticated wheat suggests a biochemical role for germin-like OXOs: programmed cell death in surface tissues might be a constitutive as well as an adaptive form of differentiation that helps to produce refractory barriers against tissue invasion by predators. Incidental to the principal investigation, and using an OXO assay (oxalate-dependent release of CO(2)) that did not rely on detecting H(2)O(2), which is often fully degraded in cell extracts, it was found that OXO activity in soluble extracts of wheat was manifested only in standard solution assays if the extract was pretreated in a variety of ways, which included preincubation with pepsin or highly substituted glucuronogalactoarabinoxylans (cell-wall polysaccharides). PMID:10861243

  19. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  20. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  1. Leaching of bentazon from Danish agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Kjær, Jeanne; Brüsch, Walter; Olsen, Preben

    2013-04-01

    Bentazone (CAS No. 25057-89-0) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for a variety of crops. Rapid photo degradation occurs in soil and water; however, bentazone is very mobile in soil and moderately persistent in the environment. Bentazone has been reported to occur in surface water, groundwater and drinking water at concentrations of a few micro g per L or less. With its high affinity for the water compartment in the soil media, it does not seem to accumulate in the subsurface. Results from 12 evaluations/applications on six intensive-monitored and agricultural fields (two sandy and four loamy soils) in the Danish Pesticide Leaching risk Assessment Programme (PLAP) verified these findings. Bentazone was applied in the timeframe May - beginning of June. It was detected in 1 m depth (suctions cups and drains) at all the PLAP-fields. In 4 out of 12 applications, the average concentration of the period after the first detection until July the following year, was found to exceed 0.1 micro g per L in 1 meters depth. At all of the fields groundwater level was dropping at the time of bentazon application. This seemed to result in detection in groundwater at the loamy but not the sandy fields, which indicate the prescence of rapid preferential transport in the macropore systems of the loamy fields and a piston-alike transport in the sandy fields. Even though detections in 1 m depth indicated a relative high mass of bentazon leaching as a puls through sandy soil, bentazon was not found below this depth. The degree of detections in the groundwater at the loamy fields seemed to be impacted by the hydraulic contact to deeper fracture systems in the soil. At the loamy fields with a good hydraulic contact, bentazon was detected in groundwater from both vertical and horisontal filters shortly after application - also in concentrations exceeding 0.1 micro g per L. By applying bentazon on different crops, results clearly showed that the leaf-area-index at application and the ability

  2. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  3. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  4. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  5. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  6. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  7. Factors Affecting the Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat to γ-Irradiation: Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linshu; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Yongdun; Zhao, Shirong; Song, Xiyun; Han, Longzhi; Liu, Luxiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the radiosensitivity of plants, an important factor in crop mutation breeding programs, requires a thorough investigation of the factors that contribute to this trait. In this study, we used the highly radiosensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety HY1 and J411, a γ-irradiation-insensitive control, which were screened from a natural population, to examine the factors affecting radiosensitivity, including free radical content and total antioxidant capacity, as well as the expression of TaKu70 and TaKu80 (DNA repair-related genes) as measured by real-time PCR. We also investigated the alternative splicing of this gene in the wild-type wheat ecotype by sequence analysis. Free radical contents and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased upon exposure of HY1 wheat to γ-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in J411, the free radical contents exhibited a similar trend, but the total antioxidant capacity exhibited a downward trend upon increasing γ-irradiation. Additionally, we detected dose-dependent increases in TaKu70 and TaKu80 expression levels in γ-irradiated HY1, while in J411, TaKu70 expression levels increased, followed by a decline. We also detected alternative splicing of TaKu70 mRNA, namely, intron retention, in HY1 but not in J411. Our findings indicate that γ-irradiation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hexaploid wheat, resulting in growth retardation of seedlings, and they suggest that TaKu70 may play a causal role in radiosensitivity in HY1. Further studies are required to exploit these factors to improve radiosensitivity in other wheat varieties. PMID:27551965

  8. A Genetic Framework for Grain Size and Shape Variation in Wheat[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gegas, Vasilis C.; Nazari, Aida; Griffiths, Simon; Simmonds, James; Fish, Lesley; Orford, Simon; Sayers, Liz; Doonan, John H.; Snape, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Grain morphology in wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been selected and manipulated even in very early agrarian societies and remains a major breeding target. We undertook a large-scale quantitative analysis to determine the genetic basis of the phenotypic diversity in wheat grain morphology. A high-throughput method was used to capture grain size and shape variation in multiple mapping populations, elite varieties, and a broad collection of ancestral wheat species. This analysis reveals that grain size and shape are largely independent traits in both primitive wheat and in modern varieties. This phenotypic structure was retained across the mapping populations studied, suggesting that these traits are under the control of a limited number of discrete genetic components. We identified the underlying genes as quantitative trait loci that are distinct for grain size and shape and are largely shared between the different mapping populations. Moreover, our results show a significant reduction of phenotypic variation in grain shape in the modern germplasm pool compared with the ancestral wheat species, probably as a result of a relatively recent bottleneck. Therefore, this study provides the genetic underpinnings of an emerging phenotypic model where wheat domestication has transformed a long thin primitive grain to a wider and shorter modern grain. PMID:20363770

  9. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-05

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV < 10%), showed linearity (R(2) > 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy.

  10. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  11. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E; Newman, John W; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch.

  12. Food variety and biodiversity: Econutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Specht, R L

    1998-12-01

    Both annual biomass production and biodiversity at any locality on earth are continually under threat as the population of Homo sapiens steadily increases, with the resultant pollution of atmosphere, soil and water. Today, environmental degradation and global warming (with its effect on evaporative aerodynamics and cellular respiration) have increased at an alarming rate. The ABP of all terrestrial plant communities (natural or cultivated) is slowly declining, thus reducing the energy supply of component plants and resident animals; in turn, the biodiversity of all the world's ecosystems, plant and animal, is threatened. The maintenance of biodiversity is important to human health for several reasons: (i) a varied food supply is essential to maintain the health of the omnivorous human species; (ii) a range of diverse food sources is necessary to safe-guard against climatic and pestilent disasters which may affect one or more of the food sources; (iii) a diversity of plants and animals may provide a rich source of medicinal material, essential for the extraction of undiscovered therapeutic compounds; (iv) intact ecosystems of indigenous plants and animals appear to act as a buffer to the spread of invasive plants and animals, and of pathogens and toxins, thus contributing to the health of populations nearby; and (v) the 'spiritual' values of exploring the diversity of plants, animals and ecosystems in an area appear to have a beneficial effect on mental health, strengthening the feeling of 'belonging to the landscape'. The variety of foods, their energy contents and food values, consumed throughout the year is amenable to scientific enquiry; as is the amount of energy expended in this collection or production. The control and management of food production and of water supplies, with attention to safety issues, has led to an improvement in life expectancy for a proportion of the world's population. The question is at what point might human health be disadvantaged by

  13. On-farm experiments over 5 years in a grain maize/winter wheat rotation: effect of maize residue treatments on Fusarium graminearum infection and deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat.

