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Sample records for dark field far-infrared

  1. Far-infrared Extinction Mapping of Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ~100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler & Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ~1 g cm-2 in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf & Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  2. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-10

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  3. Far-infrared observations of young clusters embedded in the R Coronae Austrinae and RHO Ophiuchi dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilking, B. A.; Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Hyland, A. R.; Jones, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Multicolor far infrared maps in two nearby dark clouds, R Coronae Austrinae and rho Ophiuchi, were made in order to investigate the individual contribution of low mass stars to the energetics and dynamics of the surrounding gas and dust. Emission from cool dust associated with five low mass stars in Cr A and four in rho Oph was detected; their far infrared luminosities range from 2 far infrared luminosities L. up to 40 far infrared luminosities. When an estimate of the bolometric luminosity was possible, it was found that typically more than 50% of the star's energy was radiated longward of 20 micrometers. meaningful limits to the far infrared luminosities of an additional eleven association members in Cr A and two in rho Oph were also obtained. The dust optical depth surrounding the star R Cr A appears to be asymmetric and may control the dynamics of the surrounding molecular gas. The implications of the results for the cloud energetics and star formation efficiency in these two clouds are discussed.

  4. Far-infrared Rydberg-Rydberg transitions in a magnetic field: Deexcitation of antihydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzels, A.; Guertler, A.; Noordam, L. D.; Robicheaux, F.

    2006-06-15

    The dynamics of (de)excitation between highly excited Rydberg states (15field of 0.85 {+-}0.05 T is studied with far-infrared pulses (90-110 and 50 {mu}m) originating from a free electron laser. We measured the excitation spectrum to states around n=40 from a deeper bound state near n=25. Moreover, starting from a highly excited state (30field with a wide distribution of m. Our measurements and calculations suggest that deexcitation stimulated by infrared photons is not an efficient method for accelerating cascade to the ground state.

  5. Far-Infrared Laser Interferometry Measurements on the STP-3(M) Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio

    1994-04-01

    Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 µm was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of ˜10% for both chords during the current rising phase and ˜5% and ˜15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a ˜30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m=0 magnetic fluctuations, and a ˜90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M).

  6. Far-infrared laser interferometry measurements on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shigeyuki; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Tsukishima, Takashige; Arimoto, Hideki; Sato, Koichi; Matsuoka, Akio

    1993-09-01

    Far-infrared laser interferometry at 432 micro m was carried out on the STP-3(M) reversed-field pinch. Measurements along two vertical chords showed a change from a parabolic-like to a flat-like electron density profile after field reversal. A density profile inversion and a correlated toroidal magnetic flux perturbation were also observed during the transition from the current rising to the current decay phase. Measurements of electron density fluctuations indicated relative fluctuation levels of approx. 10% for both chords during the current rising phase and approx. 5% and approx. 15% during the current decay phase for the central and outer chords, respectively. Spectral analysis showed a approx. 30 kHz mode consistent with poloidal mode number m = 0 magnetic fluctuations, and a approx. 90 kHz mode localized to the outer region of the plasma, which was strongly excited during the current decay phase and may be connected to particle and energy transport in STP-3(M).

  7. Prospects for Studying Interstellar Magnetic Fields with a Far-Infrared Polarimeter for SAFIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Polarimetry at mid-infrared through millimeter wavelengths using airborne and ground-based telescopes has revealed magnetic structures in dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, primarily in regions of star formation. Furthermore, spectropolarimetry has offered clues about the composition of the dust grains and the mechanism by which they are aligned with respect to the local magnetic field. The sensitivity of the observations to date has been limited by the emission from the atmosphere and warm telescopes. A factor of 1000 in sensitivity can be gained by using instead a cold space telescope. With 5 arcminute resolution, Planck will make the first submillimeter polarization survey of the full Galaxy early in the next decade. We discuss the science case for and basic design of a far-infrared polarimeter on the SAFIR space telescope, which offers resolution in the few arcsecond range and wavelength selection of cold and warm dust components. Key science themes include the formation and evolution of molecular clouds in nearby spiral galaxies, the magnetic structure of the Galactic center, and interstellar turbulence.

  8. Far-infrared observations of a star-forming region in the Corona Australis dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution far-IR (40-250-micron) survey of a 0.9-sq-deg section of the core region of the Corona Australis dark cloud (containing very young stellar objects such as T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae and Be stars, Herbig-Haro objects, and compact H II regions) is presented. Two extended far-IR sources were found, one associated with the Herbig emission-line star R CrA and the other with the irregular emission-line variable star TY CrA. The two sources have substantially more far-IR radiation than could be expected from a blackbody extrapolation of their near-IR fluxes. The total luminosities of these sources are 145 and 58 solar luminosity, respectively, implying that the embedded objects are of intermediate or low mass. The infrared observations of the sources associated with R CrA and TY CrA are consistent with models of the evolution of protostellar envelopes of intermediate mass. However, the TY CrA source appears to have passed the evolutionary stage of expelling most of the hot dust near the central source, yielding an age of about 1 Myr.

  9. Three-dimensional measurement of a gas flow temperature field using far-infrared band CT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Wang, Peng; Li, Shujing

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectral tomography (EST) can be utilized to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) physical parameter distributions of gas flow fields. Mostly, the radiant energy of the visual and near-infrared bands is received by a video camera in EST, so it is difficult to examine a low/medium-temperature gas flow field by normal EST. However, the far-infrared radiant energy of a low/medium-temperature gas flow field is strong enough to be received by a far-infrared detector. Based on EST, a far-infrared band computed tomography (FICT) approach is proposed that focuses on far-infrared spectral emission and band emission tomography. Both low- and medium-temperature blackbody furnaces were adopted to calibrate the relation between infrared thermal image intensity and radiant exitance. The 3D temperature reconstruction of an alcohol blow lamp was carried out. According to the results of multiple measurements, the relative error of the FICT approach is less than 20%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the FICT approach.

  10. Far infrared laser polarimetry and far forward scattering diagnostics for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas.

    PubMed

    Deng, B H; Kinley, J S; Knapp, K; Feng, P; Martinez, R; Weixel, C; Armstrong, S; Hayashi, R; Longman, A; Mendoza, R; Gota, H; Tuszewski, M

    2014-11-01

    A two-chord far infrared (FIR) laser polarimeter for high speed sub-degree Faraday rotation measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment is described. It is based on high power proprietary FIR lasers with line width of about 330 Hz. The exceptionally low intrinsic instrument phase error is characterized with figures of merit. Significant toroidal magnetic field with rich dynamics is observed. Simultaneously obtained density fluctuation spectra by far forward scattering are presented.

  11. Energy levels and far-infrared optical absorption of impurity doped semiconductor nanorings: Intense laser and electric fields effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of electron-impurity interaction on energy levels and far-infrared absorption in semiconductor nanoring under the action of intense laser and lateral electric fields have been investigated. Numerical calculations are performed using exact diagonalization technique. It is found that the electron-impurity interaction and external fields change the energy spectrum dramatically, and also have significant influence on the absorption spectrum. Strong dependence on laser field intensity and electric field of lowest energy levels, also supported by the Coulomb interaction with impurity, is clearly revealed.

  12. High sensitivity far infrared laser diagnostics for the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. H.; Beall, M.; Schroeder, J.; Settles, G.; Feng, P.; Kinley, J. S.; Gota, H.; Thompson, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    A high sensitivity multi-channel far infrared laser diagnostics with switchable interferometry and polarimetry operation modes for the advanced neutral beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is described. The interferometer achieved superior resolution of 1 × 1016 m-2 at >1.5 MHz bandwidth, illustrated by measurement of small amplitude high frequency fluctuations. The polarimetry achieved 0.04° instrument resolution and 0.1° actual resolution in the challenging high density gradient environment with >0.5 MHz bandwidth, making it suitable for weak internal magnetic field measurements in the C-2U plasmas, where the maximum Faraday rotation angle is less than 1°. The polarimetry resolution data is analyzed, and high resolution Faraday rotation data in C-2U is presented together with direct evidences of field reversal in FRC magnetic structure obtained for the first time by a non-perturbative method.

  13. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  14. Far-infrared polarimetry/interferometry for poloidal magnetic field measurement on ZT-40M

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    The measurement of internal magnetic field profiles may be a very important step in the understanding of magnetic confinement physics issues. The measurement of plasma-induced Faraday rotation is one of the more promising internal magnetic field diagnostics. This thesis describes the development of a heterodyne polarimeter/interferometer for internal poloidal magnetic field measurement on ZT-40M. Heterodyne techniques were employed because of the insensitivity to spurious signal amplitude changes that cause errors in other methods. Initial problems in polarimetric sensitivity were observed that were ultimately found to be related to discharge-induced motions of the constrained diagnostic access on ZT-40M. Grazing incidence motions of the constrained diagnostic access on ZT-40M. Grazing incidence reflections on metallic surfaces of the diagnostic ports caused polarization changes that affected the measurement accuracy. Installation of internally threaded sleeves to baffle the reflections eliminated the sensitivity problem, and allowed useful Faraday rotation measurements to be made. Simultaneous polarimetric and interferometric measurements have also been demonstrated. The ability to assemble a working heterodyne polarimeter/interferometer is no longer in question. The extension of the present system to multichord operation requires increased laser power and efficiency.

  15. Far-Infrared Arrays for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Young, E. T.

    1992-12-01

    Near and mid infrared arrays, available through technology developed as part of the defense program, are revolutionizing infrared astronomy. Longward of the cutoff of extrinsic silicon detectors near 30 microns, however, there is no suitable array technology and no significant ongoing investment in developing one for defense or other nonastronomical uses. We report the results of a NASA funded program to build far infrared arrays for advanced astronomy missions such as SIRTF. We have built linear arrays of Ge:Ga photoconductors with read noises of 25 electrons, quantum efficiencies greater than 20 %, dark currents less than 100 electrons/sec, and wavelength coverage to 120 microns. These arrays can be stacked into a 32x32 format. The high performance and comparatively large format of these arrays will greatly increase the power of far infrared astronomy missions. For example, with SIRTF we would be able to survey large areas of sky to a given signal to noise at 60 microns roughly 10,000 times faster than ISO could. This performance level will enable new fields of investigation, such as deep far infrared maps to measure directly the cosmological evolution of luminous IR galaxies, or large scale mapping of the disks of nearby galaxies to locate low luminosity regions of star formation.

  16. A morphological filter for removing 'Cirrus-like' emission from far-infrared extragalactic IRAS fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Siqueira, P. R.; Basart, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of diffuse extended IR emission from the Galaxy in the form of the so called 'Galactic Cirrus' emission has hampered the exploration of the extragalactic sky at long IR wavelengths. We describe the development of a filter based on mathematical morphology which appears to be a promising approach to the problem of cirrus removal. The method of Greyscale Morphology was applied to a 100 micron IRAS image of the M81 group of galaxies. This is an extragalactic field which suffers from serious contamination from foreground Galactic 'cirrus'. Using a technique called 'sieving', it was found that the cirrus emission has a characteristic behavior which can be quantified in terms of an average spatial structure spectrum or growth function. This function was then used to attempt to remove 'cirrus' from the entire image. The result was a significant reduction of cirrus emission by an intensity factor of 15 compared with the original input image. The method appears to preserve extended emission in the spatially extended IR disks of M81 and M82 as well as distinguishing fainter galaxies within bright regions of galactic cirrus. The techniques may also be applicable to IR databases obtained with the Cosmic Background Explorer.

  17. The Far-Infrared Luminosity Function and Star Formation Rate Density for Dust Obscured Galaxies in the Bootes Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanog, Jae Alyson; Wardlow, J. L.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A. R.; HerMES

    2013-01-01

    We present the far-Infrared (FIR) luminosity function (LF) and the star-formation rate density (SFRD) for dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Bootes field at redshift 2. These galaxies are selected by having a large rest frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratio ( > 1000) and are expected to be some of the most luminous and heavily obscured galaxies in the Universe at this epoch. Photometric redshifts for DOGs are estimated from optical and mid-IR data using empirically derived low resolution spectral templates for AGN and galaxies. We use HerMES Herschel-SPIRE data to fit a modified blackbody to calculate the FIR luminosity (LFIR) and dust temperature (Td) for all DOGs individually detected in SPIRE maps. A stacking analyses was implemented to measure a median sub-mm flux of undetected DOGs. We find that DOGs have LIR and Td that are similar with the sub-millimeter galaxy (SMG) population, suggesting these two populations are related. The DOG LF and SFRD at 2 are calculated and compared to SMGs.

  18. Enhanced thermal radiation in terahertz and far-infrared regime by hot phonon excitation in a field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Pei-Kang; Yen, Shun-Tung

    2014-11-14

    We demonstrate the hot phonon effect on thermal radiation in the terahertz and far-infrared regime. A pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor is used for efficiently exciting hot phonons. Boosting the hot phonon population can enhance the efficiency of thermal radiation. The transistor can yield at least a radiation power of 13 μW and a power conversion efficiency higher than a resistor by more than 20%.

  19. NO EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION IN THE FAR-INFRARED-RADIO CORRELATION OUT TO z {approx} 2 IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Minnie Y.; Huynh, Minh T.; Helou, George; Norris, Ray P.; Dickinson, Mark; Frayer, Dave; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.

    2011-04-20

    We investigate the 70 {mu}m far-infrared-radio correlation (FRC) of star-forming galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) out to z > 2. We use 70 {mu}m data from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (FIDEL), which comprises the most sensitive ({approx}0.8 mJy rms) and extensive far-infrared deep field observations using MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope, and 1.4 GHz radio data ({approx}8 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms) from the Very Large Array. In order to quantify the evolution of the FRC, we use both survival analysis and stacking techniques, which we find give similar results. We also calculate the FRC using total infrared luminosity and rest-frame radio luminosity, q{sub TIR}, and find that q{sub TIR} is constant (within 0.22) over the redshift range 0-2. We see no evidence for evolution in the FRC at 70 {mu}m, which is surprising given the many factors that are expected to change this ratio at high redshifts.

  20. First results from the far-infrared polarimeter system on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, N. E.; Anderson, J. K.; Forest, C. B.; Holly, D.; Jiang, Y.; Brower, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The far-infrared laser interferometer on the Madison Symmetric Torus has recently been upgraded to allow simultaneous interferometry and polarimetry measurements. Centered around a heterodyne laser system that operates at λ≃432 μm, the diagnostic has a frequency response of 1 kHz for the polarimeter and up to 1 MHz for the interferometer. The distribution of laser power through the 11 chord system is managed with wire mesh beamsplitters. Concurrent with the system upgrade to polarimetry, a detailed study of the effect of the wire mesh beamsplitters on beam polarization was conducted. The study shows that the mesh characteristics must be included to extract the polarimetry phase measurement from the raw data. The modifications to the data analysis as well as preliminary five chord polarimetry profile data are presented.

  1. Far-infrared conductivity measurements of pair breaking in superconducting Nb 0.5 Ti 0.5 N thin films induced by an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiaoxiang; Hwang, J; Martin, C; Tanner, D B; Carr, G L

    2010-12-17

    We report the complex optical conductivity of a superconducting thin film of Nb 0.5 Ti 0.5 N in an external magnetic field. The field was applied parallel to the film surface and the conductivity extracted from far-infrared transmission and reflection measurements. The real part shows the superconducting gap, which we observe to be suppressed by the applied magnetic field. We compare our results with the pair-breaking theory of Abrikosov and Gor'kov and confirm directly the theory's validity for the optical conductivity.

  2. The Far Infrared Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, John; Carli, Bruno; Rizzi, Rolando; Serio, Carmine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Palchetti, Luca; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the far infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere, and the role of these properties in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that, in recent years, we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of 288 K, and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapour, carbon dioxide and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example the water vapour and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  3. The physics of heterodyne detection in the far-infrared: Transition from electric-field to photon-absorption detection in a simple system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teich, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The history of heterodyne detection is reviewed from the radiowave to the optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum with emphasion the submillimeter/far infrared. The transition from electric field to photon absorption detection in a simple system is investigated. The response of an isolated two level detector to a coherent source of incident radiation is calculated for both heterodyne and video detection. When the processes of photon absorption and photon emission cannot be distinguished, the relative detected power at double- and sum-frequencies is found to be multiplied by a coefficient, which is less than or equal to unity, and which depends on the incident photon energy and on the effective temperature of the system.

  4. INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

    2001-05-04

    Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

  5. Adiabatic Demagnetization Cooler For Far Infrared Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akio; Yazawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Junya

    1988-11-01

    An small adiabatic demagnetization cooler for an astronomical far infrared detector has been built. Single crystals of manganese ammonium sulphate and chromium potassium alum, were prepared as magnetic substances. The superconducting magnet was indirectly cooled and operated by small current up to 13.3 A, the maximum field being 3.5 T. As a preliminary step, adiabatic demagnetization to zero field was implemented. The lowest temperature obtained was 0.5 K, for 5.0 K initial temperature.

  6. Dynamic quasi-energy-band modulation and exciton effects in biased superlattices driven by a two-color far-infrared field: Disappearance of dynamic localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Kenta; Hino, Ken-Ichi; Toshima, Nobuyuki

    2003-12-01

    A theoretical study of the optical and electronic properties of semiconductor superlattices in ac-dc fields, termed the dynamic Wannier-Stark ladder (DWSL), is done. The biased superlattices are driven by two far-infrared fields with different frequencies and relative phase of δ. Here, the frequency of the first laser is equal to the Bloch frequency ωB of the system under study, while that of the second laser is equal to 2ωB. Quasienergies of the DWSL are calculated based on the Floquet theorem, and the associated linear photoabsorption spectra are evaluated. For δ=0, a gourd-shaped quasi-energy structure characteristic of both dynamic localization (DL) and delocalization (DDL), similar to the usual DWSL driven by a single laser, appears. By changing the ratio of the two laser strengths, however, the width of the quasi-energy band and the locations of both DL and DDL vary noticeably. As for δ≠0, on the other hand, band collapse and the associated DL do not necessarily follow. In fact, DL vanishes and the quasi-energy degeneracy is lifted in a certain range of δ. Just DDL remains over the entire range of the laser strength, eventually resulting in a plateaulike band structure in the linear absorption spectra. The basic physics underlying this phenomenon, which can be readily interpreted in terms of a closed analytical expression, is that all quasi-energies for given crystal momenta are out of phase with each other as a function of laser strength without converging to a single point of energy. This is a feature of this DWSL which sharply distinguishes it from a conventional DWSL generated using a single laser to drive it. Furthermore, an exciton effect is incorporated with the above noninteracting problem, so that exciton dressed states are formed. It is found that this effect gives rise to more involved quasi-energy structures and a more pronounced release of the energy degeneracy of DL, leading again to the formation of a band structure in the absorption

  7. Far infrared measurements of cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolt, Ira G.; Vanek, Michael D.; Tappan, N. D.; Minnis, Patrick; Alltop, J. L.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Lee, C.; Hamilton, Peter A.; Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, A. H.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Baran, Anthony J.

    1999-12-01

    Improved techniques for remote sensing of cirrus are needed to obtain global data for assessing the effect of cirrus in climate change models. Model calculations show that the far infrared/sub-millimeter spectral region is well suited for retrieving cirrus Ice Water Path and particle size parameters. Especially useful cirrus information is obtained at frequencies below 60 cm-1 where single particle scattering dominates over thermal emission for ice particles larger than about 50 micrometer. Earth radiance spectra have been obtained for a range of cloud conditions using an aircraft-based Fourier transform spectrometer. The Far InfraRed Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) is a Martin-Puplett interferometer which incorporates a polarizer for the beamsplitter and can be operated in either intensity or linear polarization measurement mode. Two detector channels span 10 to 140 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1; achieving a Noise Equivalent Temperature of approximately 1K at 30 cm-1 in a 4 sec scan. Examples are shown of measured and modeled Earth radiance for a range of cloud conditions from 1998 and 1999 flights.

  8. Far Infrared Measurements of Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, I. G.; Vanek, M. D.; Tappan, N. D.; Minnis, P.; Alltop, J. L.; Ade, A. R.; Lee, C.; Hamilton, P. A.; Evans, K. F.; Evans, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Improved techniques for remote sensing of cirrus are needed to obtain global data for assessing the effect of cirrus in climate change models. Model calculations show that the far infrared/sub-millimeter spectral region is well suited for retrieving cirrus Ice Water Path and particle size parameters. Especially useful cirrus information is obtained at frequencies below 60 cm-1 where single particle scattering dominates over thermal emission for ice particles larger than about 50 m. Earth radiance spectra have been obtained for a range of cloud conditions using an aircraft-based Fourier transform spectrometer. The Far InfraRed Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) is a Martin-Puplett interferometer which incorporates a polarizer for the beamsplitter and can be operated in either intensity or linear polarization measurement mode. Two detector channels span 10 to 140 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1; achieving a Noise Equivalent Temperature of approximately 1K at 30 cm-1 in a 4 sec scan. Examples are shown of measured and modeled Earth radiance for a range of cloud conditions from 1998 and 1999 flights.

  9. The Far-infrared Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, J.; Carli, B.; Rizzi, R.; Serio, C.; Mlynczak, M.; Palchetti, L.; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, G.

    2008-12-01

    The paper presents a review of the far-infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere and their role in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that in recent years we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of ˜288 K and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapor, carbon dioxide, and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example, the water vapor and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  10. Electric field-assisted metal insulator transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films: optical switching behavior and anomalous far-infrared emissivity variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, Aurelian; Fabert, Marc; Cornette, Julie; Colas, Maggy; Orlianges, Jean-Christophe; Bessaudou, Annie; Cosset, Françoise

    2014-03-01

    We present the vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films deposition using e-beam evaporation of a vanadium target under oxygen atmosphere on different substrates (sapphire, Si, SiO2/Si…) and we focus on their electrical and optical properties variations as the material undergoes a metal-insulator transition under thermal and electrical stimuli. The phase transition induces extremely abrupt changes in the electronic and optical properties of the material: the electrical resistivity increases up to 5 orders of magnitude while the optical properties (transmission, reflection, refractive index) are drastically modified. We present the integration of these films in simple planar optical devices and we demonstrate electrical-activated optical modulators for visible-infrared signals with high discrimination between the two states. We will highlight a peculiar behavior of the VO2 material in the infrared and far infrared regions (2- 20 μm), namely its anomalous emissivity change under thermal- end electrical activation (negative differential emittance phenomenon) with potential applications in active coatings for thermal regulation, optical limiting or camouflage coatings.

  11. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

  12. Far-infrared cameras for automotive safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonnoy, Jacques; Le Guilloux, Yann; Moreira, Raphael

    2005-02-01

    Far Infrared cameras used initially for the driving of military vehicles are slowly coming into the area of commercial (luxury) cars while providing with the FIR imagery a useful assistance for driving at night or in adverse conditions (fog, smoke, ...). However this imagery needs a minimum driver effort as the image understanding is not so natural as the visible or near IR one. A developing field of FIR cameras is ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) where FIR processed imagery fused with other sensors data (radar, ...) is providing a driver warning when dangerous situations are occurring. The communication will concentrate on FIR processed imagery for object or obstacles detection on the road or near the road. FIR imagery highlighting hot spots is a powerful detection tool as it provides a good contrast on some of the most common elements of the road scenery (engines, wheels, gas exhaust pipes, pedestrians, 2 wheelers, animals,...). Moreover FIR algorithms are much more robust than visible ones as there is less variability in image contrast with time (day/night, shadows, ...). We based our detection algorithm on one side on the peculiar aspect of vehicles, pedestrians in FIR images and on the other side on the analysis of motion along time, that allows anticipation of future motion. We will show results obtained with FIR processed imagery within the PAROTO project, supported by the French Ministry of Research, that ended in spring 04.

  13. Far-infrared activity and starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belfort, P.; Mochkovitch, R.; Dennefeld, M.

    1987-01-01

    After the IRAS discovery of galaxies with large far-infrared to blue luminosity ratio, it has been proposed that an enhanced star formation could be the origin of the far-infrared emission through dust heating. Whether a simple photometric model is able to account for the FIR and optical properties of IRAS galaxies was investigated. The L sub IR/L sub B ratio, (B-V) color and H sub alpha equivalent width of normal spirals are well reproduced with smooth star formation histories. In the case of starburst galaxies, several theoretical diagrams allow us to estimate the burst strength and extinction. L sub IR/L sub B ratio up to 100 can be rather easily reached, whereas extreme values probably require IMF truncated at the low end.

  14. Optical-faint, Far-infrared-bright Herschel Sources in the CANDELS Fields: Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies at z > 1 and the Effect of Source Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Somerville, Rachel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven "SDSS-invisible," very bright 250 μm sources (S 250 > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ~ 1-2 whose high L IR is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  15. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  16. The composite nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) at z ˜ 2-3 in the COSMOS field - I. A far-infrared view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riguccini, L.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mullaney, J. R.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Calanog, J.; Capak, P.; Cooray, A.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; McCracken, H.; Oliver, S.; Roseboom, I.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Treister, E.

    2015-09-01

    Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) are bright 24 μm-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. They are typically characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (TD ˜ 200-1000 K) in the near-IR indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). DOGs with a fainter 24 μm flux display a stellar bump in the near-IR and their mid-IR luminosity appears to be mainly powered by dusty star formation. Alternatively, it may be that the mid-IR emission arising from AGN activity is dominant but the torus is sufficiently opaque to make the near-IR emission from the AGN negligible with respect to the emission from the host component. In an effort to characterize the astrophysical nature of the processes responsible for the IR emission in DOGs, this paper exploits Herschel data (PACS + SPIRE) on a sample of 95 DOGs within the COSMOS field. We derive a wealth of far-IR properties (e.g. total IR luminosities; mid-to-far-IR colours; dust temperatures and masses) based on spectral energy distribution fitting. Of particular interest are the 24 μm-bright DOGs (F24 μm > 1 mJy). They present bluer far-IR/mid-IR colours than the rest of the sample, unveiling the potential presence of an AGN. The AGN contribution to the total 8-1000 μm flux increases as a function of the rest-frame 8 μm-luminosity irrespective of the redshift. This confirms that faint DOGs (L8 μm < 1012 L⊙) are dominated by star formation while brighter DOGs show a larger contribution from an AGN.

  17. Far-infrared spectra of acetanilide revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spire, A.; Barthes, M.; Kellouai, H.; De Nunzio, G.

    2000-03-01

    A new investigation of the temperature dependence of the far-infrared spectra of acetanilide and some isotopomers is presented. Four absorption bands are considered at 31, 42, 64, and 80 cm-1, and no significant change of their integrated intensity is observed when reducing the temperature. The temperature induced frequency shift values and other properties of these bands are consistent with an assignment as anharmonic lattice phonons. These results rule out the assignment of the 64, 80, and 106 cm-1 bands as normal modes of the polaronic excitation, as previously suggested.

  18. Far-infrared kinetic-inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, E.N.; McDonald, D.G.; Sauvageau, J.E. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on extremely sensitive far-infrared detectors suitable for both direct detection and heterodyn applications based upon {mu}m-sized thin films with thickness less than a superconducting penetration depth. The penetration depth of such a film, and therefore its inductance, varies with temperature and with quasiparticle population (described by an effective temperature T*), resulting in both bolometric and non-equilibrium Photoinductive responses. Incident radiation is coupled into the small-area kinetic inductor by a lithographic antenna, and the resulting inductance changes are amplified and converted to a voltage signal by an integrated microstrip DC SQUID.

  19. Extremely Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of Extremely Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of extremely active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the extreme ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two extreme ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.

  20. Generating Far-Infrared Radiation By Two-Wave Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstain, Shmuel

    1992-01-01

    Far-infrared radiation 1 to 6 GHz generated by two-wave mixing in asymmetrically grown GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well devices. Two near-infrared semiconductor diode lasers phase-locked. Outputs amplified, then combined in semiconductor nonlinear multiple-quantum-well planar waveguide. Necessary to optimize design of device with respect to three factors: high degree of confinement of electromagnetic field in nonlinear medium to maximize power density, phase matching to extend length of zone of interaction between laser beams in non-linear medium, and nonlinear susceptibility. Devices used as tunable local oscillators in heterodyne-detection radiometers.

  1. Far-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer for Sofia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The project goal was to evaluate the scientific capabilities and technical requirements for a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer suitable for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory, which is now being developed by NASA under contract to the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The conclusions detailed below include our specific recommendations for astronomical observations, as well as our intended technical approach for reaching these scientific goals. These conclusions were presented to USRA in the form of a proposal to build this instrument. USRA subsequently awarded the University of Colorado a 3-year grant to develop the proposed Hot-Electron micro-Bolometer (HEB) mixer concept for high frequencies above 3 THz, as well as other semiconductor mixer technologies suitable for high sensitivity receivers in the 2-6 THz frequency band.

  2. Ultrasensitive graphene far-infrared power detectors.

    PubMed

    McKitterick, C B; Prober, D E; Vora, H; Du, X

    2015-04-29

    We describe the properties of ultrasensitive graphene photon detectors for use in the far-infrared/terahertz spectral region and present theoretical predictions for their power detection sensitivity. These predictions are based on two graphene contacting schemes with superconducting contacts: contacts with a thin insulating barrier, and direct superconducting contacts. To quantitatively assess these predictions, we perform thermal measurements of graphene at low temperatures and analyse them to extract information on electron-phonon cooling in graphene. These new results for the electron-phonon cooling channel allow reliable prediction of the noise equivalent power (NEP) that can be expected from an optimized graphene detector, using measurement of the Johnson noise emission as the thermometry method. We find that an NEP of 2 × 10(-19) W Hz(-1/2) should be achievable under certain biasing conditions with an ideal device. PMID:25835056

  3. Far-infrared spectra of benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelsmann, H. R.; Mielke, Z.

    1991-11-01

    Crystalline benzoic acid has been studied by far-infrared spectroscopy in the spectral region of 20-230 cm -1 with a view to a determination and an assignment of the pure lattice and the intermonomer vibrations. An anomalous behaviour, similar to the one found earlier in the mid-IR, is observed for the asymmetric OH…O stretching band with regard to the number of components of the band and its changes as a function of temperature and deuteration. The experiments were carried out for single crystals of fully hydrogenated benzoic acid (- h6) with polarization analysis, and for powder of h6, d1, d5 and d6 benzoic acid at temperatures between 6 and 295 K. An explanation of these anomalies is proposed.

  4. Far-infrared properties of cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicay, M. D.; Giovanelli, R.

    1987-01-01

    Far-infrared properties are derived for a sample of over 200 galaxies in seven clusters: A262, Cancer, A1367, A1656 (Coma), A2147, A2151 (Hercules), and Pegasus. The IR-selected sample consists almost entirely of IR normal galaxies, with Log of L(FIR) = 9.79 solar luminosities, Log of L(FIR)/L(B) = 0,79, and Log of S(100 microns)/S(60 microns) = 0.42. None of the sample galaxies has Log of L(FIR) greater than 11.0 solar luminosities, and only one has a FIR-to-blue luminosity ratio greater than 10. No significant differences are found in the FIR properties of HI-deficient and HI-normal cluster galaxies.

  5. Far-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1062 awarded to the University of Colorado. The project goal was to evaluate the scientific capabilities and technical requirements for a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer suitable for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory, which is now being developed by NASA under contract to the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The conclusions detailed below include our specific recommendations for astronomical observations, as well as our intended technical approach for reaching these scientific goals. These conclusions were presented to USRA in the form of a proposal to build this instrument. USRA subsequently awarded the University of Colorado a 3-year grant (USRA 8500-98-010) to develop the proposed Hot-Electron micro-Bolometer (HEB) mixer concept for high frequencies above 3 THz, as well as other semiconductor mixer technologies suitable for high sensitivity receivers in the 2-6 THz frequency band.

  6. NGC 2024: Far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Lada, C. J.; Schwartz, P. R.; Smith, H. A.; Smith, J.; Glaccum, W.; Harper, D. A.; Loewenstein, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Far infrared continuum and millimeter wave molecular observations are presented for the infrared and radio source NGC 2024. The measurements are obtained at relatively high angular resolution, enabling a description of the source energetics and mass distribution in greater detail than previously reported. The object appears to be dominated by a dense ridge of material, extended in the north/south direction and centered on the dark lane that is seen in visual photographs. Maps of the source using the high density molecules CS and HCN confirm this picture and allow a description of the core structure and molecular abundances. The radio molecular and infrared observations support the idea that an important exciting star in NGC 2024 has yet to be identified and is centered on the dense ridge about 1' south of the bright mid infrared source IRS 2. The data presented here allows a presentation of a model for the source.

