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Sample records for danish worksite canteens

  1. Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen.

    PubMed

    Lassen, A D; Beck, A; Leedo, E; Andersen, E W; Christensen, T; Mejborn, H; Thorsen, A V; Tetens, I

    2014-04-01

    Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design. Employees from an intervention worksite canteen and a matched control canteen were included in the study at baseline (February 2012), after completing the certification process (end-point) and six month from end-point (follow-up) (total n=270). In order to estimate nutrient composition of the consumed lunch meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (P<0.001). No significant changes were seen with regard to food satisfaction and plate waste. In the control canteen no positive nutritional effects were observed. The results of the study highlight the potential of using healthy labelling certification programs as a possible driver for increasing both the availability and awareness of healthy meal choices, thereby improving dietary intake when eating out.

  2. Worksite Wellness Media Report Research Update 1988. Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Ruth; Weiss, Joanne

    This report is the 15th in a series of updates on worksite health promotion activities in the United States. The first section summarizes the results of three recent surveys: a study of the extent of worksite wellness activities in the United States (funded by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion); a 1986 Harris poll of Americans…

  3. 20 CFR 632.260 - Worksite standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Worksite standards. 632.260 Section 632.260 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.260 Worksite standards. (a)(1) Each Native American...

  4. First law regulating school canteens in Brazil: evaluation after seven years of implementation.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de; Schmitz, Bethsái de Abreu Soares

    2009-06-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren in Brazil and worldwide has shown that strategies to promote healthy eating habits are needed. Santa Catarina was the first Brazilian State to promulgate specific legislation to regulate the food commercialized in schools (Law n 12.061/2001). The objective was to assess the functioning of school canteens in eight key municipalities of Santa Catarina, investigating whether the foods sold were in accordance with the Law. A questionnaire was completed by the principals and those responsible for the canteens. Item Response Theory was used to examine the levels of compliance with the Law. In all 345 schools took part. Of these, 156 (45%) had a canteen. The presence of a canteen was significantly higher in the private sector (p < 0.001). The majority of the canteens (n=105; 68.2%) did not sell fried snacks, soft drinks, industrialised popcorn, hard candies, lollipops and chewing gum and industrialised packaged snacks. The items which were least likely to comply with the Law were juices and the daily availability of fruits. The notice board on diet was present in only 7.1% of the establishments. Many canteens offered items of low nutritional value. The inspection of these establishments is necessary, together with educational actions targeting the proprietors of the canteens as well as the schools themselves. Training for the canteen's proprietors may constitute a strategy that will guarantee the economic viability of these establishments and the possibility of them being transforming into places of health promotion.

  5. Electronics Worksite Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, David M.; Morris, Richard D.

    The Oregon Electronics Worksite Training Program created a system for delivering vocational education and training to individuals employed within the electronics and manufacturing industry in the Portland metropolitan area. The approach selected by Portland Community College was to use interactive video instructional materials in a self-study,…

  6. Designing for Functional Limitations. The Worksite. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, James

    This resource presents the functional effects of chronic disabilities in order to aid those persons who must plan environments usable by persons with disabilities. The guide does not concern architectural accessibility per se, but rather discusses designing the worksite to be usable by a disabled person. In the guide, drawings are provided for…

  7. Nutrition Programs in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Karen

    As is the case with other worksite wellness programs, company-sponsored nutrition programs have been expanding both in numbers and in depth. Besides offering a convenient health-enhancing benefit to employees, worksite nutrition programs benefit business by preventing several costly nutrition-related health problems, enhancing employees' overall…

  8. Worksite Health Promotion, Labor Unions and Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1989-01-01

    By working with labor unions, health educators have the opportunity to reach worker groups that have been ignored by many worksite health promotion programs. A union-based smoking cessation program is described, and general guidelines for worksite health promotion are given. (IAH)

  9. Worksite Health Promotion Activities. 1992 National Survey. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

    The survey reported in this document examined worksite health promotion and disease prevention activities in 1,507 private worksites in the United States. Specificlly, the survey assessed policies, practices, services, facilities, information, and activities sponsored by employers to improve the health of their employees, and assessed health…

  10. Working together to create supportive environments in worksite health promotion.

    PubMed

    Golaszewski, Thomas; Allen, Judd; Edington, Dee

    2008-01-01

    A conccptual model for addressing the creation of supportive environments for worksite health promotion settings is presented. The authors also discuss the variety of organizational and cultural interventions that are necessary in creating a supportive environment for healthy behavior using a social ecology perspective. The connection to next generation strategies in worksite health promotion is proposed and summaries of the relevant literatures are cited.

  11. 5 CFR 531.605 - Determining an employee's official worksite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required to report for duty at the new location, the official worksite in effect immediately before the... paragraph (d) of this section for the purpose of other location-based pay entitlements under other... worksite. 531.605 Section 531.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  12. Employees as Leaders/Decision-Makers in Worksite Wellness Programs. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    Companies are promoting employee leadership and decision making in their worksite wellness programs for the following reasons: to make the best use of limited resources, to increase programs' chances for success by fostering employee ownership of program plans, to help integrate positive health and safety features into workplace policies and…

  13. Choice of commuting mode among employees: Do home neighborhood environment, worksite neighborhood environment, and worksite policy and supports matter?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Hipp, J. Aaron; Adlakha, Deepti; Marx, Christine M.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting the use of public transit and active transport (walking and cycling) instead of car driving is an appealing strategy to increase overall physical activity. Purpose To quantify the combined associations between self-reported home and worksite neighborhood environments, worksite support and policies, and employees’ commuting modes. Method Between 2012 and 2013, participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas were interviewed via telephone (n = 1,338) and provided information on socio-demographic characteristics, home and worksite neighborhoods, and worksite support and policies. Commuting mode was self-reported and categorized into car driving, public transit, and active commuting. Commuting distance was calculated using geographic information systems. Commuters providing completed data were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the correlates of using public transit and active commuting. Result The majority of participants reported commuting by driving (88.9%); only 4.9% used public transit and 6.2% used active modes. After multivariate adjustment, having transit stops within 10-15 minutes walking distance from home (p=0.05) and using worksite incentive for public transit (p<0.001) were associated with commuting by public transit. Commuting distance (p<0.001) was negatively associated with active commuting. Having free or low cost recreation facilities around the worksite (p=0.04) and using bike facilities to lock bikes at the worksite (p<0.001) were associated with active commuting. Conclusion Both environment features and worksite supports and policies are associated with the choice of commuting mode. Future studies should use longitudinal designs to investigate the potential of promoting alternative commuting modes through worksite efforts that support sustainable commuting behaviors as well as the potential of built environment improvements. PMID:26085979

  14. Effectiveness of a Worksite-based Weight Loss Randomized Controlled Trial: The WORKSITE Study

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M.; Blackman, Kacie C. A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wall, Sarah S.; Yenerall, Jackie; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of an individually-targeted Internet-based intervention with monetary incentives (INCENT) at reducing weight of overweight and obese employees when compared to a less-intensive intervention (Livin’ My Weigh [LMW]) 6-months after program initiation. Design and Methods Twenty-eight worksites were randomly assigned to either INCENT or LMW conditions. Both programs used evidence-based strategies to support weight loss. INCENT was delivered via daily e-mails over 12 months while LMW was delivered quarterly via both newsletters and onsite educational sessions. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted for weight change from baseline to 6-month post program and using an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis to include all participants with baseline weight measurements. Results Across 28 worksites, 1,790 employees (M=47 years of age; 79% Caucasian; 74% women) participated. Participants lost an average of 2.27 lbs (p<0.001) with a BMI decrease of 0.36 kg/m2 (p<0.001) and 1.30 lbs (p<0.01) and a BMI decrease of 0.20 kg/m2 (p<0.01) in INCENT and LMW, respectively. The difference between INCENT and LMW group in weight loss and BMI reduction were not statistically significant. Conclusion The current study suggests that INCENT and a minimal intervention alternative may be effective approaches to help decrease the overall obesity burden within worksites. PMID:25678325

  15. Predictors of Employee Involvement in a Worksite Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Kathryn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A recruitment effort aimed at utility company employees enrolled 64 percent (679) in a health promotion program. Results demonstrate that sociodemographic predictors of recruitment are almost a mirror image of employee participation in worksite health promotion programs. (JOW)

  16. Worksite health promotion programs in college settings

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657

  17. Worksite wellness: increasing adoption of workplace health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Carol Noel; Greene, Amanda Marie

    2013-07-01

    Worksite wellness programs are important interventions to protect and promote employee health. They help reduce direct and indirect health care costs, absenteeism, and presenteeism; avoid illness or injury; and improve the quality of work life and morale. This Tool introduces key concepts and strategic tips for planning workplace-based wellness programs rather than individual health promotion events, while highlighting organizational change and development theories central to introducing and implementing effective proactive worksite wellness programs.

  18. Implementation of Mandatory Nutritional Guidelines in South Australian Primary School Canteens: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abery, Elizabeth; Drummond, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Primary schools are identified as being in a primary position to offer nutrition education. Moreover, primary schools can offer an environment which is conducive to the promotion of healthy eating while influencing eating behaviours of children to benefit their health, well-being and academic development and performance. School canteens are one…

  19. Adolescents' Views about a Proposed Rewards Intervention to Promote Healthy Food Choice in Secondary School Canteens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, C. T.; Lawton, J.; Kee, F.; Young, I. S.; Woodside, J. V.; McBratney, J.; McKinley, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower…

  20. Vending Assessment and Program Implementation in Four Iowa Worksites.

    PubMed

    Lillehoj, Catherine J; Nothwehr, Faryle; Shipley, Kala; Voss, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The worksite food environment, including vending options, has been explored as an important contributor to dietary decisions made every day. The current study describes the vending environment, and efforts to change it, in four Iowa worksites using a series of case studies. Data were gathered by local coordinators as part of the Iowa Community Transformation Grant project. Data were collected from three sources. First, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending was used to assess healthy vending options in worksite machines before and after the intervention. Second, employee vending behavior was evaluated with a pre-, post-intervention survey. Items assessed attitudes and behaviors regarding vending, plus awareness and reaction to intervention activities. Third, program coordinators documented vending machine intervention strategies used, such as social marketing materials and product labels. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending documented that the majority of vending options did not meet criteria for healthfulness. The vending survey found that employees were generally satisfied with the healthier items offered. Some differences were noted over time at the four worksites related to employee behavior and attitudes concerning healthy options. There were also differences in intervention implementation and the extent of changes made by vending companies. Overall, findings demonstrate that a large percentage of employees are constrained in their ability to access healthy foods due to limited worksite vending options. There also remain challenges to making changes in this environment. Findings have implications for public health practitioners to consider when designing healthy vending interventions in worksites.

  1. Regulatory and tax issues for worksite wellness programs.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Larry S

    2007-01-01

    Worksite wellness programs continue to grow and find expression in employer organizations of all types. As these programs mature and are offered to larger and larger numbers of employees in more worksites increased opportunity exists for regulatory problems. Applicable legislation and major federal regulatory issues affecting worksite wellness programs are explored and categorized. Final rules regarding Title I non-discrimination provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) are described and implications for employers are identified. Due to the increasing importance of incentive rewards in programming, the tax implications of various types of program expenditures are also described. Finally, suggestions for legislative amendments and regulatory changes that would enhance wellness program effects are described.

  2. Importance of a canteen lunch on the dietary intake of acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Mestdagh, Frédéric; Lachat, Carl; Baert, Katleen; Moons, Emmanuelle; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2007-05-01

    A food and drink intake survey was carried out among university students and staff members. Consumption data were collected on days when the participants took hot lunch in a university canteen. The dietary acrylamide exposure was calculated through a probabilistic approach and revealed a median intake of 0.40 microg/kg bw/day [90% confidence interval: 0.36-0.44], which is in accordance with previous exposure calculations. Biscuits (35.4%), French fries (29.9%), bread (23.5%), and chocolate (11.2%) were identified to be the main sources of dietary acrylamide. Foodstuffs consumed in between the three main meals of the day (so called snack type foods) contributed the most to the intake (42.2%). The exposure was lower in an intervention group which received free portions of fruit and vegetables, indicating that a nutritionally balanced diet may contribute to a decreased acrylamide intake. French fries had a significant impact on the acrylamide intake, due to the frequent consumption in the canteen. This demonstrates the important responsibility of caterers and canteen kitchens in the mitigation of acrylamide exposure through reduction of acrylamide in their prepared products, in particular in French fries.

  3. [Risks associated with erosive beverages in secondary school canteens in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of acidic beverages may cause dental erosion. The consumption of such beverages during school hours may contribute to the development of erosion. In order to study the extent to which children of secondary schools are exposed to potentially erosive beverages, 43 locations in 37 schools in the Netherlands were visited. In each school, all available types of beverages were registered and classified as non-erosive or potentially erosive. In addition, the number of students, type of school, opening times of the canteens and the number of vending machines were recorded. It was revealed that a wide variety of beverages is available in school canteens, of which a large number are potentially erosive (71.8 +/- 12.9%). The number of different products available, the number of different beverages available and the number of potentially erosive drinks all correlated with the number of students per school, but not with the type of education. The number of drinks available and the number of potentially erosive drinks correlated with the opening hours of the canteens and the number of vending machines.

  4. Microbiological monitoring of air quality in a university canteen: an 11-year report.

    PubMed

    Osimani, A; Aquilanti, L; Tavoletti, S; Clementi, F

    2013-06-01

    Over the past decade, an increased tendency to consume meals at dining facilities outside the home has been highlighted; moreover, meals supplied in food businesses have been involved in many foodborne disease outbreaks. Therefore, microbial air contamination in food processing facilities could be a concern and an increase of microbial loads could represent a risk factor, especially for the potential contamination of foods due to undesirable spoiling and pathogenic bacteria. In this paper, the results of an 11-year microbiological monitoring of air quality in a university canteen are reported. The study, which started in the year 2000, was performed within a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan implementation of a canteen that produces about 1,000 meals a day in order to verify the effectiveness of corrective actions on the indoor air quality. The primary food preparation room, the kitchen, and three cold rooms underwent air sampling by using a calibrated impaction sampler. Our investigation detected a general and progressive improvement in the air quality of the canteen since the beginning of the study, thus suggesting the appropriateness of the corrective action undertaken during the HACCP implementation program.

  5. Building a sustainable administrative infrastructure for worksite wellness programs.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Larry S

    2009-01-01

    As health care reform intensifies increasing references are being made to Worksite Wellness. These references are naturally leading to higher expectations for the effectiveness of Worksite Wellness programs. Yet the ultimate provisions regarding prevention and Wellness are not known. In the absence of legislative outcomes the focus for this edition is on the necessary administrative infrastructure that is needed to produce behavioral change, health risk mitigation and economic return from Wellness programming. Sixteen (16) administrative components are identified as critical to effective Wellness programming. Employee or health plan population size is seen as a significant variable in the design of the Wellness program's administrative infrastructure. Factors in sustainability and programming are also considered.

  6. Best practices in evaluating worksite health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Grossmeier, Jessica; Terry, Paul E; Cipriotti, Aldo; Burtaine, Jeffrey E

    2010-01-01

    Program evaluation is generally recognized as a "best practice" activity for worksite health promotion programs. The importance of "best practice" worksite health promotion programming is increasing with the stakes anticipated by health care reform. Volvo's health promotion activities are used as an example of "best practice" programming with a particular focus on creating a dashboard of evaluation metrics that can meet the accountability needs of senior management. The role of a comprehensive evaluation framework using nine components is explored along with reasonable expectations for program outcomes. Finally, stakeholder utility from the evaluation approach is explored.

  7. EVA worksite analysis--use of computer analysis for EVA operations development and execution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D

    1999-01-01

    To sustain the rate of extravehicular activity (EVA) required to assemble and maintain the International Space Station, we must enhance our ability to plan, train for, and execute EVAs. An underlying analysis capability has been developed to ensure EVA access to all external worksites as a starting point for ground training, to generate information needed for on-orbit training, and to react quickly to develop contingency EVA plans, techniques, and procedures. This paper describes the use of computer-based EVA worksite analysis techniques for EVA worksite design. EVA worksite analysis has been used to design 80% of EVA worksites on the U.S. portion of the International Space Station. With the launch of the first U.S. element of the station, EVA worksite analysis is being developed further to support real-time analysis of unplanned EVA operations. This paper describes this development and deployment of EVA worksite analysis for International Space Station (ISS) mission support.

  8. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  9. 76 FR 73647 - National Healthy Worksite Program; Information Webinar Series

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Webinar Series AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC.... The National Healthy Worksite Program is an HHS/CDC initiative to establish and evaluate...

  10. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites can potentially be important locations for weight management programs that contribute to curbing the national obesity epidemic. In published studies, weight loss programs targeting overweight and obese employees have been relatively more effective for weight loss than programs for preventi...

  11. Update on Validity of Required Competencies for Worksite Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Rager, Robin C.; Wright, Fred Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Background: To improve global health, the workforce capacity of health promotion professionals must be strengthened through the provision of competencies necessary to deliver effective programs. Purpose: This study provides an updated analysis of the validity of the worksite health promotion (WHP) professional competencies developed in 2000 by the…

  12. Meta-Evaluation of Worksite Health Promotion Economic Return Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Larry S.

    2003-01-01

    This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…

  13. Eating at the university canteen. Associations with socioeconomic status and healthier self-reported eating habits in France.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Valérie; Lions, Caroline; Darmon, Nicole; Verger, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    French university canteens offer structured meals at a fixed moderate price. We examined whether eating regularly at university canteens was associated with socioeconomic status (SES) or dietary practices. The study data came from a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 1723 students aged 18-24 years, in their first year of university in 2005-2006, enrolled in the universities of southeastern France (response rate=71%). Self-reported dietary practices were collected with a behavioral questionnaire. Adjusted logistic regressions showed that eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among students with less than € 300 monthly resources and not living with their families (OR=0.68 [95%CI: 0.49-0.94]). It was also positively associated, regardless of SES, with the consumption of at least five servings of fruit/vegetables daily (OR=1.42 [1.05-1.92]) and one serving of meat/fish daily (OR=1.41 [1.13-1.76]) but not with either restricting fatty food (OR=1.04 [0.81-1.33]) or never/rarely adding salt to food (OR=1.06 [0.85-1.32]). Eating regularly at university canteens was less frequent among less well-off students and was positively associated with some healthier self-reported dietary habits. Further research is needed to confirm these results in the overall student population in France and to understand the determinants of university canteen utilization.

  14. Worksite stress management training: moderated effects and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Flaxman, Paul E; Bond, Frank W

    2010-10-01

    Psychologically healthy participants may dilute the observed effects of worksite stress management training (SMT) programs, therefore hiding the true effectiveness of these interventions for more distressed workers. To examine this issue, 311 local government employees were randomly assigned to SMT based on acceptance and commitment therapy (SMT, n = 177) or to a waitlist control group (n = 134). The SMT program consisted of three half-day training sessions, and imparted a mixture of mindfulness and values-based action skills. Across a 6-month assessment period, SMT resulted in a significant reduction in employee distress. As predicted, the impact of SMT was significantly moderated by baseline distress, such that meaningful effects were found only among a subgroup of initially distressed workers. Furthermore, a majority (69%) of these initially distressed SMT participants improved to a clinically significant degree. The study highlights the importance of accounting for sample heterogeneity when evaluating and classifying worksite SMT programs.

  15. The Healthy School Canteen programme: a promising intervention to make the school food environment healthier.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Fréderike; Schwinghammer, Saskia Antoinette; Smeets, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals). Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015.

  16. An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.

    PubMed Central

    Paulozzi, L J; Spengler, R F; Gower, M A

    1992-01-01

    In view of the fact that the impact of statewide smoking laws on private worksite policies and the smoking behavior of employees has not been evaluated, two cross-sectional surveys were performed in Vermont to measure compliance with such a law: a random-digit telephone survey of employees and a subsequent mail survey of their employers. Employers were not aware that one of their employees had been surveyed. Roughly half (56 percent) of the employees and 66.5 percent of their employers described policies that are in compliance. Among all employers who described policies in compliance with the law, 68.1 percent of their employees also described compliant policies. Among all employees who described non-compliant policies, 48.8 percent had employers who described compliant policies. Overall, employees and employers agreed on how their policies stood with respect to compliance in 67.6 percent of cases. The prevalence and amount of smoking at work declined after the institution of the law but so did the prevalence and amount of smoking at home. Changes toward more restrictive policies were associated with reductions in cigarette consumption at work, but not with quitting. The study suggests that a large fraction of worksite smoking policies may not comply with a statewide worksite smoking law. The proportion of companies complying with such a law may be overestimated if information on compliance is obtained only from employers. PMID:1454986

  17. A Descriptive Study on the Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation of the NSW (Australia) Healthy School Canteen Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardzejewska, K.; Tadros, R.; Baxter, D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators to, and the extent of the implementation of, the New South Wales (Australia) "Healthy School Canteen Strategy". Design: A purposeful sample was used and data were collected using a mixed method approach. Setting: Two primary and two secondary government schools from a low…

  18. [Principles of a canteen feeding organization of railway transport workers in repair-restorative work in regions polluted with radiation].

    PubMed

    Istomin, A V; Zhiliaev, N S

    1997-01-01

    Dietary intake and actual food consumption of the railway transport workers are employed in repair in radioactive polluted regions. Disbalance of dining rations and deficiency in vegetable fat, some mineral elements and vitamins was established. For the correction of revealed defects the methodological recommendations for organization of a canteen feeding of the workers of railway transport was developed.

  19. CAFÉ: a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention to improve implementation of healthy food policy in primary school canteens: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher M; Nathan, Nicole; Delaney, Tessa; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wiggers, John; Preece, Sarah; Lubans, Nicole; Sutherland, Rachel; Pinfold, Jessica; Smith, Kay; Small, Tameka; Reilly, Kathryn L; Butler, Peter; Wyse, Rebecca J; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A number of jurisdictions internationally have policies requiring schools to implement healthy canteens. However, many schools have not implemented such policies. One reason for this is that current support interventions cannot feasibly be delivered to large numbers of schools. A promising solution to support population-wide implementation of healthy canteen practices is audit and feedback. The effectiveness of this strategy has, however, not previously been assessed in school canteens. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an audit and feedback intervention, delivered by telephone and email, in increasing the number of school canteens that have menus complying with a government healthy-canteen policy. Methods and analysis Seventy-two schools, across the Hunter New England Local Health District in New South Wales Australia, will be randomised to receive the multicomponent audit and feedback implementation intervention or usual support. The intervention will consist of between two and four canteen menu audits over 12 months. Each menu audit will be followed by two modes of feedback: a written feedback report and a verbal feedback/support via telephone. Primary outcomes, assessed by dieticians blind to group status and as recommended by the Fresh Tastes @ School policy, are: (1) the proportion of schools with a canteen menu containing foods or beverages restricted for sale, and; (2) the proportion of schools that have a menu which contains more than 50% of foods classified as healthy canteen items. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of menu items in each category (‘red’, ‘amber’ and ‘green’), canteen profitability and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained by from the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee. The findings will be disseminated in usual forums, including peer

  20. Online Health Information (OHI) Utilization among Selected Worksite Employees in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Su-I; Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Hou, Peng-Hsi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared Internet and online health information (OHI) utilization among selected employees age 40-49 and 50-64 years, and examined the influence of age, gender, education, and worksite. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to participants from two worksites in Taiwan. Results: A total of 527 employees completed the survey…

  1. Extension Newsletters and Individual Counseling: Equally Effective in Changing Worksite Wellness Participants Dietary Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipman, Kristi; Litchfield, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides impetus for Extension efforts in worksite wellness. The study reported here examined the influence of two worksite wellness interventions, newsletters and individual counseling. Surveys examined dietary and physical activity behaviors of participants pre- and post-intervention (N = 157). Descriptive statistics,…

  2. Worksite and family education for dietary change: the Treatwell 5-a-Day program.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, G; Hunt, M K; Cohen, N; Stoddard, A; Stein, E; Phillips, J; Baker, F; Combe, C; Hebert, J; Palombo, R

    1998-12-01

    The National Cancer Institute's '5-a-Day for Better Health Campaign is examining the efficacy of interventions in increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables to five or more servings a day. This paper presents the study design, intervention and baseline survey results of the Treatwell 5-a-Day project, a randomized, controlled worksite-based intervention study. Twenty-two community health centers were randomly assigned to either a Minimal Intervention, Worksite Intervention or Worksite Plus Family Intervention. The Worksite Intervention included participation of employee advisory boards, programs aimed at individual behavior change and programs aimed at changes in the worksite environment. The Worksite Plus Family Intervention incorporated family-focused interventions into the worksite program, including a learn-at-home program, family newsletter, family festival and materials mailings. A self-administered survey was conducted prior to randomization (mean response rate: 87%, n = 1359). Twenty-three percent reported consuming five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was directly associated with level of household support for healthy eating. The Treatwell 5-a-Day intervention model has the potential to enhance existing worksite-based intervention through incorporation of its family focus, especially given the association of household support with individual eating habits.

  3. Partially Testing a Process Model for Understanding Victim Responses to an Anticipated Worksite Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study partially tested a recent process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure (W/FC) proposed by Blau [Blau, G. (2006). A process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure. "Human Resource Management Review," 16, 12-28], in a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Central to the model…

  4. Demographic factors and weight change in a worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are increasingly being considered as locations for weight loss programs. We examined predictors of weight loss in employees participating in a 6 month randomized study of a weight loss intervention versus wait-listed control at 4 worksites (2 for-profit and 2 non-profit). Measures included...

  5. Exemplary Worksite Learning Programs: Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kippy; Souders, Amy

    This report provides information on three Exemplary Worksite Learning Award winning programs in which students learn by participating in hands-on classroom activities and by taking part in worksite experiences. Three sections provide a brief description of each winner. The first provides information on the Breithaupt Career and Technical Center…

  6. The Health Effects of Worksite HIV/AIDS Interventions. A Review of the Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A literature review identified 12 studies reporting the impact of worksite HIV/AIDS intervention programs. Ten studies reported positive effects on knowledge and/or attitudes. Few had control or comparison groups. Given the small number of studies and poor methodology, the literature on worksite HIV/AIDS intervention was classified as weak.…

  7. Worksite Neighborhood and Obesogenic Behaviors: Findings Among Employees in the Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating (PACE) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Duncan, Glen E.; Moudon, Anne Vernez

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms linking neighborhood context to health behaviors may provide targets for increasing lifestyle intervention effectiveness. Although associations between home neighborhood and obesogenic behaviors have been studied, less is known about the role of worksite neighborhood. Purpose To evaluate associations between worksite neighborhood context at baseline (2006) and change in obesogenic behaviors of adult employees at follow-up (2007–2009) in a worksite randomized trial to prevent weight gain. Methods Worksite property values were used as an indicator of worksite neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES). Worksite neighborhood built environment attributes associated with walkability were evaluated as explanatory factors in relationships among worksite NSES, diet, and physical activity behaviors of employees. Behavioral data were collected at baseline (2005–2007) and follow-up (2007–2009). Multilevel linear and logistic models were constructed adjusting for covariates and accounting for clustering within worksites. Product-of-coefficients methods were used to assess mediation. Analyses were performed after study completion (2011–2012). Results Higher worksite NSES was associated with more walking (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03, 1.30, p=0.01). Higher density of residential units surrounding worksites was associated with more walking and eating ≥five daily servings of fruits and vegetables, independent of worksite NSES. Residential density partially explained relationships among worksite NSES, fruit and vegetable consumption, and walking. Conclusions Worksite neighborhood context may influence employees’ obesogenic behaviors. Furthermore, residential density around worksites could be an indicator of access to dietary and physical activity–related infrastructure in urban areas. This may be important given the popularity of worksites as venues for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:25442234

  8. Perceptions of Worksite Support and Employee Obesity, Activity and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Zapka, Jane; Li, Wenjun; Estabrook, Barbara; Magner, Robert; Rosal, Milagros C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations of perceptions of organizational commitment to employee health and coworker physical activity and eating behaviors with body mass index (BMI), physical activity and eating behaviors in hospital employees. Methods Baseline data from 899 employees participating in a worksite weight gain prevention trial were analyzed. Results Greater perception of organizational commitment to employee health was associated with lower BMI. Greater perception of coworker healthy eating and physical activity behaviors were associated with fruit and vegetable and saturated fat consumption and physical activity, respectively. Conclusions Improving organizational commitment and facilitating supportive interpersonal environments could improve obesity control among working populations. PMID:19063651

  9. Analysis of commercial health newsletters by worksite decision makers.

    PubMed

    Miller, R E; Golaszewski, T J

    1992-01-01

    Health newsletters are an important component of worksite wellness, and human resource program managers believe these publications motivate employees and promote health services. Research has identified employee segments more likely to read health newsletters as well as how these publications may contribute to better medical self-care decision making. Even so, virtually no data exist on the factors contributing to newsletter selection and purchase except proprietary, anecdotal information collected by commercial vendors. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate how newsletter features are rated by decision makers and determine factors predicting intent to purchase a health newsletter.

  10. Review of Measures of Worksite Environmental and Policy Supports for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; van Bakergem, Margaret A.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Pamulapati, Surya C.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). Methods We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Results Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. Conclusion This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development. PMID:25950572

  11. Knowledge levels of food handlers in Portuguese school canteens and their self-reported behaviour towards food safety.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria-José; Nogueira, José Rocha; Patarata, Luis; Mayan, Olga

    2008-12-01

    Food safety levels in school food services are an important concern, given that any incident can affect a high number of students. The purpose of this research was to evaluate food handlers' knowledge and self-reported behaviour as regards the safe handling of food in school canteens. The study was conducted in 32 school canteens and included 124 participants. Food handlers displayed a reasonable level of knowledge, particularly regarding personal hygiene and cross-contamination, but fared worse in other areas. The level of knowledge displayed was influenced by age, motivation and training. A high correctness in handlers' self-reported behaviour towards food safety was observed, with a negative trend appearing when workload was increased. Our assessment of prevailing knowledge levels indicates that food professionals need to be made significantly more aware of the importance their actions can have on children's health.

  12. Working on wellness (WOW): A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW), a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention among employees at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods The intervention mapping (IM) protocol was used in the planning and design of WOW. Focus group discussions and interviews with employees and managers identified the importance of addressing risk factors for CVD at the worksite. Based on the employees’ preference for individual counselling, and previous evidence of the effectiveness of this approach in the worksite setting, we decided to use motivational interviewing as part of the intervention strategy. Thus, as a cluster-randomised, controlled control trial, employees at increased risk for CVD (N = 928) will be assigned to a control or an intervention group, based on company random allocation. The sessions will include motivational interviewing techniques, comprised of two face-to-face and four telephonic sessions, with the primary aim to increase habitual levels of PA. Measures will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in nutritional habits, serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations, blood pressure and BMI. In addition, healthcare expenditure and absenteeism will be measured for the economic evaluation. Analysis of variance will be performed to determine whether there were significant changes in physical activity habits in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. Discussion The formative work on which this intervention is based suggests that the strategy of targeting employees at increased risk for

  13. A lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are potentially effective locations for obesity control because they provide opportunities for group intervention and social support. Studies are needed to identify effective interventions in these settings. We examined the effects of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on weight loss ...

  14. Impact of the Working Well Trial on the worksite smoking and nutrition environment.

    PubMed

    Biener, L; Glanz, K; McLerran, D; Sorensen, G; Thompson, B; Basen-Engquist, K; Linnan, L; Varnes, J

    1999-08-01

    This article reports the effect of a worksite cancer control intervention on aspects of the physical and social environment related to dietary and smoking behaviors of employees. Data are from 111 intervention and control worksites that participated in the Working Well Trial. Employee surveys and interviews with key organizational informants assessed environmental and normative changes relevant to nutrition and tobacco use. Results indicated significant effects of the intervention on all nutrition outcomes: access to healthy food, nutritional information at work, and social norms regarding dietary choice. Significant benefits were not found for smoking norms or smoking policies. However, changes occurred in both the control and intervention sites on these variables. This first large analysis of environmental and normative effects of a worksite intervention is consistent with the employee behavior change findings for the trial and serves as a model for future analyses of multilevel worksite health promotion programs.

  15. The Status of Health Promotion Programs at the Worksite--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Brian; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Employers are realizing that worksite health programs which help prevent illness or accidents cost less than does rehabilitation of employees. Corporate health programs that involve hypertension screening, physical fitness, alcohol and drug abuse assistance, and stress management are described. (PP)

  16. Implementation of a Worksite Wellness Program Targeting Small Businesses

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, Kaylan E.; Metcalf, Dianne; Fang, Hai; Brockbank, Claire vS.; Jinnett, Kimberly; Reynolds, Stephen; Trotter, Margo; Witter, Roxana; Tenney, Liliana; Atherly, Adam; Goetzel, Ron Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess small business adoption and need for a worksite wellness program in a longitudinal study of health risks, productivity, workers' compensation rates, and claims costs. Methods: Health risk assessment data from 6507 employees in 260 companies were examined. Employer and employee data are reported as frequencies, with means and standard deviations reported when applicable. Results: Of the 260 companies enrolled in the health risk management program, 71% continued more than 1 year, with 97% reporting that worker wellness improves worker safety. Of 6507 participating employees, 34.3% were overweight and 25.6% obese. Approximately one in five participants reported depression. Potentially modifiable conditions affecting 15% or more of enrollees include chronic fatigue, sleeping problems, headaches, arthritis, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Conclusions: Small businesses are a suitable target for the introduction of health promotion programs. PMID:25563536

  17. EMPLOYER CHOICES IN EAP DESIGN AND WORKSITE SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Bernard; Azzone, Vanessa; Merrick, Elizabeth L.; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY In today’s complex private healthcare market, employers have varied preferences for particular features of behavioral health products such as Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). Factors which may influence these preferences include: establishment size, type of organization, industry, workplace substance abuse regulations, and structure of health insurance benefits. This study of 103 large employer purchasers from a single managed behavioral healthcare organization investigated the impact of such variables on the EAP features that employers select to provide to workers and their families. Our findings indicate that for this group of employers, preferences for the type and delivery mode of EAP counseling services are fairly universal, while number of sessions provided and choices for EAP-provided worksite activities are much more varied, and may be more reflective of the diverse characteristics, organizational missions and workplace culture found among larger employers in the US. PMID:22768017

  18. Worksite intervention effects on sleep quality: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, Evan; Chow, Chin-Moi; Kirby, Adrienne; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

    2006-10-01

    Employees with sleep disturbance are at increased risk of disease. Exercise is believed to be effective for improving sleep quality, but few studies have been conducted. This study investigated the effects of a 24-week worksite exercise/behavioral intervention on self-rated sleep quality, via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in 73 employees. Greater post-test improvements in the PSQI (-2.0 +/- 2.6 vs. -1.3 +/- 2.7 points, p = .006, and -16 +/- 61 vs. -1 +/- 76%, p = .02) were found in treatment versus controls, and in women versus men (by -2.7 points [-5.0 to -0.3 points, p = .03], and by -72% [-142 to -2%, p = .04]). Similar results were found in the shift worker subgroup. Changes in sleep scores were not significantly related to baseline characteristics, changes in psychological health or quality-of-life scores, or level of exercise compliance.

  19. Recruitment for a Diabetes Prevention Program Translation Effort in a Worksite Setting

    PubMed Central

    Taradash, J; Kramer, M; Molenaar, D; Arena, V; Vanderwood, K; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention has led to community-based translation efforts in a variety of settings. One community setting which holds promise for delivery of prevention intervention is the worksite; however, information regarding recruitment in this setting is limited. The current effort describes the initial processes surrounding provision of an adapted DPP lifestyle intervention at a corporate worksite. Methods Investigators and key management at the worksite collaborated to develop and implement a recruitment plan for the intervention focusing on 1) in-person onsite activities and 2) implementation of a variety of media recruitment tools and methods. Results Adult, non-diabetic overweight/obese employees and family members with pre-diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome were eligible for the study. Telephone pre-screening was completed for 176 individuals resulting in 171 eligible for onsite screening. Of that number, 160 completed onsite screening, 107 met eligibility criteria, and 89 enrolled in the study. Support from worksite leadership, an invested worksite planning team and a solid recruitment plan consisting of multiple strategies were identified as crucial elements of this effective workplace recruitment effort. Conclusion A worksite team successfully developed and implemented a recruitment plan using existing mechanisms appropriate to that worksite in order to identify and enroll eligible individuals. The results of this effort indicate that employee recruitment in a worksite setting is feasible as the first step in offering onsite behavioral lifestyle intervention programs as part of a widespread dissemination plan to prevent diabetes and lower risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25633207

  20. Bioluminescence ATP Monitoring for the Routine Assessment of Food Contact Surface Cleanliness in a University Canteen

    PubMed Central

    Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Clementi, Francesca; Tavoletti, Stefano; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    ATP bioluminescence monitoring and traditional microbiological analyses (viable counting of total mesophilic aerobes, coliforms and Escherichia coli) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP) at a university canteen which uses a HACCP-based approach. To that end, 10 cleaning control points (CPs), including food contact surfaces at risk of contamination from product residues or microbial growth, were analysed during an 8-month monitoring period. Arbitrary acceptability limits were set for both microbial loads and ATP bioluminescence readings. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.99) between the means of ATP bioluminescence readings and the viable counts of total mesophilic aerobes was seen, thus revealing a strong association of these parameters with the level of surface contamination. Among CPs, the raw meat and multi-purpose chopping boards showed the highest criticalities. Although ATP bioluminescence technology cannot substitute traditional microbiological analyses for the determination of microbial load on food contact surfaces, it has proved to be a powerful tool for the real time monitoring of surface cleanliness at mass catering plants, for verify the correct application of SSOP, and hence for their implementation/revision in the case of poor hygiene. PMID:25329534

  1. Bioluminescence ATP monitoring for the routine assessment of food contact surface cleanliness in a university canteen.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Clementi, Francesca; Tavoletti, Stefano; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2014-10-17

    ATP bioluminescence monitoring and traditional microbiological analyses (viable counting of total mesophilic aerobes, coliforms and Escherichia coli) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP) at a university canteen which uses a HACCP-based approach. To that end, 10 cleaning control points (CPs), including food contact surfaces at risk of contamination from product residues or microbial growth, were analysed during an 8-month monitoring period. Arbitrary acceptability limits were set for both microbial loads and ATP bioluminescence readings. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.99) between the means of ATP bioluminescence readings and the viable counts of total mesophilic aerobes was seen, thus revealing a strong association of these parameters with the level of surface contamination. Among CPs, the raw meat and multi-purpose chopping boards showed the highest criticalities. Although ATP bioluminescence technology cannot substitute traditional microbiological analyses for the determination of microbial load on food contact surfaces, it has proved to be a powerful tool for the real time monitoring of surface cleanliness at mass catering plants, for verify the correct application of SSOP, and hence for their implementation/revision in the case of poor hygiene.

  2. Using organization theory to understand the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Bryan J; Lewis, Megan A; Linnan, Laura A

    2009-04-01

    The field of worksite health promotion has moved toward the development and testing of comprehensive programs that target health behaviors with interventions operating at multiple levels of influence. Yet, observational and process evaluation studies indicate that such programs are challenging for worksites to implement effectively. Research has identified several organizational factors that promote or inhibit effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. However, no integrated theory of implementation has emerged from this research. This article describes a theory of the organizational determinants of effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. The model is adapted from theory and research on the implementation of complex innovations in manufacturing, education and health care settings. The article uses the Working Well Trial to illustrate the model's theoretical constructs. Although the article focuses on comprehensive worksite health promotion programs, the conceptual model may also apply to other types of complex health promotion programs. An organization-level theory of the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs.

  3. Results of employee involvement in planning and implementing the Treatwell 5-a-Day work-site study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M K; Lederman, R; Potter, S; Stoddard, A; Sorensen, G

    2000-04-01

    When work-site health promotion programs incorporate theories of community organization, it is likely that employee ownership and participation are enhanced. This article reports quantitative indicators of involvement of Employee Advisory Board (EAB) members in the Treatwell 5-a-Day work-site study and examines relationships between EAB member time spent on project activities and work-site size, with indicators of the extent of implementation and variables associated with behavior change and work-site support. The results reported here indicate that a greater number of EAB member hours spent on program activities was associated with a greater number of events implemented. Smaller work-site size was associated with greater employee awareness of the program and greater participation in project activities as reported on the employee survey. These results suggest that the number of hours employee representatives devote to project activities might be an important consideration in planning employee involvement in work-site health promotion programming.

  4. Evaluation of Hygienic Quality and Labelling of Fish Distributed in Public Canteens of Northeast Italy

    PubMed Central

    Armani, Mariachiara; Civettini, Michele; Conedera, Gabriella; Favretti, Michela; Lombardo, Dorotea; Lucchini, Rosaria; Paternolli, Sabrina; Pezzuto, Alessandra; Rabini, Michela; Arcangeli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the demand for the introduction of fish products in public canteens (schools, hospitals and nursing-homes) has grown due to their good nutritional proprieties. The particular health conditions and sensitivity of some groups of consumers exposes them to greater risks of food poisoning. It is therefore important to monitor the raw materials that end up in mass catering implementing strategies of mass catering control, both with self-monitoring strategies and with regular controls performed by the competent health authorities. The purpose of this study is to assess the overall quality of seafood dealt out from public catering services located in Northeast Italy. In this paper we illustrate the results of microbiological analysis performed on 135 fish samples (58% of samples were raw fishes, 27% cooked fishes, 6% raw fish products, 9% cooked fish products) and species identification performed on 102 fish samples. Additionally, 135 environmental swabs were collected to determine the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitation of food contact (cutting boards, cooking equipment and food processing surfaces) and non-contact (refrigerator wall and handle, tap lever) surfaces. Of raw seafood samples, 24% had total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count >105 CFU/g and for Enterobacteriaceae the faecal contamination was excluded since no Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were isolated. Just 3.8% of raw seafood samples resulted positive for Listeria monocytogenes. The results of swab samples of cooking utensils and surfaces showed that sanitation practices should be improved. Molecular analysis for fish species identification revealed a mislabelling for 25% of sampled fishes. The results of this survey can provide valuable information for monitoring and surveillance programmes for the control of quality of fish and fish products. PMID:27995098

  5. Effect of Fresh Fruit Availability at Worksites on the Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Low-Wage Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…

  6. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  7. Experiences Recruiting Indian Worksites for an Integrated Health Protection and Health Promotion Randomized Control Trial in Maharashtra, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman Cordeira, L.; Pednekar, M. S.; Nagler, E. M.; Gautam, J.; Wallace, L.; Stoddard, A. M.; Gupta, P. C.; Sorensen, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recruitment strategies utilized in the Mumbai Worksites Tobacco Control Study, a cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of an integrated tobacco control and occupational safety and health program in Indian manufacturing worksites. From June 2012 to June 2013, 20 companies were recruited.…

  8. Evaluation of the HACCP system in a university canteen: microbiological monitoring and internal auditing as verification tools.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2013-04-17

    Food safety is essential in mass catering. In Europe, Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004 requires food business operators to put in place, implement and maintain permanent procedures based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. Each HACCP plan is specifically implemented for the processing plant and processing methods and requires a systematic collection of data on the incidence, elimination, prevention, and reduction of risks. In this five-year-study, the effectiveness of the HACCP plan of a University canteen was verified through periodic internal auditing and microbiological monitoring of meals, small equipment, cooking tools, working surfaces, as well as hands and white coats of the canteen staff. The data obtained revealed no safety risks for the consumers, since Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected; however, a quite discontinuous microbiological quality of meals was revealed. The fluctuations in the microbial loads of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and sulphite-reducing clostridia were mainly ascribed to inadequate handling or processing procedures, thus suggesting the need for an enhancement of staff training activities and for a reorganization of tasks. Due to the wide variety of the fields covered by internal auditing, the full conformance to all the requirements was never achieved, though high scores, determined by assigning one point to each answer which matched with the requirements, were achieved in all the years.

  9. Factors that influence the use and perceptions of employee assistance programs at six worksites.

    PubMed

    French, M T; Dunlap, L J; Roman, P M; Steele, P D

    1997-10-01

    Employee assistance programs (EAPs) have gained significant importance in contemporary worksites. This article uses data from 6 case studies to examine several research questions regarding the relationship between worker demographic (e.g., gender, job tenure, and marital status), substance use, and workplace policies and the actual and potential use of the company EAP. Unlike in most of the existing literature, the authors did not find that gender, marital status, or job dissatisfaction are statistically related to actual or potential EAP use at most worksites. However, job tenure and some substance use behaviors were related to actual EAP use in a positive and statistically significant way. Another important finding, underlying the credible integration of EAPs into worksite culture, is the positive and robust relationship between employee trust and confidence in the EAP and actual use. The results of our study both reinforce some long-established principles in the EAP field and encourage further consideration of other beliefs.