    PubMed

    Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hecker, Andreas; Musa, Tomke; Dorn, Brigitte; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf

    2011-05-01

    Over the course of 5 years, different maize residue treatments were conducted on 14 zero tillage on-farm sites in Switzerland to evaluate their effect on the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the contamination with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in winter wheat grains and wheat straw following grain maize. Two experimental series with three and five different treatments were carried out, respectively. Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe) was the predominant FHB-causing species with an overall incidence of 15% infected wheat grains. A significant correlation between symptoms in the field, F. graminearum incidence and DON content in wheat grains and wheat straw was observed. The average DON content in both wheat grains and wheat straw was approximately 5,000 μg/kg and thus several times higher than the European maximum limit of 1,250 μg/kg for unprocessed small-grain cereals for human consumption. Of all grain samples, 74% were above the maximum limit. Pooled over both experimental series, the average reduction of DON in grains through treatments of the maize residue compared with a control treatment ranged between 21 and 38%. The effect of various other factors, including the year, the wheat variety, the site, the maize hybrid and the production system was evaluated as well. The year and the wheat variety were the most important FHB influencing factors. Over all treatments, the variety Levis showed a fivefold higher average DON content compared with the variety Titlis. From different categories of maize residue particles, intact pieces of 5-15 cm length were strongly correlated with F. graminearum incidence and DON content in grains. During the time course of this study, the recommendation from a preliminary version of the internet-based DON forecasting system FusaProg to apply or to omit a fungicide treatment was correct in 32 out of 42 cases. The results are currently being used to optimise the FusaProg models. This study has shown that in a grain

  14. Adherence to treatment: practice, education and research in Danish community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Haugbølle, Lotte S.; Herborg, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practice, education and research concerning medication adherence in Danish community pharmacy. Methods: The authors supplemented their expertise in the area of medication adherence through their contacts with other educators and researchers as well as by conducting searches in the Danish Pharmacy Practice Evidence Database, which provides annually updated literature reviews on intervention research in Danish pharmacy practice. Results: Practice: Medication adherence is the focus of and/or is supported by a large number of services and initiatives used in pharmacy practice such as governmental funding, IT-supported medicine administration systems, dose-dispensing systems, theme years in pharmacies on adherence and concordance, standards for counselling at the counter, pharmacist counselling, medication reviews and inhaler technique assessment. Education: In Denmark, pharmacy and pharmaconomist students are extensively trained in the theory and practice of adherence to therapy. Pharmacy staff can choose from a variety of continuing education and post-graduate programmes which address patient adherence. Research: Nine ongoing and recently completed studies are described. Early research in Denmark comprised primarily smaller, qualitative studies centred on user perspectives, whereas later research has shifted the focus towards larger, quantitative, controlled studies and action-oriented studies focusing on patient groups with chronic diseases (such as diabetes, asthma, coronary vascular diseases). Conclusions: Our analysis has documented that Danish pharmaceutical education and research has focused strongly on adherence to treatment for more than three decades. Adherence initiatives in Danish community pharmacies have developed substantially in the past 5-10 years, and, as pharmacies have prioritised their role in health care and patient safety, this development can be expected to continue in future years. PMID:25136393

  15. Studies on the nutraceuticals composition of wheat derived oils wheat bran oil and wheat germ oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Suresh; Krishna, A G Gopala

    2015-02-01

    Fat-soluble nutraceuticals of cereals are known for number of disease preventive activities. Hence wheat bran oil (WBO) and wheat germ oil (WGO) were extracted from wheat bran and germ which yielded 3.35 % and 7.35 % of oil, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (64 %, 61.2 %) respectively. Both oils contained tocopherols and carotenoids, which were higher in wheat germ oil (273 mg/100 g, 12.23 mg/100 g) than wheat bran oil (190 mg/100 g, 2.21 mg/100 g). Steryl ferulates were also present in both the oils, but their content was eight-fold higher in WBO than in WGO. Three major steryl ferulates identified by HPLC were campesteryl ferulate and sitostenyl ferulate, campestanyl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate as in γ-oryzanol and another ferulate, viz., sitostanyl ferulate. A strong IC50 value of 7.5 mg/mL and 21.6 mg/mL DPPH free radicals scavenging for wheat germ oil for wheat bran oil was observed. NMR ((13)C and (1)H) profile explored the evidence of distribution of antioxidant molecules in the unsaponifiable matter of wheat derived oil. Since oils rich in PUFA and minor components are required for the normal physiological activities, blending such oils with other edible oils of the diet in wheat growing countries like India may be useful to provide health benefits.

  16. Proteome changes in wheat subjected to different nitrogen and sulfur fertilizations.

    PubMed

    Grove, Harald; Hollung, Kristin; Moldestad, Anette; Færgestad, Ellen Mosleth; Uhlen, Anne Kjersti

    2009-05-27

    Controlling the quality of wheat for breadmaking is a major concern for the milling and baking industry. Wheat flour quality depends on both the genetic background and environmental factors during growth and storage. Amount and timing of application of fertilizer are factors that affect wheat quality. This study investigated the effect of different levels of nitrogen and sulfur on the tris-soluble and glutenin protein fractions by 2D-electrophoresis. Multivariate analysis was performed to study changes in the proteome pattern. In the tris-soluble fraction 20 proteins were changed in abundance due to S fertilization, whereas 16 proteins were changed in the glutenin protein fraction. It was found that induced sulfur deficiency during growth resulted in the most pronounced effect on protein composition. Understanding which proteins are affected by varying levels of fertilizers may help tailor specific traits in various wheat varieties.

  17. Identifying future threats: impact of climate change on wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events are likely to increase with global warming. However, it is not clear how these events might affect agricultural crops and whether yield losses resulting from severe droughts or heat stress will increase in the future. The aim of this paper is to analyse changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of two impact indices for wheat: the probability of heat stress around flowering and the severity of drought stress. To compute these indices, we used a wheat simulation model combined with high-resolution climate scenarios based on the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator and the output from the Hadley Centre regional climate model at 18 sites in England and Wales. Despite higher temperature and lower summer precipitation predicted in the UK for the 2050s, the reduction in grain yield related to drought stress is predicted to be smaller than that at present, because wheat will mature earlier in a warmer climate and avoid severe summer drought. However, the probability of heat stress around flowering, that affects pollination and might result in considerable yield losses, is predicted to increase significantly. Breeding strategies for the future climate might need to focus on wheat varieties tolerant to high temperature rather than to drought.

  18. Efficient strategies to assess yield stability in winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Mirdita, Vilson; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Selecting contrasting environments allows decreasing phenotyping intensity but still maintaining high accuracy to assess yield stability. Improving yield stability of wheat varieties is important to cope with enhanced abiotic stresses caused by climate change. The objective of our study was to (1) develop and implement an improved heritability estimate to examine the required scale of phenotyping for assessing yield stability in wheat, (2) compare yield performance and yield stability of wheat hybrids and inbred lines, (3) investigate the association of agronomic traits with yield stability, and (4) explore the possibility of selecting subsets of environments allowing to portray large proportion of the variation of yield stability. Our study is based on phenotypic data from five series of official winter wheat registration trials in Germany each including 119-132 genotypes evaluated in up to 50 environments. Our findings suggested that phenotyping in at least 40 environments is required to reliably estimate yield stability to guarantee heritability estimates above 0.7. Contrasting the yield stability of hybrids versus lines revealed no significant differences. Absence of stable associations between yield stability and further agronomic traits suggested low potential of indirect selection to improve yield stability. Selecting posteriori contrasting environments based on the genotype-by-environment interaction effects allowed decreasing phenotyping intensity, but still maintaining high accuracy to assess yield stability. The huge potential of the developed strategy to select contrasting and informative environments has to be validated as a next step in an a priori scenario based on genotype-by-location interaction effects.