  7. The AKARI Far-Infrared Bright Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Issei

    The AKARI Far-Infrared Bright Source Catalogue is now available to the world-wide astro-nomical community. The catalogue contains about 0.4 million infrared sources detected and measured at four far-infrared wavelengths bands centered at 65, 90, 140, 160 µm. It shall be used as one of the standard resources in the modern astronomical researches. AKARI, the first Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, was launched in February 2006, and carried out an all-sky survey during its 16 months cryogenic mission lifetime. AKARI is equipped with a 68.5 cm cooled telescope and two instruments, the Infrared Camera (IRC; 1.8-26.5 µm) and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS; 50-180 µm). The All-Sky Survey was made in two bands (9 and 18 µm) by the IRC and in four wavelengths by the FIS. The FIR survey covered more than 94 per cent of the entire sky with more than two independent scans. The first public release of the point source catalogue is made in March 2010. The catalogue is intended to provide a source list of uniform detection limit over the entire sky (in fact the limit is different in the Galactic Plane regions). It includes about 0.4 million sources. The detection limit at the most sensitive band, 90 µm, is about 0.6 Jy. The flux uncertainty is 20-40 per cent, depending on the band. The position information is as accurate as about 5 arcsec, enabling us to carry out a precise identification using other catalogues. The Mid-Infrared Point Source Catalogue is also released at the same time. With the higher spatial resolution and better sensitivity, the AKARI catalogues shall be used as the standard infrared source list in various fields in astronomy. The catalogue provides a good opportunity for follow-up observations with Herschel, Plank, SOFIA, ALMA, and other ongoing and future facilities. AKARI is a JAXA project with the participation of ESA. The Far-Infrared Bright Source Catalogue is the product of collaborations between the institutes in Japan, Korea, UK, and the

  8. Far Infrared Synchrotron Spectrum of Trimethlyene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahassneh, Omar; van Wijngaarden, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Rotationally-resolved vibrational spectra of trimethlyene oxide (c-C3H6O) from 650 through 1200 wn were recorded using far infrared synchrotron radiation at the Canadian Light Source with better than 0.001 wn resolution. The observed bands correspond to at least eight different fundamental vibrations in this region. Due to the low frequency ring puckering motion, the observed rovibrational pattern of each band is congested with hot-combination bands that originate in the first two excited ring puckering states (52.9 wn, 142.6 wn). The ongoing analysis of the strong b-type bands corresponding to asymmetric in-plane CO stretching (ν10:1008 wn) will be discussed along with the identification of allowed Coriolis interactions arising from nearby energy levels related to in-plane CC stretching (ν9: 940 wn, ν3: 1033 wn). G. Moruzzi et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 219, 152 (2003). Bánhegyi et al. Spectrochim. Acta. 39A, 761 (1983).

  9. Far-Infrared Imaging of NGC 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Bendo, G. J.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Misselt, K. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Young, E. T.; Hines, D. C.; Kelly, D. M.; Stansberry, J. A.; Papovich, C.; Morrison, J. E.; Egami, E.; Su, K. Y. L.; Muzerolle, J.; Dole, H.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hinz, J. L.; Smith, P. S.; Latter, W. B.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Padgett, D. L.; Rho, J.; Frayer, D. T.; Wachter, S.

    2004-09-01

    We present images of the galaxy NGC 55 at 24, 70, and 160 μm obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) instrument on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The new images display the far infrared emission in unprecedented detail and demonstrate that the infrared morphology differs dramatically from that at shorter wavelengths. The most luminous emission region in the galaxy is marginally resolved at 24 μm and has a projected separation of nearly 520 pc from the peak emission in the optical and near-infrared. This region is responsible for ~9% of the total emission at 24 μm and is likely a young star formation region. We show that this and other compact sources account for more than one-third of the total 24 μm emission. We compute a total infrared luminosity for NGC 55 of 1.2×109Lsolar. The star formation rate implied by our measurements is 0.22Msolaryr-1. We demonstrate that the cold dust is more extended than the warm dust in NGC 55-the minor-axis scale heights are 0.32, 0.43, and 0.49 kpc at 24, 70, and 160 μm, respectively. The dust temperature map shows a range of temperatures that are well correlated with the 24 μm surface brightness, from 20 K in low surface brightness regions to 26 K in high surface brightness regions.

  10. Low cost, high performance far infrared microbolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roer, Audun; Lapadatu, Adriana; Elfving, Anders; Kittilsland, Gjermund; Hohler, Erling

    2010-04-01

    Far infrared (FIR) is becoming more widely accepted within the automotive industry as a powerful sensor to detect Vulnerable Road Users like pedestrians and bicyclist as well as animals. The main focus of FIR system development lies in reducing the cost of their components, and this will involve optimizing all aspects of the system. Decreased pixel size, improved 3D process integration technologies and improved manufacturing yields will produce the necessary cost reduction on the sensor to enable high market penetration. The improved 3D process integration allows a higher fill factor and improved transmission/absorption properties. Together with the high Thermal Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) and low 1/f noise properties provided by monocrystalline silicon germanium SiGe thermistor material, they lead to bolometer performances beyond those of existing devices. The thermistor material is deposited and optimized on an IR wafer separated from the read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) wafer. The IR wafer is transferred to the ROIC using CMOS compatible processes and materials, utilizing a low temperature wafer bonding process. Long term vacuum sealing obtained by wafer scale packaging enables further cost reductions and improved quality. The approach allows independent optimization of ROIC and thermistor material processing and is compatible with existing MEMS-foundries, allowing fast time to market.

  11. Two instruments for far-infrared astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomo, J.L.

    1983-05-01

    Two instruments for far-infrared astrophysics are described. The first is a broad-band photometer used on White Mountain for astronomical observations from 10 to 30 cm/sup -1/ (300 GHz to 1 THz; lambda, 1 mm to 330 ..mu..). The optical system of the telescope includes a light-weight, high-speed, chopping secondary. The L /sup 4/He-cooled photometer uses low-pass filters and a L/sup 3/He-cooled, composite bolometer. The system performance is evaluated, and the site is compared to other possible platforms. The second project is a balloon-borne spectroradiometer to measure the cosmic background radiation from 3 to 10 cm/sup -1/ (100 GHz to 300 GHz; lambda, 3 mm to 1 mm). The apparatus has five band-pass filters with excellent rejection at higher frequencies, a low-noise chopper, and an internal calibrator. We describe the design and use of calibrators for such an experiment and develop a model of calibration procedures. The calibrations of several reported measurements are analyzed with this model, and flaws are found in one procedure. Finally, the system performance is used to estimate the accuracy this experiment can achieve.

  12. Tunable Far Infrared Studies in Support of Stratospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Park, K.; Nolt, I. G.; Evenson, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes research done under NASA Grant NAG5-4653. The research performed under this grant has been a collaboration between institutions including the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Oregon, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The program has included fully line-resolved measurements of submillimeter and far infrared spectroscopic line parameters (pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences, and line positions) for the analysis of field measurements of stratospheric constituents, far infrared database improvements, and studies for improved satellite measurements of the Earth's atmosphere. This research program is designed to enable the full utilization of spectra obtained in far infrared/submillimeter field measurements, such as FIRS-2, FILOS, IBEX, SLS, EosMLS, and proposed European Space Agency measurements of OH (e.g., PIRAMHYD and SFINX) for the retrieval of accurate stratospheric altitude profiles of key trace gases involved in ozone layer photochemistry. For the analysis of the spectra obtained in the stratosphere from far infrared measurements it is necessary to have accurate values of the molecular parameters (line positions, strengths, and pressure broadening coefficients) for the measured molecules and for possible interfering species. Knowledge of line positions is in increasingly good shape, with some notable exceptions. The increase in position information includes research that has been performed in the present program of research on HO2, H2O, H2O2, O3, HCl, HF, HBr, HI, CO, OH, and ClO. Examples where further line position studies are necessary include hot band and minor isotopomer lines of some of the major trace species (H2O, O3) and normal lines of some triatomic and larger molecules (NO2). Knowledge of strengths is in generally good shape, since most of the lines are from electric dipole transitions whose intensities are well

  13. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  14. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  15. Manifestation of the Hofstadter butterfly in far-infrared absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, V.; Gerhardts, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    The far-infrared absorption of a two-dimensional electron gas with a square-lattice modulation in a perpendicular constant magnetic field is calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. For strong modulation and short period we obtain intrasubband and intersubband magnetoplasmon modes reflecting the subbands of the Hofstadter butterfly in two or more Landau bands. The character of the absorption and the correlation of the peaks to the number of flux quanta through each unit cell of the periodic potential depends strongly on the location of the chemical potential with respect to the subbands, or equivalently, on the density of electrons in the system. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Far-infrared mapping of dusty elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lees, Joanna F.; Harper, D. A.; Rupen, Michael P.; Knapp, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results from a program to map the thermal far-infrared emission from cool dust in elliptical galaxies using the Yerkes 60-Channel Camera on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) are presented. The 160 micron emission from the elliptical NGC 6542 is apparently extended over the optical galaxy whereas the 100 micron emission is unresolved. This implies a dust temperature gradient consistent with that expected for dust with Galactic properties exposed to the general interstellar radiation field of the elliptical galaxy. Observations of the elliptical NGC 5666 and the NGC 7463/4/5 compact group (consisting of the elliptical NGC 7464, the S0 NGC 7465, and the spiral NGC 7463) are also discussed.

  17. THE SPITZER ARCHIVAL FAR-INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Hanish, D. J.; Capak, P.; Teplitz, H. I.; Desai, V.; Armus, L.; Brinkworth, C.; Brooke, T.; Colbert, J.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Edwards, L.; Frayer, D.; Huynh, M.; Lacy, M.; Murphy, E.; Scarlata, C.; Shenoy, S.

    2015-03-15

    We present the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SAFIRES). This program produces refined mosaics and source lists for all far-infrared (FIR) extragalactic data taken during the more than six years of the cryogenic operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The SAFIRES products consist of FIR data in two wavelength bands (70 and 160 μm) across approximately 180 square degrees of sky, with source lists containing far-infrared fluxes for almost 40,000 extragalactic point sources. Thus, SAFIRES provides a large, robust archival far-infrared data set suitable for many scientific goals.

  18. Polarization of far-infrared radiation from molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, G.; Gonatas, D. P.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Platt, S. R.; Dragovan, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the polarization of far-infrared emission from dust in nine molecular clouds. Detections were obtained in Mon R2, in the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula in Orion, and in Sgr A. Upper limits were set for six other clouds. A comparison of the 100 micron polarization of KL with that previously measured at 270 microns provides new evidence that the polarization is due to emission from magnetically aligned dust grains. Comparing the results for Orion with measurements at optical wavelengths, it is inferred that the magnetic field direction in the outer parts of the Orion cloud is the same as that in the dense core. This direction is nearly perpendicular to the ridge of molecular emission and is parallel to both the molecular outflow in KL and the axis of rotation of the cloud core. In Mon R2, the field direction which the measurements imply does not agree withthat derived from 0.9-2.2 micron polarimetry. The discrepancy is attributed to scattering in the near-infrared. In Orion and Sgr A, where comparisons are possible, the measurements are in good agreement with 10 micron polarization measurements.

  19. Field Flows of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.

    2008-07-08

    Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.

  20. Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoué, Shojiro; Kabaya, Morihiro

    1989-09-01

    Contrary to previous presumption, accumulated evidence indicates that far-infrared rays are biologically active. A small ceramic disk that emist far-infrared rays (4 16 μm) has commonly been applied to a local spot or a whole part of the body for exposure. Pioneering attempts to experimentally analyze an effect of acute and chronic radiation of far-infrared rays on living organisms have detected a growth-promoting effect in growing rats, a sleep-modulatory effect in freely behaving rats and an insomiac patient, and a blood circulation-enhancing effect in human skin. Question-paires to 542 users of far-infrared radiator disks embedded in bedelothes revealed that the majority of the users subjectively evaluated an improvement of their health. These effects on living organisms appear to be non-specifically triggered by an exposure to far-infrared rays, which eventually induce an increase in temperature of the body tissues or, more basically, an elevated motility of body fluids due to decrease in size of water clusters.

  1. Small-scale structures in the far-infrared background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbstmeier, Uwe; Abraham, Peter; Lemke, Dietrich; Laureijs, R. J.; Klaas, Ulrich; Mattila, Kalevi; Leinert, Christoph; Surace, Christian; Kunkel, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Four fields with areas ranging from 80 to 2000 arcmin(2) have been mapped with the photometer on board of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 90 and around 180mu m in regions of bright and faint cirrus. We examined the spatial characteristics of the infrared background emission with high spatial resolution and found that the fluctuations in the background emission limit the detection sensitivity of ISOPHOT for most of our observations. At 90mu m the power law relation between the power in the fluctuations and the spatial frequencies established from IRAS data could be extended to twice as high spatial frequencies. At 180mu m the small-scale fluctuations were studied for the first time by a cold space telescope with arcminute-resolution. A similar power law and spectral index down to spatial scales of 3arcmin as for the 90mu m component is found. For cirrus clouds the spatial frequency spectrum in the far-infrared has a similar shape as that derived from 21cm line observations of the interstellar neutral hydrogen. In faint regions the fluctuations are caused presumably by randomly distributed extragalactic sources. Future 3m class space telescopes surveying the sky around 200mu m will not be hampered by cirrus over most of the sphere. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA

  2. Far-infrared remote sensing of cirrus cloud properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolt, Ira G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Carli, Bruno; Evans, K. Franklin; Marshall, B. Thomas; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Park, Kwangjai; Russell, James M., III

    1997-01-01

    The lack of a global cirrus cloud database is a major deficiency in validating Global Circulation Models which are the basis for estimating long term climate change. Cirrus clouds being composed of ice particles act to reflect the incoming solar radiation and to block infrared energy radiation loss from the earth. The net effect can be either warming or cooling. The essential data are global distributions of the Ice Water Path (IWP) and effective particle size. We have modeled the outgoing earth radiance spectrum between 8 and 1000 micrometer as a function of IWP and effective particle size. The results are used to estimate cirrus retrieval accuracies for cirrus from far infrared/submm measurements by Fourier transform spectroscopy. We describe the aircraft-based Far Infrared Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) instrument which is currently under construction. We also discuss the potential contribution of far infrared/submm measurements for the validation of cirrus products anticipated in the MTPE MODIS program.

  3. Far-infrared spectra of mesoporous ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajić, J.; Romčević, M.; Romčević, N.; Babić, B.; Matović, B.; Baláž, P.

    2016-07-01

    ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized mechanochemically by high-energy milling, with three different milling times (5 min, 10 min and 20 min). Nitrogen adsorption method was used for examining specific surface area and texture of obtained powders. It was found that all samples are completely mesoporous. The optical properties were studied by far-infrared spectroscopy at room temperature in spectral region of 50-600 cm-1. The analysis of the far-infrared reflectivity spectra was made by the fitting procedure. The dielectric function of ZnS nanoparticles is modeled as a mixture of homogenous spherical inclusions in air by the Maxwell-Garnet formula. In the analysis of the far-infrared reflection spectra, appearance of combined plasmon-LO phonon modes (CPPMs) with high phonon damping are observed, which causes decrease of coupled plasmon-phonon frequencies.

  4. How WISE Points to Future Far-Infrared Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the tantalizing science that is emerging from the first WISE discoveries, we consider the impact that the future will bring to far-infrared mission concepts. What we've learned from WISE gives us new investigations for missions like SPICA and SPIRIT. We highlight the new results from WISE and incorporate that into the context of the Far-Infrared Community Plan and the recent New Worlds, New Horizons documents. Plain-Language Abstract: Based on tantalizing science emerging from the first WISE discoveries, what we've learned gives us new investigations for missions like SPICA and SPIRIT. We highlight the new results from WISE and incorporate that into the context of the Far-Infrared Community Plan and the recent New Worlds, New Horizons documents.

  5. Far infrared emission and portable testing device of fine powders.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Wang, Peipeng; Gan, Kun

    2011-11-01

    In order for industrial and mining enterprises to fast detect the quality of fine mineral powders with far infrared emission, a simple testing model was set up according to the relationship between the emission intensity of powders and their surface temperature. The corresponding testing device was designed and assembled into three parts containing Constant Temperature Heating Part, Temperature Measuring Part and Sample Loading Part. By using the tourmaline mineral powders with far infrared emission as the research object and combining Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the calibration for the testing device was carried out. The results showed that the far infrared emission intensity of the tourmaline powders with different mining area and particle size could be judged. The testing results exhibited correct values when compared with those from FTIR measurements. PMID:22413325

  6. Far infrared emission and portable testing device of fine powders.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Wang, Peipeng; Gan, Kun

    2011-11-01

    In order for industrial and mining enterprises to fast detect the quality of fine mineral powders with far infrared emission, a simple testing model was set up according to the relationship between the emission intensity of powders and their surface temperature. The corresponding testing device was designed and assembled into three parts containing Constant Temperature Heating Part, Temperature Measuring Part and Sample Loading Part. By using the tourmaline mineral powders with far infrared emission as the research object and combining Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the calibration for the testing device was carried out. The results showed that the far infrared emission intensity of the tourmaline powders with different mining area and particle size could be judged. The testing results exhibited correct values when compared with those from FTIR measurements.

  7. HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED AND SUBMILLIMETER PHOTOMETRY FOR THE KINGFISH SAMPLE OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Aniano, G.; Draine, B. T.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Hinz, J. L.; Montiel, E. J.; Krause, O.; Groves, B. A.; Roussel, H.; Appleton, P. N.; Armus, L.; Beirao, P.; Bolatto, A. D.; Brandl, B. R.; Calzetti, D.; Crocker, A. F.; Croxall, K. V.; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Hao, C.-N.; and others

    2012-01-20

    New far-infrared and submillimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 61 nearby galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. The spatially integrated fluxes are largely consistent with expectations based on Spitzer far-infrared photometry and extrapolations to longer wavelengths using popular dust emission models. Dwarf irregular galaxies are notable exceptions, as already noted by other authors, as their 500 {mu}m emission shows evidence for a submillimeter excess. In addition, the fraction of dust heating attributed to intense radiation fields associated with photodissociation regions is found to be (21 {+-} 4)% larger when Herschel data are included in the analysis. Dust masses obtained from the dust emission models of Draine and Li are found to be on average nearly a factor of two higher than those based on single-temperature modified blackbodies, as single blackbody curves do not capture the full range of dust temperatures inherent to any galaxy. The discrepancy is largest for galaxies exhibiting the coolest far-infrared colors.

  8. Far-infrared graphene plasmonic crystals for plasmonic band engineering.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Kitty Y M; Chee, Jingyee; Yoon, Hosang; Song, Yi; Kong, Jing; Ham, Donhee

    2014-05-14

    We introduce far-infrared graphene plasmonic crystals. Periodic structural perturbation-in a proof-of-concept form of hexagonal lattice of apertures-of a continuous graphene medium alters delocalized plasmonic dynamics, creating plasmonic bands in a manner akin to photonic crystals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrates band formation, where far-infrared irradiation excites a unique set of plasmonic bands selected by phase matching and symmetry-based selection rules. This band engineering may lead to a new class of graphene plasmonic devices.

  9. High pressure far infrared spectroscopy of ionic solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowndes, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A high-pressure far-infrared cell operating at up to truly hydrostatic pressures of 8 kbar is described and used to determine the anharmonic self-energies associated with the transverse optic modes of ionic solids in which q approximately equals zero. The cell allows far-infrared studies in the spectral range below 120 reciprocal cm. The transverse optic modes were investigated to determine their mode Gruneisen constants and the pressure dependence of their inverse lifetimes in RbI, CsI, and TlCl.

  10. New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J. (Editor); Leisawitz, David T. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy aimed to highlight the groundbreaking opportunities available for astronomical investigations in the far-infrared to submillimeter using advanced, space-based telescopes. Held at the University of Maryland on March 7-8, 2002, the Workshop was attended by 130 participants from 50 institutions, and represented scientists and engineers from many countries and with a wide variety of experience. The technical content featured 17 invited talks and 44 contributed posters, complemented by two sixperson panels to address questions of astronomy and technology.

  11. Vibrationally compensated far infrared laser interferometer for plasma density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, D.K.; Johnson, L.C.; Mendelsohn, A.

    1980-12-01

    A modulated far-infrared laser interferometer presently operating on the PDX experiment at Princeton is described. The interferometer geometry permits the characterization of inside 'D', outside 'D', and circular discharges. To achieve this versatility, a titanium corner cube reflector, mounted inside the PDX vacuum vessel is used in conjunction with a second visible wavelength interferometer for vibration corrections. In addition, the use of room temperature quasi-optical Schottky diodes in the far-infrared interferometer is reported. The minimum detectable line average density of the system is about 5 x 10 to the 11th per cu cm.

  12. Synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopy of nickel tungstate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinko, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Roy, P.; Evarestov, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    Monoclinic antiferromagnetic NiWO4 was studied by far-infrared (30-600 cm-1) absorption spectroscopy in the temperature range of 5-300 K using the synchrotron radiation from SOLEIL source. Two isomorphous CoWO4 and ZnWO4 tungstates were investigated for comparison. The phonon contributions in the far-infrared range of tungstates were interpreted using the first-principles spin-polarized linear combination of atomic orbital calculations. No contributions from magnetic excitations were found in NiWO4 and CoWO4 below their Neel temperatures down to 5 K.

  13. Far infrared Spectroscopy with FTIR Beam Line of MIRRORCLE 20

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Nobuhiro; Moon, Ahsa; Nishikawa, Kishi; Kitagawa, Toshimichi; Hiraiwa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-01-19

    A beam line for far infrared spectroscopy using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) has been developed as a facility of tabletop synchrotron MIRRORCLE 20 in Ritsumeikan University and has been utilized to study liquid structure through analysis of intermolecular vibration in aqueous solutions. We report recent developments in the system and the examples of measured spectra.

  14. Anomalous dispersion and the pumping of far infrared (FIR) lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the anomalous dispersion at the pump transition in molecular far-infrared lasers (FIR) can lead to sizable focusing and defocusing effects. Criteria for beam spreading and trapping are considered with CH2F as an example.

  15. Progress in far-infrared spectroscopy: Approximately 1890 to 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, Akiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The history of far-infrared spectroscopy from its beginning to around 1970 is reviewed. Before World War II, the size of the community investigating this topic was limited. During this period, in particular before 1925, about 90% of the papers were published by H. Rubens and his co-workers in Germany. One or two researchers from the US joined the Rubens group per year from 1890 to the beginning of 1910. During the next year or two, some researchers joined M. Czerny, who is seen as the successor of Rubens. After World War II, far-infrared techniques progressed further in the US, which did not suffer damage during the war. The advanced techniques of far-infrared grating spectroscopy were transferred from the US (R. A. Oetjen) to Japan (H. Yoshinaga). Yoshinaga and his co-workers expanded the techniques by themselves. This paper describes the historical development of far-infrared spectroscopy before Fourier transform spectroscopy became popular around 1970.

  16. Catalogue of far-infrared loops in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.; Moór, A.; Kiss, Z. T.; Tóth, L. V.

    2007-03-01

    Aims:An all-sky survey of loop- and arc-like intensity enhancements has been performed to investigate the large-scale structure of the diffuse far-infrared emission. Methods: We used maps made of 60 and 100 μm processed IRAS data (Sky Survey Atlas and dust infrared emission maps) to identify large-scale structures: loops, arcs, or cavities, in the far-infrared emission in the Galaxy. Distances were attributed to a subsample of loops using associated objects. Results: We identified 462 far-infrared loops, analysed their individual FIR properties and their distribution. This data forms the Catalogue of Far-Infrared Loops in the Galaxy. We obtained observational estimates of fin ≈ 30% and fout ≈ 5% for the hot gas volume filling factor of the inward and outward Galactic neighbourhood of the Solar System. We obtained a slope of the power-law size luminosity function β = 1.37 for low Galactic latitudes in the outer Milky Way. Conclusions: .Deviations in the celestial distribution of far-infrared loops clearly indicate that violent events frequently overwrite the structure of the interstellar matter in the inner Galaxy. Our objects trace out the spiral arm structure of the Galaxy in the neighbourhood of the Sun and their distribution clearly suggests that there is an efficient process that can generate loop-like features at high Galactic latitudes. Power-law indices of size luminosity distributions suggest that the structure of the ISM is ruled by supernovae and stellar winds at low Galactic latitudes, while it is governed by supersonic turbulence above the Galactic plane. Appendices B-D are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/1227

  17. Cation Far Infrared Vibrational Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Zhang, J.; Han, F.

    2009-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) region is crucial for spectroscopic investigations because of the existence of skeletal modes of moderately sized molecules. However, our knowledge of FIR modes is significantly lacking, largely due to the limited availability of light sources and detectors in this spectral region. The technique "pulsed field ionization zero kinetic energy electron spectroscopy" (PFI-ZEKE) is ideal for studies of FIR spectroscopy. This is because the low internal energy of the cation associated with the skeletal modes is particularly beneficial for the stability of the corresponding Rydberg states. In this work, we report our effort in studies of FIR spectroscopy of cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Using laser desorption, we can vaporize the non-volatile PAH for gas phase spectroscopy. To ensure the particle density and therefore the critical ion density in prolonging the lifetime of Rydberg electrons, we have used a "chamber-in-a-chamber" design and significantly shortened the distance between the desorption region and the detection region. From our studies of catacondensed PAHs, we have observed the emergence of the flexible waving modes with the increasing length of the molecular ribbon. Pericondensed PAHs, on the other hand, have shown significant out of plane IR active transitions. The planarity of the molecular frame is therefore a question of debate. The FIR modes are also interesting for another reason: they are also telltales of the precision of modern computational packages. The combination of experimental and theoretical studies will help with the identification of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This effort therefore directly serves the missions of the Spitzer Space Observatory and more importantly, the missions of the Herschel Space Observatory.

  18. Searching for protoclusters in the far--infrared with Herschel/SPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, E. E.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Hatch, N. A.; Sibthorpe, B.; Chiang, Y. K.; Overzier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Protoclusters, the high-redshift ancestors of local galaxy clusters, are powerful laboratories for tracing the emergence of large-scale structure, and studying the evolution of galaxies in dense environments. This article presents the results of the first far-infrared, wide-field survey of protoclusters, the ancestors of local galaxy clusters, carried out using the SPIRE instrument on-board the Herschel Space Observatory, over the key redshift range 2 < z < 4. Examination of the environment within 6 comoving Mpc of the central radio galaxy in each field, reveals that ˜11% of fields contain a >3σ far-infrared excess in source numbers, and there is a tentative trend for the most powerful radio galaxies to host the largest galaxy overdensities. These protocluster candidates are generally contained within 6 comoving Mpc, which is in agreement with simulations and previous work.

  19. Astronomical polarization studies at radio and infrared wavelengths. Part 2: Far infrared polarization of dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    Far infrared polarization of dust clouds is examined. The recently observed 10 micron polarization of the Orion Nebula and the Galactic Center suggests that far infrared polarization may be found in these objects. Estimates are made of the degree of far infrared polarization that may exist in the Orion Nebula. An attempt to observe far infrared polarization from the Orion Nebula was carried out.

  20. Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy. The two science goals are to use polarized emission from the partially-aligned dust that provides a probe of the role of magnetic fields in star formation and to use the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation CMB to test theories of the very early universe and provide a probe of fundamental physics.

  1. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  2. Far-Infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; May, Tim E.

    2014-06-01

    The far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source is a state of the art user facility, which offers significantly more far-infrared brightness than conventional globar sources. The infrared radiation is collected from a bending magnet through a 55 X 37 mrad2 port to a Bruker IFS 125 HR spectrometer, which is equipped with a nine compartment scanning arm, allowing it to achieve spectral resolution better than 0.001 cm-1. Currently the beamline can achieve signal to noise ratios up to 8 times that which can be achieved using a traditional thermal source. This talk will provide an overview of the the beamline, and the capabilities available to users, recent and planned improvements including the addition of a Glow Discharge cell and advances in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation. Furthermore, the process of acquiring access to the facility will be covered.

  3. Development of Kinetic Inductance Detectors for Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, Alyssa; Aguirre, James E.; Stevenson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An instrument with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at far-infrared wavelengths could contribute significantly to several currently unanswered questions in astrophysics. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a spectroscopic experiment at far-infrared wavelengths using kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). KIDs have the potential to achieve high sensitivity and low noise levels. Specifically, the approach we take uses lumped-element KIDs, which consist of separate capacitive and inductive elements combined to form a microresonator. The inductive element serves as a direct radiation absorber. We describe the design considerations, fabrication process, and readout scheme for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels, along with results from a prototype detector array.

  4. A dual far-infrared laser diagnostic of magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Park, H.K.

    1988-02-01

    A dual far-infrared laser has been constructed and its properties have been exploited to probe tokamak-like discharges in the CDX toroidal device. Thermal variation of the difference frequency between the two far-infrared cavities is slow, though the cavities lack thermal stabilization, simply because their assembly on the same chassis exposes them to virtually identical temperature changes. The optical arrangement beyond the laser permits conversion within minutes between interferometry and density fluctuation observation, and within an hour between different operating wavelengths. Line-average densities of 2 /times/ 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and coherent fluctuations in the neighborhood of 20 kHz have been measured with this diagnostic. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Kinetic inductance detectors for far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, A.; Aguirre, J.; Stevenson, T.

    2016-07-01

    The star formation mechanisms at work in the early universe remain one of the major unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. Many of the luminous galaxies present during the period of peak star formation (at redshift of about 2.5) were heavily enshrouded in dust, which makes observing their properties difficult at optical wavelengths. However, many spectral lines exist at far-infrared wavelengths that serve as tracers of star formation. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a balloon-borne spectroscopic intensity mapping experiment at far-infrared wavelengths. The system uses lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs), which have the potential to achieve high sensitivity and low noise levels. KIDs consist of separate capacitive and inductive elements, and use the inductive element as the radiation absorber. We describe the design considerations, fabrication process, and readout scheme for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels.

  6. HTS Fabry-Perot resonators for the far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Philipp; Prenninger, Martin; Pechen, Evgeny V.; Renk, Karl F.

    1996-06-01

    We report on far infrared (FIR) Fabry-Perot resonators (FPR) with high temperature superconductor (HTS) thin films as mirrors. For the fabrication of FPR we use two parallel MgO plates covered with YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films on adjacent sides. We have measured the far-infrared transmissivity at 10 K with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Very sharp resonances can be observed for frequencies below 6 THz where the MgO is transparent. The finesse (width of the first order resonance) is comparable to the FPR with metallic meshes as reflectors that are applied in the FIR spectroscopy and astronomy. We have also shown that thin films of gold are not adequate substitute to HTS thin films and not suitable for the fabrication of high-quality FPR due to the ohmic losses.

  7. A balloon-borne 102-cm telescope for far-infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1970's, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona engaged in a cooperative program to develop a balloon-borne 102-cm telescope capable of carrying out far infrared (40 to 250 micron) observations of astronomical interest above the earth's atmosphere. Since 1972, the telescope has flown and successfully recovered a total of nineteen times. Thirteen of the flights produced high-quality astronomical data, resulting in more than 92.5 hours of photometric and spectroscopic observations of numerous objects, such as H 2 regions, dark clouds, molecular clouds, a planetary nebula, a galaxy, the galactic center, the planets, and an asteroid. From the launch site in Palestine, Texas, sources as far south as -50 degrees declination were observed. The balloon-borne telescope was one of the most sensitive instruments ever used for observation in the far infrared region of the spectrum. It was most productive in producing high resolution maps of large areas (typically square degrees) centered on known H 2 regions, molecular clouds, and dark cloud complexes. In many cases, these scans produced the first far infrared maps of these regions, and many new sources were discovered. The results have led to a better understanding of the distribution of gas and dust in these regions, the evolution of H 2 regions, and the processes of star formation in giant molecular clouds. The following topics are presented: (1) the focal plane instrumentation; (2) the history and flight record; (3) scientific results and publications; (4) eduational aspects; and (5) future planes.

  8. Arrays of Bolometers for Far-infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Allen, C. A.; Babu, S.; Casey, S.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. D.; Jhabvala, M.; Harper, D. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.

