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Sample records for danube water quality

  1. Evaluation of the ecochemical status of the Danube in Serbia in terms of water quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Takić, Ljiljana; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana; Vuković, Milovan; Mladenović, Ilija

    2012-01-01

    The Danube is an international river passing partly through Serbia. The protection of the environment and sustainable use of water resources is a primary task that implies constant monitoring of the quality status and evaluation of ecochemical status of the water in the Danube basin. The investigation includes calculation of all-inclusive water quality by the Serbian water quality index (SWQI) method and an evaluation of eco-chemical status of the Danube water in terms of water quality parameters from the entry to the exit point along its course through Serbia in the year of 2009. The results show that the overall quality of the Danube water on the territory of Serbia corresponds to the descriptive indicator of "very good" water. According to the Council Directive75/440/EEC, the evaluation of the ecostatus, with slight deviation of individual parameters at Pančevo, corresponds to A1 category of the surface water quality intended for the abstraction of drinking water supplies in member states.

  2. Evaluation of the Ecochemical Status of the Danube in Serbia in Terms of Water Quality Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Takić, Ljiljana; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana; Vuković, Milovan; Mladenović, Ilija

    2012-01-01

    The Danube is an international river passing partly through Serbia. The protection of the environment and sustainable use of water resources is a primary task that implies constant monitoring of the quality status and evaluation of ecochemical status of the water in the Danube basin. The investigation includes calculation of all-inclusive water quality by the Serbian water quality index (SWQI) method and an evaluation of eco-chemical status of the Danube water in terms of water quality parameters from the entry to the exit point along its course through Serbia in the year of 2009. The results show that the overall quality of the Danube water on the territory of Serbia corresponds to the descriptive indicator of “very good” water. According to the Council Directive75/440/EEC, the evaluation of the ecostatus, with slight deviation of individual parameters at Pančevo, corresponds to A1 category of the surface water quality intended for the abstraction of drinking water supplies in member states. PMID:22645471

  3. Danube catchment water chemistry monitoring - elemental pattern determination from source to mouth using ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovsky, Anastassiya; Zitek, Andreas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the elemental composition of river water is an important tool to determine the chemical status of a river. However, currently many studies are limited to the analysis of heavy metals included in the EU Water Framework Directive Priority Substances List (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb). Yet, the assessment of further elements (e.g. Ca, Mg, Si) can give additional relevant information for understanding catchment processes such as soil erosion, weathering, hydrological changes or glacial melting. In addition, site specific "elemental pattern" can be used as tracer for ecological studies, like habitat and migration studies of fish or birds. Elemental information is of particular interest complementary to isotopic data where only little variability in the isotopic signatures can be observed. In this work, we investigated water samples collected from 68 sampling sites along the longitudinal course of the river Danube including the major tributaries during the Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3) in 2013. Water samples were obtained as triplicates in the middle of the river and analyzed using Inductively Coupled - Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method validation was performed using riverine water (NRC SLRS-5) certified reference material as well as in-house prepared quality control standards. Due to the diverse geology and changing natural and anthropogenic factors along the longitudinal course of the Danube, pronounced elemental variations among the water samples were documented. For instance, especially some major elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) together with some minor elements (Si, Sr) are known to reflect in particular regional geological morphologies. In addition, the variation in Si/Ca ratios can be used as an indicator for weathering conditions, especially in the mountainous areas along the Danube. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb downstream of some large cities and industrial areas are signs of significant anthropogenic impact. In combination, the chemical

  4. Large-Scale Water Resources Management within the Framework of GLOWA-Danube - Part B: The Water Supply Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, D.; Barthel, R.; Schmid, C.; Braun, J.

    2003-04-01

    The research project GLOWA-Danube, financed by the German Federal Government, investigates long-term changes in the water cycle of the Upper Danube river basin in light of global climatic change. Its concrete aim is to build a fully integrated decision support tool that combines the competence of eleven different institutes in domains covering all major aspects governing the water cycle - from the formation of clouds to groundwater flow patterns to the behaviour of the water consumer. The research group "Water Supply" at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (IWS), Universitaet Stuttgart, has the central task of creating an agent-based model of the water supply sector. The Water Supply model will act as a link between the various physical models determining water quality and availability on the one hand and the actors models determining water demand on the other, which together form the tool DANUBIA. Ultimately, with the help of scenario testing, the water supply model will indicate the ability of the water supply system in the Upper Danube catchment to adapt to changing boundary conditions using different management approaches. The specific aim of the Water Supply model is the creation of a model which is not only able to simulate the present day system of water extraction, treatment and distribution but also its development and change with time. As most changes to the system are brought about by decisions made by relevant actors in the field of water management or their behaviour (in response to political and economic boundary conditions, changes in water demand or water quality, advances in technology etc.), the use of agent-based modelling was chosen, whereby an agent is seen as a computer system (in our case representing a human or group of humans) which is aware of its environment, has defined objectives and is able to act independently in order to meet these objectives. Whereas agent-based modelling has received much attention over the past decades, the use

  5. Contributions to the knowledge of the Danube waters impact on the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, Marian-Traian; Oaie, Gheorghe; Secrieru, Dan; Vasiliu, Dan; Begun, Tatiana; Caraus, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Rivers usually have a positive impact on marine areas where they discharge their waters, fertilizing them and supporting high biological productivity, the Danube River being a good example in this respect. Given the conditions of chaotic industrialization and the discharge into rivers of many chemicals, some of high toxicity, the eutrophication influence changed its beneficial nature, turning into a toxic polluting influence, with catastrophic effects on the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems, which is a situation well-known and in the area of the Danube mouths for the period 1970-1990. After 1990, under major political changes in socio-economic systems, the environmental pressures with impact on marine coastal ecosystems diminished; these pressures had been maintained by hydrological systems opening to the marine areas. What is the current situation of these pressures? What are the major characteristics of the organisms associations under the direct influence of the Danube? In this paper, the authors try to give some answers to these questions. In the framework of the lower Danube monitoring program, conducted by GeoEcoMar during 2009-2012, measurements were made and samples collected in more than 230 stations along the Romanian sector of the Danube River. The main aspects related to the ecological state of the River were: - Physico-chemical and biological (phytoplankton); - Sediment granulometry and inorganic chemistry - CaCO3, Fe2O3, TiO2, Zr, Ba, Rb, Zn, Ni, MnO, Cr, V, Co, Pb; - Ammonia, TOC, total cyanide, organochlorine pesticides in sediments; - Physico-chemical analyses of water samples. According to the results, the areas suspected of pollution from anthropogenic sources and also from other activities, could be outlined as follows: - The stretch between km 1072 (Danube entry to Romania) and km 1039 - downstream the mining sector Moldova Veche; - Sector between km 957-947, near the Iron Gates I dam; - Danube - Black Sea Canal (the NPP

  6. Growth of companies and water level fluctuations of the river Danube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jánosi, Imre M.; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    1999-09-01

    Recent studies on growth rate of publicly traded companies revealed interesting scaling properties and universality. Based on the statistical analysis, different models have been proposed to cast light into the inner workings of companies responsible for the phenomena observed. The purpose of this paper is to point out that the properties of the analysed economic data might be present in a wider class of complex systems producing strongly correlated noisy time series. As an illustration, we report an investigation of the daily water-level fluctuations of the river Danube over a period of 87 years, as measured in Nagymaros, Hungary. The Danube data shows similar characteristics to those seen in the company growth. This suggests that a universal description of the statistics should exist for both systems.

  7. Large-Scale Water Resources Management within the Framework of GLOWA-Danube - Part A: The Groundwater Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.; Rojanschi, V.; Wolf, J.; Braun, J.

    2003-04-01

    The interdisciplinary research co-operation Glowa-Danube aims at the development of innovative techniques, scenarios and strategies to investigate the impacts of Global Change on the hydrological cycle within the catchment area of the Upper Danube Basin (Gauge Passau). Both the influence of natural changes in the ecosystem, such as climate change, and changes in human behavior, such as changes in land use or water consumption, are considered. A globally applicable decision support tool "DANUBIA" that comprises 15 individual disciplinary models will be developed. The models are connected with each other via customized interfaces that facilitate network-based parallel calculations. The strictly object-oriented DANUBIA architecture was developed using the graphical notation tool UML (Unified Modeling Language) and has been implemented in Java code. The Institute of Hydraulic Engineering of the Universitaet Stuttgart contributes two models to DANUBIA: A groundwater flow and transport model and a water supply model. The latter is dealt with in a second contribution to this conference. This paper focuses on the groundwater model. The catchment basin of the Upper Danube covers an area of approximately 77.000 km2. The elevation difference from the highest peaks of the Alps to the lowest flatlands in the Danube valley is more than 3.000 m. In addition to the Alps, several lower mountain ranges such as the Black Forest, the Swabian and Franconian Alb and the Bavarian Forest are located respectively in the Northeast, North and Northwest of the basin. The climatic conditions, geomorphology, geology and land use show a wide range of different characteristics. The size and heterogeneity of the area make it extremely difficult to represent the natural conditions in a numerical model. Both data availability and accessibility add to the difficulties that one encounters in the approach to simulate groundwater flow and contaminant transport in this area. The groundwater flow model of

  8. The influence of shelfbreak forcing on the alongshelf penetration of the Danube buoyant water, Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovsky, Alexander E.; Lemeshko, Evgeny M.; Ilyin, Yuriy P.

    2004-06-01

    The buoyancy-driven coastal current propagating along the western coast in the Black Sea is forced by the discharge of several major European rivers including the Danube, Dnepr and South Bug. In this study, we present observational evidence that the buoyant water alongshelf penetration is strongly affected by shelfbreak mesoscale features associated with the Rim Current dynamics. The Rim Current is a major element of the Black Sea general circulation, typically following isobaths over the upper-to-middle slope. Two hydrographic surveys conducted in 1992 and 1994 have been chosen among available archive data for the detailed analysis. In both years, though Danube buoyant discharge was similar prior to the beginning of shipboard observations (varying around 7000 m 3 s -1), the buoyant water exhibited very different downstream (that is, in the direction of Kelvin wave) penetration. In 1992, it spread all the way around the southwestern corner of the Black Sea basin and then further eastward past the Bosporus Strait. In contrast, its downstream penetration was blocked in 1994 and buoyant water did not even reach Cape Kaliakra on the Bulgarian coast. This difference was related to the shelfbreak processes. In 1992, the cyclonic meander of the Rim Current merged with the coastal buoyant water thus promoting its advection from Cape Kaliakra downstream. In 1994, a strong anticyclone in the southwestern corner of the Black Sea completely blocked the propagation of a buoyancy-driven current past Cape Kaliakra. In addition, another anticyclone in the northwestern part of the sea advected buoyant water offshore to the central area of the northwestern shelf. The positions of anticyclonic eddies during a period of observations was confirmed by remote sensing data. As these and other examples indicate, coastal buoyancy driven currents can be effectively blocked and dispersed offshore by the shelfbreak anticyclones if the shelf width allows their interaction with buoyant water

  9. Continental water storage inferred from 3-D GPS coordinates in Danube Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, T. M.; Wang, L.; Weigelt, M. L. B.; Tourian, M. J.; Chen, Q.; Sneeuw, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    GPS coordinates time series contain viable information about continental water storage (CWS) at global and regional scale. The permanent GPS network of GPS stations around the Earth recorded more than 15 years of data, which comprise the elastic response of the bed rock movements induced by mass loading. The inversion of the observed displacements, yields mass variations which can be interpreted as CWS under the condition that no other mass loading is interfering. GPS-derived CWS offers complimentary information to the widely used CWS determination by GRACE but is also able to mitigate a possible loss of data in case the GRACE mission ends before the launch of the GRACE Follow-On mission. GPS also allows increasing the temporal resolution (weekly from GPS versus monthly from GRACE) and the spatial resolution (especially in the regions with dense GPS networks). Here, we determine the weekly mass variations from GPS 3-D coordinates by using mass-loading Green's function in six Danube sub-basins. The results are validated against GRACE and hydro-meteorological models. We also demonstrate the contribution of GPS horizontals for regional water storage and provide insights into the benefits and limitations of 3-D GPS inversions for regional water storage.

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediment, suspended matter and water samples in the upper Danube River. A pilot study in search for the causes for the decline of fish catches.

    PubMed

    Keiter, Steffen; Rastall, Andrew; Kosmehl, Thomas; Wurm, Karl; Erdinger, Lothar; Braunbeck, Thomas; Hollert, Henner

    2006-09-01

    Fish populations, especially those of the grayling (Thymallus thymallus), have declined over the last two decades in the upper Danube River between Sigmaringen and Ulm, despite intensive and continuous stocking and improvement of water quality since the 1970s. Similar problems have been reported for other rivers, e.g. in Switzerland, Great Britain, the United States and Canada. In order to assess if ecotoxicological effects might be related to the decline in fish catch at the upper Danube River, sediment, suspended matter and waste water samples from sewage treatment plants were collected at selected locations and analyzed in a bioanalytical approach using a battery of bioassays. The results of this pilot study will be used to decide if a comprehensive weight-of-evidence study is needed. Freeze-dried sediments and suspended particulate matters were extracted with acetone in a Soxhlet apparatus. Organic pollutants from sewage water were concentrated using XAD-resins. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological burden, the following bioassays were used: (1) neutral red assay with RTL-W1 cells (cytotoxicity), (2) comet assay with RTL-W1 cells (genotoxicity), (3) Arthrobacter globiformis dehydrogenase assay (toxicity to bacteria), (4) yeast estrogen screen assay (endocrine disruption), (5) fish egg assay with the zebrafish (Danio rerio; embryo toxicity) and (6) Ames test with TA98 (mutagenicity). The results of the in vitro tests elucidated a considerable genotoxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, bacteriotoxic, embryotoxic and estrogenic burden in the upper Danube River, although with a very inhomogeneous distribution of effects. The samples taken from Riedlingen, for example, induced low embryo toxicity, but the second highest 17beta-estradiol equivalent concentration (1.8 ng/L). Using the fish egg assay with native sediments, a broad range of embryotoxic effects could be elucidated, with clear-cut dose-response relationships for the embryotoxic effects of contaminated

  11. Water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  12. Shoreface morphodynamics along the Danube Delta coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatui, Florin; Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    The shoreface has an important long-term contribution to the coastal sediment budget as it behaves as either a sink or source of sediment from/to the active zone (Hinton and Nicholls, 2007). Hence, it modulates the long-term shoreline movement. However, the shoreface behaviour remains poorly understood and such studies are scarce especially because of the lack of extensive long-term good-quality data. The objective of this study is to examine and explain the shoreface morphodynamics along the Danube Delta coast. The shoreface morphodynamics has been investigated over the medium- and large-scales (decades to centuries). This is a wave-dominated, low-lying coastline interrupted by river mouths and, sometimes, by engineering structures (jetties). This work uses historical and modern maps (since 1856) and bathymetrical measurements (2008 and 2014) extending along the whole Danube Delta coast (both Romanian and Ukrainian sectors) to water depths of approximately 20 m; sectorial seasonal and annual bathymetries of the upper shoreface (2003 - 2014); LIDAR data (2011), recent high resolution satellite images, ortophotos and GPS surveys for shoreline extraction, which were comparatively analysed (volume changes, profile to profile evolution) by means of GIS techniques in order to explain the morphological and volumetric evolution of the shoreface. The large scale coastal behaviour of Danube Delta coast (expressed in terms of shoreface sediment volume and spatial distribution pattern of cells) is linked to climatic forcings (storminess), Danube river sediment supply changes, longshore sediment transport distribution and impact of hard coastal engineering structures. Significant increase of shoreface volume in the last century is related to active deltaic lobes (Chilia) or developing barrier islands (Sacalin), while decreasing shoreface volumes are related to the presence of Sulina jetties which blocked the longshore sediment transport and induced severe erosion downdrift. In

  13. Large-scale water resources management within the framework of GLOWA-Danube. Part A: The groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Roland; Rojanschi, Vlad; Wolf, Jens; Braun, Juergen

    The research project GLOWA-Danube, financed by the German Federal Government, is investigating long-term changes in the water cycle of the upper Danube river basin (77,000 km 2) in light of global climatic change. Its aim is to build a fully integrated decision-support tool “DANUBIA” that combines the competence of 11 different research institutes in domains covering all major aspects governing the water cycle-from the formation of clouds, to groundwater flow patterns, to the behaviour of the water consumer. Both the influence of natural changes in the ecosystem, such as climate change, and changes in human behaviour, such as changes in land use or water consumption, are considered. DANUBIA is comprised of 15 individual disciplinary models that are connected via customized interfaces that facilitate network-based parallel calculations. The strictly object-oriented DANUBIA architecture was developed using the graphical notation tool UML (Unified Modeling Language) and has been implemented in Java code. All models use the same spatial discretisation for the exchange of data (1 × 1 km grid cells) but are using different time steps. The representation of a vast number of relevant physical and social processes that occur at different spatial and temporal scales is a very demanding task. Newly developed up- and downscaling procedures [Rojanschi, V., 2001. Effects of upscaling for a finite-difference flow model. Master’s Thesis, Institut für Wasserbau, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany] and a sophisticated time controller developed by the computer sciences group [Hennicker, R., Barth, M., Kraus, A., Ludwig, M., 2002. DANUBIA: A Web-based modelling and decision support system for integrative global change research in the upper Danube basin. In: GSF (Ed.), GLOWA, German Program on Global Change in the Hydrological Cycle Status Report 2002. GSF, Munich, pp. 35-38; Kraus, A., Ludwig, M., 2003. GLOWA-Danube Papers Technical Release No. 002 (Danubia Framework

  14. Water Quality

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Maluk; Thomas A. Abrahamsen; Richard H. Day

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) in 1991 to describe the status of and long-term trends in the quality of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources. The study of the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages began in 1994 and included about 60800 km2 in North Carolina and...

  15. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  16. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  17. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  18. Occurrence of polar organic contaminants in the dissolved water phase of the Danube River and its major tributaries using SPE-LC-MS(2) analysis.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Locoro, Giovanni; Contini, Serafino

    2010-04-01

    Polar water-soluble organic contaminants were analysed in the dissolved liquid water phase of river water samples from the Danube River and its major tributaries (within the Joint Danube Survey 2). Analyses were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). In total, 34 different polar organic compounds were screened. Focus was given on pharmaceutical compounds (such as ibuprofen, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine), pesticides and their degradation products (e.g. bentazone, 2,4-D, mecoprop, atrazine, terbutylazine, desethylterbutylazine), perfluorinated acids (PFOS; PFOA), and endocrine disrupting compounds (nonylphenol, NPE(1)C, bisphenol A, estrone). The most relevant polar compounds identified in the Danube River basin in terms of frequency of detection, persistency, and concentration levels were 1H-benzotriazole (median concentration 185 ng/L), caffeine (87 ng/L), tolyltriazole (73 ng/L), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (49 ng/L), carbamazepine (33 ng/L), 4-nitrophenol (29 ng/L), 2,4-dinitrophenol (19 ng/L), PFOA (17 ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (16 ng/L), desethylatrazine (11 ng/L), and 2,4-D (10 ng/L). The highest contamination levels were found in the area around Budapest and in the tributary rivers Arges (Romania), Timok (Bulgaria), Rusenski Lom (Bulgaria), and Velika Morava (Serbia). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of isotopic signals in the Danube River water at Tulln, Austria, based on daily grab samples in 2012.

    PubMed

    Wyhlidal, Stefan; Rank, Dieter; Schott, Katharina; Heiss, Gerhard; Goetz, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Results of stable isotope measurements (δ(2)H, δ(18)O) of daily grab samples, taken from the Danube River at Tulln (river km 1963) during 2012, show seasonal and short-term variations depending on the climatic/hydrological conditions and changes in the catchment area (temperature changes, heavy rains and snow melt processes). Isotope ratios in river water clearly reflect the isotopic composition of precipitation water in the catchment area since evaporation influences play a minor role. Average δ(2)H and δ(18)O values in 2012 are-78‰ and-11.0‰, respectively, deuterium excess averages 10‰. The entire variation amounts to 1.8‰ in δ(18)O and 15‰ in δ(2)H. Quick changes of the isotopic composition within a few days emphasise the necessity of daily sampling for the investigation of hydrological events, while monthly grab sampling seems sufficient for the investigation of long-term hydro-climatic trends. (3)H results show peaks (half-width 1-2 days, up to about 150 TU) exceeding the regional environmental level of about 9 TU, probably due to releases from nuclear power plants.

  20. Web-based modelling of energy, water and matter fluxes to support decision making in mesoscale catchments??the integrative perspective of GLOWA-Danube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, R.; Mauser, W.; Niemeyer, S.; Colgan, A.; Stolz, R.; Escher-Vetter, H.; Kuhn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Tenhunen, J.; Kraus, A.; Ludwig, M.; Barth, M.; Hennicker, R.

    The GLOWA-initiative (Global Change of the water cycle), funded by the German Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF), has been established to address the manifold consequences of Global Change on regional water resources in a variety of catchment areas with different natural and cultural characteristics. Within this framework, the GLOWA-Danube project is dealing with the Upper Danube watershed as a representative mesoscale test site (∼75.000 km 2) for mountain-foreland regions in the temperate mid-latitudes. The principle objective is to identify, examine and develop new techniques of coupled distributed modelling for the integration of natural and socio-economic sciences. The transdisciplinary research in GLOWA-Danube develops an integrated decision support system, called DANUBIA, to investigate the sustainability of future water use. GLOWA-Danube, which is scheduled for a total run-time of eight years to operationally implement and establish DANUBIA, comprises a university-based network of experts with water-related competence in the fields of engineering, natural and social sciences. Co-operation with a network of stakeholders in water resources management of the Upper Danube catchment ensures that practical issues and future problems in the water sector of the region can be addressed. In order to synthesize a common understanding between the project partners, a standardized notation of parameters and functions and a platform-independent structure of computational methods and interfaces has been established, by making use of the unified modelling language, an industry standard for the structuring and co-ordination of large projects in software development [Booch et al., The Unified Modelling Language User Guide, Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1999]. DANUBIA is object-oriented, spatially distributed and raster-based at its core. It applies the concept of “proxels” (process pixels) as its basic objects, which have different dimensions depending on the viewing

  1. Monitoring and assessment of oil pollution in the Danube River during the transnational Joint Danube Survey.

    PubMed

    Literathy, P

    2006-01-01

    An extensive river basin monitoring exercise of 2581 km of the river Danube was carried out in 2001 under of the aegis of the transnational Joint Danube Survey (JDS). Water, suspended and bottom sediment, and biota samples were collected from 76 cross-sections in the Danube main stream and 22 major tributaries during the 39-day cruise, and analysed for chemical and biological variables. During the JDS, oil pollution was characterised with GC-FID and fluorescence measurements. Fluorescence fingerprints of the cyclohexane extracts of water, suspended and bottom sediment samples allowed characterization and quantification of the type and level of oil pollution. The results revealed that the oil pollution in the water varied in the range 1-300 microg/l. Gasoline type contamination was found at the higher concentration levels and diesel oil type in the lower concentrations. Oil contamination was similar in the suspended and bottom sediment (the less than 63 microm grain-size fraction) and varied between 2-140 mg/kg. A higher contamination level was found along the middle Danube reach. The highest concentrations were observed in the suspended sediment upstream of the Danube delta. Weathered crude oil characteristics were observed in the upper Danube basin, whereas between crude and diesel oil characteristics were dominant along most of the middle and the lower Danube reaches.

  2. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers

    PubMed Central

    Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; Spînu, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human involvement is undeniable, and subsequently, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve became one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. This review is an attempt to analyse the microbiological contamination and to identify the major role human activities play in altering the water quality of the rivers. PMID:23813274

  3. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  4. Aquatic and Sedimentary N-Isotope Dynamics in the Danube Delta Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möbius, Jürgen; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2014-05-01

    The North-Western Black Sea Shelf Region suffered from severe eutrophication in the past decades, mainly due to increased nutrient loads of the Danube River, the most important contributor of freshwater to this brackish sea. It is yet unclear whether the Black Sea shelf is at present on the way to recovery due to a recent decrease in nutrient discharge from the Danube River. During 2 cruises in summer and spring 2013 in the Danube River Delta/Black Sea transition zone, we analysed dissolved nutrients, and nitrate (and oxygen) isotope signatures in nitrate, suspended particulate matter, surface sediment and a sediment core from the shelf. Our rationale was two-fold: Firstly, we aimed to investigate N turnover and nutrient dynamics in the present Black Sea Shelf region to assess the effect of contemporary nutrient loads of the River Danube, and secondly, we wanted to compare these findings to the past situation as captured in the sediment record. Our data indicate intense draw-down of river-borne dissolved silica and phosphate in the transition zone, up to nutrient depletion in mesohaline waters in summer. Surprisingly, nitrate concentration follows a conservative mixing line. Despite this apparent conservative mixing of river nitrate with marine water, nitrate isotope trends confirm the importance of biological nitrate assimilation in the water column. Moreover, the relative enrichment of O to N isotopes in nitrate, following an unexpectedly steep slope of 2, suggests that this uptake cannot only be due to phytoplankton activity, which usually plots along a slope of 1. We accordingly investigated the potential effects of different nitrate turnover processes and specifically nitrate regeneration on its isotopic composition. Furthermore, notwithstanding significant nutrient input via benthic nutrient recycling, the N-isotope trend of sediment cores furthermore seems to provide a first hint towards improved water quality in the Danube Delta Front Region, possibly due

  5. Danube and Sava river sediment monitoring in Belgrade and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Crnković, Dragan M; Crnković, Natasa S; Filipović, Anka J; Rajaković, Ljubinka V; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Ristić, Mirjana D

    2008-10-01

    Belgrade is the largest city in Serbia located at the confluence of river Sava to the Danube river. The quality of water and sediments of rivers which run through Belgrade is of a significant importance, since water from these rivers is a source of Belgrade drinking water supply system and probable anthropogenic contamination is related to industrialization and inputs of sewage water. In order to follow the sediment quality of river Sava (km 62-1) and river Danube (km 1193-1124) in Belgrade and its surroundings, the content of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Hg were measured in the period 2001--2005. The content of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured in 2005. The results have shown that, due to the metal content, examined Danube sediment quality varies from class 1 to class 3, predominantly nickel being the class determining parameter. Elevated copper, zinc and mercury concentrations were measured at some profiles, as well. Typically due to the nickel content, Sava sediment quality belongs to class 3 in the period 2001--2004. Elevated concentrations of cadmium, zinc and mercury were observed in 2001, as well. Moreover, in 2005, sediments from three profiles were extremely polluted with nickel, leading the Sava sediment to class 4, when highest urgency measures are needed. Total PAH concentration in the sediments from Danube (213.1-575.4 microg kg(- 1)) was lower than total PAH concentration from Sava sediments (416.2-595.3 microg kg(- 1)). Nevertheless, according to the Dutch regulatory system, it has been concluded that river sediments in Belgrade and its surroundings were not polluted with PAHs in 2005.