  19. Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains.

  20. Shortcomings in wheat yield predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Whitmore, Andrew P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Shewry, Peter R.

    2012-06-01

    Predictions of a 40-140% increase in wheat yield by 2050, reported in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, are based on a simplistic approach that ignores key factors affecting yields and hence are seriously misleading.

  1. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  2. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  3. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  4. Increasing Staff Mobility--A Danish Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Recent Danish government proposals to increase the national and international mobility of scientists are reviewed, including a formalized sabbatical system in the universities, new rules for obtaining leaves of absence with or without salary, and plans for increased mobility between public and private sectors. (MSE)

  5. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  6. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  7. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  9. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  10. Towards a comprehensive characterization of durum wheat landraces in Moroccan traditional agrosystems: analysing genetic diversity in the light of geography, farmers' taxonomy and tetraploid wheat domestication history.

    PubMed

    Sahri, Ali; Chentoufi, Lamyae; Arbaoui, Mustapha; Ardisson, Morgane; Belqadi, Loubna; Birouk, Ahmed; Roumet, Pierre; Muller, Marie-Hélène

    2014-12-21

    Crop diversity managed by smallholder farmers in traditional agrosystems is the outcome of historical and current processes interacting at various spatial scales, and influenced by factors such as farming practices and environmental pressures. Only recently have studies started to consider the complexity of these processes instead of simply describing diversity for breeding purposes. A first step in that aim is to add multiple references to the collection of genetic data, including the farmers' varietal taxonomy and practices and the historical background of the crop. On the basis of interview data collected in a previous study, we sampled 166 populations of durum wheat varieties in two traditional Moroccan agrosystems, in the Pre-Rif and Atlas Mountains regions. Using a common garden experiment, we detected a high phenotypic variability on traits indicative of taxonomical position and breeding status, namely spike shape and plant height. Populations often combined modern (short) with traditional-like (tall) statures, and classical durum squared spike shape (5 flowers/spikelet) with flat spike shape (3 flowers/ spikelet) representative of primitive domesticated tetraploid wheat (ssp. dicoccum). By contrast, the genetic diversity assessed using 14 microsatellite markers was relatively limited. When compared to the genetic diversity found in a large collection of tetraploid wheat, it corresponded to free-threshing tetraploid wheat. Within Morocco, the two studied regions differed for both genetic diversity and variety names. Within regions, neither geography nor variety names nor even breeding status constituted strong barriers to gene exchange despite a few significant patterns. This first assessment of morphological and genetic diversity allowed pointing out some important factors that may have influenced the structure and evolutionary dynamics of durum wheat in Morocco: the significance of variety names, the occurrence of mixtures within populations, the relative

  11. The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry

    PubMed Central

    Gimsing, Peter; Holmström, Morten O; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfelt; Andersen, Niels Frost; Gregersen, Henrik; Pedersen, Robert Schou; Plesner, Torben; Pedersen, Per Trøllund; Frederiksen, Mikael; Frølund, Ulf; Helleberg, Carsten; Vangsted, Annette; de Nully Brown, Peter; Abildgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry (DMMR) is a population-based clinical quality database established in January 2005. The primary aim of the database is to ensure that diagnosis and treatment of plasma cell dyscrasia are of uniform quality throughout the country. Another aim is to support research. Patients are registered with their unique Danish personal identification number, and the combined use of DMMR, other Danish National registries, and the Danish National Cancer Biobank offers a unique platform for population-based translational research. Study population All newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering MM, solitary plasmacytomas, and plasma cell leukemia in Denmark are registered annually; ~350 patients. Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with polyneuropathy have been registered since 2014. Main variables The main registered variables at diagnosis are patient demographics, baseline disease characteristics, myeloma-defining events, clinical complications, prognostics, first- and second-line treatments, treatment responses, progression free, and overall survival. Descriptive data Up to June 2015, 2,907 newly diagnosed patients with MM, 485 patients with smoldering MM, 64 patients with plasma cell leukemia, and 191 patients with solitary plasmacytomas were registered. Registration completeness of new patients is ~100%. A data validation study performed in 2013–2014 by the Danish Myeloma Study Group showed >95% data correctness. Conclusion The DMMR is a population-based data validated database eligible for clinical, epidemiological, and translational research. PMID:27822103

  12. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  13. Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical value of old and modern common wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Malaguti, Marco; Marotti, Ilaria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Catizone, Pietro; Dinelli, Giovanni; Hrelia, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Among health-promoting phytochemicals in whole grains, phenolic compounds have gained attention as they have strong antioxidant properties and can protect against many degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to profile grain phenolic extracts of one modern and five old common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and to evaluate their potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effect in different cell culture systems.Wheat extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity and phenolic composition (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS profile, polyphenol and flavonoid contents). Results showed that antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) is mostly influenced by flavonoid (both bound and free) content and by the ratio flavonoids/polyphenols. Using a leukemic cell line, HL60, and primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effects of different wheat genotypes were evaluated in terms of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cell viability. All tested wheat phenolic extracts exerted dose-dependent cytoprotective and antiproliferative effects on cardiomyocytes and HL60 cells, respectively. Due to the peculiar phenolic pattern of each wheat variety, a significant genotype effect was highlighted. On the whole, the most relevant scavenging effect was found for the old variety Verna. No significant differences in terms of anti-proliferative activities among wheat genotypes was observed.Results reported in this study evidenced a correspondence between the in vitro antioxidant activity and potential healthy properties of different extracts. This suggests that an increased intake of wheat grain derived products could represent an effective strategy to achieve both chemoprevention and protection against oxidative stress related diseases.

  14. Phytochemical Profile and Nutraceutical Value of Old and Modern Common Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Malaguti, Marco; Marotti, Ilaria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Catizone, Pietro; Dinelli, Giovanni; Hrelia, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Among health-promoting phytochemicals in whole grains, phenolic compounds have gained attention as they have strong antioxidant properties and can protect against many degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to profile grain phenolic extracts of one modern and five old common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and to evaluate their potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effect in different cell culture systems. Wheat extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity and phenolic composition (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS profile, polyphenol and flavonoid contents). Results showed that antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) is mostly influenced by flavonoid (both bound and free) content and by the ratio flavonoids/polyphenols. Using a leukemic cell line, HL60, and primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effects of different wheat genotypes were evaluated in terms of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cell viability. All tested wheat phenolic extracts exerted dose-dependent cytoprotective and antiproliferative effects on cardiomyocytes and HL60 cells, respectively. Due to the peculiar phenolic pattern of each wheat variety, a significant genotype effect was highlighted. On the whole, the most relevant scavenging effect was found for the old variety Verna. No significant differences in terms of anti-proliferative activities among wheat genotypes was observed. Results reported in this study evidenced a correspondence between the in vitro antioxidant activity and potential healthy properties of different extracts. This suggests that an increased intake of wheat grain derived products could represent an effective strategy to achieve both chemoprevention and protection against oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:23049918

  15. Comprehensive identification of LMW-GS genes and their protein products in a common wheat variety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although it is well known that low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) affect bread and noodle processing quality, the function of specific LMW-GS proteins remains unclear. It is important to find the genes that correspond to individual LMW-GS proteins in order to understand the functions o...