    2004-01-01

    We describe 12 x 32 arrays of semiconducting cryogenic bolometers designed for use in far-infrared and submillimeter cameras. These 12 x 32 arrays are constructed from 1 x 32 monolithic pop-up detectors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The pop-up technology allows the construction of large arrays with high filling factors that provide efficient use of space in the focal planes of far-infrared and submillimeter astronomical instruments. This directly leads to a significant decrease in observing time. The prototype array is currently operating in SHARC II, a facility instrument in use at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The elements of this array employ a bismuth absorber coating and quarter wave backshort to optimize the bolometer absorption for a passband centered at 350 microns. However, this resonant structure also provides good bolometer performance at 450 and 850 microns, the two additional SHARC II passbands. A second array is to be installed in the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera (HAWC), a far-infrared imaging camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This array is currently in the final stage of construction, and its completion is expected in early 2004. HAWC is scheduled for commissioning in 2005. The HAWC array employs titanium-gold absorbers and is optimized for uniform absorption from 40 to 300 microns to accommodate all four of its far-infrared passbands. We describe the details of the array construction including the mechanical design and electrical characterization of the constituent linear arrays, comparing the SHARC II and HAWC cases. We also summarize the overall characteristics of the final two-dimensional arrays. Finally, we show examples of array performance in the form of images obtained with SHARC II.

  9. Efficient far-infrared thermal bremsstrahlung radiation from a heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Pei-Kang; Yen, Shun-Tung

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the far-infrared thermal radiation properties of a heterojunction bipolar transistor. The device conveniently provides a high electric field for electrons to heat the lattice and the electron gas in a background with ions embedded. Because of very high effective temperature of the electron gas in the collector, the electron-ion bremsstrahlung makes efficient the thermal radiation in the far-infrared region. The transistor can yield a radiation power of 0.1 mW with the spectral region between 2 and 75 THz and a power conversion efficiency of 6 × 10{sup −4}. Such output contains a power of 20 μW in the low-frequency part (2–20 THz) of the spectrum.

  10. Microwave and far-infrared spectra of the O-(18)H radical

    SciTech Connect

    Comben, E.R.; Brown, J.M.; Steimle, T.C.; Leopold, K.R.; Evenson, K.M.

    1986-06-01

    Far-infrared laser magnetic resonance (LMR) spectroscopy was used to calculate the frequencies, wavelengths, and line strengths for transitions of O-(18)H molecules at microwave and far-infrared frequencies. In this experiment, a molecular transition frequency is tuned into coincidence with that of a fixed frequency laser by the application of a variable magnetic field. The O-(18)H radicals, detected in natural abundance (0.20 percent), were produced by the reaction of hydrogen atoms with nitrogen dioxide. These data together with microwave frequencies ascertained by Gottlieb, Redford, and Smith (1974) were used to determine the parameters of an effective Hamiltonian. Rotational levels up to J = 5.5 were involved. Results are indicated schematically and the low-lying energy levels of O-(18)H are shown. It is concluded that the frequencies of transitions between levels studied directly in the LMR experiment are reliable. 18 references.

  11. Far-Infrared Water Line Emissions from Circumstellar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wesley; Neufeld, David A.

    1995-01-01

    We have modeled the far-infrared water line emission expected from circumstellar outflows from oxygen-rich late-type stars, as a function of the mass-loss rate and the terminal outflow velocity. For each mass-loss rate and terminal outflow velocity considered, we computed self-consistently the gas density, temperature, outflow velocity, and water abundance as a function of distance from the star. We then used an escape probability method to solve for the equilibrium level populations of 80 rotational states of water and thereby obtained predictions for the luminosity of a large number of far-infrared rotational transitions of water. In common with previous models, our model predicts that water will be copiously produced in the warm circumstellar gas and that water rotational emission will dominate the radiative cooling. However, our use of a realistic radiative cooling function for water leads to a lower gas temperature than that predicted in previous models. Our predictions for the far-infrared water line luminosities are consequently significantly smaller than those obtained in previous studies. Observations to be carried out by the Infrared Space Observatory will provide a crucial test of the models presented here.

  12. Community Plan for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ade, Peter; Akeson, Rachel; Ali, Shafinaz; Amato, Michael; Arendt, Richard; Baker, Charles; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bock, James; Borne, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents the consensus view of the 124 participants in the Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy.We recommend that NASA pursue the vision for far-IR astronomy outlined in the NAS Decadal Survey, which said: A rational coordinated program for space optical and infrared astronomy would build on the experience gained with NGST1 to construct [a JWST-scale filled-aperture far-IR telescope SAFIR, and then ultimately, in the decade 2010 to 2020, build on the SAFIR, TPF, and SIM experience to assemble a space-based, far-infrared interferometer. SAFIR will study star formation in the young universe, the buildup of elements heavier than hydrogen over cosmic history, the process of galaxy formation, and the early phases of star formation, which occur behind a veil of dust that precludes detection at mid IR and shorter wavelengths. The far-infrared interferometer will resolve distant galaxies to study protogalaxy interactions and mergers and the processes that led to enhanced star formation activity and the formation of Active Galactic Nuclei, and will resolve protostars and debris disks in our Galaxy to study how stars and planetary systems form.

  13. Stratospheric Trace Gas Distributions from Far Infrared Thermal Emission Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing

    1987-09-01

    An inversion algorithm has been developed to retrieve stratospheric trace gas distributions from high resolution far infrared limb thermal emission spectral data. The algorithm follows an onion peel approach and employs a non-linear least-square-fit spectral analysis technique. The infrared radiative transfer model used to compute the spectrum is based on full line-by-line and layer-by-layer calculations and includes curvature and refraction effects. Finite instrument field of view effects have been studied. An inversion algorithm has also been developed to correct observation angles. The spectral measurements were made in the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC), October, 1982, using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The observed spectra have an unapodized spectral resolution of 0.0033 cm ^{-1}, and cover the spectral region between 20-100 cm^{-1}. Spectral data for selected limb sequences have been calibrated. The instrument line shape function has been empirically determined. The observation angles of the spectra have been corrected from spectral lines of O_2 in the 23 -84 cm^{-1} region to have an accuracy within 4 arc minutes. The vertical profiles of O_3, H_2O, HDO, HCN, ^ {16}O^{16}O ^{18}O, and ^ {16}O^{18}O ^{16}O in the stratosphere have been retrieved with an altitude resolution of about 4-5 km in the 20-37 km range. The results are compared with available measurements in literature. The vertical profiles of O_3, H_2 O, and HDO are retrieved from spectral lines in the 20-100 cm^{-1} region. The variation of the D/H ratio of water vapor is derived. The vertical profile of HCN is retrieved from spectral lines in the 32-56 cm^{-1} region. The volume mixing ratio of HCN is found to be 139 pptv at 20 km, 127 pptv at 25 km, and increasing to 172 pptv at 37 km. The vertical profiles of stratospheric ^ {16}O^{16}O ^{18}O and ^ {16}O^{18}O ^{16}O are retrieved from spectral lines in the 39-76 cm^{-1 } region. The ratio of total heavy isotopic ozone ^{50}O_3 to

  14. Mapping metals at high redshift with far-infrared lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Yue, B.; Vallini, L.; Maiolino, R.; Feruglio, C.

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic metal enrichment is one of the key physical processes regulating galaxy formation and the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, determining the metal content of the most distant galaxies has proven so far almost impossible; also, absorption line experiments at z ≳ 6 become increasingly difficult because of instrumental limitations and the paucity of background quasars. With the advent of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), far-infrared emission lines provide a novel tool to study early metal enrichment. Among these, the [C II] line at 157.74 μm is the most luminous line emitted by the interstellar medium of galaxies. It can also resonant scatter comic microwave background (CMB) photons inducing characteristic intensity fluctuations (ΔI/ICMB) near the peak of the CMB spectrum, thus allowing to probe the low-density IGM. We compute both [C II] galaxy emission and metal-induced CMB fluctuations at z ˜ 6 by using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and produce mock observations to be directly compared with ALMA Band 6 data (νobs ˜ 272 GHz). The [C II] line flux is correlated with MUV as log (F_peak/μ Jy)= -27.205 -2.253 M_UV -0.038 M_UV^2. Such relation is in very good agreement with recent ALMA observations of MUV < -20 galaxies by e.g. Maiolino et al. and Capak et al. We predict that a MUV = -19 (MUV = -18) galaxy can be detected at 4σ in ≃40 (2000) h, respectively. CMB resonant scattering can produce ≃ ± 0.1 μJy/beam emission/absorptions features that are very challenging to be detected with current facilities. The best strategy to detect these signals consists in the stacking of deep ALMA observations pointing fields with known MUV ≃ -19 galaxies. This would allow to simultaneously detect both [C II] emission from galactic reionization sources and CMB fluctuations produced by z ˜ 6 metals.

  15. Shock excited far-infrared molecular emission around T Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoglio, L.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Caux, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Lorenzetti, D.; Palla, F.; Pezzuto, S.; Saraceno, P.; Smith, H. A.; White, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    The first complete far-infrared spectrum of T Tau has been obtained with the LWS spectrometer on-board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), which detected strong emission from high-J (J=14-25) CO, para- and ortho-H_2O and OH transitions over the wavelength range from 40 to 190 mu m. In addition the [OI]63mu m, [OI]145mu m and [CII]158mu m atomic lines were also detected. Most of the observed molecular emission can be explained by a single emission region at T ~ 300-900 K and n_H_2 ~ 105-6cm-3, with a diameter of about 2-3 arcsec. This corresponds to a very compact region of 300 - 400 AU at the distance of 140 pc. A higher temperature component seems to be needed to explain the highest excitation CO and H_2O lines. We derive a water abundance of 1-7 * 10-5 and an OH abundance of ~ 3* 10-5 with respect to molecular hydrogen, implying H_2O and OH enhancements by more than a factor of 10 with respect to the expected ambient gas abundance. The observed cooling in the various species amounts to 0.04 Lsun, comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the outflow, indicating that the stellar winds could be responsible of the line excitation through shocks. In order to explain the observed molecular cooling in T Tau in terms of C-type shock models, we hypothesise that the strong far-ultraviolet radiation field photodissociates water in favour of OH. This would explain the large overabundance of OH observed. The estimated relatively high density and compactness of the observed emission suggest that it originates from the shocks taking place at the base of the molecular outflow emission, in the region where the action of the stellar winds from the two stars of the binary system is important. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) with the participation of ISAS and NASA

  16. Large Format Arrays for Far Infrared and Millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Some of the most compelling questions in modem astronomy are best addressed with submillimeter and millimeter observations. The question of the role of inflation in the early evolution of the universe is best addressed with large sensitive arrays of millimeter polarimeters. The study of the first generations of galaxies requires sensitive submillimeter imaging, which can help us to understand the history of energy release and nucleosynthesis in the universe. Our ability to address these questions is dramatically increasing, driven by dramatic steps in the sensitivity and size of available detector arrays. While the MIPS instrument on the SIRTF mission will revolutionize far infrared astronomy with its 1024 element array of photoconductors, thermal detectors remain the dominant technology for submillimeter and millimeter imaging and polarimetry. The last decade has seen the deployment of increasingly large arrays of bolometers, ranging from the 48 element arrays deployed on the KAO in the late 198Os, to the SHARC and SCUBA arrays in the 1990s. The past years have seen the deployment of a new generation of larger detector arrays in SHARC II (384 channels) and Bolocam (144 channels). These detectors are in operation and are beginning to make significant impacts on the field. Arrays of sensitive submillimeter bolometers on the SPIRE instrument on Herschel will allow the first large areas surveys of the sky, providing important insight into the evolution of galaxies. The next generation of detectors, led by SCUBA II, will increase the focal scale of these instruments by an order of magnitude. Two major missions are being planned by NASA for which further development of long wavelength detectors is essential, The SAFlR mission, a 10-m class telescope with large arrays of background limited detectors, will extend our reach into the epoch of initial galaxy formation. A major goal of modem cosmology is to test the inflationary paradigm in the early evolution of the universe

  17. Investigation of jewelry powders radiating far-infrared rays and the biological effects on human skin.

    PubMed

    Yoo, B H; Park, C M; Oh, T J; Han, S H; Kang, H H; Chang, I S

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared rays have certain kinds of effects on the human body, especially on skin, blood circulation, and skin cell vitalizing. Some jewelry powders radiate far-infrared rays. Jade has powerful far-infrared ray radiation, and tourmaline has pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties and radiated far-infrared rays. The jewelry powders (fine powdered jade and tourmaline powders) were screened by far-infrared rays for radiation properties and tested for the effects of far-infrared rays on the human skin by temperature observation using an infrared thermal analyzer. PMID:12053208

  18. Investigation of jewelry powders radiating far-infrared rays and the biological effects on human skin.

    PubMed

    Yoo, B H; Park, C M; Oh, T J; Han, S H; Kang, H H; Chang, I S

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared rays have certain kinds of effects on the human body, especially on skin, blood circulation, and skin cell vitalizing. Some jewelry powders radiate far-infrared rays. Jade has powerful far-infrared ray radiation, and tourmaline has pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties and radiated far-infrared rays. The jewelry powders (fine powdered jade and tourmaline powders) were screened by far-infrared rays for radiation properties and tested for the effects of far-infrared rays on the human skin by temperature observation using an infrared thermal analyzer.

  19. Technology Needs for Far-Infrared, Submillimeter, and Millimeter Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S. Harvey

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR will: Study the important and relatively unexplored region of the spectrum between 30 and 300 m; Enable the study of galaxy formation and the earliest stage of star formation by revealing regions too enshrouded by dust to be studied by NGST; Be more than 100 times as sensitive as SIRTF or the European [Herschel] mission.SAFIR is projected to cost around $600M total. The decadal review committee recommends that $100M be allocated in this decade to start the SAFIR project, and that additional technology developments be funded separately: Far-Infrared Array Development ($10M ) Refrigerators ($50M ) Large, Lightweight Optics ($80M ). Current developments are also described.

  20. a Far Infrared Synchrotron-Based Investigation of 3-OXETANONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziqiu; Wijngaarden, Jennifer Van

    2011-06-01

    The four membered ester ring 3-oxetanone is a precursor for adding oxetane subunits into pharmaceuticals which then block metabolically exposed sites in the bioactive molecule without increasing its lipophilicity. The high resolution (0.00096 cmCm-1) rovibrational spectrum of 3-oxetanone was recorded for the first time using far infrared radiation from the Canadian Light Source (CLS) synchrotron facility coupled to a Bruker IFS125HR FTIR spectrometer. A total of six rotationally-resolved vibrational bands were observed between 360 and 1150 cmCm-1 at room temperature. The assignment of the dense spectrum is currently underway and the progress will be discussed in this talk.

  1. Measurement of stratospheric HBr using high resolution far infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Carli, B.; Ciarpallini, P.; Cortesi, U.; Griffin, M. J.; Lepri, G.; Mencaraglia, F.; Murray, A. G.; Nolt, I. G.; Park, J. H.; Radostitz, J. V.

    Far infrared spectral features of HBr have been observed in the stratospheric emission spectrum using a balloon borne high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer equipped with a high sensitivity detector specially designed for this purpose. The value of 1.6±0.6 parts per trillion in volume for the HBr mixing ratio has been retrieved, from the global-fit analysis of 121 spectra, in the 25-36.5 km altitude range. The result is briefly compared with models and previous assessments.

  2. W3 North: Far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Schwartz, P. R.; Smith, H. A.; Lada, C. J.; Glaccum, W.; Harper, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The W3 North (G133.8 + 1.4) source is the northernmost member of a string of active star forming regions that marks the western boundary of the giant HII region W4. Far infrared and radio observations of molecular CO were made of the W3 star forming region. The W3 North object shows extended dust and gas emission which suggests a fairly advanced disruption of a molecular cloud. An estimate of the age of the embedded HII region is given, and emission maps of the W3 object are presented. The W3 North source may be the oldest object among the W3 complex of sources.

  3. An improved far-infrared microscope with quantum Hall detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikushima, Kenji; Sakuma, Hisato; Komiyama, Susumu

    2003-05-01

    A highly-sensitive scanning far-infrared (FIR) microscope is developed. The microscope consists of a silicon solid immersion lens that probes FIR and a condenser lens that focuses the FIR onto a small and highly-sensitive quantum Hall detector. The solid immersion lens is in contact with a sample, which is moved with a mechanical stage. The microscope is successfully applied to image extremely weak cyclotron emission from quantum Hall devices with a spatial resolution about 50 μm and a signal-to-noise ratio improved by a factor 18 compared to a previous system.

  4. Improved circular polarizer for far-infrared lightpipe systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Kaplan, S. G.; Quijada, M.; Sengupta, K.; Drew, H. D.

    1995-12-01

    We present an improved design for far-infrared (FIR) circular polarizers used in a lightpipe transmission system for magneto-optical experiments. A peak efficiency of nearly 100% is achieved for FIR laser radiation by reducing the multiple reflections within the polarizer system, as well as scattering from the walls of the lightpipe. Broadband low-resolution measurements are less susceptible to errors due to multiple reflections, but incorporation of these improvements is still found to reduce systematic errors due to the reflection from the sample. Also, we have measured the low temperature index of refraction of quartz and find significant disagreement with published values for frequencies below 100 cm-1.

  5. A Broadband Micro-Machined Far-Infrared Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Datesman, A. M.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, K. H.; Quijada, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The experimental investigation of a broadband far-infrared meta-material absorber is described. The observed absorptance is greater than 0.95 from 1 to 20 terahertz (300-15 microns) over a temperature range spanning 5-300 degrees Kelvin. The meta-material, realized from an array of tapers approximately 100 microns in length, is largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of these elements and is cryogenically compatible with silicon-based micro-machined technologies. The electromagnetic response is in general agreement with a physically motivated transmission line model.

  6. A broadband micro-machined far-infrared absorber.

    PubMed

    Wollack, E J; Datesman, A M; Jhabvala, C A; Miller, K H; Quijada, M A

    2016-05-01

    The experimental investigation of a broadband far-infrared meta-material absorber is described. The observed absorptance is >0.95 from 1 to 20 THz (300-15 μm) over a temperature range spanning 5-300 K. The meta-material, realized from an array of tapers ≈100 μm in length, is largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of these elements and is cryogenically compatible with silicon-based micro-machined technologies. The electromagnetic response is in general agreement with a physically motivated transmission line model. PMID:27250445

  7. Upgrade of the JET far infrared interferometer diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Boboc, A.; Edlington, T.; Dorling, S.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    In recent years there has been a major upgrade of the JET far infrared diagnostic system consisting of a new laser system with the wavelength at 118.8 {mu}m at and more advanced processing electronics for phase counting. This provides a second colour measurement of the electron plasma density on the vertical system. Due to the shorter wavelength, the plasma induced laser beam refraction is reduced by a factor of three alleviating density errors caused by loss of signal (so-called 'fringe jumps'[A. Murari et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073505 (2006)]), in particular during high performance plasmas experiments in JET.

  8. A broadband micro-machined far-infrared absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Datesman, A. M.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, K. H.; Quijada, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    The experimental investigation of a broadband far-infrared meta-material absorber is described. The observed absorptance is >0.95 from 1 to 20 THz (300-15 μm) over a temperature range spanning 5-300 K. The meta-material, realized from an array of tapers ≈100 μm in length, is largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of these elements and is cryogenically compatible with silicon-based micro-machined technologies. The electromagnetic response is in general agreement with a physically motivated transmission line model.

  9. Transmission measurements of selected liquids in the far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. A.; Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    1985-11-01

    Measurements were taken of the transmission of 0.119 mm radiation through 22 liquids using a variable length absorption cell. Seven of these liquids were then selected to be tested at wavelengths of 0.185 mm, 0.307 mm, and 0.447 mm. It was found that a light grade of mineral oil proved to have excellent transmission in the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum. We were able, from the data collected, to estimate the index of refraction of these liquids at wavelengths longer than 0.3 mm.

  10. A FAR-INFRARED CHARACTERIZATION OF 24 {mu}m SELECTED GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 2.5 USING STACKING AT 70 {mu}m AND 160 {mu}m IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nicholas; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Sanders, D. B.; Frayer, D. T.; Arnouts, Stephane; Ilbert, Olivier; Aussel, Herve; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, N. Z.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.

    2010-07-01

    We present a study of the average properties of luminous infrared galaxies detected directly at 24 {mu}m in the COSMOS field using a median stacking analysis at 70 {mu}m and 160 {mu}m. Over 35,000 sources spanning 0 {<=} z {<=} 3 and 0.06 mJy {<=}S{sub 24} {<=} 3.0 mJy are stacked, divided into bins of both photometric redshift and 24 {mu}m flux. We find no correlation of S{sub 70}/S{sub 24} flux density ratio with S{sub 24}, but find that galaxies with higher S{sub 24} have a lower S{sub 160}/S{sub 24} flux density ratio. These observed ratios suggest that 24 {mu}m selected galaxies have warmer spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at higher mid-IR fluxes, and therefore have a possible higher fraction of active galactic nuclei. Comparisons of the average S{sub 70}/S{sub 24} and S{sub 160}/S{sub 24} colors with various empirical templates and theoretical models show that the galaxies detected at 24 {mu}m are consistent with 'normal' star-forming galaxies and warm mid-IR galaxies such as Mrk 231, but inconsistent with heavily obscured galaxies such as Arp 220. We perform a {chi}{sup 2} analysis to determine best-fit galactic model SEDs and total IR luminosities for each of our bins. We compare our results to previous methods of estimating L{sub IR} and find that previous methods show considerable agreement over the full redshift range, except for the brightest S{sub 24} sources, where they overpredict the bolometric IR luminosity at high redshift, most likely due to their warmer dust SED. We present a table that can be used as a more accurate and robust method for estimating bolometric infrared luminosity from 24 {mu}m flux densities.

  11. Bolometers for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M. J.

    2000-04-01

    Important scientific goals of far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy include measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation, deep imaging surveys for detection of high-red-shift galaxies, and imaging and spectroscopy of star formation regions and the interstellar medium in the milky way and nearby galaxies. Use of sensitive bolometer arrays leads to very large improvements in observing speed. Recent progress in the development of bolometric detector systems for ground-based and space-borne far-infrared and submillimetre astronomical observations is reviewed, including spider-web NTD bolometers, transition-edge superconducting sensors, and micromachined planar arrays of ion-implanted silicon bolometers. Future arrays may be based on planar absorbers without feedhorns, which offer potential advantages including more efficient use of space in the focal plane and improved instantaneous sampling of the telescope point spread function, but present challenges in suppression of stray light and RF interference. FIRST and Planck Surveyor are planned satellite missions involving passively cooled (~70K) telescopes, and bolometer array developments for these missions are described.

  12. Far-Infrared Line Emission from High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Cox, P.; Hunter, T. R.; Malhotra, S.; Phillips, T. G.; Yun, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent millimeter and submillimeter detections of line emission in high redshift objects have yielded new information and constraints on star formation at early epochs. Only CO transitions and atomic carbon transitions have been detected from these objects, yet bright far-infrared lines such as C+ at 158 microns and N+ at 205 microns should be fairly readily detectable when redshifted into a submillimeter atmospheric window. We have obtained upper limits for C+ emission &om two high redshift quasars, BR1202-0725 at z=4.69 and BRI1335-0415 at z=4.41. These limits show that the ratio of the C+ line luminosity to the total far-infrared luminosity is less than 0.0l%, ten times smaller than has been observed locally. Additionally, we have searched for emission in the N+ 205 micron line from the Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, and detected emission in CO J=7-6. The N+ emission is found to be below the amount predicted based on comparison to the only previous detection of this line, in the starburst galaxy M82.

  13. Superconducting Microwave Resonator Arrays for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noroozian, Omid

    Superconducting microwave resonators have the potential to revolutionize submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, and with it our understanding of the universe. The field of low-temperature detector technology has reached a point where extremely sensitive devices like transition-edge sensors are now capable of detecting radiation limited by the background noise of the universe. However, the size of these detector arrays are limited to only a few thousand pixels. This is because of the cost and complexity of fabricating large-scale arrays of these detectors that can reach up to 10 lithographic levels on chip, and the complicated SQUID-based multiplexing circuitry and wiring for readout of each detector. In order to make substantial progress, next-generation ground-based telescopes such as CCAT or future space telescopes require focal planes with large-scale detector arrays of 104--10 6 pixels. Arrays using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) are a potential solution. These arrays can be easily made with a single layer of superconducting metal film deposited on a silicon substrate and pattered using conventional optical lithography. Furthermore, MKIDs are inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain, allowing ˜ 10 3 detectors to be read out using a single coaxial transmission line and cryogenic amplifier, drastically reducing cost and complexity. An MKID uses the change in the microwave surface impedance of a superconducting thin-film microresonator to detect photons. Absorption of photons in the superconductor breaks Cooper pairs into quasiparticles, changing the complex surface impedance, which results in a perturbation of resonator frequency and quality factor. For excitation and readout, the resonator is weakly coupled to a transmission line. The complex amplitude of a microwave probe signal tuned on-resonance and transmitted on the feedline past the resonator is perturbed as photons are absorbed in the superconductor. The perturbation can be

  14. A new approach to the radio-far infrared correlation for non-calorimeter galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklas, S.; Beck, R.

    1997-04-01

    New radio continuum data for a sample of 74 spiral galaxies supports the calorimeter model of Voelk (1989A&A...218...67V) only for steep-spectrum, thin-disk, non-interacting objects which comprise =~30% of the sample. As the spectral indices correlate neither with far infrared surface brightness nor with average (equipartition) magnetic field strength, the data disagree with the model for non-calorimeter galaxies of Helou & Bicay (1993ApJ...415...93H). We are able to explain the radio - far infrared correlation for non-calorimeter galaxies, globally and also on kiloparsec scales within galaxies, with the help of two basic relations with the average volume density of the gas as the primary factor. Firstly, there is strong evidence that the strength of the equipartition magnetic field is correlated with the volume density ρ of the (almost) neutral gas, following a power law with an exponent of m=0.48+/-0.05 for the galactic averages of our sample. Secondly, taking the thermal radio emissivity as an indicator of the average star-formation rate (SFR), we obtain a `Schmidt law' (SFR{prop.to}ρ^n^) with n=1.4+/-0.3. The FIR luminosity is linearly related to SFR. Finally, we assume equipartition between the energy densities of the magnetic field and of the cosmic rays which relates the synchrotron emissivity to the field strength. Combination of these relations leads to a radio - far infrared luminosity correlation with a power-law exponent of x=1.3+/-0.3, very close to what is observed (x=1.25+/-0.08). Forthcoming ISO satellite data can be used as a test of our approach.

  15. Far-Infrared Extragalactic Surveys: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H., Jr.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As much as one third of the luminosity of the local universe is emitted in the far infrared. In order to understand the history of energy release in the universe, it is crucial to characterize this rest-frame far-infrared contribution from the present back to the era of initial galaxy formation. Over the redshift range from 0 to 10, this energy is received in the 80 micrometers to 1 mm spectral region. In the 1980's the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky survey provided the first comprehensive view of the far infrared emission from the local universe. The diffuse background measurements by Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) have provided constraints on the integral contributions from the high redshift universe. In the past five years, submillimeter measurements made using the SCUBA instrument have revealed powerful high redshift sources. To develop a clear history of energy release in the universe, we need numbers and redshifts of representative populations of energetically important objects. The near future will bring the Space Infrared Telescope Facility Multiband Imaging Photometer (SIRTF)(MIPS) survey, which will cover about 100 square degrees at wavelengths out to 160 micrometers, providing a large sample of energetically important galaxies out to z of approx.3. In 2005, the Japanese IRIS survey will provide a 160 micrometers full sky survey, which will provide larger samples of the high z galaxy populations and will find intrinsically rare high luminosity objects. The SPIRE instrument on the FIRST facility will extend these surveys to longer wavelengths, providing a view of the universe at higher redshifts in three spectral bands. A concept for an all-sky submillimeter survey is under development, called the Survey of Infrared Cosmic Evolution (SIRCE). With a 2 m cryogenic telescope, it can map the entire sky to the confusion limit in the 100 to 500 micrometers range in six months. This survey will provide photometric redshifts, number

  16. Invited article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument.

    PubMed

    Kühne, P; Herzinger, C M; Schubert, M; Woollam, J A; Hofmann, T

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm(-1) to 7000 cm(-1) (0.1-210 THz or 0.4-870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  17. Invited Article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Kühne, P. Schubert, M. Hofmann, T.; Herzinger, C. M. Woollam, J. A.

    2014-07-15

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm{sup −1} to 7000 cm{sup −1} (0.1–210 THz or 0.4–870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  18. FIFI-LS: the facility far-infrared spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Randolf; Beckmann, Simon; Bryant, Aaron; Colditz, Sebastian; Fischer, Christian; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Hönle, Rainer; Krabbe, Alfred; Looney, Leslie; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Raab, Walfried; Rebell, Felix; Savage, Maureen

    2014-07-01

    FIFI-LS is the German far-infrared integral field spectrometer for the SOFIA airborne observatory. The instrument offers medium resolution spectroscopy (R ~ a few 1000) in the far-infrared with two independent spectrometers covering 50-110 and 100-200 μm. The integral field units of the two spectrometers obtain spectra covering concentric square fields-of-views sized 3000and 6000, respectively. Both spectrometers can observe simultaneously at any wavelength in their ranges making efficient mapping of far-infrared lines possible. FIFI-LS has been commissioned at the airborne observatory SOFIA as a PI instrument in spring 2014. During 2015, the commissioning as facility instrument will be complete and the SOFIA observatory will take over the operation of FIFI-LS. The instrument can already be used by the community. Primary science cases are the study of the galactic and extra-galactic interstellar medium and its processes. In this presentation, the capabilities of FIFI-LS on the SOFIA telescope will be explained and how they are used by the offered observing modes. The remaining atmosphere and the warm telescope create a high background situation, which requires a differential measurement technique. This is achieved by SOFIA's chopping secondary mirror and nodding the telescope. Depending on the source size, different observing modes may be used to observe a source. All modes use spatial and spectral dithering. The resulting data products will be 3D-data cubes. The observing parameters will be specified using AOTs, like the other SOFIA instruments, and created via the tool SSPOT which is similar to the Spitzer Space Telescope SPOT tool. The observations will be done in service mode, but SOFIA invites a few investigators to fly onboard SOFIA during (part of) their observations.

  19. Description of dark energy and dark matter by vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    A simple Lagrangian (with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term) turned out an adequate tool for oscopic description of dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Space-like and time-like massive vector fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four-parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the Universe. In particular, the singular "big bang" turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with accelerated expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions (in the absence of vector fields). The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows analyzing the main properties of the dark sector analytically, avoiding unnecessary model assumptions.

  20. Uniform acceptor distribution in neutron-transmutation-doped far-infrared p-Ge lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, E. W.; Dolguikh, M. V.; Flitsiyan, E. S.; Muravjov, A. V.; Peale, R. E.; Kleckley, S. H.; Vernetson, W. G.; Tsipin, V. Z.

    2003-09-01

    A neutron transmutation doped (NTD) far-infrared p-Ge laser crystal and a melt-grown p-Ge laser are analyzed and compared. Though the doping level in the NTD active crystal is twice lower than optimal, the laser performance is comparable to that produced from high-quality melt-grown crystals because of superior dopant uniformity. Compensation was examined by comparing results of neutron activation analysis with majority carrier concentration. Study of impurity breakdown electric field reveals better crystal quality in NTD. The current saturation behavior confirms the expected higher doping uniformity over melt grown laser rods.

  1. Rotational frequencies of transition metal hydrides for astrophysical searches in the far-infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John M.; Beaton, Stuart P.; Evenson, Kenneth M.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate frequencies for the lowest rotational transitions of five transition metal hydrides (CrH, FeH, CoH, NiH, and CuH) in their ground electronic states are reported to help the identification of these species in astrophysical sources from their far-infrared spectra. Accurate frequencies are determined in two ways: for CuH, by calculation from rotational constants determined from higher J transitions with an accuracy of 190 kHz; for the other species, by extrapolation to zero magnetic field from laser magnetic resonance spectra with an accuracy of 0.7 MHz.

  2. Use of high-temperature superconductors for resonators of far-infrared p-germanium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, A. V.; Lang, P. T.; Betz, J.; Renk, K. F.