  6. Water Quality: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, LaVere B.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

  7. Water Quality: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, LaVere B.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

  8. "Possible impacts of climate change on the Danube river along the Iron Gate gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    whole problem much more complicated and alarming. Reductions of water availability, hydropower potential, summer tourism and general crop productivity are certainly appearances which are to be expected in this area with a stress on the following problems: • Reduced flow which will have consequent decreases in power generation; • Lower Danube flow which reduces water supply, water quality and recreation activities in the upstream part of the river; • Lower water tables will cause some shallow wells to go dry up; • Warmer river temperatures will have an effect on cold-water species and directly will affect on biodiversity; and • Increased demand for irrigation and a change in crop types due to a longer growing season. In turns of the results, one question has arisen: Should we adapt to the climate change, or should we mitigate it? Maybe, the answer is in mitigation while doing adaptation. According to the Danube river in this region, the works for fighting reservoir related bank erosion in order to preserve the dam and accumulation have already been started. Also protection of the natural resources and the ecosystem, which urged the performance actions of restoration of nature and reintegration of temporarily occupied lands and landscape improvement (like maintenance of verdure spots), started to happen. Pushing and raising the problem of climate change to the surface, what should be reality and the global prime issue, is a way to get community involved in order to preserve its existence.

  9. Retrieval of suspended particulate matter concentrations in the Danube River from Landsat ETM data.

    PubMed

    Onderka, Milan; Pekárová, Pavla

    2008-07-01

    Alternations in river channel morphology result in a disturbed natural transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Suspended particulate matter serves as a transport medium for various pollutants, e.g. heavy metals. It is therefore important to understand how artificial obstructions alter the natural transport of suspended matter. Measurements of SPM in rivers are traditionally carried out during in situ sampling campaigns, which can provide only a limited view of the actual spatial distribution of suspended matter over large distances. Several authors have studied how space-borne remote sensing could be used for mapping of water quality in standing waters, but with only little attention paid to rivers. This paper describes the methodology how a Landsat ETM image was used to map the spatial patterns of SPM in the Slovak portion of the Danube River. Results of our investigation reveal that the Danube River in Slovakia exhibits gradual longitudinal decrease in concentrations of SPM. Based on a strong relationship between the Landsat near-infrared band (TM4) and field measurements, we developed a map of suspended particulate matter in the Danube River with a standard error (SE) of 2.92 mg/L. This study aims to show how archived satellite data and historical water quality data can be used for monitoring of SPM in large rivers. A methodology describing the minimum samples required for sufficiently accurate results is discussed in this paper also.

  10. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists first measure and analyze characteristics of the water such as temperature, dissolved mineral content, and number of bacteria. Selected ... water that remains. Each of these natural processes changes the water quality and potentially the water use. What is ...

  11. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  12. Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  13. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  14. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  15. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  16. The impact of surface water exchange on the nutrient and particle dynamics in side-arms along the River Danube, Austria.

    PubMed

    Hein, Thomas; Baranyi, Christian; Reckendorfer, Walter; Schiemer, Fritz

    2004-07-26

    Results of two monitoring programs obtained in the free-flowing section of the Danube downstream of Vienna were used to evaluate the effects of river restoration designed to increase surface water inputs into side-arms. Functional descriptors like hydrochemical parameters and plankton react immediately to restored hydrological conditions and offer the opportunity to elucidate the hydrological control on organic processing as an important ecosystem function in fluvial landscapes. Two hydraulic parameters were estimated and linked to basic ecological properties. The level of hydrological connectivity was defined as the average annual duration (days per year) of upstream surface connection and can be used as a 'simple to estimate' parameter within the planning phase. Water age, an adapted measure of residence time based on more detailed information, allow description of the temporal development in side-arms. Greater hydrological connectivity leads to lower conductivity levels and increased nutrient concentrations due to the shift of the dominating source to river water. The contribution of river flow is indicated by higher suspended solid concentrations in side-arms than disconnected water bodies. The phytoplankton biomass shows the highest mean values at a duration of integration of 1 month a(-1) and decrease with increasing connectivity. The relationships point to a more 'main channel like' hydrochemical situation in the side-arms, with a medium level of phytoplankton biomass and increased autochthonous carbon export. No evidence of eutrophication was found due to the shift of the side-arm from an organic matter sink to a source. On a more detailed level, water age demonstrates the temporal patterns of riverine input, the development of plankton production and the shift between hydrological and biological control of phytoplankton vs. riverine flow in a side-arm. The hydrologic parameters were useful predictors for evaluating the effects of restoration measures in

  17. Further development and implementation of the DIWA distributed hydrological model-based integrated hydroinformatics system in the Danube River Basin for supporting decision making in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, J. A.; Réti, G. Z.; Tóth, T.

    2012-04-01

    developed integrated model has two basic pillars: the DIWA (DIstributed WAtershed) hydrologic, and the well-known HEC-RAS hydraulic models. The DIWA is a dynamic water-balance model that distributed both in space and its parameters, and which was developed along combined principles but its mostly based on physical foundations. According to the philosophy of the distributed model approach the catchment is divided into basic elements, cells where the basin characteristics, parameters, physical properties, and the boundary conditions are applied in the centre of the cell, and the cell is supposed to be homogenous between the block boundaries. The neighbouring cells are connected to each other according to runoff hierarchy (local drain direction). Applying the hydrological mass balance and the adequate dynamic equations to these cells, the result is a distributed hydrological model on a continuous, 3D gridded domain. For calculating the water level as well the HEC-RASS hydraulic model has been embedded into DIWA model. In this integration the DIWA model provides the upper boundary conditions for HEC-RAS, and then HEC-RAS provides the water levels along the lowland parts of the river-network. In this presentation, our recently developed integrated hydroinformatics system and its implementation for the middle-upper part of the Danube River Basin will be reported. Following an outline of the backgrounds, an overview on the DIWA and the integrated model-system will be given. The implementation of this integrated hydroinformatics system in the Danube River Basin will also be presented, including a summary of the developed 1km resolution geo-dataset for the modelling. Then some demonstrative results of the use of the pre-calibrated system will be discussed. Finally, an outline of the future steps of the development will be discussed.

  18. Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube Delta lakes.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Alina; Durisch-Kaiser, Edith; Balan, Sorin; Radan, Silviu; Sobek, Sebastian; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2009-08-01

    Production of methane and carbon dioxide as well as methane concentrations in surface waters and emissions to the atmosphere were investigated in two flow-through lake complexes (Uzlina-Isac and Puiu-Rosu-Rosulet) in the Danube Delta during post-flood conditions in May and low water level in September 2006. Retained nutrients fueled primary production and remineralization of bioavailable organic matter. This led to an observable net release of methane, particularly in the lakes Uzlina, Puiu and Rosu in May. Input from the Danube River, from redbuds and benthic release contributed to CH(4) concentrations in surface waters. In addition to significant river input of CO(2), this trace gas was released via aerobic remineralization within the water column and in top sediments. Emission patterns of CO(2) widely overlapped with those of CH(4). Generally, greenhouse gas emissions peaked in the lake complex adjacent to the Danube River in May due to strong winds and decreased with increasing hydrological distance from the Danube River. Intense remineralization of organic matter in the Danube Delta lakes results in a net source of atmospheric greenhouse gases.

  19. Danube refinery operates under complex air regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1994-05-30

    A good example of a major refinery coping with German environmental regulations is the Erdoel-Raffinerie Neustadt GmbH Co. (ERN) refinery near the town of Neustadt a.d. Donau, or Neustadt on the Danube, in lower Bavaria. The 7 million tons/year (144,000 b/d) complex refinery deals regularly with nearly 30 different crude oils, arriving via the Italian port of Trieste and the Trans Alpine Line from the Middle East, North and West Africa, Venezuela, and the North Sea. Table 1 is a listing of these crudes and some of their characteristics that are important in the refinery's environmental program. ERN is in a relatively isolated pastoral setting of fields and forests about 1[1/2] miles south of the Danube. Hops which go into the world famous Bavarian beers are a major crop in the region and the refinery is only 2 miles from a spa popular since the Romans occupied the Danube valley. German physicians still send patients there to relax, drink the waters, and breathe the country air for a variety of ailments. In short, ERN is in a high-profile setting that demands maximum attention be paid to environmental matters. The paper first describes the various German regulations that affect refineries, then discusses the monitoring and waste processing operations being performed by the ERN refinery.

  20. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  1. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  2. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  3. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  4. Carbon-, nitrogen- and water-fluxes of agricultural landuse types in the Upper Danube catchment under global change: integrating natural and agroeconomic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenau, Tim G.; Klar, Christian W.; Fiener, Peter; Schneider, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Climate change will not only modify water, carbon and nitrogen fluxes of agricultural ecosystems as a result of the direct impact of climate parameters. The adaption of farming practices (e.g. time of management activities, selection of crops) will also affect theses fluxes. An important driver for changes in agricultural management is the improvement of economical viability which requires both the optimization of the spatial distribution of crops over arable land and the adjustment of cultivation procedures. Thus, investigating climate change effects for agricultural land use types requires that both, direct natural and indirect anthropogenic effects, must be accounted for. The model assembly 'agriculture' within the DANUBIA decision support system has been designed to assess interactions between environmental and anthropogenic effects of climate change. It consists of dynamically interacting models describing plant growth, soil nitrogen transformation, water- and energy-fluxes. In addition, a farm-actor model simulating management activities and economic decisions concerning agricultural land use is coupled to the environmental models. Thus the model assembly 'agriculture' allows for the analysis of environmental and agro-economic effects as well as for the feedbacks between these effects. In this study changes in transpiration, biomass production and nitrogen uptake for two different agro-political scenarios area analyzed: a 'baseline' scenario assuming unchanged agropolitics and a 'performance' scenario, where the payment of agricultural subsidies ends in 2015. Two exemplarily districts with contrasting agricultural land use were examined. Dingolfing in the northeastern part of the Upper Danube catchment is dominated by arable land, whereas in Ostallgäu in the southwest region of the catchment grassland prevails. The model was run for the period 2011 till 2058 assuming a climate scenario based on the IPPC A1B emission scenario. Ten year averages for the

  5. Irrigation water quality assessments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  6. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  7. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  8. Comprehensive Characteristics of Bottom Sediments of Water Bodies of Various Types in the Kiliya Delta of the Danube River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "triad" approach, including analysis of the total content of toxicants, bioassay of bottom sediments, and the study of the structure of zoo- and phytobenthos communities, was used in assessing the quality of bottom sediments. It has been found that the studied bottom sediment...

  9. Comprehensive Characteristics of Bottom Sediments of Water Bodies of Various Types in the Kiliya Delta of the Danube River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "triad" approach, including analysis of the total content of toxicants, bioassay of bottom sediments, and the study of the structure of zoo- and phytobenthos communities, was used in assessing the quality of bottom sediments. It has been found that the studied bottom sediment...

  10. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  11. Floodplain restoration on the upper Danube by re-establishing back water dynamics: first results of the hydro-geomorphological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Peter; Hilger, Ludwig; Cyffka, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of a restoration project at the upper Danube, eight working groups of different scientific disciplines have been operating since 2009. They investigate the changes evoked through the accomplished restoration measures, which seek to bring back new dynamics to the floodplain and to reconnect it with the river in order to optimize flood plain ecological functioning. Main object is the identification and analysis of hydro-geomorphological processes and their impact on vegetation and fauna. Hydrology is one of the key factors determining the type and function of flood plains and thus alternating water levels are the motor of riparian ecosystems. Diverse water and groundwater levels and particularly flood events affect and support floodplain typical vegetation and animal species. All floodplain waterbodies (oxbows, floodplain ponds, backwaters and sidearms) are more or less connected by surface or subsurface waterways. Hydrological conditions are mainly influenced by the following measures: a, permanent nature orientated bypass river with a discharge of up to 5 m3/s; b, man controlled ecological flooding (discharge of up to 30 m3/s); c, groundwater drawdown in the eastern project area. These measures shall bring back "former" natural hydrological dynamics to the floodplain. They establish geomorphological processes and forms as well and create a mosaic of typical habitats. River morphology is monitored by terrestrial laser scanning analysing the so attained data sets, erosion and aggregation rates at selected undercut slopes and point bars can be detected with a high resolution. Large scale mapping by a drone and dGPS mapping are very helpful tools for identifing widespread flooding areas. Further methods such as, cross section and bed load measurements complete the research work. The aim is to link the interaction of these abiotic processes with the biotic nature and determine the importance of geomorphological disturbance for floodplain ecosystems

  12. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  13. Microbiological irrigation water quality of the Marchfeld canal system.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, F; Makristathis, A; Hassl, A; Nowotny, S; Neudorfer, W

    2001-07-01

    The Marchfeld basin with a size of approximately 1000 km2 represents the Austrian "granary". To prevent shortage of water as a result of increased ground water removal for irrigation, industrial purposes and drinking water supply, a canal being 18 km in length was constructed from the Danube to the center of the Marchfeld. From there, water is further distributed via two creeks (Russbach and Stempfelbach). This study was intended to evaluate whether the surface water of the Marchfeld canal system can be classified into hygienic-microbiological categories as proposed by DIN (Deutsche Industrienorm) standards for irrigation water. For this purpose, water sampled monthly from three different sampling sites from 1996 to 1999 was examined for E. coli and enterococci. In addition, water samples were examined for salmonella twice a year from 1996 to 1998 and for cryptosporidia six times during the year 1999. Though the water showed varying degrees of fecal load, the results of the examinations revealed that only one of the three sampling sites showed constant quality levels according to the DIN classification system over prolonged periods of time. However, exceeding of the limit values was occasionally observed indicating the need for regular bacteriological examinations. The high variation of the results from the other sampling sites hardly permits a definite classification in one of the quality classes.

  14. Drinking water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (P<0.05) of physico-chemical parameters and total coliform count of drinking water for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  15. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

  16. Purified water quality study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  17. Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  18. Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  19. Preimpoundment Water Quality Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    erally within acceptable levels unless due to natural causes. ’Concentratings’ " of pesticides and PCBs in the sediments were below the detection levels...Sanford Carpet Factory, where water quality was lower than in the other areas sampled. Tissue results for metals, pesticides , and PCBs indicate elevated...quality parameters measured were generally within acceptable levels unless due to natural causes. Concentrations of pesticides and PCBs in the

  20. Tritium/3He dating of river infiltration-: An example from the Danube in the Szigetköz area, Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stute, M.; Deák, J.; Révész, K.; Böhlke, J.K.; Deseö, E.; Weppernig, R.; Schlosser, P.

    1997-01-01

    3H, He, 4He, and Ne data were obtained from a shallow ground-water system being recharged by bank infiltration from the Danube River in northwestern Hungary. After correting for excess air, 4He and Ne concentrations reflect a recharge temperature of about 9° C., close to the mean annual temperature of the Danube (10.4° C). Values of H plus 3Hetrit (“initial tritium”) as a function of the tritium/He age are consistent with time series measurements of tritium in the Danube. Tritium/ He ages increase linearly as a function of distance from the Danube along ground-water flow lines. A horizontal flow velocity of about 530 m yr1 was derived from the age gradient. Most of the deviations between measured Danube tritium data and ground-water tritium/He data can be explained by dispersive mixing.

  1. Tritium/3He dating of river infiltration: an example from the Danube in the Szigetkoz Area, Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stute, M.; Deak, J.; Revesz, K.; Böhlke, J.K.; Deseo, E.; Weppernig, R.; Schlosser, P.

    1997-01-01

    3H, 3He, 4He, and Ne data were obtained from a shallow ground-water system being recharged by bank infiltration from the Danube River in northwestern Hungary. After correting for excess air, 4He and Ne concentrations reflect a recharge temperature of about 9?? C, close to the mean annual temperature of the Danube (10.4?? C). Values of 3H plus 3Hetrit, ("initial tritium") as a function of the tritium/3He age are consistent with time series measurements of tritium in the Danube. Tritium/3He ages increase linearly as a function of distance from the Danube along ground-water flow lines. A horizontal flow velocity of about 530 m yr-1 was derived from the age gradient. Most of the deviations between measured Danube tritium data and ground-water tritium/3He data can be explained by dispersive mixing.

  2. National Water Quality Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will provide the basis for advancing the goal of producing tools in support of quantifying and valuing changes in water quality for EPA regulations. It will also identify specific data and modeling gaps and Improve benefits estimation for more complete benefit-cost a...

  3. National Water Quality Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will provide the basis for advancing the goal of producing tools in support of quantifying and valuing changes in water quality for EPA regulations. It will also identify specific data and modeling gaps and Improve benefits estimation for more complete benefit-cost a...

  4. Long-term seasonal changes of the Danube River eco-chemical status in the region of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ilijević, Konstantin; Gržetić, Ivan; Živadinov, Ivan; Popović, Aleksandar

    2012-05-01

    Seasonal spatial and temporal changes of selected eco-chemical parameters in section of the Danube River flowing through Serbia were analyzed. Data for electrical conductivity (EC), dry and suspended matter, residue on ignition, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD-5), ultraviolet extinction, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxygen saturation, pH, nitrates, total phosphorus, and nitrogen were collected between 1992 and 2006. The use of monthly medians combined with linear regression and two-sided t test has been proven to be the best approach for resolving trends from natural variability of investigated parameters and for determining trend significance. Patterns of temporal changes between different months were examined. It was also determined that spatial trends of some parameters oscillate in predictable manner, increasing in one part of the year and declining in the other. Regression slope coefficients, an excellent indicator for determining when the water quality is changing the most along the course of the Danube, reach their maximum during summer for temperature (t), electric conductivity, nitrates, and total N, while in the same season suspended matter, COD, BOD-5, DO, and oxygen saturation coefficients reach their minimum. Correlations for used data sets of selected parameters were analyzed for better understanding of their behavior and mutual relations. It was observed that as Danube flows through Serbia, its general eco-chemical status either stagnates or improves, but the rate of river self-purification often depends on the season of the year.

  5. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An automated water quality monitoring system was developed by Langley Research Center to meet a need of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Designed for unattended operation in water depths up to 100 feet, the system consists of a subsurface buoy anchored in the water, a surface control unit (SCU) and a hydrophone link for acoustic communication between buoy and SCU. Primary functional unit is the subsurface buoy. It incorporates 16 cells for water sampling, plus sensors for eight water quality measurements. Buoy contains all the electronic equipment needed for collecting and storing sensor data, including a microcomputer and a memory unit. Power for the electronics is supplied by a rechargeable nickel cadmium battery that is designed to operate for about two weeks. Through hydrophone link the subsurface buoy reports its data to the SCU, which relays it to land stations. Link allows two-way communications. If system encounters a problem, it automatically shuts down and sends alert signal. Sequence of commands sent via hydrophone link causes buoy to release from anchor and float to the surface for recovery.

  6. Multiparametric monitoring of microbial faecal pollution reveals the dominance of human contamination along the whole Danube River.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, A K T; Reischer, G H; Jakwerth, S; Savio, D; Ixenmaier, S; Toth, E; Sommer, R; Mach, R L; Linke, R; Eiler, A; Kolarevic, S; Farnleitner, A H

    2017-11-01

    The microbial faecal pollution of rivers has wide-ranging impacts on a variety of human activities that rely on appropriate river water quality. Thus, detailed knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution is crucial for watershed management activities to maintain safe water use. In this study, the microbial faecal pollution levels were monitored by standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) along a 2580 km stretch of the Danube, the world's most international river, as well as the Danube's most important tributaries. To track the origin of faecal pollution, host-associated Bacteroidetes genetic faecal marker qPCR assays for different host groups were applied in concert with SFIB. The spatial resolution analysis was followed by a time resolution analysis of faecal pollution patterns over 1 year at three selected sites. In this way, a comprehensive faecal pollution map of the total length of the Danube was created, combining substantiated information on both the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution. Within the environmental data matrix for the river, microbial faecal pollution constituted an independent component and did not cluster with any other measured environmental parameters. Generally, midstream samples representatively depicted the microbial pollution levels at the respective river sites. However, at a few, somewhat unexpected sites, high pollution levels occurred in the lateral zones of the river while the midstream zone had good water quality. Human faecal pollution was demonstrated as the primary pollution source along the whole river, while animal faecal pollution was of minor importance. This study demonstrates that the application of host-associated genetic microbial source tracking markers in concert with the traditional concept of microbial faecal pollution monitoring based on SFIB significantly enhances the knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution patterns in large rivers. It constitutes a

  7. Where the Danube Meets the Black Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    been the subject of heated debate over the past two decades. Over the centuries, damming and channeling of the Danube throughout Europe has reduced its water flow and sediment load to roughly 30 percent of what it once was, according to coastal geologist Liviu Giosan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. In recent years, the Ukrainian government has dredged some delta channels (including Bystroye) and proposed extensive dredging of others in order to provide navigational channels for large ships. Proponents argue for the economic needs of water transportation routes. Opponents note that deeper, faster channels mean less mud and sand is deposited in the delta; in some places, more is carried away by swifter currents. Both affect the sensitive ecosystems and the ability of the delta to restore itself and grow. In a 2012 report led by Giosan, scientists noted that the shape, water chemistry, and biology of Danube Delta was being altered long before the modern Industrial Era. Land use practices—particularly farming and forest clearing—added significant amounts of nutrients into the water and reduced salinity in the Black Sea, changing the dominant species of phytoplankton and sending a ripple of effects through the entire food web. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team and the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Mike Carlowicz. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI More info: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80459 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health in surface water for approximately 150 pollutants. These criteria provide guidance for states and tribes to use in adopting water quality standards.

  9. Integrating river basin management and the coastal zone: the (blue) Danube and the (black) sea.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, C; Makropoulos, C K

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the wide variety of physical, chemical biological and ecological processes in a sensitive coastal environment such as the Black Sea, current environmental management objectives are no longer sufficient: a new management approach has to address the intimate functional linkage between the river basin and the costal environment. Current water quality legislation requires compliance to emission levels based on the chemical analysis of water samples taken at discharge points, such as treatment plants discharging into rivers. While such measures provide a relative indication of the water quality at the point of discharge, they fail to describe accurately and sufficiently the quality of the water received from the watershed or basin. As water flows through the catchment, rainfall run-off from urban and agricultural areas carries sediments, pesticides, and other chemicals into river systems, which lead to coastal waters. The impact of the Kosovo crisis on the Danube ecosystems provides a poignant example of the effects of such diffused pollution mechanisms and reveals a number of interesting pollution mechanisms. This paper discusses both the effects of diffused pollution on the Black Sea, drawing from state-of-the-art reports on the Danube, and proposes a framework for a decision support system based on distributed hydrological and pollution transport simulation models and GIS. The use of ecological health indicators and fuzzy inference supporting decisions on regional planning within this framework is also advocated. It is also argued that even the recently produced GEF document on Black Sea protection scenarios should benefit significantly if the concept of pollution reduction from both urban, industrial and rural areas should undergo a systematic conceptual update in the view of the recent recommendations of the UNEP IETC (2000) document.

  10. Quality of waters in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1963-01-01

    The quality-of-water investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey are concerned with the chemical and physical characteristics of surface and ground water supplies of the nation in conjunction with water usage and its availability. The basic records for the 1963 water year for quality of surface waters within the State of California are given in this report. For convenience and interest there are also records for a few water quality stations in bordering states. The data were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, under the direction of Eugene Brown, district chemist, Quality of Water Branch.

  11. Water Quality Records in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1964-01-01

    The quality-of-water investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey are concerned with the chemical and physical characteristics of surface and ground water supplies of the Nation in conjunction with water usage and its availability. The basic records for the 1964 water year for quality of surface waters within the State of California are given in this report. For convenience and interest there are also records for a few water quality stations in bordering States. The data were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, under the direction of Eugene Brown, district chemist, Quality of Water Branch.

  12. Handbook for aquaculture water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

  13. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    PubMed

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed.

  14. Hemodialysis and Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

  15. Nowcasting recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith; Hou, Deyi; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques may soon provide new opportunities to provide more timely information on whether recreational beaches are free from fecal contamination. However, an alternative approach is the use of predictive models. This chapter presents a summary of these developing efforts. First, we describe documented physical, chemical, and biological factors that have been demonstrated by researchers to affect bacterial concentrations at beaches and thus represent logical parameters for inclusion in a model. Then, we illustrate how various types of models can be applied to predict water quality at freshwater and marine beaches.