  16. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

  17. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties. PMID:26338450

  18. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties.

  19. A kinase-START gene confers temperature-dependent resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Fu, Daolin; Uauy, Cristobal; Distelfeld, Assaf; Blechl, Ann; Epstein, Lynn; Chen, Xianming; Sela, Hanan; Fahima, Tzion; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2009-03-06

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease that afflicts wheat in many regions of the world. New races of Puccinia striiformis, the pathogen responsible for this disease, have overcome most of the known race-specific resistance genes. We report the map-based cloning of the gene Yr36 (WKS1), which confers resistance to a broad spectrum of stripe rust races at relatively high temperatures (25 degrees to 35 degrees C). This gene includes a kinase and a putative START lipid-binding domain. Five independent mutations and transgenic complementation confirmed that both domains are necessary to confer resistance. Yr36 is present in wild wheat but is absent in modern pasta and bread wheat varieties, and therefore it can now be used to improve resistance to stripe rust in a broad set of varieties.

  20. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling.

  1. Effects of genotype and temperature on accumulation of plant secondary metabolites in Canadian and Australian wheat grown under controlled environments.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Maryam; Babawale, Elizabeth A; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Eck, Peter K; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-08-22

    Predictions of global increased temperature are for 1.8-4 °C by 2100. Increased temperature as an abiotic stress may exert a considerable influence on the levels of secondary metabolites in plants. These secondary metabolites may possibly exert biological activities beneficial in prevention or treatment of disorders linked to oxidative stress in human. Wheat secondary compounds in three Canadian and three Australian genotypes grown under controlled environments, in which the only changing parameter was temperature, were investigated. Kennedy and AC Navigator contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids among Australian and Canadian wheat genotypes, respectively. The total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents of wheat genotypes increased following the increase of the growing temperature. In all the wheat genotypes, regardless of their growing temperatures, linoleic acid (C18:2n6) was measured as the main fatty acid. Significant increases in palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) and significant decreases in linoleic acid (C18:2n6) and linolenic acid (C18:3n3) were observed at increased of growing temperature for all wheat genotypes. Growing temperature decreased campesterol content of wheat genotypes. Genotype and growing temperature significantly shifted the production of wheat secondary metabolites. This information might be used as a guide for breeding wheat varieties with higher antioxidant properties.

  2. Differential response of wild and cultivated wheats to water deficits during grain development: changes in soluble carbohydrates and invertases.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil K; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej S

    2015-04-01

    Wheat, staple food crop of the world, is sensitive to drought, especially during the grain-filling period. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs), stem reserve mobilization and higher invertase activity in the developing grains are important biochemical traits for breeding wheat to enhance tolerance to terminal drought. These traits were studied for three accessions of Triticum dicoccoides(a tetraploid wheat progenitor species) - acc 7054 (EC 171812), acc 7079 (EC 171837) and acc 14004 (G-194-3 M-6 M) selected previously on the basis of grain filling characteristics. Check wheat cultivars- PBW-343 (a popular bread wheat cultivar for irrigated environments) and C-306 (widely adapted variety for rain-fed agriculture) were also included in this set. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for the content of water soluble carbohydrates, activity of acid invertase and alkaline invertase. Acc 7079 was found to be a very efficient mobilizer of water soluble carbohydrates (236.43 mg g(-1) peduncle DW) when averaged over irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Acid invertase activity revealed marked genotypic differences between wild and cultivated wheats. Alkaline invertase activity was highest in Acc 7079 when pooled across both the environments. On the whole, acc 7079 qualifies as a suitable donor for enhancing tolerance of bread wheat to terminal drought. The association of physio-biochemical differences observed with grain filling attributes on one hand and molecular markers on the other could be of use in improving wheat for water stress conditions.

  3. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops.

    PubMed

    Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

    2014-01-01

    Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat.

  4. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    PubMed Central

    Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M.; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J.; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

    2014-01-01

    Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat. PMID:24600464

  5. Proteomic profiling analysis reveals that glutathione system plays important roles responding to osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Zhang, Daijing; Gao, Xiaolong; Shao, Yun; Tong, Doudou

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in the world, and osmotic stress has become one of the main factors affecting wheat production. Understanding the mechanism of the response of wheat to osmotic stress would be greatly significant. In the present study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was used to analyze the changes of protein expression in the wheat roots exposed to different osmotic stresses. A total of 2,228 expressed proteins, including 81 differentially expressed proteins, between osmotic stress and control, were found. The comprehensive analysis of these differentially expressed proteins revealed that osmotic stress increased the variety of expressed proteins and suppressed the quantity of expressed proteins in wheat roots. Furthermore, the proteins for detoxifying and reactive oxygen species scavenging, especially the glutathione system, played important roles in maintaining organism balance in response to osmotic stress in wheat roots. Thus, the present study comprehensively describes the protein expression changes in wheat roots in response to osmotic stress, providing firmer foundation to further study the mechanism of osmotic resistance in wheat. PMID:27602297

  6. Distribution of Wheat Germ Agglutinin in Young Wheat Plants 12

    PubMed Central

    Mishkind, Michael; Keegstra, Kenneth; Palevitz, Barry A.

    1980-01-01

    A liquid phase, competition-binding radioimmunoassay for wheat germ agglutinin, with a detection limit of 10 nanograms, was developed in order to determine the distribution of this lectin in young wheat plants. Affinity columns for wheat germ agglutinin removed all antigenically detectable activity from crude extracts of wheat tissue; thus, the antigenic cross-reactivity detected by the assay possesses sugar-binding specificity similar to the wheat germ-derived lectin. The amount of lectin per dry grain is approximately 1 microgram, all associated with the embryo. At 34 days of growth, the level of lectin per plant was reduced by about 50%, with approximately one-third in the roots and two-thirds in the shoot. The data also indicate that actively growing regions of the plant (the bases of the leaves and rapidly growing adventitious roots) contain the highest levels of lectin. Half of the lectin associated with the roots could be solubilized by washing intact roots in buffer containing oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, whereas the remainder is liberated only upon homogenization of the tissue. Images PMID:16661559

  7. An analysis of P seudomonas genomic diversity in take‐all infected wheat fields reveals the lasting impact of wheat cultivars on the soil microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Chedom‐Fotso, D.; Chandra, G.; Samuels, T.; Greenaway, N.; Backhaus, A.; McMillan, V.; Canning, G.; Powers, S. J.; Hammond‐Kosack, K. E.; Hirsch, P. R.; Clark, I. M.; Mehrabi, Z.; Roworth, J.; Burnell, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Manipulation of the soil microbiota associated with crop plants has huge promise for the control of crop pathogens. However, to fully realize this potential we need a better understanding of the relationship between the soil environment and the genes and phenotypes that enable microbes to colonize plants and contribute to biocontrol. A recent 2 years of investigation into the effect of wheat variety on second year crop yield in the context of take‐all fungal infection presented the opportunity to examine soil microbiomes under closely defined field conditions. Amplicon sequencing of second year soil samples showed that P seudomonas spp. were particularly affected by the wheat cultivar grown in year one. Consequently, 318 rhizosphere‐associated P seudomonas fluorescens strains were isolated and characterized across a variety of genetic and phenotypic traits. Again, the wheat variety grown in the first year of the study was shown to exert considerable selective pressure on both the extent and nature of P seudomonas genomic diversity. Furthermore, multiple significant correlations were identified within the phenotypic/genetic structure of the Pseudomonas population, and between individual genotypes and the external wheat field environment. The approach outlined here has considerable future potential for our understanding of plant–microbe interactions, and for the broader analysis of complex microbial communities. PMID:26337499