    1991-05-01

    The use of a high-temperature superconductor material for fabricating a resonator of a far-infrared solid-state laser is reported. In the experiment, the active medium consisted of a p-germanium crystal at 4.2 K in crossed electric and magnetic fields. An SrTiO3 plate was used as a highly reflecting mirror, and a YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on an MgO plate as the output coupling mirror. Highly reproducible operation of the laser is demonstrated.

  3. Photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Haar, P.; Harrington, K.J.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in switching FEL beams has motivated studies of photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared. We are particularly interested in Ge{sup 4}, GaAs, and Si{sup 5}, materials that can be pumped with a visible or near-IR conventional laser and which together cover the wavelengths from 3-100{mu}m. We have made quantitative measurements to determine the induced reflectivity, carrier lifetime, and transient absorption of these materials at several wavelengths across this range using a variety of pump laser wavelengths and pulse lengths. These measurements allow us to determine the feasibility of single pulse selection and cavity dumping with our FELs at high repetition rates.

  4. Far-infrared emissivity measurements of reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Lange, A. E.; Bock, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    An instrument developed to measure the emissivity of reflective surfaces by comparing the thermal emission of a test sample to that of a reference surface is reported. The instrument can accurately measure the emissivity of mirrors made from lightweight thermally insulating materials such as glass and metallized carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Far infrared measurements at a wavelength of 165 micrometers are reported. The instrument has an absolute accuracy of Delta epsilon = 9 x 10(exp -4) and can reproducibly measure an emissivity of as small as 2 x 10(exp -4) between flat reflective surfaces. The instrument was used to measure mirror samples for balloon-borne and spaceborne experiments. An emissivity of (6.05 +/- 1.24) x 10(exp -3) was measured for gold evaporated on glass, and (6.75 +/- 1.17) x 10(exp -3) for aluminum evaporated on glass.

  5. Far-Infrared Blocked Impurity Band Detector Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, H. H.; Guptill, M. T.; Monson, J. C.; Stewart, J. W.; Huffman, J. E.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Abedin, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems, supported by detector materials supplier Lawrence Semiconductor Research Laboratory, is developing far-infrared detectors jointly with NASA Langley under the Far-IR Detector Technology Advancement Partnership (FIDTAP). The detectors are intended for spectral characterization of the Earth's energy budget from space. During the first year of this effort we have designed, fabricated, and evaluated pilot Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors in both silicon and germanium, utilizing pre-existing customized detector materials and photolithographic masks. A second-year effort has prepared improved silicon materials, fabricated custom photolithographic masks for detector process, and begun detector processing. We report the characterization results from the pilot detectors and other progress.

  6. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3–100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  7. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  8. The Far-Infrared Properties of the Most Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sulentic, J.; Leon, S.; Espada, D.; Bergond, G.; García, E.; Sabater, J.; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Verley, S.

    2007-05-01

    A long-standing question in galaxy evolution involves the role of nature (self-regulation) vs. nurture (environment) on the observed properties (and evolution) of galaxies. A collaboration centreed at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (Granada, Spain) is trying to address this question by producing a observational database for a sample of 1050 isolated galaxies from the catalogue of Karachentseva (1973) with the overarching goal being the generation of a "zero-point" sample against which effects of environment on galaxies can be assessed. The AMIGA (Analysis of the Interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies) database (see www.iaa.es/AMIGA.html) will include optical, IR and radio line and continuum measures. The galaxies in the sample represent the most isolated galaxies in the local universe. In the present contribution, we will present the project, as well as the results of an analysis of the far-infrared (FIR) and molecular gas properties of this sample.

  9. Active Control of Nitride Plasmonic Dispersion in the Far Infrared.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaner, Eric A.; Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Seng, William Francis; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Grine, Albert Dario,; Baca, Albert G.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate plasmonic structures in nitride-based materials for far-infrared (IR) applications. The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the GaN/AlGaN material system, much like metal- dielectric structures, is a patternable plasmonic medium. However, it also permits for direct tunability via an applied voltage. While there have been proof-of-principle demonstrations of plasma excitations in nitride 2DEGs, exploration of the potential of this material system has thus far been limited. We recently demonstrated coherent phenomena such as the formation of plasmonic crystals, strong coupling of tunable crystal defects to a plasmonic crystal, and electromagnetically induced transparency in GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs at sub-THz frequencies. In this project, we explore whether these effects can be realized in nitride 2DEG materials above 1 THz and at temperatures exceeding 77 K.

  10. Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SAFIRE on SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 100 micrometers - 655 micrometers, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up barometer array in a 16 x 32 format to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge barometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  11. SAFIRE: Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Moseley, Harvey; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Pajot, Francois; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Stacey, Gorden; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 microns-655microns, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  12. Halos of unified dark matter scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it

    2008-05-15

    We investigate the static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term, assumed to provide both the dark matter and dark energy components of the Universe. In particular, we give a prescription to obtain solutions (dark halos) whose rotation curve v{sub c}(r) is in good agreement with observational data. We show that there exist suitable scalar field Lagrangians that allow us to describe the cosmological background evolution and the static solutions with a single dark fluid.

  13. Effect of the Dosage of Tourmaline on Far Infrared Emission Properties of Tourmaline/Glass Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongchen; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Liu, Jie; Zeng, Zhaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Tourmaline/glass composite materials were prepared by sintering at 600 °C using micron-size tourmaline mineral and glass powders as raw materials. The glass has lower melting point than the transition temperature of tourmaline. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the far infrared emissivity of composite was significantly higher than that of either tourmaline or glass powders. A highest far infrared emissivity of 0.925 was obtained when the dosage of tourmaline was 10 wt%. The effects of the amount of tourmaline on the far infrared emission properties of composite was also systematically studied by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The tourmaline phase was observed in the composite, showing a particle size of about 70 nm. This meant that the tourmaline particles showed nanocrystallization. They distributed homogenous in the glass matrix when the dosage of tourmaline was not more than 20 wt%. Two reasons were attributed to the improved far infrared emission properties of composite: the particle size of tourmaline-doped was nanocrystallized and the oxidation of Fe2+ (0.076 nm in radius) to Fe3+ (0.064 nm in radius) took place inside the tourmaline-doped. This resulted in the shrinkage of unit cell of the tourmaline in the composite.

  14. Effect of the Dosage of Tourmaline on Far Infrared Emission Properties of Tourmaline/Glass Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongchen; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Liu, Jie; Zeng, Zhaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Tourmaline/glass composite materials were prepared by sintering at 600 °C using micron-size tourmaline mineral and glass powders as raw materials. The glass has lower melting point than the transition temperature of tourmaline. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the far infrared emissivity of composite was significantly higher than that of either tourmaline or glass powders. A highest far infrared emissivity of 0.925 was obtained when the dosage of tourmaline was 10 wt%. The effects of the amount of tourmaline on the far infrared emission properties of composite was also systematically studied by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The tourmaline phase was observed in the composite, showing a particle size of about 70 nm. This meant that the tourmaline particles showed nanocrystallization. They distributed homogenous in the glass matrix when the dosage of tourmaline was not more than 20 wt%. Two reasons were attributed to the improved far infrared emission properties of composite: the particle size of tourmaline-doped was nanocrystallized and the oxidation of Fe2+ (0.076 nm in radius) to Fe3+ (0.064 nm in radius) took place inside the tourmaline-doped. This resulted in the shrinkage of unit cell of the tourmaline in the composite. PMID:27451734

  15. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.

    2016-07-01

    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  16. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2005-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H(sub 2)O, CH, NH, and NH(sub 3), as well as in the [O I] 63 micron line and emission in the [C II] 158 micron line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 microns is modeled as a warm (106 K) nuclear region that is optically thick in the far-infrared, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus (2 - 6 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and the extended region (approximately 2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)). The H(sub 2)O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH(sub 3) toward the nucleus, with values of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2) and approximately 3 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2), respectively, whereas the NH(sub 2) column density is lower than approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2). A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H(sub 2)O photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H(sub 2)O, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 micron line is well reproduced by our models and its deficit relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to

  17. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2004-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H 2 0 , CH, NH, and "3, well as in the [0 I] 63 pm line and emission in the [C 111 158 pm line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 pm is modeled AS A WARM (106 K) NUCLEAR REGION THAT IS OPTICALLY THICK IN THE FAR-INFRARED, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus and the extended region (about 2 x 10 sup 17 cm sup-2). The H2O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 1017 cm-2) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH3 toward the nucleus, with values of about 1.5 x 10supl6 cmsup-2 and about 3 x 10supl6 cmsup-2, respectively, whereas the NH2 column density is lower than about 2 x 10sup15 cmsup-2. A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H20 photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H20, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 pm line is well reproduced by our models and its "deficit" relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to be mainly a consequence of the dominant non-PDR component of far- infrared radiation, ALTHOUGH OUR MODELS ALONE CANNOT RULE OUT EXTINCTION EFFECTS IN THE

  18. SEASONAL DISAPPEARANCE OF FAR-INFRARED HAZE IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Donald E.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Cottini, V.; Samuelson, R. E.; Nixon, C. A.; Kunde, V. G.; Achterberg, R. K.; De Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Calcutt, S. B.

    2012-07-20

    A far-infrared emission band attributed to volatile or refractory haze in Titan's stratosphere has been decreasing in intensity since Cassini's arrival in 2004. The 220 cm{sup -1} feature, first seen by the Voyager Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer, has only been found in Titan's winter polar region. The emission peaks at about 140 km altitude near the winter stratospheric temperature minimum. Observations recorded over the period 2004-2012 by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on Cassini show a decrease in the intensity of this feature by about a factor of four. Possible seasonal causes of this decline are an increase in photolytic destruction of source chemicals at high altitude, a lessening of condensation as solar heating increased, or a weakening of downwelling of vapors. As of early 2012, the 220 cm{sup -1} haze has not yet been detected in the south. The haze composition is unknown, but its decrease is similar to that of HC{sub 3}N gas in Titan's polar stratosphere, pointing to a nitrile origin.

  19. SAFIRE: A Far-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 micrometers-655 micrometers with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200km/s). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors. An engineering prototype of SAFIRE with a small but cutting edge detector array will be available for use during the initial SOFIA operations; further expansion to larger format arrays will be incorporated during SAFIRE's lifetime.

  20. Operation results of the KSTAR far infrared interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhn, June-Woo; Lee, K. C.; Wi, H. M.; Kim, Y. S.; Nam, Y. U.

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 KSTAR experimental campaign was the first year of routine measurement with a far infrared interferometer (FIRI) utilizing 118.87 μm CH3OH lasers at maximum 200 mW CW beam power. By using rtEFIT reconstruction, the path lengths of interferometers can be calculated and so the line-averaged electron densities n ¯ e from the FIRI and a millimeter-wave interferometer were in excellent agreement. In this way, the number of successfully diagnosed discharges is counted: 1003 shots or 83.7% of sustained discharges, defined as shots of plasma current IP ≥ 0.3 MA with pulse lengths tf ≥ 2.0 s, have good-quality FIRI data within a few fringe jump errors. In addition, real-time H-mode density feedback control based on the FIRI was also successfully achieved with supersonic molecular beam injection as an actuator. Both constant density and controlled linear increment with a ramp-up rate of 1.0 × 1019 m-3 s-1 were achieved.

  1. Seasonal Disappearance of Far-Infrared Haze in Titan's Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Kunde, V. G.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; deKok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Calcutt, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    A far-infrared emission band attributed to volatile or refractory haze in Titan's stratosphere has been decreasing in intensity since Cassini's arrival in 2004. The 220 cm(sup -1) feature, first seen by the Voyager Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer, has only been found in Titan's winter polar region. The emission peaks at about 140 km altitude near the winter stratospheric temperature minimum. Observations recorded over the period 2004-2012 by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on Cassini show a decrease in the intensity of this feature by about a factor of four. Possible seasonal causes of this decline are an increase in photolytic destruction of source chemicals at high altitude, a lessening of condensation as solar heating increased, or a weakening of downwelling of vapors. As of early 2012, the 220 cm(sup -1) haze has not yet been detected in the south. The haze composition is unknown, but its decrease is similar to that of HC3N gas in Titan's polar stratosphere, pointing to a nitrile origin.

  2. The AKARI far-infrared all-sky survey maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J.; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cypriano, Elysandra F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite. The survey covers > 99% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 μm, 90 μm, 140 μm, and 160 μm, with spatial resolutions ranging from 1' to 1{^''.}5. These data provide crucial information on the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the interstellar medium (ISM), since a significant portion of its energy is emitted between ˜ 50 and 200 μm. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures, and their column densities can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use in the astronomical community.

  3. Maximizing Science Capability for Far-Infrared Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Leisawitz, Dave; Moseley, Harvey; Staguhn, Johannes; Voellmer, George

    2004-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (20 microns-800 microns) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, mapping speed, and sensitivity. In this 5-dimensional parameter space, the far-IR is substantially be-hind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be well-suited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory. Ultimately, a long baseline submillimeter interferometer is necessary to provide sensitivity and angular resolution.

  4. Far Infrared and Submillimeter Observations of the Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, R. F.; Harper, D. A.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Keene, J.; Orton, G. S.; Whitcomb, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    Far infrared measurements of the effective temperatures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were made. The measurements presented here cover the range from 35-1000 micrometers in relatively narrow bands. The observations at lambda 350 micrometers were made at the 3m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) of the Mauna Kea Observatory; those at lambda 350 micrometer were made on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). All observations of Saturn were made when the ring inclination to Earth was 1.7 deg assuring an unambiguous measurement of the flux from the disk itself. Mars was used as the calibration reference. The results represent a consistent set of calibration standards. In these measurements, it is assumed that sub b(lambda = 350 micrometers) = T sub (lambda 350 micrometers). Measurements have been made of roughly 50% of the total flux emitted by Jupiter, 65% by Saturn, and 92% by Uranus and Neptune. These measurements therefore permit a considerable reduction in the uncertainties associated with the bolometric thermal outputs of the planets. The effective temperatures (T sub e) and the ratios of emitted to absorbed solar radiation were calculated.

  5. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Anti-Vinyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol can exist in two rotameric forms, known as syn- and anti- vinyl alcohol, where syn is the most stable. Both rotamers have been observed in the interstellar medium towards Sagittarius B2(N) making them of particular astrophysical importance. Vinyl alcohol has been subject to various spectroscopic investigations, however, the anti rotamer has only been obsvered in the microwave region. We report the high resolution (0.001 wn) FTIR spectrum of anti-vinyl alcohol collected at the infrared beamline facility of the Australian Synchrotron. Vinyl alcohol was produced via the pyrolysis of 2-chloroethanol at 900°C, and its far infrared spectrum reveals the presence of the strong νb{15} fundamental and hot band of anti-vinyl alcohol. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of this higher energy rotamer have since been determined for the νb{15} and 2νb{15} states, and the ground state constants have been refined. B. E. Turner, A. J. Apponi, ApJ 561, 207 (2001) M. Rodler, J. Mol. Spec. 114, 23 (1985) D-L Joo, et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  6. Large-area cryocooling for far-infrared telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Triem T.; O'Connell, Tamara A.; Ku, Jentung; Butler, C. D.; Swanson, Theodore D.

    2003-10-01

    Requirements for cryocooling of large-area heat sources begin to appear in studies of future space missions. Examples are the cooling of (i) the entire structure/mirror of large Far Infrared space telescopes to 4-40K and (ii) cryogenic thermal bus to maintain High Temperature Superconductor electronics to below 75K. The cryocooling system must provide robust/reliable operation and not cause significant vibration to the optical components. But perhaps the most challenging aspect of the system design is the removal of waste heat over a very large area. A cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe (C-LHP)/ cryocooler cooling system was developed with the ultimate goal of meeting the aforementioned requirements. In the proposed cooling concept, the C-LHP collected waste heat from a large-area heat source and then transported it to the cryocooler coldfinger for rejection. A proof-of-concept C-LHP test loop was constructed and performance tested in a vacuum chamber to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed C-LHP to distribute the cryocooler cooling power over a large area. The test loop was designed to operate with any cryogenic working fluid such as Oxygen/Nitrogen (60-120K), Neon (28-40K), Hydrogen (18-30K), and Helium (2.5-4.5K). Preliminary test results indicated that the test loop had a cooling capacity of 4.2W in the 30-40K temperature range with Neon as the working fluid.

  7. The Far-Infrared Polarization Spectrum: First Results and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. D.; Schleuning, D. A.; Vaillancourt, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    We present data on the polarization of the thermal emission from Galactic Clouds at 60 micrometers, 100 micrometers, and 350 micrometers. There are examples of rising polarization spectra in dense cloud cores [P(350 micrometers/P(100 micrometers) approximately equal to 2], and falling spectra in cloud envelopes [P(350)/P(100 micrometers) approximately equal to 0.6]. We also present data showing that the relationship, P(tau), between polarization and optical depth in cloud cores is different from that in cloud envelopes. We review the principles governing the far-infrared polarization spectrum and discuss applications to the data on P(lambda) and P(tau). We conclude that the cloud envelopes we have observed must contain two populations of grains that differ in their polarization efficiencies and in their emission spectra. We propose a model for cloud envelopes in which the contrasting populations reside in domains of different mean temperatures where the warmer domains contain the aligned grains.

  8. Superconducting Bolometer Arrays for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, D. J.; Allen, Christine A.; Chervenak, J. A.; Grossman, E. N.; Irwin, K. D.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Martinis, J. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Reintsema, C. D.

    Studies of astrophysical emission in the far-infrared and submillimeter will increasingly require large arrays of detectors containing hundreds to thousands of elements. The last few years have seen the increasing from one to a few tens of bolometers on ground-based telescopes (e.g., CSO - SHARC (Wang et al. 1996), JCMT - SCUBA (Holland et al. 1996), IRAM 30m (Kreysa et al. 1998)). A further jump of this magnitude, to a thousand bolometers, requires a fundamental redesign of the technology of making bolometer arrays. One method of achieving this increase is to design bolometers which can be packed into a rectangular array of near-unity filling factor while Nyquist-sampling the focal plane of the telescope at the operating wavelengths. A multiplexed readout is necessary for this many detectors, and can be developed using SQUIDs such that a 32 × 32 array of bolometers could be read out using 100 wires rather than the >2000 needed with a brute force expansion of existing arrays. We describe a collaborative effort currently underway at NASA/Goddard and NIST to bring about the first prototypes of such arrays containing tens of bolometers. This technology is well-suited to low-background instruments such as SPIRE on FIRST and SAFIRE on SOFIA, and can also be used in broadband, high-background instruments such as HAWC on SOFIA.

  9. The Herschel Space Observatory, Opening the Far Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John C.

    2009-06-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel) is a multi user observatory operated by the European Space Agency with a significant NASA contribution. Herschel features a passively cooled 3.5 meter telescope expected to operate near 78 Kelvin and three cryogenic instruments covering the 670 to 57 μm spectral region. The mission life time, determined by the consumption of 2500 liters of liquid helium, is expected to be at least 3.5 years with at least 3 years of operational lifetime in an L2 orbit. The three payload instruments are the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI). SPIRE covers 200-670 μm and is a three band bolometer based photometer and a two band imaging Martin-Puplett FTS with a spectral resolution of up to 600. PACS covers 57-200 μm and is a three band bolometer based photometer and a grating slit spectrometer illuminating photoconductor arrays in two bands with a resolution of up to 5000. HIFI covers 480-1272 GHz and 1440-1910 GHz and is a series of seven dual polarization heterodyne receivers with a spectral resolution up to 5×10^6. The observatory performance, selected science program and upcoming opportunities will be discussed.

  10. The Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The origin of the infrared emission in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), whose strength is comparable to the optical/ultraviolet (OUV) emission, is generally thought to be a combination of thermal emission from dust and non-thermal, synchrotron emission. Although data are sparse, particularly in the far-infrared, the broad wavelength range of this emission suggests a wide range of temperatures and a combination of AGN and starburst heating mechanisms. The strength of the non-thermal emission is expected to be related to the radio emission. While this scenario is well-established, basic questions, such as the spatial and temperature distribution of the dust, the relative importance of AGN and starburst heating, and the significance of the non-thermal contribution remain largely undetermined. The wide wavelength range of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) combined with its arcmin spatial resolution and increased sensitivity facilitated the observation of a larger subset of the AGN population than previously covered, allowing these questions to be investigated in more detail. This paper will review the spectral energy distributions (SED) of AGN with particular emphasis on the infrared emission and on ISO's contributions to our knowledge. Preliminary results from ISO observations of X-ray selected and high-redshift AGN will be described.

  11. CALISTO: A Cryogenic Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Khayatian, B.; Huffenberger, K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Gorski, K.; Yorke, H. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Paine, C.; Satter, C.; Lee, R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a design for a cryogenically cooled large aperture telescope for far-infrared astronomy in the wavelength range 30 micrometers to 300 micrometers. The Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory, or CALISTO, is based on an off-axis Gregorian telescope having a 4 m by 6 m primary reflector. This can be launched using an Atlas V 511, with the only optical deployment required being a simple hinged rotation of the secondary reflector. The off-axis design, which includes a cold stop, offers exceptionally good performance in terms of high efficiency and minimum coupling of radiation incident from angles far off the direction of maximum response. This means that strong astronomical sources, such as the Milky Way and zodiacal dust in the plane of the solar system, add very little to the background. The entire optical system is cooled to 4 K to make its emission less than even this low level of astronomical emission. Assuming that detector technology can be improved to the point where detector noise is less than that of the astronomical background, we anticipate unprecedented low values of system noise equivalent power, in the vicinity of 10(exp -19) WHz(exp -0.5), through CALISTO's operating range. This will enable a variety of new astronomical investigations ranging from studies of objects in the outer solar system to tracing the evolution of galaxies in the universe throughout cosmic time.

  12. A hybrid type undulator for far-infrared FELs at FELI

    SciTech Connect

    Zako, A.; Miyauchi, Y.; Koga, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two FEL facilities of the FELI are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20 {mu}m. A 3.2-m hybrid type undulator ({lambda}{sub u}=80mm, N=40) has been designed for far-infrared FELs and will be installed in December. It can cover the wavelength of 20-60 {mu}m by changing K-value from 1 to 2.7 for a 28.0-MeV electron beam. It is composed of ferrite magnetic poles and Sm-Co permanent magnets. Commonly wound coils induce alternating magnetic field in ferrite poles. Combination of the induced field and the permanent magnet field can controls the magnetic field between the undulator gap.

  13. Design of a far-infrared CHI wiggler free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.H.; Blank, M.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary design of a far-infrared free-electron laser with a Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler is presented. The CHI wiggler consists of a central rod and outer ring of alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers. A periodic wiggler field is produced when the CHI structure is immersed in an axial magnetic field. The design under investigation makes use of 1A, 1MV annular electron beam interacting with the TE{sub 01} coaxial waveguide mode at approximately 1 THz ({lambda} = 300 {mu}m). The nominal wiggler period is 0.5 cm and the inner and outer waveguide radii are 0.4 and 0.8 cm, respectively. An axial guide field of 5-10 kG is used. The device performance is modeled with slow-time-scale nonlinear code. Self fields and axial velocity spread are included in the model. Theoretical results will be presented.

  14. Development of a submillimeter/far-infrared radiometer for cirrus measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayton, Darren; Ade, Peter A. R.; Lee, Clare; Evans, K. Franklin

    2004-02-01

    We introduce a low cost, lightweight and compact polarisation sensitive radiometer for the measurement of Cirrus clouds in the submilimeter and far-infrared region (10-50 cm-1). It is widely recognised that enhanced global measurements of cirrus properties are essential to the development of General Circulation and Climate Prediction Models (GCMs) since cirrus clouds have a strong effect on the Earths Global Radiation Budget. We introduce a project currently under development in Cardiff, to design and build a novel instrument suitable for aircraft deployment in order to measure Ice Water Path (IWP) along with cirrus particle size and shape. The radiometer will capitalise on the on going measurements of the NASA led, Fourier Transform interferometer based, Far-Infrared Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) instrument for which Cardiff has been closely associated. Data from FIRSC campaigns is being used to select optimum radiometer channels that exhibit good sensitivity to specific cirrus. This new multi-channel radiometer will however have some key advantages over similar spectroscopic instruments for example: portability, increased optical efficiency, a multi-angle field of view and a reduced integration period leading to an improved spatial resolution. The radiometer will benefit from the application of state-of-the-art submm/FIR polariser and solid filter technology currently being developed in Cardiff.

  15. The radio emission from the ultraluminous far-infrared galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbert, Edward J. M.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    We present new radio observations of the 'prototypical' ultraluminous far-infrared galaxy NGC 6240, obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) at lambda = 20 cm in B-configuration and at lambda = 3.6 cm in A-configuration. These data, along with those from four previous VLA observations, are used to perform a comprehensive study of the radio emission from NGC 6240. Approximately 70% (approximately 3 x 10(exp 23) W/Hz) of the total radio power at 20 cm originates from the nuclear region (approximately less than 1.5 kpc), of which half is emitted by two unresolved (R approximately less than 36 pc) cores and half by a diffuse component. The radio spectrum of the nuclear emission is relatively flat (alpha approximately equals 0.6; S(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -alpha). The supernova rate required to power the diffuse component is consistent with that predicted by the stellar evolution models of Rieke et al. (1985). If the radio emission from the two compact cores is powered by supernova remnants, then either the remnants overlap and form hot bubbles in the cores, or they are very young (approximately less than 100 yr.) Nearly all of the remaining 30% of the total radio power comes from an 'armlike' region extending westward from the nuclear region. The western arm emission has a steep spectrum (alpha approximately equals 1.0), suggestive of aging effects from synchrotron or inverse-Compton losses, and is not correlated with starlight; we suggest that it is synchrotron emission from a shell of material driven by a galactic superwind. Inverse Compton scattering of far-infrared photons in the radio sources is expected to produce an X-ray flux of approximately 2 - 6 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm in the 2 - 10 keV band. No significant radio emission is detected from or near the possible ultramassive 'dark core'.

  16. AKARI far-infrared maps of the zodiacal dust bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Matsuura, Shuji; Usui, Fumihiko; Arimatsu, Ko

    2016-06-01

    Zodiacal emission is thermal emission from interplanetary dust. Its contribution to the sky brightness is non-negligible in the region near the ecliptic plane, even in the far-infrared (far-IR) wavelength regime. We analyze zodiacal emission observed by the AKARI far-IR all-sky survey, which covers 97% of the entire sky at arcminute-scale resolution in four photometric bands, with central wavelengths of 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm. AKARI detected small-scale structures in the zodiacal dust cloud, including the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring, at far-IR wavelengths. Although the smooth component of the zodiacal emission structure in the far-IR sky can be reproduced well by models based on existing far-IR observations, previous zodiacal emission models have discrepancies in the small-scale structures compared with observations. We investigate the geometry of the small-scale dust-band structures in the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps and construct template maps of the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring components based on the AKARI far-IR maps. In the maps, ± 1.4°, ± 2.1°, and ± 10° asteroidal dust-band structures are detected in the 65 μm and 90 μm bands. A possible ± 17° band may also have been detected. No evident dust-band structures are identified in either the 140 μm or the 160 μm bands. By subtracting the dust-band templates constructed in this paper, we can achieve a similar level of flux calibration of the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps in the |β| < 40° region to that in the region for |β| > 40°.

  17. Far-Infrared Water Emissions from Magnetohydrodynamic Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Neufeld, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Nondissociative, magnetohydrodynamic, C-type shock waves are expected to be a prodigious source of far-infrared water emissions in dense interstellar regions. We have constructed a model to calculate the farinfrared H20 line spectra that emerge from such shocks. Using the best estimates currently available for the radiative cooling rate and the degree of ion-neutral coupling within the shocked gas, we modeled the temperature structure of MHD shocks using standard methods in which the charged and neutral particles are treated separately as two weakly coupled, interpenetrating fluids. Then we solved the equations of statistical equilibrium to find the populations of the lowest 179 and 170 rotational states of ortho- and para-H2O We have completed an extensive parameter study to determine the emergent H2O line luminosities as a function of preshock density in the range n(H2) equals 10(exp 4) - 10(sup 6.5)/cc and shock velocity in the range upsilon(sub s) = 5 - 40 km/ s. We find that numerous rotational transitions of water are potentially observable using the Infrared Space Observatory and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite and may be used as diagnostics of the shocked gas. We have also computed the rotational and ro-vibrational emissions expected from H2, CO, and OH, and we discuss how complementary observations of such emissions may be used to further constrain the shock conditions. In common with previous studies, we come close to matching the observed H2, and high-J CO emissions from the Orion-KL star-forming region on the basis of a single shock model. We present our predictions for the strengths of H2O line emission from the Orion shock, and we show how our results may be scaled to other regions where molecular shocks are likely to be present.

  18. A Hot-Electron Far-Infrared Direct Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers at millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared wavelengths. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or super-conductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature (Nb, Pb etc.) then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10-100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant about 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) s at T approximately equals 0.1-0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and submillimeter range. The choice of the bolometer material is a tradeoff between a low electron heat capacity and fabrication. A state-of-the-art bolometer currently offers NEP = 10(exp -17) W(Square root of (Hz)) at 100 mK along with a approximately equals 2 msec time constant. The bolometer we propose will have a figure-of-merit, NEP(square root (r)), which is 10(exp 3) times smaller. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity. This device can significantly increase a science return and reduce the cost for future observational missions. This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was sponsored by NASA, Office of Space Science.

  19. Star-forming dwarf galaxies: the correlation between far-infrared and radio fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Beck, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The correlation between far-infrared and radio fluxes connects star formation and magnetic fields in galaxies and has been confirmed over a wide range in luminosities in the far-infrared to radio domain, both in the local Universe and even at redshifts of z ~ 2. Recent investigations have indicated that it may even hold in the regime of local dwarf galaxies, and we therefore explore here the expected behavior in the regime of star formation surface densities below 0.1 M⊙ kpc-2 yr-1. We derive two conditions that can be particularly relevant for inducing a change in the expected correlation: a critical star formation surface density to maintain the correlation between star formation rate and the magnetic field, and a critical star formation surface density below which cosmic-ray diffusion losses dominate their injection through supernova explosions. For rotation periods shorter than 1.5 × 107(H/ kpc)2 yr, with H the scale height of the disk, the first correlation will break down before diffusion losses are relevant because higher star formation rates are required to maintain the correlation between star formation rate and magnetic field strength. For high star formation surface densities ΣSFR, we derive a characteristic scaling of the nonthermal radio to the far-infrared and infrared emission with ΣSFR1/3 , corresponding to a scaling of the nonthermal radio luminosity Ls with the infrared luminosity Lth as Lth4/3 . The latter is expected to change when the above processes are no longer steadily maintained. In the regime of long rotation periods, we expect a transition toward a steeper scaling with ΣSFR2/3, implying Ls ∝ Lth5/3 , while the regime of fast rotation is expected to show a considerably enhanced scatter because a well-defined relation between star formation and magnetic field strength is not maintained. The scaling relations above explain the increasing thermal fraction of the radio emission observed within local dwarfs and can be tested with

  20. The polarization of the far-infrared radiation from the Galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.; Davidson, J. A.; Morris, M.; Novak, G.; Platt, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The first detection of linear polarization of the far-infrared (100-micron) radiation from the about 3-pc-diameter dust ring surrounding the galactic nucleus is reported. The percentage of polarization is between 1 and 2 percent at the three measured positions. It is argued that the polarized radiation is produced by thermal emission from elongated interstellar grains oriented by the local magnetic field. The dust ring is optically thin at 100 microns; therefore the observations sample dust through the entire depth of the cloud and are free of confusing effects due to embedded sources, scattering, or selective absorption. These data provide the first information about the configuration of the magnetic field in the dust ring.

  1. The far-infrared/radio correlation as probed by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivison, R. J.; Magnelli, B.; Ibar, E.; Andreani, P.; Elbaz, D.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Berta, S.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Bongiovanni, A.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J.; Chanial, P.; Cimatti, A.; Cirasuolo, M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Daddi, E.; Dominguez, H.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Farrah, D.; Förster Schreiber, N.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Gear, W.; Genzel, R.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Gruppioni, C.; Halpern, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Isaak, K.; Lagache, G.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Lutz, D.; Madden, S.; Maffei, B.; Magdis, G.; Mainetti, G.; Maiolino, R.; Marchetti, L.; Morrison, G. E.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nordon, R.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Omont, A.; Owen, F. N.; Page, M. J.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pérez García, A. M.; Poglitsch, A.; Pohlen, M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Rawlings, J. I.; Raymond, G.; Rigopoulou, D.; Riguccini, L.; Rizzo, D.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Saintonge, A.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Schulz, B.; Scott, D.; Seymour, N.; Shao, L.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Stevens, J. A.; Sturm, E.; Symeonidis, M.; Tacconi, L.; Trichas, M.; Tugwell, K. E.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Vieira, J.; Vigroux, L.; Wang, L.; Ward, R.; Wright, G.; Xu, C. K.; Zemcov, M.