  16. Ground water quality protection

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Fairchild, D.; Knox, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Considered by the EPA to be one of the ''major Environmental Issues of the 1980s'' groundwater supplies a large majority of the water we use. Here is a book that deals with this problem. It is necessary that this problem be studied and action taken to prevent despoliation of the aquifers where this water is now found, because once contaminated an aquifer is difficult to decontaminate. CONTENTS-Groundwater: An Important Resource; Groundwater Hydrology; Groundwater Information Sources; Groundwater Pollution Sources; Pollutant Transport and Fate in the Subsurface Environment: Abiotic and Biotic Processes; Pollutant Transport and Fate in the Subsurface Environment: Hydrodynamic Processes and Flow and Solute Modeling; Pollution Source Evaluation; Empirical Assessment Methods; Groundwater Monitoring Planning; Groundwater Sampling and Analysis; Groundwater Quality Management; Groundwater Clean-up. References. Index.

  17. Long-term evolution of the Lower Danube discharge and corresponding climate variations: solar signature imprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrica, Venera; Demetrescu, Crisan; Mares, Ileana; Mares, Constantin

    2017-07-01

    The possible changes in temperature and precipitation regime are expected to lead to changes in the water regime of rivers. In this study, we investigate the long-term evolution of Lower Danube discharge in connection to variations in the precipitation in the Upper-Middle and Lower Danube Basins. The analysis is given by using annual means data from four gauges along the river, on the Romanian territory, namely, Orsova, Ceatal, Sulina, and Sf. Gheorghe, and from 27 weather stations in the Danube Basin. The comparison of the average precipitation in the Upper and Middle Danube Basin, as calculated from the records of 17 weather stations, with the discharge at Orsova, at the entry in the Lower Danube segment, shows correlated interannual and multi-decadal variations. The variations in precipitation in the Lower Danube Basin, recorded at ten weather stations, show up to a certain degree in variations of the tributary rivers discharge and in the discharge difference between the upstream station Orsova and the downstream station Ceatal. The precipitation and discharge data from the two sub-basins have been examined from the viewpoint of multi-decadal variability associated with Atlantic variability and with solar variability at decadal and multi-decadal timescales. Significant variations at the two timescales have been found.

  18. May cause environmental damage the diversion of the Danube in the Szigetköz area, Hungary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Brigitta

    2009-04-01

    Summary The floodplain area between the main channel of Danube and its branch river Mosoni-Duna is called the Szigetköz. This wetland area has special flora and fauna, and it is a natural protection area. Underneath of the Szigetköz, there are a thick (several hundreds meters) sedimentary sequence, the so called Kisalföld Quaternary Aquifer. This aquifer system is fed by the surface river system of Danube and supplies excellent quality drinking water for several hundred thousands of people in Hungary and Slovakia. The Szigetköz Monitoring Network was established in 1991 to describe the environmental effects of the Bős-Nagymaros Dam System, which was partly built in 1992 on the Slovakian part of the Danube. The dam diverts three-quarter of the Danube runoff to a 40 km long artificial concrete channel north of the original river bed. The effect of this diversion is spectacular on the wetland area. Water level in the meandering channels have decreased significantly, part of the wetland area frequently becomes dry. The natural flow pattern has disappeared. As a consequence, the channel characteristics of the river network, therefore the flow pattern, the quantity and quality of surface and subsurface water on the upper region of the Danube have significantly changed. The aim of our research is to describe the relationship between surface water and groundwater and considering the variable geology of the area, to describe trends in chemistry and to find the possible reasons for extreme values. Also to detect possible connection between the extreme values and the changes in flow pattern caused by the human intervention. Water sample pairs from surface water and shallow and deeper ground water were taken in every season at 18 locations. To sample shallow ground-water 1,5 m long, screened metal probes were derived into the sediment at the possible nearest point to the surface water. On the field pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, and in the wells

  19. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  20. Morphometric analyze for flood hazard map using DTM built with LIDAR and Echo-sounder data in Danube Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, A.; Nichersu, I.; Trifanov, C.; Nichersu, I.; Mierla, M.

    2012-04-01

    High definition morphometric data acquired with a multibeam sonar is used to develop studies of past and future riverbed and shores dynamics on the Lower Danube at two bifurcations, one upstream from Tulcea city (Ceatal Ismail) and one downstream from Tulcea City (Ceatal Sf. Gheorghe). These studies help in understanding the tendency of the evolution of the Danube Delta in terms of river morphology, discharges, sediments and navigation between the three main branches which are: Chilia with an average flow of 60%, Sulina with an average flow of 18% and Sf. Gheorghe with an average flow of 22%. The most significant issue is the erosion of the shores of Pătlăgeanca town which represents the 1st bifurcation (Ceatal Izmail). Another intriguing issue is the presence of a current diversion dike located at the first bifurcation, the studies and models will show its importance and impact on the river morphology and biodiversity. Historical maps are used to determine the initial state of the area and will allow analyses of various types. Back in 2010 there was a high flooding in this area and 6 km downstream on Chilia branch the water broke the right side (Romanian side) dyke where used to be an old channel and flooded a 4570 Ha agricultural polder called Sireasa. It is imperative to know if the route of that flooding can shape the 4th branch of the Danube Delta. The dykes that are protecting the villages and the agricultural polders in this area are over raised but they are still in danger because they can still be flooded through infiltrations or from behind the dyke through upstream flooded polders. The situation in which the current diversion dyke is modified by increasing its length towards the downstream (act already happened), the shores from downstream and of Pătlăgeanca village will utterly alterate the river morphology, discharges, quantity of sediments and navigation in the whole Danube Delta. The resulted high definition data aquired with a multibeam sonar

  1. Use of LANDSAT data for natural resources investigation in the lower basin of Danube and Danube Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oprescu, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Monitoring of excess humidity was possible at the Baragan test site. Qualitative improvements of 20-50% were obtained in regards to soil inventory in the eastern Danube Delta, comparing data with conventional maps. The pedological situation was observed after drainage in impounded enclosures. The appearance of stagnate water was surveyed due to difference in color shades on LANDSAT imagery. Areas with gluey soils, such as lake bottoms rich in CaCO3 and shell grist, were clearly represented. Sediment discharges into the sea at the Danube mouth and plumes over 100 km at sea could be easily distinguished on LANDSAT MSS 4 and 5.

  2. Communicating water quality risk

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, C.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience.

  3. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  4. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  5. Measurement of tritium in the Sava and Danube Rivers.

    PubMed

    Grahek, Željko; Breznik, Borut; Stojković, Ivana; Coha, Ivana; Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša

    2016-10-01

    Two nuclear power plants (NPP), the KrškoNPP (Slovenia) on the Sava River and the Paks NPP (Hungary) on the Danube River, are located in the immediate vicinity of Croatia and Serbia. Some of the radioactivity monitoring around the NPPs involves measuring tritium activity in the waters of rivers and wells. The authors present the tritium measurement results taken over several years from the Sava and Danube Rivers, and groundwater. The measurements were carried out in two laboratories including an impact assessment of the tritium released into the rivers and groundwater. The routine methods for determining tritium (with/without electrolytic enrichment) were tested in two laboratories using two different instruments, a Tri-Carb 3180 and Quantulus 1220. Detection limits for routine measurements were calculated in compliance with ISO 11929 and Currie relations, and subsequently the results were compared with those determined experimentally. This has shown that tritium can be reliably determined within a reasonable period of time when its activity is close to the calculated detection limit. The Krško NPP discharged 62 TBq of tritium into the River Sava over a period of 6 years (23% of permitted activity, 45 TBq per year). The natural level of tritium in the Sava River and groundwater is 0.3-1 Bq/l and increases when discharges exceed 1 TBq per month. Usually, the average monthly activity in the Sava River and groundwater is maintained at a natural level. The maximum measured activity was 16 Bq/l in the Sava River and 9.5 Bq/l in groundwater directly linked to the river. In the majority of water samples from the Danube River, measured tritium activity ranged between 1 and 2 Bq/l. The increased tritium levels in the Danube River are more evident than in the Sava River because tritium activity above 1.5 Bq/l appears more frequently on the Danube River. All measured values were far below the allowed tritium limit in drinking water. Dose assessment has shown that

  6. Long-term analysis of turbidity patterns in Danube Delta coastal area based on MODIS satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Sorin; Constantinescu, Ștefan; Doxaran, David

    2017-06-01

    The monitoring of coastal areas is becoming an urgent necessity in the context of increased pressure over these ecosystems due to climate change and human activities. Long term evaluation of specific parameters regarding water quality can now be achieved, thanks to the increased number of archived Earth Observation satellite data, now covering decades. Within this study, 12 years of MODIS information were used to compute surface water turbidity products that were further temporal binned into composite datasets (e.g. monthly, annual). A regional algorithm, based on local in situ measurements, was used in order to inverse remote sensing reflectance values into turbidity units. The interpretation of the final maps revealed important characteristics of the processes that play a major role in the regional turbidity dynamics. Observations were made regarding the relation between surface water turbidity and Danube River's discharge rates, winds, currents and also the bottom sedimentary characteristics of the shelf area. We discuss how different regions are affected by various external factors, depending on their geographical location, and we reinforce the idea that the river solid input is not the only parameter controlling water clarity in the Danube Delta coastal area, resuspension processes playing also an important role.

  7. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    PubMed

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  8. Maggie Creek Water Quality Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These data are standard water quality parameters collected for surface water condition analysis (for example pH, conductivity, DO, TSS).This dataset is associated with the following publication:Kozlowski, D., R. Hall , S. Swanson, and D. Heggem. Linking Management and Riparian Physical Functions to Water Quality and Aquatic Habitat. JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, USA, 8(8): 797-815, (2016).

  9. WaterQualityWatch and water-quality information bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2014-01-01

    WaterQualityWatch is an online resource of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that provides access to continuous real-time measurements of water temperature, specific electrical conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate at selected data-collection stations throughout the Nation. Additional online resources of the USGS that pertain to various types of water-quality information are shown on the reverse side of this bookmark.

  10. Current status and restoration options for floodplains along the Danube River.

    PubMed

    Hein, Thomas; Schwarz, Ulrich; Habersack, Helmut; Nichersu, Iulian; Preiner, Stefan; Willby, Nigel; Weigelhofer, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Floodplains are key ecosystems of riverine landscapes and provide a multitude of ecosystem services. In most of the large river systems worldwide, a tremendous reduction of floodplain area has occurred in the last 100 years and this loss continues due to pressures such as land use change, river regulation, and dam construction. In the Danube River Basin, the extent of floodplains has been reduced by 68% compared to their pre-regulation area, with the highest losses occurring in the Upper Danube and the lowest in the Danube Delta. In this paper, we illustrate the restoration potential of floodplains along the Danube and its major tributaries. Via two case studies in the Upper and Lower Danube, we demonstrate the effects of restoration measures on the river ecosystem, addressing different drivers, pressures, and opportunities in these regions. The potential area for floodplain restoration based on land use and hydromorphological characteristics amounts to 8102 km(2) for the whole Danube River, of which estimated 75% have a high restoration potential. A comparison of floodplain status and options for restoration in the Upper and Lower Danube shows clear differences in drivers and pressures, but certain common options apply in both sections if the local context of stakeholders and societal needs are considered. New approaches to flood protection using natural water retention measures offer increased opportunities for floodplain restoration, but conflicting societal needs and legal frameworks may restrict implementation. Emerging issues such as climate change and invasive non-native species will need careful consideration in future restoration planning to minimize unintended effects and to increase the resilience of floodplains to these and other pressures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  12. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  13. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  14. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  15. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  16. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  17. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  18. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  19. Water quality and poultry production.

    PubMed

    King, A J

    1996-07-01

    Mineral and microbial content of water affects the performance of poultry. Because poultry production can adversely affect water quality, the Environmental Protection Agency monitors and regulates its impact. Management of nonpoint source water contamination is especially important. If properly managed, litter, a valuable secondary commodity associated with poultry production, can be used as fertilizer, food, or energy.

  20. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  1. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  2. Injection-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

  3. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  4. GREENROOF RUNOFF WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs was compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation unplanted media roofs was also compared, and the influence of ...

  5. GREENROOF RUNOFF WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs was compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation unplanted media roofs was also compared, and the influence of ...

  6. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. DANUBE 2004 Lithosphere Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedus, E.; Brueckl, E.; Csabafi, R.; Fancsik, T.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Hajnal, Z.; Keller, R.; Kovacs, A. C.; Komminaho, K.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Tiira, T.; Torok, I.; Yliniemi, J.

    2005-12-01

    The DANUBE 2004 (Deep imAgiNg of hUngarian BasEment) lithosphere research program following significant seismic lithospheric experiments in Central Europe (e.g., CELEBRATION 2000), was coordinated by the ELGI, on the commission of the Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (PURAM), in international cooperation. The goal of the research program was to allocate and characterize the potential geological site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in SW Hungary (Central Europe) using seismic methods. The research program comprised of two main fields: 1) 2D, 3D active seismic measurements 2) passive seismotectonic monitoring 1) Detailed 2D seismic reflection measurements were carried out along four profiles in the study area using 20 m geophone spacing with >100 folds in order to image the deep geological structure of the potential waste disposal site. Tomographic imaging of the reflection data along the four profiles was also carried out, whereas a 40 km long wide angle tomographic profile and a 50 square kilometers 3D tomography were performed in the prospective location. 2) Passive seismotectonic monitoring of the waste disposal site is also part of the program. 30 SP stations with continuous data recording (100 sps) are used to gather the seismic signals emerging from local tectonic activity in the 2000 square kilometers area so as to locate tectonically active zones in the region. The passive monitoring focuses on low (M< or =1) magnitude seismic signals that are expected from the study area.

  8. Hydro blues on the Danube

    SciTech Connect

    Kovac, C.

    1997-03-24

    Armed with more than 10,000 pages of documents, Hungarian government representatives presented opening arguments earlier this month in a suit with neighboring Slovakia over environmental, financial and political impacts of a $2-billion hydroelectric project on the Danube River. The two countries` 20-year discord over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project has reached a new plateau in the legal battle now before the International Court of Justice in The Hague, The Netherlands. Following a two-week recess that began March 10, the court is set to hear arguments from Slovakia. The trial is expected to take six weeks, and will include an on-site inspection of the now-completed project by judges. The project includes a 15.5-mile-long diversion canal and a 720-Mw hydroelectric dam and power plant at Gabcikovo, now in Slovakia. Downstream in Hungary, Nagymaros Dam, with a 160-Mw powerplant, was to be built to halt surges from Gabcikovo. Hungary opted not to build the project.

  9. Water-Quality Data

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data Center : the world's largest active archive of climate data. Department of Energy (DOE) Data Explorer : multidisciplinary ... Back to table of contents. USGS Home Water Climate and Land Use Change Core Science Systems Ecosystems ...

  10. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Reentering Your Flooded Home Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials ...

  11. Water quality for cattle.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sandra E

    2011-07-01

    Water is often considered the most important livestock nutrient. It can carry both nutrients and toxic materials and can be a source of poisoning, although death losses are not common. More likely are questions of low-level contaminants or nutrient interactions that affect productivity. This article characterizes the major contaminants of water, their expected effects, and means to evaluate their presence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recreational Water Quality Criteria Limits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) provides an overview of NPDES permitting applicable to continuous dischargers (such as POTWs) based on water quality standards for pathogens and pathogen indicators associated with fecal contamination.

  13. Nuclear markers of Danube Sturgeons hybridization.

    PubMed

    Dudu, Andreea; Suciu, Radu; Paraschiv, Marian; Georgescu, Sergiu Emil; Costache, Marieta; Berrebi, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Acipenseriformes are composed of 25 sturgeon species and two paddlefish species distributed exclusively in the northern hemisphere. The Danube River and the Black Sea were originally inhabited by six sturgeon species but two are extinct and only four are still reproducing currently in the Lower Danube: Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, A. gueldenstaedtii and A. ruthenus. Sturgeon species hybridize more easily than other fish and the determination of pure species or hybrid status is important for conservation and for breeding in fish farms. This survey demonstrated that morphological determination of this status is not reliable and a molecular tool, based on eight microsatellites genotypes is proposed. This method, based on three successive statistical analyses including Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA), Structure assignation and NewHybrids status determination, showed a high efficiency in discriminating pure species specimens from F1, F2 and two kinds of backcross individuals involving three of the four reproducing Lower Danube sturgeon species.

  14. WATER QUALITY MODELING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multi-year planning science question of what additions to models are most needed for the TMDL process for priority stressors is addressed. Our research provides both the needed process research and the necessary technology (watershed hydrologic, hydrodynamic, and water quali...

  15. WATER QUALITY MODELING RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multi-year planning science question of what additions to models are most needed for the TMDL process for priority stressors is addressed. Our research provides both the needed process research and the necessary technology (watershed hydrologic, hydrodynamic, and water quali...

  16. Water Quality Field Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Nonpoint source pollution is both a relatively recent concern and a complex phenomenon with many unknowns. Knowing the extent to which agricultural sources contribute to the total pollutant load, the extent to which various control practices decrease this load, and the effect of reducing the pollutants delivered to a water body are basic to the…

  17. Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT) software is to provide a means for analyzing and producing useful remotely sensed data products for an entire estuary, a particular point or area of interest (AOI or POI) in estuaries, or water bodies of interest where pre-pro...

  18. Water Quality Control, Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which study how water is used, contaminated, and treated or purified are presented in this curriculum guide, culminating in the investigation of a local water quality problem. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents a review of the content, objectives, major concepts, and sources…

  19. Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT) software is to provide a means for analyzing and producing useful remotely sensed data products for an entire estuary, a particular point or area of interest (AOI or POI) in estuaries, or water bodies of interest where pre-pro...

  20. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP7) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  1. Use of LANDSAT data for resources investigation in the lower basin of Danube and Danube Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oprescu, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A most important is that bands 4 and 5 very clearly show the sedimentary discharge into the sea and the spreading regime in the sea at the mouth of the Danube and out at sea at great distances to over 100 km. Another particularly significant result is shown by bands 6 and 7, presenting the successive stages of sediments in the Danube Delta, with the clear marking of the separation between the fluvial and marine delta. The survey of floods and of some of their effects may also be studied on all of the bands in the complex area of the Danube Delta and in the lower basin of the Danube.

  2. Integrated water quality management for drinking water of good quality.

    PubMed

    Isaji, C

    2003-01-01

    The Nagoya Waterworks and Sewerage Bureau has developed original supporting tools for the systematic and cost-effective management of problem solving. An environmental information map and prediction of pollutant reaching are used for rapid and appropriate proper countermeasures against water quality accidents in the source area. In disinfection byproduct control a method for estimating trihalomethane (THM) contents was effective for the complement of their observations. Surrogate indicators such as turbidity and conductivity that could be measured continuously also could complement water quality items measured monthly. A processing tool of voluminous data was practical for rapid judgment of water quality. Systematic monitoring was established for stricter turbidity control for measures against Cryptosporidium and keeping residual chlorine stable in the service area.

  3. Tellico Reservoir postimpoundment water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sagona, F.J.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a postimpoundment survey of Tellico Reservoir. It provides baseline water quality data following impoundment of the new reservoir for the 16-month period from June 1980 to September 1981. The results show water quality to be good in almost every respect and similar to what is expected of an impoundment on the Little Tennessee River. Water flowing into Tellico Reservoir from impoundments farther upstream retains many of the characteristics of the mountain streams in the area. These basic characteristics show Tellico Reservoir to be suitable for uses requiring the highest quality of surface water - for public and industrial water supplies and for swimming and other forms of water-contact recreation. Results indicate that the waters of Tellico Reservoir are soft, poorly buffered, slightly acidic to near neutral, and low in dissolved solids, suspended solids, color, turbidity, and most metals. Available nutrients, particularly phosphorus, are very low in the reservoir, often measuring at the analytical detection limit. Bacterial concentrations are very low and meet generally accepted criteria for water contact recreation.

  4. Agroecosystem Impacts on Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Agroecosystems can have large scale impacts on soil water and groundwater quality by mobilizing salts into underlying aquifers through enhanced recharge and increasing chemical loading to systems through fertilizer applications and irrigation water. Crop evapotranspiration is similar to desalinization in that root-water uptake excludes most salts, and soil-water salinity levels may build up when water drainage or percolation through the root zone is insufficient to flush accumulated salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of agroecosystems on soil water and groundwater quality using data from the US High Plains and California Central Valley. Natural ecosystems accumulated large reservoirs of salts in unsaturated soils in the southern High Plains and southern part of the Central Valley. Increased recharge under rainfed and irrigated agriculture mobilized these salt reservoirs into the underlying aquifer in the southern High Plains, increasing groundwater salinity, particularly chloride and sulfate. Deficit irrigation in the southern High Plains has created large salt bulges in the unsaturated zone because of insufficient irrigation to flush these salts into the underlying aquifer. Irrigation in both the High Plains and Central Valley regions has markedly increased groundwater nitrate levels, particularly in irrigated areas because of higher fertilizer applications. Agroecosystem impacts on water quality reflect a delicate balance between water and salt cycles and crop production should be managed to minimize negative environmental impacts.

  5. Relative influence of chemical and non-chemical stressors on invertebrate communities: a case study in the Danube River.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Focks, Andreas

    2016-11-15

    A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >200 contaminants to benthic macroinvertebrates in the Danube River using the Toxic Unit approach. Furthermore, we evaluated correlations between several stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and biological indices commonly used for the ecological status assessment of aquatic ecosystems. We also performed several variation partitioning analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of contaminants and other abiotic parameters (i.e. habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations, water quality parameters) to the structural and biological trait variation of the invertebrate community. The results of this study show that most biological indices significantly correlate to parameters related to habitat and physico-chemical conditions, but showed limited correlation with the calculated toxic pressure. The calculated toxic pressure, however, showed little variation between sampling sites, which complicates the identification of pollution-induced effects. The results of this study show that the variation in the structure and trait composition of the invertebrate community are mainly explained by habitat and water quality parameters, whereas hydromorphological alterations play a less important role. Among the water quality parameters, physico-chemical parameters such as suspended solids, nutrients or dissolved oxygen explained a larger part of the variation in the invertebrate community as compared to metals or organic contaminants. Significant correlations exist between some physico-chemical measurements (e.g. nutrients) and some chemical classes (i.e. pharmaceuticals, chemicals related to human presence) which constitute important multiple stressor groups. This study

  6. The preparations and preconditions of the restoration of the Danube floodplains in the Danube-Drava National Park, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamás, E. A.; Buzetzky, Gy.; Eichhardt, G.; Kalocsa, B.; Szlávik, L.; Sziebert, J.; Varga, A.; Zellei, L.

    2009-04-01

    The largest floodplain area of the Central Danube between flow km 1503 and 1433 in Hungary is a nature protection area since 1977. It comprises almost 300 sq km of alluvial forests, dead riverbranches, meadows, reedbeds and agricultural areas. Experts working in the area first reaslied a consequent drying of the area in 1989, which later was proven to happen due to the riverbed deepening of the Danube, and the prominent sediment aggradation in the floodplain. The first initiative which targeted a possible wetland reconstruction in the area was started in 1992 in frame of the Dutch-Hungarian Co-operation on Water management: „Floodplain Rehabilitation Gemenc" - „The Stork Plan". It was immediately followed by the Vén-Duna - Nyéki holt-Duna wetland reconstruction feasibility study, which focussed on the central and very characteristic part of the study area. Based on this, the implementation of the Vén-Duna - Cserta - Nyéki wetland reconstruction started in 1998 and was followed by a few years of monitoring. In 2001, a GEF World Bank project was submitted in order to decrease the nutrient load of the Danube river through the improvement of inundation frequency and durability of the floodplains in our study area. After the approval of the project, a new feasibility study was elaborated - now comprising the whole area - and the technical planning of the reconstruction works is currently underway. In our presentation we would like to introduce the lessons we learned during the past two decades in relation to floodplain hydrology, ecology, hydro-ecology, hydraulics, monitoring and other aspects of floodplain management.

  7. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  8. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  9. National Water Quality Laboratory Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Water Quality Laboratory determines organic and inorganic constituents in samples of surface and ground water, river and lake sediment, aquatic plant and animal material, and precipitation collected throughout the United States and its territories by the U.S. Geological Survey. In water year 1994, the Laboratory produced more than 900,000 analytical results for about 65,000 samples. The Laboratory also coordinates an extensive network of contract laboratories for the determination of radiochemical and stable isotopes and work for the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Contamination Hydrology Program. Heightened concerns about water quality and about the possible effects of toxic chemicals at trace and ultratrace levels have contributed to an increased demand for impartial, objective, and independent data.

  10. Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

  11. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  12. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  14. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Water quality in organic systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-point source contamination is a major water quality concern in the upper Midwestern USA, where plant nutrients, especially NO3-N, are susceptible to leaching due to extensive subsurface draining of the highly productive, but poorly drained, soils found in this region. Environmental impacts assoc...

  16. ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS OF STORAGE RESERVOIR WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distribution system water quality protection is an integral aspect of public water supply management. Effective regulatory compliance requires a thorough understanding of the transport and mixing processes in storage reservoirs and their impacts on effluent water quality. This ...

  17. Design and implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: a United States example: understanding the limitations of using compliance-monitoring data to assess the water quality of a large river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wangsness, David J.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980s it was determined that existing ambient and compliance-monitoring data could not satisfactorily evaluate the results of hundreds of billions of dollars spent for water-pollution abatement in the United States. At the request of the US Congress, a new programme, the National Water-Quality Assessment, was designed and implemented by government agency, the US Geological Survey (USGS). The Assessment has reported status and trends in surface- and ground-water quality at national, regional, and local scales since 1991. The legislative basis for US monitoring and data-sharing policies are identified as well as the successive phases of the design and implementation of the USGS Assessment. Application to the Danube Basin is suggested. Much of the water-quality monitoring conducted in the United States is designed to comply with Federal and State laws mandated primarily by the Clean Water Act of 1987 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986. Monitoring programs generally focus on rivers upstream and downstream of point-source discharges and at water-supply intakes. Few data are available for aquifer systems, and chemical analyses are often limited to those constituents required by law. In most cases, the majority of the available chemical and streamflow data have provided the information necessary to meet the objectives of the compliance-monitoring programs, but do not necessarily provide the information requires for basin-wide assessments of the water quality at the local, regional, or national scale.