  10. Evaluation of a Worksite Diabetes Education Program at a Large Urban Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Renda, Susan; Baernholdt, Marianne; Becker, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes education can be delivered at the worksite to better support employees' diabetes self-management and improve productivity and health care costs. This study was conducted to address the feasibility of a diabetes worksite education program for employees at a large urban academic health care institution. The diabetes education program was delivered in the diabetes center at the institution, a resource that was previously underutilized by employees. Through collaboration with groups in the institution, 20 employees of diverse ethnicity participated in the worksite diabetes education program with positive outcomes: improved glycemic control measured (HbA1c), attainment of self-management goals, and satisfaction with the program. Work absences trended downward, but numbers of hospitalizations and emergency department visits were unchanged in the 3 months following education. Recommendations include replication of the study with more employee participation and program evaluation over a longer period of time to continue assessment of employees' educational needs.

  11. Nurses' attitudes toward patients with sickle cell disease: a worksite comparison.

    PubMed

    Jenerette, Coretta M; Pierre-Louis, Bosny J; Matthie, Nadine; Girardeau, Yasmeen

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) have reported being stigmatized when they seek care for pain. Nurse attitudes contribute to stigmatization and may affect patients' response to sickle cell cues, care-seeking, and ultimately patient outcomes. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive, comparative design study was to determine whether there are significant differences in nurse attitudes toward patients with SCD by worksite-medical-surgical units compared with emergency departments/intensive care units (ED/ICU). The sample consisted of 77 nurses (36 nurses from the ED/ICU and 41 from medical-surgical units) who completed an anonymous online survey. No significant differences were noted in attitudes by worksite, with nurses from both sites demonstrating high levels of negative attitudes toward patients with SCD. Findings suggest that nurses from both worksites need additional education about SCD and care of this vulnerable, patient population.

  12. A review of employability and worksite interventions for persons with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Mahalik, John; Shigaki, Cheryl L; Baldwin, Diana; Johnstone, Brick

    2006-01-01

    Arthritis has a significant effect on the US workforce. Significant economic effects and racial disparities have been found in treatment and health outcomes for persons with arthritis. This literature review focuses on the most commonly studied forms of arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), summarizing literature on employability trends, risk factors, and worksite health interventions for these conditions. Recommendations and future implications for research are given in relation to goals from Healthy People 2010. A brief description is provided of a worksite comparative study at the Missouri Arthritis Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (MARRTC), seeking to improve long-term employability and functional outcomes for persons with arthritis.

  13. Impact of Individual and Worksite Environmental Factors on Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Overweight Employees

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Wall, Sarah; Harden, Samantha; Comber, Dana L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The worksite environment may influence employees’ dietary behaviors. Consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) affect weight management; however, little research has evaluated the influence of worksite factors on beverage consumption. Our purpose was to determine whether individual and worksite factors are associated with water and SSB intake among overweight and obese employees. Methods Data were collected as part of baseline assessments for a worksite-based, weight-management intervention trial. Height and weight of participants (N = 1,482; 74% female; mean age = 47 y [standard deviation (SD) = 11y]; mean weight = 208 lbs [SD = 46 lbs]) were assessed, and participants completed a validated beverage intake questionnaire. Environmental characteristics of worksites (N = 28) were audited. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to identify worksite conditions that may support healthier beverage intake patterns. Results Most participants were white (75% of sample) with at least some college education or a college degree (approximately 82% of sample). Mean water and SSB intake were 27 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz) and 17 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz), respectively; SSB intake (191 kcal [SD = 218 kcal]) exceeded the recommended discretionary energy intake. Statistical models did not identify any significant predictors of water intake. Female sex and increasing level of education and household income were associated with lower SSB intake; baseline body weight and greater number of worksite water coolers and vending machines were associated with higher SSB intake. The QCA identified worksite type (ie, not manual labor) as a condition necessary for healthier beverage consumption; a worksite break policy of 2 or more per day may lead to unhealthy beverage consumption. Lower SSB consumption was noted among older participants, female participants, and among participants with higher education and income levels. Conclusion Workplace factors influence

  14. Randomized Trial Testing a Worksite Sun Protection Program in an Outdoor Recreation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.; Zarlengo, Elizabeth M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Giese, Aimee J.

    2005-01-01

    Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in…

  15. Strengthening environmental and educational nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Steenhuis, I H; Van Assema, P; Glanz, K

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess conditions for the adoption and continued implementation of different healthy nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, i.e. an educational programme and two environmental programmes (a food labelling programme and a food supply programme). Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of worksite cafeterias and supermarkets. Concepts of theories of diffusion were used as a framework for the study. Questions were formulated about the attributes of the innovation, and organizational and personal characteristics that might influence programme adoption and implementation. Results indicated that educational and environmental programmes in both worksite cafeterias and supermarkets should meet specific requirements regarding programme design, methods and materials in order to be adopted and implemented. Besides, some important implementation strategies of the educational and environmental programmes were identified. It is concluded that it seems feasible to conduct educational and environmental intervention programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, but that certain conditions for adoption and continued implementation have to be met. Based on the implications of this study, the development of an educational programme, a labelling programme and a food supply programme was completed.

  16. Effects of Worksite Closure on Children's Academic and Psychological Adjustment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Manoa. Center on the Family.

    This project examined children's academic performance and psychological well-being in rural communities affected by mass layoffs. In one study (Study A), school level data were compared from similar communities where worksite closing had or had not occurred. Study B explored risk and resiliency processes in a sample of 55 rural Asian Pacific…

  17. The Refinement of a Worksite Health Promotion Post-Program Evaluation Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golaszewski, Thomas; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation instrument, DataPac, was developed and pilot-tested to assess the efficacy of corporate health promotion programs. This article reports results of a study to evaluate the DataPac questionnaire for construct validity, criterion validity, and stability reliability. Implications for worksite health programs are discussed. (IAH)

  18. New Technologies in Screening for Disease Risk: Implications for the Worksite and for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    The screening of workers for health problems has been ubiquitous in the worksite for many years. These screening procedures may have ethical and policy implications. Three common types of screening in use include pre-employment, early identification of health problems, and employee monitoring. Pre-employment screening may be used to screen out…

  19. Eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss in a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eating behaviors restraint and disinhibition have been suggested to predict weight loss (WL) but there is no information on whether these predictors are valid in worksite WL programs, which are increasingly being recommended for reducing the obesity epidemic. This study examined associations bet...

  20. Role Delineation for the Position of Director of Worksite Health Promotion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golaszewski, Thomas; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A six-step process defines and validates the role of worksite health promotion directors: developing expert opinion consensus, examining current job descriptions, reviewing literature, reviewing independent role delineations, developing competency statements, and validating statements to reduce the number to 80. The competencies are categorized as…

  1. Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW): Development and Measurement Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldenburg, Brian; Sallis, James F.; Harris, David; Owen, Neville

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and administration of the Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW), which measures health-promoting characteristics of the workplace environment by direct observation (physical characteristics, information environment, and immediate neighborhood). Findings illustrate the type of data on environmental…

  2. A Comprehensive Review of the Effects of Worksite Health Promotion on Health-Related Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that examined 316 studies of the effects of worksite health promotion programs on individuals and organizations, targeting research on exercise, health risk appraisal, nutrition, cholesterol, and weight control. Results suggest the effectiveness of such programs, though further research is needed for conclusive evidence of their…

  3. An Evaluation of a Worksite Exercise Intervention Using the Social Cognitive Theory: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Megan; Petosa, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To increase exercise adherence among insufficiently active adult employees. Design: A quasi-experimental separate samples pre-test-post-test group design was used to compare treatment and comparison group. Setting: The worksite. Subjects: Employees (n = 127) who did not meet current American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)…

  4. The Job Worksite: An Additional Resource in Preparing Psychiatric Clients for Job Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Norman M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the job worksite program developed by Altro Workshops, Inc., Bronx, New York, to serve as an intermediate step between the protected vocational training workshop and the unprotected work world. Psychiatric clients of the workshop selected for the program were placed in facility-supervised or company-supervised jobs with generally good…

  5. Applying the Participatory Action Research Model to the Study of Social Inclusion at Worksites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Sook; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Hoffman, Stacey; Whaley, Susan; Yount, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A study used participatory action research (PAR) to explore social inclusion/relationships at worksites of 10 students (ages 17-21). The participatory intervention process assisted teachers and job coaches in making constructive changes in transition work experience programs to provide social opportunities for students and help them become part of…

  6. Ethical considerations of worksite health promotion: an exploration of stakeholders’ views

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing, implementing and evaluating worksite health promotion requires dealing with all stakeholders involved, such as employers, employees, occupational physicians, insurance companies, providers, labour unions and research and knowledge institutes. Although worksite health promotion is becoming more common, empirical research on ethical considerations of worksite health promotion is scarce. Methods We explored the views of stakeholders involved in worksite health promotion in focus group discussions and we described the ethical considerations that result from differences between these views. The focus group discussions were organised per stakeholder group. Data were analysed according to the constant comparison method. Results Our analyses show that although the definition of occupational health is the same for all stakeholders, namely ‘being able to perform your job’, there seem to be important differences in the views on what constitutes a risk factor to occupational health. According to the employees, risk factors to occupational health are prevailingly job-related. Labour unions agree with them, but other stakeholders, including the employer, particularly see employee-related issues such as lifestyle behaviour as risk factors to occupational health. The difference in definition of occupational health risk factors translates into the same categorisation of worksite health promotion; employee-related activities and work-related activities. The difference in conceptualisation of occupational health risk factors and worksite health promotion resonates in the way stakeholders understand ‘responsibility’ for lifestyle behaviour. Even though all stakeholders agree on whose responsibility lifestyle behaviour is, namely that of the employee, the meaning of ‘responsibility’ differs between employees, and employers. For employees, responsibility means autonomy, while for employers and other stakeholders, responsibility equals duty. This

  7. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089

  8. Moving the worksite health promotion profession forward: is the time right for requiring standards? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Cecilia; English, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Standards in any profession are adopted to assure that the individuals hired are adequately trained and the programs that they oversee are of the highest quality. Worksite health promotion should be no different from any other field. A review of the research conducted by experts in worksite health promotion is examined, along with an assessment of skills needed to ensure that wellness programs are effective and employees, their families, and even their communities are educated on the ways to best prevent chronic diseases and occupational incidences through healthy and safe behaviors. This article is consistent with Health Promotion Practice's mission and focuses on the exploration of the processes used to plan effective worksite health promotion programs, and it suggests initial discussions on whether these processes should become standards for professionals in the worksite health promotion field.

  9. An eight-year report on the implementation of HACCP in a university canteen: impact on the microbiological quality of meals.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Babini, Valentina; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2011-04-01

    An investigation aimed at assessing the microbiological quality of meals consumed at a university canteen after implementation of the HACCP system and personnel training was carried out. Cooked and warm-served products (74 samples), cooked and cold-served products (92 samples) and cold gastronomy products (63 samples) sampled from 2000 to 2007 underwent microbiological analyses. All the samples were tested for: Samonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, total mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and sulphite-reducing clostridia. The microbiological contamination of work surfaces (tables, tablewares, cutters, ladles, slicing machines, wash-basins, etc.), hands and white coats of members of the canteen staff was also assessed. The microbiological results clearly demonstrated the success of the HACCP plan implementation, through a general improvement of the hygiene conditions of both meals and work surfaces.

  10. The Danish Melanoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097

  11. Experiences recruiting Indian worksites for an integrated health protection and health promotion randomized control trial in Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Cordeira, L Shulman; Pednekar, M S; Nagler, E M; Gautam, J; Wallace, L; Stoddard, A M; Gupta, P C; Sorensen, G C

    2015-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the recruitment strategies utilized in the Mumbai Worksites Tobacco Control Study, a cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of an integrated tobacco control and occupational safety and health program in Indian manufacturing worksites. From June 2012 to June 2013, 20 companies were recruited. Companies were identified using association lists, referrals, internet searches and visits to industrial areas. Four hundred eighty companies were contacted to validate information, introduce the study and seek an in-person meeting with a company representative. Eighty-three company representatives agreed to meet. Of those 83 companies, 55 agreed to a formal 'pitch meeting' with key decision makers at the company. Seventy-seven recruitment 'pitches' were given, including multiple meetings in the same companies. If the company was interested, we obtained a letter of participation and employee roster. Based on this experience, recommendations are made that can help inform future researchers and practitioners wishing to recruit Indian worksites. When compared with recruitment of US manufacturing worksites, recruitment of Indian worksites lacked current industrial lists of companies to serve as a sampling frame, and required more in-person visits, incentives for control companies and more assurances around confidentiality to allow occupational safety and health experts into their worksite.

  12. The Danish System Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    The paper is a supplement to an earlier paper in the same series which reviews Danish higher education until 1977. Expansion in higher education in the last 20 years, approaching the scale of mass higher education, culminated in a crisis in 1977. At that time, a trend toward self-government and participatory governing boards was seen as the end of…

  13. The Danish Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager; Schaarup, Susanne Zielke; Gyllenborg, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. Study population All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. Main variables The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients with acute stroke and TIA. Patient outcomes are currently monitored using 30-day mortality, unplanned readmission, and for patients receiving revascularization therapy, also functional level at 3 months poststroke. Descriptive data Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors with potential prognostic impact are registered. Conclusion The Danish Stroke Registry is a well-established clinical registry which plays a key role for monitoring and improving stroke and TIA care in Denmark. In addition, the registry is increasingly used for research. PMID:27843349

  14. A follow-up of a media-based, worksite smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Salina, D; Jason, L A; Hedeker, D; Kaufman, J; Lesondak, L; McMahon, S D; Taylor, S; Kimball, P

    1994-04-01

    Described an examination of data collected 2 years following the onset of a media-based, worksite smoking cessation intervention. Thirty-eight companies in Chicago were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions. In the initial 3-week phase, all participants in both conditions received self-help manuals and were instructed to watch a 20-day televised series designed to accompany the manual. In addition, participants in the group (G) condition received six sessions emphasizing quitting techniques and social support. In the second phase, which continued for 12 months, employees in G participated in monthly peer-led support groups and received incentives, while participants in the nongroup (NG) condition received no further treatment. Twenty-four months after pretest, 30% of employees in G were abstinent compared to only 19.5% in NG. This study is one of the few experimentally controlled worksite smoking cessation interventions to demonstrate significant program differences 2 years following the initial intervention.

  15. Impact of worksite wellness intervention on cardiac risk factors and one-year health care costs.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J

    2009-11-15

    Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) provides health risk intervention in cardiac patients over a relatively short time frame. Worksite health programs offer a unique opportunity for health intervention, but these programs remain underused due to concerns over recouping the costs. We evaluated the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a 6-month worksite health intervention using staff from CRET. Employees (n = 308) and spouses (n = 31) of a single employer were randomized to active intervention (n = 185) consisting of worksite health education, nutritional counseling, smoking cessation counseling, physical activity promotion, selected physician referral, and other health counseling versus usual care (n = 154). Health risk status was assessed at baseline and after the 6-month intervention program, and total medical claim costs were obtained in all participants during the year before and the year after intervention. Significant improvements were demonstrated in quality-of-life scores (+10%, p = 0.001), behavioral symptoms (depression -33%, anxiety -32%, somatization -33%, and hostility -47%, all p values <0.001), body fat (-9%, p = 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+13%, p = 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (-2%, p = 0.01), health habits (-60%, p = 0.0001), and total health risk (-25%, p = 0.0001). Of employees categorized as high risk at baseline, 57% were converted to low-risk status. Average employee annual claim costs decreased 48% (p = 0.002) for the 12 months after the intervention, whereas control employees' costs remained unchanged (-16%, p = NS), thus creating a sixfold return on investment. In conclusion, worksite health intervention using CRET staff decreased total health risk and markedly decreased medical claim costs within 12 months.

  16. Adapting a natural (lay) helpers model of change for worksite health promotion for women.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, I A; Taylor, S; Belton, L; Campbell, M K; Benedict, S; Kelsey, K; DeVellis, B

    2000-10-01

    Social network interventions that utilize informal systems of helping can be an important strategy for health promotion change. This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a natural (lay) helping intervention for health promotion change, specifically designed for women in small rural blue-collar worksites. One hundred and four women in four intervention worksites were recruited as natural helpers, and received health and skill-building education over an 18-month period. Qualitative evaluation showed: (1) two patterns of natural helping for women, i.e. participation due to a specific health concern with either themselves or others in their personal networks, and participation due to a larger sense of the importance of health and prevention; (2) over time natural helpers expanded the diffusion of health promotion information from close network members to co-workers and were more likely to be approached by their co-workers for information; (3) group activities at the worksite, particularly around physical activity, increased over time; and (4) because of time constraints at the workplace, written materials were a major way of spreading information to co-workers. This study shows that women can be recruited and trained to diffuse health promotion information and provide support to co-workers for health behavior change.

  17. Talking parents, healthy teens: a worksite-based program for parents to promote adolescent sexual health.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Karen L; Corona, Rosalie; Schuster, Mark A

    2006-10-01

    Parents play an important role in the sexual health of their adolescent children. Based on previous research, formative research, and theories of behavioral change, we developed Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, an intervention designed to help parents improve communication with their adolescent children, promote healthy adolescent sexual development, and reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We conduct the parenting program at worksites to facilitate recruitment and retention of participants. The program consists of 8 weekly 1-hour sessions during the lunch hour. In this article, we review the literature that identifies parental influences on adolescent sexual behavior, summarize our formative research, present the theoretical framework we used to develop Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, describe the program's components and intervention strategies, and offer recommendations based on our experiences developing the program. By targeting parents at their worksites, this program represents an innovative approach to promoting adolescent sexual health. This article is intended to be helpful to health educators and clinicians designing programs for parents, employers implementing health-related programs, and researchers who may consider designing and evaluating such worksite-based programs.

  18. Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation.

  19. The SUCCESS Project: The Effect of Program Format and Incentives on Participation and Cessation in Worksite Smoking Cessation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennrikus, Deborah J.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Lando, Harry A.; Murray, David M.; Brelje, Kerrin; Davidann, Beth; Baxter, Judith S.; Thai, Dzung; Vessey, John; Liu, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of program format and incentives on participation and cessation in worksite smoking cessation programs. Methods. Twenty-four worksites were randomized to 6 conditions that differed in cessation program format and the use of incentives. Programs were offered for 18 months in each worksite. A total of 2402 cigarette smokers identified at baseline were surveyed 12 and 24 months later to assess participation in programs and cessation. Results. A total of 407 (16.9%) of the smoker cohort registered for programs; on the 12- and 24-month surveys, 15.4% and 19.4% of the cohort, respectively, reported that they had not smoked in the previous 7 days. Registration for programs in incentive sites was almost double that of no-incentive sites (22.4% vs 11.9%), but increased registration did not translate into significantly greater cessation rates. Program type did not affect registration or cessation rates. Conclusions. Although incentives increase rates of registration in worksite smoking cessation programs, they do not appear to increase cessation rates. Phone counseling seems to be at least as effective as group programs for promoting smoking cessation in worksites. PMID:11818305

  20. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  1. A Review and Analysis of the Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness Studies of Comprehensive Health Promotion and Disease Management Programs at the Worksite: 1995-1998 Update (IV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    Fourth in a series of articles summarizing studies that examined the impact of comprehensive health-promotion and disease-management programs on health and cost. The focus is on worksite health promotion and education. Study results provide cautious optimism about the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these worksite programs and…

  2. Making Healthy Behaviors the Easy Choice for Employees: A Review of the Literature on Environmental and Policy Changes in Worksite Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Marshall, Jennifer L.; Gallant, Mary P.

    2012-01-01

    As employers look for ways to reduce rising health care costs, worksite health promotion interventions are increasingly being used to improve employee health behaviors. An alternative approach to traditional worksite health promotion programs is the implementation of environmental and/or policy changes to encourage employees to adopt healthier…

  3. Danish Cultural Identity and the Teaching of Danish to Foreigners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Hedwig

    2006-01-01

    Danish as a second language textbooks published over the last 15 years have presented the Danish cultural identity as a homogenous and purely national phenomenon. Research into teaching theory, on the other hand, has been more broad-minded, and is based on interactivity. The aim of this paper is to explain this divergence. (Contains 2 notes.)

  4. Results of an Academic, Health Care Worksite Weight Loss Contest for Southeastern Americans: Scale Back Alabama 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L; Whitt, Lauren; Oster, Robert A; Lewis, Dwight; Shropshire, Toneyell S; Calhoun, David A

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of competitive incentivized worksite weight loss programs. Scale Back Alabama (SBA) is a free, state-supported program designed to promote weight loss among overweight and obese citizens. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the design and preliminary findings of SBA as a worksite intervention among employees at a collegiate institution and university hospital. In teams of 4 employees, SBA participants volunteered to engage in a 10-week competitive weight loss contest; both teams and individuals who lost significant weight were eligible for randomly drawn cash incentives. Trained staff objectively measured participants' weight before and at the conclusion of the contest. Preliminary analyses suggest that SBA as a worksite program can promote weight loss among employees, but future analyses are warranted to understand the context of these findings and determine if current results are confounded by unmeasured factors.

  5. Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from university canteens.

    PubMed

    Kotzekidou, Parthena

    2013-06-01

    During a 10-year inspection survey (2001-2010), a microbiological study of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and ready-to-bake frozen pastries from 15 canteens of the university campus was undertaken to determine their microbiological quality. The cumulative study revealed that the aerobic colony counts for the RTE product groups were as follows: from 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/g for 50% of sandwiches; under the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) for 88.6% of oven baked pastries; <10(5) CFU/g for 86.5% of desserts oven baked; from 10(3) to 10(9) CFU/g for desserts with dairy cream. The highest mean Enterobacteriaceae counts were recorded for desserts with dairy cream. The highest percentages of foodborne pathogens were: 20% Listeria monocytogenes and 12.5% Staphylococcus aureus in desserts with dairy cream; 17.5% Salmonella spp. and 8.5% presumptive Escherichia coli O157 in sandwiches; 14.6% Bacillus cereus in oven baked pastries. Aerobic colony counts were in the range 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g for 48.8% of frozen pastries; whereas Enterobacteriaceae counts between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/g were detected in 35.3%. Foodborne pathogens prevalences for frozen pastries were as follows: B. cereus, 31.8%; Salmonella spp., 28.6%; presumptive E. coli O157, 25%; S. aureus, 8.7%; L. monocytogenes, 8.7%. Improved sanitary conditions in the processing plants and precautionary measures are necessary for consumer protection.

  6. The impact of educational and environmental interventions in Dutch worksite cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Steenhuis, Ingrid; Van Assema, Patricia; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Glanz, Karen; Kok, Gerjo; De Vries, Hein

    2004-09-01

    Environmental interventions such as labeling and an increased availability of healthy foods may help consumers to meet guidelines for a healthy diet. This article describes a study into the effectiveness of two environmental programs to be used in worksite cafeterias along with an educational program. The aim of the interventions was to reduce fat intake, and to increase fruit and vegetable intake. In the labeling program, low-fat products were labeled. The food supply program comprised an increased availability of low-fat products and fruits and vegetables in worksite cafeterias. The educational program consisted of information about healthy nutrition through brochures, table tents, a self-help manual and posters. The design consisted of a pre-test-post-test experimental control group design, with four conditions: the educational program; the food supply program plus educational program; the labeling program plus educational program; and a control group. Seventeen worksites were randomly assigned to one of the four research conditions. Total fat, fruit and vegetable intake was measured with a quantitative, self-administered food frequency questionnaire (35 questions). Intake during lunch was measured by asking respondents to write down which food items they had purchased during their last lunch in the cafeteria. Furthermore, sales data for some targeted product categories were collected (milk, butter, cheese, meat products, desserts). For the whole study population, no significant effects on consumption data were found for any of the programs. The data showed a beneficial and significant treatment effect of the labeling program on total fat intake for respondents who believed they ate a high-fat diet. Sales data revealed a significant effect of the labeling program on desserts, but not for the other products.

  7. The Influence of Health Literacy on Reach, Retention, and Success in a Worksite Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; You, Wendy; Almeida, Fabio; Blackman, Kacie C A; Harden, Samantha; Glasgow, Russell E; Linnan, Laura; Hill, Jennie L; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-05-14

    Purpose . To examine if employee health literacy (HL) status moderated reach, retention, and weight outcomes in a worksite weight loss program. Design . The study was a two-group cluster randomized controlled weight loss trial. Setting . The study was conducted in 28 worksites. Subjects . Subjects comprised 1460 employees with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2). Interventions . Two 12-month weight loss interventions targeted diet and physical activity behaviors: incentaHEALTH (INCENT; incentivized individually targeted Internet-based intervention) and Livin' My Weigh (LMW; less-intense quarterly newsletters). Measures . A validated three-item HL screening measure was self-completed at baseline. Weight was objectively assessed with the Health Spot scale at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Analysis . The impact of HL on program effectiveness was assessed through fixed-effect parametric models that controlled for individual (i.e., age, gender, race, ethnicity, income, education) and worksite fixed effects. Results . Enrolled employees had significantly higher HL status [13.54 (1.68)] as compared to unenrolled [13.04 (2.17)] (p < .001). This finding was consistent in both interventions. Also, HL moderated weight loss effects (beta = .66; SE = 027; p = .014) and losing >5% weight (beta = -1.53; SE = .77; p < .047). For those with lower baseline HL, the INCENT intervention produced greater weight loss outcomes compared to LMW. The HL level of employees retained was not significantly different from those lost to follow-up. Conclusion . HL influences reach and moderates weight effects. These findings underscore the need to integrate recruitment strategies and further evaluate programmatic approaches that attend to the needs of low-HL audiences.

  8. Feasibility of implementing intervention methods in an adolescent worksite tobacco control study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, M; Fagan, P; Lederman, R; Stoddard, A; Frazier, L; Girod, K; Sorensen, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To present feasibility data on SMART, the first teen worksite behavioural tobacco control intervention. Design:This phase II study was designed to estimate the efficacy and feasibility of a small scale, randomised, controlled intervention. Setting and subjects:This study, addressing youths aged 15–18 years, was implemented in four intervention and five control grocery stores that had an average of 44 eligible teens. Interventions:The tobacco use cessation and prevention interventions were based on social influences and peer leader models. Employee break rooms served as centres both for interactive activities including open houses, teen advisory boards, peer leader interviews, games and contests; and non-interactive interventions including bulletin boards and table tents with health messages and home mailings. Main process measures:Project staff collected process data on the extent of implementation of intervention activities, participation rates in activities, and contacts with peer leaders. On the final survey, teens reported on awareness of, participation in, and motivation for participating in project activities. Results:Indicators of feasibility were identified and discussed, including the number of activities implemented, teen participation, management support, cost, and barriers to and facilitators of implementation. During the 12 month intervention, a mean of 24.1 interactive activities and 55.3 non-interactive activities were implemented, and a mean 14.2% participation rate per activity per site was achieved. Eighty four per cent of teens reported being aware of SMART, and 39% reported participating in interactive and 67% in non-interactive activities. Conclusions:Teen smoking cessation rates in worksite programmes might be improved if they are conducted in companies where there is job stability and if teen programmes are part of worksite-wide tobacco control programmes that include both teens and adults. PMID:14645939

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health

  10. Acute illnesses among Los Angeles County lifeguards according to worksite exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, C S; Barron, M E

    1989-01-01

    Due to public concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of exposure to Santa Monica Bay waters, a case-control study of acute illnesses among Los Angeles County lifeguards was conducted. Workers' compensation claimants (N = 112) were matched to healthy lifeguards working in the same year and having the same job classification. Conditional logistic regression showed that the southernmost worksites of the bay were associated with all acute illnesses (OR = 14.4, 95% CI = 4.7, 44.8) and with ear infections (OR = 12.5, 95% CI = 2.9, 53.4). PMID:2817175

  11. Prevalence and restrictiveness of smoking policies in King County, Washington, manufacturing worksites.

    PubMed Central

    Kinne, S

    1990-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of smoking policies and of significant smoking restrictions in a 1988 random sample of 1,528 manufacturing companies in the Seattle, Washington area, and related these characteristics to worksite size and industry type. Sixty-nine percent of companies had formal smoking policies and 85 percent regulated smoking to some degree. Workforce size was directly related to prevalence of significant smoking restrictions, but when type of industry was controlled, the linear trend in the size/prevalence relationship was sustained in only three of the 18 industry groupings. PMID:2240339

  12. Study of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli contamination in raw food available in factories, schools, and hospital canteens in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thi Anh Dao; Pham, Thanh Yen

    2006-10-01

    This study on the contamination rates of raw foods available in factory, school, and hospital canteens in Hanoi, Vietnam, with the bacteria of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was carried out between 2003 and 2004. A total of 177 raw food samples of vegetables, meat (beef and pork), fish, and poultry were examined to provide baseline data for evaluation of microbiological risks in general, and identification of potential vehicles for pathogenic cross-contamination in canteens. The study confirmed that unprocessed fish and poultry are likely to be contaminated with Salmonella and in the absence of proper kitchen hygiene and may contaminate processed foods. Raw poultry samples were highly contaminated with E. coli (45%), Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) (28.3%), and Salmonella (8.3%) and classified as high-risk food. E. coli was also detected in raw meat, fish, and vegetables with the rate of 21.3%, 6.6%, and 18.5%, respectively. This article confirmed the importance of hygienic working practices when preparing food.

  13. The integration of studio cycling into a worksite stress management programme.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew M; Soyring, Jason E; Jenkins, Sarah M; Daniels, Denise C; Berkland, Bridget E; Werneburg, Brooke L; Hagen, Philip T; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Warren, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D

    2014-04-01

    High stress is a prevalent problem in the worksite. To reduce stress, improve productivity, reduce absenteeism, and lower healthcare costs, many companies offer exercise classes or stress management programmes. Although physical activity is an important component of stress management, few worksites have integrated physical activity into their comprehensive stress reduction programmes. The purpose of this single-arm pilot project was to examine the potential effectiveness of an integrated exercise (studio cycling) and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Eighty-four adults, 75% female, mostly aged 40+ years, participated in an integrated 12-week cycling studio and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Participants experienced a significant and clinically meaningful reduction on the Perceived Stress Scale (p < 0.01), rating of current stress level and confidence to manage stress at the programme's end and at a 1-month follow-up. Participants also reported having significantly improved overall health, improved nutritional habits, higher physical activity level, greater confidence in their ability to follow a healthy diet, higher spiritual well-being, improved sleep, receiving more support for maintaining healthy living and improved quality of life at the completion of the 12-week programme and 1-month follow-up. These findings provide further support for an integrated exercise and stress management programme.

  14. [Worksite physical activity and nutrition programmes: beneficial to our health and wallet?].

    PubMed

    van Wier, Marieke F; van Dongen, J M Hanneke; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2013-01-01

    The unhealthy lifestyle of many Dutch employees may negatively influence their health in general as well as their ability to work. Worksite physical activity, nutrition or combination programmes could improve employee health and, as a consequence of this, reduce costs due to illness absenteeism, early retirement, and health care use. In this article, we present current scientific research in terms of health-related effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and the financial return of these programmes. There is moderate evidence that programmes aimed at nutrition, as well as combined nutrition-and-physical activity programmes, do result in modest improvements in weight-related outcomes and the consumption of fruit, vegetables and fat after 6-12 months. There is also moderate evidence that physical fitness programmes improve physical activity and fitness in the short term. The programmes result in financial returns for the employer, but this conclusion is based on non-randomised studies. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding their cost-effectiveness. Wide implementation of singular worksite physical activity, nutrition or combination programmes is therefore currently discouraged. It would probably be more effective and economical to set up a broad range of interventions and measures. This requires more research, however, as well as more opportunities for offering tailor-made programmes.

  15. The Healthy Worker Project: a work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, R W; Forster, J L; French, S A; Kelder, S H; Lando, H A; McGovern, P G; Jacobs, D R; Baxter, J E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a work-site health promotion program in reducing obesity and the prevalence of cigarette smoking. METHODS. Thirty-two work sites were randomized to treatment or no treatment for 2 years. Treatment consisted of health education classes combined with a payroll-based incentive system. Evaluation was based on cohort and cross-sectional surveys. RESULTS. Of 10,000 total employees in treatment work sites, 2041 and 270 participated in weight control and smoking cessation programs, respectively. Weight losses averaged 4.8 lbs, and 43% of smoking participants quit. Net 2-year reductions in smoking prevalence in treatment vs control work sites were 4.0% and 2.1% in cross-sectional and cohort surveys, respectively. No treatment effect was found for weight. Treatment effects for smoking prevalence and weight were both positively correlated with participation rates in the intervention programs (r = .45 for smoking and r = .55 for weight). CONCLUSIONS. This work-site health promotion program was effective in reducing smoking prevalence at a cost that is believed to make the investment worthwhile. PMID:8438979

  16. Modified Universal Design Survey: Enhancing Operability of Launch Vehicle Ground Crew Worksites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Operability is a driving requirement for next generation space launch vehicles. Launch site ground operations include numerous operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform preflight maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To promote operability, a Design Quality Evaluation Survey based on Universal Design framework was developed to support Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluation for NASA s launch vehicles. Universal Design per se is not a priority for launch vehicle processing however; applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which promotes operability. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey incorporates and tailors the seven Universal Design Principles and adds new measures for Safety and Efficiency. Adapting an approach proven to measure Universal Design Performance in Product, each principle is associated with multiple performance measures which are rated with the degree to which the statement is true. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several launch vehicle ground processing worksite analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability.

  17. Intervention fidelity and effectiveness of a UK worksite physical activity intervention funded by the BUPA Foundation, UK.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Rebecca; Mceachan, Rosie; Jackson, Cath; West, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of this study was to test whether the effectiveness of a worksite physical activity intervention delivered in five work organizations varied as a function of intervention fidelity. We conducted a fidelity analysis as part of a large matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial of a worksite physical activity intervention (AME for Activity). Participants (N = 1260) were employees from five organizations in the UK. The primary trial outcome was physical activity at 9 months post intervention. Adherence, exposure, quality of delivery and participant responsiveness/engagement were measured to assess fidelity. Qualitative data about the context in which the intervention was delivered were collected via focus groups, interviews and field notes. Multi-level modelling was used to provide a comparison of the effect of the intervention on increases in physical activity for worksites where intervention fidelity was good, compared with those where intervention fidelity was poor or moderate. Intervention fidelity was poor in two organizations, moderate in two organizations and good in one organization (local council). Re-analysis of the trial data comparing employees in the local council (N = 443) with employees in all other worksites (N = 611) revealed a significant effect of the intervention on physical activity levels among council employees only. These findings suggest that the measurement of fidelity and the testing of the effects of intervention fidelity on outcomes, as part of the evaluation of complex interventions, are essential to understand the context and conditions in which interventions are most effective.

  18. Effects of a Municipal Government's Worksite Exercise Program on Employee Absenteeism, Health Care Costs, and Variables Associated with Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Angela W.; Howze, Elizabeth H.

    The Blacksburg (Virginia) municipal government's worksite exercise program, developed in response to rising health insurance premiums, was evaluated to determine its effect on health care costs and employee absenteeism. Thirty-two employees who participated in the program for 4.5 years were compared to 32 nonparticipating employees. The program…

  19. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  20. The Obesogenic Environment of Commercial Trucking: A Worksite Environmental Audit and Implications for Systems-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael; Sönmez, Sevil; Hege, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercial trucker health is a vital public health concern. Enhanced understanding of the multiplicity, diversity, interdependence, and complexity of policies, resources, and stakeholders relevant to healthful living in trucking worksites can guide future interventions. Purpose: This article examines how the environmental attributes of…

  1. Factors Associated with Participation in Work-Site Wellness Programs: Implications for Increasing Willingness among Rural Service Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlestadt, Susan E.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Sullivan, Margaret R.; Arvin, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors underlying decisions to participate in work-site wellness programs. A sample of 279 full-time workers from a service division of a rural Midwestern university completed a survey assessing demographic and job characteristics, health status and health behaviors, and Reasoned Action Approach (RAA)…

  2. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  3. The Danish Heart Registry

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. Study population All adult (≥15 years) patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. Main variables The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR and WDHR). For each type of procedure, up to 70 variables are registered in the DHR. Since 2010, the data quality protocol encompasses fulfillment of web-based validation rules of daily-submitted records and yearly approval of the data by the EDHR and WDHR. Descriptive data The data collection on procedure has been complete for PCI and surgery since 2000, and for CAG as of 2006. From 2000 to 2014, the number of CAG, PCI, and surgical procedures changed by 231%, 193%, and 99%, respectively. Until the end of 2014, a total of 357,476 CAG, 131,309 PCI, and 60,831 surgical procedures had been performed, corresponding to 249,445, 100,609, and 55,539 first-time patients, respectively. The DHR generally has a high level of completeness (1–missing) of each procedure (>90%) when compared to the National Patient Registry. Variables important for assessing the quality of care have a high level of completeness for surgery since 2000, and for CAG and PCI since 2010. Conclusion The DHR contains valuable data on cardiac invasive procedures, which makes it an important national monitoring and quality system and at the same time serves as a platform for research projects in the cardiovascular field. PMID:27822091

  4. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative complications, and recurrence within 5 years follow-up. The database is also a valuable research tool to study the impact of technical and medical interventions on prognosis of sarcoma patients. PMID:27822116

  5. Management of Sodium-reduced Meals at Worksite Cafeterias: Perceptions, Practices, Barriers, and Needs among Food Service Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel. Methods We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Chi-square tests and analysis of variance for statistical analysis. For post hoc testing, we used Bonferroni tests; when variances were unequal, we used Dunnett T3 tests. Results This study involved 104 individuals employed at the worksite cafeterias, comprised of 35 men and 69 women. Most of the participants had relatively high levels of perception regarding the importance of sodium reduction (very important, 51.0%; moderately important, 27.9%). Sodium reduction practices were higher, but perceived barriers appeared to be lower in participants with high-level perception of sodium-reduced meal provision. The results of the needs assessment revealed that the participants wanted to have more active education programs targeting the general population. The biggest barriers to providing sodium-reduced meals were use of processed foods and limited methods of sodium-reduced cooking in worksite cafeterias. Conclusion To make the provision of sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias more successful and sustainable, we suggest implementing more active education programs targeting the general population, developing sodium-reduced cooking methods, and developing sodium-reduced processed foods. PMID:27169011

  6. Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees: a review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kahn-Marshall, Jennifer L; Gallant, Mary P

    2012-12-01

    As employers look for ways to reduce rising health care costs, worksite health promotion interventions are increasingly being used to improve employee health behaviors. An alternative approach to traditional worksite health promotion programs is the implementation of environmental and/or policy changes to encourage employees to adopt healthier behaviors. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of worksite health promotion programs using environmental and/or policy changes either alone or in combination with individually focused health behavior change strategies. A review of the relevant literature, published between 1995 and 2010, identified 27 studies that met all inclusion criteria. Limited evidence was found for the effectiveness of environmental and/or policy changes alone (n = 11) to change employee behavior, but more promising results were identified with multicomponent interventions (n = 16). There is a strong need for improvement in the design and evaluation of future health promotion programs focusing solely on environmental and/or policy changes at the worksite.

  7. Commute trip reduction in Washington: Base year worksite characteristics and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, D.

    1995-02-01

    Employers in Washington`s eight most populous counties are engaged in an effort to reduce their employees` use of single occupant automobiles for commuting. This report documents the status of those employers at the beginning of the Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) program as a basis for evaluating the impacts of the program. The first section provides a brief exploration of the Washington CTR Law and a history of the first steps in its implementation. The second section presents a summary of the characteristics of the worksites affected by the law. The CTR Law calls for reductions in single occupant vehicle (SOV) commuting and in vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The third section of this report presents baseline measurements of SOV and VMT and goals for reducing them. The fourth section provides summary information on the first year of programs employers planned to implement. The final section very briefly outlines actions the Commute Trip Reduction law calls for between 1995 and 1999.

  8. Analysis of a worksite health promotion program's impact on job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M; Dunnagan, T

    1998-11-01

    This study assessed the impact of participation in a health promotion program and engagement in healthy behaviors on job satisfaction. A survey response rate of 70% (n = 1,283) was obtained at a northern state university with an established worksite health promotion program. Significant differences in job satisfaction were obtained by education level, job classification, marital status, dependents, and regular exercise behaviors. No differences in job satisfaction were obtained by health promotion program involvement or any other health behavior other than regular exercise. Results suggest that health promotion programs do not significantly impact job satisfaction. Rather, job design and the psychosocial aspects of the work environment may be more influential in improving job satisfaction. Based on the results of this study, organizations attempting to improve employee health should provide health promotion programs and address the job itself. To improve job satisfaction, attention to the job itself is required.

  9. New approach in the evaluation of a fitness program at a worksite.

    PubMed

    Shirasaya, K; Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, K; Tanaka, C; Shimada, N; Kondo, T

    1999-03-01

    The most common methods for the economic evaluation of a fitness program at a worksite are cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-utility analyses. In this study, we applied a basic microeconomic theory, "neoclassical firm's problems," as the new approach for it. The optimal number of physical-exercise classes that constitute the core of the fitness program are determined using the cubic health production function. The optimal number is defined as the number that maximizes the profit of the program. The optimal number corresponding to any willingness-to-pay amount of the participants for the effectiveness of the program is presented using a graph. For example, if the willingness-to-pay is $800, the optimal number of classes is 23. Our method can be applied to the evaluation of any health care program if the health production function can be estimated.

  10. Organizational characteristics influence implementation of worksite health protection and promotion programs: Evidence from smaller businesses

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Deborah L.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Nelson, Candace C.; Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kia L.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2015-01-01

    Objective We explored associations between organizational factors (size, sector, leadership support, and organizational capacity) and implementation of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) and Worksite Health Promotion (WHP) programs in smaller businesses. Methods We conducted a web-based survey of Human Resource Managers of 117 smaller businesses (<750 employees) and analyzed factors associated with implementation of OSH and WHP among these sites using multivariate analyses. Results Implementation of OSH but not WHP activities were related to industry sector (p= 0.003). Leadership support was positively associated with OSH activities (p<.001), but negatively associated with WHP implementation. Organizational capacity (budgets, staffing, and committee involvement) was associated with implementation of both OSH and WHP. Size was related to neither. Conclusions Leadership support and specifically allocated resources reflecting that support are important factors for implementing OSH and WHP in smaller organizations. PMID:26340290

  11. Worksite-induced morbidities among truck drivers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Sönmez, Sevil; Shattell, Mona M; Belzer, Michael

    2010-07-01

    A critical review was conducted of social, psychological, and health science literature on the array of health risks and morbidities of truckers. Multilevel worksite-induced strains (e.g., long work hours and fatigue, shift work and sleep deprivation, postural fatigue and exposure to noise and vibration, sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet, exposure to diesel exhaust fumes, and other occupational stressors) were categorized into six primary morbidities for truckers: (1) psychological and psychiatric disorders; (2) detriments resulting from disrupted biological cycles; (3) musculoskeletal disorders; (4) cancer and respiratory morbidities; (5) cardiovascular disease; and (6) risk-laden substance use and sexual practices. Elevated morbidity risks suggest the need for the design and implementation of systematic epidemiological research and environmental interventions in the transport sector.

  12. A Worksite Occupational Health Clinic-Based Diabetes Mellitus Management Program.

    PubMed

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Erickson, Denise; McCluskey, Maureen; Schultz, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    This study is an analysis of a workplace diabetes management program offered to employees of a Fortune 100 financial services corporation located in the United States. The 12-month worksite-based educational program was for employees who were at risk for diabetes, had prediabetes, or were diagnosed with diabetes. This employed population, with health benefits, generally had acceptable control of their diabetes at the start of the program. They statistically improved most self-efficacy measures, but improvement in biometric tests at 6 and 12 months were not significantly different from baseline. Mean hemoglobin A1c at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months was 7.2%, 7.2%, and 7.3%, respectively. At 12 months, about 40% of preprogram survey participants completed all screenings and the post-program questionnaire. Disease management programs at the workplace can be an important component in helping employees enhance their knowledge of diabetes and maintain and improve their health.