    2010-07-01

    We set out to determine the ratio, qIR, of rest-frame 8-1000-μm flux, SIR, to monochromatic radio flux, S1.4 GHz, for galaxies selected at far-infrared (IR) and radio wavelengths, to search for signs that the ratio evolves with redshift, luminosity or dust temperature, Td, and to identify any far-IR-bright outliers - useful laboratories for exploring why the far-IR/radio correlation (FIRRC) is generally so tight when the prevailing theory suggests variations are almost inevitable. We use flux-limited 250-μm and 1.4-GHz samples, obtained using Herschel and the Very Large Array (VLA) in GOODS-North (-N). We determine bolometric IR output using ten bands spanning λobs = 24-1250 μm, exploiting data from PACS and SPIRE (PEP; HerMES), as well as Spitzer, SCUBA, AzTEC and MAMBO. We also explore the properties of an LIR-matched sample, designed to reveal evolution of qIR with redshift, spanning log LIR = 11-12 L⊙ and z = 0-2, by stacking into the radio and far-IR images. For 1.4-GHz-selected galaxies in GOODS-N, we see tentative evidence of a break in the flux ratio, qIR, at L1.4 GHz ~ 1022.7 W Hz-1, where active galactic nuclei (AGN) are starting to dominate the radio power density, and of weaker correlations with redshift and Td. From our 250-μm-selected sample we identify a small number of far-IR-bright outliers, and see trends of qIR with L1.4 GHz, LIR, Td and redshift, noting that some of these are inter-related. For our LIR-matched sample, there is no evidence that qIR changes significantly as we move back into the epoch of galaxy formation: we find qIR ∝(1+z)γ, where γ = -0.04±0.03 at z = 0-2; however, discounting the least reliable data at z < 0.5 we find γ = -0.26±0.07, modest evolution which may be related to the radio background seen by ARCADE 2, perhaps driven by <10-μJy radio activity amongst ordinary star-forming galaxies at z > 1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator

  2. Constraining the Lyα escape fraction with far-infrared observations of Lyα emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Wardlow, Julie L.; Calanog, J.; Cooray, A.; Malhotra, S.; Zheng, Z.; Rhoads, J.; Finkelstein, S.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Gawiser, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Riechers, D.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We study the far-infrared properties of 498 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, using 250, 350, and 500 μm data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and 870 μm data from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. None of the 126, 280, or 92 LAEs at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, respectively, are individually detected in the far-infrared data. We use stacking to probe the average emission to deeper flux limits, reaching 1σ depths of ∼0.1 to 0.4 mJy. The LAEs are also undetected at ≥3σ in the stacks, although a 2.5σ signal is observed at 870 μm for the z = 2.8 sources. We consider a wide range of far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), including an M82 and an Sd galaxy template, to determine upper limits on the far-infrared luminosities and far-infrared-derived star formation rates of the LAEs. These star formation rates are then combined with those inferred from the Lyα and UV emission to determine lower limits on the LAEs' Lyα escape fraction (f {sub esc}(Lyα)). For the Sd SED template, the inferred LAEs f {sub esc}(Lyα) are ≳ 30% (1σ) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, which are all significantly higher than the global f {sub esc}(Lyα) at these redshifts. Thus, if the LAEs f {sub esc}(Lyα) follows the global evolution, then they have warmer far-infrared SEDs than the Sd galaxy template. The average and M82 SEDs produce lower limits on the LAE f {sub esc}(Lyα) of ∼10%-20% (1σ), all of which are slightly higher than the global evolution of f {sub esc}(Lyα), but consistent with it at the 2σ-3σ level.

  3. Can dark matter be a scalar field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, J. F.; Pereira, S. H.; Malatrasi, J. L. G.; Andrade-Oliveira, F.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study a real scalar field as a possible candidate to explain the dark matter in the universe. In the context of a free scalar field with quadratic potential, we have used Union 2.1 SN Ia observational data jointly with a Planck prior over the dark matter density parameter to set a lower limit on the dark matter mass as m>=0.12H0‑1 eV (c=hbar=1). For the recent value of the Hubble constant indicated by the Hubble Space Telescope, namely H0=73±1.8 km s‑1Mpc‑1, this leads to m>=1.56×10‑33 eV at 99.7% c.l. Such value is much smaller than m~ 10‑22 eV previously estimated for some models. Nevertheless, it is still in agreement with them once we have not found evidences for a upper limit on the scalar field dark matter mass from SN Ia analysis. In practice, it confirms free real scalar field as a viable candidate for dark matter in agreement with previous studies in the context of density perturbations, which include scalar field self interaction.

  4. Can dark matter be a scalar field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, J. F.; Pereira, S. H.; Malatrasi, J. L. G.; Andrade-Oliveira, F.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study a real scalar field as a possible candidate to explain the dark matter in the universe. In the context of a free scalar field with quadratic potential, we have used Union 2.1 SN Ia observational data jointly with a Planck prior over the dark matter density parameter to set a lower limit on the dark matter mass as m>=0.12H0-1 eV (c=hbar=1). For the recent value of the Hubble constant indicated by the Hubble Space Telescope, namely H0=73±1.8 km s-1Mpc-1, this leads to m>=1.56×10-33 eV at 99.7% c.l. Such value is much smaller than m~ 10-22 eV previously estimated for some models. Nevertheless, it is still in agreement with them once we have not found evidences for a upper limit on the scalar field dark matter mass from SN Ia analysis. In practice, it confirms free real scalar field as a viable candidate for dark matter in agreement with previous studies in the context of density perturbations, which include scalar field self interaction.

  5. Far-infrared tangential interferometer/polarimeter design and installation for NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R.; Barchfeld, R.; Riemenschneider, P.; Domier, C. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Sohrabi, M.; Kaita, R.; Ren, Y.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2016-11-01

    The Far-infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system has been refurbished and is being reinstalled on the National Spherical Torus Experiment—Upgrade (NSTX-U) to supply real-time line-integrated core electron density measurements for use in the NSTX-U plasma control system (PCS) to facilitate real-time density feedback control of the NSTX-U plasma. Inclusion of a visible light heterodyne interferometer in the FIReTIP system allows for real-time vibration compensation due to movement of an internally mounted retroreflector and the FIReTIP front-end optics. Real-time signal correction is achieved through use of a National Instruments CompactRIO field-programmable gate array.

  6. The Orion Nebula in the Far-Infrared: FIFI-LS/SOFIA Mapped the PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Nebula is the closest massive star forming region allowing us to study the physical conditions in such a region with high spatial resolution. We used the far infrared integral-field spectrometer, FIFI-LS, on-board the airborne observatory SOFIA to study the atomic and molecular gas in the Orion Nebula at medium spectral resolution. The large maps in several fine structure lines obtained with FIFI-LS cover the nebula from the BN/KL-object in the west to the bar in the south-east and gull feature in north-east. The fine structure lines can be used as a diagnostic for the physical conditions of the photon-dominated region (PDR), the interface between the HII-region and the molecular cloud.

  7. The fine-structure intervals of (N-14)+ by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John M.; Varberg, Thomas D.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Cooksy, Andrew L.

    1994-01-01

    The far-infrared laser magnetic resonance spectra associated with both fine-structure transitions in (N-14)+ in its ground P-3 state have been recorded. This is the first laboratory observation of the J = 1 left arrow 0 transition and its frequency has been determined two orders of magnitude more accurately than previously. The remeasurement of the J = 2 left arrow 1 spectrum revealed a small error in the previous laboratory measurements. The fine-structure splittings (free of hyperfine interactions) determined in this work are (delta)E(sub 10) = 1461.13190 (61) GHz, (delta)E(sub 21) = 2459.38006 (37) GHz. Zero-field transition frequencies which include the effects of hyperfine structure have also been calculated. Refined values for the hyperfine constants and the g(sub J) factors have been obtained.

  8. Far-infrared properties of (TMTSF)/sub 2/ClO/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Challener, W.A.; Richards, P.L.; Greene, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The far-infrared properties of (TMTSF)/sub 2/ ClO/sub 4/ have been measured for frequencies between 4 and 40 cm/sup -1/. At 2K, phonon-like peaks in reflectance are seen at 7 and 29 cm/sup -1/. Increasing the temperature to 80K causes these peaks to gradually disappear, but not to shift appreciably in frequency. Radiation-induced defects substantially reduce the height of the 29 cm/sup -1/ peak with a magnetic field of up to 40 KG applied parallel to the C*-axis. These results suggest a coupled electronic-molecular vibration origin for these features. They are incompatible with the recently proposed /1/ interpretation of the 29 cm/sup -1/ feature as a quasi-one-dimensional superconductive pseudogap.

  9. Seeing through smoke and flames: a challenge for imaging capabilities, met thanks to digital holography at far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Paturzo, Melania; Bianco, Vittorio; Finizio, Andrea; Pelagotti, Anna; Poggi, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Meucci, Riccardo; Ferraro, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    We show that imaging alive people through smoke and flames is possible by Digital Holography at far infrared. This capability is of crucial importance in the security field to provide a new tool for firefighters and first responders in fire accidents. So far, the existing thermographic infrared cameras allows to see people through dense smoke, sensing the radiation emitted by human body. However, these devices are often blinded due to the flame emission, which is collected by the zoom lenses employed for the scope, and the information of the targets beyond the flames is unavoidably lost. On the contrary, lensless Digital Holography at far infrared avoids the typical saturation of the camera detectors returning clear images of targets seen behind veils of smoke and curtains of flames. Moreover, we demonstrate that human-size holograms can be recorded, allowing to move this promising technology outside the lab for safety applications.

  10. High resolution far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, B.; Fazio, G.G.; Jaffe, D.T.

    1982-03-01

    M16 is an evolved, extremely density bounded H II region, which now consists only of a series of ionization fronts at molecular cloud boundaries. The source of ionization is the OB star cluster (NGC 6611) which is about 5 x 10/sup 6/ years old. We used the CFA/UA 102 cm balloon-borne telescope to map this region and detected three far-infrared (far-IR) sources embedded in an extended ridge of emission. Source I is an unresolved far-IR source embedded in a molecular cloud near a sharp ionization front. An H/sub 2/O maser is associated with this source, but no radio continuum emission has been observed. The other two far-IR sources (II and III) are associated with ionized gas-molecular cloud interfaces, with the far-IR radiation arising from dust at the boundary heated by the OB cluster. Source II is located at the southern prominent neutral intrusion with its associated bright rims and dark ''elephant trunk'' globules that delineate the current progress of the ionization front into the neutral material, and Source III arises at the interface of the northern molecular cloud fragment.

  11. GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band Detectors for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, Benjamin Lewin

    2004-01-01

    High-purity and doped GaAs films have been grown by Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) for development of a blocked impurity band (BIB) detector for far-infrared radiation. The film growth process developed has resulted in the capability to grow GaAs with a net active impurity concentration below 1 x 1013 cm-3, ideal for the blocking layer of the BIB detector. The growth of n-type LPE GaAs films with donor concentrations below the metal-insulator transition, as required for the absorbing layer of a BIB detector, has been achieved. The control of the donor concentration, however, was found to be insufficient for detector production. The growth by LPE of a high-purity film onto a commercially grown vapor-phase epitaxial (VPE) n-type GaAs doped absorbing layer resulted in a BIB device that showed a significant reduction in the low-temperature dark current compared to the absorbing layer only. Extended optical response was not detected, most likely due to the high compensation of the commercially grown GaAs absorbing layer, which restricts the depletion width of the device.

  12. Far-infrared pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems using scene context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Qingyao

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is one of the most critical but challenging components in advanced driver assistance systems. Far-infrared (FIR) images are well-suited for pedestrian detection even in a dark environment. However, most current detection approaches just focus on pedestrian patterns themselves, where robust and real-time detection cannot be well achieved. We propose a fast FIR pedestrian detection approach, called MAP-HOGLBP-T, to explicitly exploit the scene context for the driver assistance system. In MAP-HOGLBP-T, three algorithms are developed to exploit the scene contextual information from roads, vehicles, and background objects of high homogeneity, and we employ the Bayesian approach to build a classifier learner which respects the scene contextual information. We also develop a multiframe approval scheme to enhance the detection performance based on spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians. Our empirical study on real-world datasets has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance is shown to be better than that of state-of-the-art low-level feature-based approaches.

  13. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also…

  14. Symplectic gauge fields and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, J.; Asorey, M.; García-Álvarez, D.

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of symplectic gauge fields provides a consistent framework for fundamental interactions based on spin-3 gauge fields. One remarkable property is that symplectic gauge fields only have minimal couplings with gravitational fields and not with any other field of the Standard Model. Interactions with ordinary matter and radiation can only arise from radiative corrections. In spite of the gauge nature of symplectic fields they acquire a mass by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism which generates Higgs-like mass terms where the gravitational field is playing the role of a Higgs field. Massive symplectic gauge fields weakly interacting with ordinary matter are natural candidates for the dark matter component of the Universe.

  15. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.N.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-07-11

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

  16. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission study: paper I, the genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; Ennico, K.; Melnick, G. J.; Milam, S.; Narayanan, D.; Pontoppidan, K.; Pope, A.; Roellig, T.; Sandstrom, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vieira, J.; Wright, E.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Alato, S.; Carey, S.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Menten, K.; Scott, D.; Sakon, I.; Vavrek, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  17. Experimental studies of the far-infrared spectra of cosmic-type ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Reggie L.

    1992-01-01

    Work performed during the period is reported. The abstract of a paper presented at the Second International Workshop on the Nature of Cometary Organic Matter is included. Far infrared spectra of amorphous and crystalline water ice before and after proton irradiation is presented. Also, a study of clathrate hydrates was conducted in which a methanol (CH3OH) clathrate hydrate was prepared and its far-infrared spectrum investigated. This paper is also included.

  18. Dark-field differential dynamic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bayles, Alexandra V; Squires, Todd M; Helgeson, Matthew E

    2016-02-28

    Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) is an emerging technique to measure the ensemble dynamics of colloidal and complex fluid motion using optical microscopy in systems that would otherwise be difficult to measure using other methods. To date, DDM has successfully been applied to linear space invariant imaging modes including bright-field, fluorescence, confocal, polarised, and phase-contrast microscopy to study diverse dynamic phenomena. In this work, we show for the first time how DDM analysis can be extended to dark-field imaging, i.e. a linear space variant (LSV) imaging mode. Specifically, we present a particle-based framework for describing dynamic image correlations in DDM, and use it to derive a correction to the image structure function obtained by DDM that accounts for scatterers with non-homogeneous intensity distributions as they move within the imaging plane. To validate the analysis, we study the Brownian motion of gold nanoparticles, whose plasmonic structure allows for nanometer-scale particles to be imaged under dark-field illumination, in Newtonian liquids. We find that diffusion coefficients of the nanoparticles can be reliably measured by dark-field DDM, even under optically dense concentrations where analysis via multiple-particle tracking microrheology fails. These results demonstrate the potential for DDM analysis to be applied to linear space variant forms of microscopy, providing access to experimental systems unavailable to other imaging modes. PMID:26822331

  19. Galactic dark matter in the phantom field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Hsun; Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the possibility that the galactic dark matter exists in a scenario where the phantom field is responsible for the dark energy. We obtain the statically and spherically approximate solution for this kind of galaxy system with a supermassive black hole at its center. The solution of the metric functions is satisfied with gtt=-grr-1. Constrained by the observation of the rotational stars moving in circular orbits with nearly constant tangential speed in a spiral galaxy, the background of the phantom field which is spatially inhomogeneous has an exponential potential. To avoid the well-known quantum instability of the vacuum at high frequencies, the phantom field defined in an effective theory is valid only at low energies. Under this assumption, we further investigate the following properties. The absorption cross section of the low-energy S-wave excitations of the phantom field into the central black hole is shown to be the horizontal area of the central black hole. Because the infalling phantom particles have a total negative energy, the accretion of the phantom energy is related to the decrease of the black hole mass, which is estimated to be much less than a solar mass in the lifetime of the Universe. Using a simple model with the cold dark matter very weakly coupled to the “low-frequency” phantom particles that are generated from the background, we show that these two densities can be quasistable in the galaxy.

  20. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    SciTech Connect

    Augspurger, Ashley E; Stender, Anthony S; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J; Fang, Ning

    2014-06-10

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also observe and measure individual crystal growth during a replacement reaction between copper and silver nitrate. The experiment allows for quantitative, qualitative, and image data analyses for undergraduate students.

  1. Scalar field dark matter and the Higgs field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, O.; Cosme, Catarina; Rosa, João G.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the possibility that dark matter corresponds to an oscillating scalar field coupled to the Higgs boson. We argue that the initial field amplitude should generically be of the order of the Hubble parameter during inflation, as a result of its quasi-de Sitter fluctuations. This implies that such a field may account for the present dark matter abundance for masses in the range 10-6-10-4eV, if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is within the range of planned CMB experiments. We show that such mass values can naturally be obtained through either Planck-suppressed non-renormalizable interactions with the Higgs boson or, alternatively, through renormalizable interactions within the Randall-Sundrum scenario, where the dark matter scalar resides in the bulk of the warped extra-dimension and the Higgs is confined to the infrared brane.

  2. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue

    2011-12-15

    Utilizing state-of-the-art adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with ultra-high resolution (114 h{sup -1} pc) and a large sample size ({>=}3300 galaxies of stellar mass {>=}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }), we show how the stellar light of Lyman break galaxies at z = 2 is distributed between optical/ultraviolet (UV) and far-infrared (FIR) bands. With a single scalar parameter for dust obscuration we can simultaneously reproduce the observed UV luminosity function for the entire range (3-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) and extant FIR luminosity function at the bright end ({>=}20 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We quantify that galaxies more massive or having higher star formation rate (SFR) tend to have larger amounts of dust obscuration mostly due to a trend in column density and in a minor part due to a mass (or SFR)-metallicity relation. It is predicted that the FIR luminosity function in the range SFR = 1-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} is a power law with a slope of about -1.7. We further predict that there is a 'galaxy desert' at SFR{sub FIR} < 0.02(SFR{sub UV}/10 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}){sup 2.1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} in the SFR{sub UV} - SFR{sub FIR} plane. Detailed distributions of SFR{sub FIR} at a fixed SFR{sub UV} are presented. Upcoming observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array should test this model. If confirmed, it validates the predictions of the standard cold dark matter model and has important implications on the intrinsic SFR function of galaxies at high redshift.

  3. Characterizing Far-infrared Laser Emissions and the Measurement of Their Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael; Zink, Lyndon R

    2015-01-01

    The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy, and Terahertz imaging. For about 45 years, the generation of coherent, far-infrared radiation has been accomplished using the optically pumped molecular laser. Once far-infrared laser radiation is detected, the frequencies of these laser emissions are measured using a three-laser heterodyne technique. With this technique, the unknown frequency from the optically pumped molecular laser is mixed with the difference frequency between two stabilized, infrared reference frequencies. These reference frequencies are generated by independent carbon dioxide lasers, each stabilized using the fluorescence signal from an external, low pressure reference cell. The resulting beat between the known and unknown laser frequencies is monitored by a metal-insulator-metal point contact diode detector whose output is observed on a spectrum analyzer. The beat frequency between these laser emissions is subsequently measured and combined with the known reference frequencies to extrapolate the unknown far-infrared laser frequency. The resulting one-sigma fractional uncertainty for laser frequencies measured with this technique is ± 5 parts in 10(7). Accurately determining the frequency of far-infrared laser emissions is critical as they are often used as a reference for other measurements, as in the high-resolution spectroscopic investigations of free radicals using laser magnetic resonance. As part of this investigation, difluoromethane, CH2F2, was used as the far-infrared laser medium. In all, eight far-infrared laser frequencies were measured for the first time with frequencies ranging from 0.359 to 1.273 THz. Three of these laser emissions were discovered during this investigation and are reported with their optimal operating pressure, polarization with respect to the CO2 pump laser, and strength. PMID:26709957

  4. Characterizing Far-infrared Laser Emissions and the Measurement of Their Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael; Zink, Lyndon R

    2015-12-18

    The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy, and Terahertz imaging. For about 45 years, the generation of coherent, far-infrared radiation has been accomplished using the optically pumped molecular laser. Once far-infrared laser radiation is detected, the frequencies of these laser emissions are measured using a three-laser heterodyne technique. With this technique, the unknown frequency from the optically pumped molecular laser is mixed with the difference frequency between two stabilized, infrared reference frequencies. These reference frequencies are generated by independent carbon dioxide lasers, each stabilized using the fluorescence signal from an external, low pressure reference cell. The resulting beat between the known and unknown laser frequencies is monitored by a metal-insulator-metal point contact diode detector whose output is observed on a spectrum analyzer. The beat frequency between these laser emissions is subsequently measured and combined with the known reference frequencies to extrapolate the unknown far-infrared laser frequency. The resulting one-sigma fractional uncertainty for laser frequencies measured with this technique is ± 5 parts in 10(7). Accurately determining the frequency of far-infrared laser emissions is critical as they are often used as a reference for other measurements, as in the high-resolution spectroscopic investigations of free radicals using laser magnetic resonance. As part of this investigation, difluoromethane, CH2F2, was used as the far-infrared laser medium. In all, eight far-infrared laser frequencies were measured for the first time with frequencies ranging from 0.359 to 1.273 THz. Three of these laser emissions were discovered during this investigation and are reported with their optimal operating pressure, polarization with respect to the CO2 pump laser, and strength.

  5. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  6. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  7. Germanium:gallium photoconductors for far infrared heterodyne detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, I. S.; Haller, E. E.; Grossman, E. N.; Watson, Dan M.

    1988-01-01

    Highly compensated Ge:Ga photoconductors for high bandwidth heterodyne detection have been fabricated and evaluated. Bandwidths up to 60 MHz have been achieved with a corresponding current responsivity of 0.01 A/W. The expected dependence of bandwidth on bias field is obtained. It is noted that increased bandwidth is obtained at the price of greater required local oscillator power.

  8. Far-infrared properties of submillimeter and optically faint radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnelli, B.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Castañeda, H.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dominguez, H.; Elbaz, D.; Förster Schreiber, N.; Genzel, R.; Grazian, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Magdis, G.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Pérez Fournon, I.; Pérez García, I.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Saintonge, A.; Santini, P.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Shao, L.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.; Valtchanov, I.; Wieprecht, E.; Wiezorrek, E.

    2010-07-01

    We use deep observations obtained with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory to study the far-infrared (FIR) properties of submillimeter and optically faint radio galaxies (SMGs and OFRGs). From literature we compiled a sample of 35 securely identified SMGs and nine OFRGs located in the GOODS-N and the A2218 fields. This sample is cross-matched with our PACS 100 μm and 160 μm multi-wavelength catalogs based on sources-extraction using prior detections at 24 μm. About half of the galaxies in our sample are detected in at least the PACS 160 μm bandpass. The dust temperatures and the infrared luminosities of our galaxies are derived by fitting their PACS and SCUBA 850 μm (only the upper limits for the OFRGs) flux densities with a single modified (β = 1.5) black body function. The median dust temperature of our SMG sample is Tdust = 36±8 K while for our OFRG sample it is Tdust = 47±3 K. For both samples, median dust temperatures derived from Herschel data agree well with previous estimates. In particular, Chapman et al. (2005, ApJ, 622, 772) found a dust temperature of Tdust = 36±7 K for a large sample of SMGs assuming the validity of the FIR/radio correlation (i.e., q= log10(LFIR[W]/L1.4 GHz[W Hz-1] /3.75×1012)). The agreement between our studies confirms that the local FIR/radio correlation effectively holds at high redshift even though we find < q > = 2.17±0.19, a slightly lower value than that observed in local systems. The median infrared luminosities of SMGs and OFRGs are 4.6×1012 L⊙ and 2.6×1012 L⊙, respectively. We note that for both samples the infrared luminosity estimates from the radio part of the spectral energy distribution (SED) are accurate, while estimates from the mid-IR are considerably (~×3) more uncertain. Our observations confirm the remarkably high luminosities of SMGs and thus imply median star-formation rates of 960 M⊙ yr-1 for SMGs with S(850 μm)>5 mJy and 460 M⊙ yr

  9. Development of a gallium-doped germanium far-infrared photoconductor direct hybrid two-dimensional array.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Hirao, Takanori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Shibai, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Patrashin, Mikhail; Nakagawa, Takao

    2003-04-20

    To our knowledge, we are the first to successfully report a direct hybrid two-dimensional (2D) detector array in the far-infrared region. Gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) has been used extensively to produce sensitive far-infrared detectors with a cutoff wavelength of approximately equal to 110 microm (2.7 THz). It is widely used in the fields of astronomy and molecular and solid spectroscopy. However, Ge:Ga photoconductors must be cooled below 4.2 K to reduce thermal noise, and this operating condition makes it difficult to develop a large format array because of the need for a warm amplifier. Development of Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays to take 2D terahertz images is now an important target in such research fields as space astronomy. We present the design of a 20 x 3 Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor array directly hybridized to a Si p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor readout integrated circuit using indium-bump technology. The main obstacles in creating this 2D array were (1) fabricating a monolithic Ge:Ga 2D array with a longitudinal configuration, (2) developing a cryogenic capacitive transimpedance amplifer, and (3) developing a technology for connecting the detector to the electronics. With this technology, a prototype Ge:Ga photoconductor with a direct hybrid structure has shown a responsivity as high as 14.6 A/W and a minimum detectable power of 5.6 x 10(-17) W for an integration time of 0.14 s when it was cooled to 2.1 K. Its noise is limited by the readout circuit with 20 microV/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz. Vibration and cooling tests demonstrated that this direct hybrid structure is strong enough for spaceborne instruments. This detector array will be installed on the Japanese infrared satellite ASTRO-F. PMID:12716158

  10. High duty cycle far-infrared germanium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Danielle Russell

    The effects of crystal geometry, heat transport, and optics on high duty cycle germanium hole population inversion lasers are investigated. Currently the laser's low duty cycle limits its utility for many applications. This low duty cycle is a result of the combination of the large electrical input power necessary and insufficient heat extraction. In order to achieve a continuous-wave device, the input power must be decreased and the cooling power increased. In order to improve laser efficiency and lower the input power, the effect of laser crystal geometry on the electric field uniformity is considered. Geometries with d/L>>1 or <<1 are shown to have improved electric field uniformity, where d is the distance between electrical contacts and L is the length in the direction of the Hall electric field. A geometry with d/L>>1 is shown to decrease the threshold voltage for lasing. Laser crystals with the traditional contact geometry have been compared to a new, planar contact design with both electrical contacts on the same side of the laser crystal. This new geometry provides a large d/L ratio while also allowing effective heat sinking. A pure, single-crystal silicon heat sink is developed for planar contact design lasers, which improves the duty cycle tenfold. For the traditional contact design, copper heat sinks are developed that demonstrate cooling powers up to 10 Watts. The effects of thermal conductivity, surface area, and interfacial thermal resistance on the heat transport are compared. To improve the cavity quality, thereby allowing for smaller crystal volumes, new optical designs are investigated. A vertical cavity structure is demonstrated for the planar contact structure using strontium titanate single crystals as mirrors. A mode-selecting cavity is implemented for the traditional contact design. The spectra of small-volume, near-threshold lasers are measured. In contrast to the emission of larger lasers, these lasers emit within narrow frequency peaks

  11. FAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS AND (PROTO)-PLANETARY NEBULAE WITH THE AKARI FAR-INFRARED SURVEYOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, N. L. J.; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Manchado, A.

    2011-04-15

    By tracing the distribution of cool dust in the extended envelopes of post-asymptotic giant branch stars and (proto)-planetary nebulae ((P)PNe), we aim to recover, or constrain, the mass-loss history experienced by these stars in their recent past. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) instrument on board the AKARI satellite was used to obtain far-infrared maps for a selected sample of post-AGB stars and (P)PNe. We derived flux densities (aperture photometry) for 13 post-AGB stars and (P)PNe at four far-infrared wavelengths (65, 90, 140, and 160 {mu}m). Radial (azimuthally averaged) profiles are used to investigate the presence of extended emission from cool dust. No (detached) extended emission is detected for any target in our sample at levels significant with respect to background and cirrus emission. Only IRAS 21046+4739 reveals tentative excess emission between 30'' and 130''. Estimates of the total dust and gas mass from the obtained maps indicate that the envelope masses of these stars should be large in order to be detected with the AKARI FIS. Imaging with higher sensitivity and higher spatial resolution is needed to detect and resolve, if present, any cool compact or extended emission associated with these evolved stars.

  12. Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Spectroscopy of Low to Moderate Redshift Normal and Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Broadband surveys with planned observatories such as SIRTF, ASTRO-F, NGST, Herschel, SMA, and ALMA will provide large samples of dust-enshrouded galaxies undergoing varying proportions of star formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes. Recent evidence suggests that the mass of supermassive central black holes are proportional to central velocity dispersions of their host galaxy bulges, but it is not yet known how these properties are evolutionarily connected. To trace the evolution of these components during the important luminous, dusty merger episodes as a function of redshift, sensitive mid- to far-infrared spectroscopic diagnostic observations from space will be necessary. The high sensitivity and spatial resolution of a large aperture, natural background limited far-infrared/submillimeter telescope such as SAFAIR will allow detection and identification of the far-infrared/submillimeter components of galaxies and of a multitude of rest-frame mid- to far-infrared recombination, fine-structure, and molecular lines toward dusty galactic nuclei. The line diagnostics beginning to be developed from ISO work will help determine important parameters such as the intrinsic spectral energy distribution, ionization parameters, metallicities, densities, extinction to the embedded energy sources, and ultimately the star-formation and accretion rates in these galaxies. Ultimately, the higher spatial resolution provided by a cold, far-infrared submillimeter interferometer is needed to view the distribution of structure in galaxies in order to unravel the as yet untold story of the evolution of galaxies over the lifetime of the Universe.

  13. Far-infrared transmission of diamond structure semiconductor single crystals--silicon and germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Jason E.; Ownby, P. D.

    1999-11-01

    The current research demonstrates the effectiveness of silicon as a transmissive material for use within the far infrared wavelength range of 20 to 160 microns. This study involves samples with a wide range of resistivities and temperatures including: n-type Si of 4000, 2000, 160, 65, 12, and 2.6 ohm-cm and p-type Si of 500 and 60 ohm-cm within a temperature range of -100 degree(s)C to 250 degree(s)C, as well as n-type Ge of 39, 25, 14.5, 5.0, 2.5, and 0.5 ohm-cm within a temperature range of -100 degree(s)C to 100 degree(s)C. Far infrared absorption mechanisms are briefly discussed. The experimental transmission data are used to discuss the interaction between absorption by lattice resonance and free carrier mechanisms. The effect of room temperature resistivity on silicon's far infrared transmission characteristics is shown. The primary free carrier scattering mechanism, at elevated temperature, is shown to be acoustic phonons. Highly resistive silicon is found to be an excellent transmissive material in the far infrared. These results may be used to develop silicon and germanium optical systems in the far infrared range.

  14. Development of far-infrared FEL with needle photo-RF-gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Mochizuki, T.

    2004-08-01

    Far-infrared free electron lasers (FELs) with central wavelengths of 11.6 and ˜70 μm were obtained by using an S-band RF linac (LEENA) at electron energies of 14.4 and ˜5.5 MeV, respectively. Small-signal gain and cavity loss were measured to be 8.2% and 3.3%, respectively, at a peak current of 4.4 A, an electron energy of 15 MeV, and a central wavelength of 10 μm. The pulsewidth of the FEL signal could be lengthened by tailoring the waveform of klystron drive voltage, since uniformity of electron energy in a macropulse was improved. A tungsten needle photo-RF gun was investigated using the field-dependence of QE for a third-harmonics Nd:YAG laser (wavelength of 355 nm). Numerical calculations of electron beam performances in a needle photo-RF-gun were made. A tungsten needle photocathode, with a tip radius of 10 μm, was introduced into the RF-gun cavity of LEENA.