  18. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  19. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  20. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    SciTech Connect

    Sean McKenna, Mark Wilson

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility's water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  1. Water quality monitor. [spacecraft potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S.; Crisos, J.; Baxter, W.

    1979-01-01

    The preprototype water quality monitor (WQM) subsystem was designed based on a breadboard monitor for pH, specific conductance, and total organic carbon (TOC). The breadboard equipment demonstrated the feasibility of continuous on-line analysis of potable water for a spacecraft. The WQM subsystem incorporated these breadboard features and, in addition, measures ammonia and includes a failure detection system. The sample, reagent, and standard solutions are delivered to the WQM sensing manifold where chemical operations and measurements are performed using flow through sensors for conductance, pH, TOC, and NH3. Fault monitoring flow detection is also accomplished in this manifold assembly. The WQM is designed to operate automatically using a hardwired electronic controller. In addition, automatic shutdown is incorporated which is keyed to four flow sensors strategically located within the fluid system.

  2. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  3. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  4. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  5. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  6. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  7. Development of a bioanalytical test battery for water quality monitoring: Fingerprinting identified micropollutants and their contribution to effects in surface water.

    PubMed

    Neale, Peta A; Altenburger, Rolf; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Brion, François; Busch, Wibke; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Denison, Michael S; Du Pasquier, David; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollert, Henner; Morales, Daniel A; Novák, Jiří; Schlichting, Rita; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Serra, Helene; Shao, Ying; Tindall, Andrew J; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Williams, Timothy D; Escher, Beate I

    2017-10-15

    Surface waters can contain a diverse range of organic pollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds. While bioassays have been used for water quality monitoring, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of individual micropollutants and their relationship to the overall mixture effect in water samples. In this study, a battery of in vitro bioassays based on human and fish cell lines and whole organism assays using bacteria, algae, daphnids and fish embryos was assembled for use in water quality monitoring. The selection of bioassays was guided by the principles of adverse outcome pathways in order to cover relevant steps in toxicity pathways known to be triggered by environmental water samples. The effects of 34 water pollutants, which were selected based on hazard quotients, available environmental quality standards and mode of action information, were fingerprinted in the bioassay test battery. There was a relatively good agreement between the experimental results and available literature effect data. The majority of the chemicals were active in the assays indicative of apical effects, while fewer chemicals had a response in the specific reporter gene assays, but these effects were typically triggered at lower concentrations. The single chemical effect data were used to improve published mixture toxicity modeling of water samples from the Danube River. While there was a slight increase in the fraction of the bioanalytical equivalents explained for the Danube River samples, for some endpoints less than 1% of the observed effect could be explained by the studied chemicals. The new mixture models essentially confirmed previous findings from many studies monitoring water quality using both chemical analysis and bioanalytical tools. In short, our results indicate that many more chemicals contribute to the biological effect than those that are typically quantified by chemical monitoring programs or those regulated by environmental

  8. Optical sensors for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in commercially available in situ sensors, data platforms, and new techniques for data analysis provide an opportunity to monitor water quality in rivers, lakes, and estuaries on the time scales in which changes occur. For example, measurements that capture the variability in freshwater systems over time help to assess how shifts in seasonal runoff, changes in precipitation intensity, and increased frequencies of disturbances (such as fire and insect outbreaks) affect the storage, production, and transport of carbon and nitrogen in watersheds. Transmitting these data in real-time also provides information that can be used for early trend detection, help identify monitoring gaps, and provide sciencebased decision support across a range of issues related to water quality, freshwater ecosystems, and human health.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating coastal water quality: case study on coast of Black Sea, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezehegn, S. G.; Steef, Peters; Hommersom, Annelies; Nils, De Reus; Culcea, Oana; Krommendijk, Bram

    2014-10-01

    The North-Western part of the Black Sea is highly affected by eutrophication due to nutrient and sediment load inflow from the Danube River, which is the second largest delta in Europe. To get a general spatial picture of the water quality of the Romanian coast, it is not only time consuming, but also hard to measure with traditional in situ sampling. To solve these issues, methods have been developed to use close range spectral measurements for accurate and cheap assessments in real-time for the concentrations of Chlorophyll-a, Total Suspended Matter and water transparency. This paper presents the applicability of a state-of-the-art hand-held hyper-spectral sensor and a simple water transparency indicator for monitoring water quality. The fieldwork was conducted during the summer of 2013 on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea. The same techniques are used to calculate these parameters from satellite images (MODIS). The validation results and potential applications of the instruments will be discussed.

  10. Communications: quantum teleportation across the Danube.

    PubMed

    Ursin, Rupert; Jennewein, Thomas; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Lindenthal, Michael; Walther, Philip; Zeilinger, Anton

    2004-08-19

    Efficient long-distance quantum teleportation is crucial for quantum communication and quantum networking schemes. Here we describe the high-fidelity teleportation of photons over a distance of 600 metres across the River Danube in Vienna, with the optimal efficiency that can be achieved using linear optics. Our result is a step towards the implementation of a quantum repeater, which will enable pure entanglement to be shared between distant parties in a public environment and eventually on a worldwide scale.

  11. Illinois water quality management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the purpose of the plan to consolidate and streamline portions of approved state and areawide water quality management (WQM) plans in order to facilitate their usage in the operations of all designated WQM agencies. The report identifies both point and nonpoint pollution sources, reviews policies and regulations already in place and makes recommendations for pollution prevention and control. Information on the plan's management structure is also included.

  12. Water quality in Lake Lanier

    SciTech Connect

    Callaham, M.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Thirteen water quality tests measuring five categories of pollution were conducted twice monthly from May, 1987 to April, 1990 at eight locations on Lake Sidney Lanier to establish baseline data and detect trends. Additionally, sediment and water samples were analyzed for ten toxic metals. Sampling stations were located at or near the point of entry of streams into the Lake. Oxygen demanding pollutants were highest in urban streams and phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were highest in streams having poultry processing operations within their watersheds. Indicators of siltation increased coincidentally with highway construction in one watershed. Fecal coliform bacteria counts decreased at Flat Creek and increased in the Chattahoochee River. Zinc and copper occurred in water samples at levels of detectability. Sediment samples from several locations contained metal concentrations which warrant further study.

  13. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality... certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto... establish numeric water quality criteria for 12 states and two Territories, including New Jersey, Puerto...

  14. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  15. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data source was last updated in December 2007 and will no longer be updated.

  16. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  18. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  19. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  20. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  1. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  2. HAWQS (Hydrologic and Water Quality System)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A water quantity and quality modeling system to evaluate the impacts of management alternatives, pollution control scenarios, and climate change scenarios on the quantity and quality of water at a national scale.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  4. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  5. Channel incision and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, F. D.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed development often triggers channel incision that leads to radical changes in channel morphology. Although morphologic evolution due to channel incision has been documented and modeled by others, ecological effects, particularly water quality effects, are less well understood. Furthermore, environmental regulatory frameworks for streams frequently focus on stream water quality and underemphasize hydrologic and geomorphic issues. Discharge, basic physical parameters, solids, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll and bacteria were monitored for five years at two sites along a stream in a mixed cover watershed characterized by rapid incision of the entire channel network. Concurrent data were collected from two sites on a nearby stream draining a watershed of similar size and cultivation intensity, but without widespread incision. Data sets describing physical aquatic habitat and fish fauna of each stream were available from other studies. The second stream was impacted by watershed urbanization, but was not incised, so normal channel-floodplain interaction maintained a buffer zone of floodplain wetlands between the study reach and the urban development upstream. The incised stream had mean channel depth and width that were 1.8 and 3.5 times as large as for the nonincised stream, and was characterized by flashier hydrology. The median rise rate for the incised stream was 6.4 times as great as for the nonincised stream. Correlation analyses showed that hydrologic perturbations were associated with water quality degradation, and the incised stream had levels of turbidity and solids that were two to three times higher than the nonincised, urbanizing stream. Total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl N, and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the incised stream, while nitrate was significantly greater in the nonincised, urbanizing stream (p < 0.02). Physical aquatic habitat and fish populations in the nonincised urbanizing stream were

  6. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  7. Understanding water quality trading: the basics.

    PubMed

    Kibler, Virginia M; Kasturi, Kavya P

    2007-12-01

    The United States has entered a new era in water quality protection: the era of market-based incentives. In January 2003, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its National Water Quality Trading Policy (Trading Policy) (USEPA, 2003). This action has generated greater interest in water quality trading and has prompted EPA to develop tools and training to assist interested parties in understanding what water quality trading is and what constitutes a successful trading program.

  8. SENTINEL-1/2 Data for Ship Traffic Monitoring on the Danube River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negula, I. Dana; Poenaru, V. D.; Olteanu, V. G.; Badea, A.

    2016-06-01

    After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc.) were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  9. WATER QUALITY AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is quantified using several measures, available from various data sources. These can be combined to create a single index of overall water quality which can be used for health research. We developed a water quality index for all United States counties and assessed a...

  10. WATER QUALITY AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is quantified using several measures, available from various data sources. These can be combined to create a single index of overall water quality which can be used for health research. We developed a water quality index for all United States counties and assessed a...

  11. Stratigraphic and lithologic characteristics of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in the Danube and Sava riparian area near Belgrade (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, D.; Gaudenyi, T.; Bogićević, K.; Tošović, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Quaternary sediments in the Danube and Sava riparian area near Belgrade have a considerable thickness. Several categories of deposits (fluvial-lacustrine, fluvial and aeolian) of Pliocene and Quaternary age have been identified. Their thickness, granulometric composition and paleontological features change depending on the distance from the recent Danube and Sava riverbeds. The Pleistocene fluvial deposits are underlain by sediments of the Late Miocene (Sarmatian and Pannonian) or the Plio-Pleistocene age, and are overlain by fluvial-palustrine deposits of the Pleistocene age and recent alluvial deposits. Pleistocene fluvial deposits that form a major part of the Quaternary sediments, have a great significance, since they are proved to be excellent collectors of ground water. Although these deposits are at lower altitudes in the area of Srem, they could be correlated with the high Danube and Morava terraces in Serbia and Drava in Croatia on the basis of their lithologic and paleontological features.

  12. Assessment of the genotoxic potential along the Danube River by application of the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussels: The Joint Danube Survey 3.

    PubMed

    Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kostić, Jovana; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Liška, Igor; Gačić, Zoran; Paunović, Momir; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the level of genotoxic pollution along the Danube River by measuring the level of DNA damage in the haemocytes of freshwater mussels of Unio sp. (Unio pictorum/Unio tumidus) and Sinanodonta woodiana. The comet assay was used for the assessment of DNA damage. The research was performed on 34 out of 68 sites analysed within the Joint Danube Survey 3 - the world's biggest river research expedition of its kind in 2013. During research, 2285 river kilometres were covered with an average distance of 68 km between the sites. The complex data set on concentrations of various substances present in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment on investigated sites gave the opportunity to identify the groups of xenobiotics which mostly affect the studied biomarker - DNA damage. The highest levels of DNA damage were recorded in the section VI (Panonnian Plain), which is under the impact of untreated wastewater discharges. Both positive and negative influences of the large tributaries on the level of genotoxicity in the Danube River were evident. Significant correlation in response was detected between the studied species of freshwater mussels. The level of DNA damage in mussels correlated with concentrations of compounds from the group of hazardous priority substances (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), persistent organic pollutants (dioxins) and emerging pollutants (Oxazepam, Chloridazon-desphenyl).

  13. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  14. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  15. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Treesearch

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  16. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  17. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  18. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  19. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  20. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  1. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  2. Phosphorus and Water Quality Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Paradoxically, phosphorus (P) is one of the major nutrients for higher agricultural production, as well as it causes eutrophication/algal blooms in aquatic and semi-aquatic systems. Phosphorus loadings from agricultural/urban runoffs into lakes and rivers are becoming a global concern for the protection of water quality. Artificial wetlands are considered as a low cost alternative for treating wastewater including removal of P from sources such as agricultural and urban runoffs. However, the selection of the construction site may well determine the effectiveness of these wetlands. Studies show that P transformations in sediments/ soils are crucial for P sequestration in a wetland rather than the amounts of native P. Using 31Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P NMR), previously unreported an active organic P form, phosphoarginine, was identified, and the study indicates that abandonment of P impacted sites may not solve the P loading problem to the water bodies as the organic P compounds would not be as stable as they were thought, thus, can play a detrimental role in eutrophication of water bodies, after all.

  3. Challenges of river basin management: Current status of, and prospects for, the River Danube from a river engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    Habersack, Helmut; Hein, Thomas; Stanica, Adrian; Liska, Igor; Mair, Raimund; Jäger, Elisabeth; Hauer, Christoph; Bradley, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In the Danube River Basin multiple pressures affect the river system as a consequence of river engineering works, altering both the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effects of hydropower development, flood protection and engineering works for navigation on the Danube and to examine specific impacts of these developments on sediment transport and river morphology. Whereas impoundments are characterised by deposition and an excess of sediment with remobilisation of fine sediments during severe floods, the remaining five free flowing sections of the Danube are experiencing river bed erosion of the order of several centimetres per year. Besides the effect of interruption of the sediment continuum, river bed degradation is caused by an increase in the sediment transport capacity following an increase in slope, a reduction of river bed width due to canalisation, prohibition of bank erosion by riprap or regressive erosion following base level lowering by flood protection measures and sediment dredging. As a consequence, the groundwater table is lowered, side-arms are disconnected, instream structures are lost and habitat quality deteriorates affecting the ecological status of valuable floodplains. The lack of sediments, together with cutting off meanders, leads also to erosion of the bed of main arms in the Danube Delta and coastal erosion. This paper details the causes and effects of river engineering measures and hydromorphological changes for the Danube. It highlights the importance of adopting a basin-wide holistic approach to river management and demonstrates that past management in the basin has been characterised by a lack of integration. To-date insufficient attention has been paid to the wide-ranging impacts of river engineering works throughout the basin: from the basin headwaters to the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea coast. This highlights the importance of new initiatives that seek to advance knowledge

  4. Management of water quality for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cody L

    2007-03-01

    Drinking water is the primary source of water for most cattle. Unfortunately, water frequently contains various solutes and suspended particulate matter that can influence its appearance, odor, taste, and physical and chemical properties. Animals often react to such water impurities by decreasing water intake, and therefore feed intake, which diminishes animal performance. Thus, water quality can have a profound impact on animal health and performance. Routine monitoring of water sources and appropriate intervention can provide beef producers with a desirable return on investment. Careful thought should be incorporated into any capital improvements. This article discusses some of the most common factors that impact water quality for beef cattle and the methods of monitoring water quality, and proposes management solutions to address water quality concerns.

  5. River Bed Morphology Assessment of The Lower Danube In The Common Romanian-bulgarian River Reach (danube Km 845 - Km 375).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, O.; Bondar, C.; Gutknecht, D.; Modev, S.; Petkovic, S.

    In den Lower Danube reach numerous problems have arisen over the past two to three decades linked to changes of the river morphology and to erosion along the Danube reach between the Iron Gates reservoirs and the Danube delta. To address this issue of river morphology and its consequences for all types of water management activities in this area, a common initiative of all involved countries was launched that led to the definition of a project entitled "Morphological Changes and Abatement of their Neg- ative Effects on a Selected Part of the Danube River". Implementation of this project was made possible by Phare funding through the EPDRB (Environmental Program for the Danube River Basis). This paper reports on the results of this two-phase project. In the first phase, performed in 1997, an inventory of all available material to assess the river morphology in the approx. 470 km long common Bulgarian-Romanian river reach (km 375 - km 845) was prepared. Analysing various sources of information as bathymetric maps (1908, 1938, 1966), cross-section profiles and discharge-stage curves at gauging stations, and suspended sediment data from the time period 1956-1995, a first overall picture of the morphological changes during this period could be prepared indicating (i) a general tendency of decreasing water levels over this period, (ii) a general decrease of suspended loads both in the Danube river and its tributaries, (iii) pronounced changes in the morphological features of the reach, e.g. changes of bank lines due to bank erosion and changes in the number and size of islands along the whole river reach. To prepare the preconditions for remedial action planning a second phase project was performed between October 1998 and February 2000. It was aimed at the develop- ment of a common and integrating monitoring methodology for the Lower Danube and the development of recommendations for global agreements between the involved countries on future monitoring, data and

  6. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, C.C.; Wilder, H.B.; Weiner, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    In 1972, the US Geological Survey (USGS) devised a study to make a detailed accounting of water quality in the large rivers of North Carolina at key locations. The three major goals of the Large Rivers Study are: definition of variation in water quality; determination of pollution loads in streams; and determination of trends in water quality. This series of documents includes all of the reports produced in the Large Rivers Study in the sequence that they were written. In this volume, Chapter A describes in detail the initial design and philosophy of the USGS water quality program in North Carolina. Specific methodologies for the estimation of baseline water quality, pollution, and the evaluation of trends in water quality discussed in Chapter A are applied and refined in subsequent chapters that present water quality assessments of individual large rivers. Chapter B elaborates on the methodology used in estimating baseline water quality, and presents the results of a statewide baseline survey. Chapter C presents water quality assessments of the French Broad River, while Chapter D presents water quality assessments of the Neuse River. Separate papers are processed for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  7. QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Schijven, Jack; Derx, Julia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2016-01-01

    Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of Escherichia coli, a human-associated Bacteroidetes microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning–Gauckler–Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes. PMID:26436266

  8. QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Schijven, Jack; Derx, Julia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2015-09-01

    Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of , a human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, , and as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning-Gauckler-Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Influence of hydropower dams on the composition of the suspended and riverbank sediments in the Danube.

    PubMed

    Klaver, Gerard; van Os, Bertil; Negrel, Philippe; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle

    2007-08-01

    Large hydropower dams have major impacts on flow regime, sediment transport and the characteristics of water and sediment in downstream rivers. The Gabcikovo and Iron Gate dams divide the studied Danube transect (rkm 1895-795) into three parts. In the Gabcikovo Reservoir (length of 40km) only a part of the incoming suspended sediments were deposited. Contrary to this, in the much larger Iron Gate backwater zone and reservoir (length of 310km) all riverine suspended sediments were deposited within the reservoir. Subsequently, suspended sediments were transported by tributaries into the Iron Gate backwater zone. Here they were modified by fractional sedimentation before they transgressed downstream via the dams. Compared with undammed Danube sections, Iron Gate reservoir sediment and suspended matter showed higher clay contents and different K/Ga and Metal/Ga ratios. These findings emphasize the importance of reservoir-river sediment-fractionation.

  10. Do waterbody classifications predict water quality?

    PubMed

    Barclay, Janet R; Tripp, Hannah; Bellucci, Christopher J; Warner, Glenn; Helton, Ashley M

    2016-12-01

    Many states classify waterbodies according to groups of designated uses, which suggests that classifications may be correlated with water quality. The primary assessments of water quality in the United States (the Biennial Integrated Water Quality Reports) do not consider classification, so the relationship between classification and water quality is untested. Additionally, water quality has been shown to be influenced by watershed land use; however, land use is not typically part of waterbody classification systems. To determine the relationships between waterbody classification, water quality, watershed land cover, and forest fragmentation, we analyzed existing water quality data for the State of Connecticut from the United States Geological Survey and the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset. Connecticut uses a unique classification system that includes separation of drinking water sources (Class AA) and waterbodies receiving waste water discharges (Class B). Using a comparison of multiple means, we found that Class B waters had higher levels of nitrogen, solids, chloride, sodium, dissolved copper, total iron, and dissolved manganese than Class AA waters. Watersheds upstream of Class B segments had less forest cover, more development and more impervious cover than watersheds upstream of Class AA segments. Class A sites had some similarities in water quality and land cover with Class AA sites and some with Class B sites. The subset of Class B waterbodies with "Class AA-like" water quality also had "Class AA-like" land cover. Based on this and a multiple linear regression analysis, we found that water quality is more closely related to watershed land cover and forest fragmentation than to waterbody classification. Our results suggest that watershed land cover likely is a better proxy for water quality than waterbody classification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Texas Water Quality Board Teachers Workshop Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Water Quality Board, Austin.

    These materials are designed for teachers participating in an inservice workshop on water quality. Included in the materials are a workshop agenda, a water awareness pretest, and the various parameters and tests that are used to determine and measure water quality. The parameters are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact to…

  12. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  13. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  14. Water Quality of a Micronesian Atoll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbett, Arthur N.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, a water quality survey of the eastern end of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands was conducted to determine the water quality of selected lagoon and open ocean sites and provide guidance for the construction of a sewerage system. This study revealed that lagoon waters were moderately to severely contaminated. (BT)

  15. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  16. Water Quality of a Micronesian Atoll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbett, Arthur N.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, a water quality survey of the eastern end of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands was conducted to determine the water quality of selected lagoon and open ocean sites and provide guidance for the construction of a sewerage system. This study revealed that lagoon waters were moderately to severely contaminated. (BT)

  17. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  18. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  19. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  20. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  1. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  2. Michigan lakes: An assessment of water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes, that provide countless recreational opportunities and are an important resource that makes tourism and recreation a $15-billion-dollar per-year industry in the State (Stynes, 2002). Knowledge of the water-quality characteristics of inland lakes is essential for the current and future management of these resources.Historically the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly have monitored water quality in Michigan's lakes and rivers. During the 1990's, however, funding for surface-water-quality monitoring was reduced greatly. In 1998, the citizens of Michigan passed the Clean Michigan Initiative to clean up, protect, and enhance Michigan's environmental infrastructure. Because of expanding water-quality-data needs, the MDEQ and the USGS jointly redesigned and implemented the Lake Water-Quality Assessment (LWQA) Monitoring Program (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1997).

  3. Protecting water quality in the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E. ); Stewart, E.H. )

    1994-08-01

    This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships to each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.

  4. Comparative analysis of regional water quality in Canada using the Water Quality Index.

    PubMed

    de Rosemond, Simone; Duro, Dennis C; Dubé, Monique

    2009-09-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) has developed a Water Quality Index (WQI) to simplify the reporting of complex water quality data. This science-based communication tool tests multi-variable water data against numeric water quality guidelines and/or objectives to produce a single unit-less number that represents overall water quality. The CCME WQI has been used to rate overall water quality in spatial and temporal comparisons of site(s). However, it has not been used in a comparative-analysis of exposure sites to reference sites downstream of point source discharges. This study evaluated the ability of the CCME WQI to differentiate water quality from metal mines across Canada at exposure sites from reference sites using two different types of numeric water quality objectives: (1) the water quality guidelines (WQG) for the protection of freshwater aquatic life and (2) water quality objectives determined using regional reference data termed Region-Specific Objectives (RSO). The application of WQG to the CCME WQI was found to be a good tool to assess absolute water quality as it relates to national water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, but had more limited use when evaluating spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges. The application of the RSO to the CCME WQI resulted in assessment of spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges relative to upstream reference conditions.

  5. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  6. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  7. Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Cunliffe, D; Sinclair, M; Vulcano, R; Howard, J; Hrudey, S; Callan, P

    2003-01-01

    A growing list of water contaminants has led to some water suppliers relying primarily on compliance monitoring as a mechanism for managing drinking water quality. While such monitoring is a necessary part of drinking water quality management, experiences with waterborne disease threats and outbreaks have shown that compliance monitoring for numerical limits is not, in itself, sufficient to guarantee the safety and quality of drinking water supplies. To address these issues, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has developed a Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) for incorporation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, the primary reference on drinking water quality in Australia. The Framework was developed specifically for drinking water supplies and provides a comprehensive and preventive risk management approach from catchment to consumer. It includes holistic guidance on a range of issues considered good practice for system management. The Framework addresses four key areas: Commitment to Drinking Water Quality Management, System Analysis and System Management, Supporting Requirements, and Review. The Framework represents a significantly enhanced approach to the management and regulation of drinking water quality and offers a flexible and proactive means of optimising drinking water quality and protecting public health. Rather than the primary reliance on compliance monitoring, the Framework emphasises prevention, the importance of risk assessment, maintaining the integrity of water supply systems and application of multiple barriers to assure protection of public health. Development of the Framework was undertaken in collaboration with the water industry, regulators and other stakeholder, and will promote a common and unified approach to drinking water quality management throughout Australia. The Framework has attracted international interest.

  8. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  9. Harlem River water quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Harlem River is a navigable tidal strait, which flows 8 miles connecting the Hudson River and the East River. In wet weather condition, there is untreated sewage mixed rainfall discharged to the river directly at CSO's discharge point. These raw sewer contain bacteria such as Fecal Coliform, E. Coli, Entercocci those can cause illness. There are total 37 CSOs dicharge point along the Harlem River. Water samples were collected from five sites and analyzed on a weekly basis in spring from March to May 2011, and on a monthly basis in July and August. Results showed that ammonia concentrations were ranged from 0.25 to 2.2 mg/L, and there was an increased pattern in summer when temperature increases; soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 mg/L; total P (TP) ranged from 0.03 to 0.7 mg/L; organic P (OP) ranged from 0.006 to 0.5 mg/L. In rain storm (wet weather condition), untreated sewer discharged into the river with distinguished higher nutrient concentrations (ammonia=2.9 mg/L, TP=3.1 mg/L, OP=2.9 mg/L) and extremely high bacteria levels (fecal coliform-millions, countless colonies; E. Coli-thousands). Results showed spatial variations among the five sites, seasonal variations from spring to summer, and variations under different weather conditions (temperature, storms). The raw sewer discharge during heavy rainstorms resulted in higher nutrients and bacteria levels, and the water quality was degraded.