  8. The cell-free protein synthesis system from wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Takai, Kazuyuki; Endo, Yaeta

    2010-01-01

    The wheat-germ cell-free protein synthesis system had been one of the most efficient eukaryotic cell-free systems since it was first developed in 1964. However, radio-labeled amino acids had long been essential for detection of the products. Since the discovery of a method for prevention of the contamination by a protein synthesis inhibitor originated from endosperm, the wheat cell-free system has found a wide variety of applications in postgenomic high-throughput screening, structural biology, medicine, and so on. In this chapter, we describe a method for preparation of the cell-free extract and a standard protein synthesis method, as the methods for the applications are found in later chapters.

  9. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.348 One variety. One variety within the...

  10. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.348 One variety. One variety within the...

  11. Measurement of trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat using a biolayer interferometry-based biosensor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The fungi can infest a variety of important agricultural commodities including wheat, barley, maize, peanuts, and tree nuts. Certain of the mycotoxins are potential threats to animal and human health and, for this reason, extensive monitoring i...

  12. Molecular characterization of a new powdery mildew resistance gene Pm54 in soft red winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Powdery mildew has caused increasing damage to wheat production in the southeastern USA. To combat the disease, there is a continuing need to discover new genes or quantitative trait loci for mildew resistance and promptly adopt those loci in breeding programs. Pioneer® variety 26R61 (shortened as 2...

  13. Gene discovery and molecular pre-breeding for insect resistance in wheat and barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-breeding research has a significant role in linking between genetic resources and breeding as it shortens the time frame between genetic enhancement and the development of new, improved crop varieties. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of w...

  14. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases. Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of these diseases that can limit yields in the area. Thus developing and cultivating genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the only sustaina...

  15. Glutamine synthetase in durum wheat: Genotypic variation and relationship with grain protein content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), one of the most valuable indicators for nitrogen use in crops, both in terms of yield and final grain protein content (GPC), is a very complex trait. The identification of wheat varieties with high NUE, as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in th...

  16. Measurement of blend concentrations of conventional and waxy hard wheats using NIR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding development of waxy hard wheat lines adapted to the North American climate has been underway for more than a decade, with releases of viable varieties imminent. Because of an anticipated premium value placed on waxy lots, a rapid and accurate method is desired to identify and quantify the m...

  17. Race-nonspecific resistance to rust diseases in CIMMYT spring wheats (2010)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rust diseases continue to cause significant losses to wheat production worldwide. Although the life of effective race-specific resistance genes can be prolonged by using gene combinations, an alternative approach is to deploy varieties that posses adult plant resistance (APR) based on combinations o...

  18. Fine mapping of the Lr46/Yr29 locus in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rust diseases, including leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), stripe rust (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici), and stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) are globally the most important diseases of wheat. Genetic resistance is the best form of control but frequent race changes typically render new varieties ...

  19. Changes in the Properties of Wheat Leaf Cuticle During Interactions with Hessian Fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infestation of wheat by Hessian fly larvae causes a variety of physiological and biochemical changes in the host plant. We report here that these include changes in cuticle permeability, lipid composition and gene transcript abundance and that these responses differ substantially between resistant a...

  20. Isolation and characterization of wheat bran starch and endosperm starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan and comparison of their physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2015-06-01

    Three soft wheat varieties with relatively high crop yields and different levels of milling softness equivalence were studied to characterize bran starch properties compared with those of endosperm starch from the same wheat sample. Bran starch had more short chains than had endosperm starch, and was found to have a higher percentage of B-type granules, higher amylose content, higher crystallinity, broader gelatinization temperature range, higher enthalpy of gelatinization, lower retrogradation degree, and lower pasting peak and setback viscosities than had the counterpart endosperm starch. Bran starch of variety Aubrey had the highest crystallinity (21.75%) and gelatinization temperature (62.9°C), while bran starch of variety D8006 had the highest percentage of B-type granules and lowest retrogradation degree (21.7%). Results of this study provide a foundation for better utilization of bran starch during whole grain food processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Registration of 'UI Stone' spring wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) is an important wheat class being used in domestic and international markets, especially in Idaho and Pacific Northwest (PNW). The objective of this study was to develop a SWS wheat cultivar with high grain yield, desirable end-use quality, and resistanc...

  2. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  3. Wheat pests: Rodents, nematodes, insects and mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and its production is constantly under threat from various pests and diseases. While wheat diseases were overviewed in other chapter of this book, the major wheat pests, which differ from diseases and weeds in being animals, were reviewed ...

  4. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  5. Sequence diversity of wheat mosaic virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High Plains disease of wheat and maize emerged in the United States in 1993 and its distribution has expanded in subsequent years. Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), transmitted by eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) is the causal agent of disease. WMoV and other members of the genus Emaravirus...

  6. Avoiding Low Falling Numbers Problems in Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hagberg-Perten Falling Number (FN) method is used to detect starch degradation due to ''-amylase enzyme activity in wheat meal. Wheat can be severely discounted when the FN is below 300 seconds. Farmers in the northwest wheat-growing states suffered serious economic losses due to widespread pro...

  7. The value of wheat landraces (Editorial)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whether man was domesticated by wheat, or wheat was domesticated by man is but two faces of the same coin; both incidents marked a turning point in human history and led to the emergence of human civilization in the Fertile Crescent of the Old World. The complex history of wheat domestication from i...

  8. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

  9. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

  10. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

  11. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting...

  12. [Differentiation, identification and development of database of T. aestivum L. varieties of Ukrainian selection on the basis of sequence-tagged analysis of microsatellite repeats].

    PubMed

    Chebotar', S V; Sivolap, Iu M

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the variety genotype is very important for the development of theory and practice of plant breeding and for right protection of a variety originator. In this reason attention is focused on the molecular markers generated by polymerase chain reaction. On the basis of STMS-analysis principles of identification and development of database, which reflect molecular-genetics peculiarities of some varieties of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute and other Ukrainian breeding organizations, are formulated. Allelic state at microsatellite loci and their distribution were investigated. Wheat varieties were ranged according to genetic distances, data on pedigree and cluster distribution of varieties obtained using computer programs were compared.

  13. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  14. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  15. 7 CFR 947.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 947.11 Section 947.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.11 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of...

  16. 7 CFR 946.11 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 946.11 Section 946.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.11 Varieties. Varieties means and includes...

  17. Maize variety and method of production

    DOEpatents

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  18. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann.