  15. Far-Infrared Laser Sideband Spectroscopy of the NH2 Radical.

    PubMed

    Ozeki; Saito

    1998-11-01

    We have constructed a far-infrared (FIR) laser sideband spectrometer for carrying out pure rotational spectroscopy of fundamental radicals and ions in the FIR or "terahertz" frequency region. The tunable FIR source is obtained by sideband generation of a carbon dioxide laser-pumped FIR laser with a GaAs Schottky barrier diode. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient of the spectrometer achieved so far is 1 x 10(-6) cm-1 at 1600 GHz. Observation of the pure rotational spectrum of the NH2 radical in the 2B1 ground electronic state was demonstrated as the first example. Spectra were measured by utilizing the double modulation technique; i.e., the Zeeman effect was used in addition to the normal frequency modulation technique in order to flatten the baseline and to appreciate full system sensitivity. The radical was generated by a DC glow discharge of a mixture of ammonia and helium. Nine Q- and R-branch rotational transitions were measured in the frequency range between 1300 and 2600 GHz. Zero-field transition frequencies were obtained with an accuracy of around 1 MHz. The line frequencies were analyzed with previous microwave spectroscopic results, and the rotational and spin-rotation constants with their centrifugal correction terms were revised. With the aid of the revised rotational constants, it becomes possible to predict the line frequency of certain low N transitions of the radical to within about 1 MHz for the first time. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  16. Characterizing HII regions in High-z ULIRGs with far infrared fine structure lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbin, Drew; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Stacey, Gordon J.; Parshley, Stephen; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve; Lamarche, Cody

    2015-01-01

    The nature of star-forming ULIRGs in the early Universe remains mysterious. Is their star formation fueled predominantly through cold flow accretion, or through major mergers? What fraction of the sources have AGN, and what is the stellar mass function powering the HII regions? Of particular importance to these questions is the characterization of the ionized gas properties, and the coupling with the cooler photodissociation region (PDR) gas. To address these issues we have undertaken a mini-survey of several z~1-2 luminous galaxies observed in multiple ionized oxygen far infrared fine structure lines. These fine structure lines allow us to constrain the density and radiation field of the ionized gas and test for the presence of harder AGN powered radiation. Coupled with previous data including the [CII] and [OI] fine structure lines emanating from PDR gas, we will also test the ability to simultaneously model both PDR and HII gas components. This survey, modest in extent, offers an illustrative snapshot of the diversity of systems in the early Universe.

  17. Far infrared spectrum of Methanol-D2 in the lowest torsional state (e0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-03-01

    The infrared (IR) and far infrared (FIR) absorption spectra have been measured for the Methanol-D1 and D2 species in the wave number range of 20-1200 cm-1 at the Justus Liebig Universität in Giessen, Germany using a Brüker Fourier Transform spectrometer at a resolution of 0.002 cm-1. The spectra looked very complicated but analyses were possible for the lower lying states. At higher wave number regions spectra of few vibrational fundamental modes were visible. In this communication, the details of the assignments and analyses of the lowest lying internal rotational state (e0) for Methanol-D2 are reported. A catalog of about 900 assigned spectral lines has been prepared and is made available from the author to conserve space. As application of this work, it was possible to assign some optically pumped FIR laser lines to quantum states. The results should be useful for "radio astronomers" and in the field of optically pumped FIR and Sub-millimeter Wave (SMMW) lasers which are used in Tokamaks for plasma diagnostics and as local oscillators in radio detection from space.

  18. Monitoring the Far Infrared Variability of Deeply Embedded Protostars with SOFIA/HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Doug

    2015-10-01

    Low-mass stars form via gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores. The evolution of the mass accretion onto a forming protostar depends on the rate at which the interior of the core collapses, the significance of a circumstellar disk as a temporary mass reservoir, and the physics of how the gas is transported through the disk and accretes onto the central star. Despite a clear requirement for time dependency in the accretion rate onto deeply embedded protostars and a large number of theoretical mechanisms for powering variability, our understanding of both the timescale and amplitude of variability is almost entirely unconstrained. The bolometric luminosity of deeply embedded protostars is a direct proxy for the accretion luminosity, modified only by the addition of the stellar luminosity itself. For deeply embedded protostars, the spectral energy distribution peaks in the far infrared, near 100 microns, making this an ideal wavelength for long-term monitoring of accretion variability. We propose to use SOFIA/HAWC at 89 and 154 microns to monitor three star-forming fields (Cepheus, Perseus, and Serpens) as part of a long-term campaign dedicated to uncovering the observational signature of episodic accretion. These observations will aid in our understanding of how stars accumulate their final mass and are neceassry for discriminating between the various theoretical models of episodic accretion onto deeply embedded protostars.

  19. Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states

    SciTech Connect

    Bookless, W.

    1980-12-01

    A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm/sup -1/ with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm/sup -1/. The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy.

  20. HAWCPol: a first-generation far-infrared polarimeter for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Cook, Brant T.; Harper, D. Al; Lin, Lung-Sheng; Looney, Leslie W.; Novak, Giles; Stephens, Ian; Berthoud, Marc; Chuss, David T.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Houde, Martin; Jones, Terry J.; Krejny, Megan; Lazarian, Alexandre; Moseley, S. Harvey; Tassis, Kostas; Vaillancourt, John E.; Werner, Michael W.

    2010-07-01

    We describe our ongoing project to build a far-infrared polarimeter for the HAWC instrument on SOFIA. Far-IR polarimetry reveals unique information about magnetic fields in dusty molecular clouds and is an important tool for understanding star formation and cloud evolution. SOFIA provides flexible access to the infrared as well as good sensitivity to and angular resolution of continuum emission from molecular clouds. We are making progress toward outfitting HAWC, a first-generation SOFIA camera, with a four-band polarimeter covering 50 to 220 microns wavelength. We have chosen a conservative design which uses quartz half-wave plates continuously rotating at ~0.5 Hz, ball bearing suspensions, fixed wire-grid polarizers, and cryogenic motors. Design challenges are to fit the polarimeter into a volume that did not originally envision one, to minimize the heating of the cryogenic optics, and to produce negligible interference in the detector system. Here we describe the performance of the polarimeter measured at cryogenic temperature as well as the basic method we intend for data analysis. We are on track for delivering this instrument early in the operating lifetime of SOFIA.

  1. Recent advances in measurement of the water vapour continuum in the far-infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Green, Paul D; Newman, Stuart M; Beeby, Ralph J; Murray, Jonathan E; Pickering, Juliet C; Harries, John E

    2012-06-13

    We present a new derivation of the foreign-broadened water vapour continuum in the far-infrared (far-IR) pure rotation band between 24 μm and 120 μm (85-420 cm(-1)) from field data collected in flight campaigns of the Continuum Absorption by Visible and IR radiation and Atmospheric Relevance (CAVIAR) project with Imperial College's Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) far-IR spectro-radiometer instrument onboard the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft; and compare this new derivation with those recently published in the literature in this spectral band. This new dataset validates the current Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies (MT-CKD) 2.5 model parametrization above 300 cm(-1), but indicates the need to strengthen the parametrization below 300 cm(-1), by up to 50 per cent at 100 cm(-1). Data recorded at a number of flight altitudes have allowed measurements within a wide range of column water vapour environments, greatly increasing the sensitivity of this analysis to the continuum strength.

  2. Charting the Winds that Change the Universe, II: The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Benford, D. J.; Harvey, P. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Lester, D. F.; Mather, J. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Werner, M. W.; Yorke, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR will study the birth and evolution of stars and planetary systems so young that they are invisible to optical and near-infrared telescopes such as NGST. Not only does the far-infrared radiation penetrate the obscuring dust clouds that surround these systems, but the protoplanetary disks also emit much of their radiation in the far infrared. Furthermore, the dust reprocesses much of the optical emission from the newly forming stars into this wavelength band. Similarly, the obscured central regions of galaxies, which harbor massive black holes and huge bursts of star formation, can be seen and analyzed in the far infrared. SAFIR will have the sensitivity to see the first dusty galaxies in the universe. For studies of both star-forming regions in our galaxy and dusty galaxies at high redshifts, SAFIR will be essential in tying together information that NGST will obtain on these systems at shorter wavelengths and that ALMA will obtain at longer wavelengths.

  3. Method for generation of tunable far infrared radiation from two-dimensional plasmons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Tunable far infrared radiation is produced from two-dimensional plasmons in a heterostructure, which provides large inversion-layer electron densities at the heterointerface, without the need for a metallic grating to couple out the radiation. Instead, a light interference pattern is produced on the planar surface of the heterostructure using two coherent laser beams of a wavelength selected to be strongly absorbed by the heterostructure in order to penetrate through the inversion layer. The wavelength of the far infrared radiation coupled out can then be readily tuned by varying the angle between the coherent beams, or varying the wavelength of the two interfering coherent beams, thus varying the periodicity of the photoconductivity grating to vary the wavelength of the far infrared radiation being coupled out.

  4. The effective field theory of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-02-01

    We propose a universal description of dark energy and modified gravity that includes all single-field models. By extending a formalism previously applied to inflation, we consider the metric universally coupled to matter fields and we write in terms of it the most general unitary gauge action consistent with the residual unbroken symmetries of spatial diffeomorphisms. Our action is particularly suited for cosmological perturbation theory: the background evolution depends on only three operators. All other operators start at least at quadratic order in the perturbations and their effects can be studied independently and systematically. In particular, we focus on the properties of a few operators which appear in non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor gravity and galileon theories. In this context, we study the mixing between gravity and the scalar degree of freedom. We assess the quantum and classical stability, derive the speed of sound of fluctuations and the renormalization of the Newton constant. The scalar can always be de-mixed from gravity at quadratic order in the perturbations, but not necessarily through a conformal rescaling of the metric. We show how to express covariant field-operators in our formalism and give several explicit examples of dark energy and modified gravity models in our language. Finally, we discuss the relation with the covariant EFT methods recently appeared in the literature.

  5. Mid- to Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of the Diffuse Galactic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Tokura, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Tajiri, Yuka Y.; Takagi, Toshinobu; Shibai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR; 12-60 μm) diffuse emission in the Galactic plane and the Carina Nebula is investigated relative to the far-infrared (FIR; >=100 μm) emission. Observations show that the ratio of the 12 μm emission to the total FIR intensity is more or less constant in the Galactic plane but exhibits a slight decrease followed by an increase as the FIR color becomes bluer in the Carina Nebula. The constancy is compatible with predictions from models of stochastic heating of very small grains or infrared fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The decrease can be attributed to a weakening of the unidentified infrared band emission in strong radiation fields. Contrarily, the ratio of the 25 and 60 μm emission to FIR intensity increases linearly with field strength, which is incompatible with the model predictions. The Carina Nebula data show a much bluer FIR color than the Galactic plane, whereas the ratio of MIR to FIR emission is in a range similar to that of the plane. We interpret these characteristics in terms of a superposition of emission from dust grains in various radiation field strengths. The linear increase can be accounted for by an increasing contribution from emission by dust grains in strong radiation environments, whereas the shift in FIR color between the Galactic plane and the Carina Nebula can be attributed to different contributions from grains in weak radiation fields. Other possibilities, such as the effect of multiphoton processes, variations in the incident radiation spectrum, and possible contributions from iron grains, have also been examined, but none can account for the observations consistently. Applications of the present model to external galaxies are also discussed.

  6. Fine-scale structure in the far-infrared Milky-Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.; Wall, William F.; Reach, William T.; Varosi, Frank; Ebert, Rick; Laughlin, Gaylin; Boulanger, Francois

    1995-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed and which falls into five broad categories: (1) generation of a new data product (mosaics of the far-infrared emission in the Milky Way); (2) acquisition of associated data products at other wavelengths; (3) spatial filtering of the far-infrared mosaics and resulting images of the FIR fine-scale structure; (4) evaluation of the spatially filtered data; (5) characterization of the FIR fine-scale structure in terms of its spatial statistics; and (6) identification of interstellar counterparts to the FIR fine-scale structure.

  7. Are extremely luminous far-infrared galaxies the result of merging quasar cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, R. P.

    1990-11-01

    Extremely Luminous far-infrared galaxies (ELFs) are a class of galaxy discovered independently by several groups. The class is characterized by a quasar-like total luminosity (1011 to 1013 solar luminosity) which is radiated almost entirely in the far-infrared. It has been suggested that obscured quasar cores may be responsible for generating this luminosity. Here the author demonstrates that ELFs appear in several guises which can be characterized by the number of quasar cores they contain (zero, one or two). The author develops a unified model to account for these differences.

  8. Doping of germanium and silicon crystals with non-hydrogenic acceptors for far infrared lasers

    DOEpatents

    Haller, Eugene E.; Brundermann, Erik

    2000-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductors used for far infrared lasers with non-hydrogenic acceptors having binding energies larger than the energy of the laser photons. Doping of germanium or silicon crystals with beryllium, zinc or copper. A far infrared laser comprising germanium crystals doped with double or triple acceptor dopants permitting the doped laser to be tuned continuously from 1 to 4 terahertz and to operate in continuous mode. A method for operating semiconductor hole population inversion lasers with a closed cycle refrigerator.

  9. Detection of atomic oxygen and further line assignments in the far-infrared stratospheric spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carli, B.; Mencaraglia, F.; Bonetti, A.; Carlotti, M.; Nolt, I.

    1985-01-01

    Recent progress in high-resolution measurement of sub-millimeter and far-infrared emission in the stratosphere is reviewed. Attention is given to the results of recent balloon measurements of the minor stratospheric constituents in the spectral range 40-190 per cm. Emission spectra are presented for HCl; HF; and OH. Emission spectra were also obtained for atomic oxygen; hydrobromic acid; and hydroperoxyl radical. The possibility of detecting HO2 and H2O2 in the far-infrared is also briefly discussed.

  10. Dark-field optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pache, C.; Villiger, M. L.; Lasser, T.

    2010-02-01

    Many solutions have been proposed to produce phase quantitative images of biological cell samples. Among these, Spectral Domain Phase Microscopy combines the fast imaging speed and high sensitivity of Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) in the Fourier domain with the high phase stability of common-path interferometry. We report on a new illumination scheme for OCM that enhances the sensitivity for backscattered light and detects the weak sample signal, otherwise buried by the signal from specular reflection. With the use of a Bessel-like beam, a dark-field configuration was realized. Sensitivity measurements for three different illumination configurations were performed to compare our method to standard OCM and extended focus OCM. Using a well-defined scattering and reflecting object, we demonstrated an attenuation of -40 dB of the DC-component and a relative gain of 30 dB for scattered light, compared to standard OCM. In a second step, we applied this technique, referred to as dark-field Optical Coherence Microscopy (dfOCM), to living cells. Chinese hamster ovarian cells were applied in a drop of medium on a coverslide. The cells of ~15 μm in diameter and even internal cell structures were visualized in the acquired tomograms.

  11. Galactic Synchrotron Emission and the Far-infrared-Radio Correlation at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, J.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Klessen, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical scenarios, including the turbulent small-scale dynamo, predict that strong magnetic fields already exist in young galaxies. Based on the assumption of energy equipartition between magnetic fields and turbulence, we determine the galactic synchrotron flux as a function of redshift z. Galaxies in the early universe are different from local galaxies, in particular, the former have more intense star formation. To cover a large range of conditions, we consider two different systems: one model galaxy comparable to the Milky Way and one typical high-z starburst galaxy. We include a model of the steady-state cosmic ray spectrum and find that synchrotron emission can be detected up to cosmological redshifts with current and future radio telescopes. The turbulent dynamo theory is in agreement with the origin of the observed correlation between the far-infrared (FIR) luminosity L FIR and the radio luminosity L radio. Our model reproduces this correlation well at z = 0. We extrapolate the FIR-radio correlation to higher redshifts and predict a time evolution with a significant deviation from its present-day appearance already at z≈ 2 for a gas density that increases strongly with z. In particular, we predict a decrease of the radio luminosity with redshift which is caused by the increase of cosmic ray energy losses at high z. The result is an increase of the ratio between L FIR and L radio. Simultaneously, we predict that the slope of the FIR-radio correlation becomes shallower with redshift. This behavior of the correlation could be observed in the near future with ultra-deep radio surveys.

  12. THE PHYSICS OF THE FAR-INFRARED-RADIO CORRELATION. I. CALORIMETRY, CONSPIRACY, AND IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacki, Brian C.; Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot

    2010-07-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) and radio luminosities of star-forming galaxies are linearly correlated over a very wide range in star formation rate, from normal spirals like the Milky Way to the most intense starbursts. Using one-zone models of cosmic ray (CR) injection, cooling, and escape in star-forming galaxies, we attempt to reproduce the observed FIR-radio correlation (FRC) over its entire span. The normalization and linearity of the FRC, together with constraints on the CR population in the Milky Way, have strong implications for the CR and magnetic energy densities in star-forming galaxies. We show that for consistency with the FRC, {approx}2% of the kinetic energy from supernova explosions must go into high-energy primary CR electrons and that {approx}10%-20% must go into high-energy primary CR protons. Secondary electrons and positrons are likely comparable to or dominate primary electrons in dense starburst galaxies. We discuss the implications of our models for the magnetic field strengths of starbursts, the detectability of starbursts by Fermi, and CR feedback. Overall, our models indicate that both CR protons and electrons escape from low surface density galaxies, but lose most of their energy before escaping dense starbursts. The FRC is caused by a combination of the efficient cooling of CR electrons (calorimetry) in starbursts and a conspiracy of several factors. For lower surface density galaxies, the decreasing radio emission caused by CR escape is balanced by the decreasing FIR emission caused by the low effective UV dust opacity. In starbursts, bremsstrahlung, ionization, and inverse Compton cooling decrease the radio emission, but they are countered by secondary electrons/positrons and the dependence of synchrotron frequency on energy, both of which increase the radio emission. Our conclusions hold for a broad range of variations in our fiducial model, such as those including winds, different magnetic field strengths, and different diffusive escape

  13. An ISO far-infrared survey of line and continuum emission for 227 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauher, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory, selected from the ISO Data Archive and having an IRAS 60/100 mu m color ration of 0.2-1.4 and IRAS 60 mu m flux density between 0.1 Jy and 1300 Jy.

  14. The far-infrared behaviour of Herbig Ae/Be discs: Herschel PACS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, N.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Mendigutía, I.; Sandell, G.

    2016-02-01

    Herbig Ae/Be objects are pre-main sequence stars surrounded by gas- and dust-rich circumstellar discs. These objects are in the throes of star and planet formation, and their characterisation informs us of the processes and outcomes of planet formation processes around intermediate mass stars. Here we analyse the spectral energy distributions of disc host stars observed by the Herschel open time key programme "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems". We present Herschel/PACS far-infrared imaging observations of 22 Herbig Ae/Bes and 5 debris discs, combined with ancillary photometry spanning ultraviolet to sub-millimetre wavelengths. From these measurements we determine the diagnostics of disc evolution, along with the total excess, in three regimes spanning near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths. Using appropriate statistical tests, these diagnostics are examined for correlations. We find that the far-infrared flux, where the disc becomes optically thin, is correlated with the millimetre flux, which provides a measure of the total dust mass. The ratio of far-infrared to sub-millimetre flux is found to be greater for targets with discs that are brighter at millimetre wavelengths and that have steeper sub-millimetre slopes. Furthermore, discs with flared geometry have, on average, larger excesses than flat geometry discs. Finally, we estimate the extents of these discs (or provide upper limits) from the observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. Charting the Winds that Change the Universe, II The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2003-01-01

    The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR) will study the birth and evolution of stars and planetary systems so young that they are invisible to optical and near-infrared telescopes such as NGST. Not only does the far-infrared radiation penetrate the obscuring dust clouds that surround these systems, but the protoplanetary disks also emit much of their radiation in the far infrared. Furthermore, the dust reprocesses much of the optical emission from the newly forming stars into this wavelength band. Similarly, the obscured central regions of galaxies, which harbor massive black holes and huge bursts of star formation, can be seen and analyzed in the far infrared. SAFIR will have the sensitivity to see the first dusty galaxies in the universe. For studies of both star-forming regions in our galaxy and dusty galaxies at high redshifts, SAFIR will be essential in tying together information that NGST will obtain on these systems at shorter wavelengths and that ALMA will obtain at longer wavelengths.

  16. Effect of rare earth Ce on the far infrared radiation property of iron ore tailings ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Duan, Xinhui; Huo, Xiaoli; Tang, Qingguo

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed process proposed for preparation of iron ore tailings ceramics. • Replace natural minerals with iron ore tailings as raw materials for preparing functional ceramics. • Impact mechanism of Ce on far infrared ceramics, as well as its optimum addition amounts can be obtained. • Propose a new perspective on considering the mechanism of far infrared radiation. - Abstract: A kind of far infrared radiation ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, CaCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials, and Ce as additive. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the sample exhibits excellent radiation value of 0.914 when doping 7 wt.% Ce. Ce{sup 4+} dissolved into iron diopside and formed interstitial solid solution with it sintered at 1150 °C. The oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} caused by Ce{sup 4+} led to a decrease of crystallite sizes and enhancement of Mg–O and Fe–O vibration in iron diopside, which consequently improved the far infrared radiation properties of iron ore tailings ceramics.

  17. Infrared and far-infrared transition frequencies for the CH2 radical. [in interstellar gas clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, T. J.; Mckellar, A. R. W.; Bunker, P. R.; Evenson, K. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A list of frequencies and intensities for transitions of CH2 in the middle and far infrared regions is presented which should aid in the detection of CH2 and provide valuable information on the local physical and chemical environment. Results are presented for frequency, vacuum wavelength, and line strength for rotational transition frequencies and for the transition frequencies of the v(2) band.

  18. Design of high-T[sub c] superconducting bolometers for a far infrared imaging array

    SciTech Connect

    Verghese, S.; Richards, P.L. ); Fork, D.K. ); Char, K. ); Geballe, T.H. . Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1992-08-01

    The design of high-[Tc] superconducting bolometers for use in a far infrared imaging array from wavelengths 30--100[mu]m is discussed. Measurements of the voltage noise in thin films of YBa[sub 2]CU[sub 3]O[sub 7-[var sigma

  19. Energy levels and far-infrared spectra of oval-shaped nanorings

    SciTech Connect

    Gutiérrez, W.; García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2014-05-15

    The evolution of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of low-lying states and far infrared spectrum associated to variation of the path curvature for electron motion along nanorings with centerlines in a form of a set of Cassini ovals, whose shape is changed continuously from a single elongated loop to two separated loops is theoretically investigated.

  20. Isotopic labelling studies on far-infrared spectra of nickel-histamine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdżewski, Piotr; Kordon, Ewa

    2000-11-01

    Nickel-histamine (hm) complexes type [Ni(hm)Cl 2] and [Ni(hm) 3] X2 (Where X=Cl, Br, I, ClO 4) were investigated in the far-infrared region. Metal isotope labelling and deuteration effects were employed for observed band assignments. Metal-ligand vibrations were discussed and correlated with the structures of the complexes.

  1. Physical and chemical structure of the IC 63 nebula. 1: Millimeter and far-infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, David J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

    1994-01-01

    We present results of a (sub)millimeter and far-infrared study of the reflection/emission nebula IC 63, located close to the BO.5p star gamma Cas. The source has been mapped in the (12)CO 2 - 1 and 3 - 2, (13)CO 2 - 1, and CS 2 - 1 lines and shows a small molecular cloud less than 1'x 2' in extent, which coincides with the brightest optical nebulosity and IRAS 100 micrometer emission. IC 63 is therefore an excellent example of a nearby (d approximately = 230 pc), edge-on photon-dominated region (PDR). Various other molecules have been observed at the peak position through their rotational transitions, in order to probe the physical parameters and to derive abundances. The measured CO, HCO(+) HCN, CS and H2CO line ratios suggest that the cloud is warm, T approximately = 50 K, and dense, n (H2) approximately = 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm. Excitation of molecules by electrons may play a significant role in this PDR. On the basis of these physical conditions, column densities have been determined from the observed line strengths. Several different methods are discussed to constrain the H2 column density, including the use of measured submillimeter continuum fluxes. The resulting abundances of species such as CN and CS are similar to those found in cold, dark clouds like TMC-1 and L134N. However, the abundances of other simple molecules such as HNC, HCO(+) and possibly C2H are lower by factors of at least three, probably because of the enhanced photodissociation rates at a distance of 1.3 pc from a B star. Surprisingly, only the abundance of the H2S molecule appears enhanced. More complex, volatile molecules such as CH3OH CH3CN and HNCO, and the sulfur-oxides SO and SO2 have not been found in this cloud. Limited observations of molecules in the reflection nebulea NGC 2023 are presented as well, and the resulting molecular abundances are compared with those found for IC 63.

  2. Drying characteristics and quality of red ginseng using far-infrared rays

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xiaofeng; Lee, Junsoo; Han, Chungsu

    2015-01-01

    Background The current typical drying methods for red ginseng are sun drying and hot-air drying. The purpose of this study was to investigate drying characteristics of red ginseng by using far-infrared drying. Methods The far-infrared drying tests on red ginseng were conducted at two drying stages: (1) high temperature for 24 h drying and (2) low temperature drying until the final moisture content was 13 ± 0.5% (wet basis). The high temperature drying stage included three drying chamber temperature conditions of 60°C, 65°C, and 70°C. The low temperature drying stage was conducted at temperatures of 45°C and 50°C. Drying characteristics were analyzed based on factors such as drying rate, color changes, energy consumption, and saponin content. The results were compared with those of the hot-air and sun drying methods. Results The results revealed that increases in drying temperature caused a decrease in drying time and energy consumption for far-infrared drying. The saponin content decreased under all drying conditions after drying, the highest value (11.34 mg/g) was observed at drying conditions of 60∼50°C. The sun drying condition showed the lowest color difference value when compared with far-infrared and hot-air drying. Conclusion The far-infrared drying showed a faster drying rate, higher saponin content, lower color difference value, and a decrease in energy consumption than seen in hot-air drying. PMID:26869830

  3. Observations of CO isotopic emission and the far-infrared continuum of Centaurus A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckart, A.; Cameron, M.; Rothermel, H.; Wild, W.; Zinnecker, H.; Olberg, M.; Rydbeck, G.; Wiklind, T.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present maps of the CO-12(1=0) line and the 100 micron and 50 micron far-infrared emission of Centaurus A, as well as measurements of the CO-12(2-1), CO-13(1-0), and the C-18O(1-0) lines at selected positions. The observations were taken with the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) and the CPC instrument on board the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The millimeter data show that the bulk molecular material is closely associated with the dust lane and contained in a disk of about 180 seconds diameter and a total molecular mass of about 2 x 10 to the 8th power solar mass. The total molecular mass of the disk and bulge is of the order of 3 x 10 to the 8th power solar mass. The molecular gas in the nucleus is warm with a kinetic temperature of the order of 15 K and a number density of 10 to the 3rd power to 3 x 10 to the 4th power cm(-3). Absorption features in the CO-12 and CO-13 lines against the nuclear continuum emission indicate that the properties of giant molecular clouds are comparable to those of the Galaxy. The far-infrared data show that to a good approximation the dust temperature is constant across the dust lane at a value of about 42 K. The ratio between the far-infrared luminosity and the total molecular mass is 18 solar luminosity/solar mass and close to the mean value obtained for isolated galaxies. A comparison of the CO-12(1-0) and the far-infrared data indicates that a considerable amount of the far-infrared emission is not intimately associated with massive star formation.

  4. ATR and transmission analysis of pigments by means of far infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kendix, Elsebeth L; Prati, Silvia; Joseph, Edith; Sciutto, Giorgia; Mazzeo, Rocco

    2009-06-01

    In the field of FTIR spectroscopy, the far infrared (FIR) spectral region has been so far less investigated than the mid-infrared (MIR), even though it presents great advantages in the characterization of those inorganic compounds, which are inactive in the MIR, such as some art pigments, corrosion products, etc. Furthermore, FIR spectroscopy is complementary to Raman spectroscopy if the fluorescence effects caused by the latter analytical technique are considered. In this paper, ATR in the FIR region is proposed as an alternative method to transmission for the analyses of pigments. This methodology was selected in order to reduce the sample amount needed for analysis, which is a must when examining cultural heritage materials. A selection of pigments have been analyzed in both ATR and transmission mode, and the resulting spectra were compared with each other. To better perform this comparison, an evaluation of the possible effect induced by the thermal treatment needed for the preparation of the polyethylene pellets on the transmission spectra of the samples has been carried out. Therefore, pigments have been analyzed in ATR mode before and after heating them at the same temperature employed for the polyethylene pellet preparation. The results showed that while the heating treatment causes only small changes in the intensity of some bands, the ATR spectra were characterized by differences in both intensity and band shifts towards lower frequencies if compared with those recorded in transmission mode. All pigments' transmission and ATR spectra are presented and discussed, and the ATR method was validated on a real case study.

  5. A far-infrared radiative closure study in the Arctic: Application to water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamere, J. S.; Clough, S. A.; Payne, V. H.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.; Gamache, R. R.

    2010-09-01

    Far-infrared (λ > 15.0 μm) (far-IR) radiative processes provide a large fraction of Earth's outgoing longwave radiation and influence upper tropospheric vertical motion. Water vapor, because of its abundance and strong absorption properties over an extended spectral range, is the primary source of these radiative processes. Historically, the lack of spectrally resolved radiometric instruments and the opacity of the lower atmosphere have precluded extensive studies of far-IR water vapor absorption properties. The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has organized a series of field experiments, the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns (RHUBC), to address this deficiency. The first phase of RHUBC took place in 2007 at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Climate Research Facility. Measurements taken before and during this campaign have provided the basis for a clear-sky radiative closure study aimed at reducing key uncertainties associated with far-IR radiative transfer models. Extended-range Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer infrared radiance observations taken in clear sky conditions were compared against calculations from the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model. The water vapor column amounts used in these calculations were retrieved from 183 GHz radiometer measurements. The uncertainty in these integrated water vapor retrievals is approximately 2%, a notable improvement over past studies. This far-IR radiative closure study resulted in an improvement to the Mlawer-Tobin Clough-Kneiyzs-Davies (MT_CKD) water vapor foreign continuum model and updates to numerous, far-IR water vapor line parameters from their values in the circa 2006 version of the HITRAN molecular line parameter database.

  6. A microbolometer-based far infrared radiometer to study thin ice clouds in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Quentin; Proulx, Christian; Ivanescu, Liviu; Coursol, Laurence; Pelletier, Ludovick S.; Bouzid, Yacine; Barbero, Francesco; Girard, Éric; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    A far infrared radiometer (FIRR) dedicated to measuring radiation emitted by clear and cloudy atmospheres was developed in the framework of the Thin Ice Clouds in Far InfraRed Experiment (TICFIRE) technology demonstration satellite project. The FIRR detector is an array of 80 × 60 uncooled microbolometers coated with gold black to enhance the absorptivity and responsivity. A filter wheel is used to select atmospheric radiation in nine spectral bands ranging from 8 to 50 µm. Calibrated radiances are obtained using two well-calibrated blackbodies. Images are acquired at a frame rate of 120 Hz, and temporally averaged to reduce electronic noise. A complete measurement sequence takes about 120 s. With a field of view of 6°, the FIRR is not intended to be an imager. Hence spatial average is computed over 193 illuminated pixels to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and consequently the detector resolution. This results in an improvement by a factor of 5 compared to individual pixel measurements. Another threefold increase in resolution is obtained using 193 non-illuminated pixels to remove correlated electronic noise, leading an overall resolution of approximately 0.015 W m-2 sr-1. Laboratory measurements performed on well-known targets suggest an absolute accuracy close to 0.02 W m-2 sr-1, which ensures atmospheric radiance is retrieved with an accuracy better than 1 %. Preliminary in situ experiments performed from the ground in winter and in summer on clear and cloudy atmospheres are compared to radiative transfer simulations. They point out the FIRR ability to detect clouds and changes in relative humidity of a few percent in various atmospheric conditions, paving the way for the development of new algorithms dedicated to ice cloud characterization and water vapor retrieval.

  7. A far-infrared radiometer to study optically thin ice clouds in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Q.; Ivanescu, L.; Blanchet, J. P.; Barbero, F.; Laurence, C.; Pelletier, L. S.; Proulx, C.; Dejmek, M.