  10. Water quality modelling of Jadro spring.

    PubMed

    Margeta, J; Fistanic, I

    2004-01-01

    Management of water quality in karst is a specific problem. Water generally moves very fast by infiltration processes but far more by concentrated flows through fissures and openings in karst. This enables the entire surface pollution to be transferred fast and without filtration into groundwater springs. A typical example is the Jadro spring. Changes in water quality at the spring are sudden, but short. Turbidity as a major water quality problem for the karst springs regularly exceeds allowable standards. Former practice in problem solving has been reduced to intensive water disinfection in periods of great turbidity without analyses of disinfection by-products risks for water users. The main prerequisite for water quality control and an optimization of water disinfection is the knowledge of raw water quality and nature of occurrence. The analysis of monitoring data and their functional relationship with hydrological parameters enables establishment of a stochastic model that will help obtain better information on turbidity in different periods of the year. Using the model a great number of average monthly and extreme daily values are generated. By statistical analyses of these data possibility of occurrence of high turbidity in certain months is obtained. This information can be used for designing expert system for water quality management of karst springs. Thus, the time series model becomes a valuable tool in management of drinking water quality of the Jadro spring.

  11. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  12. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  13. A Review of Surface Water Quality Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibei; Jia, Peng; Qi, Changjun; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Surface water quality models can be useful tools to simulate and predict the levels, distributions, and risks of chemical pollutants in a given water body. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. Whether the model results are right or not can impact the reasonability and scientificity of the authorized construct projects and the availability of pollution control measures. We reviewed the development of surface water quality models at three stages and analyzed the suitability, precisions, and methods among different models. Standardization of water quality models can help environmental management agencies guarantee the consistency in application of water quality models for regulatory purposes. We concluded the status of standardization of these models in developed countries and put forward available measures for the standardization of these surface water quality models, especially in developing countries. PMID:23853533

  14. A review of surface water quality models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinggai; Li, Shibei; Jia, Peng; Qi, Changjun; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Surface water quality models can be useful tools to simulate and predict the levels, distributions, and risks of chemical pollutants in a given water body. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. Whether the model results are right or not can impact the reasonability and scientificity of the authorized construct projects and the availability of pollution control measures. We reviewed the development of surface water quality models at three stages and analyzed the suitability, precisions, and methods among different models. Standardization of water quality models can help environmental management agencies guarantee the consistency in application of water quality models for regulatory purposes. We concluded the status of standardization of these models in developed countries and put forward available measures for the standardization of these surface water quality models, especially in developing countries.

  15. Quality of ground water in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yee, Johnson J.; Souza, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The major aquifers in Idaho are categorized under two rock types, sedimentary and volcanic, and are grouped into six hydrologic basins. Areas with adequate, minimally adequate, or deficient data available for groundwater-quality evaluations are described. Wide variations in chemical concentrations in the water occur within individual aquifers, as well as among the aquifers. The existing data base is not sufficient to describe fully the ground-water quality throughout the State; however, it does indicate that the water is generally suitable for most uses. In some aquifers, concentrations of fluoride, cadmium, and iron in the water exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate may cause problems in some local areas. Water-quality data are sparse in many areas, and only general statements can be made regarding the areal distribution of chemical constituents. Few data are available to describe temporal variations of water quality in the aquifers. Primary concerns related to special problem areas in Idaho include (1) protection of water quality in the Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, (2) potential degradation of water quality in the Boise-Nampa area, (3) effects of widespread use of drain wells overlying the eastern Snake River Plain basalt aquifer, and (4) disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shortcomings in the ground-water-quality data base are categorized as (1) multiaquifer sample inadequacy, (2) constituent coverage limitations, (3) baseline-data deficiencies, and (4) data-base nonuniformity.

  16. Parents' perceptions of water safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Lori; Bicking, Cara; Sekhar, Deepa

    2012-02-01

    Every day parents make choices about the source of water their families consume. There are many contributing factors which could affect decisions about water consumption including taste, smell, color, safety, cost, and convenience. However, few studies have investigated what parents with young children think about water quality and safety in the US and how this affects the choices they are making. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of parents with regard to water quality and safety and to compare bottled water and tap water use, as well as to examine motivation for water choices. We conducted an online questionnaire to survey parents living in Pennsylvania about water quality and safety, and preference for bottled versus tap water. Parents were recruited through child care centers, and 143 surveys were returned. The survey results showed high overall scores for perception of tap water quality and safety, and a preference for tap water over bottled water. We found that parents were concerned for the environmental impact that buying bottled water may have but were also concerned about potential contamination of tap water by natural gas drilling processes and nuclear power plants. These findings regarding parental concerns are critical to inform pediatric health care providers, water sellers, and suppliers in order that they may provide parents with the necessary information to make educated choices for their families.

  17. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  18. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  19. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  20. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring

    Treesearch

    J.L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  1. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  2. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  3. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  4. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  5. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  6. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein

    2016-12-01

    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  7. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    PubMed

    Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Akbari Adergani, Behrouz; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Nabavi, Bibi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-05-01

    Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers. A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC), temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified. A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  8. Influence of lake morphology on water quality.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sheela A; Janaki, Letha; Joseph, Sabu; Justus, J; Vimala, Sheeja Ramakrishnan

    2011-11-01

    Lakes are seriously affected due to urban pollution. The study of the morphological features of a lake system helps to identify its environmental status. The objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of morphometry on water quality in a lake (Akkulam-Veli Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala). The morphological features namely mean depth, surface area, volume, shoreline length, shoreline development and index of basin permanence have been evaluated. Correlation analysis has been conducted to determine the relationship between morphological features and water quality. Regression analysis has been conducted to find out the extent of influence of morphometric features on water quality. The study revealed that the lake is less affected by wind-induced wave action due to various reasons. The depth and volume have significant role in the water quality. The nitrogen fixation of blue green algae can be observed from the morphological features. The morphology has greater role in the water quality of a lake system.

  9. Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, W.C. ); Orth, R.J.; Moore, K.A. ); Stevenson, J.C. ); Carter, V. ); Kollar, S. ); Bergstrom, P.W.; Batiuk, R.A. )

    1993-02-01

    Estuaries throughout the world are experiencing water quality problems as the result of human population growth in coastal areas. By establishing the habitat requirements of critical submerged aquatic vegetation, water quality can be evaluated and restoration goals can be made. This study used submerged vegetation in Chesapeake Bay to examine the habitat and health of the Bay. Both natural distributions and transplant survival in different studies were analyzed. The five habitat requirements used were light attenuation, total suspended solids, chlorophyll, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and dissolved inorganic phosphorus. Water-quality conditions supporting vegetation growth to one meter depth was used. This study represents the first attempt at linking habitat requirements of a living resource to water quality standards in an estuarine system. It allows for predictive capability without detailed knowledge of the precise nature of vegetation/water quality interactions.

  10. AMBIENT AQUATIC LIFE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nonylphenol is a toxic breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. NPE surfactants are used in industrial cleaning applications and pesticide formulations. EPA published a draft ambient water quality criteria document for nonylphenol in January 2004. This document contains ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Acute and chronic criteria recommendations have been developed for the protection of aquatic life in both freshwater and saltwater. These criteria are published pursuant to Section 304 (a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and serve as technical information for States for establishing criteria within their State Water Quality Standards.

  11. Water spectral pattern as holistic marker for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Bázár, György; Oshima, Mitsue; Shigeoka, Shogo; Tanaka, Mariko; Furukawa, Akane; Nagai, Airi; Osawa, Manami; Itakura, Yukari; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-15

    Online water quality monitoring technologies have been improving continuously. At the moment, water quality is defined by the respective range of few chosen parameters. However, this strategy requires sampling and it cannot provide evaluation of the entire water molecular system including various solutes. As it is nearly impossible to monitor every single molecule dissolved in water, the objective of our research is to introduce a complimentary approach, a new concept for water screening by observing the water molecular system changes using aquaphotomics and Quality Control Chart method. This approach can continuously provide quick information about any qualitative change of water molecular arrangement without taking into account the reason of the alteration of quality. Different species and concentrations of solutes in aqueous systems structure the water solvent differently. Aquaphotomics investigates not the characteristic absorption bands of the solute in question, but the solution absorption at vibrational bands of water's covalent and hydrogen bonds that have been altered by the solute. The applicability of the proposed concept is evaluated by monitoring the water structural changes in different aqueous solutions such as acid, sugar, and salt solutions at millimolar concentration level and in ground water. The results show the potential of the proposed approach to use water spectral pattern monitoring as bio marker of water quality. Our successful results open a new venue in water quality monitoring by offering a quick and cost effective method for continuous screening of water molecular arrangement. Instead of the regular analysis of individual physical or chemical parameters, with our method - as a complementary tool - the structural changes of water molecular system used as a mirror reflecting even small disturbances in water can indicate the necessity of further detailed analysis by conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. "An assessment of changes the Danube river flow along the Iron Gate gorge for XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research was dedicated to foreseeing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources in eastern part of Serbia, along the Danube catchment. The Danube basin is in the eastern section of the considered RCM ( Regional climate model). For this purposes, the RCM EBU-POM according to the IPCC scenario A1B, was used in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100. The Danube's catchment encompasses continental climate, as it is land-dominated by advection from the surrounding land areas. This part of Danube catchment is greatly affected by the Mediterranean climate, since the Danube runoff gives a relevant contribution of freshwater flux into the Mediterranean sea and it is dependent mostly on precipitated water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. Prior to the assessment of changes of water resources of the Danube river, including the climate change effects, there was determined the terrain's spatial regionalization. Having been aware of the climatic-hydrologic and hydrographic homogeneity of regions, the whole territory of Serbia was divided into 20 units basins. The part of Danube basin in its eastern part, was subject of the research. For this balance unit, the main components of the balance equation of the water that included into the calculation are: precipitation P (mm), flow Q (m3/s), runoff depth h (mm), evaporation E (mm) and annual air temperature T (0C). The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) for the time frame 1961-1990 in order to get relevant coefficients

  13. Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Charles R.; Perfetti, Patricia Bytnar

    This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An introduction and eight chapters are…

  14. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  15. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  16. Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from the River Danube: Antibiotic Resistances, with a Focus on the Presence of ESBL and Carbapenemases

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, Clemens; Lipp, Michaela; Folli, Bettina; Kirschner, Alexander; Baumert, Rita; Galler, Herbert; Grisold, Andrea J.; Luxner, Josefa; Weissenbacher, Melanie; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zarfel, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    In a clinical setting it seems to be normal these days that a relevant proportion or even the majority of different bacterial species has already one or more acquired antibiotic resistances. Unfortunately, the overuse of antibiotics for livestock breeding and medicine has also altered the wild-type resistance profiles of many bacterial species in different environmental settings. As a matter of fact, getting in contact with resistant bacteria is no longer restricted to hospitals. Beside food and food production, the aquatic environment might also play an important role as reservoir and carrier. The aim of this study was the assessment of the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. out of surface water without prior enrichment and under non-selective culture conditions (for antibiotic resistance). In addition, the presence of clinically important extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenmase harboring Enterobacteriaceae should be investigated. During Joint Danube Survey 3 (2013), water samples were taken over the total course of the River Danube. Resistance testing was performed for 21 different antibiotics. Samples were additionally screened for ESBL or carbapenmase harboring Enterobacteriaceae. 39% of all isolated Escherichia coli and 15% of all Klebsiella spp. from the river Danube had at least one acquired resistance. Resistance was found against all tested antibiotics except tigecycline. Taking a look on the whole stretch of the River Danube the proportion of multiresistances did not differ significantly. In total, 35 ESBL harboring Enterobacteriaceae, 17 Escherichia coli, 13 Klebsiella pneumoniae and five Enterobacter spp. were isolated. One Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring NMD-1 carbapenmases and two Enterobacteriaceae with KPC-2 could be identified. Human generated antibiotic resistance is very common in E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in the River Danube. Even isolates with resistance patterns normally associated with intensive

  17. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  18. Alternative technologies for water quality management

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2002-01-01

    Cranberry growers are concerned about the quality of water discharged from cranberry bogs into receiving surface waters. These water discharges may contain traces of pesticides arising from herbicide, insecticide or fungicide applications. They may also contain excess phosphorus from fertilizer application. Some cranberry farms have holding ponds to reduce the amount...

  19. School on Alert over Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue on the quality of water in Seattle's school districts. Seattle's water woes became public when four little containers of rust-colored water from fountains in the city district's Wedgewood Elementary School, collected by concerned parents, were tested by a certified laboratory and found to exceed federal lead limits.…

  20. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Treesearch

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  1. School on Alert over Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue on the quality of water in Seattle's school districts. Seattle's water woes became public when four little containers of rust-colored water from fountains in the city district's Wedgewood Elementary School, collected by concerned parents, were tested by a certified laboratory and found to exceed federal lead limits.…

  2. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  3. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  4. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... diverting, using, and returning Colorado River water, must: (1) Comply with all applicable water pollution...

  5. Evaluating benefits and costs of changes in water quality.

    Treesearch

    Jessica Koteen; Susan J. Alexander; John B. Loomis

    2002-01-01

    Water quality affects a variety of uses, such as municipal water consumption and recreation. Changes in water quality can influence the benefits water users receive. The problem is how to define water quality for specific uses. It is not possible to come up with one formal definition of water quality that fits all water uses. There are many parameters that influence...

  6. Correlation study among water quality parameters an approach to water quality management.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D K; Rastogi, G K; Kumar, R; Kumar, N

    2009-04-01

    To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management.

  7. Quality assessment of plant transpiration water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Janik, Daniel S.; Benson, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed to use plants as elements of biologically-based life support systems for long-term space missions. Three roles have been brought forth for plants in this application: recycling of water, regeneration of air and production of food. This report discusses recycling of water and presents data from investigations of plant transpiration water quality. Aqueous nutrient solution was applied to several plant species and transpired water collected. The findings indicated that this water typically contained 0.3-6 ppm of total organic carbon, which meets hygiene water standards for NASA's space applications. It suggests that this method could be developed to achieve potable water standards.

  8. Quality assessment of plant transpiration water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Janik, Daniel S.; Benson, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed to use plants as elements of biologically-based life support systems for long-term space missions. Three roles have been brought forth for plants in this application: recycling of water, regeneration of air and production of food. This report discusses recycling of water and presents data from investigations of plant transpiration water quality. Aqueous nutrient solution was applied to several plant species and transpired water collected. The findings indicated that this water typically contained 0.3-6 ppm of total organic carbon, which meets hygiene water standards for NASA's space applications. It suggests that this method could be developed to achieve potable water standards.

  9. Water shortages and implied water quality: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genius, Margarita; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2006-12-01

    This paper analyses the extent to which households in an urban area are willing to pay to ensure a fully reliable water supply when the latter induces changes in drinking water quality. The water supply system in the city of Heraklion, Greece, is characterized by periodic water rationing, which is more pronounced in the summer months. The generalized use of cisterns and even water tanks helps residents cope with quantity shortages but has a negative effect on the quality of the water reaching their taps. The results of our contingent valuation show that respondents not affected by shortages and already drinking tap water have a smaller willingness to pay, while positive perceptions on quality have a positive effect.

  10. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  11. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Saad Ul

    2016-07-01

    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  12. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  13. Newborns health in the Danube Region: Environment, biomonitoring, interventions and economic benefits in a large prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Zorana J; Sram, Radim J; Ščasný, Milan; Gurzau, Eugen S; Fucic, Aleksandra; Gribaldo, Laura; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Kohlová, Markéta Braun; Máca, Vojtěch; Zvěřinová, Iva; Gajdosova, Dagmar; Moshammer, Hanns; Rudnai, Peter; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2016-03-01

    The EU strategy for the Danube Region addresses numerous challenges including environment, health and socioeconomic disparities. Many old environmental burdens and heavily polluted areas in Europe are located in the Danube Region, consisting of 14 countries, with over 100 million people. Estimating the burden of environmental exposures on early-life health is a growing research area in Europe which has major public health implications, but the data from the Danube Region are largely missing. This review presents an inventory of current environmental challenges, related early-life health risks, and knowledge gaps in the Danube Region, based on publicly available databases, registers, and literature, as a rationale and incentive for a new integrated project. The review also proposes the concept for the project aiming to characterize in utero exposures to multiple environmental factors and estimate their effect on early-life health, evaluate economic impact, as well as identify interventions with a potential to harness social norms to reduce emissions, exposures and health risks in the Danube Region. Experts in environmental epidemiology, human biomonitoring and social science in collaboration with clinicians propose to establish a new large multi-center birth cohort of mother-child pairs from Danube countries, measure biomarkers of exposure and health in biological samples at birth, collect centrally measured climate, air and water pollution data, conduct pre- and postnatal surveys on lifestyle, indoor exposures, noise, occupation, socio-economic status, risk-averting behavior, and preferences; and undertake clinical examinations of children at and after birth. Birth cohort will include at least 2000 newborns per site, and a subset of at least 200 mother-child pairs per site for biomonitoring. Novel biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effect will be applied, to gain better mechanistic insight. Effects of multiple environmental exposures on fetal and child

  14. Principles of Water Quality Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, T. H. Y.

    This book is designed as a text for undergraduate civil engineering courses and as preliminary reading for postgraduate courses in public health engineering and water resources technology. It is also intended to be of value to workers already in the field and to students preparing for the examinations of the Institute of Water Pollution Control…

  15. Principles of Water Quality Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, T. H. Y.

    This book is designed as a text for undergraduate civil engineering courses and as preliminary reading for postgraduate courses in public health engineering and water resources technology. It is also intended to be of value to workers already in the field and to students preparing for the examinations of the Institute of Water Pollution Control…

  16. A water quality monitoring system for HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Tinoco, S.; Iriarte, A.

    2012-09-01

    HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), is a gamma ray (γ) large aperture observatory with high sensitivity that will be able to continuously monitor the sky for transient sources of photons with energies between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. HAWC is under construction in Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico, which is located at a high altitude of 4100m. HAWC will be an array of 300 Cherenkov detectors each one with 200,000 liters of highly pure water. The sensitivity of the instrument depends strongly on the water quality. We present the design and construction of the HAWC water quality monitoring system. We seek monitor the transparency in violet-blue range to achieve and maintain the required water transparency quality in each detector. The system is robust and user friendly. The measurements are reproducible. Also we present some results from the monitoring the water from the VAMOS detector tanks and of the filtering system.

  17. National Water Quality Laboratory - A Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) is a full-service laboratory that specializes in environmental analytical chemistry. The NWQL's primary mission is to support USGS programs requiring environmental analyses that provide consistent methodology for national assessment and trends analysis. The NWQL provides the following: high-quality chemical data; consistent, published, state-of-the-art methodology; extremely low-detection levels; high-volume capability; biological unit for identifying benthic invertebrates; quality assurance for determining long-term water-quality trends; and a professional staff.

  18. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  19. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  20. Enhancing water quality in hydropower system operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Donald F.; Labadie, John W.; Sanders, Thomas G.; Brown, Jackson K.

    1998-03-01

    The quality of impounded waters often degrades over time because of thermal stratification, sediment oxygen demands, and accumulation of pollutants. Consequently, reservoir releases impact water quality in tailwaters, channels, and other downstream water bodies. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Cumberland River below Old Hickory dam result from stratification of upstream reservoirs and seasonally low release rates. Operational changes in upstream hydropower reservoirs may be one method to increase DO levels without substantially impacting existing project purposes. A water quality model of the upper Cumberland basin is integrated into an optimal control algorithm to evaluate water quality improvement opportunities through operational modifications. The integrated water quantity/quality model maximizes hydropower revenues, subject to various flow and headwater operational restrictions for satisfying multiple project purposes, as well as maintenance of water quality targets. Optimal daily reservoir release policies are determined for the summer drawdown period which increase DO concentrations under stratification conditions with minimal impact on hydropower production and other project purposes. Appendixes A-D available with entire article on microfiche. Order by mail from AGU, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $2.50. Document W97-003. Payment must accompany order.

  1. Network-based Modeling of Mesoscale Catchments - The Hydrology Perspective of Glowa-danube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, R.; Escher-Vetter, H.; Hennicker, R.; Mauser, W.; Niemeyer, S.; Reichstein, M.; Tenhunen, J.

    Within the GLOWA initiative of the German Ministry for Research and Educa- tion (BMBF), the project GLOWA-Danube is funded to establish a transdisciplinary network-based decision support tool for water related issues in the Upper Danube wa- tershed. It aims to develop and validate integration techniques, integrated models and integrated monitoring procedures and to implement them in the network-based De- cision Support System DANUBIA. An accurate description of processes involved in energy, water and matter fluxes and turnovers requires an intense collaboration and exchange of water related expertise of different scientific disciplines. DANUBIA is conceived as a distributed expert network and is developed on the basis of re-useable, refineable, and documented sub-models. In order to synthesize a common understand- ing between the project partners, a standardized notation of parameters and functions and a platform-independent structure of computational methods and interfaces has been established using the Unified Modeling Language UML. DANUBIA is object- oriented, spatially distributed and raster-based at its core. It applies the concept of "proxels" (Process Pixel) as its basic object, which has different dimensions depend- ing on the viewing scale and connects to its environment through fluxes. The presented study excerpts the hydrological view point of GLOWA-Danube, its approach of model coupling and network based communication (using the Remote Method Invocation RMI), the object-oriented technology to simulate physical processes and interactions at the land surface and the methodology to treat the issue of spatial and temporal scal- ing in large, heterogeneous catchments. The mechanisms applied to communicate data and model parameters across the typical discipline borders will be demonstrated from the perspective of a land-surface object, which comprises the capabilities of interde- pendent expert models for snowmelt, soil water movement, runoff formation, plant

  2. Microbial (Pathogen)/Recreational Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to Recreational Human Health Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Microbial Organisms (Pathogens). These documents include safe levels for cyanotoxins microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, and Coliphage to protect human health.

  3. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, list of partner agencies.

  4. Nonpoint Source: National Water Quality Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Water Quality Initiative (NWQI) is a collaborative between EPA and Natural Resource Conservation Service ( NRCS) that began in 2012. NWQI provides a means to accelerate voluntary, private lands conservation practices

  5. Summary of surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Cates, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Available surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water-withdrawal data for the Spirit Lake Reservation were summarized. The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies. Although the quality of surface water on the reservation generally is satisfactory, no surface-water sources are used for consumable water supplies. Ground water on the reservation is of sufficient quality for most uses. The Tokio and Warwick aquifers have better overall water quality than the Spiritwood aquifer. Water from the Spiritwood aquifer is used mostly for irrigation. The Warwick aquifer provides most of the consumable water for the reservation and for the city of Devils Lake. Annual water withdrawals from the Warwick aquifer by the Spirit Lake Nation ranged from 71 million gallons to 122 million gallons during 2000-04.

  6. [Achieving quality goals for bodies of water].

    PubMed

    Cencetti, Corrado; Guidi, Massimo; Martinelli, Angiolo; Patrizi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Target of this paper is to draw the relationship between environmental factors and some impacts due to human activity, in order to outline environmental quality restoring strategies for water bodies, which include among result indicators also biological parameters expected for Italian regulation and European directives. Morphologic equilibrium and correct knowledge of processes regulating fluvial dynamic, as basic factor of ecosystem functionality condition, are highlighted. Statistic evaluation processes of water quality data and implementation and validation of mathematical models are described.

  7. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1995 services catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Timme, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.