  13. Worksite-based incentives and competitions to reduce tobacco use. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leeks, Kimberly D; Hopkins, David P; Soler, Robin E; Aten, Adam; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K

    2010-02-01

    The Guide to Community Preventive Service (Community Guide) methods for systematic reviews were used to evaluate the evidence of effectiveness of worksite-based incentives and competitions to reduce tobacco use among workers. These interventions offer a reward to individuals or to teams of individuals on the basis of participation or success in a specified smoking behavior change (such as abstaining from tobacco use for a period of time). The review team identified a total of 26 published studies, 14 of which met study design and quality of execution criteria for inclusion in the final assessment. Only one study, which did not qualify for review, evaluated the use of incentives when implemented alone. All of the 14 qualifying studies evaluated incentives and competitions when implemented in combination with a variety of additional interventions, such as client education, smoking cessation groups, and telephone cessation support. Of the qualifying studies, 13 evaluated differences in tobacco-use cessation among intervention participants, with a median follow-up period of 12 months. The median change in self-reported tobacco-use cessation was an increase of 4.4 percentage points (a median relative percentage improvement of 67%). The present evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of incentives or competitions, when implemented alone, to reduce tobacco use. However, the qualifying studies provide strong evidence, according to Community Guide rules, that worksite-based incentives and competitions in combination with additional interventions are effective in increasing the number of workers who quit using tobacco. In addition, these multicomponent interventions have the potential to generate positive economic returns over investment when the averted costs of tobacco-associated illnesses are considered. A concurrent systematic review identified four studies with economic evidence. Two of these studies provided evidence of net cost savings to employers

  14. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Leeuwis, F H; Heymans, M W; Seidell, J C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake. Objective: To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal. Design: Longitudinal randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of introducing small portion sizes and pricing strategies on consumer choices. Setting/participants: In all, 25 worksite cafeterias and a panel consisting of 308 consumers (mean age=39.18 years, 50% women). Intervention: A small portion size of hot meals was offered in addition to the existing size. The meals were either proportionally priced (that is, the price per gram was comparable regardless of the size) or value size pricing was employed. Main outcome measures: Daily sales of small and the total number of meals, consumers' self-reported compensation behavior and frequency of purchasing small meals. Results: The ratio of small meals sales in relation to large meals sales was 10.2%. No effect of proportional pricing was found B=−0.11 (0.33), P=0.74, confidence interval (CI): −0.76 to 0.54). The consumer data indicated that 19.5% of the participants who had selected a small meal often-to-always purchased more products than usual in the worksite cafeteria. Small meal purchases were negatively related to being male (B=−0.85 (0.20), P=0.00, CI: −1.24 to −0.46, n=178). Conclusion: When offering a small meal in addition to the existing size, a percentage of consumers that is considered reasonable were inclined to replace the large meal with the small meal. Proportional prices did not have an additional effect. The possible occurrence of compensation behavior is an issue that merits further attention. PMID:21224829

  15. Metabolic risk factor reduction through a worksite health campaign: a case study design.

    PubMed

    Daubert, Hayley; Ferko-Adams, Denice; Rheinheimer, David; Brecht, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this intervention study was to measure the impact of an onsite and online 12-week worksite heart-health campaign designed to reduce metabolic risk factors for employees at BMW of North America, LLC. All participants received three coaching sessions by a registered dietitian (RD), participated in eight educational sessions led by an RD, viewed their pre, midpoint and final biometric data online, and had access to other web-based tools and educational booklets. The program used team-based competition. At baseline and week 12, blood pressure, anthropometric and hematologic parameters were measured, including changes in weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and smoking habits. Of the 100 individuals that enrolled, 95 completed the program, and 87 met criteria to be eligible for data analysis. Paired t tests demonstrated significant reductions in weight (p<.0001), body mass index (p=.0047), waist circumference (p <.0001), diastolic blood pressure (p=.0018), and systolic blood pressure (p=.0012). Paired t tests for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose did not indicate any significant improvements. There was an improvement in body mass index and blood pressure classifications after completion of the program. A Friedman's test of blood pressure classification demonstrated significant improvements in participants' blood pressure classification from pre-program to midpoint, midpoint to end, and pre-program to end. These results support the effectiveness of a dietitian-led, team-based, worksite heart-health campaign with web-based education to reduce risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  16. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217

  17. Danish Palliative Care Database

    PubMed Central

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111

  18. Development of the Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT) to Measure Organizational Physical and Social Support for Worksite Obesity Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; Wang, Shaohung; Baker, Kristin M.; Bowen, Heather M.; Tully, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, reliability, and validity of the Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT) for assessing worksite physical and social environmental support for obesity prevention. Methods The EAT was developed using a multi-step process. Inter-rater reliability was estimated via Kappa and other measures. Concurrent and predictive validity were estimated using site-level correlations and person-level multiple regression analyses comparing EAT scores and employee absenteeism and healthcare expenditures. Results Results show high inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity for many measures and predictive validity for absenteeism expenditures. Conclusions The primary use of the EAT is as a physical and social environment assessment tool for worksite obesity prevention efforts. It can be used as a reliable and valid means to estimate relationships between environmental interventions and absenteeism and medical expenditures, provided those expenditures are for the same year that the EAT is administered. PMID:18301169

  19. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    PubMed

    Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p < .05) relationships between weight change from baseline to 12 months and change scores of absolute or relative absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity.

  20. Improving Employee Health: Evaluation of a Worksite Lifestyle Change Program to Decrease Risk Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, M; Molenaar, D; Arena, V; Venditti, E; Meehan, R; Miller, R; Vanderwood, K; Eaglehouse, Y; Kriska, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if an evidence-based, behavioral lifestyle intervention program delivered at a worksite setting is effective in improving type 2 diabetes and CVD risk factors. Methods A randomized six-month delayed control design was utilized, with two-thirds of the participants assigned to begin intervention immediately and one-third beginning six months later. The year-long program (weekly for 3 months transitioning to monthly) focused on weight loss and increasing physical activity. Results The immediate intervention group had greater mean weight loss (−10.4 lbs., 5.1%, vs. −2.3 lbs., 1%, p=0.0001) than the delayed control group at 6 months and relatively greater improvements in activity, HbA1c and other risk factors. The delayed group experienced similar improvements after completing the intervention program. Conclusions A worksite behavioral lifestyle intervention is feasible and effective in significantly improving risk factors for diabetes and CVD. PMID:25742535

  1. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls.

  2. A nutrition labeling intervention in worksite cafeterias: an implementation evaluation across two large catering companies in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vyth, Ellis L; Van Der Meer, Esther W C; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2012-06-01

    By both increasing the availability of healthy foods and labeling these products with the Choices logo, caterers may facilitate employees to make a healthier choice in their worksite cafeterias. The aim of this study was to explore which attributes influence the implementation of the Choices logo in worksite cafeterias in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were completed by catering managers of 316 cafeterias of two large caterers in the Netherlands (response rate 49.8%). Attributes from the Diffusion of Innovations Theory were used to investigate whether they could predict implementation. Compatibility (consistency with the beliefs of the catering manager; OR = 1.52), voluntariness (perception of the implementation as voluntary; OR = 0.50), result demonstrability (ability to communicate the implementation; OR = 1.52) and complexity in the sense of time (time needed for implementation; OR = 0.70) were the best predictors for the frequency of offering fresh Choices products (all significant). For the frequency of using Choices promotion material, voluntariness (OR = 0.54), result demonstrability (OR = 1.51) and relative advantage (perceived advantage of the implementation; OR = 1.44) were the best predictors (all significant). In conclusion, this study provides unique insights into which perceived attributes influence the implementation of a nutrition logo in worksite cafeterias. To increase the implementation, the Choices logo should be consistent with catering managers' ideas about healthy food, the workload of implementing the logo should be limited and it could be recommended to incorporate the logo in the health policy of the caterer.

  3. A Worksite Health Education Workshop as Empowerment Intervention for Health Promotion in the National Research Centre of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Nagat Mohamed; Monir, Zeinab M.; Saleh, Mai Sabry; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Hafez, Salwa Farouk

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The study aimed to assess worksite health education workshops as a successful tool for health promotion of employees. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A one day workshop was held for individuals engaged in research activities in the National research Centre of Egypt at the worksite. Its main objective was to highlight the nature, causes, symptoms and management of job stress. Participants were asked to fill a personality assessment sheet, a self-reported questionnaire for job satisfaction. Other questionnaires for assessment of falsification of type and some socio-demographic data were filled by the attendants. A concise survey was introduced at the end of the workshop for feedback collection. RESULTS: Attendants of the workshop were 36 subjects mainly females (94.4%). Mean age was 40.5 years with 63.9% of participants at their postdoctoral studies stage. Participants were at midway in the scale of job satisfaction (3.3) and did not suffer from falsification (0.3). The feedback survey score (11.5) showed great acceptance for the intervention. Special interest in the topic of stress was reported by 35.1% of attendants who found it the best item in the workshop and the interactive manipulation came next as declared by 18.9% of the participants. CONCLUSION: Worksite health education workshops seem to be a successful practice for empowerment in the Egyptian workplace. PMID:27703583

  4. Online tailored weight management in the worksite: does it make a difference in biennial health risk assessment data?

    PubMed

    McHugh, Janice; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are directly associated with heart disease, cancer, and diabetes and pose a serious cost-related challenge to employers. As most of the rise in health care spending is traced to the rise in population risk factors, maintaining or reducing the prevalence of disease represents a strategy with large potential payoffs. Tailored communication is a promising communication strategy for influencing health behavior change, including behaviors for weight management. Much of the tailored communication research is based on communication developed for research purposes, yet access to commercially available tailored health programs for worksites is growing. As health risk assessments are increasingly used for setting health programming and insurance priorities in U.S. workplaces and worksites have opportunities to purchase tailored programs, it is important to understand the effect of tailored communication on health risk assessment data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a commercially available web-based tailored weight management program on employee weight, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose. The authors compared health risk assessment data at baseline and 2 years later from 101 overweight and obese employees who participated in the tailored weight management program and 137 overweight and obese employees who did not participate in the program. Results show that there were significant mean differences in systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and blood sugar levels, but each in a clinically undesirable direction. More research is needed to understand the effect of tailored programs used in worksite health promotion.

  5. The effectiveness of worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions for controlling employee overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laurie M; Quinn, Toby A; Glanz, Karen; Ramirez, Gilbert; Kahwati, Leila C; Johnson, Donna B; Buchanan, Leigh Ramsey; Archer, W Roodly; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Kalra, Geetika P; Katz, David L

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the results of a systematic review of the effectiveness of worksite nutrition and physical activity programs to promote healthy weight among employees. These results form the basis for the recommendation by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services on the use of these interventions. Weight-related outcomes, including weight in pounds or kilograms, BMI, and percentage body fat were used to assess effectiveness of these programs. This review found that worksite nutrition and physical activity programs achieve modest improvements in employee weight status at the 6-12-month follow-up. A pooled effect estimate of -2.8 pounds (95% CI=-4.6, -1.0) was found based on nine RCTs, and a decrease in BMI of -0.5 (95% CI=-0.8, -0.2) was found based on six RCTs. The findings appear to be applicable to both male and female employees, across a range of worksite settings. Most of the studies combined informational and behavioral strategies to influence diet and physical activity; fewer studies modified the work environment (e.g., cafeteria, exercise facilities) to promote healthy choices. Information about other effects, barriers to implementation, cost and cost effectiveness of interventions, and research gaps are also presented in this article. The findings of this systematic review can help inform decisions of employers, planners, researchers, and other public health decision makers.

  6. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity.

  7. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian…

  8. Depression Screening in Chronic Disease Management: A Worksite Health Promotion Initiative.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Edlund, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    This pilot project aimed to improve depression symptoms and quality-of-life measures for individuals in a worksite disease management program. Two hundred forty-three individuals were invited to participate, out of which 69 enrolled. The participants had a history of diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia, and demonstrated depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The project consisted of counseling sessions provided every 2 to 4 weeks by a family nurse practitioner. PHQ-9 scores and those of an instrument that measures quality of life, the Veteran's Rand-12 (VR-12), were compared pre-intervention and post-intervention to evaluate the effectiveness of the project. PHQ-9 and VR-12 Mental Health Component (MHC) scores improved significantly after 3 months of nurse practitioner-led individual counseling sessions. This project demonstrated that depression screening and therapeutic management, facilitated by a nurse practitioner, can improve depression and perceived quality of life in individuals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or type 2 diabetes.

  9. Randomized trial testing a worksite sun protection program in an outdoor recreation industry.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Cutter, Gary R; Dignan, Mark B; Zarlengo, Elizabeth M; Voeks, Jenifer H; Giese, Aimee J

    2005-08-01

    Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in a pair-matched, group-randomized, pretest-posttest controlled design enrolling employees at 26 ski areas in Western North America. Employees at the intervention ski areas were more aware of GSS (odds ratio [OR] = 8.27, p < .05) and reported less sunburning (adjusted OR = 1.63, p < .05) at posttest than employees at the control areas. A dose response was evident (OR = 1.46, p < .05) with greater observed program implementation associated with fewer sunburns among employees. Program awareness per se was not predictive (p > .05) of reduced sunburning in a mediational analysis. Analyses of nonrespondents, including intent-to-treat analyses, further supported the success of GSS.

  10. A healthful options food station can improve satisfaction and generate gross profit in a worksite cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Kimathi, Amber N; Gregoire, Mary B; Dowling, Rebecca A; Stone, Marcelle K

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine customer satisfaction with a healthful options food station offered in a worksite cafeteria and document the financial contribution of such a station. The healthful options station featured daily entrées with fewer than 500 calories and less than 30% of calories from fat. Questionnaires from 655 (24.5% response) employees and students provided data on satisfaction with and usage of the station. The majority of the respondents who had purchased from the healthful options station were female (77.3%), white (51.6%), aged 30 to 50 years (52.0%), and had annual incomes of $60,000 to $100,000 (29.3%) or $20,000 to $39,999 (22.2%). Sales and gross profit from the healthful options station were compared to those of the comfort station. Customers were satisfied with attributes of the healthful options station (means >3 on a 5-point scale). Results of paired t tests suggested that customers who had purchased from the healthful options station rated the station significantly (P<0.001) higher for healthfulness of entrées, food presentation, food quality, overall quality of the cafeteria, length of line, and food choices available compared to their ratings for the cafeteria in general. The healthful options station generated average daily sales of $458 and gross profit of $306. However, the sales and gross profit were significantly (P<0.05) less than the comparison comfort station.

  11. Seattle 5-a-Day Work-Site Project: process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beresford, S A; Shannon, J; McLerran, D; Thompson, B

    2000-04-01

    The Seattle 5-a-Day Work-Site Project developed a community-based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake, using both environmental (including cafeteria and work-site-wide events) and individual strategies. The Employee Advisory Board developed its own protocol from a common skeleton and a minimum set of activities. Small work sites and work sites with fewer female employees delivered more displays, posters, and table tents per employee (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). Dose was neither related to use of the intervention nor to change in fruit and vegetable intake. Use of informational materials increased fruit and vegetable intake in the cohort of employees with both baseline and follow-up data (p = .05). The intervention was associated both with increased employee use of the intervention (activities and materials) and with increased intake of fruit and vegetables. Work sites with medium average baseline intake were the most responsive. These findings can guide the development of more efficient community-based dietary interventions.

  12. A qualitative investigation of Hispanic construction worker perspectives on factors impacting worksite safety and risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hispanic workers have higher rates of injury and death on construction worksites than workers of other ethnicities. Language barriers and cultural differences have been hypothesized as reasons behind the disparate rates. Methods We conducted two series of focus groups with union and non-union Hispanic construction workers to ask them about their perceptions of the causes for the unequal rates. Spanish transcripts were translated and coded in QSR NVivo software for common themes. Results Workers reported a difficult work environment characterized by supervisor pressure, competition for jobs and intimidation with regard to raising safety concerns. Language barriers or cultural factors were not strongly represented as causative factors behind the rates. Conclusion The results of this study have informed the development of an intervention trial that seeks to prevent falls and silica dust exposure by training contractors employing Hispanic construction workers in the elements of safety leadership, including building respect for their Hispanic workers and facilitating their participation in a safety program. PMID:21962128

  13. Development and Implementation of Worksite Health and Wellness Programs: A Focus on Non-Communicable Disease.

    PubMed

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Briggs, Paige; Cahalin, Brendan L; Myers, Jonathan; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The development and implementation of worksite health and wellness programs (WHWPs) in the United States (US) hold promise as a means to improve population health and reverse current trends in non-communicable disease incidence and prevalence. However, WHWPs face organizational, economic, systematic, legal, and logistical challenges which have combined to impact program availability and expansion. Even so, there is a burgeoning body of evidence indicating WHWPs can significantly improve the health profile of participating employees in a cost effective manner. This foundation of scientific knowledge justifies further research inquiry to elucidate optimal WHWP models. It is clear that the development, implementation and operation of WHWPs require a strong commitment from organizational leadership, a pervasive culture of health and availability of necessary resources and infrastructure. Since organizations vary significantly, there is a need to have flexibility in creating a customized, effective health and wellness program. Furthermore, several key legal issues must be addressed to facilitate employer and employee needs and responsibilities; the US Affordable Care Act will play a major role moving forward. The purposes of this review are to: 1) examine currently available health and wellness program models and considerations for the future; 2) highlight key legal issues associated with WHWP development and implementation; and 3) identify challenges and solutions for the development and implementation of as well as adherence to WHWPs.

  14. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.

    PubMed

    González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

    2014-11-01

    The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  15. Work, worksites, and wellbeing among North American Indian women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Karina; Gadhoke, Preety; Pardilla, Marla; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to understand what factors influenced work-family balance and related health behaviors among a sample of rural North American Indian women. We interviewed 89 women through both in-depth interviews and focus groups across four tribal communities in the American Southwest and Upper Midwest between July 2010 and August 2011. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes related to work- family demands placed on women and resources available to cope with those demands. Three prominent themes emerged: structural characteristics (the context of rural reservation life), role stressors (women's multiple and conflicting roles) and the influence of social support (communal nature of care in the family and institutional support in the workplace). We found that women in participating rural reservation communities often acted as primary caregivers for both immediate and extended family, and often placed the needs of others before themselves. The context of rural reservations, with high rates of unemployment, poverty, and chronic illnesses associated with the collective trauma of colonization, placed high demands on female caregivers. Social support from within the workplace, family, and cultural traditions helped some female caregivers balance the demands of home and work. Tribal worksites could be a resource for promoting health and work-life balance by being responsive to the particular demands placed on women that often interfere with engaging in positive health behaviors in general and tribal wellness programs in particular.

  16. Evaluation of HACCP system implementation on the quality of mixed fresh-cut salad prepared in a university canteen: a case study.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The increasing awareness that foods can represent vehicles for health risk factors has caused scientists and public authorities to multiply their efforts to reduce these risks to within acceptable limits. Nevertheless, some challenging issues still remain unsolved and new ones have recently emerged, such as the increase in outbreaks of foodborne diseases originating from the consumption of meals at catering facilities. The study described in this article was aimed at evaluating the microbiological quality of mixed fresh-cut salads at an Italian university canteen operating in conformity with the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. The effectiveness of the preventive and corrective measures taken was also assessed with respect to the frequency of unsatisfactory salad samples. During the investigation, E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected. By contrast, a high number of samples exceeded the mandatory or suggested limits for food processing hygiene (in terms of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and sulfite-reducing clostridia counts). Despite the introduction of a series of preventive and corrective actions, the results were only partially satisfactory; this was most likely due to the impossibility of having available an adequate level of human resources that are indispensable to correctly putting the HACCP procedures into daily practice.

  17. Farm to Work: Development of a Modified Community-Supported Agriculture Model at Worksites, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Karissa D.; Loyo, Jennifer; Jowers, Esbelle M.; Rodgers, Lindsay Faith; Smiley, Andrew W.; Leversen, Eric; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Farm to Work program is a modified community-supported agriculture model at worksites in Texas. Community Context The objective of the Farm to Work program is to increase fruit and vegetable intake among employees and their households by decreasing cost, improving convenience, and increasing access while also creating a new market for local farmers at worksites. The objectives of this article were to describe the development, implementation, and outcome of a 5-year participation trend analysis and to describe the community relationships that were formed to enable the successful implementation of the program. Methods The Farm to Work program began in November 2007 as a collaborative effort between the nonprofit Sustainable Food Center, the Texas Department of State Health Services, the Web development company WebChronic Consulting LLC, and Naegelin Farm. The program provides a weekly or biweekly opportunity for employees to order a basket of produce online to be delivered to the worksite by a local farmer. A 5-year participation trend analysis, including seasonal variation and sales trends, was conducted using sales data from November 2007 through December 2012. Outcome The total number of baskets delivered from November 2007 through December 2012 was 38,343; of these, 37,466 were sold and 877 were complimentary. The total value of sold and complimentary baskets was $851,035 and $21,925, respectively. Participation in the program increased over time and was highest in 2012. Interpretation The Farm to Work program increased access to locally grown fruits and vegetables for employees and created a new market for farmers. Increased program participation indicates that Farm to Work can increase employees’ fruit and vegetable consumption and thus help prevent chronic diseases in this population PMID:26491816

  18. An intervention study targeting energy and nutrient intake in worksite cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Tappe, Karyn A; Butryn, Meghan L; Annunziato, Rachel A; Coletta, Maria C; Ochner, Christopher N; Rolls, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees' calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n=96, BMI=29.7+/-6.0 kg/m(2)) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p<.01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p<.001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake.

  19. State and Local Comprehensive Smoke-Free Laws for Worksites, Restaurants, and Bars - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Tynan, Michael A; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Promoff, Gabbi; Hallett, Cynthia; Hopkins, Maggie; Frick, Bronson

    2016-06-24

    Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products causes stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults (1,2). Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, more severe asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth (1,2). Secondhand smoke exposure contributes to approximately 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults and 400 deaths in infants each year (2). This report updates a previous CDC report that evaluated state smoke-free laws in effect from 2000-2010 (3), and estimates the proportion of the population protected by comprehensive smoke-free laws. The number of states, including the District of Columbia (DC), with comprehensive smoke-free laws (statutes that prohibit smoking in indoor areas of worksites, restaurants, and bars) increased from zero in 2000 to 26 in 2010 and 27 in 2015. The percentage of the U.S. population that is protected increased from 2.72% in 2000 to 47.8% in 2010 and 49.6% in 2015. Regional disparities remain in the proportions of state populations covered by state or local comprehensive smoke-free policies, as no state in the southeast has a state comprehensive law. In addition, nine of the 24 states that lack state comprehensive smoke-free laws also lack any local comprehensive smoke-free laws. Opportunities exist to accelerate the adoption of smoke-free laws in states that lack local comprehensive smoke-free laws, including those in the south, to protect nonsmokers from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure.

  20. Facing Complaining Customer and Suppressed Emotion at Worksite Related to Sleep Disturbance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age < 65 years) in the 3rd Korean Working Condition Survey (2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sleep disturbance occurrence were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43–8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30–9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16–2.73) and 1.63 (1.02–2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34–20.80) and 10.17 (4.46–22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population. PMID:27709845

  1. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    SciTech Connect

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  2. Impact of a comprehensive worksite wellness program on health risk, utilization, and health care costs.

    PubMed

    Hochart, Cindy; Lang, Michelle

    2011-06-01

    In 2005, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Kansas City initiated a comprehensive worksite wellness program designed to impact employer culture and to assist healthy employees to stay at low risk and to reduce risk levels for those at moderate or high risk. Fifteen employer groups (9637 employees) participated in the A Healthier You (AHY) program for 3 consecutive years, 2006-2008. The results of health risk appraisals and biometric screening were used to evaluate program impact. Among the 4230 employees (44.0% of eligible employees) who completed health risk appraisals in all 3 years, 85.8% of individuals in the low-risk category in 2006 remained at low risk in 2008. There were also improvements in other risk categories, with 39.9% of those in the medium-risk category and 48.9% of those in the high-risk category in 2006 moving to a lower risk category in 2008. There were improvements in blood pressure control and total cholesterol, but no improvement in weight control. To assess financial and utilization outcomes, claims for the participating employer groups were compared to those for 7 employers (3800 employees) who did not participate in AHY in 2006-2008. Although none of the utilization measures was statistically different, the AHY groups had significantly smaller increases in both overall and emergency room costs per member per month. The AHY program now has over 180 employer groups, which will allow future evaluations to examine the impact of the program on a much larger population and to focus on the comparative effectiveness of different intervention strategies across implementations.

  3. Application of a Modified Universal Design Survey for Evaluation of Ares 1 Ground Crew Worksites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Operability is a driving requirement for NASA's Ares 1 launch vehicle. Launch site ground operations include several operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To support design evaluation, the Ares 1 Upper Stage (US) element Human Factors Engineering (HFE) group developed a survey based on the Universal Design approach. Universal Design is a process to create products that can be used effectively by as many people as possible. Universal Design per se is not a priority for Ares 1 because launch vehicle processing is a specialized skill and not akin to a consumer product that should be used by all people of all abilities. However, applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which is a priority for Ares 1. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey centers on the following seven principles: (1) Equitable use, (2) Flexibility in use, (3) Simple and intuitive use, (4) Perceptible information, (5) Tolerance for error, (6) Low physical effort, (7) Size and space for approach and use. Each principle is associated with multiple evaluation criteria which were rated with the degree to which the statement is true. All statements are phrased in the utmost positive, or the design goal so that the degree to which judgments tend toward "completely agree" directly reflects the degree to which the design is good. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several US analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability

  4. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  5. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. Study population The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995. All Danish orthopedic departments – both public and private – report to the register, and registration is compulsory. Main variables The main variables in the register include civil registration number, indication for primary and revision surgery, operation date and side, and postoperative complications. Completeness of primary and revision surgery is evaluated annually and validation of a number of variables has been carried out. Descriptive data A total of 139,525 primary THAs and 22,118 revisions have been registered in the DHR between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. Since 1995, completeness of procedure registration has been high, being 97.8% and 92.0% in 2014 for primary THAs and revisions, respectively. Several risk factors, such as comorbidity, age, specific primary diagnosis and fixation types for failure of primary THAs, and postoperative complications, have been identified through the DHR. Approximately 9,000 primary THAs and 1,500 revisions are reported to the register annually. Conclusion The DHR is important for monitoring and improvement of treatment with THA and is a valuable tool for research in THA surgery due to the high quality of prospective collected data with long-term follow-up and high completeness. The register can be used for population-based epidemiology studies of THA surgery and can be linked to a range of other national databases. PMID:27822092

  6. The effectiveness of a telephone-based tobacco cessation program offered as part of a worksite health promotion program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Seaverson, Erin Ld; Staufacker, Michael J; Tanaka, Akiko

    2011-06-01

    Extensive research on tobacco cessation affirms the effectiveness of interventions, although the literature is more limited concerning the impact of programs designed specifically for the workplace. The present study examines the effectiveness of a telephone-based health coaching tobacco cessation program that was provided as part of worksite health promotion programs by 10 large employers. The participants were recruited based on their health risks as identified by health assessments, and the program was personalized to meet their individual needs and stages of change. The results indicate that at 12 months, health coaching program participants achieved a 32% quit rate, compared to 18% for nonparticipants. The quit rate was highest (44%) among program completers who were ready to change at baseline. These results suggest that a tobacco cessation program offered as part of a worksite health promotion program can be highly effective, especially for those who are ready to change. However, the relatively low annual participation rate may indicate that tobacco users remain among the most difficult to engage and to support in their efforts to complete programs. Therefore, implementing a variety of engagement strategies, such as policy changes, as well as social and financial incentives and penalties will most likely have a positive effect at the population level.

  7. Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: a randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives.

    PubMed Central

    Gomel, M; Oldenburg, B; Simpson, J M; Owen, N

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study reports an efficacy trial of four work-site health promotion programs. It was predicted that strategies making use of behavioral counseling would produce a greater reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors than screening and educational strategies. METHODS. Twenty-eight work sites were randomly allocated to a health risk assessment, risk factor education, behavioral counseling, or behavioral counseling plus incentives intervention. Participants were assessed before the intervention and at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS. Compared with the average of the health risk assessment and risk factor education conditions, there were significantly higher validated continuous smoking cessation rates and smaller increases in body mass index and estimated percentage of body fat in the two behavioral counseling conditions. The behavioral counseling condition was associated with a greater reduction in mean blood pressure than was the behavioral counseling plus incentives condition. On average among all groups, there was a short-term increase in aerobic capacity followed by a return to baseline levels. CONCLUSIONS. Work-site interventions that use behavioral approaches can produce lasting changes in some cardiovascular risk factors and, if implemented routinely, can have a significant public health impact. PMID:8362997

  8. Comparing tailored and narrative worksite interventions at increasing colonoscopy adherence in adults 50-75: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Carcioppolo, Nick; Krakow, Melinda; Samadder, N Jewel; Morgan, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Research has identified several communication strategies that could increase adherence to colorectal cancer screening recommendations. Two promising strategies are tailoring and narrative-based approaches. Tailoring is the personalization of information based on individual characteristics. Narrative-based approaches use stories about similar others to counter perceived barriers and cultivate self-efficacy. To compare these two approaches, a randomized controlled trial was carried out at 8 worksites in Indiana. Adults 50-75 (N = 209) received one of four messages about colorectal cancer screening: stock, narrative, tailored, tailored narrative. The primary outcome was whether participants filed a colonoscopy claim in the 18 months following the intervention. Individuals receiving narrative messages were 4 times more likely to screen than those not receiving narrative messages. Tailoring did not increase screening behavior overall. However, individuals with higher cancer information overload were 8 times more likely to screen if they received tailored messages. The results suggest that narrative-based approaches are more effective than tailoring at increasing colorectal cancer screening in worksite interventions. Tailoring may be valuable as a strategy for reaching individuals with high overload, perhaps as a follow-up effort to a larger communication campaign.

  9. Burnout among the Addiction Counseling Workforce: The Differential Roles of Mindfulness and Values-based Processes and Work-site Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Vilardaga, Roger; Luoma, Jason B.; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.; Hildebrandt, Mikaela J.; Kohlenberg, Barbara; Roget, Nancy A.; Bond, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Although work-site factors have been shown to be a consistent predictor of burnout, the importance of mindfulness and values-based processes among addiction counselors has been little examined. In this study we explored how strongly experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion and values commitment related to burnout after controlling for well-established work-site factors (job control, co-worker support, supervisor support, salary, workload and tenure). We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 699 addiction counselors working for urban substance abuse treatment providers in six states of the U.S.A. Results corroborated the importance of work-site factors for burnout reduction in this specific population, but we found that mindfulness and values-based processes had a stronger and more consistent relationship with burnout as compared to work-site factors. We conclude that interventions that target experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion and values commitment may provide a possible new direction for the reduction of burnout among addiction counselors. PMID:21257281

  10. A Review and Analysis of the Clinical- and Cost-Effectiveness Studies of Comprehensive Health Promotion and Disease Management Programs at the Worksite: 1998-2000 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    Reviewed clinical- and cost-effectiveness studies, including quasi-experimental studies, of comprehensive, multifactorial worksite health promotion programs. Searching such sources as MEDLINE, ERIC, and ADI identified 15 studies. Results suggest that providing individualized risk reduction for high- risk employees within the context of…

  11. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    PubMed Central

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish

  12. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi; Nørgaard, Mette; Thind, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. Study population All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47%) patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC) and 512 (53%) were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). A total of 300 (31%) patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50%) received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5) in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31) in 2013. Conclusion This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and monitor treatment and mortality. In the future, DaBlaCa-data will be a valuable data source and expansive observational studies on BC will be available. PMID:27822081

  13. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346

  14. Current trends in reducing cardiovascular risk factors in the United States: focus on worksite health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard; Briggs, Paige; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Health care in the United States (US) is changing with a broad provision of health care services to every American due to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) slated to begin in January of 2014. An important aspect of the ACA is that US companies may begin to offer health insurance incentives to employees for participating in health and wellness initiatives. Moreover, since US employers directly absorb many of the financial costs associated with the high degree of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors present in their personnel, employers may be financially vested in improving employee health. However, employers must also consider the costs of developing and maintaining programs to improve employee health and their return on investment (ROI). This review will identify key risk factors to address in a worksite health and wellness program and to examine the performance of such programs in improving CV risk factors and their ROI.

  15. The Future of the Danish Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    as a natural consequence of being a co-founder of the United Nations, focused on promoting peace and stability in the world, as a relatively large...Soviet invasion to a more expeditionary course of deploying forces to promote peace and stability around the globe. As a result, Danish defense policy...Danish government including the armed forces. As a consequence Defense Agreement 2010 – 2014 was replaced by Defense Agreement 2013 – 2017 including

  16. Predictors of Japanese workers' motivation to use the results of worksite health checkups in their daily health management.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Okada, Mitsushi; Tsunoda, Masashi; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2009-11-01

    Japanese law stipulates that workers undergo worksite health checkups. If workers do not use their results of those checkups in their daily health management, the merit of this law will not be realized. Therefore, it is important to identify the predictors to improve their motivation to use the results of health checkups. We investigated those predictors by using a questionnaire survey. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted for 1,791 subjects (1,530 males and 261 females) at a Japanese manufacturing plant. The average age of enrolled subjects was 42.0 years (standard deviation [S.D.], 13.4 years). The average age of male subjects was 42.3 (S.D., 13.8) years and that of the female subjects was 39.9 (S.D., 10.4) years. The results revealed that as workers advanced in age, they maintained their motivation more to use those results. Women maintained their motivation more than men. Workers who believe that their health depends on the influence from physicians and healthcare providers in hospitals felt motivated. Workers who realized the effectiveness of those checkups to maintain good health, who knew how to adopt an appropriate lifestyle, and who were given consultations with physicians when they received their health checkups, felt motivated. Regarding the healthcare organizations' and occupational health staffs' responsibilities, only detecting illness early is not sufficient. Those healthcare providers must value more primary prevention. Our findings can be applied to various occupational health activities, including health consultations, health education seminars, and providing appropriate instruction on how to interpret the results of the worksite health checkups.

  17. Lipid and lipoprotein changes in women following 6 months of exercise training in a worksite fitness program.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P W; Oden, G L; Crouse, S F; Brown, J A; Green, J S

    1996-03-01

    It was the purpose of this investigation to examine the influence of a worksite aerobic training program on serum lipid and lipoproteins and cardiovascular fitness in female employees. Thirty-seven healthy but previously untrained, female employees (Ss) from Westinghouse Corporation, (College Station, Texas) volunteered for the study. Ss were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Ex) (n = 20) or control group (C) (n = 17). Prior to training (PRE) and following training (POST), all Ss were measured for weight (WT), body composition (%FAT) and tested for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max). PRE and POST Lipid analysis included: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Following PRE testing, the Ex group aerobically trained by walking, jogging and/or cycling, at least 3 days per wk for 24 wks. Exercise training resulted in an improvement in VO2 max (p < 0.0006) and a 2 kg WT loss in Ex (p < 0.025) with no change in C. Both Ex and C Ss exhibited a loss in %-FAT (p < 0.0001), and a decrease in TC (p < 0.0001) and LDL-C (p < 0.0001). No differences were observed between groups or over the training period for VLDL-C or TG. Although HDL-C increased 6 mg/dl in the Ex group but not in C, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p < 0.0625). These results demonstrate that aerobic training by females in a worksite fitness program significantly improves cardiovascular fitness without altering lipids or lipoproteins.

  18. [Exposure to mineral oils at worksites and novel solutions for polymer protective materials in selected personal protective equipment].

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Irzmańska, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of workers to health hazards due to contact with mineral oils occurs primarily in the chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, metallurgic and car industries. Under worksite conditions, the respiratory system and the skin are the primary routes of entry of mineral oils into the human body. Long-term exposure of the skin to oily substances may lead not only to irritation and allergic lesions. The studies conducted in this area have confirmed a significant increase in the incidence of skin cancers in persons chronically exposed to mineral oils. Protection of workers' health at worksites associated with the risk of contact with mineral oils requires, in addition to collective protective and organizational solutions, personal protective equipment with appropriate protection and utility parameters confirmed by laboratory tests. The essential preventive measures include protection of the human skin by means of appropriate protective clothing and gloves, which provide an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemical compounds present in mineral oils. Knowledge of polymer materials is the prerequisite for designing more and more effective and functional protective clothing and gloves. Studies aimed at obtaining higher levels of skin protection against varied toxic substances, including mineral oils, have been conducted, among others, to develop modern glove and clothing materials ensuring resistance to oils. The rapid progress of nanotechnology and the use of nanoadditives in polymer materials has made it possible to undertake works aimed at developing modern polymer nanostructures designed for construction of oil-resistant protective clothing and gloves. In this review paper the authors have presented the current knowledge of polymer materials, from traditional ones to polymer nanostructures, used in personal equipment protecting against mineral oils.

  19. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. PMID:27822082

  20. Effects of 5-Year Interventions on Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Factories and Offies Employees of Isfahan and Najafabad: Worksite Intervention Project-Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Boshtam, Maryam; Sarafzadegan, Nizal; Zare, Karim; Sadeghi, Shahriar; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Rabiei, Katayoun; Boshtam, Mansoreh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Effects of 5-year interventions of Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program on cardiovascular risk factors of factories and offices employees were studied in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention area) compared to Arak (control area). METHODS We had especial interventions for nutrition, physical activity and smoking as well as hypertension and obesity screening systems in all offices and factories, and other risk factors screening systems whenever possible. Before and after the interventions, questionnaires containing demographic and other required data were completed for the two populations; height, weight and blood pressure (BP) were measured and a fasting and 2h blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood sugar (BS) and lipid levels. RESULTS The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity decreased, but low HDL increased in office staff (P < 0.01). Waist circumference, HDL and total cholesterol mean values decreased, and diastolic BP and fasting and 2h BS increased among the intervention group. In factory workers, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity decreased, while low HDL prevalence increased in intervention group (P < 0.001). Mean values of waist circumference, HDL and total cholesterol, and triglyceride decreased significantly (P < 0.001), while diastolic BP and fasting BS increased. CONCLUSION It seems that Worksite Intervention Project has a protective effect on CVD risk factors in factories and offices employees. So, the modifiable project can be used as an applicable tool for health improvement in worksites which creates tangible changes in employees’ lifestyle. PMID:22577423

  1. Impact of a Worksite Diabetes Prevention Intervention on Diet Quality and Social Cognitive Influences of Health Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Weinhold, Kellie R.; Nagaraja, Haikady N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a worksite diabetes prevention intervention on secondary outcomes regarding the change in diet quality and components of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) theoretical framework Design Pretest-posttest control group design with 3-month follow-up Setting University worksite Participants Employees 18–65 years old with prediabetes (n=68) Intervention 16-week group-based intervention adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program Main Outcome Measures Diet quality was assessed using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) 2010; HAPA components were assessed via written questionnaire Analysis Repeated measures analysis of variance compared the between- and within-group change in outcomes across time. Results Significant difference occurred between-groups for the change in consumption of nuts/legumes and red/processed meats post-intervention and for fruits at 3-month follow-up (all P<.05); a significant increase in total AHEI score occurred post-intervention in the experimental group (P=.002). The changes in action planning, action self-efficacy, and coping self-efficacy from HAPA were significantly different between groups following the intervention; the change in outcome expectancies was significantly different between groups at 3-month follow-up (all P<.05). Conclusions and Implications The worksite intervention facilitated improvement in diet quality and in planning and efficacious beliefs regarding diabetes prevention. Further research is needed to evaluate the long-term impact of the intervention. PMID:26787601

  2. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study population Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Main variables Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Descriptive data Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. Conclusion The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients. PMID:27822083

  3. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  4. Do intervention fidelity and dose influence outcomes? Results from the move to improve worksite physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark G; Basta, Tania B; Bynum, Bethany H; DeJoy, David M; Vandenberg, Robert J; Dishman, Rod K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the implementation of the Move to Improve worksite physical activity program using a four step framework that includes the following: (i) defining the active ingredients, (ii) using good methods to measure implementation, (iii) monitoring implementation and (iv) relating implementation to outcomes. The intervention active ingredients consisted of a goal setting behavior change program, a team competition and environmental supports. Intervention fidelity and dose were measured by surveys administered to site co-ordinators, team captains and employees. Implementation was monitored by the use of biweekly assessments that tracked individual physical activity levels and through weekly reports of the project director and site co-ordinators. Latent growth modeling was conducted to determine whether intervention outcomes were affected by site implementation (i.e. fidelity) and/or participation by employees (i.e. dose). Results showed high levels of intervention fidelity, moderate to high levels of intervention dose delivered and moderate levels of the intervention dose received. Level of implementation affected the degree of change in vigorous physical activity (Mean = 5.4 versus 2.2; chi(2) = 4.9, df = 1), otherwise outcome measures were unaffected by fidelity and dose. These findings suggest that practitioners should focus more energy assuring that the core components are fully implemented and be less concerned about the level of participation.

  5. Effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation therapy as a worksite health promotion program in the automobile assembly line

    PubMed Central

    SUNDRAM, Bala Murali; DAHLUI, Maznah; CHINNA, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) as part of a Worksite Health Promotion Program on self-perceived stress, anxiety and depression among male automotive assembly-line workers through a quasi-experimental trial. Two assembly plants were chosen with one receiving PMR therapy and the other Pamphlets. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the relaxation therapy. Stress, Depression and Anxiety levels were measured using the shortened DASS-21 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Independent sample t test and Repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the significance of the effects of intervention (time * group) for the measures of Stress, Depression and Anxiety. Significant favourable intervention effects on stress were found in the PMR group (Effect size=0.6) as compared to the Pamphlet group (Effect size=0.2). There was a significant group *time interaction effect (p<0.001) on Stress levels. Depression and Anxiety levels were minimal at baseline in both the groups with mild or no reduction in levels. The improvement in stress levels showed the potential of PMR therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace. Further research in this field is necessary to examine the beneficial effects of coping strategies in the workplace. PMID:26726829

  6. Effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation therapy as a worksite health promotion program in the automobile assembly line.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Bala Murali; Dahlui, Maznah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) as part of a Worksite Health Promotion Program on self-perceived stress, anxiety and depression among male automotive assembly-line workers through a quasi-experimental trial. Two assembly plants were chosen with one receiving PMR therapy and the other Pamphlets. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the relaxation therapy. Stress, Depression and Anxiety levels were measured using the shortened DASS-21 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Independent sample t test and Repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the significance of the effects of intervention (time * group) for the measures of Stress, Depression and Anxiety. Significant favourable intervention effects on stress were found in the PMR group (Effect size=0.6) as compared to the Pamphlet group (Effect size=0.2). There was a significant group *time interaction effect (p<0.001) on Stress levels. Depression and Anxiety levels were minimal at baseline in both the groups with mild or no reduction in levels. The improvement in stress levels showed the potential of PMR therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace. Further research in this field is necessary to examine the beneficial effects of coping strategies in the workplace.

  7. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Helena; Gore, Rebecca J.; Boyer, Jon; Nobrega, Suzanne; Punnett, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background. Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. Methods. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides) utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Results. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational), such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Conclusions. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health. PMID:26380373

  8. Increasing Staff Mobility--A Danish Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Recent Danish government proposals to increase the national and international mobility of scientists are reviewed, including a formalized sabbatical system in the universities, new rules for obtaining leaves of absence with or without salary, and plans for increased mobility between public and private sectors. (MSE)

  9. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  10. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  11. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  12. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  13. The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry

    PubMed Central

    Gimsing, Peter; Holmström, Morten O; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfelt; Andersen, Niels Frost; Gregersen, Henrik; Pedersen, Robert Schou; Plesner, Torben; Pedersen, Per Trøllund; Frederiksen, Mikael; Frølund, Ulf; Helleberg, Carsten; Vangsted, Annette; de Nully Brown, Peter; Abildgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Danish National Multiple Myeloma Registry (DMMR) is a population-based clinical quality database established in January 2005. The primary aim of the database is to ensure that diagnosis and treatment of plasma cell dyscrasia are of uniform quality throughout the country. Another aim is to support research. Patients are registered with their unique Danish personal identification number, and the combined use of DMMR, other Danish National registries, and the Danish National Cancer Biobank offers a unique platform for population-based translational research. Study population All newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering MM, solitary plasmacytomas, and plasma cell leukemia in Denmark are registered annually; ~350 patients. Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with polyneuropathy have been registered since 2014. Main variables The main registered variables at diagnosis are patient demographics, baseline disease characteristics, myeloma-defining events, clinical complications, prognostics, first- and second-line treatments, treatment responses, progression free, and overall survival. Descriptive data Up to June 2015, 2,907 newly diagnosed patients with MM, 485 patients with smoldering MM, 64 patients with plasma cell leukemia, and 191 patients with solitary plasmacytomas were registered. Registration completeness of new patients is ~100%. A data validation study performed in 2013–2014 by the Danish Myeloma Study Group showed >95% data correctness. Conclusion The DMMR is a population-based data validated database eligible for clinical, epidemiological, and translational research. PMID:27822103

  14. Nutrition Standards for Food Service Guidelines for Foods Served or Sold in Municipal Government Buildings or Worksites, United States, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. Methods We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural–urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Results Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with <2,500 people, P < .001). Prevalence differed by region, and standards were most common in the West (6.6%) and least common in the Midwest (2.0%, P = .003).The most common nutrition topics addressed in standards were offering low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Conclusion Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents. PMID:28005531

  15. A worksite influenza immunization program. Impact on lost work days, health care utilization, and health care spending.