  19. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  20. GmDREB1 overexpression affects the expression of microRNAs in GM wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiyan; Sun, Xianjun; Niu, Fengjuan; Hu, Zheng; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulators of gene expression that act on many different molecular and biochemical processes in eukaryotes. To date, miRNAs have not been considered in the current evaluation system for GM crops. In this study, small RNAs from the dry seeds of a GM wheat line overexpressing GmDREB1 and non-GM wheat cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, 23 differentially expressed miRNAs in dry seeds were identified and confirmed between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor. Notably, more differentially expressed tae-miRNAs between non-GM wheat varieties were found, indicating that the degree of variance between non-GM cultivars was considerably higher than that induced by the transgenic event. Most of the target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor were associated with abiotic stress, in accordance with the product concept of GM wheat in improving drought and salt tolerance. Our data provided useful information and insights into the evaluation of miRNA expression in edible GM crops.

  1. High-density SNP genotyping array for hexaploid wheat and its secondary and tertiary gene pool.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Mark O; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda J; Barker, Gary L A; Benbow, Harriet R; Wilkinson, Paul A; Coghill, Jane; Waterfall, Christy; Davassi, Alessandro; Scopes, Geoff; Pirani, Ali; Webster, Teresa; Brew, Fiona; Bloor, Claire; King, Julie; West, Claire; Griffiths, Simon; King, Ian; Bentley, Alison R; Edwards, Keith J

    2016-05-01

    In wheat, a lack of genetic diversity between breeding lines has been recognized as a significant block to future yield increases. Species belonging to bread wheat's secondary and tertiary gene pools harbour a much greater level of genetic variability, and are an important source of genes to broaden its genetic base. Introgression of novel genes from progenitors and related species has been widely employed to improve the agronomic characteristics of hexaploid wheat, but this approach has been hampered by a lack of markers that can be used to track introduced chromosome segments. Here, we describe the identification of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used to genotype hexaploid wheat and to identify and track introgressions from a variety of sources. We have validated these markers using an ultra-high-density Axiom(®) genotyping array to characterize a range of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat accessions and wheat relatives. To facilitate the use of these, both the markers and the associated sequence and genotype information have been made available through an interactive web site.

  2. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  3. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  4. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. PMID:27822105

  5. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II), and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV). Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. PMID:27822109

  6. Genetic Contribution of Ningmai 9 Wheat to Its Derivatives Evaluated by Using SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Ping-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Founder parent usually plays an important role in wheat breeding. Ningmai 9 is a soft wheat variety with good performance in yield, quality, and resistance to wheat disease. Therefore it serves as an important commercial variety and founder parent in middle and lower Yangtze River of China. To date, 20 new cultivars have been developed from Ningmai 9 and released to wheat production in the last 10 years. In this study, the 90K iSELECT ILLUMINA chip was used to analyze the genotype of Ningmai 9 and its 17 derivatives. The genetic similarity coefficients between Ningmai 9 and its derivatives were more than 0.7 except for Yangfumai 4. Neighbor-Joining analysis showed that Yangfumai 4 had the largest genetic distance from Ningmai 9 in all derivatives. There was a great difference for the same allele ratio in either derivatives or chromosomes, though the average values of the same allele ratio in genomes A, B, and D were close to each other. The phenotypic difference in Ningmai 9, Ningmai 13, and Yangfumai 4 was consistent with their difference in genetic background by comparing previous reported QTLs. Some hot chromosome regions were found and might be used for marker assisted selection in wheat breeding. PMID:27652255

  7. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  8. Puroindoline allelic diversity in Indian wheat germplasm and identification of new allelic variants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Arora, Shaweta; Singh, Kashmir; Garg, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Grain hardness is an important quality trait that influences product development in wheat. This trait is governed by variation in puroindoline proteins (PINA and PINB). Our study evaluated 551 Indian wheat germplasm lines for diversity in Pina and Pinb genes. Eighty-two lines were shortlisted for full length sequencing and grain hardness studies. Sequencing studies identified six unknown alleles: two for the Pina gene and four for the Pinb gene. Five of them were novel with non-synonymous changes in the corresponding amino acid sequences. Identified mutations in the deduced mature proteins and their pre- and pro-peptides influenced the hardness characteristics of the grain. We classified these 82 varieties into different hardness categories with reference to international and Indian systems of classification. The majority of Indian wheat varieties were categorized as hard. This study revealed that unexplored Indian wheat germplasm can be a good source of genetic variability for both Pina and Pinb genes, helping in marker-assisted breeding and in obtaining wheat with different textural properties.

  9. Study on growth monitoring of winter wheat based on change vector analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Pan, Yaozhong; Han, Lijian; Xu, Chao

    2007-06-01

    The basic idea of current study of crop growth monitoring is to analyze the relation between the shape variety of NDVI curve and the condition variety of crop, calculate the feature factors, and speculate the growing condition of crop. This investigation takes five high-yield provinces as study area, including Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu, and takes winter wheat as study object. The ten days maximum value composite (MVC) SPOT-VEGETATION dataset, from 1999 to 2005, is used as the main remotely sensed data. Savizky-Golay filter method, which made the NDVI time-series curve disclose the change rule of winter wheat growth better, is use to eliminate the noise. And then the method of Change Vector Analysis (CVA) is applied to detect the change dynamics of winter wheat. According to the each average value of Change Vector in six years, changes, intra-annual, inter-annual and interlocal, of winter wheat have been quantified. The result shows that the method of Change Vector Analysis is effective for monitoring the winter wheat growth as a new idea, which can integrate most of the feature factors of NDVI curve.

  10. Seedling Resistance to Stem Rust and Molecular Marker Analysis of Resistance Genes in Wheat Cultivars of Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tian Ya; Cao, Yuan Yin; Wu, Xian Xin; Xu, Xiao Feng; Wang, Wan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK) virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China. This study investigated the levels of resistance in key wheat cultivars (lines) of Yunnan Province. In addition, the existence of Sr25, Sr26, Sr28, Sr31, Sr32, and Sr38 genes in 119 wheat cultivars was assessed using specific DNA markers. The results indicated that 77 (64.7%) tested wheat varieties showed different levels of resistance to all the tested races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Using molecular markers, we identified the resistance gene Sr31 in 43 samples; Sr38 in 10 samples; Sr28 in 12 samples, and one sample which was resistant against Ug99 (avirulent to Sr32). No Sr25 or Sr26 (effective against Ug99) was identified in any cultivars tested. Furthermore, 5 out of 119 cultivars tested carried both Sr31 and Sr38 and eight contained both Sr31 and Sr28. The results enable the development of appropriate strategies to breed varieties resistant to stem rust. PMID:27792757

  11. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet.

  12. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification.

    PubMed

    Vrešak, Martina; Olesen, Merete Halkjaer; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405-970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties.