    2015-12-01

    The water cycle in the dry and cold Arctic is not well understood. In particular, ice clouds, which play a significant role in the radiative budget of this region, are poorly known. In addition to filling a gap in cloud observation at high latitudes, the deployment of CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites also highlighted the ubiquity of optically thin ice clouds during the polar night in the Arctic. These clouds can significantly alter the amount of far infrared radiation escaping the Earth, and consequently the temperatures in the upper atmosphere. Since their signature in the far infrared is also very sensitive to their microphysical properties (crystals size and shape) and optical depth, these quantities can be retrieved from satellite observations. Such measurements in the far infrared (particularly beyond 30 μm), were until recently constrained by technical limitations, but recent advancements in micro-bolometers technology at INO (Québec) has allowed to study this under-explored spectral region. In this context, a satellite mission dedicated to studying thin ice clouds in the Arctic (TICFIRE) is under review at the Canadian Space Agency. We present here the Far InfraRed Radiometer (FIRR), which is meant to be a breadboard for the future satellite instrument. The FIRR measures atmospheric radiation in 9 spectral bands extending from 8 to 50 μm. After characterization in the laboratory, it was operated from the ground under various atmospheric conditions. These measurements were successfully compared to radiative transfer simulations, pointing out the potential of the FIRR to detect ice clouds and to measure low water vapor contents. In April 2015, the FIRR was operated on board an aircraft during the pan-arctic NETCARE campaign. It was looking downward to mimic satellite observations, which is to our knowledge a first in the far infrared. Simultaneously, atmospheric profiles and clouds microphysical properties were measured by probes mounted on the same aircraft

  8. Far-infrared spectroscopy of CdTe1-xSex(In): Phonon properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, M.; Romčević, N.; Trajić, J.; Dobrowolski, W. D.; Romčević, M.; Hadžić, B.; Gilić, M.; Mycielski, A.

    2014-11-01

    The far-infrared reflectivity spectra of CdTe0.97Se0.03 and CdTe0.97Se0.03(In) single crystals were measured at different temperatures. The analysis of the far-infrared spectra was carried out by a fitting procedure based on the dielectric function which includes spatial distribution of free carriers as well as their influence on the plasmon-phonon interaction. We found that the long wavelength optical phonon modes of CdTe1-xSex mixed crystals exhibit a two-mode behavior. The local In mode at about 160 cm-1 is observed. In both sample, a surface layer with a low concentration of free carriers (depleted region) are formed.

  9. Far-infrared contraband-detection-system development for personnel-search applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenbaum, R. L.

    1982-09-01

    Experiments have been conducted toward the development of an active near-millimeter-wave, far infrared, personnel search system for the detection of contraband. These experiments employed a microwave hybrid tee interferometer/radiometer scanning system and quasi-optical techniques at 3.3-mm wavelength to illuminate and detect the reflection from target objects against a human body background. Clothing and other common concealing materials are transport at this wavelength. Retroreflector arrays, in conjunction with a Gunn diode radiation source, were investigated to provide all-angle illumination and detection of specular reflections from unaligned and irregular-shaped objects. Results indicate that, under highly controlled search conditions, metal objects greater than or equal to 25 cm/sup 2/ can be detected in an enclosure lined with retroreflectors. Further development is required to produce a practical personnel search system. The investigation and feasibility of alternate far infrared search techniques are presented. 23 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Strain sensing and far-infrared absorption in strained graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the uniaxial strain modulated electronic structure and optical absorption of a triangular zigzag graphene quantum dot within the tight-binding approach. According to the symmetry analysis, the electronic structure and optical absorption can be correctly characterized before and after the strain is applied. The redshift or blueshift of the absorption peaks can be observed in the optical spectrum by uniaxial tensile or compressive strain, indicating that the strained triangular zigzag graphene quantum dot can be used as a strain sensor. The influence of dot sizes on the sensor sensitivity is also considered. Furthermore, the robustness of such a function against a single vacancy defect is confirmed. On the other hand, by applying a gate voltage on the strained dot, the Fermi energy is shifted away from zero, obvious far-infrared absorption peaks can appear in the optical spectrum, which means it is possible to realize far-infrared photodetectors based on strained graphene quantum dots.

  11. Far-infrared line observations of planetary nebulae. 1: The O 3 spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinerstein, H. L.; Lester, D. F.; Werner, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the far-infrared fine structure lines of O III have been obtained for six planetary nebulae. The infrared measurements are combined with optical O III line fluxes to probe physical conditions in the gas. From the observed line intensity ratios, a simultaneous solution was obtained for electron temperature and density, as well as means of evaluating the importance of inhomogeneities. Densities determined from the far-infrared O III lines agree well density diagnostics from other ions, indicating a fairly homogeneous density in the emitting gas. Temperatures are determined separately from the O III 4363/5007 A and 5007 A/52 micron intensity ratios and compared. Systematically higher values are derived from the former ratio, which is expected from a nebula which is not isothermal. Allowance for the presence of temperature variations within these nebulae raises their derived oxygen abundances, determinations to be reconciled with the solar value.

  12. Far-infrared radiometer to map OH in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolt, I. G.; Radostitz, J. V.; Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.; Ade, P. A. R.

    1985-10-01

    A baseline design is evaluated for a far-infrared radiometer to map global concentration profiles of OH from a satellite platform. The instrument performance is modeled using the spectral database and radiative transfer models developed from recent balloon-based studies of the upper atmosphere. The results indicate that the OH concentration can be measured by limb sounding with 10-percent accuracy in the region of its peak concentration near 40 km, but with useful data for the altitude range between 25 and 120 km. The resolution is 3.5 km in the vertical and 500 km in the horizontal direction. The same technique in principle can be expanded in a multichannel mode to address other related species, e.g. H2O, O3, and HO2, which have accessible rotational emission features in the far-infrared spectral region.

  13. Antenna-coupled thin-film far-infrared radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Yoshizumi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Takashi

    1996-06-01

    The 4 slot array antenna for 700 GHz far-infrared radiation are fabricated on the fused quartz substrates, making use of the dimensions obtained from the model experiments in the microwave region, and the power gain and directivity are obtained experimentally. The properties of fabricated array antenna agree with the theory, and 4 slot array antenna on the substrate of which thickness is odd multiples of a quarter dielectric wavelength improve the power gain by 5 dB compared with the single slot antenna on both sides of air and dielectric. These experimental data indicate that the fabricated antennas show the antenna pattern expected from the theory and work as array antennas for 700 GHz far- infrared laser radiation.

  14. Generation of tunable far-infrared radiation by optical pumping molecular gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results obtained by optical pumping molecular gas lasers by use of a 20 atm high-pressure CO 2-laser. The far-infrared laser gases investigated were several isotopes of the methylhalides (CH 3X; X  F, Cl, Br, I), heavy water (D 2O) and ammonia (NH 3), that delivered around 1000 laser lines with wavelengths ranging from the millimeter region down to 40 μm. By exploiting the continuous tunability of the CO 2-laser to pump either a waveguide laser or a multipass Raman-cell broadly tunable FIR emission can be generated via stimulated Raman scattering. Moreover the observed far-infrared laser pulses were found to have pulse durations of less than 100 ps.

  15. Far-infrared spectroscopy of NGC 6946, IC 342, and Arp 299

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Steven D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Haas, Michael R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Erickson, Edwin F.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers investigated the physical conditions in the infrared bright galaxies NGC 6946, IC 342, and Arp 299 through measurements of far-infrared emission lines from Si II, O I, C II, and O III using the facility Cooled Grating Spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These data are interpreted using our theoretical models for photodissociation regions and H II regions. For the central 45 inches of these galaxies, researchers determined that the dominant excitation mechanism for the far infrared radiation (FIR) lines is far ultraviolet radiation (FUR) radiation from young stars, and the authors derived the total mass, density, and temperature of the warm atomic gas and the typical sizes, number densities, and filling factors for the interstellar clouds.

  16. Design of a Far-Infrared Spectrometer for Atmospheric Thermal Emission Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Global measurements of far infrared emission from the upper troposphere are required to test models of cloud radiative forcing, water vapor continuum emission, and cooling rates. Spectra with adequate resolution can also be used for retrieving atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, and yet there are few spectrally resolved measurements of outgoing longwave flux at wavelengths longer than 16 m. It has been difficult to make measurements in the far infrared due to the need for liquid-helium cooled detectors and large optics to achieve adequate sensitivity and bandwidth. We review design considerations for infrared Fourier transform spectrometers, including the dependence of system performance on basic system parameters, and discuss the prospects for achieving useful sensitivity from a satellite platform with a lightweight spectrometer using uncooled detectors.

  17. Architecture and performance of the space-based Far-Infrared Interferometer Instrument Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fenech, D. M.; Savini, G.

    2016-04-01

    FIRI (Far Infra-Red Interferometer) is a spatial and spectral space interferometer with an operating wavelength range of 25-400 μm and sub-arcsecond angular resolution. It is based on the combination of stellar interferometry and Fourier transform spectroscopy to perform spectroscopy at high angular resolution in the far-infrared. The resulting technique is referred to as double Fourier spatio-spectral interferometry. With increased spatial and spectral resolution come a number of interesting science cases such as the formation and evolution of AGN and the characterization of gas, ice and dust in discs undergoing planetary formation, among others. To study the feasibility of a FIRI system, the Far-Infrared Interferometer Instrument Simulator (FIInS) has been developed. With FIInS, once a set of modelled scientific data is available, one can compare an input sky map with the synthesized one after data reduction algorithms have been applied.

  18. A Far-infrared Undulator for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation and Free Electron Laser at Tohoku University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Hiroyuki; Hinode, Fujio; Kawai, Masayuki; Nanbu, Kenichi; Miyahara, Fusashi; Yasuda, Mafuyu

    2010-06-01

    In order to develop an intense far-infrared radiation source, a high quality electron beam has been studied at Tohoku University, Sendai. The bunch length of the beam expected is very much shorter than terahertz (THz) wavelength, so that coherent spontaneous emission of synchrotron radiation will be a promising high brilliant far-infrared source. An undulator consisting of permanent magnets has been designed in which optional free electron laser (FEL) will be operated in free space mode. Consequently the minimum gap of the undulator is decided to be 54 mm for 0.36 mm radiation to avoid diffraction loss, and then the period length of 10 cm is employed. The undulator may cover a wavelength range from 0.18 to 0.36 mm with the beam energy of 17 MeV. Property of coherent THz radiation from the undulator and possibility of novel pre-bunched THz FEL is discussed.

  19. Signal decomposition for X-ray dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaeppler, Sebastian; Bayer, Florian; Weber, Thomas; Maier, Andreas; Anton, Gisela; Hornegger, Joachim; Beckmann, Matthias; Fasching, Peter A; Hartmann, Arndt; Heindl, Felix; Michel, Thilo; Oezguel, Gueluemser; Pelzer, Georg; Rauh, Claudia; Rieger, Jens; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Uder, Michael; Wachter, David; Wenkel, Evelyn; Riess, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging is a new imaging modality. It allows the visualization of structures at micrometer scale due to small-angle scattering of the X-ray beam. However, reading darkfield images is challenging as absorption and edge-diffraction effects also contribute to the dark-field signal, without adding diagnostic value. In this paper, we present a novel--and to our knowledge the first--algorithm for isolating small-angle scattering in dark-field images, which greatly improves their interpretability. To this end, our algorithm utilizes the information available from the absorption and differential phase images to identify clinically irrelevant contributions to the dark-field image. Experimental results on phantom and ex-vivo breast data promise a greatly enhanced diagnostic value of dark-field images.

  20. Far-infrared emission spectra of selected gas-phase PAHs: Spectroscopic fingerprints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, K.; Guo, B.; Colarusso, P.; Bernath, P.F.

    1996-10-25

    The emission spectra of the gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, chrysene, and pyrene were recorded in the far-infrared (far-IR) region. The vibrational bands that lie in the far IR are unique for each PAH molecule and allow discrimination among the three PAH molecules. The far-IR PAH spectra, therefore, may prove useful in the assignment of unidentified spectral features from astronomical objects. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Plans for a far-infrared free-electron laser in India

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnagopal, S.; Kumar, V.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Centre for Advanced Technology is building the INDUS complex of synchrotron radiation sources. As part of this programme it is also proposed to build a far-infrared free-electron laser oscillator. This will use a microtron injector and a 40 period undulator made of NdFeB permanent magnets, and is designed to law around 200 microns. We discuss details of the FEL design and the present status of experimental activities on this front.

  2. Development of far infrared attenuation to measure electron densities in cw pin discharge lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    A two beam attenuation technique was devised to measure electron densities 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 11th power cm/3 resolved to 1 cm, in a near atmospheric COFFEE laser discharge, using 496 micrometer and 1,220 micrometer radiations from CH3F, optically pumped by a CO2 laser. A far infrared generator was developed which was suitable except for a periodic intensity variation in FIR output deriving from frequency variation of the pump radiation.

  3. Brown dwarf disks with Herschel: Linking far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Natta, Antonella; Scholz, Alexander; Testi, Leonardo; Jayawardhana, Ray; Greaves, Jane; Eastwood, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Brown dwarf disks are excellent laboratories to test our understanding of disk physics in an extreme parameter regime. In this paper we investigate a sample of 29 well-characterized brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, for which Herschel far-infrared fluxes and (sub)-mm fluxes are available. We measured new Herschel/PACS fluxes for 11 objects and complement these with (sub)-mm data and Herschel fluxes from the literature. We analyze their spectral energy distributions in comparison with results from radiative transfer modeling. Fluxes in the far-infrared are strongly affected by the shape and temperature of the disk (and hence stellar luminosity), whereas the (sub)-mm fluxes mostly depend on disk mass. Nevertheless, there is a clear correlation between far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes. We argue that the link results from the combination of the stellar mass-luminosity relation and a scaling between disk mass and stellar mass. We find strong evidence of dust settling to the disk midplane. The spectral slopes between near- and far-infrared are mostly between -0.5 and -1.2 in our sample, which is comparable to more massive T Tauri stars; this may imply that the disk shapes are similar as well, although highly flared disks are rare among brown dwarfs. We find that dust temperatures in the range of 7-15 K, calculated with T ≈ 25 (L/L⊙)0.25 K, are appropriate for deriving disk masses from (sub)-mm fluxes for these low luminosity objects. About half of our sample hosts disks with at least one Jupiter mass, confirming that many brown dwarfs harbor sufficient material for the formation of Earth-mass planets in their midst. Herschel is a ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  4. Tunable far infrared studies of molecular parameters in support of stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Evenson, K. M.; Park, K.; Radostitz, J. V.; Jennings, D. A.; Nolt, I. G.; Vanek, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    Lab studies were made in support of far infrared spectroscopy of the stratosphere using the Tunable Far InfraRed (TuFIR) method of ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy and, more recently, spectroscopic and retrieval calculations performed in support of satellite-based atmospheric measurement programs: the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY).

  5. A far-infrared spectral sequence of galaxies: trends and models

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Abel, N. P.; González-Alfonso, E.; Dudley, C. C.; Satyapal, S.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.

    2014-11-10

    We present a framework for the interpretation of the far-infrared spectra of galaxies in which we have expanded the model parameters compared with previous work by varying the ionization parameter U, column density N(H), and gas density at the cloud face n(H{sup +}) for a central starburst or active galactic nucleus (AGN). We compare these models carried out with the Cloudy spectral synthesis code to trends in line-to-total far-infrared luminosity ratios, far-infrared fine-structure line ratios, IRAS colors, and OH and H{sub 2}O column densities found in the well-studied sample of 10 nearby galaxies from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities greater than 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} and IRAS 60 μm fluxes equal to or greater than that of the nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220. We find that the spectral sequence extending from normal starburst-type emission-line-dominated spectra to ULIRG-type absorption-dominated spectra with significant absorption from excited levels can be best explained by simultaneously increasing the hydrogen column density, from as low as 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} to as high as 10{sup 24.8} cm{sup –2} or greater, and the ionization parameter, from as low as 10{sup –4} to as high as 1. The starburst models best reproduce most of the sequence, while AGN models are somewhat better able to produce the high OH and H{sub 2}O column densities in Arp 220. Our results suggest that the molecular interstellar medium in ULIRG-like, molecular-absorption-dominated systems is located close to and at least partially obscures the source of power throughout much of the far-infrared, which must be taken into account in order to properly interpret diagnostics of both their sources of power and of feedback.

  6. The Case for Space-Borne Far-Infrared Line Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The combination of sensitive direct detectors and a cooled aperture promises orders of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity and survey time for far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy compared to existing or planned capabilities. Continuing advances in direct detector technology enable spectroscopy that approaches the background limit available only from space at these wavelengths. Because the spectral confusion limit is significantly lower than the more familiar spatial confusion limit encountered in imaging applications, spectroscopy can be carried out to comparable depth with a significantly smaller aperture. We are developing a novel waveguide-coupled grating spectrometer that disperses radiation into a wide instantaneous bandwidth with moderate resolution (R 1000) in a compact 2-dimensional format. A line survey instrument coupled to a modest cooled single aperture provides an attractive scientific application for spectroscopy with direct detectors. Using a suite of waveguide spectrometers, we can obtain complete coverage over the entire far-infrared and sub-millimeter. This concept requires no moving parts to modulate the optical signal. Such an instrument would be able to conduct a far-infrared line survey 10 6 times faster than planned capabilities, assuming existing detector technology. However, if historical improvements in bolometer sensitivity continue, so that photon-limited sensitivity is obtained, the integration time can be further reduced by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude, depending on wavelength. The line flux sensitivity would be comparable to ALMA, but at shorter wavelengths and with the continuous coverage needed to extract line fluxes for sources at unknown redshifts. For example, this capability would break the current spectroscopic bottleneck in the study of far-infrared galaxies, the recently discovered, rapidly evolving objects abundant at cosmological distances.

  7. A new software tool for computing Earth's atmospheric transmission of near- and far-infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a new software tool, ATRAN, which computes the transmittance of Earth's atmosphere at near- and far-infrared wavelengths. We compare the capabilities of this program with others currently available and demonstrate its utility for observational data calibration and reduction. The program employs current water-vapor and ozone models to produce fast and accurate transmittance spectra for wavelengths ranging from 0.8 microns to 10 mm.

  8. Mode structure in an optically pumped D sub 2 O far-infrared ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D.C. ); Soumagne, G.; Siegrist, M.R. )

    1990-02-01

    The mode structures in an optically pumped D {sub 2} O far-infrared ring laser and a corresponding linear resonator are compared in this paper. While single-mode operation can be obtained over the whole useful pressure range in the ring structure, this is only possible at pressures greater than 8 torr in the linear resonator case. A numerical model predicts quite well the pulse shape, pressure dependence, and influence of the resonator quality in the ring cavity.

  9. A Far-infrared Spectral Sequence of Galaxies: Trends and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Abel, N. P.; González-Alfonso, E.; Dudley, C. C.; Satyapal, S.; van Hoof, P. A. M.

    2014-11-01

    We present a framework for the interpretation of the far-infrared spectra of galaxies in which we have expanded the model parameters compared with previous work by varying the ionization parameter U, column density N(H), and gas density at the cloud face n(H+) for a central starburst or active galactic nucleus (AGN). We compare these models carried out with the Cloudy spectral synthesis code to trends in line-to-total far-infrared luminosity ratios, far-infrared fine-structure line ratios, IRAS colors, and OH and H2O column densities found in the well-studied sample of 10 nearby galaxies from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities greater than 1010 L ⊙ and IRAS 60 μm fluxes equal to or greater than that of the nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220. We find that the spectral sequence extending from normal starburst-type emission-line-dominated spectra to ULIRG-type absorption-dominated spectra with significant absorption from excited levels can be best explained by simultaneously increasing the hydrogen column density, from as low as 1021 cm-2 to as high as 1024.8 cm-2 or greater, and the ionization parameter, from as low as 10-4 to as high as 1. The starburst models best reproduce most of the sequence, while AGN models are somewhat better able to produce the high OH and H2O column densities in Arp 220. Our results suggest that the molecular interstellar medium in ULIRG-like, molecular-absorption-dominated systems is located close to and at least partially obscures the source of power throughout much of the far-infrared, which must be taken into account in order to properly interpret diagnostics of both their sources of power and of feedback.

  10. Far-infrared amide IV-VI spectroscopy of isolated 2- and 4-Methylacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyna, Vasyl; Bakker, Daniël J.; Feifel, Raimund; Rijs, Anouk M.; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali

    2016-09-01

    Delocalized molecular vibrations in the far-infrared and THz ranges are highly sensitive to the molecular structure, as well as to intra- and inter-molecular interactions. Thus, spectroscopic studies of biomolecular structures can greatly benefit from an extension of the conventional mid-infrared to the far-infrared wavelength range. In this work, the conformer-specific gas-phase far-infrared spectra of two aromatic molecules containing the peptide -CO-NH- link, namely, 2- and 4-Methylacetanilide, are investigated. The planar conformations with trans configuration of the peptide link have only been observed in the supersonic-jet expansion. The corresponding far-infrared signatures associated with the vibrations of the peptide -CO-NH- moiety, the so-called amide IV-VI bands, have been assigned and compared with the results of density functional theory frequency calculations based on the anharmonic vibrational second-order perturbation theory approach. The analysis of the experimental and theoretical data shows that the amide IV-VI bands are highly diagnostic for the geometry of the peptide moiety and the molecular backbone. They are also strongly blue-shifted upon formation of the NH⋯O-C hydrogen bonding, which is, for example, responsible for the formation of secondary protein structures. Furthermore, the amide IV-VI bands are also diagnostic for the cis configuration of the peptide link, which can be present in cyclic peptides. The experimental gas-phase data presented in this work can assist the vibrational assignment of similar biologically important systems, either isolated or in natural environments.

  11. The improved pyroelectric detectors for far-infrared laser interferometer measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Gao

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, the application of the pyroelectric detectors for Far-Infrared laser diagnostics on TOKAMAK plasma is described. We discovered experimentally that the Fabry-Perot interference could affect the performance of the pyroelectric detectors (PED). The improved pyroelectric detector (IPD) was developed for FIR laser coheront measuring. Some designing considerations about the pyroelectric detectors used in high temperature plasma conditions are mentioned.

  12. Far-infrared amide IV-VI spectroscopy of isolated 2- and 4-Methylacetanilide.

    PubMed

    Yatsyna, Vasyl; Bakker, Daniël J; Feifel, Raimund; Rijs, Anouk M; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali

    2016-09-14

    Delocalized molecular vibrations in the far-infrared and THz ranges are highly sensitive to the molecular structure, as well as to intra- and inter-molecular interactions. Thus, spectroscopic studies of biomolecular structures can greatly benefit from an extension of the conventional mid-infrared to the far-infrared wavelength range. In this work, the conformer-specific gas-phase far-infrared spectra of two aromatic molecules containing the peptide -CO-NH- link, namely, 2- and 4-Methylacetanilide, are investigated. The planar conformations with trans configuration of the peptide link have only been observed in the supersonic-jet expansion. The corresponding far-infrared signatures associated with the vibrations of the peptide -CO-NH- moiety, the so-called amide IV-VI bands, have been assigned and compared with the results of density functional theory frequency calculations based on the anharmonic vibrational second-order perturbation theory approach. The analysis of the experimental and theoretical data shows that the amide IV-VI bands are highly diagnostic for the geometry of the peptide moiety and the molecular backbone. They are also strongly blue-shifted upon formation of the NH⋯O-C hydrogen bonding, which is, for example, responsible for the formation of secondary protein structures. Furthermore, the amide IV-VI bands are also diagnostic for the cis configuration of the peptide link, which can be present in cyclic peptides. The experimental gas-phase data presented in this work can assist the vibrational assignment of similar biologically important systems, either isolated or in natural environments.

  13. Far-infrared amide IV-VI spectroscopy of isolated 2- and 4-Methylacetanilide.

    PubMed

    Yatsyna, Vasyl; Bakker, Daniël J; Feifel, Raimund; Rijs, Anouk M; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali

    2016-09-14

    Delocalized molecular vibrations in the far-infrared and THz ranges are highly sensitive to the molecular structure, as well as to intra- and inter-molecular interactions. Thus, spectroscopic studies of biomolecular structures can greatly benefit from an extension of the conventional mid-infrared to the far-infrared wavelength range. In this work, the conformer-specific gas-phase far-infrared spectra of two aromatic molecules containing the peptide -CO-NH- link, namely, 2- and 4-Methylacetanilide, are investigated. The planar conformations with trans configuration of the peptide link have only been observed in the supersonic-jet expansion. The corresponding far-infrared signatures associated with the vibrations of the peptide -CO-NH- moiety, the so-called amide IV-VI bands, have been assigned and compared with the results of density functional theory frequency calculations based on the anharmonic vibrational second-order perturbation theory approach. The analysis of the experimental and theoretical data shows that the amide IV-VI bands are highly diagnostic for the geometry of the peptide moiety and the molecular backbone. They are also strongly blue-shifted upon formation of the NH⋯O-C hydrogen bonding, which is, for example, responsible for the formation of secondary protein structures. Furthermore, the amide IV-VI bands are also diagnostic for the cis configuration of the peptide link, which can be present in cyclic peptides. The experimental gas-phase data presented in this work can assist the vibrational assignment of similar biologically important systems, either isolated or in natural environments. PMID:27634262

  14. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  15. Far-infrared continuum emission from the nucleus, starburst, and extended spiral arms of NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, D.F.; Joy, M.; Harvey, P.M.; Ellis, H.B. Jr.; Parmar, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    Far-infrared slit scans across NGC 1068 are used to better define the contribution of the active nucleus, starburst disk, and extended spiral arms in the luminous output of this bright Seyfert 2 galaxy. The decomposition of the emission from the bright, inner 3 kpc of this galaxy suggests that at 50 microns, about half the emission is from star formation in a starburst disk and half from the compact, centrally heated circumnuclear cloud. The 100-micron profile of the starburst disk is asymmetric with respect to the nucleus. This appears to be the result of an extraordinary star-forming complex about a kiloparsec away from the center. With the application of maximum entropy deconvolution to the scans, evidence is found for 100-micron emission from the extended spiral arms of the galaxy. The far-infrared emission from the starburst region is distinguished from that of the extended spiral arms. In terms of both total luminosity and surface brightness, the extended spiral arms of NGC 1068 are at the bright end of the range of far-infrared emission from quiescent, noninteracting spirals. 17 references.

  16. Far-infrared continuum emission from the nucleus, starburst, and extended spiral arms of NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Joy, M.; Harvey, P. M.; Ellis, H. B., Jr.; Parmar, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    Far-infrared slit scans across NGC 1068 are used to better define the contribution of the active nucleus, starburst disk, and extended spiral arms in the luminous output of this bright Seyfert 2 galaxy. The decomposition of the emission from the bright, inner 3 kpc of this galaxy suggests that at 50 microns, about half the emission is from star formation in a starburst disk and half from the compact, centrally heated circumnuclear cloud. The 100-micron profile of the starburst disk is asymmetric with respect to the nucleus. This appears to be the result of an extraordinary star-forming complex about a kiloparsec away from the center. With the application of maximum entropy deconvolution to the scans, evidence is found for 100-micron emission from the extended spiral arms of the galaxy. The far-infrared emission from the starburst region is distinguished from that of the extended spiral arms. In terms of both total luminosity and surface brightness, the extended spiral arms of NGC 1068 are at the bright end of the range of far-infrared emission from quiescent, noninteracting spirals.

  17. Non-destructively reading out information embedded inside real objects by using far-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Ayumi; Silapasuphakornwong, Piyarat; Suzuki, Masahiro; Torii, Hideyuki; Takashima, Youichi; Uehira, Kazutake

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a technique that can non-destructively read out information embedded inside real objects by using far-infrared-light. We propose a technique that can protect the copyrights of digital content for homemade products using digital fabrication technologies such as those used in 3D printers. It embeds information on copyrights inside real objects produced by 3D printers by forming fine structures inside the objects as a watermark that cannot be observed from the outside. Fine structures are formed near the surface inside real objects when they are being fabricated. Information embedded inside real objects needs to be read out non-destructively. We used a technique that could non-destructively read out information from inside real objects by using far-infrared light. We conducted experiments where we structured fine cavities inside objects. The disposition of the fine domain contained valuable information. We used the flat and curved surfaces of the objects to identify them. The results obtained from the experiments demonstrated that the disposition patterns of the fine structures appeared on the surface of objects as a temperature profile when far-infrared light was irradiated on their surface. Embedded information could be read out successfully by analyzing the temperature profile images of the surface of the objects that were captured with thermography and these results demonstrated the feasibility of the technique we propose.

  18. THE EXTRAORDINARY FAR-INFRARED VARIATION OF A PROTOSTAR: HERSCHEL/PACS OBSERVATIONS OF LRLL54361

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, Zoltan; Detre, Örs H.; Bouwmann, Jeroen; Nielbock, Markus; Klaas, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas; Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Rob; Juhasz, Attila; Bally, John; Marton, Gabor

    2014-07-10

    We report Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) photometric observations at 70 μm and 160 μm of LRLL54361—a suspected binary protostar that exhibits periodic (P = 25.34 days) flux variations at shorter wavelengths (3.6 μm and 4.5 μm) thought to be due to pulsed accretion caused by binary motion. The PACS observations show unprecedented flux variation at these far-infrared wavelengths that are well correlated with the variations at shorter wavelengths. At 70 μm the object increases its flux by a factor of six while at 160 μm the change is about a factor of two, consistent with the wavelength dependence seen in the far-infrared spectra. The source is marginally resolved at 70 μm with varying FWHM. Deconvolved images of the sources show elongations exactly matching the outflow cavities traced by the scattered light observations. The spatial variations are anti-correlated with the flux variation, indicating that a light echo is responsible for the changes in FWHM. The observed far-infrared flux variability indicates that the disk and envelope of this source is periodically heated by the accretion pulses of the central source, and suggests that such long wavelength variability in general may provide a reasonable proxy for accretion variations in protostars.

  19. Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect. PMID:20355556

  20. Effect of Tourmaline-Doped on the Far Infrared Emission of Iron Ore Tailings Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Gu, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Iron ore tailings as secondary resources have been of great importance to many countries in the world. Their compositions are similar to that of infrared emission ceramics, but there are few reports about it. In addition, tourmaline has high infrared emission properties due to its unique structure. With the purpose of expanding functional utilization of iron ore tailings, as well as reducing the production cost of far infrared ceramics, a new kind of far infrared emission ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, calcium carbonate, silica, and natural tourmaline. The ceramics powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that after being sintered at 1065 °C, the percentage of pseudobrookite and lattice strain of samples increased with increasing the elbaite content. Furthermore, the added tourmaline was conducive to the densification sintering of ceramics. The appearance of Li-O vibration at 734.73 cm-1, as well as the strengthened Fe-O vibration at 987.68 cm-1 were attributed to the formation of Li0.375Fe1.23Ti1.4O5 solid solution, which led the average far infrared emissivity of ceramics increase from 0.861 to 0.906 within 8-14 µm.

  1. Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect.

  2. Effect of Tourmaline-Doped on the Far Infrared Emission of Iron Ore Tailings Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Gu, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Iron ore tailings as secondary resources have been of great importance to many countries in the world. Their compositions are similar to that of infrared emission ceramics, but there are few reports about it. In addition, tourmaline has high infrared emission properties due to its unique structure. With the purpose of expanding functional utilization of iron ore tailings, as well as reducing the production cost of far infrared ceramics, a new kind of far infrared emission ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, calcium carbonate, silica, and natural tourmaline. The ceramics powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that after being sintered at 1065 °C, the percentage of pseudobrookite and lattice strain of samples increased with increasing the elbaite content. Furthermore, the added tourmaline was conducive to the densification sintering of ceramics. The appearance of Li-O vibration at 734.73 cm-1, as well as the strengthened Fe-O vibration at 987.68 cm-1 were attributed to the formation of Li0.375Fe1.23Ti1.4O5 solid solution, which led the average far infrared emissivity of ceramics increase from 0.861 to 0.906 within 8-14 µm. PMID:27451708

  3. First Light from the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Johnson, David G.; Latvakoski, Harri; Jucks, Kenneth; Watson, Mike; Bingham, Gail; Kratz, David P.; Traub, Wesley A.; Wellard, Stanley J.; Hyde, Charles R.; Liu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    We present first light spectra from the new Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument. FIRST is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer developed to measure accurately the far-infrared (15 to 100 micrometers; 650 to 100 wavenumbers) emission spectrum of the Earth and its atmosphere. The observations presented here were obtained during a high altitude balloon flight from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on 7 June 2005. The flight data demonstrate the instrument's ability to observe the entire energetically significant infrared emission spectrum (50 to 2000 wavenumbers) at high spectral and spatial resolution on a single focal plane in an instrument with one broad spectral bandpass beamsplitter. Comparisons with radiative transfer calculations demonstrate that FIRST accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the far-infrared. Comparisons of the atmospheric window radiances measured by FIRST and by instruments on the NASA Aqua satellite that overflew FIRST are in excellent agreement. FIRST opens a new window on the spectrum that can be used for studying atmospheric radiation and climate, cirrus clouds, and water vapor in the upper troposphere.