    PubMed

    Dille, J H

    1999-07-01

    Using a randomized, retrospective case control survey approach, this study compared employees immunized (cases) to a group of non immunized employees (controls) between the months of October and December 1994. In May 1995, a self administered questionnaire was distributed to employees working at the Hanford nuclear reservation located in eastern Washington State. Bivariate analysis included chi-square tests to study the association between influenza vaccine and rates of influenza like illness and related complications, rates of employee absenteeism, rates of physician visits, use of prescribed medication, and rates of hospitalization. To assess the economic benefits associated with vaccination, analysis included estimating the direct and indirect costs associated with immunization and influenza like illnesses, and complications related to influenza like illnesses. Responses to the survey resulted in 789 employees in the vaccinated group and 931 employees in the nonvaccinated group. As compared to vaccinated employees, nonvaccinated employees reported significantly higher rates of episodes of influenza like illness (78 per 100 compared to 59 per 100, p < 0), influenza related complications (8.0 compared to 5.0, p < .01), lost work days (63 per 100 compared to 35 per 100, p < 0), use of prescription medication (18.6 per 100 compared to 8.7 per 100, p < 0), physician visits (18.6 per 100 compared to 8.7 per 100, p < 0), and inpatient hospital. Cost savings were estimated to be $83.84 per person vaccinated. The results of this study suggest this worksite influenza vaccination program produced significant health related and economic benefit to employee participants and their employers.

  16. Non-smoking worksites in the residential construction sector: using an online forum to study perspectives and practices

    PubMed Central

    Bercovitz, Kim L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Blue-collar workers are a recognised priority for tobacco control. Construction workers have very high smoking rates and are difficult to study and reach with interventions promoting smoke-free workplaces and cessation. The objectives of this study were to explore the smoking-related social climate in the North American residential construction sector and to identify potential barriers and facilitators to creating smokefree worksites. Methods The data source used was a popular internet forum on home building. Participants included a broad and unselected population of employers, employees and freelance tradespersons working in residential construction. The forum archive contained 10 years of discourse on the subjects of smoking, workplace secondhand smoke and smoking restrictions on construction sites. Qualitative data analysis methods were used to describe major and minor discussion themes relevant to workplace smoking culture and policies in this sector. Results Participants described considerable tension between smoking and non-smoking tradespersons, but there was also much interpersonal support for cessation and support for non-smokers' rights. Employers and employees described efforts to make construction sites smoke free, and a movement towards preferential hiring of non-smoking tradespersons was discussed. Board participants wanted detailed scientific evidence on secondhand smoke exposure levels and risk thresholds, particularly in open-air workplaces. Conclusions Experience with success of smoking bans in other challenging workplaces can be applied to the construction sector. Potential movement of smokers out of the workforce represents a challenge for public health systems to ensure equitable access to cessation supports and services. PMID:21118847

  17. Determining Barriers and Facilitators Associated With Willingness to Use a Personal Health Information Management System to Support Worksite Wellness Programs.

    PubMed

    Neyens, David M; Childers, Ashley Kay

    2016-01-05

    Purpose . To determine the barriers and facilitators associated with willingness to use personal health information management (PHIM) systems to support an existing worksite wellness program (WWP). Design . The study design involved a Web-based survey. Setting . The study setting was a regional hospital. Subjects . Hospital employees comprised the study subjects. Measures . Willingness, barriers, and facilitators associated with PHIM were measured. Analysis . Bivariate logit models were used to model two binary dependent variables. One model predicted the likelihood of believing PHIM systems would positively affect overall health and willingness to use. Another predicted the likelihood of worrying about online security and not believing PHIM systems would benefit health goals. Results . Based on 333 responses, believing PHIM systems would positively affect health was highly associated with willingness to use PHIM systems (p < .01). Those comfortable online were 7.22 times more willing to use PHIM systems. Participants in exercise-based components of WWPs were 3.03 times more likely to be willing to use PHIM systems. Those who worried about online security were 5.03 times more likely to believe PHIM systems would not help obtain health goals. Conclusions . Comfort with personal health information online and exercise-based WWP experience was associated with willingness to use PHIM systems. However, nutrition-based WWPs did not have similar effects. Implementation barriers relate to technology anxiety and trust in security, as well as experience with specific WWP activities. Identifying differences between WWP components and addressing technology concerns before implementation of PHIM systems into WWPs may facilitate improved adoption and usage.

  18. Worksite Influences on Obesogenic Behaviors in Low-Wage Workers in St Louis, Missouri, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Pizzorno, Galen; Kinghorn, Anna M.; Evanoff, Bradley A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction More than one-third of US adults are obese. Workplace programs to reduce obesity and improve overall health are not available or accessible to all workers, particularly low-wage workers among whom obesity is more prevalent. The goal of the study was to identify modifiable workplace factors and behaviors associated with diet and exercise to inform future workplace interventions to improve health. Methods We distributed paper and online surveys to 2 groups of low-wage workers, hospital workers and retail sales workers, at the worksites. The surveys assessed obesity, obesogenic behaviors, workplace factors, and worker participation in workplace health programs (WHPs). Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted to examine workplace factors associated with obesogenic behaviors. Results A total of 529 surveys were completed (219 hospital workers and 310 retail workers). More than 40% of workers were obese and 27% were overweight. In general, workers had poor diets (frequent consumption of sugary and high-fat foods) and engaged in little physical activity (only 30.9% met recommended physical activity guidelines). Access to and participation in workplace health programs varied greatly between hospital and retail sales workers. We identified several modifiable workplace factors, such as food source and work schedule, that were associated with diet, exercise, or participation in workplace health programs. Conclusion This study illustrates the high prevalence of obesity and obesogenic behaviors workers in 2 low-wage groups. The differences between work groups indicated that each group had unique facilitators and barriers to healthy eating and exercise. An understanding of how socioeconomic, demographic, and work-related factors influence health will help to identify high-risk populations for intervention and to design interventions tailored and relevant to the target audiences. PMID:25950573

  19. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann.

  20. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  1. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. PMID:27822105

  2. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II), and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV). Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. PMID:27822109

  3. Public health strategies for preventing and controlling overweight and obesity in school and worksite settings: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Katz, David L; O'Connell, Meghan; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Nawaz, Haq; Njike, Valentine; Anderson, Laurie M; Cory, Stella; Dietz, William

    2005-10-07

    Reducing morbidity and mortality related to overweight and obesity is a public health priority. Various interventions in school and worksite settings aim to maintain or achieve healthy weight. To identify effective strategies for weight control that can be implemented in these settings, the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (Task Force) has conducted systematic reviews of the evidence on nutrition, physical activity, combinations of these interventions, and other behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive techniques such as self-awareness and cue recognition). Task Force recommendations are based on evidence of effectiveness, which is defined in this report as achieving a mean weight loss of > or =4 pounds, measured > or =6 months after initiation of the intervention program. The Task Force recommends multicomponent interventions that include nutrition and physical activity (including strategies such as providing nutrition education or dietary prescription, physical activity prescription or group activity, and behavioral skills development and training) to control overweight and obesity among adults in worksite settings. The Task Force determined that insufficient evidence existed to determine the effectiveness of combination nutrition and physical activity interventions to prevent or reduce overweight and obesity in school settings because of the limited number of qualifying studies reporting noncomparable outcomes. This report describes the methods used in these systematic reviews; provides additional information regarding these recommendations; and cites sources for full reviews containing details regarding applicability, other benefits and harms, barriers to implementation, research gaps, and economic data (when available) regarding interventions.

  4. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. Methods/Design The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. Discussion If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950. PMID:24964869

  5. Systematic review on the financial return of worksite health promotion programmes aimed at improving nutrition and/or increasing physical activity.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, J M; Proper, K I; van Wier, M F; van der Beek, A J; Bongers, P M; van Mechelen, W; van Tulder, M W

    2011-12-01

    This systematic review summarizes the current evidence on the financial return of worksite health promotion programmes aimed at improving nutrition and/or increasing physical activity. Data on study characteristics and results were extracted from 18 studies published up to 14 January 2011. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Three metrics were (re-)calculated per study: the net benefits, benefit cost ratio (BCR) and return on investment (ROI). Metrics were averaged, and a post hoc subgroup analysis was performed to compare financial return estimates between study designs. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 13 non-randomized studies (NRSs) and one modelling study were included. Average financial return estimates in terms of absenteeism benefits (NRS: ROI 325%, BCR 4.25; RCT: ROI -49%, BCR 0.51), medical benefits (NRS: ROI 95%, BCR 1.95; RCT: ROI -112%, BCR -0.12) or both (NRS: ROI 387%, BCR 4.87; RCT: ROI -92%, BCR 0.08) were positive in NRSs, but negative in RCTs. Worksite health promotion programmes aimed at improving nutrition and/or increasing physical activity generate financial savings in terms of reduced absenteeism costs, medical costs or both according to NRSs, whereas they do not according to RCTs. Since these programmes are associated with additional types of benefits, conclusions about their overall profitability cannot be made.

  6. Effects of a Worksite Health Programme on the Improvement of Physical Health among Overweight and Obese Civil Servants: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    RAMLI, Ayiesah; HENRY, Leonard Joseph; LIANG, York Fuan; BEH, Jyh Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and reduced energy expenditure has led to increased obesity among office workers. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite health programme aimed at improving physical health among obese civil servants. Methods: A total of 28 employees participated in a six-month-long obesity health programme, which consisted of two weekly unsupervised exercise sessions and monthly dietary/health education sessions. The physical fitness and body fat percentages of participants were assessed at the baseline and after six months, using SPSS version 20.0. Results: The participants were 31.6 years (SD 8.2) of age, and had a BMI of 27.6 kg/m2 (SD 3.2). The Wilcoxon test showed significant differences in body fat percentage (P = 0.010), gross maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max, P = 0.014), partial curl up repetition (P = 0.001) and sit and reach distance (P = 0.005). However, no significant effects were observed on body mass (P = 0.193), self-perceived level of physical activity (P = 0.145) or behaviour toward exercise (P = 0.393). Conclusion: The worksite health programme successfully improved the physical fitness and body fat percentages of subjects, despite not improving the subjects’ self-perceptions with regard to physical activity. PMID:24643369

  7. Effectiveness of a Worksite Mindfulness-Related Multi-Component Health Promotion Intervention on Work Engagement and Mental Health: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Berkel, Jantien; Boot, Cécile R. L.; Proper, Karin I.; Bongers, Paulien M.; van der Beek, Allard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-related multi-component health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness. Methods In a randomized controlled trial design, 257 workers of two research institutes participated. The intervention group (n = 129) received a targeted mindfulness-related training, followed by e-coaching. The total duration of the intervention was 6 months. Data on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness were collected using questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 months follow-up. Effects were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Results There were no significant differences in work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness between the intervention and control group after either 6- or 12-months follow-up. Additional analyses in mindfulness-related training compliance subgroups (high and low compliance versus the control group as a reference) and subgroups based on baseline work engagement scores showed no significant differences either. Conclusions This study did not show an effect of this worksite mindfulness-related multi-component health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness after 6 and 12 months. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2199 PMID:24489648

  8. Evaluation of environmental management resources (ISO 14001) at civil engineering construction worksites: a case study of the community of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Gracia; Alegre, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Germán

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental

  9. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  10. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under…

  11. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  12. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  13. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  14. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly.

  15. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  16. Demographic, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Correlates of Using the Website Component of a Worksite Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Promotion Program: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Robroek, Suzan JW; Brouwer, Wendy; Lindeboom, Dennis; Oenema, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered behavior change programs have the potential to reach a large population. However, low participation levels and high levels of attrition are often observed. The worksite could be a setting suitable for reaching and retaining large numbers of people, but little is known about reach and use of Internet-delivered health promotion programs in the worksite setting. Objective This study aimed (1) to gain more insight in the use of the website component of a worksite behavior change intervention and (2) to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with website use. Methods The study was an observational study among participants from 5 workplaces in a cluster randomized controlled trial. At baseline, all participants visited a study website to fill out the baseline questionnaire. Then a physical health check was done followed by face-to-face advice. After this contact, all participants received an email to promote visiting the website to view their health check results and the personal advice based on the baseline questionnaire. In the subsequent period, only participants in the intervention group received monthly email messages to promote website visits and were offered additional Web-based tools (self-monitors and a food frequency questionnaire [FFQ] assessing saturated fat intake) to support their behavior change. Website use was monitored by website statistics registering website access. Complete data were available for 726 employees. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify characteristics of employees who visited and used the website. Results In total, 43% of the participants visited the website after the email to promote website visits. Participants who were insufficiently physically active were less likely to visit the website (odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.88), whereas individuals with an elevated total cholesterol level visited the website more often (OR 1.44, 95

  17. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  18. Worksite Stress Management Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents a framework used for viewing stress and organizational stress interventions. Reviews the stress management intervention literature in the context of this framework. Provides examples of corporations committed to stress management programs. Identifies future needs appropriate for organizational psychologists to address. (Author/JS)

  19. Psychological defenses of Danish medical students.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Patterns in the psychological defenses of medical students may have implications for the way they handle and respond to the pressures and developmental issues they encounter in medical school and beyond. Using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ40) to assess psychological defenses, a sample of first-year Danish medical students was compared with a sample of students at a short-term boarding school for general education. The medical students scored significantly higher on items connected with pseudo-altruism, denial, and undoing. Trends in the data furthermore suggest a greater use of sublimation, rationalization, and dissociation among medical students. When defense mechanisms were labeled into mature, neurotic, and immature categories, there were no differences between the groups or in the total defense scores.

  20. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. Study population The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Main variables Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Descriptive data Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. Conclusion The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes. PMID:27822104

  1. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma) of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80). Main variables The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. Conclusion Half a century of registration of head and neck cancer treatment and outcome has created the basis for understanding and has substantially contributed to improve the treatment of head and neck cancer at both

  2. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  3. The Immigrant Worker and the Danish Public Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Bulletin for Libraries, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A summary of a survey conducted in 1973 of Danish library services available to immigrant workers and their families, especially those speaking Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and the languages used in Yugoslavia. (Author/KP)

  4. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  5. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  6. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the disease-modifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. Study population The DMSTR includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Main variables Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Descriptive data Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start, and thereafter every 6 months. The longitudinally collected information about the disease activity and side effects made it possible to investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse events of different disease-modifying therapies. Conclusion The database contributed to a certain harmonization of treatment procedures in Denmark and will continue to be a major factor in terms of quality in clinical praxis, research and monitoring of adverse events, and plays an important role in research. PMID:27822098

  7. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  8. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children. PMID:25299657

  9. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  10. Liberalization in the Danish waste sector: an institutional perspective.

    PubMed

    Kørnøv, Lone; Hill, Amanda Louise; Busck, Ole; Løkke, Søren

    2016-12-01

    The push for creating a more competitive and liberalized system for traditional public services, including waste management, has been on the European agenda since the late 1980s. In 2008, changes were made in EU waste legislation allowing source-separated industrial/commercial waste that is suitable for incineration to be traded within the European market. This change has had broad implications for the Danish waste sector, which is characterized by institutionalized municipal control with all streams of waste and municipal ownership of the major treatment facilities allowing the municipal sector to integrate combustible waste in local heat and power generation. This article, applying an institutional approach, maps the institutions and actors of the Danish waste sector and analyses how the regulatory as well as normative pressure to liberalize has been met and partly neutralized in the institutional and political context. The new Danish regulation of 2010 has thus accommodated the specific requirement for liberalization, but in fact only represents a very small step towards a market-based waste management system. On the one hand, by only liberalizing industrial/commercial waste, the Danish Government chose to retain the main features of the established waste system favouring municipal control and hence the institutionalized principles of decentralized enforcement of environmental legislation as well as welfare state considerations. On the other hand, this has led to a technological and financial deadlock, particularly when it comes to reaching the recycling targets of EU, which calls for further adjustments of the Danish waste sector.

  11. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet.

    PubMed

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-11-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procurement policies (for increasing healthful or reducing unhealthful choices), and worksite wellness programs (especially when comprehensive and multicomponent). Evidence was inconclusive for food and menu labeling (for consumer or industry behavior) and changes in local built environment (e.g., availability or accessibility of supermarkets, fast food outlets). We found little empiric evidence evaluating marketing restrictions, although broad principles and large resources spent on marketing suggest utility. Widespread implementation and evaluation of evidence-based policy strategies, with further research on other strategies with mixed/limited evidence, are essential "population medicine" to reduce health and economic burdens and inequities of diet-related illness worldwide.

  12. The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nis; Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard; Schielke, Katja Christina; Bek, Toke; Grauslund, Jakob; Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andresen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database To monitor the development of diabetic eye disease in Denmark and to evaluate the accessibility and effectiveness of diabetic eye screening programs with focus on interregional variations. Target population The target population includes all patients diagnosed with diabetes. Denmark (5.5 million inhabitants) has ~320,000 diabetes patients with an annual increase of 27,000 newly diagnosed patients. The Danish Registry of Diabetic Retinopathy (DiaBase) collects data on all diabetes patients aged ≥18 years who attend screening for diabetic eye disease in hospital eye departments and in private ophthalmological practice. In 2014–2015, DiaBase included data collected from 77,968 diabetes patients. Main variables The main variables provide data for calculation of performance indicators to monitor the quality of diabetic eye screening and development of diabetic retinopathy. Data with respect to age, sex, best corrected visual acuity, screening frequency, grading of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy at each visit, progression/regression of diabetic eye disease, and prevalence of blindness were obtained. Data analysis from DiaBase’s latest annual report (2014–2015) indicates that the prevalence of no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy is 78%, 18%, and 4%, respectively. The percentage of patients without diabetic maculopathy is 97%. The proportion of patients with regression of diabetic retinopathy (20%) is greater than the proportion of patients with progression of diabetic retinopathy (10%). Conclusion The collection of data from diabetic eye screening is still expanding in Denmark. Analysis of the data collected during the period 2014–2015 reveals an overall decrease of diabetic retinopathy compared to the previous year, although the number of patients newly diagnosed with diabetes has been increasing in Denmark. DiaBase is a useful tool to observe the quality of screening

  13. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  14. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  15. Death in nursing homes: a Danish qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gorlén, Tanja Fromberg; Gorlén, Thomas; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of end-of-life care in Danish nursing homes (NHs). This qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews with nursing staff members in three NHs in Copenhagen, Denmark, aimed to describe the participants' perceptions of end-of-life care in Danish NHs, with particular focus on medication administration and collaboration with GPs. Four main categories of problematic issues emerged: medication (problems with 'as needed' medication and lack of knowledge of subcutaneous administration), interpersonal relations (difficulties in cooperation and communication between relatives and GPs), decision making (problems concerning termination of life-prolonging treatment and the need for early planning of end-of-life care), and professional development (documentation and education). Considerable improvements may be achieved primarily by educating and training nursing staff and GPs. More research is warranted to optimise end-of-life care in Danish NHs.

  16. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  17. Leaching of bentazon from Danish agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Kjær, Jeanne; Brüsch, Walter; Olsen, Preben

    2013-04-01

    Bentazone (CAS No. 25057-89-0) is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for a variety of crops. Rapid photo degradation occurs in soil and water; however, bentazone is very mobile in soil and moderately persistent in the environment. Bentazone has been reported to occur in surface water, groundwater and drinking water at concentrations of a few micro g per L or less. With its high affinity for the water compartment in the soil media, it does not seem to accumulate in the subsurface. Results from 12 evaluations/applications on six intensive-monitored and agricultural fields (two sandy and four loamy soils) in the Danish Pesticide Leaching risk Assessment Programme (PLAP) verified these findings. Bentazone was applied in the timeframe May - beginning of June. It was detected in 1 m depth (suctions cups and drains) at all the PLAP-fields. In 4 out of 12 applications, the average concentration of the period after the first detection until July the following year, was found to exceed 0.1 micro g per L in 1 meters depth. At all of the fields groundwater level was dropping at the time of bentazon application. This seemed to result in detection in groundwater at the loamy but not the sandy fields, which indicate the prescence of rapid preferential transport in the macropore systems of the loamy fields and a piston-alike transport in the sandy fields. Even though detections in 1 m depth indicated a relative high mass of bentazon leaching as a puls through sandy soil, bentazon was not found below this depth. The degree of detections in the groundwater at the loamy fields seemed to be impacted by the hydraulic contact to deeper fracture systems in the soil. At the loamy fields with a good hydraulic contact, bentazon was detected in groundwater from both vertical and horisontal filters shortly after application - also in concentrations exceeding 0.1 micro g per L. By applying bentazon on different crops, results clearly showed that the leaf-area-index at application and the ability

  18. Outside the Box: The Danish Folkehojskole as Educational Innovator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    Travelling between various Scandinavian adult educational institutions in 1978, the author, John Collins, picked up a couple of hitchhikers--Danish students returning to their school after a short vacation period. As they neared the Funen Island harbour village, which was their destination, the students invited Collins to visit their school. What…

  19. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  20. The Danish Civil Registration System as a tool in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-08-01

    The methodological advances in epidemiology have facilitated the use of the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in ways not previously described systematically. We reviewed the CRS and its use as a research tool in epidemiology. We obtained information from the Danish Law on Civil Registration and the Central Office of Civil Registration, and used existing literature to provide illustrative examples of its use. The CRS is an administrative register established on April 2, 1968. It contains individual-level information on all persons residing in Denmark (and Greenland as of May 1, 1972). By January 2014, the CRS had cumulatively registered 9.5 million individuals and more than 400 million person-years of follow-up. A unique ten-digit Civil Personal Register number assigned to all persons in the CRS allows for technically easy, cost-effective, and unambiguous individual-level record linkage of Danish registers. Daily updated information on migration and vital status allows for nationwide cohort studies with virtually complete long-term follow-up on emigration and death. The CRS facilitates sampling of general population comparison cohorts, controls in case-control studies, family cohorts, and target groups in population surveys. The data in the CRS are virtually complete, have high accuracy, and can be retrieved for research purposes while protecting the anonymity of Danish residents. In conclusion, the CRS is a key tool for epidemiological research in Denmark.

  1. Prevalence of work-site injuries and relationship between obesity and injury among U.S. workers: NHIS 2004–2012✩, ✩✩,★, ★★

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ja K.; Charles, Luenda E.; Andrew, Michael E.; Ma, Claudia C.; Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Studies have reported associations between obesity and injury in a single occupation or industry. Our study estimated the prevalence of work-site injuries and investigated the association between obesity and work-site injury in a nationally representative sample of U.S. workers. Methods Self-reported weight, height, and injuries within the previous three months were collected annually for U.S. workers in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 2004–2012. Participants were categorized as normal weight (BMI: 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI: 25.0–29.9), obese I (BMI: 30.0–34.9), and obese II (BMI: 35+). The prevalence of injury and prevalence ratios from fitted logistic regression models was used to assess relationships between obesity and injury after adjusting for covariates. Sampling weights were incorporated using SUDAAN software. Results During the 9-year study period from 2004 to 2012, 1120 workers (78 workers per 10,000) experienced a work-related injury during the previous three months. The anatomical sites with the highest prevalence of injury were the back (14.3/10,000 ± 1.2), fingers (11.5 ± 1.3), and knees (7.1 ± 0.8). The most common types of injuries were sprains/strains/twists (41.5% of all injuries), cuts (20.0%), and fractures (11.8%). Compared to normal weight workers, overweight and obese workers were more likely to experience work-site injuries [overweight: PR = 1.25 (95% CI = 1.04–1.52); obese I: 1.41 (1.14–1.74); obese II: 1.68 (1.32–2.14)]. These injuries were more likely to affect the lower extremities [overweight: PR = 1.48, (95% CI = 1.03–2.13); obese I: 1.70 (1.13–2.55); obese II: 2.91 (1.91–4.41)] and were more likely to be due to sprains/strains/twists [overweight: PR = 1.73 (95% CI=1.29–2.31); obese I: PR = 2.24 (1.64–3.06); obese II: PR = 2.95 (2.04–4.26)]. Conclusions Among NHIS participants, overweight and obese workers were 25% to 68% more likely to experience injuries than normal

  2. The Effectiveness of a Worksite Lifestyle Intervention Program on High-Risk Individuals as Potential Candidates for Bariatric Surgery: My Unlimited Potential (MyUP).

    PubMed

    Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Aneni, Ehimen C; Shaharyar, Sameer; Roberson, Lara; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Spatz, Erica; Younus, Adnan; Guzman, Henry; Brown, Doris; Santiago-Charles, Joann; Ochoa, Teresa; Mora, Joseph; Gilliam, Cynthia; Lehn, Virginia; Sherriff, Shoshana; Tran, Thinh; Gonzalez, Anthony; Virani, Salim; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur S; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-10-01

    This is a single-arm, pre and post effectiveness study that evaluated the impact of a comprehensive workplace lifestyle program on severe obesity among high cardiovascular disease risk individuals in a large, diverse employee population. Employees of Baptist Health South Florida were considered eligible to participate if they had 2 or more of the following cardiometabolic risk factors: total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, body mass index ≥30kg/m(2). Participants received a personalized diet plan and physical activity intervention, and were followed for 1 year. Data on anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood glucose, and other biochemical measures were collected. Participants' body mass index was calculated and their eligibility for bariatric surgery (BS) also assessed. A total of 297 persons participated in the program; 160 participants completed all procedures through 12 months of follow-up. At baseline, 34% (n = 100) of all participants were eligible for BS. In an intention-to-treat analysis, 27% (n = 27) of BS eligible participants at baseline became ineligible after 12 months. Considering program completers only, 46% of BS eligible participants at baseline became ineligible. Irrespective of BS eligibility at 12 months, mean values of cardiometabolic risk factors among program completers improved after the follow-up period. Workplace wellness programs provide an important option for weight loss that can obviate the need for BS, reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and potentially reduce costs. However, in designing future worksite lifestyle interventions, measures should be taken to improve participation and retention rates in such programs.

  3. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  4. [Dark visions and adaptation in Danish ophthalmology 1889-1940].

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    The scotopticometer is a small, light and handy instrument from 1935, which was developed in Denmark by Carsten Edmund Zeuthen (1897-1973) and Hans Ulrik Møller (1894-1954) for the measurement of dark vision without the use of a dark chamber. The prerequisites are Jannik Bjerrum's contrast letters from 1889 and Marius Tscherning's photometric neutral-gray filter-glasses with a logaritmic scale (Ph 1-8); both Bjerrum (1851-1920) and Tscherning (1854-1939) were Danish ophthalmologists. Tescherning's basic experiments and theories are reported, based on a study of his scientific publications, scientific protocols, letters and scrapbook. Tscherning inspired many young Danish scientists to further studies of dark adaptation, which is still an important topic (traffic, military, art, illumination, gerontology).

  5. Recent changes in Danish law on drugs and drug offences.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, J; Laursen, L

    1998-09-01

    The article recounts changes in Danish Drug Law and Enforcement since the beginning of the 1990s and relates them to general trends in Danish criminal policy during the period. In addition to the implementation of EU directives, e.g. on money laundering and growth hormones, legislation has been passed to curb conspicuous dealing of drugs in the streets of Copenhagen. This part of the legislation is seen as a reaction to public fears and reactions to visible aliens dealing in drugs in a conspicuous way, albeit in minor quantities. The legal changes imply a considerable rise in penalties for repeated dealings in minor quantities and easier access to deportation of aliens. The latter has been criticized as potential violation of the human rights of aliens. This and other recent changes in criminal law and related legislation is seen as an indication of politicians' concerns with voters' anxieties, possibly at the edge of moral panics.

  6. Struggles for health and safety in the Danish construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An encouraging trend of reductions in accidents and fatalities in the Danish construction industry, brought about by the combined sustained efforts of unions, management, and government, is suffering a reverse. While some large construction companies have achieved excellent safety records through effective internal programs combining rewards and penalties as incentives, the overall picture is worsening as government eases pressures on small and medium-sized enterprises by relaxing occupational health and safety regulations.

  7. [Risk of cancer among Danish electricity workers. A cohort study].

    PubMed

    Johansen, C; Olsen, J H

    1999-04-05

    We report the incidence of cancer in a large cohort of employees identified from all 99 Danish utility companies. Personal data, and information on employment and exposure to magnetic fields and asbestos were obtained from manual files at the companies, the Danish Supplementary Pension Fund and the public payroll administration. A total of 32,006 individuals with more than three months of employment were linked with the files of the Danish Cancer Registry. Overall, 3008 cancers were observed, with 2825 expected, yielding a small but significantly increased risk of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.10). No excess was observed for all leukemias or for cancers of the brain or breast among men or women. There was no association of electromagnetic field exposure with risk of these cancers even when the level and length of exposure to magnetic fields were taken into account. Increased risks for cancers of the lung and pleural cavity were seen mainly for workers whose jobs involve exposure to asbestos. Our results do not support the hypothesis of an association between occupational exposures to magnetic fields in the electric utility industry and the risk for cancer.

  8. Effectiveness of a Worksite Social & Physical Environment Intervention on Need for Recovery, Physical Activity and Relaxation; Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Coffeng, Jennifer K.; Boot, Cécile R. L.; Duijts, Saskia F. A.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Mechelen, Willem; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a worksite social and physical environment intervention on need for recovery (i.e., early symptoms of work-related mental and physical fatigue), physical activity and relaxation. Also, the effectiveness of the separate interventions was investigated. Methods In this 2×2 factorial design study, 412 office employees from a financial service provider participated. Participants were allocated to the combined social and physical intervention, to the social intervention only, to the physical intervention only or to the control group. The primary outcome measure was need for recovery. Secondary outcomes were work-related stress (i.e., exhaustion, detachment and relaxation), small breaks, physical activity (i.e., stair climbing, active commuting, sport activities, light/moderate/vigorous physical activity) and sedentary behavior. Outcomes were measured by questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Multilevel analyses were performed to investigate the effects of the three interventions. Results In all intervention groups, a non-significant reduction was found in need for recovery. In the combined intervention (n = 92), exhaustion and vigorous physical activities decreased significantly, and small breaks at work and active commuting increased significantly compared to the control group. The social intervention (n = 118) showed a significant reduction in exhaustion, sedentary behavior at work and a significant increase in small breaks at work and leisure activities. In the physical intervention (n = 96), stair climbing at work and active commuting significantly increased, and sedentary behavior at work decreased significantly compared to the control group. Conclusion None of the interventions was effective in improving the need for recovery. It is recommended to implement the social and physical intervention among a population with higher baseline values of need for recovery. Furthermore, the intervention

  9. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  10. Educational Assessment in Danish Schools. Profiles of Educational Assessment Systems Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelund, Niels

    2005-01-01

    This profile describes the methods used for assessing pupils in Danish schools. The Danish school system is rooted in traditions going back almost 200 years. The per pupil expenditure is the highest of any country at the level of primary education and at the lower secondary level is only exceeded by three countries. Public satisfaction with the…

  11. Towards an Understanding of "Udeskole:" Education outside the Classroom in a Danish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Mygind, Erik; Randrup, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of Danish public, private and independent schools have introduced regular compulsory education outside the classroom for children aged 7-16 as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day--known in Danish as "udeskole." An analysis of this form of outdoor education, its impacts and…

  12. The History We Need: Strategies of Citizen Formation in the Danish History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Simon Laumann

    2015-01-01

    Teaching history in schools can be a significant policy instrument for shaping the identities of future citizens. The Danish curriculum for teaching history of 2009 aims at strengthening a sense of "Danishness" which calls for theoretical analysis. Focusing on this particular case, the paper develops a political theoretical frame for…

  13. Is Danish Difficult to Acquire? Evidence from Nordic Past-Tense Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…

  14. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such as the Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing the size of the reference population for Danish Jerseys. The first ap...

  15. The Value of Open Geographical Data - The Danish Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colding, T. S.; Folner, M.; Krarup, S.; Kongsbak, J.

    2013-12-01

    Good basic data for everyone is part of the common public-sector digitization strategy for 2011 to 2015. The vision is that basic data is to be the high-quality common foundation for public sector administration; efficiently updated at one place, and used by everyone - including the private sector. Open basic data will benefit public-sector efficiency as well as innovation and value creation by Danish society in general. With basic data as a new digital raw material, commercial products can be developed and public information and services can be improved, providing for greater insight and stronger democracy. On the first of January 2013 Denmark released this digital raw material. As a general rule, all basic data is to be made freely available to all public authorities, private businesses and individuals. This makes basic data a common digital resource, which can be exploited freely for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. A positive business case contributed in convincing Danish politicians to approve the basic data program. Once the initiatives have been fully implemented, the revenues for society are expected to be approx. DKK 800 million annually. Private-sector revenues will be up to DKK half a billion annually, and it is expected that e.g. the real estate, insurance, financial, and telecom sectors, as well as GPS (sat-nav) manufacturers, public companies and entrepreneurs will be among those to benefit hugely from the initiatives. The financial gain for the private sector of open geographical data alone is expected to be approx. 100 million DKK annually. As part of the Basic data program The Danish Geodata Agency (Ministry of the Environment) gave free access to all topographic data, cadastral maps and Digital Elevation Model on Jan. 1st, 2013. The Danish Geodata Agency has decided to measure the effect of the open geographic data in the public sector (efficiency) and in the private sector (growth). The effect will be measured by using reference

  16. [The development of antibiotics use in Danish food production].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2011-11-07

    In the Danish husbandry antimicrobial growth promoters were phased out 1994-2000 and the therapeutic use has been increasingly regulated. Hitherto, a minimum in therapeutic use was reached in 1997. The antimicrobial use in pigs increased by 44% during 2002-2009; a 12% decrease in second half of 2010 was likely due to the announcement of the "yellow card" regulation. From July 2010, a voluntary two years stop of cephalosporins use in pigs was realized, due to increasing occurrence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) resistance in animal and meat isolates; highest levels of ESBL are observed in imported poultry.

  17. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B F; Holt, H M; Gerner-Smidt, P; Bundvad, A; Sogaard, P; Gram, L

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection.

  18. The Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services

    PubMed Central

    Frischknecht Christensen, Erika; Berlac, Peter Anthony; Nielsen, Henrik; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services (QEMS) is to assess, monitor, and improve the quality of prehospital emergency medical service care in the entire prehospital patient pathway. The aim of this review is to describe the design and the implementation of QEMS. Study population The study population consists of all “112 patient contacts” defined as emergency patients, where the entrance to health care is a 112 call forwarded to one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers in Denmark since January 1, 2014. Estimated annual number of included “112 patients” is 300,000–350,000. Main variables We defined nine quality indicators and the following variables: time stamps for emergency calls received at one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers, dispatch of prehospital unit(s), arrival of first prehospital unit, arrival of first supplemental prehospital unit, and mission completion. Finally, professional level and type of the prehospital resource dispatched to an incident and end-of-mission status (mission completed by phone, on scene, or admission to hospital) are registered. Descriptive data Descriptive data included age, region, and Danish Index for Emergency Care including urgency level. Conclusion QEMS is a new database under establishment and is expected to provide the basis for quality improvement in the prehospital setting and in the entire patient care pathway, for example, by providing prehospital data for research and other quality databases. PMID:27843347

  19. Macroecological signals of species interactions in the Danish avifauna.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Graves, Gary R; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-03-16

    The role of intraspecific and interspecific interactions in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well documented, but the signature of species interactions at coarser spatial scales is unclear. We present evidence that species interactions may be a significant factor in mediating the regional assembly of the Danish avifauna. Because >95% of breeding species (n = 197) are migratory, we hypothesized that dispersal limitation would not be important and that breeding distributions would largely reflect resource availability and autecological habitat preferences. Instead, we detected a striking pattern of spatial segregation between ecologically similar species at two spatial scales with a suite of null models that factored in the spatial distribution of habitats in Denmark as well as population size and biomass of each species. Habitat utilization analyses indicated that community-wide patterns of spatial segregation could not be attributed to the patchy distribution of habitat or to gross differences in habitat utilization among ecologically similar species. We hypothesize that, when habitat patch size is limited, conspecific attraction in concert with interspecific territoriality may result in spatially segregated distributions of ecologically similar species at larger spatial scales. In the Danish avifauna, the effects of species interactions on community assembly appear pervasive and can be discerned at grain sizes up to four orders of magnitude larger than those of individual territories. These results suggest that species interactions should be incorporated into species distribution modeling algorithms designed to predict species occupancy patterns based on environmental variables.

  20. [The early history of the Danish twin registry].

    PubMed

    Harvald, B; Hauge, G

    1999-01-01

    The Danish Twin Registry was initiated at the Copenhagen University Institute for Human Genetics in 1954 by professor Tage Kemp and his assistants, Bent Harvald and Mogens Hauge. The project was until 1960 primarily financed by US National Cancer Institutes. Twin pairs both of same and different sex, born 1870-1910 were drawn from the birth registers and followed-up through the national registers until death or present place of living. Later on same sex pairs born 1911-30 were added. Besided cancer a multitude of other disorders were registered. Intensive studies on identical twins grown up apart were undertaken by Niels Juel-Nielsen, on criminal behaviour by Karl O. Christiansen, on smoking habits by Elisabeth Raaschou-Nielsen, on peptic ulcer by Kaj Gotlieb Jensen, on schizophrenia by Margit Fischer. Among early remarkable results should be mentioned the modest influence of genetic versus environmental factors in most cases of cancer, the strong genetic impact in mental and moral qualities, the approximate genetic/environmental ratio of 50/50 for the orgin of criminal behaviour and a corresponding ratio of 25/75 for life expectancy. In 1971 the Danish Twin Registry was moved to Odense Universty.

  1. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2016-04-12

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects' relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects.

  2. Macroecological signals of species interactions in the Danish avifauna

    PubMed Central

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Graves, Gary R.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The role of intraspecific and interspecific interactions in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well documented, but the signature of species interactions at coarser spatial scales is unclear. We present evidence that species interactions may be a significant factor in mediating the regional assembly of the Danish avifauna. Because >95% of breeding species (n = 197) are migratory, we hypothesized that dispersal limitation would not be important and that breeding distributions would largely reflect resource availability and autecological habitat preferences. Instead, we detected a striking pattern of spatial segregation between ecologically similar species at two spatial scales with a suite of null models that factored in the spatial distribution of habitats in Denmark as well as population size and biomass of each species. Habitat utilization analyses indicated that community-wide patterns of spatial segregation could not be attributed to the patchy distribution of habitat or to gross differences in habitat utilization among ecologically similar species. We hypothesize that, when habitat patch size is limited, conspecific attraction in concert with interspecific territoriality may result in spatially segregated distributions of ecologically similar species at larger spatial scales. In the Danish avifauna, the effects of species interactions on community assembly appear pervasive and can be discerned at grain sizes up to four orders of magnitude larger than those of individual territories. These results suggest that species interactions should be incorporated into species distribution modeling algorithms designed to predict species occupancy patterns based on environmental variables. PMID:20194760

  3. Determinants of sunbed use in a population of Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Joan; Krarup, Anne F; Castberg, Ida-Marie; Jensen, Poul D; Philip, Anja

    2013-03-01

    In Denmark, melanoma is the most common type of cancer in individuals aged 15-34 years. Ultraviolet radiation from sunbeds is a risk factor for melanoma. Knowledge of the characteristics of sunbed users is important in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of sunbed use. The objective of this study was to examine sunbed use and its association with smoking, parental socioeconomic status (SES), friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, and school environment among adolescents aged 14-18 years at continuation schools in Denmark. We conducted a survey among adolescents in Danish continuation schools in 2011. We examined sunbed use and its association with age, smoking, friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, parental SES, and shared environment of the continuation school, using logistic regression. Within the past 12 months, 38% of the pupils had used a sunbed (70% girls and 28% boys). There was no difference in sunbed use according to age. Smoking and friends' positive attitudes towards, and higher use of sunbeds were associated with increased use of sunbeds. High SES of mothers' was associated with lower odds for sunbed use among girls. The association of school environment with sunbed use was modest compared with the other variables. Adolescents in continuation schools report a higher use of sunbeds than Danish adolescents as such. Educational interventions should be targeted at preteens, as sunbed use is common in 14-year-olds. Special educational tools are tested in the continuation school environment and may prove effective in this population.

  4. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  5. Medical informatic research management in academia - the Danish setting.

    PubMed

    Kjær Andersen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The condition that the Danish universities have been subject to severe changes through the last decade has had huge consequences for management of research at the level of a discipline as Medical Informatics. The presentation pinpoints some of the instruments, which is on top of the management agenda in the new academic reality in Denmark. Performance contracts, organizational structure, general management, research constraints, ranking and performance issues, economy linked to production, ownership, and incitements are issues affecting the way research are done. The issue of effective research management is to navigate in this reality, ensure inspiration and influx from other environments dealing with medical informatics problems, in theory as well as in praxis - and shield the individual researcher from emerging bureaucracy, leaving room for creativity.

  6. Identifying divergent foster care careers for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care drift, instability, and placement disruptions to define the unstable foster care career as a subset of foster care careers. I then use administrative data on 30,239 Danish children born 1982-1987 who entered foster care to generate nine foster care careers, two of which meet the criteria for an unstable career. Children with a high number of risk factors associated with foster care entry were also the most likely to enter an unstable career. I end by discussing implications for recent studies of the effect of foster care on children's later life outcomes and the relevance of the findings for practitioners.

  7. New developments in the Danish Wind Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Denmark are among the best in Europe. In recent years there has been a rapid growth in number of wind turbines connected to the grid in Denmark. By the end of 1995 more than 3800 wind turbines were installed on-shore with a capacity of over 600 MW. The total production of electricity from these turbines in 1995 was more than 1200 GWh, corresponding to approximately 3.6 % of the Danish electricity consumption. For several years Denmark has pursued an energy policy with an increasing weight on environmental aspects and new and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Therefore wind energy already plays an important part as supplement to the traditional sources of fuel in the electricity production, and the share of wind energy and other renewables is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  8. Danish initiatives to improve the safety of meat products.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Henrik C

    2010-02-01

    During the last two decades the major food safety problems in Denmark, as determined by the number of human patients, has been associated with bacterial infections stemming from meat products and eggs. The bacterial pathogens causing the majority of human infections has been Salmonella and Campylobacter, and to a lesser extent Yersinia, Escherichiacoli O157 and Listeria. Danish initiatives to improve the safety of meat products have focused on the entire production chain from the farm to the consumer, with a special emphasis on the pre-harvest stage of production. The control of bacterial pathogens which are resistant to antibiotics has been a new area of attention in the recent decade, and recently, the increasing globalization of the domestic food supply has called for a complete rethinking of the national food safety strategies. The implementations of a "case-by-case" risk assessment system, as well as increased international collaboration on surveillance, are both elements in this new strategy.

  9. Postpartum amenorrhoea and breast-feeding in a Danish sample.

    PubMed

    Vestermark, V; Høgdall, C K; Plenov, G; Birch, M

    1994-01-01

    The duration of postpartum amenorrhoea was studied in a Danish sample of 361 women. The median duration of amenorrhoea was 17 weeks. The 25th and 75th percentiles were 10 and 30 weeks, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea and of breast-feeding. However, lactation for more than 9 months did not extend the duration of amenorrhoea. Menstruation before weaning occurred in 57% of the women, and 43% terminated breast-feeding before the first menstruation. Four weeks after weaning menstruation had returned in 79% and by 8 weeks after in 93% of the mothers. At 6 months postpartum, frequency of breast-feeding, and of night-time feeding were determinants of amenorrhoea.

  10. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish Family

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Bradley, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species constitute emerging, vector-borne, intravascular pathogens that produce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (natural host or passive carrier of a microorganism) and opportunistic hosts. With the advent of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, there is evolving microbiological evidence supporting concurrent infection with one or more Bartonella spp. in more than one family member; however, the mode(s) of transmission to or among family members remains unclear. In this study, we provide molecular microbiological evidence of Bartonella henselae genotype San Antonio 2 (SA2) infection in four of six Danish family members, including a child who died of unknown causes at 14 months of age. PMID:25740763

  11. Brief report: Danish emerging adults' conceptions of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Four hundred Danish emerging adults ages 17-29 were surveyed regarding their conceptions of adulthood and their self-assessments of their adult status. A majority of the 17-24-year-olds and nearly half the 25-29-year-olds viewed themselves as being adults in some ways but not others. Participants reported feeling most adult when with co-workers or romantic partners, and least adult with mothers, fathers, or friends. The most widely-endorsed criteria for adulthood were accepting responsibility for one's self, making independent decisions, and becoming financially independent. Among the least-endorsed criteria were the traditional transition events of entering marriage and parenthood, as well as "avoid becoming drunk."