  13. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification

    PubMed Central

    Vrešak, Martina; Halkjaer Olesen, Merete; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405–970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties. PMID:27010656

  14. Effects of Fungicide Treatment on Free Amino Acid Concentration and Acrylamide-Forming Potential in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2016-12-28

    Acrylamide forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during frying, baking, roasting, or high-temperature processing, and cereal products are major contributors to dietary acrylamide intake. Free asparagine concentration is the determining factor for acrylamide-forming potential in cereals, and this study investigated the effect of fungicide application on free asparagine accumulation in wheat grain. Free amino acid concentrations were measured in flour from 47 varieties of wheat grown in a field trial in 2011-2012. The wheat had been supplied with nitrogen and sulfur and treated with growth regulators and fungicides. Acrylamide formation was measured after the flour had been heated at 180 °C for 20 min. Flour was also analyzed from 24 (of the 47) varieties grown in adjacent plots that were treated in identical fashion except that no fungicide was applied, resulting in visible infection by Septoria tritici, yellow rust, and brown rust. Free asparagine concentration in the fungicide-treated wheat ranged from 1.596 to 3.987 mmol kg(-1), with a significant (p < 0.001 to p = 0.006, F test) effect of variety for not only free asparagine but all of the free amino acids apart from cysteine and ornithine. There was also a significant (p < 0.001, F test) effect of variety on acrylamide formation, which ranged from 134 to 992 μg kg(-1). There was a significant (p < 0.001, F test) correlation between free asparagine concentration and acrylamide formation. Both free asparagine concentration and acrylamide formation increased in response to a lack of fungicide treatment, the increases in acrylamide ranging from 2.7 to 370%. Free aspartic acid concentration also increased, whereas free glutamic acid concentration increased in some varieties but decreased in others, and free proline concentration decreased. The study showed disease control by fungicide application to be an important crop management measure for mitigating the problem of acrylamide formation in wheat

  15. Distinct expression and function of carotenoid metabolic genes and homoeologs in developing wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Fischer, Kathryn; Yu, Shu; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2016-07-12

    β-carotene, the most active provitamin A molecule produced by plants, plays important roles in human nutrition and health. β-carotene does not usually accumulate in the endosperm (i.e. flour) of mature wheat grains, which is a major food source of calories for humans. Therefore, enriching β-carotene accumulation in wheat grain endosperm will enable a sustainable dietary supplementation of provitamin A. Several metabolic genes affecting β-carotene accumulation have already been isolated from wheat, including phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYe) and carotenoid β-ring hydroxylase1/2 (HYD1/2). In this work, we cloned and biochemically characterized two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), CCD1 and CCD4, from wheat. While CCD1 homoeologs cleaved β-apo-8'-carotenal, β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin into apocarotenoid products, CCD4 homoeologs were inactive towards these substrates in in vitro assays. When analyzed by real-time qPCR, PSY1, LCYe, HYD1/2 and CCD1/4 homoeologs showed distinct expression patterns in vegetative tissues and sections of developing tetraploid and hexaploid wheat grains, suggesting that carotenoid metabolic genes and homoeologs are differentially regulated at the transcriptional level in wheat. The CCD1/4 enzyme activity and the spatial-temporal gene expression data provide critical insights into the specific carotenoid metabolic gene homoeologs that control β-carotene accumulation in wheat grain endosperm, thus establishing the knowledge base for generation of wheat varieties with enhanced β-carotene in the endosperm through breeding and genome editing approaches.

  16. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes.

    PubMed

    van den Broeck, Hetty; Hongbing, Chen; Lacaze, Xavier; Dusautoir, Jean-Claude; Gilissen, Ludovicus; Smulders, Marinus; van der Meer, Ingrid

    2010-11-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a T-cell mediated auto-immune disorder, in genetically predisposed individuals after ingestion. Compared to hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat might be reduced in T-cell stimulatory epitopes that cause celiac disease because of the absence of the D-genome. We tested gluten protein extracts from 103 tetraploid wheat accessions (obtained from the Dutch CGN genebank and from the French INRA collection) including landraces, old, modern, and domesticated accessions of various tetraploid species and subspecies from many geographic origins. Those accessions were typed for their level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies against the α-gliadin epitopes Glia-α9 and Glia-α20. In the first selection, we found 8 CGN and 6 INRA accessions with reduced epitope staining. Fourteen of the 57 CGN accessions turned out to be mixed with hexaploid wheat, and 5 out of the 8 selected CGN accessions were mixtures of two or more different gluten protein chemotypes. Based on single seed analysis, lines from two CGN accessions and one INRA accession were obtained with significantly reduced levels of Glia-α9 and Glia-α20 epitopes. These lines will be further tested for industrial quality and may contribute to the development of safer foods for celiac patients.

  17. [Genetics and Genomics of Wheat: Storage Proteins, Ecological Plasticity, and Immunity].

    PubMed

    Novoselskaya-Dragovich, A Yu

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in genetics and genetic research methods made it possible to explain the large polymorphism observed among storage proteins of wheat weevil (gliadins and glutenins), to determine their genetic control mechanism, and to develop a system for the identification of wheat genotypes on the basis of multiple allelism. This system has extremely high sensitivity and efficiency, which makes it possible to conduct studies to determine the purity and authenticity of wheat varieties, the dynamics of alleles diversity in time and space, the phylogenetics, etc., through the use of an extensive database on the allelic composition of gliadin loci. An investigation of the molecular structure of genes controlling the synthesis of storage proteins and their organization on chromosomes, as well as an analysis of wheat genome structure, revealed the molecular mechanisms of variability in the wheat genome and its reorganization in response to changes in environmental conditions and cultivation technologies. The multilevel genetic system of protection against pathogens and adverse environmental factors that developed in the course of wheat evolution continues to astound researchers' imagination with new resistance genes and novel types of antimicrobial peptides having been discovered and sequenced in recent years and the diversity of their structures and mechanisms of action in response to pathogens. An analysis of gene sequences involved in wheat domestication, namely, those that define ecological plasticity, i. e. the type of plant development (Vrn genes), and those responsible for spikelet traits (Q genes), which ensured the successful cultivation of wheat by humans, revealed that the basis for these features are specific mutations.

  18. Revised recommendations for iron fortification of wheat flour and an evaluation of the expected impact of current national wheat flour fortification programs.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Richard; Ranum, Peter; de Pee, Saskia; Biebinger, Ralf; Hulthen, Lena; Johnson, Quentin; Lynch, Sean

    2010-03-01

    Iron fortification of wheat flour is widely used as a strategy to combat iron deficiency. To review recent efficacy studies and update the guidelines for the iron fortification of wheat flour. Efficacy studies with a variety of iron-fortified foods were reviewed to determine the minimum daily amounts of additional iron that have been shown to meaningfully improve iron status in children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age. Recommendations were computed by determining the fortification levels needed to provide these additional quantities of iron each day in three different wheat flour consumption patterns. Current wheat flour iron fortification programs in 78 countries were evaluated. When average daily consumption of low-extraction (< or = 0.8% ash) wheat flour is 150 to 300 g, it is recommended to add 20 ppm iron as NaFeEDTA, or 30 ppm as dried ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. If sensory changes or cost limits the use of these compounds, electrolytic iron at 60 ppm is the second choice. Corresponding fortification levels were calculated for wheat flour intakes of < 150 g/day and > 300 g/day. Electrolytic iron is not recommended for flour intakes of < 150 g/day. Encapsulated ferrous sulfate or fumarate can be added at the same concentrations as the non-encapsulated compounds. For high-extraction wheat flour (> 0.8% ash), NaFeEDTA is the only iron compound recommended. Only nine national programs (Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkmenistan, and Uruguay) were judged likely to have a significant positive impact on iron status if coverage is optimized. Most countries use non-recommended, low-bioavailability, atomized, reduced or hydrogen-reduced iron powders. Most current iron fortification programs are likely to be ineffective. Legislation needs updating in many countries so that flour is fortified with adequate levels of the recommended iron compounds.