  8. ADDRESSING EMERGING ISSUES IN WATER QUALITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public concern over cleanliness and safety of source and recreational waters has prompted researchers to look for indicators of water quality. Giving public water authorities multiple tools to measure and monitor levels of chemical contaminants, as well as chemical markers of contamination, simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. The goals of water quality are outlined in the Water Quality Multi-year Plan [http://intranet.epa.gov/ospintra/Planning/wq.pdf] and the research in this task falls under GPRA Goal 2, 2.3.2, Long Term Goals 1, 2, and 4. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG

  9. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

  10. WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates f

  11. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers

    PubMed Central

    FARHADKHANI, Marzieh; NIKAEEN, Mahnaz; AKBARI ADERGANI, Behrouz; HATAMZADEH, Maryam; NABAVI, Bibi Fatemeh; HASSANZADEH, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers. Methods A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC), temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Results The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified. Conclusion A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control. PMID:26060769

  12. STOrage and RETrieval and Water Quality eXchange | Water ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-02-17

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  13. STOrage and RETrieval and Water Quality eXchange | Water ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-04-07

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  14. STOrage and RETrieval and Water Quality eXchange | Water ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2015-11-02

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  15. STOrage and RETrieval and Water Quality eXchange | Water ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-03-22

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  16. STOrage and RETrieval and Water Quality eXchange | Water ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-04-07

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  17. STOrage and RETrieval and Water Quality eXchange | Water ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-02-17

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  18. Producing Quality Water for Industrial Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaezler, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    This article discusses the quality of water demanded by industrial plants and the techniques which are currently employed to achieve them. Both quality and quantity requirements are considered including total plant operation, physical and chemical operating controls, and systems monitoring. (CS)

  19. Water availability, quality, and use in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Water Assessment, sponsored by the Water Resources Council, is a specific problem analysis for Alaska of the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources. The Alaska region has been divided into six hydrologic subregions and eighteen subareas. For each subarea, estimated mean annual runoff per square mile, suspended-sediment concentrations that can be expected during ' normal ' summer runoff, flood magnitudes and frequencies, and ground-water yields are illustrated on maps. Tables show water quality of both ground water and surface water from selected wells and streams. Water use according to the type of use is discussed, and estimates are given for the amounts used. Water-use categories include domestic, irrigation, livestock, seafood processing, oil and gas development, petrochemical processing, pulp mills, hydroelectric , coal processing, steam electric, mineral processing, sand and gravel mining, and fish-hatchery operations. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Instruments for Water Quality Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations and Water, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The old system of licensing within the different sectors of the society in Norway is in the process of being incorporated into a system of total natural resource planning and regulation. This article outlines comprehensive physical and economic water pollution management plans for the municipality, the county, and the state. (Author/MA)

  2. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  3. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  4. Water quality risks of 'improved' water sources: evidence from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, A; Orgill, J; Ratana, C; Montgomery, M A; Jeuland, M A; Brown, J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of on-plot piped water and rainwater at the point of consumption in an area with rapidly expanding coverage of 'improved' water sources. Cross-sectional study of 914 peri-urban households in Kandal Province, Cambodia, between July-August 2011. We collected data from all households on water management, drinking water quality and factors potentially related to post-collection water contamination. Drinking water samples were taken directly from a subsample of household taps (n = 143), stored tap water (n = 124), other stored water (n = 92) and treated stored water (n = 79) for basic water quality analysis for Escherichia coli and other parameters. Household drinking water management was complex, with different sources used at any given time and across seasons. Rainwater was the most commonly used drinking water source. Households mixed different water sources in storage containers, including 'improved' with 'unimproved' sources. Piped water from taps deteriorated during storage (P < 0.0005), from 520 cfu/100 ml (coefficient of variation, CV: 5.7) E. coli to 1100 cfu/100 ml (CV: 3.4). Stored non-piped water (primarily rainwater) had a mean E. coli count of 1500 cfu/100 ml (CV: 4.1), not significantly different from stored piped water (P = 0.20). Microbial contamination of stored water was significantly associated with observed storage and handling practices, including dipping hands or receptacles in water (P < 0.005), and having an uncovered storage container (P = 0.052). The microbial quality of 'improved' water sources in our study area was not maintained at the point of consumption, possibly due to a combination of mixing water sources at the household level, unsafe storage and handling practices, and inadequately treated piped-to-plot water. These results have implications for refining international targets for safe drinking water access as well as the assumptions underlying global burden of disease

  5. SAMPLING DESIGN FOR ASSESSING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current U.S. EPA guidelines for monitoring recreatoinal water quality refer to the geometric mean density of indicator organisms, enterococci and E. coli in marine and fresh water, respectively, from at least five samples collected over a four-week period. In order to expand thi...

  6. British Columbia water quality guidelines, criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This publication contains tables summarizing approved water quality guidelines for various contaminants that may be present in British Columbia water supplies. It begins with a section in question and answer format that explains certain aspects of the guidelines. Contaminants covered by the guidelines include particulate matter, nutrients and algae, aluminium, lead, mercury, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, copper, chlorine, fluoride, hydrocarbons, pH, and silver.

  7. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  8. Effects of fire retardant on water quality

    Treesearch

    Logan A. Norris; Warren L. Webb

    1989-01-01

    Ammonium-based fire retardants are important in managing wildfires, but their use can adversely affect water quality. Their entry, fate, and impact were studied in five forest streams. Initial retardant concentrations in water approached levels which could damage fish, but no distressed fish were found. Concentrations decreased sharply with time after application and...

  9. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  10. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  11. Parameter estimation using carbon-14 ages: Lessons from the Danube-Tisza interfluvial region of Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Deak, J.; Revesz, K.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimation was conducted on a groundwater model of the Danube-Tisza interfluvial region of Hungary. The model was calibrated using 300 water levels and 48 14C ages. The model provided a test of regression methods for a system with a large number of observations. Up to 103 parameters representing horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and boundary conductances were assigned using point values and bilinear interpolation between points. The lowest errors were obtained using an iterative approach with groups of parameters, rather than estimating all of the parameters simultaneously. The model with 48 parameters yielded the lowest standard error of regression.

  12. Water quality deterioration: a study of household drinking water quality in rural Honduras.

    PubMed

    Trevett, Andrew Francis; Carter, Richard; Tyrrel, Sean

    2004-08-01

    There is growing awareness that drinking-water can become contaminated following its collection from communal sources such as wells and tap-stands, as well as during its storage in the home. This study evaluated the post-supply drinking-water quality in three rural Honduran communities using either a protected hand-dug well or borehole supply. Water management practices were documented as a basis for further research to improve household drinking-water quality. Membrane filtration was used to compare thermotolerant coliform levels in samples taken from community wells and household drinking-water storage containers. Over a 2-year period, water quality was examined in 43 households and detailed observation made of typical collection, storage and usage practice. Substantial water quality deterioration occurred between the points of supply and consumption. Deterioration occurred regularly and frequently, and was experienced by the majority of study households. Only source water quality appeared to be a significant factor in determining household water quality. None of the storage factors examined, i.e. covering the container, type of container, the material from which the container was made, and hours stored, made any significant difference to the stored water quality. Observation of household water management shows that there are multiple points during the collection to use sequence where pollution could occur. The commonality of water management practice would be an asset in introducing appropriate intervention measures.

  13. Water quality analysis of surface water: a Web approach.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Poonam; Chaurasia, Meenal; Sohony, R A; Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, R

    2013-07-01

    The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water with respect to its suitability describe its quality. Concentration of pesticides or fertilisers degrades the water quality and affects marine life. A comprehensive environmental data information system helps to perform and complete common tasks in less time with less effort for data verification, data calculations, graph generation, and proper monitoring, which helps in the further mitigation step. In this paper, focus is given to a web-based system developed to express the quality of water in the imprecise environment of monitoring data. Water samples were analyzed for eight different surface water parameters, in which four parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform were used for the water quality index calculation following MPCB Water Quality Standards of class A-II for best designated use. The analysis showed that river points in a particular year were in very bad category with certainty level of 0-38% which is unsuitable for drinking purposes; samples in bad category had certainty level that ranged from 38 to 50%; samples in medium to good category had certainty levels from 50 to 100%, and the remaining samples were in good to excellent category, suitable for drinking purposes, with certainty levels from 63 to 100%.

  14. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water in the Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses, with the exception of water in two wells which had iron concentrations that potentially could be tasted in beverages and could cause staining of laundry and porcelain fixtures. A comparison of the chemical compositions of ground and surface waters showed a strong similarity over a wide geographic area. Proportions of the major chemical constituents in the rivers of the basin were nearly constant despite concentration fluctuations in response to dilution from precipitation and snowmelt. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water use and water-quality criteria. Fecal-coliform bacteria counts generally were much lower than the total-coliform bacteria counts, indicating that most of the coliform bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated in soils. Fecal coliform concentrations in all the major tributaries met State water-quality criteria. Water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow; dissolved-oxygen concentrations were occasionally less than criteria minimum because of increased water temperature. Both conditions occurred naturally. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low and about the same as in streams from virgin forestland in the Olympic National Park. However, some slight increases in nutrient concentrations were observed, particularly in the vicinity of Mill Creek and the town of Forks; due to dilution and biological assimilation, these slightly elevated concentrations decreased as the water moved downstream. 35 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Development of reclaimed potable water quality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flory, D. A.; Weir, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    In order to minimize launch requirements necessary to meet the demands of long-term spaceflight, NASA will reuse water reclaimed from various on-board sources including urine, feces, wash water and humidity condensate. Development of reclamation systems requires the promulgation of water quality standards for potable reuse of the reclaimed water. Existing standards for domestic U.S. potable water consumption were developed, but do not consider the peculiar problems associated with the potable reuse of recycled water. An effort was made to: (1) define a protocol by which comprehensive reclaimed water potability/palatability criteria can be established and updated; and (2) continue the effort to characterize the organic content of reclaimed water in the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation.

  16. Drainage water management effects on tile dicharge and water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drainage water management (DWM) has received considerable attention as a potential best management practice for improving water quality in tile drained landscapes. However, only a limited number of studies have documented the effectiveness of DWM in mitigating nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. ...

  17. WATER QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source waters of the U.S. are vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic factors affecting quality for use as both a drinking water and ecological media. Important factors include physical parameters such as increased turbidity, ecological cycles such as algal blooms, and episodic ...

  18. Teleconnection patterns influencing the precipitation variability in the Danube basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, Ileana; Mares, Constantin; Dobrica, Venera; Demetrescu, Crisan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the link between the associated indices of the teleconnections patterns and the first principal component of the precipitation in the Danube basin, for each season, is investigated by means of the stepwise regressions, composite maps and power spectra. Eight teleconnections patterns were considered: the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation (AMO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the East Atlantic/ Western Russia (EAWRUS), the Greenland-Balkan Oscillation (GBO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Scandinavian pattern (SCAND) and the Southern Oscillation (SO). We have found that their influence on the precipitation depends on the season and the position of the station in the Danube basin. For instance, in winter time, the signals with high statistical significance, in the precipitation in the middle and lower basin, are produced of GBO, AO, EAWRUS and NAO. Also in the winter season, AMO brings a contribution to precipitation in the Danube basin, but at a confidence level much lower ( 90%).

  19. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  20. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS)...

  1. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  2. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS)...

  3. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  4. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM...

  5. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines...

  6. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS)...

  7. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  8. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section 130.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS)...

  9. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  10. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  11. Improved water quality retrieval by identifying optically unique water classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazeer, Majid; Nichol, Janet E.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate remote sensing retrieval of water quality parameters in complex coastal environments is challenging due to variability of the coastal environment. For example, in the coastal waters of Hong Kong water quality varies from east to west. The currently existing water zones, defined by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) are based on ease of access to sampling locations rather than on water quality alone. In this study an archive of fifty-seven Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and HJ-1 A/B Charged Couple Device (CCD) images over a 13-year period (January 2000-December 2012) was used to define optically distinct water classes by Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) clustering. The clustering was applied by combining the Surface Reflectance (SR) derived from the first four bands of Landsat and HJ-1 scenes with 240 insitu samples of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Suspended Solid (SS) concentrations collected within 2 h of image acquisition. The FCM clustering suggested the existence of five optically different water classes in the region. The significance of the defined water classes was tested in terms of the water SR behaviour in each band. The SR for Classes 1 and 2 in bands 1-3 was lower than in other classes, and band 4 showed the lowest reflectance, indicating that these classes represent a clearer type of water. Class 3 showed intermediate reflectance in all bands, while Classes 4 and 5 showed overall higher reflectance indicating high sediment contribution from the Pearl River Delta. Application of water quality retrievals within individual classes showed much greater confidence with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1.32 μg/l (1.21 mg/l) for Chl-a (SS) concentrations, compared with 5.97 μg/l (2.98 mg/l) when applied to the whole spectrum of different water types across the region.

  12. Flood Risk in the Danube basin under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Wortmann, Michel; del Rocio Rivas Lopez, Maria; Liersch, Stefan; Viet Nguyen, Dung; Hardwick, Stephen; Hattermann, Fred

    2017-04-01

    The projected increase in temperature is expected to intensify the hydrological cycle, and thus more intense precipitation is likely to increase hydro-meteorological extremes and flood hazard. However to assess the future dynamics of hazard and impact induced by these changes it is necessary to consider extreme events and to take a spatially differentiated perspective. The Future Danube Model is a multi-hazard and risk model suite for the Danube region which has been developed in the OASIS project. The model comprises modules for estimating potential perils from heavy precipitation, heat-waves, floods, droughts, and damage risk considering hydro-climatic extremes under current and climate change conditions. Web-based open Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology allows customers to graphically analyze and overlay perils and other spatial information such as population density or assets exposed. The Future Danube Model combines modules for weather generation, hydrological and hydrodynamic processes, and supports risk assessment and adaptation planning support. This contribution analyses changes in flood hazard in the Danube basin and in flood risk for the German part of the Danube basin. As climate change input, different regionalized climate ensemble runs of the newest IPCC generation are used, the so-called Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). They are delivered by the CORDEX initiative (Coordinated Downscaling Experiments). The CORDEX data sample is extended using the statistical weather generator (IMAGE) in order to also consider extreme events. Two time slices are considered: near future 2020-2049 and far future 2050-2079. This data provides the input for the hydrological, hydraulic and flood loss model chain. Results for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 indicate an increase in intensity and frequency of peak discharges and thus in flood hazard for many parts of the Danube basin.

  13. Water quality assessment in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Chudy, J.P.; Arniella, E.; Gil, E.

    1993-02-01

    The El Tor cholera pandemic arrived in Ecuador in March 1991, and through the course of the year caused 46,320 cases, of which 692 resulted in death. Most of the cases were confined to cities along Ecuador's coast. The Water and Sanitation for Health Project (WASH), which was asked to participate in the review of this request, suggested that a more comprehensive approach should be taken to cholera control and prevention. The approach was accepted, and a multidisciplinary team consisting of a sanitary engineer, a hygiene education specialist, and an institutional specialist was scheduled to carry out the assessment in late 1992 following the national elections.

  14. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  15. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed.

  16. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  17. Chemical quality of surface waters in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durfor, Charles N.; Anderson, Peter W.

    1963-01-01

    Pennsylvania has an abundant supply of surface water of good quality. The average rainfall over the 45,300 square miles in the State is about 42 inches per year. Of this amount, about 50 percent appears in the streams as runoff. The combined mean annual runoff of the Delaware, Ohio, and Susquehanna Rivers, at their farthest downstream measuring points in the State, is in excess of 81,000 cubic feet per second. Variations in the chemical quality of the surface waters in Pennsylvania are caused by areal differences in geology, urban and industrial development, mining, quarrying, land use, and runoff. Waters having the least dissolved solids are found in the glaciated northeastern and northwestern parts of the State; waters having higher values of hardness are found in the limestone terranes in the southeastern and south-central parts. In the anthracite coal fields in the northeast and in the bituminous coal fields in the southwest, many streams receive acid mine drainage, which lowers the alkalinity and increases the sulfate content of the waters. The chemical quality of surface waters in Pennsylvania is discussed in general terms. Introductory sections of the report cover the main causative factors which influence chemical quality.

  18. Strengthening river basin institutions: The Global Environment Facility and the Danube River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2004-08-01

    Increased international attention to water resource management has resulted in the creation of new institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms as well as international initiatives designed to strengthen river basin institutions. The Global Environment Facility's (GEF) International Waters Program is at the heart of such novel collaborative regional approaches to the management of transboundary water resources. This paper assesses GEF-led efforts in the Danube River Basin, GEF's most mature and ambitious projects to date. It finds that GEF has been quite successful in building scientific knowledge and strengthening regional governance bodies. However, challenges of coordinating across expanding participants and demonstrating clear ecological improvements remain. GEF-led collaborative activities in the Danube River Basin reveal three critical lessons that can inform future river basin institution building and decision making, including the importance of appropriately creating and disseminating scientific data pertaining to the river system, the need for regional governance bodies for integrated river basin management, and the necessity to address coordination issues throughout project planning and implementation.

  19. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Ba...

  20. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Ba...

  1. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  2. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  3. Benthic nitrogen turnover processes in coastal sediments at the Danube Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratek, Alexander; Dähnke, Kirstin; Neumann, Andreas; Möbius, Jürgen; Graff, Florian

    2017-04-01

    The Black Sea Shelf has been exposed to strong anthropogenic pressures from intense fisheries and high nutrient inputs and eutrophication over the past decades. In the light of decreasing riverine nutrient loads and improving nutrient status in the water column, nutrient regeneration in sediments and biological N-turnover in the Danube Delta Front have an important effect on nutrient loads in the shelf region. In May 2016 we determined pore water nutrient profiles in the Danube River Delta-Black Sea transition zone, aiming to assess N-regeneration and elimination based on nutrient profiles and stable N- isotope changes (nitrate and ammonium) in surface water masses and in pore water. We aimed to investigate the magnitude and isotope values of sedimentary NH4+ and NO3- and their impact on the current N-budget in Black Sea Shelf water. Based on changes in the stable isotope ratios of NO3- and NH4+, we aimed to differentiate diffusion and active processing of ammonium as well as nitrate sources and sinks in bottom water. First results show that the concentration of NH4+ in pore water increases with depth, reaching up to 1500 µM in deeper sediment layers. We find indications for high fluxes of ammonium to the overlying water, while stable isotope profiles of ammonium suggest that further processing, apart from mere diffusion, acts on the pore water ammonium pool. Nitrate concentration and stable isotope profiles show rapid consumption in deeper anoxic sediment layers, but also suggest that nitrate regeneration in bottom water increases the dissolved nitrate pool. Overall, the isotope and concentration data of pore water ammonium clearly mirror a combination of turnover processes and diffusion.

  4. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.

  5. Impact of reduced anthropogenic emissions and century flood on the phosphorus stock, concentrations and loads in the Upper Danube

    PubMed Central

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Viglione, Alberto; Rechberger, Helmut; Zessner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of changes in the concentration of total and soluble reactive phosphorus (TP, SRP) and suspended sediments at different flow levels from 1991 to 2013 in the Austrian Danube are statistically analyzed and related to point and diffuse emissions, as well as to extreme hydrological events. Annual loads are calculated with three methods and their development in time is examined taking into consideration total emissions and hydrological conditions. The reduction of point discharges achieved during the 1990s was well translated into decreasing TP and SRP baseflow concentrations during the same period, but it did not induce any change in the concentrations at higher flow levels nor in the annual transport of TP loads. A sharp and long-lasting decline in TP concentration, affecting all flow levels, took place after a major flood in 2002. It was still visible during another major flood in 2013, which recorded lower TP concentrations than its predecessor. Such decline could not be linked to changes in point or diffuse emissions. This suggests that, as a result of the flood, the river system experienced a significant depletion of its in-stream phosphorus stock and a reduced mobilization of TP rich sediments afterwards. This hypothesis is corroborated by the decoupling of peak phosphorus loads from peak maximum discharges after 2002. These results are highly relevant for the design of monitoring schemes and for the correct interpretation of water quality data in terms of assessing the performance of environmental management measures. PMID:25747371

  6. Impact of reduced anthropogenic emissions and century flood on the phosphorus stock, concentrations and loads in the Upper Danube.

    PubMed

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Viglione, Alberto; Rechberger, Helmut; Zessner, Matthias

    2015-06-15

    Patterns of changes in the concentration of total and soluble reactive phosphorus (TP, SRP) and suspended sediments at different flow levels from 1991 to 2013 in the Austrian Danube are statistically analyzed and related to point and diffuse emissions, as well as to extreme hydrological events. Annual loads are calculated with three methods and their development in time is examined taking into consideration total emissions and hydrological conditions. The reduction of point discharges achieved during the 1990s was well translated into decreasing TP and SRP baseflow concentrations during the same period, but it did not induce any change in the concentrations at higher flow levels nor in the annual transport of TP loads. A sharp and long-lasting decline in TP concentration, affecting all flow levels, took place after a major flood in 2002. It was still visible during another major flood in 2013, which recorded lower TP concentrations than its predecessor. Such decline could not be linked to changes in point or diffuse emissions. This suggests that, as a result of the flood, the river system experienced a significant depletion of its in-stream phosphorus stock and a reduced mobilization of TP rich sediments afterwards. This hypothesis is corroborated by the decoupling of peak phosphorus loads from peak maximum discharges after 2002. These results are highly relevant for the design of monitoring schemes and for the correct interpretation of water quality data in terms of assessing the performance of environmental management measures.

  7. Effects of Reservoirs on Nutrient Concentrations and Ratios along the Longitudinal Gradient of Danube River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo Borda, J. S.; Gettel, G. M.; Irvine, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoirs reduce water flow and increase the retention time which can provide conditions to increase primary production, sedimentation and nutrient retention. As a consequence, nutrient ratios and fluxes of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and silica (Si) may be altered which in turn affects the identity of limiting nutrients and the dynamics of primary production in downstream ecosystems. Residence time as well as the position of reservoirs along the longitudinal gradient (headwaters vs. mouth) may affect these processes. The Danube River Basin is one example where reservoirs have likely altered nutrient stoichiometry along the longitudinal gradient. It has a dam every 17 Km in the upper 1000 km of the river along with a very large dam complex (Iron Gates Dam) 117- Km from the mouth. There has been there has been an observed decline in Si flux, which may have led to changes in phytoplankton community structure in the Black Sea, but for which the causes for this decline are not yet clear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of reservoirs from headwaters to the mouth on nutrient stoichiometry in the Danube Basin. Data on dissolved Si, N, and P concentrations from 1996 to 2012 were analyzed from 40 monitoring stations from the TransNational Monitoring Network (TNMN), which are located in the main stem of the Danube. Time series analysis is used to compare nutrient concentrations and ratios both through seasons and through the 15 year time-period. The monitoring stations are located above and below reservoirs in order to analyze the effect of reservoirs on nutrient ratios and fluxes. Preliminary results show that relationship of dissolved inorganic N (DIN): soluble reactive P (SRP) range from 207 to 76, while DIN:Si ratio ranges from 1.89 to 0.2 from the headwaters to the mouth.

  8. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  9. A national look at water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Mueller, David K.; Zogorski, John S.; Ryker, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Most water-quality problems we face today result from diffuse "nonpoint" sources of pollution from agricultural land, urban development, forest harvesting and the atmosphere (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers et al., 1999). It is difficult to quantify nonpoint sources because the contaminants they deliver vary in composition and concentrations from hour to hour and season to season. Moreover, the nature of the contamination is complex and varied. When Congress enacted the Clean Water Act 30 years ago, attention was focused on water-quality issues related to the sanitation of rivers and streams - bacteria counts, oxygen in the water for fish, nutrients, temperature, and salinity. Now, attention is turning to the hundreds of synthetic organic compounds like pesticides used in agricultural and residential areas, volatile organics in solvents and gasoline, microbial and viral contamination, and pharmaceuticals and hormones.

  10. An ANN application for water quality forecasting.

    PubMed

    Palani, Sundarambal; Liong, Shie-Yui; Tkalich, Pavel

    2008-09-01

    Rapid urban and coastal developments often witness deterioration of regional seawater quality. As part of the management process, it is important to assess the baseline characteristics of the marine environment so that sustainable development can be pursued. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict and forecast quantitative characteristics of water bodies. The true power and advantage of this method lie in its ability to (1) represent both linear and non-linear relationships and (2) learn these relationships directly from the data being modeled. The study focuses on Singapore coastal waters. The ANN model is built for quick assessment and forecasting of selected water quality variables at any location in the domain of interest. Respective variables measured at other locations serve as the input parameters. The variables of interest are salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll-alpha. A time lag up to 2Delta(t) appeared to suffice to yield good simulation results. To validate the performance of the trained ANN, it was applied to an unseen data set from a station in the region. The results show the ANN's great potential to simulate water quality variables. Simulation accuracy, measured in the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (R(2)), ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 for the training and overfitting test data. Thus, a trained ANN model may potentially provide simulated values for desired locations at which measured data are unavailable yet required for water quality models.

  11. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  12. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  13. QSARs in Netherlands water quality management policies.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M A

    1991-12-01

    QSARs are a useful tool for predicting the potential toxic effects of compounds for which no data are available. Within strictly defined limits, QSARs can be applied to assess the potential impact of a spill, to evaluate ecotoxicological effects and environmental fate of organics in waste water and to set priorities for water quality criteria. For a wider application, there is a need for 'worst case' SARs providing a 'safer' estimate of toxicity than QSARs with an optimum fit, which might underestimate toxicity.

  14. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  15. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  16. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  17. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  18. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  19. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  20. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  1. Water-quality monitoring of Sweetwater Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Sweetwater Authority is concerned with the quality of water it provides to its customers. Results from the water-quality monitoring study that the USGS is conducting in the Sweetwater watershed show that the contaminant concentrations in bed sediments, water, and air are reflected in increased urbanization. The bed sediments show the most dramatic evidence of this impact with a sharp increase of persistent organic chemical concentrations over the past 65 years. Water quality is also affected by urbanization in the form of chemicals in the runoff water and deposition of airborne chemicals. The concentrations of the detected organic chemicals in Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs are all well below the guidance limits set by State and Federal agencies to protect human health. Many of these compounds are detected only because of the sensitive analytical methods used. This monitoring program provides the Sweetwater Authority with information on what monitored chemicals are present in the reservoirs, and at what concentrations. With this information, the Authority can assess the associated risks, and consider future water treatment and remediation. These results also help focus and support future efforts by Sweetwater Authority to protect the watershed.

  2. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2007 water year (October 1, 2006 through September 30, 2007), data were collected at 67 stations including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrite plus nitrte, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations, which primarily have been classified in groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, main land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State during water year 2007 is presented.