  12. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M; Ersbøll, A K

    2013-05-01

    Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified in the same areas in the summer months from 2007 to 2009. Range of influence between broiler farms were estimated at distances of 9.6 km and 13.5 km in different years. Identification of areas and time with greater risk indicates variable presence of risk factors with space and time. Implementation of safety measures on farms within high-risk clusters during summer could have an impact in reducing prevalence.

  13. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    PubMed

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  14. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS <1.28. All participants were characterized by anthropometrics (weight, height, and waist circumference) and fasting serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. Results: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p<0.0001) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) (p<0.0001) independent of age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity. PMID:27611730

  15. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  16. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Signe A.; Sörensen, Camilla R. L.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark. PMID:25076056

  17. PAH biomarkers in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Danish waters.

    PubMed

    Tairova, Zhanna M; Strand, Jakob; Chevalier, Julie; Andersen, Ole

    2012-04-01

    Eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus) sampled at surveillance stations during the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 in different Danish coastal areas, were studied for biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and effects. Two analytical techniques, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), were applied for detecting PAH metabolites in bile and urine. CYP1A activity, in this study regarded as potential biomarker of effect, was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver of eelpouts from different stations. Biliary PAH metabolite measurements were used for monitoring the environmental PAH load at the surveillance stations. There was found significant difference in biliary PAH metabolite content between sexes with male fish containing higher concentrations of PAH metabolites than females. The urinary PAH metabolite content did not show the same spatial trends as biliary PAH metabolites. However, fish from Aarhus Bight and Vejle Fjord had significantly higher levels of PAH metabolites in both urine and bile compared to the reference station Agersø. Normalisation methods applied for bile and urine matrices did not have any effect or only slightly reduced the coefficients of variation in data sets. The CYP1A activity in eelpout liver did not show the same spatial distribution trends between sampling sites as did biliary or urinary PAH metabolite contents. Male eelpouts showed significantly higher CYP1A activity than females in fall sampling period but there were no differences found in the spring period. General comparison between both seasons showed that eelpouts sampled in the fall had significantly higher CYP1A activity than fish sampled during spring season. Overall, the results of this study describe selected biomarker responses in eelpouts to environmental PAH load at the different areas along Danish coasts.

  18. Prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among Danish prisoners.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P B; Krarup, H B; Niesters, H G; Norder, H; Georgsen, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among prisoners, we conducted a prospective study in a Danish medium security prison for males. The prisoners were offered an interview and blood test for hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus HIV at inclusion as well as at release from prison or end of study. Of 403 prisoners available 325 (79%) participated in the initial survey and for 142 (44%) a follow-up test was available. 43% (140/325) of the participants were injecting drug users (IDUs) of whom 64% were positive for hepatitis B (HBV) and 87% for hepatitis C (HCV) markers. No cases of HIV or human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) were found. 32% of all prisoners could transmit HBV and/or HCV by blood contact. 70% of IDUs had shared injecting equipment, and 60% had injected inside prison. Only 2% of IDUs were vaccinated against HBV. Duration of injecting drug use, numbers of imprisonments, and injecting in prison were independently and positively associated with the presence of HBV antibodies among IDUs by logistic regression analysis. The HBV incidence was 16/100 PY (95% CI: 2-56/100 PY) and the HCV incidence 25/100 PY (1-140) among injecting drug users (IDUs). We conclude that IDUs in prison have an incidence of hepatitis B and C 100 times higher than reported in the general Danish population. They should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and new initiatives to stop sharing of injecting equipment in and outside prison is urgently needed.

  19. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  20. 26 CFR 521.115 - Credit against United States tax liability for Danish tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who... liability for Danish tax. For the purpose of avoidance of double taxation, Article XV provides that, on...

  1. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Mallbris, Lotus; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis and sleep apnea. Methods: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. Results: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval) for sleep apnea were 1.30 (1.17–1.44), 1.65 (1.23–2.22), and 1.75 (1.35–2.26) in subjects with mild and severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, and IRRs for mild and severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis in sleep apnea without continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy were 1.62 (1.41–1.86), 2.04 (1.47–2.82), and 1.94 (1.34–2.79), respectively. In patients with sleep apnea and CPAP therapy (i.e., severe sleep apnea) the IRRs were 1.82 (1.43–2.33), 3.27 (2.03–5.27), and 5.59 (3.74–8.37), respectively. Conclusions: Psoriasis was associated with increased risk of sleep apnea, and sleep apnea was associated with increased risk of psoriasis. The clinical significance of this bidirectional relationship warrants further study. Citation: Egeberg A, Khalid U, Gislason GH, Mallbris L, Skov L, Hansen PR. Psoriasis and sleep apnea: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):663–671. PMID:26715401

  2. Danish heathland manipulation experiment data in Model-Data-Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thum, Tea; Peylin, Philippe; Ibrom, Andreas; Van Der Linden, Leon; Beier, Claus; Bacour, Cédric; Santaren, Diego; Ciais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In ecosystem manipulation experiments (EMEs) the ecosystem is artificially exposed to different environmental conditions that aim to simulate circumstances in future climate. At Danish EME site Brandbjerg the responses of a heathland to drought, warming and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are studied. The warming manipulation is realized by passive nighttime warming. The measurements include control plots as well as replicates for each three treatment separately and in combination. The Brandbjerg heathland ecosystem is dominated by heather and wavy hairgrass. These experiments provide excellent data for validation and development of ecosystem models. In this work we used a generic vegetation model ORCHIDEE with Model-Data-Fusion (MDF) approach. ORCHIDEE model is a process-based model that describes the exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and the vegetation. It can be run at different spatial scales from global to site level. Different vegetation types are described in ORCHIDEE as plant functional types. In MDF we are using observations from the site to optimize the model parameters. This enables us to assess the modelling errors and the performance of the model for different manipulation treatments. This insight will inform us whether the different processes are adequately modelled or if the model is missing some important processes. We used a genetic algorithm in the MDF. The data available from the site included measurements of aboveground biomass, heterotrophic soil respiration and total ecosystem respiration from years 2006-2008. The biomass was measured six times doing this period. The respiration measurements were done with manual chamber measurements. For the soil respiration we used results from an empirical model that has been developed for the site. This enabled us to have more data for the MDF. Before the MDF we performed a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters to different data streams. Fifteen most influential

  3. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--8. Lundbeck].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2016-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 8 deals with products from Lundbeck. Lundbeck which today is known as a considerable international pharmaceutical company could in 2015 celebrate its 100 years' jubilee. Among the early Danish medicinal companies H. Lundbeck & Co. is in many ways an exception as the company was not originally established as a pharmaceutical company. Not until several years after the foundation the company began to import foreign ready-made medicinal products and later-on to manufacture these medicinal products in own factory and even later to do research and development of own innovative products. When Lundbeck was established in 1915 several Danish medicinal companies, not only the well-known such as Alfred Benzon and Løvens kemiske Fabrik (LEO Pharma), but also Skelskør Frugtplantage, Ferrin and Ferraton, had emerged due to the respective enterprising pharmacy owners who had expanded their traditional pharmacy business and even with commercial success. Other medicinal companies, such as C.R. Evers & Co., Leerbeck & Holms kemiske Fabriker, Chr. F. Petri, Erslevs kemiske Laboratorium, Edward Jacobsen, Th. Fallesen-Schmidt, and yet other companies which were named after the founder had all been established by pharmacists with the primary intention to manufacture and sell medicinal products. Also for the limited companies Medicinalco, Ferrosan, Pharmacia, and GEA the primary task was to manufacture and sell medicinal products, and also in these companies pharmacists were involved in the foundation. Not until 1924, fully 9 years after the foundation, Lundbeck started to be interested in medicinal products and initiated import and sale of foreign medicinal products manufactured by a.o. German and French companies which had not established their own sales companies in Denmark. Almost all contemporary Danish manufacturers of

  4. Work-related self-efficacy as a moderator of the impact of a worksite stress management training intervention: Intrinsic work motivation as a higher order condition of effect.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Joda; Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Employees with low levels of work-related self-efficacy may stand to benefit more from a worksite stress management training (SMT) intervention. However, this low work-related self-efficacy/enhanced SMT benefits effect may be conditional on employees also having high levels of intrinsic work motivation. In the present study, we examined this proposition by testing three-way, or higher order, interaction effects. One hundred and fifty-three U.K. government employees were randomly assigned to a SMT intervention group (n = 68), or to a waiting list control group (n = 85). The SMT group received three half-day training sessions spread over two and a half months. Findings indicated that there were significant overall reductions in psychological strain, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in the SMT group, in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there were significant higher order Group (SMT vs. control) × Time 1 Work-Related Self-Efficacy × Time 1 Intrinsic Work Motivation interactions, such that reductions in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at certain time points were experienced only by those who had low baseline levels of work-related self-efficacy and high baseline levels of intrinsic work motivation. Implications for work-related self-efficacy theory and research and SMT research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Evaluation of the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs using Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Baptista, F M; Alban, L; Olsen, A M; Petersen, J V; Toft, N

    2012-10-01

    Residues of pharmacological active substances or their metabolites might be found in food products from food-producing animals. Maximum Residue Limits for pharmacological active substances in foodstuffs of animal origin are established to assure high food safety standards. Each year, more than 20,000 samples are analysed for the presence of antibacterial residues in Danish pigs. This corresponds to 0.1% of the size of the slaughter pig population and more than 1% of the sows slaughtered. In this study, a Bayesian model was used to evaluate the Danish surveillance system accuracy and to investigate the impact of a potential risk-based sampling approach to the residue surveillance programme in Danish slaughter pigs. Danish surveillance data from 2005 to 2009 and limited knowledge about true prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity were included in the model. According to the model, the true antibacterial residue prevalence in Danish pigs is very low in both sows (∼0.20%) and slaughter pigs (∼0.01%). Despite data constraints, the results suggest that the current screening test used in Denmark presents high sensitivity (85-99%) and very high specificity (>99%) for the most relevant antibacterial classes used in Danish pigs. If high-risk slaughter pigs could be identified by taking into account antibacterial use or meat inspection risk factors, a potential risk-based sampling approach to antibacterial residue surveillance in slaughter pigs would allow reducing the sample size substantially, while increasing or maintaining the probability of detection. Hence, the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs would be more cost-effective than today.

  6. Cancer incidence in Danish phenoxy herbicide workers, 1947-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, E

    1998-01-01

    A cohort study was undertaken of 2119 workers from Denmark who were potentially exposed to phenoxy herbicides. The workers were from two factories that produced phenoxy herbicides since 1947 and 1951, respectively. They had been employed either in the manufacture of phenoxy herbicide or in the manual service functions. The main product was 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). From 1947 to 1993 the 2119 workers had a slightly lower overall cancer incidence than the Danish population (observed = 204; expected [Exp] = 234.23; standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8-1.0). Four soft-tissue sarcoma cases were observed (Exp = 2.47; SIR = 1.62; 95% CI = 0.4-4.1). All four cases occurred among men from Kemisk Vaerk Køge (Exp = 1.68; SIR = 2.38; 95% CI = 0.7-6.1). There were six cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Exp = 5.07; SIR = 1.10; 95% CI = 0.4-2.6) and no significantly elevated risk of other cancers. Based on small numbers, the study suggests an association between the exposure to MCPA and related phenoxy herbicides and the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma. The study does not indicate a risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after exposure to these phenoxy herbicides or a risk of other cancer diseases. PMID:9599717

  7. Variation in residential radon levels in new Danish homes.

    PubMed

    Bräuner, E V; Rasmussen, T V; Gunnarsen, L

    2013-08-01

    Radon-222 gas arises from the radioactive decay of radium-226 and has a half-life of 3.8 days. This gas percolates up through soil into buildings, and if it is not evacuated, there can be much higher exposure levels indoors than outdoors, which is where human exposure occurs. Radon exposure is classified as a human carcinogen, and new Danish homes must be constructed to ensure indoor radon levels below 100 Bq/m(3). Our purpose was to assess how well 200 newly constructed single detached homes perform according to building regulations pertaining to radon and identify the association between indoor radon in these homes and municipality, home age, floor area, floor level, basement, and outer wall and roof construction. Median (5-95 percentile) indoor radon levels were 36.8 (9.0-118) Bq/m(3) , but indoor radon exceeded 100 Bq/m(3) in 14 of these new homes. The investigated variables explained nine percent of the variation in indoor radon levels, and although associations were positive, none of these were statistically significant. In this study, radon levels were generally low, but we found that 14 (7%) of the 200 new homes had indoor radon levels over 100 Bq/m(3). More work is needed to determine the determinants of indoor radon.

  8. Exposure to silica dust in the Danish stone industry.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Breum, N O; Lynge, E

    1989-04-01

    Exposure to silica dust among Danish stone workers was assessed from data collected in 1948-1980. After 1970, the exposure level was given in milligrams per cubic-meter and an exposure index (concentration of respirable dust divided by the threshold limit value for quartz) was calculated. The median index was 2.1 for the road and building material industry and 0.6 for the stonecutting industry. Crushing showed a median index of 2.6, compared to 1.0 for drilling, 0.9 for sieving, and 0.5 for cutting. The median index for the road and building material industry was higher for Bornholm than for other parts of Denmark. The median index of the stonecutting industry was 1.0 for Copenhagen and 0.5 for other parts of Denmark, and no data were available for Bornholm. Before 1970, the exposure level was given in particles per cubic meter, and few data were available on quartz content. Crushing showed the highest exposure before 1970.

  9. Microchimerism of male origin in a cohort of Danish girls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-10-02

    Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism. However, less than half of microchimerism positivity was attributable to these factors. In conclusion, data suggest that male microchimerism in young girls may originate from an older brother either full born or from a discontinued pregnancy or from transfusion during pregnancy. We speculate that sexual intercourse may be important but other sources of male cells likely exist in young girls.

  10. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  11. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-7].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    A/S GEA Farmaceutisk Fabrik was established as a family business in 1927 by the pharmacist Knud L. Gad Andresen who until then had been employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Gad Andresen wanted to run a company focusing on the development of generics, and he wanted this development to take place in a close cooperation with Danish physicians. This has indeed been achieved with success. In 1995 GEA was purchase'd by the American pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb who in a press release characterized GEA as Denmark's second largest manufacturer of generics. Immediately after this takeover GEA's R&D department ceased the research in innovative products and from now on exclusively focused on the development of generics. Three years later GEA was sold to the German generic company Hexal who later on resold GEA to the Swiss generic company Sandoz. GEA changed ownership another couple of times until the last owner went bankrupt in 2011. GEA is yet again a model example of an early Danish pharmaceutical company which was established as an individual company, and which had a long commercial success with the production and marketing of generics. GEA's earliest products, the organotherapeutics, were not innovations. The innovative products were developed already in the 1890s in Denmark by Alfred Benzon, and later on copies followed a.o. from Medicinalco and from foreign companies before GEA marketed their generics. Therefore GEA had to promote their preparations as especially qualified medicinal products and to intimate that the products of the competitors were less "active'". At the end of the 1920s the Ministry of Health became aware of the fact that there might be health problems related to the none-existing control of both the or- ganotherapeutic preparations and actually also the other medicinal products of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the Ministry had requested the National Board of Health for a statement regarding this problem. The National Board

  12. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Anne Ø; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per W; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-03-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings are of concern and, particularly, the presence of the potentially neuro-pathogenic species, T. regenti, in Danish freshwaters calls for attention.

  13. Changing epidemiology of HBV infection in Danish children.

    PubMed

    Gjørup, I E; Skinhøj, P; Böttiger, B; Plesner, A-M

    2003-10-01

    Hepatitis B continues to be a worldwide threat to human health, especially if infection occurs in childhood. Universal vaccination is recommended by WHO, but has not been implemented in the Scandinavian countries, Holland and UK, because of a low incidence rate. However, clinically overt infections are rare in childhood. We therefore performed a nation wide serosurvey for HBV markers in 2428 children aged primarily 6-16 years from 16 primary schools in Denmark. Anti-HBc was found in altogether 20 children (0.8%), 12 of whom were among 144 immigrant children (8.3%) compared to 8 (0.4%) in those born in Denmark. Three of the children, all immigrants, were HBsAg positive indicating chronic infection. At school level no relation of anti-HBc in Danish born children was found to schools with high number of immigrant children or schools with HBsAg positive children indicating a low risk of Hepatitis B transmission in this setting. The results do not support implementation of general vaccination, but stress the need for HBV screening in immigrants as it provides a mean for immunization of close contacts at risk and information on prevention.

  14. Evaluation and validity of the Danish version of the Adult Strabismus Questionnaire AS-20

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nafisa; Sørensen, Mette S; Sørensen, Torben L; Mortzos, Panteleimon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with strabismus is important in evaluating the clinical benefits of strabismus treatment. The purpose of this study was to translate the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) into Danish and evaluate its reliability and validity in adult patients with strabismus in Denmark. Methods The AS-20 was translated into Danish in accordance with standard international adopted methods. We presented the questionnaire to 64 adults with strabismus and to 13 non-strabismic adult controls. We tested the reliability of the Danish version by reassuring test–retest reliability, estimated the internal consistency, and analyzed the validity (discriminatory power) of the questionnaire by comparing patient scores with scores from control individuals. Results The Danish AS-20 produced high level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α values) for both subscales (psychosocial: 0.95 and functional: 0.85). We found good discriminatory power of the AS-20. The patients scored significantly lower not only on AS-20 composite score (median =63, interquartile range [IQR] =44–79) compared to healthy individuals (median =98, IQR =93–100) (P<0.0001) but also on all individual questions in both subscales (psychosocial: 1–10 and functional: 11–20). Conclusion The Danish version of AS-20 shows high reliability and validity, and in our opinion, AS-20 is therefore a suitable instrument for evaluating self-perceived psychosocial and functional influence of strabismus. PMID:26770057

  15. Early Signs of Autism in Toddlers: A Follow-Up Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemcke, Sanne; Juul, Svend; Parner, Erik T.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    To identify possible early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the Danish National Birth Cohort, we studied prospectively collected interviews from 76,441 mothers about their children's development and behaviour at 6 and 18 months. In Danish national registries, 720 children with ASD and 231 children with intellectual disability (ID)…

  16. The Danish National Database for Asthma: establishing clinical quality indicators

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Susanne; Hoffmann-Petersen, Benjamin; Sverrild, Asger; Bräuner, Elvira V.; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Bodtger, Uffe; Agertoft, Lone; Korshøj, Lene; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide affecting more than 300 million people. Symptoms are often non-specific and include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthma may be highly variable within the same individual over time. Although asthma results in death only in extreme cases, the disease is associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased absenteeism, and large costs for society. Asthma can be diagnosed based on report of characteristic symptoms and/or the use of several different diagnostic tests. However, there is currently no gold standard for making a diagnosis, and some degree of misclassification and inter-observer variation can be expected. This may lead to local and regional differences in the treatment, monitoring, and follow-up of the patients. The Danish National Database for Asthma (DNDA) is slated to be established with the overall aim of collecting data on all patients treated for asthma in Denmark and systematically monitoring the treatment quality and disease management in both primary and secondary care facilities across the country. The DNDA links information from population-based disease registers in Denmark, including the National Patient Register, the National Prescription Registry, and the National Health Insurance Services register, and potentially includes all asthma patients in Denmark. The following quality indicators have been selected to monitor trends: first, conduction of annual asthma control visits, appropriate pharmacological treatment, measurement of lung function, and asthma challenge testing; second, tools used for diagnosis in new cases; and third, annual assessment of smoking status, height, and weight measurements, and the proportion of patients with acute hospital treatment. The DNDA will be launched in 2016 and will initially include patients treated in secondary care facilities in Denmark. In the nearby future, the database aims to include asthma

  17. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from a danish estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker Jørgensen, Bo; Okholm-Hansen, Bolette

    The diurnal variations in sulfur emission were studied at seven sites in a Danish estuary, Norsminde Fjord. The sites comprised grass vegetation, intertidal mud flats, accretions of green algae, an exposed shore and a river outlet. Direct measurements of emission rates from soil and water were done by a dynamic flux chamber technique in connection with gas Chromatographie detection and separation of the cryogenically trapped sulfur gases. Sulfur gas concentrations in air and sea water were measured together with emission rates at 0.5-1 h intervals over 25-40 h periods. DMS was the most important sulfur gas released from grass and algae, while mostly H 2S was released from intertidal mud flats. OCS, CH 3SH and CS 2 were released from most sites at lower rates. Emission of DMS followed the daylight variations, often with a delay towards maximum emission rates in the evening. H 2S was mostly emitted at night or in short outbursts during low tides. Total sulfur emission rates were 1-10μmol Sm -2 d -1. Extreme rates of 335μmol DMSm -2 d -1 were measured over decomposing green algae ( Ulva lactuca). H 2S emission fractions were < 10 -6 to 2.10 -4. H 2S was detected, along with DMS, CH 3SH, OCS and CS 2, in the oxic seawater of the estuary at diurnal mean concentrations of 0.1-6.5nmol S/ol -1. This may indicate a more widespread occurrence of H 2S in shallow, near-shore waters at nanomolar levels.

  18. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sorensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  19. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus E.; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58) and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. Conclusions We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies. PMID:24066143

  20. Validity of data in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Mette Kielsholm; Njor, Sisse Helle; Rasmussen, Morten; Linnemann, Dorte; Andersen, Berit; Baatrup, Gunnar; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Jørgensen, Jens Christian Riis; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    Background In Denmark, a nationwide screening program for colorectal cancer was implemented in March 2014. Along with this, a clinical database for program monitoring and research purposes was established. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the agreement and validity of diagnosis and procedure codes in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database (DCCSD). Methods All individuals with a positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) result who were invited to screening in the first 3 months since program initiation were identified. From these, a sample of 150 individuals was selected using stratified random sampling by age, gender and region of residence. Data from the DCCSD were compared with data from hospital records, which were used as the reference. Agreement, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were estimated for categories of codes “clean colon”, “colonoscopy performed”, “overall completeness of colonoscopy”, “incomplete colonoscopy”, “polypectomy”, “tumor tissue left behind”, “number of polyps”, “lost polyps”, “risk group of polyps” and “colorectal cancer and polyps/benign tumor”. Results Hospital records were available for 136 individuals. Agreement was highest for “colorectal cancer” (97.1%) and lowest for “lost polyps” (88.2%). Sensitivity varied between moderate and high, with 60.0% for “incomplete colonoscopy” and 98.5% for “colonoscopy performed”. Specificity was 92.7% or above, except for the categories “colonoscopy performed” and “overall completeness of colonoscopy”, where the specificity was low; however, the estimates were imprecise. Conclusion A high level of agreement between categories of codes in DCCSD and hospital records indicates that DCCSD reflects the hospital records well. Further, the validity of the categories of codes varied from moderate to high. Thus, the DCCSD may be a valuable data source for future research on

  1. Cohort description: The Danish study of Functional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan; Skovbjerg, Sine; Madsen, Anja Lykke; Mehlsen, Jesper; Brinth, Louise; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Carstensen, Tina Wisbech; Schroder, Andreas; Fink, Per Klausen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD) cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors, delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18–76 years from the general population examined from 2011 to 2015. The survey comprises screening questionnaires for five types of FSS, ie, fibromyalgia, whiplash-associated disorder, multiple chemical sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and for the unifying diagnostic category of bodily distress syndrome. Additional data included a telephone-based diagnostic interview assessment for FSS, questionnaires on physical and mental health, personality traits, lifestyle, use of health care services and social factors, and a physical examination with measures of cardiorespiratory and morphological fitness, metabolic fitness, neck mobility, heart rate variability, and pain sensitivity. A biobank including serum, plasma, urine, DNA, and microbiome has been established, and central registry data from both responders and nonresponders are similarly available on morbidity, mortality, reimbursement of medicine, heath care use, and social factors. A complete 5-year follow-up is scheduled to take place from year 2017 to 2020, and further reexaminations will be

  2. Chiropractor perceptions and practices regarding interprofessional service delivery in the Danish primary care context.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Corrie; Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Fogh-Schultz, Anders Lyck

    2014-03-01

    For the past 20 years, chiropractors have enjoyed access to the Danish health care system and have been free to build integrated health care delivery partnerships. An electronic survey of chiropractic clinics around Denmark was conducted in order to observe interprofessional practice trends. From the available population of 252 practices, 166 responses were received. Ninety-six percent of respondents considered inter-disciplinary/interprofessional practice to be either "very" or "extremely" important in the context of modern Danish health care. Three occupational groups appear to be commonly involved in practice alongside chiropractors, these being massage therapists (82%), physiotherapists (58%) and acupuncturists (37%). Interestingly only 11% considered a medical practitioner to be an active participant in their current interprofessional service delivery. Danish chiropractors consider interprofessional practice to be important and as a group, perceive themselves to be offering such models of service provision. Medical practitioners are perceived as desirable, but under utilized partners.

  3. Linkage between the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database, the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, and other Danish registries as a tool for the study of drug safety in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Lars H; Petersen, Olav B; Nørgaard, Mette; Ekelund, Charlotte; Pedersen, Lars; Tabor, Ann; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2016-01-01

    A linked population-based database is being created in Denmark for research on drug safety during pregnancy. It combines information from the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database (with information on all prescriptions reimbursed in Denmark since 2004), the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, the Danish National Registry of Patients, and the Medical Birth Registry. The new linked database will provide validated information on malformations diagnosed both prenatally and postnatally. The cohort from 2008 to 2014 will comprise 589,000 pregnancies with information on 424,000 pregnancies resulting in live-born children, ∼420,000 pregnancies undergoing prenatal ultrasound scans, 65,000 miscarriages, and 92,000 terminations. It will be updated yearly with information on ∼80,000 pregnancies. The cohort will enable identification of drug exposures associated with severe malformations, not only based on malformations diagnosed after birth but also including those having led to termination of pregnancy or miscarriage. Such combined data will provide a unique source of information for research on the safety of medications used during pregnancy. PMID:27274312

  4. [The Danish Debate on Priority Setting in Medicine--An Update].

    PubMed

    Pornak, S C; Raspe, H

    2015-09-01

    In the last years, the Danish debate about priority setting in medicine has gained new strength. This paper shows the main focuses of the current discussion based on a research of Danish primary literature. For the first time since the 1990s the Danish Council of Ethics has been involved with priority setting in medicine in a project running from 2011 to 2013. The Council emphasises the importance of legitimate processes and calls for visible values and criteria. A focus of the debate is how to deal with new expensive drugs. Politicians, physicians, health economists and the Council of Ethics have called for a national institution for priority setting in medicine. They have mainly looked to the Norwegian National Council for Priority Setting in Health Care and the British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for inspiration. The Danish Government considered establishing a national institute for priority setting, but the plans were not put into practice. In the year 2012 a new national project was launched to create clinical guidelines. Danish doctors welcome the guidelines as a good basis for priority setting. Just like in earlier Danish priority setting debates, a coordinating institution is lacking to bundle the discussion and keep it going. The debate seems to have come to an end once again. The fact that it was seriously considered to establish an institute for priority setting is a new development. It can be expected that the discussion will be resumed in the near future, possibly the idea of an institute for priority setting will be readopted. The general conditions for priority setting in health care have improved.

  5. Assessment of the probability of introducing Mycobacterium tuberculosis into Danish cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population, by the import of cattle and/or by immigrants working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2013 with date, number, and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish cattle database. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent to Danish cattle farmers. The gained inputs were fed into three stochastic scenario trees to assess the PIntro for the current and alternative test-and-manage strategies, such as testing of imported animals and/or testing immigrant workers with the tuberculin skin test. We considered the population of Danish farmers and practitioners free of tuberculosis, because in Denmark, the incidence of the disease in humans is low and primarily related to immigrants and socially disadvantaged people. The median annual probability of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population due to imported live cattle was 0.008% (90% P.I.: 0.0007%; 0.03%), while the probability due to immigrant workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.1%). The median combined probability (PIntro) due to imported cattle plus workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.6%). Hence, on average at least one introduction each 24 (90% P.I.: 8; 125) years could be expected. Imported live cattle appeared to play a marginal role on the overall annual PIntro, because they represented only approximately 0.2% of the median annual probability. By testing immigrant workers the overall annual PIntro could be reduced to 0.2% (90% P.I.: 0.04%; 0.7%). Thus, testing of immigrant workers could be considered as a risk mitigation strategy to markedly reduce

  6. Sociodemographic Study of Danish Individuals Diagnosed with Transsexualism

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Rikke; Hald, Gert Martin; Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) individuals with transsexualism (International Classification of Diseases-10) may differ in core clinical and sociodemographic variables such as age, sexual orientation, marriage and parenthood, school, educational level, and employment. Assessing and understanding the implication of such differences may be a key to developing appropriate and effective treatment and intervention strategies for this group. However, research in the area remains sparse and is often on small populations, making the generalization of results from current studies on individuals diagnosed with transsexualism difficult. Aims (i) To describe and assess key sociodemographic and treatment-related differences between MtF and FtM individuals in a Danish population of individuals diagnosed with transsexualism; (ii) to assess possible implications of such difference, if any, for clinical treatment initiatives for individuals diagnosed with transsexualism. Methods Follow-up of 108 individuals who had permission to undergo sex reassignment surgery (SRS, meaning castration and genital plastic surgery) over a 30-year period from 1978 to 2008 through the Gender Identity Unit in Copenhagen, Denmark. The individuals were identified through Social Security numbers. Clinical and sociodemographic data from medical records were collected. Results The sex ratio was 1.16:1 (MtF : FtM). Mean age at first referral was 26.9 (standard deviation [SD] 8.8) years for FtM and 30.2 (SD 9.7) for MtF individuals. Compared with MtF, FtM had a significantly lower onset age (before 12 years of age) and lower age when permission for SRS was granted. Further, FtM individuals were significantly more often gynephilic (sexually attracted to females) during research period and less likely to start self-initiated hormonal sex reassignment (SR) (treatment with cross-sex hormones). The MtF and FtM groups did not differ in years of school, educational level, employment

  7. Seismic geomorphology of the Danish Chalks, offshore, North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Florian; van Buchem, Frans; Schmidt, Ingelise

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Cretaceous and Lowermost Paleocene chalk deposits of the North Sea Basin constitute a unique phase in the evolution of carbonate facies, through the rock-forming dominance of fine grained calcareous plankton, particularly coccolithophorids. These planktonic organisms were deposited over extensive areas and very often laid down as laterally extensive, regular dm-scale bedded packages, that locally may reach a thickness of up to 1250 m. In the Danish Graben, the depositional conditions for the chalk sedimentation changed dramatically during the middle of the Upper Cretaceous. At this time the basin topography was inverted, radically changing the position of the depocenters and the ocean floor morphology. In uplifted areas local erosion and long phases of non-deposition occurred, whereas in areas of subsidence thick packages of chalk accumulated. Along the newly created highs, mass waste deposition took place at the deca-kilometre scale. In this presentation we will document evidence for the tectonic inversion, and pay particular attention to the rich pallet of geomorphological features that characterise this tectonically active period. This study benefitted from a recently re-processed 3D seismic dataset (6000 km²), and a regional well-log and biostratigraphic dataset. In addition, the seismic interpretation applied advanced seismic interpretation software (PaleoScan™), which uses a patented model grid that links up seismic points and honours interpreted horizon constraints resulting in a seismic Relative Geological Time model. Standard seismic attributes, displayed upon horizons from a 3D RGT model of the chalk package, have shown to be very effective in the illustration and interpretation of complex chalk depositional features. Special attention has been focussed on mass waste deposits around inverted structures and salt diapirs. Several different mass waste complexes have been documented in 3D, illustrating a number of typical features such as

  8. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  9. Manufacturing technology in the Danish pig slaughter industry.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Lars

    2010-02-01

    The Danish pig meat industry is very export oriented. Ninety per cent of the production of the big cooperative slaughterhouses is exported to more than 100 countries all over the world. This poses a requirement for the industry to be globally competitive in the sense of quality, product safety and--of course--price. A big challenge for the industry is therefore to maintain sufficient low unit costs in spite of the high factor costs of Denmark. In particular the high labour costs must be accompanied by correspondingly high labour productivity. And, it should be emphasized, this high labour productivity must be achieved without compromising the concern for good working conditions of the employees in the manufacturing. Technology is one of the means to achieve this combination of good working conditions and high labour productivity. One of the most important benefits from automation is the improved working environment. Pig slaughtering, cutting and boning is traditionally very labour intensive and requires hard and repetitive work. For many people a job in a slaughterhouse is therefore not their first choice. This situation can be changed by automation, which will not only reduce arduous and repetitive work but in addition will introduce more motivating jobs in terms of planning, supervision and control of the new technology. Automation will also improve the hygiene and thereby the food safety. This applies in particular to the clean slaughter line where cross contamination between carcasses is reduced because of less manual handling and because the tools in the machines can be sterilised more effectively between each carcass. Automated processes are more accurate and repeatable than manual work. For some processes, in particular in cutting and boning, this will enhance the product yield. New technology can also improve the animal welfare. The group-stunning system and mechanised lairage systems are examples of that. Improved animal welfare has an ethical value in

  10. Waiting Time: The De-Subjectification of Children in Danish Asylum Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between time and subjectification, focusing on the temporal structures created within Danish asylum centres and politics, and on children's experiences of and reactions to open-ended waiting. Such waiting leads to existential boredom which manifests in the children as restlessness, fatigue and despair. The…

  11. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  12. An Introductory Survey of the Danish Investigations in Experimental Reader Response Research. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay

    This paper presents a brief survey of interdisciplinary Danish studies in experimental reader response since 1965. The paper describes nine projects or studies, including information on their purposes and methods, stages, persons responsible, supporters, funding institutions, internal reports, and publications. Project titles include…

  13. Autonomy and Control: Danish University Reform in the Context of Modern Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan; Orberg, Jakob Williams

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the Danish government reformed universities to "set them free" from the state. Yet ministers are actively trying to shape universities and even set research agendas. How does the government's notion of "freedom" reconcile independence with control? We identify three discourses of freedom: freedom to use academic…

  14. Gender Differences in the Daily Physical Activities of Danish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children at pre-school and later at third grade. The study…

  15. Multilingual Acquisition of Vowels in L1 Polish, L2 Danish and L3 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sypianska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether all languages in the linguistic repertoire of a multilingual speaker manifest cross-linguistic influence (CLI) and establish the directions of CLI on the basis of chosen vowels from the linguistic repertoire of two groups: the Bilingual group (L1 Polish/L2 Danish) and the Multilingual group (L1…

  16. Exploring the Heterogeneity of Class in Higher Education: Social and Cultural Differentiation in Danish University Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social background, choice of university programme and academic culture among Danish university students. Statistically and sociologically, university students are often treated as a homogeneous group, but the ever-increasing number of students in higher education demands a closer examination of the…

  17. Language Choice as a Power Resource in Bilingual Adolescents' Conversations in the Danish "Folkeskole."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esdahl, Trine

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the negotiations of social relations among adolescents at a critical point in their development of a bilingual identity. Based on a general study of bilingual Turkish-Danish folkskole pupils' development of language choice and code switching, finds that the seventh grade is a pivotal stage in their linguistic development. (Author/VWL)

  18. Genome Sequences of Two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Strains Isolated from Danish Dairy Starter Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardö, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters. PMID:24903866

  19. Europeanisation and Policy Change in the Danish Vocational Education and Training System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the interrelationship between the Copenhagen Process, EU vocational education and training policy, and Danish initial vocational education and training policies in order to shed light on the role of EU policies in policy and institutional change. The article points to the complexity of policy-making and the…

  20. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  1. The Courage to Be: The Impact of Lebensphilosophie on Danish RE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowadt, Pia Rose

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the impact of Lebensphilosophie on Danish RE in the elementary and lower secondary school--an impact which is subjected to a critical analysis with special attention given to anti-intellectualism, criticism of reason and criticism of modernity as well as the romantic view of the child. The thesis of this article is that…

  2. Situating beyond the Social: Understanding the Role of Materiality in Danish Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffer, Ann Katrine B.

    2016-01-01

    Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once it is applied to contemporary Danish nursing education are…

  3. Biographical Learning as Health Promotion in Physical Education. A Danish Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case study concerning biographical learning as health promotion among 16-18-year-old school girls in a Danish upper-secondary school. The case study shows a conflict in the students' perception of the learning in traditional physical education (PE) compared to a four-week pilot project employing dialogue groups as a…

  4. "We Got Incredibly Drunk...It Was Damned Fun": Drinking Stories among Danish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutenges, Sebastien; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2009-01-01

    Drinking stories are immensely popular among contemporary Danish youth. The stories are shared with much enthusiasm in school, at parties, over the telephone and via the Internet. But why are the young so compelled by these seemingly vulgar stories? Applying the theories of, most importantly, Bakhtin (1968), Ricoeur (1991), and Jackson (2002),…

  5. Change Management at a Danish University: The Introduction of a Common Market for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the approach to the management of change taken by a Danish university when introducing a university-wide market for education and it explores the different positions taken by some of the central stakeholders in one of the faculties involved. I argue that neither the inadequacies of a popular management model nor insufficient…

  6. 26 CFR 521.106 - Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise. 521.106 Section 521.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens...

  7. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  8. Social Origin and Graduation Age: A Cohort Comparison of Danish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…

  9. Discriminative Validity of the Danish Version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahlhut, Michelle; Gard, Gunvor; Aadahl, Mette; Christensen, Jette

    2011-01-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) assesses functional status in children with disabilities aged 0.5-7.5 years. The purpose of this study was to examine if the Danish version of the PEDI was able to discriminate between nondisabled children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).…

  10. Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Relation to the Danish Results in TIMMS Population 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and other measures of achievement show that the achievement of Danish students is below the international TIMSS average when considered by age, but above the TIMSS average when considered by grade. Discusses results in the context of the later entrance to school in Denmark…

  11. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  12. Football Fitness - a new version of football? A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs.

    PubMed

    Bennike, S; Wikman, J M; Ottesen, L S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment.

  13. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure: Drawing on Twentieth-Century Danish History of Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based…

  14. Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach: Early Years Education in Practice. Understanding the... Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Siegfredsen, Jane

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the Danish Forest School Approach" is a much needed source of information for those wishing to extend and consolidate their understanding of the Forest School Approach in Denmark and how it is used in the teaching and learning of young children. It will enable the reader to analyse the essential elements of this Approach…

  15. The Perception of Selected Danish Vowels by Native Speakers of British English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of sounds from L1 to L2 can obviously lead to inappropriate pronunciations, but assumptions about the effects such transfer may have on native listeners are often based on intuition or casual observation. This paper investigates the effects of direct transfer of four Danish vowels into English through a forced-choice word identification…

  16. The Danish large wind turbine program. [feasibility of wind power in a utility grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pederson, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Danish wind energy program and its present status is given. Results and experiences from tests on the Gedser windmill (200 kW) are presented. The key results are presented from the preliminary design study and detailed design of two new WECS (630 kW each) is described.

  17. The Transnational and the Individual: A Life-History Narrative in a Danish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores linguistic and cultural border crossing and the long-term consequences of transnational mobility on a professional international academic. It provides an in-depth qualitative analysis of a research interview which investigated the internationalisation background of a Danish academic within an English-speaking context. This…

  18. A Lexical Comparison of Signs from Icelandic and Danish Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldersson, Russell R.; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a comparison of lexical items in the vocabulary of Icelandic and Danish sign languages prompted by anecdotal reports of similarity and historical records detailing close contact between the two communities. Drawing on previous studies, including Bickford (2005), McKee and Kennedy (1998, 2000a, 2000b) and Parkhurst and…

  19. Gender stereotyping in television advertisements: a study of French and Danish television.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Babitzkow, M; Uguccioni, S

    2000-02-01

    Two similar, but not identical, content analyses of the portrayals of men and women in French and Danish television advertisements are reported. By partially replicating and extending past investigations conducted in America, Australia, Britain, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, and New Zealand, it was predicted that there would be more gender stereotyping in French television advertisements and less gender stereotyping in Danish television advertisements. In the first study, 165 French television advertisements were analyzed by following established coding categories (A. Furnham & E. Skae, 1997; L. Z. McArthur & B. G. Resko, 1975). Contrary to prediction, the results showed that traditional gender role portrayal on French television was no different from that found in other countries. Separate statistical analyses were carried out for visually versus aurally classified central figures, yet this yielded relatively few significant differences. In the second study, a sample of 151 Danish advertisements was analyzed; results showed that Danish television was generally less gender stereotypic than French television in its portrayal of women. Exactly half (5) of the coding categories showed significant differences. Finally, an international statistical comparison between these two studies and similar research in Australia, Britain, and Italy was carried out. The methodological implications of these results are discussed as well as the theoretical issues arising from other studies of this sort.

  20. Comparative Analysis of U.S. and Danish Army Leader Development Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    regarding competency development, work-life balance for employees, the Danish Armed Forces social responsibility and policies regarding safety and health...for example, teams, work groups, organizations, partnerships, communities , and nations” (Van Velsor et al. 2010, 20). Clearly, CCL understands...activity throughout an officers’ career, which contributes to grow the officer and add to the officers’ personal competence, social competence

  1. Information Literacy, Learning, and the Public Library: A Study of Danish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Bo Gerner; Borlund, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on a study of 12 Danish high school students' perceptions of public libraries' role in learning, user education, information literacy, and librarians' information competencies. The study is undertaken by use of literature review and interviews with a purposive select sample of public library users in Denmark. The study…

  2. Increased urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in a Danish family.

    PubMed

    Sjølin, K E

    1988-08-01

    During collection of a control material for determination of urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), female high excretors were found in four generations in a Danish family. The heredity seemed to be sex related and dominant, unlike previous communications about genetically conditioned high excretors of beta-AIB.

  3. Genetic and Environmental Regulation on Longitudinal Change of Metabolic Phenotypes in Danish and Chinese Adult Twins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; Tan, Qihua; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben; Dalgård, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The rate of change in metabolic phenotypes can be highly indicative of metabolic disorders and disorder-related modifications. We analyzed data from longitudinal twin studies on multiple metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins representing two populations of distinct ethnic, cultural, social-economic backgrounds and geographical environments. Materials and Methods The study covered a relatively large sample of 502 pairs of Danish adult twins followed up for a long period of 12 years with a mean age at intake of 38 years (range: 18–65) and a total of 181 Chinese adult twin pairs traced for about 7 years with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years (range: 23–64). The classical twin models were fitted to the longitudinal change in each phenotype (Δphenotype) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to the variation in Δphenotype. Results Moderate to high contributions by the unique environment were estimated for all phenotypes in both Danish (from 0.51 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol up to 0.72 for triglycerides) and Chinese (from 0.41 for triglycerides up to 0.73 for diastolic blood pressure) twins; low to moderate genetic components were estimated for long-term change in most of the phenotypes in Danish twins except for triglycerides and hip circumference. Compared with Danish twins, the Chinese twins tended to have higher genetic control over the longitudinal changes in lipids (except high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and glucose, higher unique environmental contribution to blood pressure but no genetic contribution to longitudinal change in body mass traits. Conclusion Our results emphasize the major contribution of unique environment to the observed intra-individual variation in all metabolic phenotypes in both samples, and meanwhile reveal differential patterns of genetic and common environmental regulation on changes over time in metabolic phenotypes across the two samples. PMID:26862898

  4. [The Danish debate on priority setting in medicine - characteristics and results].

    PubMed

    Pornak, S; Meyer, T; Raspe, H

    2011-10-01

    Priority setting in medicine helps to achieve a fair and transparent distribution of health-care resources. The German discussion about priority setting is still in its infancy and may benefit from other countries' experiences. This paper aims to analyse the Danish priority setting debate in order to stimulate the German discussion. The methods used are a literature analysis and a document analysis as well as expert interviews. The Danish debate about priority setting in medicine began in the 1970s, when a government committee was constituted to evaluate health-care priorities at the national level. In the 1980s a broader debate arose in politics, ethics, medicine and health economy. The discussions reached a climax in the 1990s, when many local activities - always involving the public - were initiated. Some Danish counties tried to implement priority setting in the daily routine of health care. The Council of Ethics was a major player in the debate of the 1990s and published a detailed statement on priority setting in 1996. With the new century the debate about priority setting seemed to have come to an end, but in 2006 the Technology Council and the Danish Regions resumed the discussion. In 2009 the Medical Association called for a broad debate in order to achieve equity among all patients. The long lasting Danish debate on priority setting has entailed only very little practical consequences on health care. The main problems seem to have been the missing effort to bundle the various local initiatives on a national level and the lack of powerful players to put results of the discussion into practice. Nevertheless, today the attitude towards priority setting is predominantly positive and even politicians talk freely about it.