  19. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel wheat-Agropyron elongatum chromosome translocation line with powdery mildew resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Xiangdong; Song, Jie; Ren, Cuicui; Xiao, Yajuan; Gao, Xiaohui; Ru, Zhengang

    2017-01-01

    Agropyron elongatum (Host.) Neviski (synonym, Thinopyrum ponticum Podp., 2n = 70) has been used extensively as a valuable source for wheat breeding. Numerous chromosome fragments containing valuable genes have been successfully translocated into wheat from A. elongatum. However, reports on the transfer of powdery mildew resistance from A. elongatum to wheat are rare. In this study, a novel wheat-A. elongatum translocation line, 11-20-1, developed and selected from the progenies of a sequential cross between wheat varieties (Lankaoaizaoba, Keyu 818 and BainongAK 58) and A. elongatum, was evaluated for disease resistance and characterized using molecular cytogenetic methods. Cytological observations indicated that 11-20-1 had 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis using whole genomic DNA from A. elongatum as a probe showed that the short arms of a pair of wheat chromosomes were replaced by a pair of A. elongatum chromosome arms. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using wheat D chromosome specific sequence pAs1 as a probe, suggested that the replaced chromosome arms of 11-20-1 were 5DS. This was further confirmed by wheat SSR markers specific for 5DS. EST-SSR and EST-STS multiple loci markers confirmed that the introduced A. elongatum chromosome arms belonged to homoeologous group 5. Therefore, it was deduced that 11-20-1 was a wheat-A. elongatum T5DL∙5AgS translocation line. Both resistance observation and molecular marker analyses using two specific markers (BE443538 and CD452608) of A. elongatum in a F2 population from a cross between line 11-20-1 and a susceptible cultivar Yannong 19 verified that the A. elongatum chromosomes were responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. This work suggests that 11-20-1 likely contains a novel resistance gene against powdery mildew. We expect this line to be useful for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:28886152

  20. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel wheat-Agropyron elongatum chromosome translocation line with powdery mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Xiangdong; Song, Jie; Ren, Cuicui; Xiao, Yajuan; Gao, Xiaohui; Ru, Zhengang

    2017-01-01

    Agropyron elongatum (Host.) Neviski (synonym, Thinopyrum ponticum Podp., 2n = 70) has been used extensively as a valuable source for wheat breeding. Numerous chromosome fragments containing valuable genes have been successfully translocated into wheat from A. elongatum. However, reports on the transfer of powdery mildew resistance from A. elongatum to wheat are rare. In this study, a novel wheat-A. elongatum translocation line, 11-20-1, developed and selected from the progenies of a sequential cross between wheat varieties (Lankaoaizaoba, Keyu 818 and BainongAK 58) and A. elongatum, was evaluated for disease resistance and characterized using molecular cytogenetic methods. Cytological observations indicated that 11-20-1 had 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis using whole genomic DNA from A. elongatum as a probe showed that the short arms of a pair of wheat chromosomes were replaced by a pair of A. elongatum chromosome arms. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using wheat D chromosome specific sequence pAs1 as a probe, suggested that the replaced chromosome arms of 11-20-1 were 5DS. This was further confirmed by wheat SSR markers specific for 5DS. EST-SSR and EST-STS multiple loci markers confirmed that the introduced A. elongatum chromosome arms belonged to homoeologous group 5. Therefore, it was deduced that 11-20-1 was a wheat-A. elongatum T5DL∙5AgS translocation line. Both resistance observation and molecular marker analyses using two specific markers (BE443538 and CD452608) of A. elongatum in a F2 population from a cross between line 11-20-1 and a susceptible cultivar Yannong 19 verified that the A. elongatum chromosomes were responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. This work suggests that 11-20-1 likely contains a novel resistance gene against powdery mildew. We expect this line to be useful for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  1. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    PubMed Central

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Kristensen, Mette; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Raben, Anne; Kehlet, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking. PMID:25473511

  2. Wheat Rusts in the United States in 2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2007 90% of wheat stem rust races were QFC and 10% were RCRS Both races are relatively avirulent to wheat cultiars grown in the U.S. Wheat stem rust occurred in scattered locations on research plots of susceptible wheat cultivars in 2007, and did not cause yield loss. Wheat leaf rust was widespr...

  3. Diseases Which Challenge Global Wheat Production - The Cereal Rusts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rusts of wheat are common and widespread diseases in the US and throughout the world. Wheat rusts have been important throughout the history of wheat cultivation and are currently important diseases that are responsible for regularly occurring yield losses in wheat. The wheat rust fungi are obli...

  4. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  5. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  6. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as the...

  7. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as the...

  8. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as the...

  9. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as the...

  10. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  11. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  12. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  13. [Recombination frequency in the locus Gli-D1 of common wheat T. aestivum L].

    PubMed

    Kozub, N A; Sozinov, I A; Sozinov, A A

    2003-01-01

    The recombination frequency at the gliadin locus Gli-D1 of common wheat was determined by the maximum likelihood method. Recombination was observed between the gene encoding the fastest omega-component of the allele Gli-D1j, and the genes encoding the other omega-gliadins of this allele. The frequency of recombination was 0.65 +/- 0.18% for the cross between the near-isogenic lines of winter common wheat with respect to gliadin loci Gli-D1-4 and Gli-B1-3 and 0.78 +/- 0.45% for the cross between the varieties Yunnat and B-16.

  14. [Transformation of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with herbicide-resistant EPSPs gene].

    PubMed

    Chen, L H; Wang, X W; Zhang, W J; Zhang, X D; Hu, D F; Liu, G T

    1999-01-01

    The herbicide-resistant EPSPs (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene was transformed into about 1,000 young spikes and 800 young embryos of wheat variety, Jinghua 1, with gene gun. Thirty-eight and four regenerated plants were obtained respectively screened with glyphosate. All regenerated plants were analysed by PCR and/or Southern blotting. The results indicated that EPSPs gene was integrated stably into the genome of Jinghua 1, and some of the transformants showed fertile. So herbicide-resistant EPSPs gene could be used as selective marker in the transformation of monocotyledon cereal crops, such as wheat.

  15. Dietary Variety Impairs Habituation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Giacomelli, April M.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that dietary variety decreases the rate of habituation and increases energy intake in children. Design In Experiment 1, salivation in response to the same or a variety of food cues was measured followed by consumption of the study food(s). In Experiment 2, children responded in a computer task to earn points for the same or a variety of low or high energy density foods, which were then consumed. Main Outcome Measures Salivation, number of responses, and energy intake were measured. Results Participants in the same groups habituated faster than those in the variety groups (p < .05), and in Experiment 2, the effect of variety was independent of energy density. Participants in the variety groups also consumed more energy than those in the same groups in both experiments (p < .05). Conclusions Dietary variety disrupted habituation and increased energy intake in children. In addition, the response to dietary variety was independent of energy density, suggesting that increasing variety of low energy density foods may increase consumption. PMID:18248101

  16. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to those...

  17. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  18. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  19. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  20. Registration of Vision 45 Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Vision 45’ (Reg. No. CV-1110, PI 667642), is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar that was developed and tested as VA07HRW-45 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012. Vision 45 was derived from the cross ‘Provinciale’/‘Vision 10’ using a modifie...