  3. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2012 water year (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), data were collected at 81 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 6 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 78 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  4. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.; Schneider, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2013 water year (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013), data were collected at 79 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 4 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 76 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  5. Finding an optimal strategy for measuring the quality of groundwater as a source for drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driezum, Inge; Saracevic, Ernis; Scheibz, Jürgen; Zessner, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2015-04-01

    A good chemical and microbiological water quality is of great importance in riverbank filtration systems that are used as public water supplies. Water quality is ideally monitored frequently at the drinking water well using a steady pumping rate. Monitoring source water (like groundwater) however, can be more challenging. First of all, piezometers should be drilled in the correct layer of the aquifer. Secondly, the sampling design should include all preferred parameters (microbiological and chemical parameters) and should also take the hydrological conditions into account. In this study, we made use of different geophysical techniques (ERT and FDEM) to select the optimal placement of the piezometers. We also designed a sampling strategy which can be used to sample fecal indicators, biostability parameters, standard chemical parameters and a wide range of micropollutants. Several time series experiments were carried out in the study site Porous GroundWater Aquifer (PGWA) - an urban floodplain extending on the left bank of the river Danube downstream of the City of Vienna, Austria. The upper layer of the PGWA consist of silt and has a thickness from 1 to 6 meter. The underlying confined aquifer consists of sand and gravel and has a thickness of in between 3 and 15 meter. Hydraulic conductivities range from 5 x 10-2 m/s up to 5 x 10-5 m/s. Underneath the aquifer are alternating sand and clay/silt layers. As fecal markers Escherichia coli, enterococci and aerobic spores were measured. Biostability was measured using leucine incorporation. Additionally, several micropollutants and standard chemical parameters were measured. Results showed that physical and chemical parameters stayed stable in all monitoring wells during extended purging. A similar trend could be observed for E coli and enterococci. In the wells close to the river, aerobic spores and leucine incorporation decreased after 30 min. of pumping, whereas the well close to the backwater showed a different

  6. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaoshi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yuwei; Cai, Yongjiu; Deng, Jiancai

    2017-09-05

    Lake Taihu Basin, one of the most developed regions in China, has received considerable attention due to its severe pollution. Our study provides a clear understanding of the water quality in the rivers of Lake Taihu Basin based on basin-scale monitoring and a water quality index (WQI) method. From September 2014 to January 2016, four samplings across four seasons were conducted at 96 sites along main rivers. Fifteen parameters, including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity (tur), permanganate index (CODMn), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH4-N), nitrite, nitrate (NO3-N), calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, were measured to calculate the WQI. The average WQI value during our study period was 59.33; consequently, the water quality was considered as generally "moderate". Significant differences in WQI values were detected among the 6 river systems, with better water quality in the Tiaoxi and Nanhe systems. The water quality presented distinct seasonal variation, with the highest WQI values in autumn, followed by spring and summer, and the lowest values in winter. The minimum WQI (WQImin), which was developed based on a stepwise linear regression analysis, consisted of five parameters: NH4-N, CODMn, NO3-N, DO, and tur. The model exhibited excellent performance in representing the water quality in Lake Taihu Basin, especially when weights were fully considered. Our results are beneficial for water quality management and could be used for rapid and low-cost water quality evaluation in Lake Taihu Basin. Additionally, we suggest that weights of environmental parameters should be fully considered in water quality assessments when using the WQImin method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  8. Integration of air and water quality issues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  9. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  10. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  11. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  12. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  13. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  14. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  15. Water Quality Response to Forest Biomass Utilization

    Treesearch

    Benjamin Rau; Augustine Muwamba; Carl Trettin; Sudhanshu Panda; Devendra Amatya; Ernest Tollner

    2017-01-01

    Forested watersheds provide approximately 80% of freshwater drinking resources in the United States (Fox et al. 2007). The water originating from forested watersheds is typically of high quality when compared to agricul¬tural watersheds, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are nine times higher, on average, in agricultur¬al watersheds when compared to...

  16. ASSESSING WATER QUALITY: AN ENERGETICS PERPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated measures of food web dynamics could serve as important supplemental indicators of water quality that are well related with ecological integrity and environmental well-being. When the concern is a well-characterized pollutant (posing an established risk to human health...

  17. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  18. Water Quality Unit, Edmonds School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 20 water quality activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Home Economics and Industrial Arts, Mathematics, Health, English, and Social Studies. The topics investigated include: pollution analysis, industrial need,…

  19. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  20. Examining issues with water quality model configuration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complex watershed–scale, water quality models require a considerable amount of data in order to be properly configured, especially in view of the scarcity of data in many regions due to temporal and economic constraints. In this study, we examined two different input issues incurred while building ...

  1. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  2. Water quality parameter measurement using spectral signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Regression analysis is applied to the problem of measuring water quality parameters from remote sensing spectral signature data. The equations necessary to perform regression analysis are presented and methods of testing the strength and reliability of a regression are described. An efficient algorithm for selecting an optimal subset of the independent variables available for a regression is also presented.

  3. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  4. Monitoring and modeling of microbial and biological water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbial and biological water quality informs on the health of water systems and their suitability for uses in irrigation, recreation, aquaculture, and other activities. Indicators of microbial and biological water quality demonstrate high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, monitoring str...

  5. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  6. Perinatal health in the Danube region - new birth cohort justified.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Zorana J; Sram, Radim J; Braun Kohlová, Markéta; Gurzau, Eugen S; Fucic, Aleksandra; Gribaldo, Laura; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Máca, Vojtěch; Zvěřinová, Iva; Gajdosova, Dagmar; Moshammer, Hanns; Rudnai, Peter; Ščasný, Milan

    2017-03-01

    In 2013-2015, a consortium of European scientists - NEWDANUBE - was established to prepare a birth cohort in the Danube region, including most of the countries with the highest air pollution in Europe, the area being one-fifth of the European Union's (EU's) territory, including 14 countries (nine EU member states), over 100 million inhabitants, with numerous challenges: big socioeconomic disparities, and a region-specific environmental pollution. The consortium reflects the EU Strategy for the Danube Region Strategy (2010), which identified 11 thematic Priority Areas - one of which is the environmental risks. Birth cohorts have been established in all other areas of Europe and collaborative efforts in promoting maternal and fetal health by minimizing the environmental exposures have been initiated with national, European, and international financial support. A birth cohort in the Danube area could apply the established methodologies for prenatal exposure and birth outcome measurements and establish a platform for targeted health promotion in couples planning pregnancies. The consortium included a strong socioeconomic part focusing on the participant's active registration of exposures to environmental toxicants and health indicators of disease and wellbeing, combined with investigation of their risk-reducing behavior and interventions to change their lifestyle to avoid the adverse health risks. Willingness to pay for reducing the health risks in children is also proposed to be estimated. Further collaboration and networking is encouraged as the Danube region has several decades of experience and expertise in biomonitoring adult populations exposed environmentally or occupationally. Additionally, some countries in the Danube region launched small-scale birth cohorts encouraged by participation in several ongoing research projects.

  7. Water Resources Data - New Jersey, Water Year 1999, Volume 3, Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Romanok, K.M.; Riskin, M.L.; Mattes, G.L.; Thomas, A.M.; Gray, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface and ground water hydrologic conditions for the 1999 water year, a listing of current water-resource projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 133 surface-water stations, 46 miscellaneous surface-water sites, 30 ground-water stations, 41 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 17 continuous-monitoring stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 11 and 17-20. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 29-32 and 34. These data represent the part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  8. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  9. Quantitative water quality with ERTS-1. [Kansas water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of ERTS-1 MSS computer compatible tapes of reservoir scenes in Kansas along with ground truth show that MSS bands and band ratios can be used for reliable prediction of suspended loads up to at least 900 ppm. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery is proving useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  10. Estimating emissions of PFOS and PFOA to the Danube River catchment and evaluating them using a catchment-scale chemical transport and fate model.

    PubMed

    Lindim, C; Cousins, I T; vanGils, J

    2015-12-01

    Novel approaches for estimating the emissions of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to surface waters are explored. The Danube River catchment is used to investigate emissions contributing to riverine loads of PFOS and PFOA and to verify the accuracy of estimates using a catchment-scale dynamic fugacity-based chemical transport and fate model (STREAM-EU; Spatially and Temporally Resolved Exposure Assessment Model for European basins). Model accuracy evaluation performed by comparing STREAM-EU predicted concentrations and monitoring data for the Danube and its tributaries shows that the best estimates for PFOS and PFOA emissions in the Danube region are obtained by considering the combined contributions of human population, wealth (based on local gross domestic product (GDP)) and wastewater treatment. Human population alone cannot explain the levels of PFOS and PFOA found in the Danube catchment waters. Introducing wealth distribution information in the form of local GDPs improves emission estimates markedly, likely by better representing emissions resulting from consumer trends, industrial and commercial sources. For compounds such as PFOS and PFOA, whose main sink and transport media is the aquatic compartment, a major source to freshwater are wastewater treatment plants. Introducing wastewater treatment information in the emission estimations also further improves emission estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water resources data, Virginia, water year 2004 volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Roger K.; Powell, Eugene D.; Guyer, Joel R.; Owens, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 346 observation wells and water quality at 40 wells. Locations of these wells are shown on figures 4 through 9. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Virginia.

  12. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Barton, Cynthia

    2017-05-08

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. This qualityassurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and groundwater activities at the WAWSC.

  13. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  14. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    PubMed

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection.

  15. Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District.

    PubMed

    Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use.

  16. The 87Sr/86Sr aquatic isoscape of the Danube catchment from the source to the mouth as tool for studying fish migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitek, Andreas; Tchaikovsky, Anastassiya; Irrgeher, Johanna; Waidbacher, Herwig; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Isoscapes - spatially distributed isotope patterns across landscapes - are increasingly used as important basis for ecological studies. The natural variation of the isotopic abundances in a studied area bears the potential to be used as natural tracer for studying e.g. migrations of animals or prey-predator relations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio is one important tracer, since it is known to provide a direct relation of biological samples to geologically distinct regions, as Sr isotopes are incorporated into living tissues as a proxy for calcium and taken up from the environment without any significant fractionation. Although until now the focus has been mainly set on terrestrial systems, maps for aquatic systems are increasingly being established. Here we present the first 87Sr/86Sr aquatic isoscape of the Danube catchment, the second largest river catchment in Europe, from near its source starting at river km 2581 in Germany down to its mouth to river km 107 in Romania. The total length of the river Danube is 2780 km draining a catchment area 801 463 km2 (10 % of the European continent). The major purpose of this study was to assess the potential of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio to be used as tool for studying fish migrations at different scales in the entire Danube catchment. Within the Joint Danube Research 3 (JDS 3), the biggest scientific multi-disciplinary river expedition of the World in 2013 aiming at the assessment of the ecological status and degree of human alterations along the river Danube, water samples were taken at 68 pre-defined sites along the course of the river Danube including the major tributaries as a basis to create the so called 'Isoscape of the Danube catchment'. The determination of 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio in river water was performed by multicollector-sector field-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-SF-ICP-MS). The JDS 3 data were combined with existing data from prior studies conducted within the Austrian part of the Danube catchment

  17. Evaluation of military field-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1990-05-01

    This is the first and summary volume of the nine-volume study entitled Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. This study is a comprehensive assessment of the chemical, radiological, and biological constituents of field-water supplied that could pose health risks to military personnel around the world; it also provides a detailed evaluation of the field-water-treatment capability of the US Armed Forces. This study identifies as being of concern three physical properties, i.e., turbidity, color, and total dissolved solids; seven chemical constituents, i.e., chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, cyanide, lindane, and metabolites of algae and associated aquatic bacteria; and over twenty types of water-related pathogenic microorganisms. It also addresses five threat agents, i.e., hydrogen cyanide, radioactivity, organophosphorous nerve agents, the trichotecene mycotoxin T-2, and lewisite. An overview of the criteria and recommendations for standards for these constituents for short- term and long-term exposure periods are presented in this volume, as are health-effects summaries for assessing the potential soldier performance degradation when recommended standards are exceeded. In addition, the existing military field-water-treatment capability is reviewed, and an abbreviated discussion is presented of the general physical, chemical, and biological qualities of field waters in geographic regions worldwide, representing potential theaters of operation for US military forces. Finally, research recommendations are outlined. 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Liver, gills, and skin histopathology and heavy metal content of the Danube sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Poleksic, Vesna; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Jaric, Ivan; Djordjevic, Dragana; Gacic, Zoran; Cvijanovic, Gorcin; Raskovic, Bozidar

    2010-03-01

    The sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) is a bottom-feeding fish species with a direct exposure to contaminants from water and sediments. Although heavy metal pollution is believed to be one of the main threats to the sterlet population in the Danube River basin, there is a lack of knowledge of the exact impact of heavy metals on their survival. In the present study, effects of heavy metal pollution on sterlet in the Danube basin were assessed as well as the utility of different sterlet organs and tissues as indicators of heavy metal contamination. The sterlet were sampled at three different sites in the Danube basin, in Hungary and Serbia, isolated from each other by dams. Heavy metal analysis included measurement of Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Hg, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations in sterlet gills, muscle, liver, and intestine, and histopathological analyses comprised assessment and scoring of the extent and intensity of alterations in skin, gills, and liver tissue. Analysis revealed a significant presence of sublethal histopathological changes that were most pronounced in the liver and skin and increased accumulation of heavy metals, with the highest concentrations in the liver. Canonical discriminant analysis showed significant differentiation among the three studied localities, suggesting that the heavy metal concentrations in sterlet populations were site specific. The present study concludes that the accumulation of heavy metals is a response to the presence of these pollutants in the environment, and, together with other pollutants, it affects the vital organs of natural sterlet populations.

  19. Chapter 5: Surface water quality sampling in streams and canals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surface water sampling and water quality assessments have greatly evolved in the United States since the 1970s establishment of the Clean Water Act. Traditionally, water quality referred to only the chemical characteristics of the water and its toxicological properties related to drinking water or ...

  20. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  1. Catchment-scale fluorescence water quality determination.

    PubMed

    Baker, A; Inverarity, R; Ward, D

    2005-01-01

    Chemical water quality determinants and river water fluorescence were determined on the River Tyne, northeast England. Statistically significant relationships between nitrate (r = 0.87), phosphate (r = 0.80), ammonia (r = 0.70), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (r = 0.85) and dissolved oxygen (r = -0.65) and tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity were observed. The strongest correlations are between tryptophan-like intensity and nitrate and phosphate, which in the Tyne catchment derive predominantly from point and diffuse source sewage inputs. The correlation between BOD and the tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity suggests that this fluorescence centre is related to the bioavailable or fluorescence intensity and ammonia concentration and dissolved oxygen. The weaker correlation with ammonia is due to good ammonia treatment within the wastewater treatment plants within the catchment, and that with dissolved oxygen due to the natural aeration of the river such that this is not a good indicator of water quality. Mean annual tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, measured by both bench and portable spectrometers, agrees well with the General Water Quality Assessment as determined by the England and Wales environmental regulators, the Environment Agency.

  2. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  3. Danube Delta Coastline Dynamics in the Last 160 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tătui, Florin; Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred; Constantinescu, Ştefan; Zăinescu, Florin

    2017-04-01

    Wave-dominated deltaic coasts depend on the balance between wave climate and sediment supply, which controls the medium and long-term shoreline evolution. Interestingly, the common plan shapes of the wave-dominated lobes impose different wave exposures and longshore sediment transport magnitudes on the lobe flanks, characterized by ever changing aspects which make these sandy coasts some of the most mobile world coastlines. The Danube Delta coast consists of approximately 220 km (both Romanian and Ukrainian sectors) of tideless, medium-energy low-lying sandy beaches interrupted by multiple river mouths and, sometimes, by engineering structures (Sulina jetties and Midia harbour). The objective of this study is to examine and explain the factors which have driven the Danube Delta coastline dynamics at multi-annual to multi-decadal and centennial time-scales. Our analysis is based on multiple shorelines extracted from historical and modern maps (since mid-19th century), recent medium to high resolution satellite images (since 1984), aerial photos (since 1969), GPS surveys (available after 1990) and LIDAR data (2011), which were comparatively analysed by means of GIS techniques. Nowadays, more than half ( 55%) of the Romanian Danube Delta shoreline (disposed in five littoral cells) is affected by erosion. The present coastline configuration is the result of the long-term evolution of this deltaic coast. Depending on the temporal and spatial scales taken into consideration, different driving forces changed the leading role in the dynamics of Danube Delta shoreline in the last 160 years. At centennial time-scale, the threefold decrease of Danube sediment discharge in the last century (especially after 1950, as a result of dams` construction in the Danube watershed) explains the significantly higher shoreline migration rates and area changes between 1856 and 1961/1979 in comparison with the subsequent period, especially along the accumulative sectors. For the Chilia

  4. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  5. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section 106(e)(1.../quality control guidance. (b) The State's water monitoring program shall include collection and...

  6. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  7. Overview of water quality and water resource research in the Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, Oxford, MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit (WQERU) is part of the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) National Sedimentation Laboratory located in Oxford, Mississippi. The stated research mission of the WQERU is to “address issues of water quality/quan...

  8. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses.

  9. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  10. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2010 water year (October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2010), data were collected at 75 stations-72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  11. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2011 water year (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011), data were collected at 75 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  12. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2009 water year (October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009), data were collected at 75 stations-69 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, and 3 stations sampled in cooperation with the Elk River Watershed Improvement Association. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  13. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2015-12-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2014 water year (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  14. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.; Heimann, David C.

    2016-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak streamflows, monthly mean streamflows, and 7-day low flows is presented.

  15. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  16. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  17. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  18. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  19. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  20. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  1. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades AGENCY: Environmental... provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the Everglades Protection Area (Phosphorus... are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the Clean Water Act. EPA is proposing...

  2. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  3. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  4. 77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF38 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades AGENCY... provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the Everglades Protection Area (Phosphorus... are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the Clean Water Act. EPA is...

  5. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  6. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially to...

  7. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its...

  8. Annotated bibliography on forest practices legislation related to water quality

    Treesearch

    Neil K. Huyler; David McMath; Daphne Hewitt

    1999-01-01

    Includes annotated citations of literature on forest practices regulations related to all aspects of water quality protection. The bibliography is divided into three sections: 1) Water quality protection during timber harvesting; 2) Methods for assessing the costs and benefits of water quality protection; and 3) Effectiveness of regulatory programs in protecting water...

  9. Water quality in Illinois, 1990-1991. Biennial report

    SciTech Connect

    Northrop, C.

    1993-01-01

    The report is a summary of the 305(b) Illinois Water Quality Report. It highlights the 1990 - 1991 water quality conditions of Illinois rivers, streams, inland lakes, Lake Michigan, and groundwater. The report also outlines current water quality issues and the IEPA's water pollution control programs.

  10. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  11. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  12. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  13. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  14. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  15. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  16. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  17. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Treesearch

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  18. Poor tap water quality experiences and poor sleep quality during the Flint, Michigan Municipal Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Kodjebacheva, Gergana D; Cupal, Suzanne

    2017-08-01

    After inadequate official response to community concerns over water quality following changes in Flint's municipal water supply, this study sought evidence for a relationship between water quality and community mental health. The Speak to Your Health Community Survey is a community-based participatory component of the health surveillance system in Genesee County, Michigan. This cross-sectional survey recruits participants from every residential Census Tract of the county and strives for demographic representativeness. Respondents (n=834) rated their tap water quality (taste, smell, appearance) as poor (36%), fair (18%), good (20%), very good (17%), and excellent (10%). They rated their sleep quality as poor (12%), fair (28%), good (39%), very good (18%), and excellent (4%), and had an average (SD) sleep length of 408(90) minutes. Controlling for age, sex, years of education, and whether respondents were African American and Hispanic/Latino/a, lower perceived tap water quality was associated with lower sleep quality and shorter sleep length. Results indicate that adverse health conditions related to the water crisis extend beyond lead poisoning in children and include deterioration of sleep conditions among adult residents. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 6727 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive... and locations for public hearings on proposed amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code... amendments to the Commission's Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan relating to...

  20. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  1. Marine water quality monitoring: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2013-12-15

    Marine water quality monitoring is performed for compliance with regulatory issues, trend detection, model validation and assessment of the effectiveness of adopted policies. As the end users are managers and policy makers, the objectives should be of practical interest and the answers should reduce the uncertainty concerning environmental impact, supporting planning and decision making. Simple and clearcut answers on environmental issues require synthesis of the field information using statistics, simulation models and multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Statistics is easy to apply whereas simulation models enable researchers to forecast future trends as well as test different scenarios. MCA allows the co-estimation of socio-economic variables providing a compromise between scientists' and policy makers' priorities. In addition, stakeholders and the public have the right to know and participate. This article reviews marine water quality monitoring principles, design and data analysis procedures. A brief review of international conventions of regional seas is also included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. REGIONAL GROUND-WATER-QUALITY NETWORK DESIGN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing a regional network to monitor the complex ground-water-quality conditions in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The actual network approximates the ideal network with the constraint of primarily using wells that are already being monitored by someone for some purpose. Further inventories of monitoring networks and installation of some specialized monitoring wells will be needed. Use of statistical network analysis techniques is also needed to make network improvements. Following these actions, the actual network will more closely approximate the ideal network in providing information on ground-water-quality trends, contaminant sources, prevention of future sources of contamination, monitoring well distributions, sampling frequencies, and constituents to be monitored.

  3. [Microbial indicators and fresh water quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Briancesco, Rossella

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the microbiological quality of waters has been measured by the analysis of indicator microorganisms. The article reviews the sanitary significance of traditional indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) and points out their limits. For some characteristics Escherichia coli may be considered a more useful indicator then faecal coliforms and recently it has been included in all recent laws regarding fresh, marine and drinking water. A clearer taxonomic definition of faecal streptococci evidenced the difficulty into defining a specific standard methodology of enumeration and suggested the more suitable role of enterococci as indicator microorganisms. Several current laws require the detection of enterococci. The resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores may mean that they would serve as a useful indicator of the sanitary quality of sea sediments.

  4. Modeling Water Quality of Reservoir Tailwaters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (N03-) where the overall reaction is described as follows (Wetzel 1975) NH* + 202 -> NO3 + HO + 2H* (19) thus requiring... ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen. d. Oxidation of reduced manganese sorbed onto the bed. jt. Oxidation of reduced (i.e., dissolved) iron...Water quality constituents modeled during each application were DO, CBOD, ammonium nitrogen, organic nitrogen, nitrate nitro- gen, dissolved iron

  5. Water Quality Evaluation of Aquatic Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    sensitivity studies. Effects of changing nutrient concentrations in the inflow and depth of light penetration in the impoundment were evaluated, because of...streamflow would be extremely beneficial. Examples of conditions that suggest the need for hydrodynamic routing occur below hydropower plants and in areas...routine developed at the University of Texas [32] and a water quality index criteria ( WQI ) 3-/ developed by the National Sanitation Foundation [33, 34, 35

  6. " Using the impact model in order to predict the Danube river flow in the last quarter of the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper has intercompared and verified Regional Climate Model (RCM) EBU-POM in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100 according to the IPCC SRES scenario A1B. The Danube has been chosen as a case study because of its multiple relevance for socioeconomical, as well as environmental and climatic level. This part of the Danube river basin has a direct relevance to the Mediterranean region, since it provides a relevant input of freshwater to the sea, as well as being fuelled mostly by precipitations due to the water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. Having been aware of the climatic-hydrologic and hydrographic homogeneity of regions, the whole territory of Serbia is divided into 20 units basins. The part of Danube basin in its eastern part present one of them, and was subject of the research. For this balance unit, the main components of the balance equation of the water that included into the calculation are: precipitation P (mm), flow Q (m3/s), runoff depth h (mm), evaporation E (mm) and annual air temperature T (0C). The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) in order to get relevant coefficients. The second approach, which is more typically meteorological, relies on the calculation of the E for the time frame 2071-2100 by using the previous coefficients. On the basis of the assessment of climate parameters in the XXI century and with help of the established relationships, the water flow of Danube river and runoff depth were defined for this century. The outcomes are very

  7. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2000. Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Mattes, G.L.; Burns, H.L.; Thomas, A.M.; Gray, B.J.; Doyle, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharage, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface and ground water hydrologic conditions for the 2000 water year, a listing of current water-resource projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 125 continuing-record surface-water stations, 62 miscellaneous surface-water sites, 73 ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 45 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 18-20. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 11 and 42-49. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  8. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; De Cicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary A.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.

    2017-02-01

    xml:id="wrcr22485-sec-1001" numbered="no">Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  9. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; DeCicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  10. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2005Volume 3 - Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Lewis, Jason M.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Feinson, Lawrence S.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2005 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 30 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 9 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special studies that included 89 stream, 11 lake, and 29 ground-water sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 23-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 41-46. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  11. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003; Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Hoppe, Heidi L.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Melvin, Emma-Lynn; Liu, Nicholas A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2003 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 123 continuing-record surface-water stations, 35 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 20 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special-study sites consisting of 2 surface-water sites, 1 spring site, and 240 groundwater sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 21-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 49-53. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  12. Assessment of microbial quality of reclaimed water, roof-harvest water, and creek water for irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The availability of water for crop irrigation is decreasing due to droughts, population growth, and pollution. Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) for irrigation water standards may also discourage growers to use poor microbial quality water for produce crop irrigation. Reclaimed water use for ...

  13. Assessment of microbial quality of reclaimed water, roof-harvest water, and creek water for irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The availability of water for crop irrigation is decreasing due to droughts, population growth, and pollution. The Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) standards for irrigation water may also discourage growers to use poor microbial quality water for produce crop irrigation. Reclaimed water use ...