  5. Student Interactions at a College Canteen: A Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiteri, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about the style of lecturing that is adopted by lecturers in institutions of further and higher education. However, little has been written about interactions that take place in the informal settings of college and university campuses. Using an ethnographic approach, this paper presents an exploration of how students at the…

  6. Quality reforms in Danish home care - balancing between standardisation and individualisation.

    PubMed

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-05-01

    Despite relatively generous coverage of the over-65 population, Danish home help services receive regular criticism in the media and public opinion polls. Perhaps as a consequence, reforms of Danish home care policy for senior citizens have placed a strong emphasis on quality since the 1990s. This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation programme of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management principles, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted to increase the overall quality of care by increasing the transparency at the political, administrative and user levels. However, reforms have revolved around the conflicting principles of standardisation and the individualisation of care provision. This approach has succeeded in increasing the political and administrative control over home help at the expense of the control by users, care workers and case managers.

  7. The Norwegian Danish Basin: A key to understanding the Cenozoic in the eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Thomas L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Goledowski, Bartosz

    2015-04-01

    The Danish part of Norwegian-Danish Basin, which constitutes the eastern part of the North Sea Basin, has been the key area for sequence stratigraphic subdivision and analysis of the Cenozoic succession since the mid 1990's. Widespread 3D seismic data, in the central parts of the North Sea Basin, as well as more scattered 3D seismic data in the Danish part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, have given a more detailed understanding of the sequences and indicate that climate is tenable for the origin of Cenozoic sequence boundaries. The previous sequence stratigraphic interpretations have been an integrated part of an ongoing debate concerning vertical movements of the Fennoscandian shield versus the impact of climate and erosion. A newly accessed coherent regional 2D and reprocessed 3D seismic data set, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, constitute the database for a new sequence stratigraphic analysis of the entire area. The objective of the new study is to test previous subdivisions and introduce a coherent 3D sequence stratigraphic analysis and depositional model for the entire Norwegian-Danish Basin. This analysis is necessary to get out of the stalemate with the uplift discussion. The study shows that the original subdivision by Michelsen et al. (1995, 1998) stands. However, revision of few a sequence boundaries may have to be adjusted due to new biostratigraphic information published. Furthermore, high-angle clinoforms and geomorphological transport complexes observed in the Danish North Sea Basin can be traced into the Norwegian sector. This together with the recognition of several other high-angle clinoform complexes, and their associated seismic facies distribution maps and thickness-maps, enhances the level of detail and constrains the previous published paleogeographic reconstructions of the Cenozoic. The geometry of the Cenozoic infill, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, is here interpreted to be controlled by relative sea

  8. The Chronic Responsibility: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Danish Chronic Care Policies.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough's three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean's concepts of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients' active role, lifestyle, and health behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already activated, while others remain subjugated to certain roles. For example, they may be labeled as "vulnerable."

  9. Against all odds? Understanding the emergence of accreditation of the Danish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite intense critique from various parts of the medical professions, Danish hospitals have been subjected to a mandatory accreditation system known as the Danish Quality Model (Den Danske Kvalitetsmodel, DDKM) since 2009. The notion of government assemblage is employed to understand how and why, in the face of these obstacles, DDKM was ultimately implemented. It is argued that DDKM is the result of the emergence of hospital quality management assemblage in 1980s and 1990s made up by new methods of categorizing disease treatments, computerization of such treatments, concerns over cost-effectiveness, complaint registration, the availability of international hospital quality assessment systems, the mobilization of organized medical interest groups, and a tradition of consultative policymaking procedures. This assemblage was crucial for identifying quality as a problem in need of administrative intervention and for shaping the political struggle over how best to assure the quality of hospital services.

  10. The Danish National Patient Registry: a review of content, data quality, and research potential

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Morten; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Sandegaard, Jakob Lynge; Ehrenstein, Vera; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Background The Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) is one of the world’s oldest nationwide hospital registries and is used extensively for research. Many studies have validated algorithms for identifying health events in the DNPR, but the reports are fragmented and no overview exists. Objectives To review the content, data quality, and research potential of the DNPR. Methods We examined the setting, history, aims, content, and classification systems of the DNPR. We searched PubMed and the Danish Medical Journal to create a bibliography of validation studies. We included also studies that were referenced in retrieved papers or known to us beforehand. Methodological considerations related to DNPR data were reviewed. Results During 1977–2012, the DNPR registered 8,085,603 persons, accounting for 7,268,857 inpatient, 5,953,405 outpatient, and 5,097,300 emergency department contacts. The DNPR provides nationwide longitudinal registration of detailed administrative and clinical data. It has recorded information on all patients discharged from Danish nonpsychiatric hospitals since 1977 and on psychiatric inpatients and emergency department and outpatient specialty clinic contacts since 1995. For each patient contact, one primary and optional secondary diagnoses are recorded according to the International Classification of Diseases. The DNPR provides a data source to identify diseases, examinations, certain in-hospital medical treatments, and surgical procedures. Long-term temporal trends in hospitalization and treatment rates can be studied. The positive predictive values of diseases and treatments vary widely (<15%–100%). The DNPR data are linkable at the patient level with data from other Danish administrative registries, clinical registries, randomized controlled trials, population surveys, and epidemiologic field studies – enabling researchers to reconstruct individual life and health trajectories for an entire population. Conclusion The DNPR is a valuable

  11. Ruxolitinib is manageable in patients with myelofibrosis and severe thrombocytopenia: a report on 12 Danish patients.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, Mads Emil; Holmström, Morten Orebo; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2016-01-01

    We report 12 Danish myelofibrosis patients who have been treated successfully with ruxolitinib despite having low platelet counts (< 50 × 10(9)/L) during their treatment-course. The majority of the patients experienced marked clinical improvement. Serious side effects were only recorded in a single patient. It is concluded that JAK-inhibition with ruxolitinib is manageable in patients with low platelet counts and should be considered in symptomatic patients who otherwise might not be candidates for treatment.

  12. Possible Causes of a Harbour Porpoise Mass Stranding in Danish Waters in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Andrew J.; Maar, Marie; Mohn, Christian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Siebert, Ursula; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Baagøe, Hans J.; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented 85 harbour porpoises stranded freshly dead along approximately 100 km of Danish coastline from 7–15 April, 2005. This total is considerably above the mean weekly stranding rate for the whole of Denmark, both for any time of year, 1.23 animals/week (ranging from 0 to 20 during 2003–2008, excluding April 2005), and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period). Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes. Local fishermen confirmed unusually large porpoise bycatch in nets set for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) and the strandings were attributed to an early lumpfish season. However, lumpfish catches for 2005 were not unusual in terms of season onset, peak or total catch, when compared to 2003–2008. Consequently, human activity was combined with environmental factors and the variation in Danish fisheries landings (determined through a principal component analysis) in a two-part statistical model to assess the correlation of these factors with both the presence of fresh strandings and the numbers of strandings on the Danish west coast. The final statistical model (which was forward selected using Akaike information criterion; AIC) indicated that naval presence is correlated with higher rates of porpoise strandings, particularly in combination with certain fisheries, although it is not correlated with the actual presence of strandings. Military vessels from various countries were confirmed in the area from the 7th April, en route to the largest naval exercise in Danish waters to date (Loyal Mariner 2005, 11–28 April). Although sonar usage cannot be confirmed, it is likely that ships were testing various equipment prior to the main exercise. Thus naval activity cannot be ruled out as a possible contributing factor. PMID:23460787

  13. Possible causes of a harbour porpoise mass stranding in Danish waters in 2005.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew J; Maar, Marie; Mohn, Christian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Siebert, Ursula; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Baagøe, Hans J; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented 85 harbour porpoises stranded freshly dead along approximately 100 km of Danish coastline from 7-15 April, 2005. This total is considerably above the mean weekly stranding rate for the whole of Denmark, both for any time of year, 1.23 animals/week (ranging from 0 to 20 during 2003-2008, excluding April 2005), and specifically in April, 0.65 animals/week (0 to 4, same period). Bycatch was established as the cause of death for most of the individuals through typical indications of fisheries interactions, including net markings in the skin and around the flippers, and loss of tail flukes. Local fishermen confirmed unusually large porpoise bycatch in nets set for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) and the strandings were attributed to an early lumpfish season. However, lumpfish catches for 2005 were not unusual in terms of season onset, peak or total catch, when compared to 2003-2008. Consequently, human activity was combined with environmental factors and the variation in Danish fisheries landings (determined through a principal component analysis) in a two-part statistical model to assess the correlation of these factors with both the presence of fresh strandings and the numbers of strandings on the Danish west coast. The final statistical model (which was forward selected using Akaike information criterion; AIC) indicated that naval presence is correlated with higher rates of porpoise strandings, particularly in combination with certain fisheries, although it is not correlated with the actual presence of strandings. Military vessels from various countries were confirmed in the area from the 7th April, en route to the largest naval exercise in Danish waters to date (Loyal Mariner 2005, 11-28 April). Although sonar usage cannot be confirmed, it is likely that ships were testing various equipment prior to the main exercise. Thus naval activity cannot be ruled out as a possible contributing factor.

  14. The Danish National Registry for Biological Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Lone; Jensen, Michael Dam; Larsen, Michael Due; Nielsen, Rasmus Gaardskær; Thorsgaard, Niels; Vind, Ida; Wildt, Signe; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aims of The Danish National Registry for Biological Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are to ensure that biological therapy and the clinical management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving biological treatment are in accordance with the national clinical guidelines and, second, the database allows register-based clinical epidemiological research. Study population The study population comprises all Danish patients with IBD (both children and adults) with ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and IBD unclassified who receive biological therapy. Patients will be enrolled consecutively when biological treatment is initiated. Main variables The variables in the database are: diagnosis, time of diagnosis, disease manifestation, indication for biological therapy, previous biological and nonbiological therapy, date of visit, clinical indices, physician’s global assessment, pregnancy and breastfeeding (women), height (children), weight, dosage (current biological agent), adverse events, surgery, endoscopic procedures, and radiology. Descriptive data Eleven clinical indicators have been selected to monitor the quality of biological treatment. For each indicator, a standard has been defined based on the available evidence. National results will be published in an annual report and local results on a quarterly basis. The indicators will be reported as department-specific proportions with 95% confidence intervals, and the national average will be provided for comparison. An estimated 1,200–1,300 new biological therapies are initiated each year in Danish patients with IBD. Conclusion The database will be available for research during 2016. Data will be made available by The Danish Clinical Registries (www.rkkp.dk). PMID:27822107

  15. [The Danish Health Act and health-care services to undocumented migrants].

    PubMed

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hallas, Peter

    2012-09-17

    Health-care workers may experience uncertainty regarding legal matters when attending to medical needs of undocumented migrants. This paper applies a pragmatic focus when addressing the legal aspects involved in providing health-care services to undocumented migrants with examples from the Danish Health Act and international conventions. The delivery of medical care to vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and children is described.

  16. [Nazi Terror against the Danish Medical Profession. The February 20, 1945 Murders in Odense].

    PubMed

    Jeune, Bernard; Hess, Søren; Skytthe, Axel; Stræde, Therkel

    2015-01-01

    On February 20, 1945, during the German occupation of Denmark, members of a notorious Nazi terror organization named the Petergroup murdered four young medical doctors at the city and regional hospital of Odense. On the 70th anniversary of the crime, a symposium was organized at the Odense University Hospital, and a monument revealed close to the site of the murders in commemoration of the four victims of the crime. The young physicians were not known to be connected with the Danish resistance, and they were shot without their murderers even knowing their identities in an attempt to revenge the growing resistance in Denmark's central, third largest city, and as a reprisal for several cases where the hospital had treated wounded resistance fighters, and prevented their being handed over to the German police. The article describes the terror action of February 20, 1945 and its perpetrators, as well as other Nazi attacks on members of the Danish medical profession. It lines out the strong protest voiced by the Danish central administration against the Odense hospital killings which were on the very same day seconded by further killings and a German campaign of blowing up important Odense buildings including two newspaper printing houses. Conclusively, the authors - by way of obituaries and material from relatives of the murdered - portray the four victims of the atrocity Christian Fabricius Møller, Jørgen Hvalkof, Henning Magnus Adelsteen Dalsgaard, and Henning Ørsberg.

  17. The Danish Disaster Victim Identification effort in the Thai tsunami: organisation and results.

    PubMed

    Schou, Mette Pagh; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    Following the December 2004 tsunami in Thailand experts from many countries, including Denmark, went to Thailand to help with identification work. The Interpol system for Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) was employed for the identification of the many casualties. This paper describes the work of the Danish teams in Thailand from the 30th December 2004 until the 6th June 2005. The investigation covers all Danes reported missing directly after the tsunami in Thailand on the 26th December 2004 and who were later found deceased, or, in one case, never recovered. The AM and PM forms were reviewed retrospectively and the relevant information compared. Forensic odontology alone was responsible for 70.3% of identifications, and in two more cases (5.4%) the identification was established using a combination of odontology and fingerprint information. Fingerprints were used to establish identity in 8 cases (21.6%). DNA-typing was only used in one identification, in combination with fingerprinting data. Only one Danish victim was not identified. This review of the 37 Danish cases confirms that odontological examination yielded the most identifications, fingerprint data much fewer, and DNA was only used to a small extent, due to organisational problems with the examination and because the initial samples were of inferior quality.

  18. Thomas Clausen -- a Danish Astronomer and/or Mathematician in Altona and Tartu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gropp, Harald

    Thomas Clausen was born in Snogbaek in Denmark on January 16, 1801 and died in Dorpat (now Tartu) in Estonia on May 23, 1885. In 1824 Clausen became Schumacher's assistant at Altona observatory. Between 1828 and 1840 he worked in München as successor of Fraunhofer. After two years again in Altona he became observer at Dorpat observatory in 1842. Apart from his activities as astronomer he played a perhaps still underestimated role in mathematics. In Denmark Clausen seems to be nearly forgotten as an important astronomer. However, the Danish Mathematical Society has one of his drawings as its logo. In Germany Clausen is not so much discussed since Altona was a Danish observatory. The second half of Clausen's life in Estonia is not well known in Central Europe since Tartu is far away from Germany and Denmark. Clausen's life and work in the century of Olbers and Bessel are discussed, also from the point of view of international relations in astronomy. In particular, Clausen's Danish and Northern German context and the soon approaching 200th anniversary of his birthday in January 2001 were responsible for the choice of my topic.

  19. Use of proton-pump inhibitors among adults: a Danish nationwide drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Hallas, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B. Schaffalitzky; Lassen, Annmarie T.; Lødrup, Anders B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has increased over the last decade. The objective of this study was to provide detailed utilization data on PPI use over time, with special emphasis on duration of PPI use and concomitant use of ulcerogenic drugs. Methods: Using the nationwide Danish Prescription Registry, we identified all Danish adults filling a PPI between 2002 and 2014. Using descriptive statistics, we reported (i) the distribution of use between single PPI entities, (ii) the development in incidence and prevalence of use over time, (iii) measures of duration and intensity of treatment, and (iv) the prevalence of use of ulcerogenic drugs among users of PPIs. Results: We identified 1,617,614 adults using PPIs during the study period. The prevalence of PPI use increased fourfold during the study period to 7.4% of all Danish adults in 2014. PPI use showed strong age dependency, reaching more than 20% among those aged at least 80 years. The proportion of users maintaining treatment over time increased with increasing age, with less than10% of those aged 18–39 years using PPIs 2 years after their first prescription, compared with about 40% among those aged at least 80 years. The overall use of ulcerogenic drugs among PPI users increased moderately, from 35% of users of PPI in 2002 to 45% in 2014. Conclusions: The use of PPIs is extensive and increasing rapidly, especially among the elderly. PMID:27582879

  20. Danish Nationwide Data Reveal a Link between Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Petrovski, Beáta Éva; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To determine the association between treatment against diabetes mellitus (DM) and treatment with antiglaucomatous drugs in the entire Danish population and to investigate the comorbidity between DM and its complications with antiglaucomatous treatment. Methods. Retrospective nationwide cohort study with data over a 16-year follow-up period. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for antiglaucomatous medication and DM drugs. ICD-10 classifications were furthermore used to identify comorbidities between antiglaucomatous medication and the DM complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and nephropathy. Results. A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed. The overall incidence rate of new-onset glaucoma patients was 0.07 per 1000 person-years for the reference population compared to 36 per 1000 person-years for all diagnosed DM cases. Patients treated with DM drugs had about two times higher relative risk of glaucoma, when adjusting for a range of factors. The presence of DR alone or in combination with nephropathy increased the risk of glaucoma. Conclusions. The present study reports a strong association between DM and onset of glaucoma treatment in the entire Danish population. PMID:27872861

  1. Identifying risk factors for poor hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B H; Thomsen, P T; Sørensen, J T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors for poor cow hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed, lactating dairy cows. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of 1315 cows in 42 commercial Danish dairy herds with primarily Danish Holstein cows. The effect of four cow-level factors (parity, days in milk, daily lying time and lameness) and eight herd-level factors (herd size, milk production, milking system, floor type, access to pasture grazing, floor scraping frequency, hoof bathing frequency and hoof washing frequency) on the risk of having dirtier hind limbs were analysed using ordinal logistic regression fitting a proportional odds model. Cow hind limb cleanliness was scored using an ordinal score from 1 to 4: 1 being clean and 4 being covered in dirt. The odds ratios (ORs) estimated from the proportional odds model depict the effect of a risk factor on the odds of having a higher rather than a lower cleanliness score. First parity cows had an increased risk of being dirtier compared with third parity or older cows (OR=1.70). Compared with late lactation, early and mid lactation were associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=2.07 and 1.33, respectively). Decreasing the daily time lying by 30 min was associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=1.05). Furthermore, an increased risk of being dirtier was found in herds with no pasture access (OR=3.75).

  2. Chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences in Norwegian-Danish basin and North Sea Central Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.O.

    1987-05-01

    Geochemical studies of subsurface sections and outcrops in the Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences from the Norwegian-Danish basin and the North Sea Central Trough have resulted in a detailed chemostratigraphy for these strata. The most applicable chemostratigraphic markers are based on the distribution of strontium, magnesium, manganese, the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio, and the variations in the carbonate contents. It is demonstrated that the chemostratigraphic approach is valid at two levels: (1) a superior chemostratigraphy in which deep-sea cores from the Atlantic Ocean and sections from western Europe are correlated on the basis of significant geochemical anomalies and long-term variations most likely induced by oceanic geochemical cycles and sea level fluctuations; (2) a subordinate but detailed intrabasinal chemostratigraphic correlation which primarily reflects the physicochemical conditions in the depositional environment. The Upper Cretaceous chemostratigraphy established in the Danish area allows a detailed correlation between relatively continuous chalk sequences in the Norwegian-Danish basin and the rather condensed and hiati-influenced sections in the oil fields of the North Sea. The results emphasize the applicability of chemostratigraphy in the subsurface exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs in chalk.

  3. Determinants related to gender differences in general practice utilization: Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50–65 years. Design Cohort-based cross-sectional study. Setting Danish general practice. Subjects Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (50–65 years). Main outcome measures The sum of cohort members’ face-to-face consultations with general practitioner (GP) at the cohort baseline year (1993–1997). We obtained data on GP visits from the Danish National Health Service Register at the cohort baseline (1993–1997), when information on lifestyle (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, physical activity), medical conditions (somatic and mental), employment, education, gravidity, and hormone therapy (HT) use was collected by questionnaire. Results Women had on average 4.1 and men 2.8 consultations per year. In a crude model, women had 47% higher rate of GP visits than men (incidence rate ratio: 1.47; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.45–1.50), which remained unchanged after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demographic and medical factors, but attenuated to 18% (1.18; 1.13–1.24) after adjustment for female factors (gravidity and post-menopausal HT. In a fully adjusted model, subjects with hypertension (1.63; 1.59–1.67), mental illness (1.63; 1.61–1.66), diabetes (1.56; 1.47–1.65), angina pectoris (1.28; 1.21–1.34), and unemployed persons (1.19; 1.18–1.21) had highest rates of GP visits. Conclusions Gravidity and HT use explain a large proportion, but not all of the gender difference in GP utilization. Medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment are the main determinants of GP utilization in men and women, while lifestyle has minor effect. Key Points Female gender remained a dominant determinant of GP utilization, after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demography, medical and gender specific factors, with females consulting their GP 18% more often than males

  4. How does the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme support statistical consistent nitrate trend analyses in groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Lærke; Sørensen, Brian; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of performing nitrate trend analyses in oxic groundwater is to document the effect of regulation of Danish agriculture on N pollution. The design of the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme is presented and discussed in relation to performance of statistical consistence nitrate trend analyses. Three types of data are crucial. Firstly, long and continuous time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 from Denmark Statistics is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge age determination are performed in order to allow linking of the first two dataset. Recent results published in Hansen et al. (2011 & 2012) will be presented. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg/l. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N

  5. Dementia and Traffic Accidents: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe; Vass, Mikkel; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2016-01-01

    Background As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. Objective Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. Methods We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual’s personal data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used for the main analysis. Results Our study protocol has 3 phases including data collection, data analysis, and reporting. The first phase of register-based data collection of 853,228 individual’s personal information was completed in August, 2016. The next phase is data analysis, which is expected to be finished before December 2016, and thereafter writing publications based on the findings. The study started in January 2016 and will end in December 2018. Discussion This study covers the entire elderly population of Denmark, and thereby will avoid selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic

  6. Investigating the influence of sea level oscillations in the Danish Straits on the Baltic Sea dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, Natalia; Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zakharchuk, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    In this research, we study the influence of dynamic processes in the Danish Straits on the sea surface height (SSH) oscillations in the Baltic Sea. For this purpose, we use the model of marine and oceanic circulation INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model). The simulations were carried out for the period 2009-2010, and the coastal station data were used for verification of SSH modelling quality. Comparison of the simulated data with the ones measured in the coastal points showed us that the model does not describe SSH variability in different areas of the Baltic Sea well enough, so in the following simulation series the in situ SSH data of the coastal measurements were assimilated at the open boundary in the Danish Straits. The results of the new simulation showed us that this approach significantly increases the SSH simulation quality in all areas of the sea, where the comparison was made. In particular, the correlation coefficients between the simulated and measured SSH data increased from 0.21-0.73 to 0.81-0.90. On the basis of these results, it has been suggested that the Baltic Sea SSH variability is largely determined by the influence of the dynamic processes in the Danish Straits, which can be represented as a superposition of oscillations of different space-time scales. These oscillations can either be generated in the straits themselves, or propagate from the North Sea. For verification of this hypothesis and assessment of the oscillation propagation distance in the Baltic Sea, the following experiment was performed. At the open boundary in the Danish Straits, the six harmonics were set with the following parameters: the periods are 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 13.5, 40.5, and 121.5 days, and the amplitude for all the harmonics is 50 cm. The results showed us that the prescribed harmonic oscillations at the open boundary propagate into all areas of the sea without changing the frequency, but with decreasing amplitude. The decrease in amplitude is not

  7. New explosive detonator improves worksite safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The industry has long been concerned about preventing unwanted detonation of explosives around work sites or downhole, because of inadvertent contact with stray electrical currents, impacts, heat, etc. To answer the challenge of developing a safer, more economical system to use in explosive perforating, cutting and severing jobs, Halliburton Energy Services has introduced the Rig Environment Detonator (RED). The new electroexplosive device utilizes semiconductor bridge technology and a special deflagration-to-detonation technique involving secondary, not primary, explosives. Three independent testing authorities in the US and the UK have recognized the improved safety of the system. Details of available conventional detonators ranging from the earliest blasting caps to very safe, but expensive, systems; design/testing of the new device; and case histories of its use are presented and illustrated in SPE paper 36637, ``Unique electrical detonator enhances safety in explosive operations: case histories``. This paper contains extracts from the SPE paper.

  8. Sunlight Diffusing Tent for Lunar Worksite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleson, Blair; Clark, Todd; Deese, Todd; Gentry, Ernest; Samad, Abdul

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to provide a solution to problems astronauts encounter with sunlight on the lunar surface. Due to the absence of an atmosphere the Moon is subjected to intense sunlight creating problems with color and contrast. This problem can be overcome by providing a way to reduce intensity and diffuse the light in a working environment. The solution to the problem utilizes an umbrella, tent-like structure covered with a diffusing material. The design takes into account structural materials, stresses, fabrics, and deployment.

  9. Worksite Nutrition: A Decision-Maker's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dietetic Association, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed specifically to assist decision makers in business and industry, including chief executive officers, benefits managers, human resource directors, wellness coordinators, and owners of small businesses, in understanding how diet and nutrition affect employees and the company. It addresses the concerns of both small and large…

  10. The Success of a Planned Bereavement Response--A Survey on Teacher Use of Bereavement Response Plans When Supporting Grieving Children in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytje, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the strengths and weaknesses of the Danish Bereavement response plans. These are used by teachers to support grieving students and have been implemented in 96% of all Danish schools. The study is based on an Internet survey conducted with 967 teachers. Issues investigated are: "generalisation of grief",…

  11. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    SciTech Connect

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of whole landfill site methane emission at 15 landfills. • Multiple on-site source identification and quantification. • Quantified methane emission from shredder waste and composting. • Large difference between measured and reported methane emissions. - Abstract: Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h{sup −1}, corresponding to 0.7–13.2 g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41–81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y{sup −1}. This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y{sup −1} estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for

  12. Short communication: Heterosis by environment and genotype by environment interactions for protein yield in Danish Jerseys.

    PubMed

    Norberg, E; Madsen, P; Su, G; Pryce, J E; Jensen, J; Kargo, M

    2014-07-01

    Crossing of lines or strains within and between breeds has been demonstrated to be beneficial for dairy cattle performance. However, even within breed, differences between strains may also give rise to heterosis. A key question is whether an interaction exists between heterosis and environment (H × E) that is independent of genotype by environment (G × E) interactions. In this study, H × E and G × E interactions were estimated in a population of approximately 300,000 Danish Jersey cows. The cows were a mixture of pure Danish Jerseys and crosses of US and Danish Jerseys. The phenotype studied was protein yield. A reaction norm model where the unknown environmental covariates are inferred simultaneously with the other parameters in the model was used to analyze the data. When H × E, but not G × E, was included in the model, heterosis was estimated to be 3.8% for the intermediate environmental level. However, when both H × E and G × E were included in the model, heterosis was estimated to be 4.1% for the intermediate environmental level. Furthermore, when only H × E was included in the model, the regression on the unknown environmental covariate was estimated to be 0.15, interpreted as meaning that an increase of average herd-year protein yield by 1 kg of protein led to an increase in heterosis of 0.15 kg above the average heterosis for a first-cross cow. When both H × E and G × E were included in the model, the regression on the unknown environmental covariate was not significantly different from zero, meaning that heterosis was similar in all environments investigated. The genetic correlation of protein yields for different environmental levels ranged from 0.72 to 0.93, which was significantly different from unity, indicating that G × E exist for protein yield.

  13. ALS and the Military: A Population-Based Study in the Danish Registries

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan M.; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Gredal, Ole; Hansen, Johnni; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have suggested that military service may be associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Denmark to assess whether occupation in the Danish military is associated with an increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Methods There were 3,650 incident cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry between 1982 and 2009. Each case was matched to 100 age- and sex-matched population controls alive and free of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on the date of the case diagnosis. Comprehensive occupational history was obtained from the Danish Pension Fund database, which began in 1964. Results 2.4% (n=8,922) of controls had a history of employment in the military prior to the index date. Military employees overall had an elevated rate of ALS (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6). A ten-year increase in years employed by the military was associated with an odds ratio of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0-1.4), and all quartiles of time employed were elevated. There was little suggestion of a pattern across calendar year of first employment, but there was some evidence that increasing age at first employment was associated with increased ALS rates. Rates were highest in the decade immediately following the end of employment (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2). Conclusions In this large population-based case-control study, employment by the military is associated with increased rates of ALS. These findings are consistent with earlier findings that military service or employment may entail exposure to risk factors for ALS. PMID:26583610

  14. Late Triassic uplift of southern Norway revealed by detrital zircons in the Norwegian-Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivarius, Mette; Nielsen, Lars H.; Weibel, Rikke; Kristensen, Lars; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-04-01

    Zircon U/Pb geochronometry is used to identify the sediment source areas of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic shallow marine to paralic Gassum Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. The analyses of zircon grains from geographically and stratigraphically widely distributed cores take advantage of the detailed sequence stratigraphic framework existing for the succession. The zircon ages indicate that the sediment in the lower part of the Gassum Formation in the northern and central parts of the basin was supplied solely from the Telemarkia Terrane in the southern part of southern Norway. However, age signatures from other basement terranes were added during periods of transgression presumably as a result of longshore reworking. The sediment in the eastern part of the basin has a different provenance signature that reflects supply from various sources of which some or all seemingly include older sediments. The basinwide fluvial incision that occurred during a relative sea-level fall in the Rhaetian is interpreted to be related to uplift of southern Norway since a pronounced content of zircon grains with U/Pb ages of 1.65 Ga were introduced in the Norwegian-Danish Basin at the time. This age is dominant in the upper part of the Gassum Formation and is present in all studied younger sediments in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, whereas it is missing in older sediments in the basin. Rocks with corresponding ages are presently exposed in the Jotun Nappe Complex and the Western Gneiss Complex in the central and northern parts of southern Norway. Thus, major faulting activity must have occurred in southern Norway during the Late Triassic that made such rocks available for erosion with permanent southeastwards drainage.

  15. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) is an essential parameter when using first order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate methane (CH4) generation from landfills. Different categories of waste (mixed, shredder and sludge waste) with a low-organic content and temporarily stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55°C for more than 60 days, with continuous monitoring of the cumulative CH4 generation. Results showed that samples of mixed waste and shredder waste had similar BMP results, which was in the range of 5.4-9.1 kg CH4/ton waste (wet weight) on average. As a calculated consequence, their degradable organic carbon content (DOCC) was in the range of 0.44-0.70% of total weight (wet waste). Numeric values of both parameters were much lower than values of traditional municipal solid waste (MSW), as well as default numeric values in current FOD models. The sludge waste and temporarily stored combustible waste showed BMP values of 51.8-69.6 and 106.6-117.3 kg CH4/ton waste on average, respectively, and DOCC values of 3.84-5.12% and 7.96-8.74% of total weight. The same category of waste from different Danish landfills did not show significant variation. This research studied the BMP of Danish low-organic waste for the first time, which is important and valuable for using current FOD LFG generation models to estimate realistic CH4 emissions from modern landfills receiving low-organic waste.

  16. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method.

    PubMed

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h(-1), corresponding to 0.7-13.2 g m(-2)d(-1), with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41-81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y(-1). This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y(-1), which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y(-1) estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for 2011.

  17. [The concept of insanity in Danish penal and mental health codes].

    PubMed

    Brandt-Christensen, Mette; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2010-04-26

    The medical terms insanity and psychosis are used synonymously to describe a condition with substantial changes in the "total" personality and loss of realism. In the 10th revision of the diagnostic classification system ICD-10 (1994) the intention was to replace the term "psychosis" with "psychotic" to indicate the presence of hallucinations and delusions. However, in Danish legislation - most importantly in the penal code and the Mental Health Act - the term "insanity" is still in use. This difference has lead to diagnostic uncertainty, especially in clinical and forensic psychiatric practice.

  18. Levels of hydrocarbons in mussels, Mytilus edulis, and surface sediments from Danish coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K.

    1981-02-01

    Until recently, most effort in oil pollution research has been spent on investigating the effects of oil spills and use of detergents. The effects of long-term low level input to the marine environment are much less elucidated. This study represents the first step in a project concerning chronic oil pollution undertaken by the Marine Pollution Laboratory, Denmark. Results from previous studies on this subject in the area concerned, which have not been internationally published, are also included. In a series of Danish coastal localities, samples of surface sediments (top cm) were taken and samples of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected by SCUBA diving.

  19. The Automatic Light Curves Generated by Danish 1.54m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoda, Petr

    2015-12-01

    We present the Ondřejov Southern Photometry Survey, being conducted at the Danish 1.54m telescope in remote observing mode by several groups of Czech stellar astronomers. The automatic astrometry and photometry pipelines run on every CCD frame combined with sophisticated parallelized cross-matching and clustering algorithms result in an on-the-fly generation of light curves of every single object in the field. To allow powerful querying and visualization of current database of more than half billion of measurements, the technology of Virtual Observatory is used, combining IVOA protocols and powerful visualization tools as Aladin, TOPCAT and SPLAT-VO.

  20. [The National Danish Survey of Patient Experiences has a small positive bias].

    PubMed

    Rosenstjerne Andersen, Angelo; Fuglsang, Marie; Kyed, Daisy

    2012-10-01

    The response rate in The National Danish Survey of Patient Experiences in 2009 was 54%. In order to evaluate bias due to non-responders, The Unit of Patient-perceived Quality merged survey data and data on patient background from Statistics Denmark. The relationships between the responding patients' background and their answers to six questions in the survey questionnaire are estimated with logistic regression analysis and subsequently used for predicting the answers of the non-responders. Results indicate a small positive bias in four of the questions and no bias in the remaining two.

  1. [Melioidosis in a Danish tourist returning from North-eastern Thailand].

    PubMed

    Leth, Steffen; Wang, Mikala; Deutch, Susanna

    2014-06-09

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. It has a wide clinical diversity, spanning from asymptomatic cases to rapid septic shock and death. We present a case of pulmonary melioidosis in a Danish tourist returning from North-eastern Thailand. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and subsequently switched to doxycycline due to abnormal liver function tests and eosinophilia, with no sign of relapse two months after antibiotic cessation.

  2. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B; Chowdhury, S; Ersbøll, A K; Alban, L

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011, there were 25 Danish broiler farms visited, and a questionnaire was filled in by a veterinarian/consultant. In the second study, a similar questionnaire was distributed electronically to all Danish broiler farmers (n=164) that were on record with an email address in the Quality Assurance System in the Danish Broiler Production (KIK) database. House- and flock-specific data collected in the surveys were supplemented with information obtained from the KIK database. Data obtained from the two studies were analyzed separately by logistic regression analysis. In both models, the dependent variable was "Campylobacter flock status (positive/negative)," which was based on real-time PCR testing of fecal material from the floor of each broiler house that had been collected preslaughter using a pair of tube gauze "socks." This material was pooled into one sample. Of the 25 farms visited, 17 had delivered Campylobacter-positive flocks during the study period, and eight farms had no Campylobacter-positive flocks. Moreover, the flock prevalence of Campylobacter was 17% (n=418). Data obtained from the electronically distributed survey revealed that 63% (n=71) of the farms were Campylobacter-positive. Further, the flock prevalence of Campylobacter was 14% (n=1,286). The multivariable models from the two sets of data identified the following statistically significant risk factors: summer vs. winter; if the previous flock in the house was positive for Campylobacter vs. if the previous flock in the house was negative; and litter delivered into the house close to the time of arrival of new chickens vs. storing litter on the farm. Furthermore, the data showed that a vertically based ventilation

  3. "It's not very feminine to have a mustache": Experiences of Danish women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Gertrud; Rømer, Kristine

    2017-02-01

    This article explores women's lived experiences with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the basis of semistructured interviews with 21 Danish women. It provides insights about the problems that they experienced and how they coped with PCOS. The interviews revealed that they were highly influenced by society's femininity norms. Many of them perceived their bodies as "different" because of the symptoms of PCOS, namely, hirsutism. They used different strategies to live up to body ideals and cope with the symptoms. However, hirsutism had a decisive negative influence on the women's everyday lives, particularly with regard to male partners and sexual relations.

  4. Real-time surveillance of laboratory confirmed influenza based on the Danish microbiology database (MiBa).

    PubMed

    Voldstedlund, Marianne; Haahr, Malene; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bang, Henrik; Krause, Tyra

    2013-01-01

    The Danish microbiology database (MiBa) is a national database that automatically accumulates patient test results from all Danish Departments of Clinical Microbiology. As an example for use of MiBa, we describe the real-time surveillance of laboratory confirmed influenza established in October 2012. It functions without any extra burdens of reporting by laboratories or clinicians. This is an important improvement of the existing surveillance for influenza like illness (ILI) which includes only limited virological testing. The MiBa based surveillance adds complete national virological data which are specific for influenza, in contrast to ILI, and serves as a tool for regional and national preparedness and planning.

  5. Spitting for Science: Danish High School Students Commit to a Large-Scale Self-Reported Genetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Jørgensen, Frank G.; Cheng, Jade Y.; Kjærgaard, Peter C.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Scientific outreach delivers science to the people. But it can also deliver people to the science. In this work, we report our experience from a large-scale public engagement project promoting genomic literacy among Danish high school students with the additional benefit of collecting data for studying the genetic makeup of the Danish population. Not only did we confirm that students have a great interest in their genetic past, but we were also gratified to see that, with the right motivation, adolescents can provide high-quality data for genetic studies. PMID:27571202

  6. Physical Trauma and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Population-Based Study Using Danish National Registries

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Ryan M.; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that physical trauma might be associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We conducted a population-based, individually matched case-control study in Denmark to assess whether hospitalization for trauma is associated with a higher risk of developing ALS. There were 3,650 incident cases of ALS in the Danish National Patient Register from 1982 to 2009. We used risk-set sampling to match each case to 100 age- and sex-matched population controls alive on the date of the case's diagnosis. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a conditional logistic regression model. History of trauma diagnosis was also obtained from the Danish Patient Register. When traumas in the 5 years prior to the index date were excluded, there was a borderline association between any trauma and ALS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.19). A first trauma before age 55 years was associated with ALS (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37), whereas first traumas at older ages were not (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.10). Our data suggest that physical trauma at earlier ages is associated with ALS risk. Age at first trauma could help explain discrepancies in results of past studies of trauma and ALS. PMID:26825926

  7. Attempted suicide and violent criminality among Danish second generation immigrants according to parental place of origin

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Roger T; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mok, Pearl LH; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Agerbo, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigrant populations in Western European countries have grown in their size and diversity, but little is known about risks of self-directed and externalised violence among second generation immigrants. Aims To compare risks for attempted suicides and violent offending among second generation immigrants to Denmark according to parental region of origin versus the native Danish population. Methods Data from interlinked national Danish registers were used (N=1,973,614). Parental origin outside Denmark was categorised thus: Asia, Africa, Middle East, Greenland, other Scandinavian countries, elsewhere in Europe, and all other regions. We estimated gender-specific cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) versus native Danes. Results In virtually all subgroups of second generation immigrants, risk was elevated for the two adverse outcomes in both genders. Females generally had greater elevations in attempted suicide risk, and males had greater elevations in violent offending risk. For attempted suicide, especially large IRRs were observed for males and females whose parents emigrated from Greenland; for violent offending, risks were particularly raised for males and females of Middle Eastern, Greenlandic and African origin. Adjustment for socioeconomic status partially explained these associations. Conclusions Western European nations should develop preventive programmes tailored toward specific second generation immigrant populations, with integrated approaches jointly tackling suicidality and violence. PMID:26613752

  8. Vowel bias in Danish word-learning: processing biases are language-specific.

    PubMed

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña and Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function of the phonological or lexical properties of the language in acquisition. To do so, we used the interactive word-learning task set up by Havy and Nazzi (2009), teaching Danish-learning 20-month-olds pairs of phonetically similar words that contrasted either on one of their consonants or one of their vowels, by either one or two phonological features. Danish was chosen because it has more vowels than consonants, and is characterized by extensive consonant lenition. Both phenomena could disfavor a consonant bias. Evidence of word-learning was found only for vocalic information, irrespective of whether one or two phonological features were changed. The implication of these findings is that the phonological biases found in early lexical processing are not language-general but develop during language acquisition, depending on the phonological or lexical properties of the native language.

  9. Discarding of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Danish North Sea trawl fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Niels; Feekings, Jordan; Lewy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) plays an important role in the North Sea benthic ecosystem and is by weight the most important commercial flatfish species in the North Sea demersal fishery. There is a high discarding of plaice in the active demersal fisheries in the North Sea. The change in fisheries management towards a more ecosystem based approach, together with a greater focus on sustainability, has caused a severe need for action. Subsequently, the European Commission is preparing regulations to reduce or even ban discards. The trawl fisheries are commercially the most important Danish fishery targeting plaice. Here we analyse discard data collected onboard Danish vessels in the period from 1998 to 2008. We describe the general patterns in these data by dividing them into three mesh size categories: 80-99 mm, 100-119 mm and ≥ 120 mm to reflect implemented technical measures of relevance. We analyse the landed and discarded portions in these mesh size categories and link the discarding to the minimum landing size. We employed a GAM model to assess how discarding of plaice below the minimum landing size is connected to relevant factors that could be of relevance from a management perspective. We identified a statistical significant effect of mesh size category and area. We discuss the results in relation to potential mitigation measures to be implemented in future fisheries management strategies.

  10. Prediction of 222Rn in Danish dwellings using geology and house construction information from central databases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Claus E; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Helle Primdal; Lind, Morten; Gravesen, Peter; Thomsen, Birthe L; Ulbak, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    A linear regression model has been developed for the prediction of indoor (222)Rn in Danish houses. The model provides proxy radon concentrations for about 21,000 houses in a Danish case-control study on the possible association between residential radon and childhood cancer (primarily leukaemia). The model was calibrated against radon measurements in 3116 houses. An independent dataset with 788 house measurements was used for model performance assessment. The model includes nine explanatory variables, of which the most important ones are house type and geology. All explanatory variables are available from central databases. The model was fitted to log-transformed radon concentrations and it has an R(2) of 40%. The uncertainty associated with individual predictions of (untransformed) radon concentrations is about a factor of 2.0 (one standard deviation). The comparison with the independent test data shows that the model makes sound predictions and that errors of radon predictions are only weakly correlated with the estimates themselves (R(2) = 10%).

  11. Development of a screening method to assess flood risk on danish national roads and highway systems.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H; Larsen, M R A; Rasmussen, S F

    2011-01-01

    A method to assess flood risk on Danish national roads in a large area in the middle and southern part of Jutland, Denmark, was developed for the Danish Road Directorate. Flood risk has gained renewed focus due to the climate changes in recent years and extreme rain events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The assessment was primarily based on a digital terrain model (DTM) covering 7,500 km2 in a 1.6 x 1.6 m grid. The high-resolution terrain model was chosen in order to get an accurate estimation of the potential flooding in the road area and in the immediate vicinity, but also put a high requirement on the methods, hardware and software applied. The outcome of the analysis was detailed maps (as GIS layers) illustrating the location of depressions with depths, surface area and volume data for each depression. Furthermore, preferential flow paths, catchment boundaries and ranking of each depression were calculated. The ranking was based on volume of depressions compared with upstream catchment and a sensitivity analysis of the runoff coefficient. Finally, a method for assessing flood risk at a more advanced level (hydrodynamic simulation of surface and drainage) was developed and used on a specific blue spot as an example. The case study shows that upstream catchment, depressions, drainage system, and use of hydrodynamic calculations have a great influence on the result. Upstream catchments can contribute greatly to the flooding.

  12. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National Birth Cohort. Information about lifestyle, occupational, medical and obstetric factors was obtained from a telephone interview and data on pregnancy outcomes came from the Danish population based registries. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (adjusted for potential confounders) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked compared to non-smoking parents (miscarriage: 1.18, 95 % CI 0.96-1.44; stillbirth: 1.32, 95 % CI 0.93-1.89). On the additive scale, we detected a small positive interaction for stillbirth between smoking and body mass index (overweight women). In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise.

  13. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women’s life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects’ relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975–2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915–1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects. PMID:27035998

  14. The completeness of chest X-ray procedure codes in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hjertholm, Peter; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Guldbrandt, Louise Mahncke; Vedsted, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this validation study was to assess the completeness of the registrations of chest X-rays (CXR) in two different versions of the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Material and methods We included electronic record data on CXR performed on patients aged 40 to 99 years from nine radiology departments covering 20 Danish hospitals. From each department, we included data from three randomly selected weeks between 2004 and 2011 (reference standard). In two versions of the DNPR from the State Serum Institute (SSI) and Statistics Denmark, respectively, we investigated the proportion of registered CXR compared to the reference standard. Furthermore, we compared the completeness of the recorded data according to the responsible department (main department). Results We identified 11,235 patients and 12,513 CXR in the reference standard. The data from the SSI contained 12,265 (98%) CXR, whereas the data from Statistics Denmark comprised 9,151 (73.1%) CXR. The completeness of the SSI data was fairly constant across years, radiology departments, medical specialties, and age groups. The data from Statistics Denmark was almost complete in 2011 (95.8%). However, for the remaining study period, the data with radiology departments registered as the main department were lacking in the version from Statistics Denmark, and so the overall completeness was 73.1%. Conclusion The completeness of CXR registrations varied between 98% and 73% depending on the information source, and this should be considered when investigating radiology services in the basis of DNPR. PMID:28293121

  15. Population dynamics of bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in Danish wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-15

    The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint".

  16. Occurrence of pre- and post-harvest mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in Danish maize silage.

    PubMed

    Storm, Ida M L Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-07-31

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects.

  17. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350

  18. The process of Danish nurses' professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession.

  19. On means of transport of Danish veterinarians during the last two hundred years.

    PubMed

    Katić, Ivan; Kristiansen, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    For almost 20 years the authors have been selecting and editing the material referring to the means of transport which Danish veterinarians used in the 18th, 19th and 20th century. The source material contains memoirs, advertisements from veterinary medical journals, obituaries and other sources, based on which a 210-page book in the Danish language has been published. The article presents an abridged version of this book. In Denmark, the first veterinarians rendered their services at the time when this profession had not yet established itself. They were relatively poor and very often they had to walk even 15 to 20 km per day in order to visit two or three farms, where their professional help was needed. In the first half of the 19th century, the economic situation of Danish veterinarians improved, so they could afford a horse of their own. From the second half of the 19th century, the gig, a light two-wheel vehicle drawn by one horse, was in use. At the end of the 19th century, bicycles and motor-bicycles were slowly gaining ground. The gig, however, continued to be the main means of transport, because it was cheap and safe. In the 20th century, the automobile era began, but World War I prevented the widespread use of cars due to the shortage of petrol, rubber parts and the like. After the war, automobiles came into common use both in medical and veterinary practice. Only in hard winters with much snow, horses and sledges were coming to the fore again. World War II once again created the shortage of petrol and rubber tyres, so horses and gas generators were in demand. After the war, various car models completely dominated the veterinary practice, cars with built-in shelves for medicines, instruments and other medical supplies in particular. The telephone was a great help and of service to veterinarians, because many of long trips to clients were not necessary any more, thanks to the simple communication over the phone. Veterinarians were often among the first

  20. ADHD Medication and Social Self-Understanding: Social Practice Research with a First Grade in a Danish Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Karen-Lis; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the contradictions, dilemmas, and struggles in a Danish primary school practice involved in medicating children diagnosed with ADHD. It draws on a social practice research study of a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD, who was medicated against his will. It focuses on his struggles when being medicated, and…

  1. Code-Switching as a Communication, Learning, and Social Negotiation Strategy in First-Year Learners of Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnfast, Juni Soderberg; Jorgensen, J. Normann

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the use of code switching in first-year learners of Danish. Points out that code switching appears as a skill used in early attempts of playing with the languages involved in the conversation. Acknowledges code switching as an increasingly sophisticated language skill even a an early stage of second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  2. "The Rotten Banana" Fires Back: The Story of a Danish Discourse of "Inclusive" Rurality in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winther, Malene Brandt; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of a particular term--the Rotten Banana--has paralleled the one-sided centralisation of public services since the Danish Municipal Reform of 2007. The Rotten Banana denotes peripheral Denmark, which takes a geographically curved form that resembles a banana, and it symbolises the belief that rural areas are backward and (too)…

  3. Racialised Entanglements of Teacher Professionalisation and Problematised Immigrant Schoolchildren: Crafting a Danish Welfare Nation-State, 1970-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Modern welfare states emerged as a response to the social question and were crafted through the educationalisation of society engendering a need for a variety of professionals who could take care of citizens of concern. This article revisits the social question in a post-1970 Danish context of a growing non-western immigrant and refugee population…

  4. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children with Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…

  5. Danish and British Architects at Work: A Micro-Study of Architectural Encounters after the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Coninck-Smith, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Invoking a statement by the cultural geographer David Livingstone--that location is essential to knowing--this paper focuses on Danish school architecture during the 1950s and 1960s and the interplay between local geography and developments and discussions on the national and international scene. Through exhibitions and study tours and…

  6. Patterns of Contact with Hospital for Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Danish Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atladottir, Hjordis Osk; Schendel, Diana E.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Parner, Erik T.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study patterns of contact with hospital for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using Danish population based register data. We included all children born in Denmark from 1994 through 2002. We found that children diagnosed with ASD had an increased rate of contact with hospital, almost regardless of the cause…

  7. The First-Year Experience of Non-Traditional Students in Danish Science and Engineering University Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulriksen, Lars; Madsen, Lene Møller; Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    To understand student drop-out from university, research must explore students' first-year experiences and the challenges they encounter. This article analyses the first-year experiences of non-traditional students in Danish science and engineering university programmes. Focusing on identity theory and the framework of integration processes…

  8. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively.

  9. Fractures in Individuals with and without a History of Infantile Autism. A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Discharge Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2012-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and types of fractures in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time was 30.3 years (range 27.3-30.4…

  10. Epilepsy in Individuals with a History of Asperger's Syndrome: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…

  11. Accountability Practices in the History of Danish Primary Public Education from the 1660s to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian; Andreasen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on primary education accountability as a concept and as an organizational practice in the history of Danish public education. Contemporary studies of education policy often address questions of accountability, but the manifestations of school accountability differ significantly between different national settings. Furthermore,…

  12. Scaring the Students Away? Institutional Selection through Assessment Practices in the Danish Vocational and Educational Training System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grønborg, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on how competence assessment takes place in the Danish Vocational and Educational Training System. It discusses how intentions formulated by the government have unintentional effects when implemented in practice. The qualitative methods used in this study consist of participant observations from my field study of dropouts in…

  13. Validity of Childhood Autism in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register: Findings from a Cohort Sample Born 1990-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Jorgensen, Meta; Madsen, Kreesten M.; Lemcke, Sanne; Toft, Susanne; Grove, Jakob; Schendel, Diana E.; Thorsen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the diagnosis of childhood autism in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR) by reviewing medical records from 499 of 504 total children with childhood autism born 1990-1999. Based on review of abstracted behaviors recorded in case records from child psychiatric hospitals, case status…

  14. Language Ideologies in a Danish Company with English as a Corporate Language: "It Has to Be English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    With the spread of English as a global language, concerns have been voiced over the impact of English on local languages. This article presents results from an ethnographic study of language ideologies in a Danish workplace with a particular focus on ideologies of English in relation to the local language and to other foreign languages. In this…

  15. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  16. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars.

    PubMed

    Strathe, A B; Velander, I H; Mark, T; Ostersen, T; Hansen, C; Kadarmideen, H N

    2013-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding selection against the boar taint compounds, androstenone and skatole, due to potential unfavorable genetic correlations with important male fertility traits (i.e., selection of boars with low levels of these boar taint compounds might also reduce male fertility). Hence, the objective of this investigation was to study the genetic association between direct measures of male fertility and the boar taint compounds in Danish Landrace pigs. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars, respectively. The litter size traits, such as total number born, live piglets at d 5, and piglet survival until d 5 on relatives of the slaughter boars, were extracted from the Danish Landrace breeding program, yielding 35,715 records. Semen volume, sperm concentration, subjective sperm quality score, and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models. Skatole and androstenone concentrations were moderate to highly heritable (i.e., 0.33 and 0.59, respectively). The genetic correlation between the two compounds was moderate (0.40). Genetic variance of sperm production per ejaculate increased during the productive life of the boar, resulting in heritability estimates increasing from 0.18 to 0.31. Genetic correlations between sperm production per ejaculate at different ages were high and generally larger than 0.8, indicating that later genetic merit can be predicted from records at an early age. The heritability (based on service-sire genetic component) of both total number of piglets born and survival to d 5 were 0.02, and the correlation between these effects and the additive genetic effect on boar taint ranged from 0.05 to -0

  17. Adaption and validation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire for the Danish hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring and developing a safe culture in health care is a focus point in creating highly reliable organizations being successful in avoiding patient safety incidents where these could normally be expected. Questionnaires can be used to capture a snapshot of an employee’s perceptions of patient safety culture. A commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The purpose of this study was to adapt the SAQ for use in Danish hospitals, assess its construct validity and reliability, and present benchmark data. Materials and methods The SAQ was translated and adapted for the Danish setting (SAQ-DK). The SAQ-DK was distributed to 1,263 staff members from 31 in- and outpatient units (clinical areas) across five somatic and one psychiatric hospitals through meeting administration, hand delivery, and mailing. Construct validity and reliability were tested in a cross-sectional study. Goodness-of-fit indices from confirmatory factor analysis were reported along with inter-item correlations, Cronbach’s alpha (α), and item and subscale scores. Results Participation was 73.2% (N=925) of invited health care workers. Goodness-of-fit indices from the confirmatory factor analysis showed: c2=1496.76, P<0.001, CFI 0.901, RMSEA (90% CI) 0.053 (0.050–0056), Probability RMSEA (p close)=0.057. Inter-scale correlations between the factors showed moderate-to-high correlations. The scale stress recognition had significant negative correlations with each of the other scales. Questionnaire reliability was high, (α=0.89), and scale reliability ranged from α=0.70 to α=0.86 for the six scales. Proportions of participants with a positive attitude to each of the six SAQ scales did not differ between the somatic and psychiatric health care staff. Substantial variability at the unit level in all six scale mean scores was found within the somatic and the psychiatric samples. Conclusion SAQ-DK showed good construct validity and

  18. Possible impact of the "yellow card" antimicrobial scheme on meat inspection lesions in Danish finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Alban, L; Dahl, J; Andreasen, M; Petersen, J V; Sandberg, M

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, the "yellow card scheme" which was adopted by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration imposed restrictions on pig farmers who used more antimicrobials than twice the average. To study the potential impact on pig health, we looked into antimicrobial consumption and vaccine use data from the monitoring programme Vetstat, covering all treatments conducted on Danish pigs between January 2010 and July 2011. The decrease in antimicrobial consumption was pronounced for all age groups (sows/piglets, weaners and finishers) treated for either gastro-intestinal or respiratory disease. Evaluated over 12 months, use of vaccines increased in general: PCV2-related infections (+31%), gastro-intestinal disease (27%), respiratory infections (21%) whereas use of vaccines against other infections remained almost constant (-18%). Data from meat inspection of finisher pigs from before and after introduction of the scheme were compared. This included 1.7 million finisher pigs originating from 2765 pig farms, slaughtered on one large Danish abattoir and covered the first 9 weeks in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nine lesions of chronic nature and infectious origin and the code "condemned" were selected. The prevalence of these lesions was calculated. Logistic regression models with year and week as explanatory variables were used to identify whether the prevalence of a lesion changed from 2010 to 2011. Possible clustering due to correlation within herds and between weekly shipments of animals originating from the same herd was taken into account in the models. The most common lesion seen was chronic pleuritis (∼23%) while the other lesions occurred less-commonly (<1%). For osteomyelitis, pleuritis, chronic arthritis and condemnation, no differences were observed between the 2 years. The prevalence of chronic peritonitis (OR=1.5), umbilical hernia (OR=1.2) and chronic enteritis (OR=1.2) were statistically higher in 2011 compared to 2010, whereas it was lower for tail bite

  19. The negligible influence of premarital cohabitation on marital fertility in current Danish cohorts, 1975.

    PubMed

    Hoem, J M; Selmer, R

    1984-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of premarital cohabitation on marital fertility by applying life table methods to data for cohorts of Danish women born in 1926-1955, collected in retrospective interviews made in 1975. For each five-year cohort, the data have been analyzed by duration of marriage or by duration since previous birth, for women who had no reported births before marriage. Our main empirical results are: (a) that women who married at age 15-19 had higher rates of marital first and second births than those married at ages 20-24, and (b) that premarital cohabitation had very little influence on births of these two first orders in our data.

  20. Novel variation and de novo mutation rates in population-wide de novo assembled Danish trios

    PubMed Central

    Besenbacher, Søren; Liu, Siyang; Izarzugaza, José M. G.; Grove, Jakob; Belling, Kirstine; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Huang, Shujia; Als, Thomas D.; Li, Shengting; Yadav, Rachita; Rubio-García, Arcadio; Lescai, Francesco; Demontis, Ditte; Rao, Junhua; Ye, Weijian; Mailund, Thomas; Friborg, Rune M.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.; Xu, Ruiqi; Sun, Jihua; Liu, Hao; Wang, Ou; Cheng, Xiaofang; Flores, David; Rydza, Emil; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Damm Sørensen, John; Chmura, Piotr; Westergaard, David; Dworzynski, Piotr; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Lund, Ole; Hansen, Torben; Xu, Xun; Li, Ning; Bolund, Lars; Pedersen, Oluf; Eiberg, Hans; Krogh, Anders; Børglum, Anders D.; Brunak, Søren; Kristiansen, Karsten; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Wang, Jun; Gupta, Ramneek; Villesen, Palle; Rasmussen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Building a population-specific catalogue of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and structural variants (SVs) with frequencies, termed a national pan-genome, is critical for further advancing clinical and public health genetics in large cohorts. Here we report a Danish pan-genome obtained from sequencing 10 trios to high depth (50 × ). We report 536k novel SNVs and 283k novel short indels from mapping approaches and develop a population-wide de novo assembly approach to identify 132k novel indels larger than 10 nucleotides with low false discovery rates. We identify a higher proportion of indels and SVs than previous efforts showing the merits of high coverage and de novo assembly approaches. In addition, we use trio information to identify de novo mutations and use a probabilistic method to provide direct estimates of 1.27e−8 and 1.5e−9 per nucleotide per generation for SNVs and indels, respectively. PMID:25597990

  1. Repeated isolation of Salmonella enterica Goverdhan, a very rare serovar, from Danish poultry surveillance samples.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte; Szabo, Istvan; Hächler, Herbert; Le Hello, Simon

    2014-12-05

    We report here the appearance of a very rare serovar of Salmonella, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Goverdhan, in routine Salmonella surveillance samples from Danish poultry production. S. Goverdhan was found on nine occasions: in one broiler breeder farm in October 2010, four broiler farms and one broiler breeder farm in June-September 2012, two broiler breeder flocks simultaneously in June 2013, and one layer flock in July 2013. The five isolates from 2012 and the three isolates from 2013 had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, whereas the profile of the isolate from 2010 deviated in a single band. It is the first time this serovar has been described in samples from poultry. The origin of the bacterium is still unknown, but it is suggested that it may have been a pseudo-outbreak caused by contaminated sampling material.

  2. [Heroin abuse among Danish prisoners on remand. I. Prevalence related to form of administration].

    PubMed

    Andersen, H S; Sestoft, D M; Lillebaek, T; Gabrielsen, G

    1996-08-19

    Two groups of Danish prisoners on remand (in solitary confinement and not in solitary confinement) were examined by interview on reception (n = 133 & n = 95) in order to evaluate the prevalence and form of administration of opioid abuse/dependence. About 50% had abused opioids during their lifetime; one third were dependent at the time of reception. Twenty percent of opioid dependent prisoners administered opioids by smoking. More intravenous users were treated with methadone before and during imprisonment than those who were dependent on smoking opioids. Few were objectively suffering from withdrawal symptoms. The psycho-social impact of dependence on smoking heroin and intravenous heroin one month prior to imprisonment was at the same level and substantial as measured by the Global Assessment Scale.

  3. Adjustment Costs, Firm Responses, and Micro vs. Macro Labor Supply Elasticities: Evidence from Danish Tax Records*

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Raj; Friedman, John N.; Olsen, Tore; Pistaferri, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    We show that the effects of taxes on labor supply are shaped by interactions between adjustment costs for workers and hours constraints set by firms. We develop a model in which firms post job offers characterized by an hours requirement and workers pay search costs to find jobs. We present evidence supporting three predictions of this model by analyzing bunching at kinks using Danish tax records. First, larger kinks generate larger taxable income elasticities. Second, kinks that apply to a larger group of workers generate larger elasticities. Third, the distribution of job offers is tailored to match workers' aggregate tax preferences in equilibrium. Our results suggest that macro elasticities may be substantially larger than the estimates obtained using standard microeconometric methods. PMID:21836746

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children.

    PubMed

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2017-03-30

    The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates in faecal microbiota exists.

  5. Cutaneous Porphyrias: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments and the Danish Incidence 1989-2013.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Anne L; Aagaard, Lise; Krag, Aleksander; Rasmussen, Lars M; Bygum, Anette

    2016-11-02

    Porphyrias are rare diseases caused by altered haem synthesis leading to the accumulation of different haem intermediates. Neurovisceral attacks may occur in acute porphyrias, while photosensitivity is the presenting symptom in cutaneous porphyrias. We present here an overview of symptoms and a flowchart for the diagnosis of cutaneous porphyrias, with recommendations for monitoring and an update of treatment options. From the Danish Porphyria Register, we present the incidences and approximate prevalences of cutaneous porphyrias within the last 25 years. A total of 650 patients with porphyria cutanea tarda were identified, 73 with erythropoietic protoporphyria, 9 with variegate porphyria, 4 with hereditary coproporphyria and one with congenital erythropoietic porphyria. The total incidence of all porphyrias was ~0.52/100,000 per year.

  6. Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders and the Risk of Subsequent Anorexia Nervosa: A Danish Population Register Study.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa.

  7. Wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry using conventional and passive monitors.

    PubMed

    Schlünssen, V; Vinzents, P S; Mikkelsen, A B; Schaumburg, I

    2001-03-01

    A study of wood dust exposure at furniture factories in one county in Denmark was performed as a cross sectional study. Dust exposure was measured with personal passive dust monitors and calibrated against active sampling on filters. Measurements of 1685 workers were included in the exposure assessment. The passive dust monitor conversion models for equivalent concentrations of inhalable dust and total dust based on data from the present study were not significantly different from the original models. Therefore models based on all available data were used. The parameters of the distribution of equivalent concentration of inhalable dust were 0.94 mg/m3 (geometric mean) and 2.10 (geometric standard deviation). Compared with a national cross sectional study from 1988 the exposure level (geometric mean) was reduced by a factor 2.0. Inhalable dust exposure was about 50% higher than exposure measured by the Danish 'total' dust method.

  8. Efficacy of Clostridium botulinum types C and D toxoid vaccination in Danish cows.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Monika; Skau, Marie; Shehata, Awad Ali; Schrödl, Wieland

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the efficacy Botulism vaccine (formalinised aluminum hydroxide gel adsorbed toxoid of Clostridium botulinum types C and D) was evaluated in four Danish dairy cows under field conditions. Other four dairy herds were unvaccinated. Blood serum of all animals was analyzed for specific C. botulinum types A, B, C, D and E antibodies using a developed ELISA. Feces of all animals were analyzed for botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and C. botulinum spores. C. botulinum types C and D antibodies were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in vaccinated animals. Vaccination with botulism vaccine significantly reduced (p < 0.001) BoNTs and C. botulinum spores in cattle feces. Our findings represent that C. botulinum vaccination increases specific blood serum antibodies and reduces free BoNTs and C. botulinum spores in feces.

  9. Salt distribution in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, Caroline; Jarsve, Erlend; Heeremans, Michel; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Salt tectonics have extensively been studied in most parts of the Central North Sea. However, few studies have been done in the Norwegian side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In this contribution, we report a new regional analysis of the salt patterns across the offshore Norwegian-Danish Basin. We have mapped the regional distribution of salt structures in the Norwegian-Danish Basin using both old and recent 2D seismic reflection profiles tied to wells. The salt-thickness map shows three distinct salt structures patterns: (1) NW-SE trending salt walls in the northern part of the basin; the spacing between the walls vary between 7 to 12 km; (2) a dense and irregular distribution of salt diapirs in the southern part of the studied area; (3) an irregular pattern of sparse but big salt diapirs in the eastern part of the basin. This domain is characterized by numerous turtle structures associated with salt diapirs. Reflection seismic cross-sections show that most salt structures only pierce the Triassic sedimentary strata whereas only few salt structures reach the seabed. Rotated fault blocks indicate a gliding vergence towards the South in the eastern part of the basin and towards the SE in the western side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. No mature or compressive salt structures, except some squeezed salt diapirs, are observed in the topographic lows of the basin. The initiation of salt tectonics started during the early Middle Triassic in the entire basin; salt tectonics reactivations were recorded during the Middle Jurassic, Paleogene, and prior to the Quaternary but are not homogeneous across the basin. Salt movements inferred from our study are in good agreement with previous studies. The trend of salt walls (domain 1) indicates a NE-SW extension which is not compatible with N-S trending pre-salt faults. Instead, the strong Triassic subsidence towards the SW has most likely controlled the formation of the salt walls. The salt was initially thicker in domain 2 that

  10. Danish soldiers in Iraq: perceived exposures, psychological distress, and reporting of physical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Guldager, Bernadette

    2011-10-01

    Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased psychological discomfort and certain mental stressors.

  11. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain.

  12. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-10-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding exercise. Manipulating group dynamics may be a promising intervention tool in the promotion of leisure-time physical activity.

  13. Characterisation of Danish Waters with EO and Modelling for Aquaculture Site Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Silvia; Hansen, Lars B.; Rasmussen, Mads O.; Kaas, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    The process of selecting a site for aquaculture is complex and many factors are feeding into it. Spatial information from satellites and models is highly valuable in this process. For instance, water temperature is crucial for the fish's health and feed management and chlorophyll-a concentration (chl-a) is used as a water quality indicator. Near-real time satellite information can be used for monitoring purposes and historic patterns of these variables can be included into the process of choosing a suitable site. Modelled data can be used as complementary source, for predictive purposes and during cloudy periods, when optical satellite data is unavailable. In this paper we present a concept of how information from satellites and models can feed into siting. Moreover, we compare temperature and chl-a both from satellites and models, to evaluate the quality as well as difference between these products in the Danish waters.

  14. Early Success Is Vital in Minimal Worksite Wellness Interventions at Small Worksites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Dong, Frank; Konda, Kurt; Konda, Kelly; Armbruster, Sonja; Tuttle, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Intervention: In an effort to increase physical activity, 15 workplaces participated in a minimal-contact 10,000-steps-a-day program sponsored by the Sedgwick County Health Department in 2007 and 2008. Pedometers were provided to measure participants' weekly steps for the 10-week intervention. Method: Participants were defined as those who…

  15. Opioids and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cronin-Fenton, D.P.; Heide-Jørgensen, U.; Ahern, T.P.; Lash, T.L.; Christiansen, P.M.; Ejlertsen, B.; Sjøgren, P.; Kehlet, H.; Sørensen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Opioids may alter immune function and thereby potentially affect cancer recurrence. We investigated the association between post-diagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. Methods We identified incident early-stage breast cancer patients, diagnosed 1996-2008 in Denmark, registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of breast cancer primary surgery and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death, emigration, ten years, or 31 July 2013, whichever occurred first. We used Cox regression models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall, and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (>=6 months continuous exposure), and cumulative morphine-equivalent dose, adjusting for confounders. Results We identified 34,188 patients who together contributed 283,666 person-years of follow-up. There was no association between ever use of opioids and breast cancer recurrence (HRcrude=0.98, 95% CI=0.90 - 1.1, and HRadjusted=1.0, 95% CI=0.92 - 1.1), regardless of opioid type, strength, chronicity of use, and cumulative dose. Breast cancer recurrence rates were lower among users of strong but not weakly immunosuppressive opioids, possibly due to channeling bias among those with high competing risk as mortality was higher among users of this drug type. Conclusions This large prospective cohort study provided no clinically relevant evidence of an association between opioid prescriptions and breast cancer recurrence. Our findings are important to cancer survivorship, as opioids are frequently used to manage pain associated with comorbid conditions. PMID:26207518

  16. Analysis of matches and partial-matches in a Danish STR data set.

    PubMed

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Curran, James Michael; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels

    2012-05-01

    Over the recent years, the national databases of STR profiles have grown in size due to the success of forensic DNA analysis in solving crimes. The accumulation of DNA profiles implies that the probability of a random match or near match of two randomly selected DNA profiles in the database increases. We analysed 53,295 STR profiles from individuals investigated in relation to crime case investigations at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Incomplete STR profiles (437 circa 0.8% of the total), 48 redundant STR profiles from monozygotic twins (0.09%), 6 redundant STR profiles of unknown cause and 1283 STR profiles from repeated testing of individuals were removed leaving 51,517 complete 10 locus STR profiles for analysis. The number corresponds to approximately 1% of the Danish population. We compared all STR profiles to each other, i.e. 1.3×10(9) comparisons. With these large number of comparisons, it is likely to observe DNA profiles that coincide on many loci, which has concerned some commentators and raised questions about "overstating" the power of DNA evidence. We used the method of Weir [11,12] and Curran et al. [3] to compare the observed and expected number of matches and near matches in the data set. We extended the methods by computing the covariance matrix of the summary statistic and used it for the estimation of the identical-by-descent parameter, θ. The analysis demonstrated a number of close relatives in the Danish data set and substructure. The main contribution to the substructure comes from close relatives. An overall θ-value of 1% compensated for the observed substructure, when close familial relationships were accounted for.

  17. Validity of the Prescriber Information in the Danish National Prescription Registry.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Valentin, Julie; Gesser, Katarina Margareta; Hallas, Jesper; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the validity of the prescriber information recorded in the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR). The prescriber information recorded in the pharmacies' electronic dispensing system was considered to represent the prescriber information recorded in the DNPR. Further, the problem of validity of the prescriber information pertains only to non-electronic prescriptions, as these are manually entered into the dispensing system. The recorded prescriber information was thus validated against information from a total of 2000 non-electronic prescriptions at five Danish community pharmacies. The validity of the recorded prescriber information was measured at the level of the individual prescriber and the prescriber type, respectively. The proportion of non-electronic prescriptions with incorrect registrations was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 20.6-24.3) when considering individual prescriber identifiers and 17.8% (95% CI: 16.1-19.5) when considering prescriber type. When excluding prescriptions specifically registered as 'missing prescriber identifier', the proportions decreased to 9.5% (95% CI: 8.2-11.0) and 4.1% (95% CI: 3.2-5.1), respectively. The positive predictive values for the classification of prescriber types were in the range of 94.0-99.2%, while the sensitivity ranged between 64.6% and 91.8%. With a maximum of 14% non-electronic prescriptions of all prescriptions in the DNPR in 2015, this corresponds to correct classification of prescriber types in the DNPR of at least 97.5%. In conclusion, the prescriber information in the DNPR was found to be valid, especially in recent years. Researchers should be aware of the low sensitivity towards prescriptions from private practicing specialists.

  18. Surveillance of noise exposure in the Danish workplace: a baseline survey

    PubMed Central

    Kock, S; Andersen, T; Kolstad, H; Kofoed-Nielsen, B; Wiesler, F; Bonde, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate an epidemiological approach to a national noise hazard surveillance strategy, and report current exposure levels in the Danish workplace. Methods: A study base of 840 companies in 10 selected high risk industries in the largest county in Denmark was identified from a national register. Noise exposure was measured among manual workers recruited from a random sample of workplaces in each industry. For reference, financial companies and a sample of residents were investigated according to the same protocol. The A-weighted equivalent sound level (LAeq) for a full shift was measured by portable dosimeters worn by 830 workers employed at 91 workplaces (67% of 136 eligible companies). Results: The epidemiological design proved feasible and established a baseline for future noise surveillance. Substantial resources were needed to motivate workplaces to enlist and the final participation rate was less than optimal (66.9%). The LAeq (8) values in the selected industries were highly elevated (mean 83.7 dB(A) (95% CI 83.3 to 84.1) in comparison with residents and office workers (mean 69.9 dB(A), 95% CI 68.8 to 71.0). Some 50% of the workers were exposed to more than 85 dB(A) and some 20% to more than 90 dB(A) in several industries. Conclusion: Noise levels in Danish high risk industries remain high. A substantial proportion of workers are exposed to noise levels above the current threshold limit of 85 dB(A). Ongoing surveillance of noise exposure using full shift dosimetry of workers in random samples of workplaces most at risk to high noise levels may help reinforce preventive measures. Such a programme would benefit from compulsory workplace participation. PMID:15377770

  19. Surveillance of deaths on board Danish merchant ships, 1986-93: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyse the types and circumstances of all natural and non-natural deaths among seamen on board Danish merchant ships. METHODS: Data on 147 cases were obtained from maritime authorities, an insurance company, shipping companies, hospitals, death registers, and death certificates in the period from 1986-93. RESULTS: The 53 natural deaths were dominated by cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. Insufficient treatment on board was identified as a contributing factor for death in some cases. Medical advice was not always sought and the advice given was in some cases insufficient. 73 fatal accidents were identified. The incidence of accidents of 5.29/10,000 person-years was 11.5 times higher than the incidence of 0.46/10,000 for the Danish male workforce ashore. 23 accidents (31%) were due to maritime casualties and 26 (36%) were occupational accidents. The remaining 24 (33%) were accidents during off duty hours including six self intoxications. Rough weather, inadequate awareness of safety, lack of use of personal protection devices, and inexperience were associated with many of the fatal injuries directly related to work. Alcohol played a major part in 12 out of 18 fatal injuries occurring during off duty hours. CONCLUSIONS: The maritime workplace was identified as a high risk workplace and in many aspects differs from the conditions ashore. Acute diseases and serious injuries pose special risks to seamen because of a lack of direct access to professional medical care at sea. Primary prevention of certain diseases is needed and possible. Improved training, improved systems of work, improved safety awareness, and greater use of personal protection devices are needed to prevent fatal injuries. Medical training of ships' officers providing medical care on board and specific training of doctors giving medical advise to ships should be improved to meet the needs. PMID:8664966

  20. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste.

  1. ONLINE satellite images and educational material: the Danish Galathea 3 world expedition under and after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Brøgger Sørensen, Peter; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Badger, Merete; Højerslev, Niels Kristian; Høyer, Jacob L.; Løkkegaard, Bo; Lichtenegger, Jürg; Nyborg, Lotte; Saldo, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Students and teachers may use ONLINE satellite image in the classroom. Images have been archived since August 2006 and the archive is updated every day since. This means that series of nearly four years of daily global images are available online. The parameters include ocean surface temperature, sea level anomaly, ocean wave height, ocean winds, global ozone in the atmosphere and clouds, and sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctica. During the Galathea 3 expedition that took place from August 2006 to April 2007 also many other high-resolution (local to regional) satellite images were acquired and stored in the archive. However after the end of the expedition only global satellite data are collected and stored. Use Google Earth at http://galathea.dtu.dk/GE_e.html to access the images. The expedition included 50 science projects and based on this educational material has been developed. There are around 20 educational projects in English at http://galathea3.emu.dk/satelliteeye/index_uk.html and 90 in Danish at http://vg3.dk/ freely available based on the science. All the educational projects in English deal with satellite image analysis and information. In addition, the short educational film (15min) for students and teachers at higher upper level on the use of satellite images during the expedition and in some science projects onboard is available in English. The film is called ‘Galathea's Eye' and is available at http://virtuelgalathea3.dk/om/videoer. All projects in English were developed in the ‘Satellite Eye for Galathea 3' projected supported by Egmontfonden and ESA Eduspace. The satellite images were mainly from ESA and Eduspace. The Danish projects are support also by Tips og Lottopuljen of Ministry of Education.

  2. Public-Private Partnerships in the health sector: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2008-04-01

    This article investigates the current use of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in the Danish health sector based on an initial discussion of theoretical approaches that analyze PPP. The empirical analysis concludes that PPP has been used very sparsely in the Danish health sector. There are few examples of large-scale partnership projects with joint investment and risk taking, but a number of smaller partnerships such as jointly owned companies at the regional level. When defining PPP more broadly, we can identify a long tradition for various types of collaboration between public and private actors in health care in Denmark. An analysis of the regulatory environment is offered as an explanation for the limited use of PPPs in Denmark. Major political and institutional actors at the central level differ in their enthusiasm for the PPP concept, and the regulatory framework is somewhat uncertain. A number of general issues and concerns related to PPPs are also discussed. It is suggested that a risk-based framework can be useful for mapping the potential and challenges for both private and public partners. Such a framework can be used to feed into game theoretical models of pros and cons for PPP projects. In general terms, it is concluded that more empirical research is needed for the assessment of the various risk factors involved in using PPPs in health care. Most PPPs are still very young, and the evidence on performance and broader governance issues is only just emerging. Ideally, such assessments should include comparisons with a purely public alternative.

  3. Occupational Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, < 5, 5-14, and ≥ 15 years in the job, respectively. Data was analysed by a mixed random effect logistic regression model. The age-standardised COPD study prevalence was 5.0%. Of 372 DISCO-88 codes 72 were identified with relevant exposure to VGDF. 46% of the participants reported at least one occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.

  4. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry – methodology and early results from a novel national database

    PubMed Central

    Helgstrand, JT; Klemann, N; Røder, MA; Toft, BG; Brasso, K; Vainer, B; Iversen, P

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We present the methodology and early results from a new national Danish prostate database containing clinical data from all males who had evaluation of prostate tissue from 1995 to 2011. Materials and methods SNOMED codes were retrieved from the Danish Pathology Register. A total of 26,295 combinations of SNOMED codes were identified. A computer algorithm was developed to transcode SNOMED codes into an analyzable format including procedure (eg, biopsy, transurethral resection, etc), diagnosis, and date of diagnosis. For validation, ~55,000 pathological reports were manually reviewed. Prostate-specific antigen, vital status, causes of death, and tumor-node-metastasis classification were integrated from national registries. Results Of the 161,525 specimens from 113,801 males identified, 83,379 (51.6%) were sets of prostate biopsies, 56,118 (34.7%) were transurethral/transvesical resections of the prostate (TUR-Ps), and the remaining 22,028 (13.6%) specimens were derived from radical prostatectomies, bladder interventions, etc. A total of 48,078 (42.2%) males had histopathologically verified prostate cancer, and of these, 78.8% and 16.8% were diagnosed on prostate biopsies and TUR-Ps, respectively. Future perspectives A validated algorithm was successfully developed to convert complex prostate SNOMED codes into clinical useful data. A unique database, including males with both normal and cancerous histopathological data, was created to form the most comprehensive national prostate database to date. Potentially, our algorithm can be used for conversion of other SNOMED data and is available upon request. PMID:27729813

  5. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations. An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots in terms of environmental and health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. Analyzing consumer life styles in terms of consumption patterns in order to identify hotspots is hence the focus of this study. This is achieved by taking into account the entire value chain of the commodities consumed in the context of environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model for all the 1281 persons was set-up in Gabi 6. The assessment results obtained applying the model on all 1281 personal consumption scenarios yielded the 1281 Personal Impact Profiles (PIPs). Consumption of food and energy (electricity and thermal energy) proved to be the primary impact sources of PM, followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study will help the Danish and other comparable populations to identify and prioritize the steps towards reducing their environmental, human health, and resource consumption

  6. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Spagner, Camilla; Christensen, Tue; Gille, Maj-Britt; Bügel, Susanne; Banke Rasmussen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design A cross-sectional representative national study of the intake of vitamins and minerals from the diet and from dietary supplements. Method The Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity, 2000–2004. Participants (n=4,479; 53% females) aged 18–75 years gave information about the use of dietary supplements in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age and gender groups. Among females in the age group 18–49 years, the micronutrient intake from the diet was significantly higher compared with the non-users of dietary supplements. The use of dietary supplements increased with age and with ‘intention to eat healthy.’ Conclusion Intake of micronutrients from the diet alone was considered adequate for both users and non-users of dietary supplements. Younger females who were supplement users had a more micronutrient-dense diet compared to non-users. PMID:21909288

  7. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register

    PubMed Central

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. Objectives To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Materials and methods The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. Results The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18–34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. Conclusion We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research. PMID

  8. Cross-Cultural Translation, Adaptation and Reliability of the Danish M. D. Andeson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hajdú, Sara Fredslund; Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Wessel, Irene

    2017-03-07

    The objectives were to translate and culturally adapt the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) into Danish and subsequently test the reliability of the Danish version. The MDADI was translated into Danish and cross culturally adapted through cognitive interviews. The final version was test-retest evaluated in a group of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients who responded to the questionnaire twice with a mean of eight days apart. Interclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha, floor and ceiling effects, standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were investigated. Fourteen patients were interviewed on the comprehensibility of the Danish MDADI, and all found the questionnaire meaningful, easy to understand, non-offensive and to include relevant aspects of dysphagia related to HNC. Sixty-four patients were included in the test-retest study. Especially, one item in the emotional scale (E7) appeared to be often misinterpreted, and ceiling effects were found in all four subdomains (global, emotional, functional and physical). The four subdomains and the composite score showed acceptable test-retest reliability and internal consistency in a Danish population of HNC patients. The Danish MDADI is reliable in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reproducibility and can be used in assessing the health-related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients with dysphagia.

  9. Ultraviolet radiation and the risks of cutaneous malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer: perceptions and behaviours of Danish and American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Savona, M R; Jacobsen, M D; James, R; Owen, M D

    2005-02-01

    The highest prevalence rates of skin malignancy in the northern hemisphere occur in Scandinavia and the United States (USA). Most Danes and Americans receive 50% of their lifetime ultraviolet (UV) radiation before the age of 21, making it important to address sun exposure risks with adolescents. The project was undertaken to determine differences between Danish and American adolescents in knowledge of sun exposure and skin malignancy, activities accounting for sun exposure, and means used for sun protection. Questionnaires regarding skin cancer and sun exposure were distributed to 674 secondary school age students in Hilleroed, Denmark, and to 483 similarly aged students in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. Differences in responses between and within groups were compared. American adolescents had more knowledge of the characteristics and malignant potential of melanoma than did Danish adolescents. Danish youth and females from both countries were significantly more likely to engage in sunbathing and tanning bed use. Black Danish students reported significantly more sunburn and were more likely to sunbathe or use a tanning bed than were black American students. Danish students were more likely than Americans to use sunscreen, however, Americans were more likely to apply sun protective factor (SPF) 15 or greater. In conclusion, given that sunbathing and tanning bed use are associated with the development of precancerous lesions and skin malignancy, Danish teens are at increased risk. The rates of skin malignancy are relatively high in Scandinavia and efforts to improve understanding of exposure and cancer risks should be undertaken in adolescents.

  10. The Effect of Medical Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Foster Care Caseloads: Evidence from Danish Registry Data.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 2000s, foster care caseloads have decreased in many wealthy democracies, yet the causes of these declines remain, for the most part, a mystery. This article uses administrative data on all Danish municipalities (N = 277) and a 10% randomly drawn sample of all Danish children (N = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children's acute behavioral problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads.

  11. Measurement properties of the Danish version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised for patients with colorectal cancer symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hvidberg, Line; Jensen, Line F; Pedersen, Anette F; Aro, Arja R; Vedsted, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the measurement properties of the Danish version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised adapted to measure symptom representations among patients with colorectal cancer symptoms. A total of 488 colorectal cancer patients completed a questionnaire derived from the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised to retrospectively assess cognitive and emotional representations of experienced symptoms. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated no good comparative fit with the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. Using exploratory factor analysis, a 7-factor structure was conducted, which fairly supported the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. The modified Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised is a promising tool for measuring symptom representations among Danish colorectal cancer patients.

  12. Cancer patient pathways in Denmark as a joint effort between bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians--a national Danish project.

    PubMed

    Probst, Helene Bilsted; Hussain, Zubair Butt; Andersen, Ole

    2012-04-01

    In 2007 and 2008 Danish Cancer Patient Pathways for 32 cancer types were developed and afterwards implemented on a national scale. Often bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians look upon the health sector in different ways and work independent of each other. In Denmark, as indeed internationally, patient pathways are frequently developed solely by health professionals and the consequence may be major difficulties in implementing the pathways on a national scale. In this article we describe how national Danish Cancer Patient Pathways were developed with a consensus seeking model and the impact it has had on the health system. The model used in Denmark ensured involvement and cooperation between bureaucrats, health professionals and politicians and afterwards a successful national implementation. The Cancer Patient Pathways has significantly reduced waiting times which is thought to increase survival. This experience gives important input to the continuous challenges on how to implement evidence based medicine on a national scale and stipulates a model for this process.

  13. Data from the Danish veterinary cancer registry on the occurrence and distribution of neoplasms in dogs in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Brønden, L B; Nielsen, S S; Toft, N; Kristensen, A T

    2010-05-08

    From May 15, 2005 to April 15, 2008, 1878 cases of neoplasms in dogs were reported to the web-based Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry. The proportions of malignant (38 per cent) and benign (45 per cent) tumours were similar. The most common malignant neoplasms were adenocarcinomas (21 per cent), mast cell tumours (19 per cent) and lymphomas (17 per cent). The benign neoplasms most commonly encountered were lipomas (24 per cent), adenomas (22 per cent) and histiocytomas (14 per cent). Skin (43 per cent) and the female reproductive system including mammary tissue (28 per cent) were the most common locations of neoplasia. There was a distinct breed predisposition for tumour development, with a high standard morbidity ratio (indicating a higher risk of cancer) for boxers and Bernese mountain dogs. A standard morbidity ratio below 1 was observed in German shepherd dogs and Danish/Swedish farm dogs, suggesting a lower risk of cancer in these breeds.

  14. [The shipwreck of "Der Brandtaucher" in the then territory of the Danish monarchy - in Kiel's harbor - February 1, 1851].

    PubMed

    Brorson, I

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the first German submarine - "Der Brandtaucher" - constructed in Schleswig-Holstein by Wilhelm V. Bauer in 1850. The submarine was built as a special weapon to attack the Danish blokading warships of the harbour of Kiel during the First Danish-German War 1848-51. The military-medical aspects are dealing with the shipwreck of a submarine because of an overpressure during submerge, and the rescue of its crew of 3 men through a "free ascent" of 52 feet - followed by comments of today. As for the description of the construction of "Der Brandtaucher", the shipwreck and the "free ascent", it was originally retold in German by Gerd Stolz in his book: "Die Schleswig-Holsteinische Marine 1848-1852". (1987).

  15. Farm-specific lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 in Danish pig farms.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Gongora, C; Larsen, J; Moodley, A; Nielsen, J P; Skov, R L; Andreasen, M; Guardabassi, L

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Dust and pigs at five age groups were sampled in six Danish MRSA-positive pig farms. MRSA CC398 was isolated from 284 of the 391 samples tested, including 230 (74%) animal and 54 (68%) environmental samples. PFGE analysis of a subset of 48 isolates, including the six strains previously isolated from farm workers, revealed the existence of farm-specific pulsotypes. With a single exception, human, environmental and porcine isolates originating from the same farm clustered together in the PFGE cluster analysis, indicating that spread of MRSA CC398 in Danish pig farms is mainly due to clonal dissemination of farm-specific lineages that can be discriminated by PFGE. This finding has important implications for planning future epidemiological studies investigating the spread of CC398 in pig farming.

  16. Epilepsy in individuals with a history of Asperger's syndrome: a Danish nationwide register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-06-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register (DNHR) with respect to epilepsy. Mean age at follow-up was 18.1 years (range 4-31 years). Of the 4,180 individuals with AS, 164 (3.9%) were registered with at least one epilepsy diagnosis in the DNHR, which is significantly increased (p < 0.0001) relative to the same age group in the general population, where an estimate is about 2.0%.

  17. The heritability of level and rate-of-change in cognitive functioning in Danish twins aged 70 years and older.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2002-01-01

    To investigate heritable influences on overall level and rate-of-change in cognitive ability, biometric growth models were fit to cognitive data from nearly 1000 Danish twins age 70 years and older. Twins are participants in the ongoing Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins, a cohort-sequential study of twins assessed every 2 years for up to four waves. Cognitive ability was assessed by five brief cognitive tasks: a fluency measure, forward and backward digit span, and immediate and delayed list recall. Model-fitting results indicated that although the overall level of cognitive functioning was highly heritable (h(2) = .76, 95% confidence interval of .68 to .82), the rate of linear change was not (h(2) = .06, 95% confidence interval of .00 to .57). These findings suggest that the search for specific genes might reasonably focus on average level of cognitive performance, whereas specific environmental influences might account for cognitive change.

  18. Trends in chronic marine oil pollution in Danish waters assessed using 22 years of beached bird surveys.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jørn Lennart; Durinck, Jan; Skov, Henrik

    2007-09-01

    Beached bird surveys provide an important tool for monitoring the level of oil pollution at sea, which is the most significant observable cause of death for a large number of waterbird species and pose a serious threat to wintering seabird populations. Linear regression analyses of oil rates from the Danish 22 year dataset show a decline in the oil pollution level in offshore areas of the eastern North Sea and Skagerrak and in near-shore parts of the Kattegat; but a worsening in the offshore areas of the Kattegat. These results raise concern for species such as common scoter, velvet scoter, eider and razorbill, for which the Kattegat serves as a globally important wintering area. It is recommended that surveillance for oil spills is intensified in inner Danish waters, and that action is taken to make responses towards offenders faster, and penalties for oil seepage higher.