  14. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  15. Statewide water-quality network for Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Steeves, Peter A.; Zimmerman, Marc James

    2001-01-01

    A water-quality monitoring program is proposed that would provide data to meet multiple information needs of Massachusetts agencies and other users concerned with the condition of the State's water resources. The program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Watershed Management, with input from many organizations involved in water-quality monitoring in the State, and focuses on inland surface waters (streams and lakes). The proposed monitoring program consists of several components, or tiers, which are defined in terms of specific monitoring objectives, and is intended to complement the Massachusetts Watershed Initiative (MWI) basin assessments. Several components were developed using the Neponset River Basin in eastern Massachusetts as a pilot area, or otherwise make use of data from and sampling approaches used in that basin as part of a MWI pilot assessment in 1994. To guide development of the monitoring program, reviews were conducted of general principles of network design, including monitoring objectives and approaches, and of ongoing monitoring activities of Massachusetts State agencies.Network tiers described in this report are primarily (1) a statewide, basin-based assessment of existing surface-water-quality conditions, and (2) a fixed-station network for determining contaminant loads carried by major rivers. Other components, including (3) targeted programs for hot-spot monitoring and other objectives, and (4) compliance monitoring, also are discussed. Monitoring programs for the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads for specific water bodies, which would constitute another tier of the network, are being developed separately and are not described in this report. The basin-based assessment of existing conditions is designed to provide information on the status of surface waters with respect to State water-quality standards and designated uses in accordance with the

  16. Weakly electric fish for biomonitoring water quality.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Juergen; van Wijk, Roeland; Albrecht, Henning

    2012-06-01

    Environmental pollution is a major issue that calls for suitable monitoring systems. The number of possible pollutants of municipal and industrial water grows annually as new chemicals are developed. Technical devices for pollutant detection are constructed in a way to detect a specific and known array of pollutants. Biological systems react to lethal or non-lethal environmental changes without pre-adjustment, and a wide variety have been employed as broad-range monitors for water quality. Weakly electric fish have proven particularly useful for the purpose of biomonitoring municipal and industrial waters. The frequency of their electric organ discharges directly correlates with the quality of the surrounding water and, in this way, concentrations of toxicants down to the nanomolar range have been successfully detected by these organisms. We have reviewed the literature on biomonitoring studies to date, comparing advantages and disadvantages of this test system and summarizing the lowest concentrations of various toxicants tested. Eighteen publications were identified investigating 35 different chemical substances and using six different species of weakly electric fish.

  17. The implications of water quality in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hoenich, Nicholas A; Levin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Water used in dialysis requires additional treatment to minimize patient exposure to potential contaminants that may be present in drinking water. Although standards for the chemical purity of water are in existence and have eliminated many of the problems seen in renal units in the 1970s, some problems remain, and the importance of newer contaminants arising from changes in water treatment at the municipal level are being recognized. Despite this, recent surveys have indicated considerable shortcomings in compliance with chemical standards. The water quality used in the preparation of dialysis fluid also requires minimal bacterial content. Staff working in renal units are frequently unaware of the level of microbiologic contamination in their dialysis fluid arising from the presence of biofilm in the dialysis machines and the water distribution network. Bacterial fragments generated by such biofilms are able to cross the dialysis membrane and stimulate an inflammatory response in the patient. Such inflammation has been implicated in the mortality and morbidity associated with dialysis. The desire to improve treatment outcomes has led to the application of more stringent standards for the microbiologic purity of dialysis fluid and to the introduction of ultraclean dialysis fluid into clinical practice.

  18. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-02-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system.

  19. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  20. Canadian water quality guidelines. Appendix 22: Interim marine and estuarine water quality guidelines for general variables

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared in response to the need for marine water quality guidelines for general water quality variables. It presents interim guidelines, summaries of existing guidelines if any, the rationale for the guidelines, and variable-specific background information, and notes gaps in data, for the following variables: Debris, including floating or submerged litter, and settleable matter; dissolved oxygen; pH; salinity; temperature; and suspended solids and turbidity. For the purpose of this document, the marine environment includes shorelines, estuaries up to the freshwater limit, and nearshore and offshore waters.

  1. 42 CFR 494.40 - Condition: Water and dialysate quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FACILITIES Patient Safety § 494.40 Condition: Water and dialysate quality. The facility must be able to demonstrate the following: (a) Standard: Water purity. Water and equipment used for dialysis meets the water... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Water and dialysate quality. 494.40...

  2. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by...

  3. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by...

  4. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by...

  5. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by...

  6. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Hoppe, H.L.; Heckathorn, H.A.; Gray, B.J.; Riskin, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  7. Meteorological conditions of the Danube flood in year 1895

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Marian; Gera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The flood in year 1895 belongs to the highest floods on the Danube River and its tributaries. The aim of this contribution is to clarify meteorological causes of this flood. Analysis is based on air temperature and precipitation measurements of some meteorological stations from the Central and southeastern Europe and data from NOAA 20th Century Reanalysis of daily composites. Moreover we bring knowledge gained by studies of materials regarding the historical flood on the Danube River and its tributaries in 1895 as reflected in local contemporary press (Preßburger Zeitung and Wiener Zeitung) in the period from late February till the end of April 1895. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Contract No. APVV-0303-11 and No. APVV-0015-10.

  8. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  9. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  10. 1990 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeffrey; Jones, Berwyn E.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This catalog provides information about analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to support programs of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, the catalog lists cost, sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation techniques for samples to be submitted for analysis. Prices for services reflect operationa1 costs, the complexity of each analytical procedure, and the costs to ensure analytical quality control. The catalog consists of five parts. Part 1 is a glossary of terminology; Part 2 lists the bottles, containers, solutions, and other materials that are available through the NWQL; Part 3 describes the field processing of samples to be submitted for analysis; Part 4 describes analytical services that are available; and Part 5 contains indices of analytical methodology and Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. Nomenclature used in the catalog is consistent with WATSTORE and STORET. The user is provided with laboratory codes and schedules that consist of groupings of parameters which are measured together in the NWQL. In cases where more than one analytical range is offered for a single element or compound, different laboratory codes are given. Book 5 of the series 'Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey' should be consulted for more information about the analytical procedures included in the tabulations. This catalog supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-232 '1986-87-88 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog', October 1985.

  11. Ecological estimation of the possible variants new Ukrainian shipping way between the Danube and the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlinsky, N.

    2007-05-01

    The better way or optimal variant means economic advisability of organization and using the way and the same time minimization of anthropogenic press. The first problem's factor is - all kinds' variants cross the area of the Danube Biosphere Reserve. The next factor is - all kinds of variants need dredging works in the sea shallow water so called bar's zone for marine entrance channel. As for natural factors there are also two. The first one is a long term delta evolution and the second is the process of water discharge redistribution. If the human influence to the first factor is still limited the second factor's influence can be unlimited - it is easy to do by jetty or dams construction. At present there are nine possible variants of the DWW: Variant 1. It is an artificial canal built as an ameliorative at 80-s between the Danube and Sasik liman. It provokes the water discharge redistribution up on 16.6% from the Danube run off (from the total Q=3000 m3/c for 54 km), hydrological regime in Ukrainian delta and ecological conditions will be sharply worsened. This project supposed a giant dredging works. Variant 2. The Project of engineer P.S. Chekhovich (1904). The length of the canal is 10 km. (The problems are: it is an artificial canal, needs the bridge, cross the wetlands area, redistribute water discharge from the Danube). Variant 3. Solomonov branch - Zhebryany bay modern Project by engineer V.P. Zizak (2000), The problems are: it is an artificial canal also, but with locks, needs the bridge, to cross the wetlands area, the water discharge redistribution from the Danube up on 2.27% (from the total Q=3000 m3/c for 54 km). The length of the canal is 9 km. Two last variants have orientation from Solomonov arm to Zhebriany bay. The other variants of DWW linked with Ochakovsky and Starostambulsky arms systems. Ochakosky system is dying off system from geological point of view. There are two arms which can be examined for DWW - Prorva arm and Potapovo arm. Besides

  12. Ground-water availability and water quality, Farmington, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzaferro, David L.

    1980-01-01

    The strataified-drift aquifer in Farmington, Conn., is capable of yielding large amounts of water to individual wells. About 14 square miles of Farmington is underlain by stratified-drift deposits which, in places, are more than 450 feet thick. The most productive deposits are found in the Farmington River valley, from Unionville to River Glen, and along Scott Swamp Brook. In these areas, saturated, coarse-grained, stratified-drift deosits exceed 80 feet in thickness and estimated yields to individual wells ranged from 250 to 1,000 gallons per minute. Results of mathematical model analysis of three of the most favorable ground-water areas indicate that long-term yields range from 1.2 to 2.5 million gallons per day. Water in the Framington and Pequabuck Rivers meets the Connecticut Drinking Water Standards, assuming complete conventional treatment, for coliform orgaisms, color, trubidity, chloride, copper, and nitrate. Coliform bacteria concentrations in the Pequabuck river (12-month geometric mean of about 6,800 colonies per 100 milliliters of water) indicate a potential problem. Water in the stratified-drift aquifer is of good quality with the exception of manganese; 10 of 11 wells sampled had maganese concentrations above 0.05 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  13. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  14. Human Health Water Quality Criteria and Methods for Toxics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to Human Health Water Quality Criteria and Methods for Toxins. Includes 2015 Update for Water Quality Criteria, 2002 National Recommended Human Health Criteria, and 2000 EPA Methodology.

  15. MATERIALS SUPPORTING THE NEW RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing new, rapid methods for monitoring water quality at beaches to determine adequacy of water quality for swimming. The methods being developed rely upon quantitive polymerase chain reaction technology. They will permit real time decisions regarding beach closures...

  16. Barriers to adopting satellite remote sensing for water quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Satellite technology can provide a robust and synoptic approach for measuring water quality parameters. Water quality measures typically include chlorophyll-a, suspended material, light attenuation, and colored dissolved organic matter. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal ...

  17. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  18. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  19. Developing Water Quality Criteria for Suspended and Bedded Sediments (SABs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper provides an introduction to SABS and water quality criteria and discusses the types and status of water quality criteria that have been or are currently being used by the States, Canada and elsewhere.

  20. Barriers to adopting satellite remote sensing for water quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Satellite technology can provide a robust and synoptic approach for measuring water quality parameters. Water quality measures typically include chlorophyll-a, suspended material, light attenuation, and colored dissolved organic matter. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal ...

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Catskill/Delaware Water-Quality Network: Water-Quality Report Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates a 60-station streamgaging network in the New York City Catskill/Delaware Water Supply System. Water-quality samples were collected at 13 of the stations in the Catskill/Delaware streamgaging network to provide resource managers with water-quality and water-quantity data from the water-supply system that supplies about 85 percent of the water needed by the more than 9 million residents of New York City. This report summarizes water-quality data collected at those 13 stations plus one additional station operated as a part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Long-Term Monitoring Network for the 2006 water year (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006). An average of 62 water-quality samples were collected at each station during the 2006 water year, including grab samples collected every other week and storm samples collected with automated samplers. On average, 8 storms were sampled at each station during the 2006 water year. The 2006 calendar year was the second warmest on record and the summer of 2006 was the wettest on record for the northeastern United States. A large storm on June 26-28, 2006, caused extensive flooding in the western part of the network where record peak flows were measured at several watersheds.

  2. Multisensor Systems and Floods Risk Management in the Danube Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, Simona; Guttler, Fabio Nor; Lardeux, Cedric; Rudant, Jean-Paul

    2008-11-01

    The use of multisensor systems, such as radar and hyperspectral imagers, and digital elevation models (DEM) derived from LIDAR, contribute to a better comprehension of floods in the Danube Delta, their impacts, and risk management and sustainable development in the delta. This paper presents the processing of Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar images, in C band and vertical polarization, for mapping flooded and floodable areas during the events of spring 2006 in the Danube Delta. Although radar imagery provides important and precise information on the location and characterization of flooded and floodable areas, and on essential areas in the land settlement of the territory that belongs to the administrators and the delta population, this instrument quickly shows its limits. In order to characterize floodable zones, complementary hyperspectral images from the CHRIS/PROBA sensor were analyzed, thus restoring accurate details of vegetation surfaces in this humid zone. Some correlations between the social and economic aspects of this vegetation stratum and their flood potential, according to different forms of agricultural practices, were established. Watermark estimation during the events of 2006 were drawn by merging the data with Lidar measurements taken during the 2007 campaign all over the Danube valley in the Romanian sector (with a precision of about 15 to 30 cm).

  3. Biomonitoring of heavy metals in fish from the Danube River.

    PubMed

    Zrnčić, Snježana; Oraić, Dražen; Ćaleta, Marko; Mihaljević, Željko; Zanella, Davor; Bilandžić, Nina

    2013-02-01

    The Croatian part of the Danube River extends over 188 km and comprises 58 % of the country's overall area used for commercial freshwater fishing. To date, the heavy metal contamination of fish in the Croatian part of the Danube has not been studied. The main purpose of this study was to determine heavy metal levels in muscle tissue of sampled fish species and to analyze the measured values according to feeding habits of particular groups. Lead ranged from 0.015 μg(-1) dry weight in planktivorous to 0.039 μg(-1) dry weight in herbivorous fish, cadmium from 0.013 μg(-1) dry weight in herbivorous to 0.018 μg(-1) dry weight in piscivorous fish, mercury from 0.191 μg(-1) dry weight in omnivorous to 0.441 μg(-1) dry weight in planktivorous fish and arsenic from 0.018 μg(-1) dry weight in planktivorous to 0.039 μg(-1) dry weight in omnivorous fish. Among the analyzed metals in muscle tissue of sampled fish, only mercury exceeded the maximal level (0.5 mg kg(-1)) permitted according to the national and EU regulations determining maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, indicating a hazard for consumers of fish from the Danube River.

  4. Reading Water Quality Variables with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Minkman, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Many relevant water quality variables can be measured cost-effectively with standard indicator strips. These are local measurements, although usually done within a larger water network. Only if these measurements can be made available in a central database, the entire network can benefit from the extra data point. This requires an analog data source to be converted to a digital data point. A tool that is equipped to do that and also communicate the value to a central system, is a smartphone. A water quality monitoring method is introduced that requires standard indicator strips attached to a reference card and an app with which a picture can be taken from this card. The color or other indication is automatically read with dedicated pattern recognition algorithms and, by using the gps-localization of the smartphone, is stored in the right location in the central database. The method is low-cost and very user-friendly, which makes it suitable for crowd sourcing.

  5. A Global Observatory of Lake Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Andrew N.; Hunter, Peter D.; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Neil, Claire; Simis, Stephen; Groom, Steve; Merchant, Chris J.; Miller, Claire A.; O'Donnell, Ruth; Scott, E. Marian

    2017-04-01

    Our planet's surface waters are a fundamental resource encompassing a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and food and energy security. Despite this, these same waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and this often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Recent developments in the availability of satellite platforms for Earth observation (including ESA's Copernicus Programme) offers an unprecedented opportunity to deliver measures of water quality at a global scale. The UK NERC-funded GloboLakes project is a five-year research programme investigating the state of lakes and their response to climatic and other environmental drivers of change through the realization of a near-real time satellite based observatory (Sentinel-3) and archive data processing (MERIS, SeaWiFS) to produce a 20-year time-series of observed ecological parameters and lake temperature for more than 1000 lakes globally. However, the diverse and complex optical properties of lakes mean that algorithm performance often varies markedly between different water types. The GloboLakes project is overcoming this challenge by developing a processing chain whereby algorithms are dynamically selected according to the optical properties of the lake under observation. The development and validation of the GloboLakes processing chain has been supported by access to extensive in situ data from more than thirty partners around the world that are now held in the LIMNADES community-owned data repository developed under the auspices of GloboLakes. This approach has resulted in a step-change in our ability to produce regional and

  6. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  7. The role of recent tectonics and hydrological processes in the evolution of recurring landslides on the Danube's high bank in Dunaföldvár, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentes, Gyula

    2017-08-01

    There are high loess banks prone to landslide along the River Danube in Hungary. One of these is the high loess bank in Dunaföldvár, where several landslides occurred in the last decades. Quantitative relationships between the movements of the high loess bank and the variation of the water level of the River Danube, the ground water table, precipitation and temperature are investigated by two borehole tiltmeters and a vertical borehole extensometer. The twelve-year long observation from 2002 to 2014 made it possible to distinguish between the high bank movements due to slow recent tectonic and geomorphologic processes and the short-period (from hours to months) movements caused by hydrometeorological effects. The results revealed that besides geomorphologic processes recent tectonics can play an important role in the recurrence of landslides in the area. In the investigated period the total tilt of the high bank was 162 μrad in the SSE direction according to the geomorphologic and recent tectonic processes in the surroundings of Dunaföldvár. Investigations of the relationships between the high bank movements and the water level of the River Danube, ground water table changes and the precipitation revealed that the tilt magnitudes caused by the ground water table variations are two orders of magnitude greater than the tilts caused by the water level regime of the river and the direct effect of the precipitation on the high bank tilts can be disregarded.

  8. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator...

  11. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  12. Toward a Global Water Quality Observing and Forecasting System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Coastal and Inland Water Quality Working Group held a Water Quality Summit at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland April 20 to 22, 2015. The goal was to define specific water quality component requirements and de...

  13. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1...

  16. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  17. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  18. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

  19. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  20. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1...

  2. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being...

  3. Toward a Global Water Quality Observing and Forecasting System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Coastal and Inland Water Quality Working Group held a Water Quality Summit at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland April 20 to 22, 2015. The goal was to define specific water quality component requirements and de...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  7. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  8. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2003, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2003, including: discharge records of 163 gaging stations; stage for 187 gaging stations; precipitation for 140 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 40 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 65 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 36 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data at 162 stations in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2003, including continuous water-level records of 156 ground-water wells and periodic records at 130 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  9. Water quality in drinking water reservoirs of a megacity, istanbul.

    PubMed

    Baykal, B B; Tanik, A; Gonenc, I E

    2000-12-01

    Providing clean water at relevant quality and quantity is a challenge that regulatory authorities have to face in metropolitan cities that seem to develop at their limits of sustainability. Istanbul strives to face such a challenge for its population of over 10 million, through six surface water resources. Two approaches of classification for the reservoirs are presented, one based on current regulations and an alternative based on a more detailed classification. The results have shown that nutrient control is the primary issue, and one of the reservoirs has already exceeded the limits of being eutrophic, one is at mesotrophic conditions, and the remaining four are at the limit of being eutrophic, indicating the significance of making the correct decision and taking pertinent measures for management and control. It has been observed that the only mesotrophic resource, which also has the best general quality class, has no industry and a very low population density, whereas the one that is already eutrophic is also the one with the lowest quality class, has the highest population density, and has the greatest percentage of urban land use within its watershed.

  10. Modelling sediment fluxes in the Danube River Basin with SWAT.

    PubMed

    Vigiak, Olga; Malagó, Anna; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Obreja, Florin; Poesen, Jean; Habersack, Helmut; Fehér, János; Grošelj, Samo

    2017-12-01

    Sediment management is of prior concern in the Danube Basin for provision of economic and environmental services. This study aimed at assessing current (1995-2009) sediment fluxes of the Danube Basin with SWAT model and identifying sediment budget knowledge gaps. After hydrologic calibration, hillslope gross erosion and sediment yields were broadly calibrated using ancillary data (measurements in plots and small catchments, and national and European erosion maps). Mean annual sediment concentrations (SSC) from 269 gauging stations (2968 station-year entries; median 19mg/L, interquartile range IQR 10-36mg/L) were used for calibrating in-stream sediments. SSC residuals (simulations-observations) median was 2mg/L (IQR -14; +22mg/L). In the validation dataset (172 gauging stations; 1457 data-entries, median 17mg/L, IQR 10-28), median residual was 9mg/L (IQR -9; +39mg/L). Percent bias in an independent dataset of annual sediment yields (SSY; 689 data-entries in 95 stations; median 52t/km(2)/y, IQR 20-151t/km(2)/y) was -21.5%. Overall, basin-wide model performance was considered satisfactory. Sediment fluxes appeared overestimated in some regions (Sava and Velika Morava), and underestimated in others (Siret-Prut and Romanian Danube), but unbiased elsewhere. According to the model, most sediments were generated by hillslope erosion. Streambank degradation contributed about 5% of sediments, and appeared important in high stream power Alpine reaches. Sediment trapping in reservoirs and floodplain deposition was probably underestimated and counterbalanced by high stream deposition. Factor analysis showed that model underestimations were correlated to Alpine and karst areas, whereas underestimations occurred in high seismicity areas of the Lower Danube. Contemporary sediment fluxes were about one third of values reported for the 1980s for several tributaries of the Middle and Lower Danube. Knowledge gaps affecting the sediment budget were identified in the contributions of

  11. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2008 water year (October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008), data were collected at 67 stations, including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  12. Pennypack Creek-Water Quality Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    8 Light Industry 9 Heavy Industry 10 Transportation 11 Comunication and Utility 12 Comercial, high value 13 Comercial, low value 14 Community Services...would be used to simulate water quality in the stream network . That is, the land surface runoff from the runoff module would be input to the receiving...high value 15 Comunity Services, low value 16 Military 17 Recreation and Cultural 12 upIM 4 ww 9LL z 00 p9. a IL) U) MOU) w -it~ laa Ic- z a- IL- 1

  13. Lake water quality mapping from Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

  14. Recreational water quality in the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Pond, Katherine R; Cronin, Aidan A; Pedley, Steve

    2005-06-01

    Health-based monitoring of the Caspian Sea in Turkmenistan and Iran suggests that bathers are intermittently subject to increased levels of faecal pollution which may lead to gastrointestinal illness. This is the first co-ordinated monitoring programme of recreational waters in the Caspian region and highlights the need to extend such a programme to all countries bordering the Caspian Sea. The novel approach of monitoring that combines risk assessment (water quality monitoring plus a sanitary survey) and risk management, as applied here, allows the identification of possible sources of pollution and the levels of microbiological risk that bathers are subject to. Hence, this allows suitable management interventions to be identified and implemented in the long-term.

  15. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  16. Effect of water source pollution on the water quality of Shanghai water supply system.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaohong; Sun, Qun; Wang, Xinze; Zhu, Bin

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the quality of water source in Shanghai, China and its water supply system. The effect of purification by traditional water treatment process and the effluent biological stability were evaluated by measuring quality parameters in the water supply system. The data showed that the main pollutants in the water source of Huangpu River were organics and ammonia. The conventional water treatment process is not effective to remove these pollutants. Concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, ammonia and UV254 are affected by the water distribution system (DS). The effect is more obvious especially for nitrate and UV254. In addition, the turbidity and chroma increased along the water supply system. The data obtained in this study show the extent of biological instability of drinking water in Shanghai.

  17. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... CFR Part 410 Incorporation by reference, Water audit, Water pollution control, Water reservoirs, Water... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria to...

  18. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, our Nation has sought to improve its water quality; however, many water-quality issues remain unresolved. To address the need for consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program is unique compared with other national water-quality assessment studies in that it integrates the monitoring of the quality of surface and ground waters with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units. These study units represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The island of Oahu, Hawaii, is one such study unit designed to supplement water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation while addressing issues relevant to the island of Oahu.

  19. Isochron burial dating of Danube terraces in the course of an interlaboratory comparison on sample preparation in Vienna and Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhuber, Stephanie; Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Decker, Kurt; Braucher, Regis; Fiebig, Markus; Braun, Mihály; Häuselmann, Philipp; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    The Neogene development of the Vienna Basin's tectonic history is well-documented in seismic sections and hydrocarbon wells. The late Neogene to Quaternary history is less well preserved due to a gap in the sediment record starting from the Late Pannonian due to a large-scale uplift during a phase of basin inversion [1]. Quaternary sediments in the Vienna Basin form prominent Pleistocene terraces north and south of the Danube's recent floodplain. The Danube's course currently shifts to the south where it erodes into its own gravel terraces that were presumably accumulated during the Pliocene and Early to Middle Pleistocene. North of the Danube, a wide alluvial plain has developed with one prominent Middle Quaternary terrace level 17-25 m above the river (Gänserndorf and Schlosshof Terraces). The most recent tectonic events related to the sinistral movement of the Vienna Basin transform fault system are recorded north of the Danube by faulted terrace segments that were identified by paleoseismological trenching in combination with OSL [2]. In contrast, terraces south of the Danube form a staircase with altitudes ranging between 25 and 130 m above todays water level. The terraces in the south have also been strongly dissected by faults [3], each fault block preserved a slightly different succession of terraces. The fault-related vertical displacements south of the Danube have not yet been quantified. To better understand the Quaternary terrace sequence and its displacement in the southern zone, we use the cosmogenic nuclide pair of 26Al and 10Be for isochron burial dating of a Danube terrace at Haslau an der Donau (~40 m above river level). This terrace is locally the lowest of a staircase of a total of 6 different levels. Based on published geomorphological works, the expected age is Middle Pleistocene. The isochron burial dating method is therefore well-suited to date this sedimentary setting due to the presence of large individual clasts that share the same post

  20. Timing matters: species-specific interactions between spawning time, substrate quality, and recruitment success in three salmonid species

    PubMed Central

    Sternecker, Katharina; Denic, Marco; Geist, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Substratum quality and oxygen supply to the interstitial zone are crucial for the reproductive success of salmonid fishes. At present, degradation of spawning grounds due to fine sediment deposition and colmation are recognized as main factors for reproductive failure. In addition, changes in water temperatures due to climate change, damming, and cooling water inlets are predicted to reduce hatching success. We tested the hypothesis that the biological effects of habitat degradation depend strongly on the species-specific spawning seasons and life-history strategies (e.g., fall- vs. spring-spawners, migratory vs. resident species) and assessed temperature as an important species-specific factor for hatching success within river substratum. We studied the species-specific differences in their responses to such disturbances using egg-to-fry survival of Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), resident brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), and migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta lacustris) as biological endpoint. The egg incubation and hatching success of the salmonids and their dependence on temperature and stream substratum quality were compared. Hatching rates of Danube salmon were lower than of brown trout, probably due to higher oxygen demands and increased interstitial respiration in spring. Increases in maximum water temperature reduced hatching rates of resident and migratory brown trout (both fall-spawners) but were positively correlated with hatching rates of Danube salmon (a spring-spawner). Significantly longer incubation periods of resident and migratory brown trout coincided with relatively low stream substratum quality at the end of the egg incubation. Danube salmon seem to avoid low oxygen concentrations in the hyporheic zone by faster egg development favored by higher water temperatures. Consequently, the prediction of effects of temperature changes and altered stream substratum properties on gravel-spawning fishes and biological communities should consider the