  19. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy by Danish women and their spouses--a potential source of fetal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D H; Krasilnikoff, P A; Leventhal, J M; Berget, A; Weil, B

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption behavior during pregnancy was examined in a select group of Danish women and their spouses. Five-hundred consecutive women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered full-term babies were interviewed 3+ days postpartum. Information was collected about smoking and drinking behavior of all household members during pregnancy. We found (1) a high percentage of Danish women (70%) and their spouses (80%) consume alcohol during pregnancy, and (2) a significant correlation between maternal and paternal smoking (r = .25, P .0001) and maternal and paternal drinking (r = .35, P .0001). These data suggest that even though the potential dangers of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy have been well publicized, there is still a high percentage of women who participate in such behaviors. There may also exist an important role for the father in affecting these two behaviors and therefore indirectly affecting fetal development.

  20. Local physical habitat quality cloud the effect of predicted pesticide runoff from agricultural land in Danish streams.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Larsen, Søren Erik; Kronvang, Brian

    2011-04-01

    The combination of intensive agricultural activities and the close connectivity between land and stream emphasise the potential risk of pesticide exposure in Danish streams. Benthic macroinvertebrates are applied in the assessment of stream ecological status, and some sensitive species have been shown to respond strongly to brief pulses of pesticide contamination. In this study we investigate the impact of agriculturally derived pesticides on stream macroinvertebrate communities in Denmark. As a measure of toxic pressure we apply the Runoff Potential. We investigated a total of 212 streams. These were grouped into distinct classes according to the magnitude of pesticide contamination in the period from 2003-2006. A total of 24 different macroinvertebrate indices were applied to detect effects of pesticide runoff (e.g. the SPEAR-index and the number of EPT taxa). We found high predicted pesticide runoff in 39% of the streams, but we found no significant effect of predicted pesticide exposure on stream macroinvertebrate indices. We, additionally, examined the influence of a series of environmental parameters ranging from site scale to catchment scale on the macroinvertebrate community. Relative proportions of gravel, sand and silt in bed sediments explained most of the variation in macroinvertebrate indices as well as the upstream riparian habitat quality. We suggest that the Runoff Potential model overestimate pesticide runoff contamination in Danish streams due the presence of buffer strips enforced by Danish legislation. When pesticide runoff contamination is low to moderate, poor physical properties (indirectly related to agricultural activity) are the main impediment for the ecological quality of Danish streams.

  1. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary.

    PubMed

    Blichert-Toft, Mogens; Christiansen, Peer; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2008-01-01

    DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers, and data secretaries making current analyses of outcome results feasible. DBCG is run by the Executive Committee consisting of expert members appointed by their respective society. From 1978 the DBCG project gained widely accession from participating units, and since then nearly all newly diagnosed breast cancer incident cases are reported and registered in the national data base. Today, the data base includes approximately 80 000 incidents of primary breast cancer. Annually, the Secretariat receives roughly 1.5 million parameters to be entered into the data base. Over time DBCG has generated seven treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis or randomized trials in national or international protocolized settings. Yearly, about 4 000 new incident cases of primary invasive breast cancer and about 200 in situ lesions enter the national programmes. Further, about 600 women with hereditary disposition of breast cancer are registered and evaluated on a risk scale. The main achievements resulted in a reduction of relative risk of death amounting up to 20% and increased 5-year overall survival ascending from 60% to roughly 80%. This article

  2. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective cohort study of two Danish religious minorities

    PubMed Central

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243

  3. Whole Genome-Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Historical Collection of Bacillus anthracis Strains from Danish Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Girault, Guillaume; Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is known as one of the most genetically monomorphic species. Canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and whole-genome sequencing were used to investigate the molecular diversity of eleven B. anthracis strains isolated from cattle in Denmark between 1935 and 1988. Danish strains were assigned into five canSNP groups or lineages, i.e. A.Br.001/002 (n = 4), A.Br.Ames (n = 2), A.Br.008/011 (n = 2), A.Br.005/006 (n = 2) and A.Br.Aust94 (n = 1). The match with the A.Br.Ames lineage is of particular interest as the occurrence of such lineage in Europe is demonstrated for the first time, filling an historical gap within the phylogeography of the lineage. Comparative genome analyses of these strains with 41 isolates from other parts of the world revealed that the two Danish A.Br.008/011 strains were related to the heroin-associated strains responsible for outbreaks of injection anthrax in drug users in Europe. Eight novel diagnostic SNPs that specifically discriminate the different sub-groups of Danish strains were identified and developed into PCR-based genotyping assays. PMID:26317972

  4. Whole Genome-Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Historical Collection of Bacillus anthracis Strains from Danish Cattle.

    PubMed

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Girault, Guillaume; Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is known as one of the most genetically monomorphic species. Canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and whole-genome sequencing were used to investigate the molecular diversity of eleven B. anthracis strains isolated from cattle in Denmark between 1935 and 1988. Danish strains were assigned into five canSNP groups or lineages, i.e. A.Br.001/002 (n = 4), A.Br.Ames (n = 2), A.Br.008/011 (n = 2), A.Br.005/006 (n = 2) and A.Br.Aust94 (n = 1). The match with the A.Br.Ames lineage is of particular interest as the occurrence of such lineage in Europe is demonstrated for the first time, filling an historical gap within the phylogeography of the lineage. Comparative genome analyses of these strains with 41 isolates from other parts of the world revealed that the two Danish A.Br.008/011 strains were related to the heroin-associated strains responsible for outbreaks of injection anthrax in drug users in Europe. Eight novel diagnostic SNPs that specifically discriminate the different sub-groups of Danish strains were identified and developed into PCR-based genotyping assays.

  5. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to Meals-on-Wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices.

    PubMed

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S

    2010-01-01

    Underweight is a significant problem among older Danish nursing home residents and home-care clients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of the meals prepared for older adults in nursing homes and receiving Meals-on-Wheels deliveries, focusing on the menus most commonly served, including the standard menu (most commonly prepared), the energy and protein dense menu, and two types of texture modified menus (chopped and blended). Also, one portion of a homemade energy and protein dense drink was collected and analyzed. For each of the participating kitchens (N = 10), extra portions of different menus were made (3 days in a row). The meal samples (total n = 389) were analyzed for content of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. The findings were compared with recommendations regarding the foods to be served in Danish institutions. The nutrient content of the meals-on-wheels and nursing home meals, as well as that of the homemade energy and protein dense drink, varied considerably. The nursing home menus seldom or never fulfilled the recommendations. Our findings support the conclusion that meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients do not consistently offer adequate nutritional intakes.

  6. Prenatal exposure to loratadine in children with hypospadias: a nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the risk of hypospadias after reported exposure to loratadine and other antihistamines during pregnancy, based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We examined the risk of hypospadias in a nested case-control design based on women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1998 to 2002 ( approximately 95,000 pregnant women). Data on maternal use of medicine in pregnancy were retrieved from questionnaires and telephone interviews, and data on birth outcomes were obtained from the Hospital Discharge Registry (HDR). Within the Danish National Birth Cohort, we identified cases with a diagnosis of hypospadias and randomly selected 10 controls per case without such a diagnosis (matched by date of birth). We identified 203 cases of hypospadias recorded in the HDR within 1 year postpartum and 2030 controls. One case (0.5%) and 25 (1.2%) controls reported exposure to loratadine in the first trimester or up to 30 days before the time of conception. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for hypospadias among users of loratadine relative to nonusers was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.1-6.9) and the corresponding OR for other antihistamines was 0.5 (95% CI: 0.1-1.9). These data do not indicate an increased risk of hypospadias associated with maternal exposure to loratadine. In addition, this study does not suggest any risk differential between maternal exposure to loratadine and other antihistamines. However, the statistical precision of the risk estimates was low.

  7. Development and Validation of a Vitamin D Status Prediction Model in Danish Pregnant Women: A Study of the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bjørn Jensen, Camilla; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Vadgård Hansen, Linda; Strøm, Marin; Odgaard Nielsen, Nina; Cohen, Arieh; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has been hypothesized to reduce risk of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preterm delivery. However, many of these outcomes are rare and require a large sample size to study, representing a challenge for cohorts with a limited number of preserved samples. The aims of this study were to (1) identify predictors of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) among pregnant women in a subsample (N = 1494) of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and (2) develop and validate a score predicting 25(OH)D-status in order to explore associations between vitamin D and maternal and offspring health outcomes in the DNBC. In our study sample, 42.3% of the population had deficient levels of vitamin D (<50 nmol/L 25(OH)D) and average levels of 25(OH)D-status were 56.7(s.d. 24.6) nmol/L. A prediction model consisting of intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements, outdoor physical activity, tanning bed use, smoking, and month of blood draw explained 40.1% of the variance in 25(OH)D and mean measured 25(OH)D-level increased linearly by decile of predicted 25(OH)D-score. In total 32.2% of the women were placed in the same quintile by both measured and predicted 25(OH)D-values and 69.9% were placed in the same or adjacent quintile by both methods. Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient (Κ = 0.3) reflected fair agreement between measured 25(OH)D-levels and predicted 25(OH)D-score. These results are comparable to other settings in which vitamin D scores have shown similar associations with disease outcomes as measured 25(OH)D-levels. Our findings suggest that predicted 25(OH)D-scores may be a useful alternative to measured 25(OH)D for examining associations between vitamin D and disease outcomes in the DNBC cohort, but cannot substitute for measured 25(OH)D-levels for estimates of prevalence. PMID:23326380

  8. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care: a 1-yearpopulation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete; Vedsted, Peter; Huibers, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. Design and setting A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry data. Main outcome measures Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number of prescriptions per 100 contacts. Results Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3.9%), adrenergic inhalants (3.0%) and antihistamines (2.3%). Conclusion About 25% of all OOH contacts involved one or more medication prescriptions. The highest prescription rate was found for clinic consultations, but more than half of all prescriptions were made by telephone. KEY POINTSAs the out-of-hours (OOH) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important.General practitioners (GPs) are

  9. National Cohort Study of Suicidality and Violent Criminality among Danish Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Roger T.; Antonsen, Sussie; Mok, Pearl L. H.; Agerbo, Esben; Pedersen, Carsten B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immigrant populations in western societies have grown in their size and diversity yet evidence is incomplete for their risks of suicidality and criminal violence. We examined these correlated harmful behaviours in a national cohort. Aims (i) Compare absolute risk between first and second generation immigrants, foreign-born adoptees and native Danes by plotting cumulative incidence curves to onset of early middle age; (ii) estimate sex-specific relative risks for these immigrant type subgroups vs. native Danes; (iii) examine effect modification by higher vs. lower socio-economic status. Methods In a cohort of over two million persons, attempted suicides and violent crimes were investigated using data from multiple interlinked registers. We plotted sex-specific cumulative incidence curves and estimated incidence rate ratios. Results In the whole study cohort, 1414 people died by suicide, 46,943 attempted suicide, and 51,344 were convicted of committing a violent crime. Among all immigrant subgroups combined, compared with native Danes, relative risk of attempted suicide was greater in female immigrants (incidence rate ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval: CI 1.54-1.64) than in male immigrants (1.26; CI 1.20-1.32), and vice versa for relative risk of violent offending in male immigrants (2.36; CI 2.31-2.42) than in female immigrants (1.74; CI 1.62-1.87). Risk for both adverse outcomes was significantly elevated in virtually every gender-specific immigrant type subgroup examined. Violent crime risk was markedly raised in first generation immigrant males and in the Danish born male children of two immigrant parents. However, male immigrants of lower social status had lower risk of attempted suicide than their native Danish peers. Conclusion Young immigrants of both first and second generation status face serious challenges and vulnerabilities that western societies need to urgently address. Relative risk patterns for these adverse outcomes vary greatly

  10. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on

  11. Rasch analysis of the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder index – the Danish version

    PubMed Central

    Moeini, Sahar; Rasmussen, Jeppe V; Klausen, Tobias W; Brorson, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder (WOOS) index is a disease-specific, patient-reported, 19-question survey that measures the quality of life among patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to validate the Danish version of WOOS for OA and fractures (FRs) using modern test theory. Patients and methods The study included 1,987 arthroplasties in 1,943 patients that were reported to the Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Register between 2006 and 2011. These included 847 OA and 1,140 FR cases. Results Principal component analysis indicated the unidimensionality of WOOS. The person reliabilities showed a floor-ceiling effect, indicating that a dichotomy was the best fit for the WOOS scale. For OA, WOOS showed good reliability (item and person reliability of 0.98 and 0.76) and good targeting, with a person mean of −0.56 logits. FR also showed good targeting (person mean of −0.08) and good reliability (item and person reliabilities of 1.00 and 0.86, respectively). All WOOS items fit well with the OA sample except items 5 and 6 (pertaining to grinding and the influence of weather). In addition, item 6 showed signs of degrading the scale with an outfit mean square of 2.46. Only item 6 showed a misfit for FR with no sign of scale degradation. The residual principal component analysis confirmed the unidimensionality of FR but not OA. Six items displayed clinically significant differential item functioning between OA and FR. Conclusion Rasch analysis showed that WOOS had a good fit with the Rasch model when used as a dichotomous scale for OA and FR. However, the results were valid only when WOOS was divided into two categories with a threshold of 950 (50% of the maximum score). For the use of WOOS in future clinical research, we recommend that a dichotomous score be reported as a measure of clinical failure in OA and FR. PMID:27881929

  12. Environmental Risk of Climate Change and Groundwater Abstraction on Ecological Conditions in a Danish Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaby, L. P.; Boegh, E.; Jensen, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Danish drinking water supply is sourced almost entirely from groundwater. Balancing water abstraction demands and the ecological conditions in streams is one of the major challenges for water resource managers. With projected climate change, characterised by increased annual temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration rates for Denmark, the impact to low flows and groundwater levels are especially of interest, as they relate to aquatic habitat and nitrate leaching, respectively. On the island Sjælland, which includes urban and agricultural regions, a doubling of groundwater abstraction rates has been proposed in selected areas to meet water resource demands. This study evaluates the risk to stream ecological conditions for a lowland Danish catchment under multiple scenarios of climate change and groundwater abstraction. Projections of future climate (i.e. precipitation, temperature, reference evapotranspiration) come from the ENSEMBLES climate modelling project. Climate variables from 11 climate models are first bias corrected with a distribution based scaling (DBS) method (Seaby et al., 2013) and then used to force hydrological simulations of stream discharge, groundwater recharge, and nitrate leaching from the root zone under present (1991-2010) and future (2071-2100) climate conditions. Hydrological modelling utilises a sequential coupling methodology with DAISY, a one dimensional crop model describing soil water dynamics in the root zone, and MIKE SHE, a distributed groundwater-surface water model which the National Water Resources Model (DK-model) is set up in (Henriksen et al., 2003). We find low flow and annual discharge to be most impacted by scenarios of climate change, with high variation across climate models (+/- 40% change). Doubling of current groundwater abstraction rates reduces annual discharge by approximately 20%, with higher reductions to low flows seen around 40%. The combined effects of climate change and increased groundwater

  13. Shift work and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Danish nurse cohort.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Karlsen, Sashia; Stayner, Leslie; Andersen, Johnni; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Evidence of an effect of shift work on all-cause and cause-specific mortality is inconsistent. This study aims to examine whether shift work is associated with increased all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods We linked 28 731 female nurses (age ≥44 years), recruited in 1993 or 1999 from the Danish nurse cohort where they reported information on shift work (night, evening, rotating, or day), to the Danish Register of Causes of Death to identify deaths up to 2013. We used Cox regression models with age as the underlying scale to examine the associations between night, evening, and rotating shift work (compared to day shift work) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in models adjusted for potentially confounding variables. Results Of 18 015 nurses included in this study, 1616 died during the study time period from the following causes: cardiovascular disease (N=217), cancer (N= 945), diabetes (N=20), Alzheimer's disease or dementia (N=33), and psychiatric diseases (N=67). We found that working night [hazard ratio (HR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval 95% CI) 1.05-1.51] or evening (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49) shifts was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality when compared to working day shift. We found a significant association of night shift work with cardiovascular disease (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.09-2.69) and diabetes (HR 12.0, 95% CI 3.17-45.2, based on 8 cases) and none with overall cancer mortality (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.81-1.35) or mortality from psychiatric diseases (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.47-2.92). Finally, we found strong association between evening (HR 4.28, 95% CI 1.62-11.3) and rotating (HR 5.39, 95% CI 2.35-12.3) shift work and mortality from Alzheimer's disease and dementia (based on 8 and 14 deaths among evening and rotating shift workers, respectively). Conclusions Women working night and evening shifts have increased all-cause, cardiovascular, diabetes, and Alzheimer's and dementia mortality.

  14. Validation of diagnostic codes for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Vaeth, Signe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Christensen, Rikke; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To validate the diagnostic codes for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) using positive predictive value (PPV) as a measure of validity. Patients and methods We used the DNPR to identify all patients diagnosed with at least one primary CMT diagnosis at a specialized department in the Central Denmark Region during the period 1977–2012. From this population, we randomly selected 123 patients for the validation study. Medical files were reviewed and used as reference standard. We estimated the PPV of the CMT diagnoses and stratified the analysis according to age at diagnosis, gender, and calendar time. Results In the DNPR, 275 patients were identified. We were able to retrieve 96 medical files from the random sample of 123 patients, and 85 CMT diagnoses were confirmed. The average age at diagnosis was 42.5 years, and 34% were female. The PPV was 88.5% (95% confidence interval: 80.4–94.1). Conclusion The CMT diagnoses in the DNPR have high validity. The DNPR can be used as a data source for epidemiologic research on CMT. PMID:27920579

  15. Comparison of models for genetic evaluation of number of inseminations to conception in Danish Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Hou, Yali; Zhang, Yuan; Su, Guosheng

    2017-04-01

    Number of inseminations to conception (NINS), an important fertility trait, requires appropriate approaches for genetic evaluation due to its non-normal distribution and censoring records. In this study, we analyzed NINS in 474 837 Danish Holstein cows at their first lactation by using seven models which deal with the categorical phenotypes and censored records in different manners, further assessed these models with regard to stability, lack of bias and accuracy of prediction. The estimated heritability from four models based on original NINS specified as a linear Gaussian model, categorical threshold model, threshold linear model and survival model were similar (0.031-0.037). While for the other three models based on the binary response derived from NINS, referred as threshold model (TM), logistic and probit models (LOGM and PROM), the heritability were estimated as 0.027, 0.063 and 0.027, respectively. The model comparison concluded that different models could lead to slightly different sire rankings in terms of breeding values; a more complicated model led to less stability of prediction; the models based on the binary response derived from NINS (TM, LOGM and PROM) had slightly better performances in terms of unbiased and accurate prediction of breeding values.

  16. Fusobacterium necrophorum findings in Denmark from 2010 to 2014 using data from the Danish microbiology database.

    PubMed

    Bank, Steffen; Jensen, Anders; Nielsen, Hanne Merete; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjaer; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Prag, Jørgen

    2016-12-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum findings in Denmark and estimation of the incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia was described using data from the nationwide Danish microbiology database (MiBa). All microbiological reports on any Fusobacterium species in Denmark were extracted for a period of 5 years from 2010 to 2014 from MiBa and from the local department of clinical microbiology. The overall incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia from 2010 to 2014 was 2.8 cases per million/year vs 9.4 in the age group 15-24 years. F. necrophorum was rare in blood cultures from children and middle-aged patients and then raised again. However, 48 of 232 cases of Fusobacterium bacteraemia were not identified to species level, so the incidences of F. necrophorum bacteraemia may be underestimated in our study. F. necrophorum was found in throat swabs in the age group between 13 and 40 years and in otitis media in children below 2 years in those departments which performed anaerobic culture. The incidence of F. necrophorum bacteraemia found was comparable to earlier reported figures for Lemierre's syndrome. Fusobacterium bacteraemia should always be identified to species level.

  17. Alzheimer's and Danish dementia peptides induce cataract and perturb retinal architecture in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Reddy, P Yadagiri; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2017-03-01

    Familial Danish dementias (FDDs) are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with visual defects. In some aspects, FDD is similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD)- the amyloid deposits in FDD and AD are made of short peptides: amyloid β (Aβ) in AD and ADan in FDD. Previously, we demonstrated an interaction between the dementia peptides and α-crystallin leading to lens opacification in organ culture due to impaired chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Herein, we report the in vivo effects of ADan and Aβ on the eye. ADan [reduced (ADan-red) and oxidized (ADan-oxi)] and Aβ (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42) were injected intravitreally in rats. The onset of cataract was seen after injection of all the peptides, but the cataract matured by 2 weeks in the case of ADan-red, 5 weeks for ADan-oxi and 6 weeks for Aβ1-40, while Aβ1-42 had minimal effect on cataract progression. The severity of cataract is associated with insolubilization and alterations in crystallins and loss of chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Further, disruption of the architecture of the retina was evident from a loss of rhodopsin, increased gliosis, and the thinning of the retina. These results provide a basis for the dominant heredo-otoophthalmo-encephalopathy (HOOE)/FDD syndrome and indicate that ADan peptides are more potent than Aβpeptides in inflicting visual impairment.

  18. Outbreak of Salmonella Dublin-associated abortion in Danish fur farms

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Hans Henrik; Chriél, Mariann; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Jørgensen, Jens Christian; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Hans; Pedersen, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infections were recorded in 25 Danish mink and fox farms. All farms suffered extensive disease problems; clinical and pathological observations included abortion, stillbirths, necrotizing endometritis, and increased mortality. By genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism, all isolates of S. Dublin had indistinguishable patterns. The outbreaks took place during April and May, around the time of whelping. During this period, mink are particularly susceptible to Salmonella infections. All affected farms were served by the same feed factory and it was concluded that a batch of contaminated feed was responsible for the outbreaks, although repeated culture of feed samples collected during the same period were negative. No other likely source could be identified. The results emphasize the importance of strict hygiene measures at feed factories and the proper use of ingredients of known Salmonella status, in particular during the whelping season. Infected mink farms did not have a higher risk of outbreak of salmonellosis in the year following the outbreak. PMID:17217090

  19. Risk of Multiple Sclerosis in Patients with Psoriasis: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Mallbris, Lotus; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis and multiple sclerosis (MS) are inflammatory disorders with similarities in genetic risk variants and inflammatory pathways. Limited evidence is available on the relationship between the two diseases. We therefore investigated the risk of incident (new-onset) MS in patients with mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. All Danish citizens aged ≥ 18 years from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were identified by linkage of nationwide registries at the individual level. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, smoking, medication, comorbidity, and UV phototherapy by Poisson regression. There were 58,628 and 9,952 cases of mild and severe psoriasis, respectively, and 9,713 cases of MS. Incidence rates of MS per 10,000 person-years for the reference population, mild psoriasis, and severe psoriasis were 1.78, 3.22, and 4.55, respectively. Adjusted IRRs of MS were 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-2.30) and 2.61 (95% CI, 1.44-4.74) in mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. Similar results were observed when adjustment for family history of MS was included in the analyses. Psoriasis may confer a disease severity-dependent risk of MS. Further studies are warranted to establish the mechanisms underlying this relationship and its potential clinical consequences.

  20. Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men.

    PubMed

    Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake and an acceptable level of exposure), a hazard index (HI) for each man was calculated as the sum of HQs for the individual phthalates. All men were exposed to all phthalates during the urine collection periods. Median HIs were all below 1 (i.e., below an acceptable cumulative threshold) ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 over the three different sample collections. Of the 33 men, 2 men had HIs above 1 in one of their three samples, indicating that occasionally the combined exposure to the investigated phthalates reached a level that may not be considered safe. Besides the phthalates investigated here, humans are exposed to numerous other chemicals that also may contribute to a cumulative antiandrogenic exposure.

  1. Survival and flowering of hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus carota) in Danish grasslands.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Thure P; Shim, Sang In

    2007-01-01

    Many crop species are able to hybridize with related weedy or wild relatives, which could lead to transfer of cultivar genes, and among them transgenes, into wild populations. It is not clear, however, whether the hybrids and their descendants are able to survive and reproduce in natural habitats, as inherited cultivar traits may be maladaptive under such conditions. To test this, we produced hybrid (F(1)) seeds by controlled crosses between wild [see text for formula] and cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. carota and ssp. sativa, respectively) and sowed them into three Danish grasslands of different age, in parallel with seeds of wild carrots. Replicate plots were sown in fall and spring. Survival and flowering of the emerging plants were monitored for the following three years. Both hybrid and wild carrots survived and flowered in highest frequency at a recently disturbed site, and much less at two older sites. Hybrids emerged in higher proportions than wild carrots in the first year and survived to similar or slightly lower frequencies at the end of the experiment. Hybrids flowered as frequently or slightly less frequently than wild plants, and developed fewer and smaller umbels. Despite a somewhat lower reproductive potential compared to wild carrots, first generation hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots are likely to survive and produce offspring in natural grasslands in Denmark. This, together with other studies, suggests that cultivar genes may transfer relatively easily into wild carrot populations.

  2. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an emerging pathogen in Danish rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), mariculture.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K; Skall, H F; Lassen-Nielsen, A M; Bjerrum, L; Olesen, N J

    2009-05-01

    A selection of 16 field isolates of Photobacterium damselae from marine rainbow trout farms in Denmark was subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization and pathogenicity to fish. All isolates belonged to the subspecies damselae, being positive for haemolysis, motility and urease. There were considerable differences in haemolytic properties, some isolates presenting a broad zone of haemolysis and others only a narrow zone. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a high diversity indicating that P. damselae subsp. damselae is an opportunistic, not clonal pathogen in Danish marine rainbow trout. Virulence of the strains to rainbow trout was highly variable with LD(50) values ranging from 3.9 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(8) cfu at 20 degrees C. The virulence was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 13 degrees C. The strains with the strongest haemolytic properties were the most virulent suggesting a strong involvement of haemolysin in the pathogenesis. The pathological changes were consistent with a bacterial septicaemia and the haemorrhages were more pronounced than for most other bacterial infections.

  3. E-learning to train staff in Danish hospitals - three genres of e-learning.

    PubMed

    Bygholm, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the use of e-learning in education and training of hospital staff in Denmark, in particular in relation with the implementation of electronic patient records (EPR). The study consists of a survey mapping the dissemination and main experience from using e-learning in Danish hospitals. The study shows a widespread use and a considerably agreement on the potentials of e-learning in education and training of hospital staff, but also problems and doubtfulness concerning the actual role of e-learning in the overall educational and organizational strategy for the hospital. The majority of hospitals use some sorts of computer-based training program to support the staff in acquiring necessary knowledge to operate the EPR. I argue that a more differentiated understanding is needed in order to realize the potentials and direct the use of e-learning in hospitals. Three genres of e-learning which differ in regards to qualification addressed are identified and I claim that a more explicit understanding of the differences between them is needed in order to guide the choice of e-learning of hospital staff.

  4. The psychological reactions after witnessing a killing in public in a Danish high school

    PubMed Central

    Elklit, Ask; Kurdahl, Sessel

    2013-01-01

    Background School killings attract immense media and public attention but psychological studies surrounding these events are rare. Objective To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and possible risk factors of PTSD in 320 Danish high school students (mean age 18 years) 7 months after witnessing a young man killing his former girlfriend in front of a large audience. Method The students answered the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Crisis Support Scale (CSS), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). Results Prevalence of PTSD 7 months after the incident was 9.5%. Furthermore, 25% had PTSD at a subclinical level. Intimacy with the deceased girl; feeling fear, helplessness, or horror during the killing; lack of expressive ability; feeling let down by others; negative affectivity; and dissociation predicted 78% of the variance of the HTQ total scores. Conclusion It is possible to identify students who are most likely to suffer from PTSD. This knowledge could be used to intervene early on to reduce adversities. PMID:23316270

  5. Exposure to Mebendazole and Pyrvinium during Pregnancy: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Torp-Pedersen, A.; Jimenez-Solem, E.; Andersen, J. T.; Broedbaek, K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Poulsen, H. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Families with children are frequently exposed to pinworm infection and treatment involves the whole family. Information on consequences of exposure during, pregnancy is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to pyrvinium and mebendazole before, during, and after pregnancy in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods. From nationwide administrative registers, we identified 718, 900 births in Denmark between January 1997 and December 2007 as well as maternal prescription data of anthelmintics and maternal characteristics. Redemption of a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole was used to identify exposure. Results. 4715 women redeemed a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole during pregnancy; 1606 for pyrvinium, 2575 for mebendazole, and 534 for both drugs. Having >2 children compared to having no previous children was associated with exposure to pyrvinium (OR: 7.1, 95% CI: 5.8–8.7) and mebendazole (OR: 20.8, 95% CI: 17.3–24.9). Conclusion. 4715 pregnant women redeemed a prescription for either mebendazole or pyrvinium. We believe the exposure to be even higher since pyrvinium is also sold over-the-counter. Limited information on birth outcomes is available at present time, and considering the number of exposed pregnancies, we recommend that studies are to be undertaken to assess the safety of pyrvinium and mebendazole during pregnancy. PMID:23028209

  6. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents: the Danish youth and sports study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Anderssen, S A

    2009-06-01

    In many Western countries, there are concerns about declining levels of physical activity in school-aged children. Active transport is one way to increase physical activity in children, but few studies have evaluated whether active transport in school-aged children and adolescents has beneficial effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness was assessed through a number of field tests, including a maximal cycle test, dynamic and static strength in different muscle groups, muscle endurance, flexibility and agility. Transport to school was reported as the mode of transport. Almost two-thirds of the population cycled to school. Cyclists had higher aerobic power than both walkers and passive travelers (4.6-5.9%). Isometric muscle endurance (10-16%), dynamic muscle endurance in the abdominal muscles (10%) and flexibility (6%) were also higher in cyclists compared with walkers and passive travelers. Mode of travel was not related to leisure-time sports participation. Our findings suggest that commuter bicycling may be a way to improve health in adolescents.

  7. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten; Vangsted, Annette J; Østergaard, Brian; Gregersen, Henrik; Frølund, Ulf Christian; Andersen, Niels F; Helleberg, Carsten; Andersen, Kristian T; Pedersen, Robert S; Pedersen, Per; Abildgaard, Niels; Gimsing, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have been proposed; however, all have been developed using single-center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to multiple myeloma (MM) for SMM, we analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort of 321 patients with newly diagnosed SMM registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis significantly influenced TTP (HR 2.7, 95%CI (1.5;4.7), P = 0.001, and HR 3.3, 95%CI (1.4;7.8), P = 0.002, respectively). High free light chain (FLC) ratio did not significantly influence TTP in our cohort. Therefore, our data do not support recent IMWG proposal of identifying patients with FLC ratio above 100 as having ultra high-risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥30 g/L, we created a scoring system to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SMM. This first population-based study of patients with SMM confirms that an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression to MM.

  8. Nitrate exposure from drinking water and diet in a Danish rural population.

    PubMed

    Møller, H; Landt, J; Jensen, P; Pedersen, E; Autrup, H; Jensen, O M

    1989-03-01

    Increasing levels of nitrate (NO3-) in drinking water in Denmark is of concern due to the possibility of an associated increase in long-term exposure to endogeneously formed N-nitroso compounds. Using a duplicate portion technique in combination with a qualitative description of diet and other background variables, the total nitrate intake in a Danish rural population and the contribution of drinking water to the total nitrate exposure is estimated. People drinking nitrate-free water have an intake of 37 mg NO3- per day. At 47 mg NO3- per litre, the exposure is increased to 89 mg, about 60% of which originates from the water. At 84 mg NO3- per litre, the daily exposure is 123 mg, 70% of which originates from the drinking water. These crude comparisons between three groups of people are supplemented with quantitative modelling of nitrate exposure at individual level. Apart from drinking water, consumption of vegetables is a major source of nitrate in this population. Using nitrate in overnight urine samples to quantify exposure is less accurate than the duplicate dietary portion technique and tends, in the present study, to underestimate the contribution of water-derived nitrate to total nitrate intake.

  9. Population dynamics and epidemiology of Toxocara canis in Danish red foxes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Isam S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2006-12-01

    Toxocara canis, an intestinal helminth of canids with zoonotic potential, was found in 618 (59%) of 1,040 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) collected from all Danish provinces (1997-2002). The prevalence and average worm burden were significantly higher for cubs than older foxes and in males than in females. A multiple logistic regression demonstrated that the prevalence was influenced significantly by sex and age of foxes in addition to location, season, and year of collection. The highest prevalence and worm burden were found in rural areas. The size and number of female worms was positively correlated to the fecal egg excretion. The length and fecundity of the worms was significantly higher in male foxes, and a general intensity dependence was suggested from a negative correlation between worm numbers and worm lengths. As compared to intestinal recovery of worms, somatic larvae were recovered from 20% of muscle samples and fecal eggs in 41% of fecal samples. The consistent finding of T. canis larvae in somatic tissues of naturally infected foxes is new.

  10. Efficacy of ESS in chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyposis: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lind, Henrik; Joergensen, G; Lange, B; Svendstrup, F; Kjeldsen, A D

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for patients with severe chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has become a well-established treatment in cases where medical therapy fails. Even though CRS patients are divided into two subgroups, CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP), most studies present only results for the total cohort. This prospective cohort study evaluated the efficacy of ESS on both quality of life and olfactory function measures, in a cohort of Danish CRS patients diagnosed according to the EPOS criteria, with results analysed separately for the CRSwNP and CRSsNP subgroups. All 97 CRS patients who underwent ESS over an 18-month trial period were evaluated preoperative by SNOT-22 score, Sniffin' Sticks score, modified Lund-Kennedy endoscopic score and Lund-Mackay CT score. Patient outcomes were reevaluated at clinical follow-up 1 and 6 months postoperative. ESS efficiently and immediately improved quality of life for both CRSwNP and CRSsNP patients, with over 50 % reduction in SNOT-22 score 1 month after surgery, which sustained 6 months postoperative. Olfactory function measured by Sniffin' Sticks score showed overall improvement in both groups. ESS efficiently improved quality of life in both CRSwNP and CRSsNP patients, and surgery lead to an overall improvement in olfactory function. However, a minor proportion of patients experienced deterioration in olfactory function after ESS.

  11. Objects relating to the Danish Ophthalmological Society at the Medical History Museum.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2002-04-01

    Some of the objects from the Medical History Museum, University of Copenhagen, concerned with the century-old Danish Ophthalmological Society are mentioned, together with some objects concerned with our predecessors. Jannik Bjerrum's campimeter at 1-2 m-distance reveals glaucomatous arcuate scotoma. [figure: see text] Marius Tscherning's many scientific papers and his ophthalmophacometer (also measuring accommodation), abberoscope, adaptoscope, colour vision, punctual meniscen spectacle glasses etc. are housed in the Museum. K.K.K. Lundsgaard's spectacle collection and cataract paper, Gordon Norrie's colour vision lantern and his personal pince-nez are described. Gustav Østerberg's contact lens practice and his pictorial visual chart, Jørn Boberg-Ans' pioneer artificial lens surgery dating from 1958, are all examples of the work of members of the Society. From our predecessors, we refer to the first cataract extraction in Denmark in 1670 (F. Borri on a goose); Georg Heuermann's on humans dating from 1755 and the reintroduction of the operation in 1810 by C.C. Withusen, V. Krenchel's (1844-1885) ophthalmoscope with a movable mirror and his colour vision lantern; A. Stadfeldt's instruments for examination of the refractive index of the human lens, MD thesis dating from 1898. In addition, snow goggles from Greenland and eye-baths are described.

  12. Genetic testing in familial AD and FTD: mutation and phenotype spectrum in a Danish cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, S G; Schwartz, M; Batbayli, M; Waldemar, G; Nielsen, J E

    2009-08-01

    Autosomal dominantly transmitted Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are genetically heterogeneous disorders. To date, three genes have been identified in which mutations cause early-onset autosomal dominant inherited AD: APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2. Mutations in two genes on chromosome 17, the MAPT and the PGRN genes, are associated with autosomal dominant inherited FTD. The aim of this study was to characterize the mutation spectrum and describe genotype-phenotype correlations in families with inherited dementia. The identification of novel mutations and/or atypical genotype-phenotype correlations contributes to further characterizing the disorders. DNA-samples from the 90 index cases from a Danish referral-based cohort representing families with presumed autosomal dominant inherited AD or FTD were screened for mutations in the known genes with sequencing, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) techniques. Seven presumed pathogenic mutations (two PSEN1, one PSEN2, one APP, one MAPT, and two PGRN) were identified, including a novel PSEN2 mutation (V393M). No dosage aberrations were identified.

  13. Bayesian analysis of response to selection: a case study using litter size in Danish Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, D; Vernersen, A; Andersen, S

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of a Bayesian analysis of a selection experiment is illustrated using litter size [total number of piglets born (TNB)] in Danish Yorkshire pigs. Other traits studied include average litter weight at birth (WTAB) and proportion of piglets born dead (PRBD). Response to selection for TNB was analyzed with a number of models, which differed in their level of hierarchy, in their prior distributions, and in the parametric form of the likelihoods. A model assessment study favored a particular form of an additive genetic model. With this model, the Monte Carlo estimate of the 95% probability interval of response to selection was (0.23; 0.60), with a posterior mean of 0.43 piglets. WTAB showed a correlated response of -7.2 g, with a 95% probability interval equal to (-33.1; 18.9). The posterior mean of the genetic correlation between TNB and WTAB was -0.23 with a 95% probability interval equal to (-0.46; -0.01). PRBD was studied informally; it increases with larger litters, when litter size is >7 piglets born. A number of methodological issues related to the Bayesian model assessment study are discussed, as well as the genetic consequences of inferring response to selection using additive genetic models. PMID:10978292

  14. Strategic Environmental Assessment as catalyst of healthier spatial planning: The Danish guidance and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Kornov, Lone

    2009-01-15

    A wide range of factors within spatial planning can affect health. There is therefore an important scope for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of spatial plans to protect and improve human health. Due to the EU Directive 2001/42/EC on SEA, health has been made explicit in Danish legislation and guidance. This paper examines the inclusion of health as a formal component in impact assessment of spatial plans. Based upon a documentary study of 100 environmental reports, the paper analyses and discusses how health impact considerations are incorporated in SEA practice. It is found that health impacts are included in SEA practice and are being interpreted in a broader sense than what the national guidance exemplifies. The frequent included health aspects are noise, drinking water, air pollution, recreation/outdoor life and traffic safety. The primary determinant for health is transport-whether it is at the overall or local planning level. The main conclusion is that SEA shows a potential to catalyse healthier spatial planning. Despite the broad inclusion of health in SEA practice the examination shows potential improvements, hereunder qualification of assessments by better explaining the nature and significance of impacts and by including the distributional aspects of human health impacts. Inclusion from the health sector is put forward as an important institutional mean to secure cross disciplinarily and higher quality assessment.

  15. Modelling repeated competition records in genetic evaluations of Danish sport horses.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, L; Madsen, P; Mark, T

    2016-08-01

    Genetic evaluations of sport performance typically consider competition records of ranking points in each competition, accumulated lifetime points or annual earnings. Repeated observations have the advantage of allowing for adjustment of effects associated with each competition such as rider experience, judge and competing horses, but also demands more computer capacity than single-trait records, which could prohibit multiple-trait evaluations. The aim of the study was to compare CPU times, estimated breeding values (EBVs), reliabilities and model prediction abilities when modelling repeated competition ranking points (run A), mean ranking points (runs B and C), mean ranking points precorrected for effects associated with each competition (run D) and accumulated lifetime points (run E) for Danish Warmblood horses. CPU times for run A were 632-776 times (show jumping) and 59-96 times (dressage) as high as for runs B-E. EBVs of run D were perfectly correlated (1.00) with those of run A. Reliabilities were highest in runs E and A. Best model prediction ability and least bias were found in run C (dressage) and run E (show jumping), but the best choice in each discipline was not preferable for the other. Run D was the second best in both disciplines (D), and is expected to increase in performance over time as omission of a relatively large amount of historic data becomes less important.

  16. Interprofessional undergraduate clinical learning: results from a three year project in a Danish Interprofessional Training Unit.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Flemming; Fink, Anna Marie; Marcussen, Vibeke; Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben Baek

    2009-01-01

    On entering higher education students become professionally socialized, and parallel with this, stereotyping takes place, students developing a more positive assessment of their own roles than those of other professions. This difference between the view of their own and other professions can contribute to creating cognitive and social boundaries between professions that hinder sharing of knowledge, which can result in poor cooperation. Interprofessional training can provide students with good clinical expertise in their own profession as well as teach them about other professions encouraging more positive attitudes between the professions. This project has taken place from 2004 to 2007 in a Danish Interprofessional Training Unit manned with students from the professions occupational therapy, physiotherapy, medicine and nursing. As part of an evaluation of the project, four focus group interviews and two in-depth interviews were analysed using the technique of Systematic Text Condensation. Results show that the goals of the Interprofessional Training Unit were fulfilled because the students learned interprofessional teamwork, strengthened their own professional role and worked together in an organization for the benefit of the patient. All this took place in a secure learning environment in which new methods of coordinating and integrating clinical and theoretical interprofessional learning were developed and tested.

  17. Population dynamics of filamentous bacteria in Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Kragelund, Caroline; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2012-08-01

    Bulking and foaming are two frequently occurring operational problems in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants, and these problems are mainly associated with excessive growth of filamentous bacteria. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the identity and population dynamics of filamentous bacteria in 28 Danish municipal treatment plants with nutrient removal has been carried out over three years. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify more than twenty probe-defined populations of filamentous bacteria that in total constituted a large fraction of the entire microbial community, on average 24%. Despite the majority being present within the flocs, they occasionally caused settling problems in most of the plants. A low diversity of probe-defined filamentous bacteria was found in the plants with Microthrix and various species belonging to phylum Chloroflexi (e.g., type 0803 and type 0092) as the most abundant. Few other filamentous probe-defined species were found revealing a large similarity between the filamentous populations in the plants investigated. The composition of filamentous populations was stable in each plant with only minor changes in relative abundances observed during the three-year study period. The relative composition of the different species was unique to each plant giving a characteristic "fingerprint". Comprehensive statistical analyses of the presence and abundance of the filamentous organisms did not reveal many correlations with a particular plant design or process parameter.

  18. Navigating the field of temporally framed care in the Danish home care sector.

    PubMed

    Tufte, Pernille; Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    2016-01-01

    The organisational and temporal framing of elderly care in Europe has changed in the wake of new public management reforms and standardised care services, the strict measurement of time and work schedules have become central aspects of care work. The article investigates the crafting of care in this framing: how care workers approach the services specified in their rotas and navigate between needs, demands and opportunities in the daily performance of duties. Applying feminist theory on time and anthropological theory on social navigation, it examines the practice of home care work in two Danish municipalities. Data are derived predominantly from participant observation. The article identifies two overarching temporal dilemmas in different home care situations: one where process time prevails over clock time and another where the care workers balance the two. Focusing on how care workers respond to these dilemmas in practice, the article identifies various navigation tactics, including leaving time outside, individualised routinisation, working on different paths simultaneously and postponing tasks. By assessing care workers' performance in the temporal framing of work and focusing on care workers' mediation between different time logics, this study provides an in-depth perspective on the broader feminist literature on the dilemmas of care.

  19. Social activity and healthy aging: a study of aging Danish twins.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin. These results are interpreted in the context of the additional finding that nonshared environmental factors, although apparently not social activity, are the predominant determinant of changes in late-life functioning.

  20. Life cycle assessment of the waste hierarchy--a Danish case study on waste paper.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jannick H; Holm, Peter; Merrild, Anne; Christensen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The waste hierarchy is being widely discussed these days, not only by cost-benefit analysts, but a growing number of life cycle assessments (LCA) have also begun to question it. In this article, we investigate the handling of waste paper in Denmark and compare the present situation with scenarios of more waste being recycled, incinerated or consigned to landfill. The investigations are made in accordance with ISO 14040-43 and based on the newly launched methodology of consequential LCA and following the recent guidelines of the European Centre on Waste and Material Flows. The LCA concerns the Danish consumption of paper in 1999, totalling 1.2 million tons. The results of the investigation indicate that the waste hierarchy is reliable; from an environmental point of view recycling of paper is better than incineration and landfilling. For incineration, the reason for the advantage of landfilling mainly comes from the substitution of fossil fuels, when incinerators provide heat and electricity. For recycling, the advantage is related to the saved wood resources, which can be used for generating energy from wood, i.e., from renewable fuel which does not contribute to global warming.