  4. The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA). I. Global far-infrared and sub-mm morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, J.; Gentile, G.; Smith, M. W. L.; Gear, W. K.; Braun, R.; Duval, J. Roman; Bendo, G. J.; Baes, M.; Eales, S. A.; Verstappen, J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A. R.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Ford, G. P.; Galliano, F.; Gomez, H. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Lebouteiller, V.; O'Halloran, B.; Kirk, J.; Madden, S. C.; Page, M. J.; Remy, A.; Roussel, H.; Spinoglio, L.; Thilker, D.; Vaccari, M.; Wilson, C. D.; Waelkens, C.

    2012-10-01

    Context. We have obtained Herschel images at five wavelengths from 100 to 500 μm of a ~5.5 × 2.5 degree area centred on the local galaxy M 31 (Andromeda), our nearest neighbour spiral galaxy, as part of the Herschel guaranteed time project "HELGA". The main goals of HELGA are to study the characteristics of the extended dust emission, focusing on larger scales than studied in previous observations of Andromeda at an increased spatial resolution, and the obscured star formation. Aims: In this paper we present data reduction and Herschel maps, and provide a description of the far-infrared morphology, comparing it with features seen at other wavelengths. Methods: We used high-resolution maps of the atomic hydrogen, fully covering our fields, to identify dust emission features that can be associated to M 31 with confidence, distinguishing them from emission coming from the foreground Galactic cirrus. Results: Thanks to the very large extension of our maps we detect, for the first time at far-infrared wavelengths, three arc-like structures extending out to ~21, ~26 and ~31 kpc respectively, in the south-western part of M 31. The presence of these features, hosting ~2.2 × 106 M⊙ of dust, is safely confirmed by their detection in HI maps. Overall, we estimate a total dust mass of ~5.8 × 107 M⊙, about 78% of which is contained in the two main ring-like structures at 10 and 15 kpc, at an average temperature of 16.5 K. We find that the gas-to-dust ratio declines exponentially as a function of the galacto-centric distance, in agreement with the known metallicity gradient, with values ranging from 66 in the nucleus to ~275 in the outermost region. Conclusions: Dust in M 31 extends significantly beyond its optical radius (~21 kpc) and what was previously mapped in the far-infrared. An annular-like segment, located approximately at R25, is clearly detected on both sides of the galaxy, and two other similar annular structures are undoubtedly detected on the south

  5. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The advance of new detector technologies combined with enhanced fabrication methods has resulted in an increase in development of large format arrays. The next generation of scientific instruments will utilize detectors containing hundreds to thousands of elements providing a more efficient means to conduct large area sky surveys. Some notable detectors include a 32x32 x-ray microcalorimeter for Constellation-X, an infrared bolometer called SAFIRE to fly on the airborne observatory SOFIA, and the sub-millimeter bolometer SCUBA-2 to be deployed at the JCMT which will use more than 10,000 elements for two colors, each color using four 32x40 arrays. Of these detectors, SCUBA-2 is farthest along in development and uses indium hybridization to multiplexers for readout of the large number of elements, a technology that will be required to enable the next generation of large format arrays. Our current efforts in working toward large format arrays have produced GISMO, the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter observer. GISMO is a far infrared instrument to be field tested later this year at the IRAM 30 meter telescope in Spain. GISMO utilizes transition edge sensor (TES) technology in an 8x16 filled array format that allows for typical fan-out wiring and wire-bonding to four 1x32 NIST multiplexers. GISMO'S electrical wiring is routed along the tops of 30 micron walls which also serve as the mechanical framework for the array. This architecture works well for the 128 element array, but is approaching the limit for routing the necessary wires along the surface while maintaining a high fill factor. Larger format arrays will benefit greatly from making electrical connections through the wafer to the backside, where they can be hybridized to a read-out substrate tailored to handling the wiring scheme. The next generation array we are developing is a 32x40 element array on a pitch of 1135 microns that conforms to the NIST multiplexer, already developed for the SCUBA-2

  6. Intersubband Rabi oscillations in asymmetric nanoheterostructures: implications for a tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, V A

    2012-06-01

    A tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation based on a semiconductor nanoheterostructure with asymmetric quantum wells is suggested. It utilizes Rabi oscillations at a transition between quantum well subbands excited by external femtosecond pulses of a mid-infrared electromagnetic field. Due to quantum well broken inversion symmetry the subbands possess different average dipole moments, which enables the creation of polarization at the Rabi frequency as the subband populations change. It is shown that if this polarization is excited so that it is periodic in space, then, though being pulsed, it can produce continuous-wave output radiation. Changing the polarization space period and the time intervals between the exciting pulses, one can tune the frequency of this radiation throughout the far-infrared and THz range. In the present work a concrete multiple quantum well heterostructure design and a scheme of its space-periodic polarization are suggested. It is shown that for existing sources of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses the proposed scheme can provide a continuous-wave output power of order the power of far-infrared and THz quantum cascade lasers. Being added to the possibility of its output frequency tuning, this can make the suggested device attractive for fundamental research and various applications.

  7. Electromagnetic modelling of a space-borne far-infrared interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohoe, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Bracken, Colm; Savini, Giorgio; Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter; Sudiwala, Rashmi; Hornsby, Amber

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I will describe work done as part of an EU-funded project `Far-infrared space interferometer critical assessment' (FISICA). The aim of the project is to investigate science objectives and technology development required for the next generation THz space interferometer. The THz/FIR is precisely the spectral region where most of the energy from stars, exo-planetary systems and galaxy clusters deep in space is emitted. The atmosphere is almost completely opaque in the wave-band of interest so any observation that requires high quality data must be performed with a space-born instrument. A space-borne far infrared interferometer will be able to answer a variety of crucial astrophysical questions such as how do planets and stars form, what is the energy engine of most galaxies and how common are the molecule building blocks of life. The FISICA team have proposed a novel instrument based on a double Fourier interferometer that is designed to resolve the light from an extended scene, spectrally and spatially. A laboratory prototype spectral-spatial interferometer has been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the double-Fourier technique at far infrared wavelengths (0.15 - 1 THz). This demonstrator is being used to investigate and validate important design features and data-processing methods for future instruments. Using electromagnetic modelling techniques several issues related to its operation at long baselines and wavelengths, such as diffraction, have been investigated. These are critical to the design of the concept instrument and the laboratory testbed.

  8. CROSS-CORRELATION OF NEAR- AND FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES AS TRACED BY SPITZER AND HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, Cameron; Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Bernardis, Francesco De; Smidt, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    We present the cross-correlation between the far-infrared (far-IR) background fluctuations as measured with the Herschel Space Observatory at 250, 350, and 500 μm and the near-infrared (near-IR) background fluctuations with the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The cross-correlation between the FIR and NIR background anisotropies is detected such that the correlation coefficient at a few to 10 arcminute angular scale decreases from 0.3 to 0.1 when the FIR wavelength increases from 250 to 500 μm. We model the cross-correlation using a halo model with three components: (a) FIR bright or dusty star-forming galaxies below the masking depth in Herschel maps, (b) NIR faint galaxies below the masking depth, and (c) intra-halo light (IHL), or diffuse stars in dark matter halos, that is likely dominating the large-scale NIR fluctuations. The model is able to reasonably reproduce the auto-correlations at each of the FIR wavelengths and at 3.6 μm and their corresponding cross-correlations. While the FIR and NIR auto-correlations are dominated by faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies and IHL, respectively, we find that roughly half of the cross-correlation between the NIR and FIR backgrounds is due to the same dusty galaxies that remain unmasked at 3.6 μm. The remaining signal in the cross-correlation is due to IHL present in the same dark matter halos as those hosting the same faint and unmasked galaxies.

  9. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hoffmann, William F.; Harper, Doyal A.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific objectives, engineering analysis and design, results of technology development, and focal-plane instrumentation for a two-meter balloon-borne telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy are presented. The unique capabilities of balloon-borne observations are discussed. A program summary emphasizes the development of the two-meter design. The relationship of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is also discussed. Detailed treatment is given to scientific objectives, gondola design, the mirror development program, experiment accommodations, ground support equipment requirements, NSBF design drivers and payload support requirements, the implementation phase summary development plan, and a comparison of three-meter and two-meter gondola concepts.

  10. Far-infrared spectra of dysprosium doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajić, J.; Rabasović, M. S.; Savić-Šević, S.; Ševic, D.; Babić, B.; Romčević, M.; Ristić-Djurović, J. L.; Paunović, N.; Križan, J.; Romčević, N.

    2016-07-01

    The solution combustion synthesis was used to prepare nanopowders of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and YAG doped with dysprosium ions, Dy3+, (YAG:Dy). The morphology, specific surface area, texture, and optical properties of the prepared materials were studied by the means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption method, and far-infrared spectroscopy at room temperature in the spectral region between 80 and 600 cm-1. It was established that all the examined samples were microporous. The Maxwell-Garnet formula was used to model dielectric function of YAG and YAG:Dy nanopowders as mixtures of homogenous spherical inclusions in air.

  11. Far-infrared self-broadening in methylcyanide - Absorber-perturber resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffa, G.; Tarrini, O.; De Natale, P.; Inguscio, M.; Pavone, F. S.; Prevedelli, M.; Evenson, K. M.; Zink, L. R.; Schwaab, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Using tunable far-infrared spectrometers with high-frequency stability and accuracy, the self-pressure broadening and shift of CH3CN are measured. Evidence of absorber-perturber resonance effects on the collisional line shape are obtained. This tests the theoretical model and its possible improvements and also allows predictions of broadening and shift for a large class of molecules. Moreover, the resonance effect produces a theoretical temperature dependence of self-broadening that is different from what is commonly assumed.

  12. THE FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF VERY LARGE NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Boersma, Christiaan; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-20

    Here we report the computed far-infrared (FIR) spectra of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules containing at least 82 carbons up to 130 carbons and with shapes going from compact round and oval-type structures to rectangular and to trapezoidal. The effects of size and shape on the FIR band positions and intensities are discussed. Using FIR data from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database Version 1.1, we generate synthetic spectra that support the suggestion that the 16.4, 17.4, and 17.8 mum bands arise from PAHs.

  13. Far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    The results of far infrared (FIR) observations of the larger H II region M16, associated with the young open star cluster NGC 6611, are discussed. Three FIR sources detected on an extended ridge of FIR emission within the scanned region are described. The observations confirm that M16 is an H II region in a late stage of evolution. The H II region has expanded and is now extremely density bounded, consisting of an extended region of ionized gas and a series of ionization fronts located at the surrounding molecular cloud boundaries nearest to the exciting OB star cluster. The FIR radiation arises from heated dust at these boundaries.

  14. Far-infrared magnetospectroscopy on epitaxial zero-gap and wide-gap semiconductor layer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, P.; von Ortenberg, M.; Bicknell-Tassius, R.; Waag, A.

    1992-02-01

    Far-infrared magnetotransmission measurements have been performed on MBE-grown HgTe and CdTe epilayers. The results on the HgTe samples can be understood by the standard Pidgeon-Brown model for bulk HgTe. For the CdTe layers, transitions were only observed under illumination by visible light. The spectra are dominated by the 1 s→2 p transition of the shallow hydrogen-like impurity. These transitions are persistent with a life time of the order of magnitude of one second.

  15. Wavefront Sensing and Control Technology for Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The NGST wavefront sensing and control system will be developed to TRL6 over the next few years, including testing in a cryogenic vacuum environment with traceable hardware. Doing this in the far-infrared and submillimeter is probably easier, as some aspects of the problem scale with wavelength, and the telescope is likely to have a more stable environment; however, detectors may present small complications. Since this is a new system approach, it warrants a new look. For instance, a large space telescope based on the DART membrane mirror design requires a new actuation approach. Other mirror and actuation technologies may prove useful as well.

  16. Far-infrared laser scattering in the ACT-I toroidal device

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1984-12-01

    A far-infrared laser scattering diagnostic has been built for the ACT-I toroidal device. The optical system uses a passively stabilized 447-..mu..m CH/sub 3/I laser. A polyethylene etalon is the beam splitter. The vacuum windows are plastic (TPX), which we found has the vacuum property Q 6.5 x 10/sup -9/ torr-liter/sec/cm/sup 2/. Using paraboloidal and ellipsoidal mirrors for detection optics improves the signal strength and allows a better rf enclosure design for the detector. The diagnostic was tested by scattering from an ion Bernstein wave, a technique which can be used for ion temperature diagnostics.

  17. Water Structure Studied by Far Infrared Spectroscopy in FTIR Beam Line of MIRRORCLE 20

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Nobuhiro; Moon, Ahsa; Kitagawa, Toshimichi; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-30

    Far infrared vibrational Spectroscopy for distilled water was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the FTIR beam line of MIRRORCLE 20. Synchrotron radiation was utilized as a light source for the absorption Spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100cm-1 to 20cm-1. Off-line measurements by black body radiation of ceramic heater were also examined in the range from 400cm-1 to 50cm-1. Wide range spectrum was obtained after the SR data merged the off-line data. We report the recent development in the beam line and the examples of spectra related to the water structure.

  18. Probing the structures of gas-phase rhodium cluster cations by far-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D. J.; Gruene, P.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.; Hamilton, S. M.; Hopkins, W. S.; Mackenzie, S. R.; Neville, S. P.; Walsh, T. R.

    2010-12-07

    The geometric structures of small cationic rhodium clusters Rh{sub n}{sup +} (n = 6-12) are investigated by comparison of experimental far-infrared multiple photon dissociation spectra with spectra calculated using density functional theory. The clusters are found to favor structures based on octahedral and tetrahedral motifs for most of the sizes considered, in contrast to previous theoretical predictions that rhodium clusters should favor cubic motifs. Our findings highlight the need for further development of theoretical and computational methods to treat these high-spin transition metal clusters.

  19. Far infrared-assisted encapsulation of filter paper strips in poly(methyl methacrylate) for proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiwen; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Filter paper strips were enclosed between two poly(methyl methacrylate) plates to fabricate paper-packed channel microchips under pressure in the presence of far infrared irradiation. After the enclosed paper strip was oxidized by periodate, trypsin was covalently immobilized in them to fabricate microfluidic proteolysis bioreactor. The feasibility and performance of the unique bioreactor were demonstrated by digesting BSA and lysozyme. The results were comparable to those of conventional in-solution proteolysis while the digestion time was significantly reduced to ∼18 s. The suitability of the microfluidic paper-based bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  20. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions. PMID:20355630

  1. Far-infrared investigations of a methanol clathrate hydrate - Implications for astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of nonterrestrial clathrate hydrates are still lacking despite the fact that clathrates first were suggested to exist in cometary and interstellar ices over 40 years ago. Spectroscopy, the most direct method of astronomical detection, has been hampered by the similarity of clathrate hydrate spectra to those of unenclathrated guest molecules and solid H2O. We have prepared a methanol (CH3OH) clathrate hydrate, using a recently published procedure, and have investigated its far-infrared spectrum. The spectrum is quite different from that of either unenclathrated CH3OH or solid H2O and so should be of value in astronomical searches for this clathrate.

  2. Temperature dependence of optically dumped far-infrared (FIR) laser output power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the small signal gain and saturation power are derived using temperature-dependent rates in a four-level model. An expression is developed for the output power of a far-infrared oscillator as a function of temperature for both fixed pressure and fixed density. The results are valid in the regime of homogeneous broadening of the rotational transition and Doppler broadening of the pump transition. It is shown that, for most lasers, both the small signal gain and the saturation power decrease with increasing temperature. These effects have the overall result of increasing output power with decreasing temperatures.

  3. Far infrared structure of spiral galaxies from the IRAS CPC images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.; Chokshi, Arati; Doyle, Laurance R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant extended far infrared (50 micron and 100 micron) structure was found for five face-on spiral galaxies (NGC2403, M51, M83, NGC6946, and IC342) from fourteen galaxies searched in the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) chopped photometric channel (CPC) catalogue. Images were initially processed to remove instrumental and background artifacts, the isophotal centroids of each image determined, and multiple images of each galaxy (for each wavelength) superimposed and averaged to improve signal-to-noise. Calibration of these images was performed using IRAS survey array data. Infrared isophotes were then superimposed on optical (blue) images so that direct structural comparisons could be made.

  4. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions.

  5. Design of high-T{sub c} superconducting bolometers for a far infrared imaging array

    SciTech Connect

    Verghese, S.; Richards, P.L.; Fork, D.K.; Char, K.; Geballe, T.H.

    1992-08-01

    The design of high-{Tc} superconducting bolometers for use in a far infrared imaging array from wavelengths 30--100{mu}m is discussed. Measurements of the voltage noise in thin films of YBa{sub 2}CU{sub 3}O{sub 7-{var_sigma}} on yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers on silicon substrates are used to make performance estimates. Useful opportunities exist for imaging and spectroscopy with bolometer arrays made on micro-machined silicon membranes. A circuit on each pixel which performs some signal integration can improve the sensitivity of large two-dimensional arrays of bolometers which use multiplexed readout amplifiers.

  6. Far-infrared transmittance of boron-implanted germanium at liquid-helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadek, V.; Watson, D. M.; Beichman, C. A.; Jack, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The transmission of far-infrared radiation of 100-microns-wavelength through Ge wafers ion implanted with B was measured at a temperature of approximately 4 K. Transmittance ranged from approximately 0.5 to 0.08 for doses from 3 x 10 to the 12th to 3 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm. The resistivity at temperatures between 4 and 1 K, and the impurity profiles of the implanted layers were also measured and correlated with the infrared transmittance.

  7. Visible and Dark Fermions in Multi-Spinor Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.

    Why fundamental fermions exist in the modes of three families of quarks and leptons with the color and electroweak gauge symmetry? Is it possible to generalize the Standard Model so as to accommodate some degrees of freedom of dark matter in it? As an attempt to elucidate these basic problems, I have developed a new unified field theory of chiral multi-spinor fields which have three family modes of ordinary quarks and leptons and one additional family of dark quarks and leptons.

  8. Artifacts in X-ray Dark-Field Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Modregger, P.; Wang, Z.; Pinzer, B.; Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.

    2011-09-09

    Grating-based x-ray imaging provides three principle kinds of contrast: absorption, phase, and dark-field. Due to the availability of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for the dark-field contrast, it is now possible to take advantage of quantitative scatter information. However, the published algorithm is based on several assumptions that might be violated in reality. We use numerical simulations in order to identify artifacts in the reconstructions, which is crucial for the interpretation of experimental data.

  9. Study of Several Potentials as Scalar Field Dark Matter Candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, Tonatiuh; Vazquez-Gonzalez, Alberto; Magan a, Juan

    2008-12-04

    In this work we study several scalar field potentials as a plausible candidate to be the dark matter in the universe. The main idea is the following; if the scalar field is an ultralight boson particle, it condensates like a Bose-Einstein system at very early times and forms the basic structure of the Universe. Real scalar fields collapse in equilibrium configurations which oscillate in space-time (oscillatons). The cosmological behavior of the field equations are solved using the dynamical system formalism. We use the current cosmological parameters as constraints for the free parameters of the scalar field potentials. We are able to reproduce very well the cosmological predictions of the standard {lambda}CDM model with some scalar field potentials. Therefore, scalar field dark matter seems to be a good alternative to be the nature of the dark matter of the universe.

  10. HAWC+: A Detector, Polarimetry, and Narrow-Band Imaging Upgrade to SOFIA's Far-Infrared Facility Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, C. D.; Staguhn, J.; Harper, D. A.; Ames, T. J.; Benford, D. J.; Berthoud, M.; Chapman, N. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Kovacs, A.; Looney, L.; Novak, G.; Stacey, G. J.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; HAWC+ Science Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    HAWC, the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera, is the facility far-infrared camera for SOFIA, providing continuum imaging from 50 to 250 microns wavelength. As a result of NASA selection as a SOFIA Second Generation Instruments upgrade investigation, HAWC will be upgraded with enhanced capability for addressing current problems in star formation and interstellar medium physics prior to commissioning in early 2015. We describe the capabilities of the upgraded HAWC+, as well as our initial science program. The mapping speed of HAWC is increased by a factor of 9, accomplished by using NASA/Goddard's Backshort-Under-Grid bolometer detectors in a 64x40 format. Two arrays are used in a dual-beam polarimeter format, and the full complement of 5120 transition-edge detectors is read using NIST SQUID multiplexers and U.B.C. Multi-Channel Electronics. A multi-band polarimeter is added to the HAWC opto-mechanical system, at the cryogenic pupil image, employing rotating quartz half-wave plates. Six new filters are added to HAWC+, bringing the full set to 53, 63, 89, 155, and 216 microns at R = 5 resolution and 52, 63, 88, 158, and 205 microns at R = 300 resolution. The latter filters are fixed-tuned to key fine-structure emission lines from [OIII], [OI], [CII], and [NII]. Polarimetry can be performed in any of the filter bands. The first-light science program with HAWC+ emphasizes polarimetry for the purpose of mapping magnetic fields in Galactic clouds. The strength and character of magnetic fields in molecular clouds before, during, and after the star formation phase are largely unknown, despite pioneering efforts on the KAO and ground-based telescopes. SOFIA and HAWC+ provide significant new capability: sensitivity to extended dust emission (to A_V ~ 1) which is unmatched, ~10 arcsec angular resolution combined with wide-field mapping which allows statistical estimates of magnetic field strength, and wavelength coverage spanning the peak of the far-infrared

  11. Characterization of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs forblocked-impurity-band far-infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, B.L.; Reichertz, L.A.; Beeman, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2004-04-07

    GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) photoconductor detectors have the potential to become the most sensitive, low noise detectors in the far-infrared below 45.5 cm{sup -1} (220 {micro}m). We have studied the characteristics of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs films relevant to BIB production, including impurity band formation and the infrared absorption of the active section of the device. Knowledge of the far-infrared absorption spectrum as a function of donor concentration combined with variable temperature Hall effect and resistivity studies leads us to conclude that the optimal concentration for the absorbing layer of a GaAs BIB detector lies between 1 x 10{sup 15} and 6.7 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. At these concentrations there is significant wavefunction overlap which in turn leads to absorption beyond the 1s ground to 2p bound excited state transition of 35.5 cm{sup -1} (282 {micro}m). There still remains a gap between the upper edge of the donor band and the bottom of the conduction band, a necessity for proper BIB detector operation.

  12. A sensitivity study for far infrared balloon-borne limb emission sounding of stratospheric trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Schreier, F.; Vogt, P.; Doicu, A.; Trautmann, T.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity study performed for trace gases retrieval from synthetic observations by TELIS (TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder) which is a stratospheric balloon-borne cryogenic heterodyne spectrometer. Issues pertaining to hydroxyl radical (OH) retrieval from the far infrared measurements by the 1.8 THz channel are addressed. The study is conducted by a retrieval code PILS (Profile Inversion for Limb Sounding) developed to solve the nonlinear inverse problems arising in the analysis of infrared/microwave limb sounding measurements. PILS combines a line-by-line forward model with automatic differentiation for computing Jacobians and employs regularized nonlinear least squares inversion. We examine the application of direct and iterative regularization methods and evaluate the performance of single- and multi-profile retrievals. Sensitivities to expected errors in calibration procedure, instrumental knowledge and atmospheric profiles have been analyzed. Nonlinearity effect, inaccurate sideband ratio, and pointing error turned out to be the dominant error sources. Furthermore, the capability of multi-channel simultaneous retrieval from the far infrared and submillimeter data has been investigated. The errors and averaging kernels infer that the quality of the obtained hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be improved by significantly better exploitation of information from the observations.

  13. Mid- and far-infrared absorption spectroscopy of Titan’s aerosols analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Thomas; Carrasco, Nathalie; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Vinatier, Sandrine; Giuliani, Alexandre; Szopa, Cyril; Anderson, Carrie M.; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Dumas, Paul; Cernogora, Guy

    2012-09-01

    In this work we present mid- and far-infrared absorption spectra of Titan’s aerosol analogues produced in the PAMPRE experimental setup. The evolution of the linear absorption coefficient ε (cm-1) is given as a function of the wavenumber. We provide a complete dataset regarding the influence that the concentration of methane vapor in the gas mixture has on the tholin spectra. Among other effects, the intensity of the 2900 cm-1 (3.4 μm) pattern (attributed to methyl stretching modes) increases when the methane concentration increases. More generally, tholins produced with low methane concentrations seem to be more amine based polymers, whereas tholins produced with higher methane concentrations contains more aliphatic carbon based structures. Moreover, it is shown that the position of the bands around 2900 cm-1 depends on the chemical environment of the methyl functional group. We conclude that the presence of these absorption bands in Titan’s atmosphere, as measured with the VIMS instrument onboard Cassini is in agreement with an aerosol contribution. We also compare the far-infrared spectrum of tholin to spectra of Titan’s aerosols derived from recent Cassini-CIRS observations displaying many similarities, particularly with absorption bands at 325 cm-1, 515 cm-1, and the methyl attributed 1380 cm-1 and 1450 cm-1 bands.

  14. Towards Background-Limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a Cryogenic Far-Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyhrie, A.; Glenn, J.; Wheeler, J.; Day, P.; Eom, B. H.; Leduc, H.; Skrutskie, M.

    2016-08-01

    Arrays of tens of thousands of sensitive far-infrared detectors coupled to a cryogenic 4-6 m class orbital telescope are needed to trace the assembly of galaxies over cosmic time. The sensitivity of a 4 Kelvin telescope observing in the far-infrared (30-300 \\upmu m) would be limited by zodiacal light and Galactic interstellar dust emission, and require broadband detector noise equivalent powers (NEPs) in the range of 3× 10^{-19} W/√{Hz}. We are fabricating and testing 96 element arrays of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to reach NEPs near this level in a low-background laboratory environment. The LEKIDs are fabricated with aluminum: the low normal-state resistivity of Al permits the use of very thin wire-grid absorber lines (150 nm) for efficient absorption of radiation, while the small volumes enable high sensitivities because quasiparticle densities are high. Such narrow absorption lines present a fabrication challenge, but we deposit TiN atop the Al to increase the robustness of the detectors and achieve a 95 % yield. We present the design of these Al/TiN bilayer LEKIDs and preliminary sensitivity measurements at 350 \\upmu m optically loaded by cold blackbody radiation.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy of six SOCl2 isotopologues from the microwave to the far-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Roucou, A.; Brown, G. G.; Thorwirth, S.; Pirali, O.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; McCarthy, M. C.; Cuisset, A.

    2016-02-01

    Despite its potential role as an atmospheric pollutant, thionyl chloride, SOCl2, remains poorly characterized in the gas phase. In this study, the pure rotational and ro-vibrational spectra of six isotopologues of this molecule, all detected in natural abundance, have been extensively studied from the cm-wave band to the far-infrared region by means of three complementary techniques: chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, sub-millimeter-wave spectroscopy using frequency multiplier chain, and synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the complex line pattern which results from two nuclei with non-zero spins, new, high-level quantum-chemical calculations of the hyperfine structure played a crucial role in the spectroscopic analysis. From the combined experimental and theoretical work, an accurate semi-experimental equilibrium structure (reSE) of SOCl2 has been derived. With the present data, spectroscopy-based methods can now be applied with confidence to detect and monitor this species, either by remote sensing or in situ.

  16. An Engineering Concept and Enabling Technologies for a Large Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Michael J.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, Harvey S.; Roman, Juan

    2003-03-01

    "To take the next step in exploring this important part of the spectrum [30-300μm], the committee recommends the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)." - Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, 2001. In response to this recommendation, we have undertaken a study of the enabling technologies for a large single aperture far-infrared telescope such as SAFIR. A broad list of science investigations was produced and used to generate an explicit list of science requirements, from which top-level engineering requirements were derived. From these requirements, we developed a conceptual design for the SAFIR observatory based on NGST's current designs. A detailed analysis has been made of the changes and technologies necessary to produce SAFIR. Crucial technologies requiring innovation include lightweight deployable optics, cryogenic cooling of optical elements and instruments, and large arrays of sensitive detectors. Cryogen-free refrigeration technologies are necessary for SAFIR's long mission lifetime, and will have to provide significant (~100mW) cooling power at 4K to cool the mirrors while providing very low temperatures (~50mK) for detector arrays. The detector arrays require wide wavelength coverage, thousands of continuum elements, and compatibility with broadband and spectroscopic instruments.

  17. Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P < 0.01, which means that the effect is significant. It can be explained that the water activated by the ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis. PMID:24734643

  18. Performance and application of far infrared rays emitted from rare earth mineral composite materials.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Dongbin; Meng, Junping; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Fenping; Liu, Zhiguo; Ding, Yan; Liu, Lihua; Liang, Guangchuan

    2008-03-01

    Rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared using tourmaline and cerous nitrate as raw materials. Through characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found that the composite materials had a better far infrared emitting performance than tourmaline, which depended on many factors such as material composition, microstructure, and surface free energy. Based on the results of the flue gas analyzer and the water boiling test, it was found that the rare earth mineral composite materials could accelerate the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas and diesel oil. The results showed that the addition of Ce led to the improvement of far infrared emitting performance of tourmaline due to the decrease of cell volume caused by the oxidation of more Fe2+ ions and the increase of surface free energy. The application of rare earth mineral composite materials to diesel oil led to a decrease in surface tension and flash point, and the fuel saving ratio could reach 4.5%. When applied to liquefied petroleum gas, the composite materials led to the enhanced combustion, improved fuel consumption by 6.8%, and decreased concentration of CO and O2 in exhaust gases by 59.7% and 16.2%, respectively; but the temperature inside the flue increased by 10.3%. PMID:18468124

  19. BLAST: A FAR-INFRARED MEASUREMENT OF THE HISTORY OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter A. R.; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve A.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Ngo, Henry; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    We directly measure redshift evolution in the mean physical properties (far-infrared luminosity, temperature, and mass) of the galaxies that produce the cosmic infrared background (CIB), using measurements from the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST), and Spitzer which constrain the CIB emission peak. This sample is known to produce a surface brightness in the BLAST bands consistent with the full CIB, and photometric redshifts are identified for all of the objects. We find that most of the 70 mum background is generated at z approx< 1 and the 500 mum background generated at z approx> 1. A significant growth is observed in the mean luminosity from approx10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} L{sub sun}, and in the mean temperature by 10 K, from redshifts 0 < z < 3. However, there is only weak positive evolution in the comoving dust mass in these galaxies across the same redshift range. We also measure the evolution of the far-infrared luminosity density, and the star formation rate history for these objects, finding good agreement with other infrared studies up to z approx 1, exceeding the contribution attributed to optically selected galaxies.

  20. Effects of Somatothermal Far-Infrared Ray on Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yu-Min; Ou, Ming-Chiu; Ho, Cheng-Kun; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Liu, Ho-Yen; Chang, Wen-An

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the beneficial effects of using a far-infrared (FIR) belt on the management of patients with primary dysmenorrhea. This is the first study to determine the efficacy of somatothermal FIR using a parallel-arm randomized sham-controlled and double-blinded design with objective physical evidence and psychometric self-reports. Fifty-one Taiwanese women with primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled in the study. Results indicate that there was an increased abdominal temperature of 0.6°C and a 3.27% increase in abdominal blood flow in the FIR group (wearing FIR belt) compared to those in the control group (wearing sham belt). Verbal rating scale and numeric rating scale scores in the FIR group were both lower than those in the control group. Compared to the blank group (wearing no belt), the average dysmenorrhea pain duration of the FIR group was significantly reduced from 2.5 to 1.8 days, but there was no significant difference in the control group. These results demonstrate that the use of a belt made of far-infrared ceramic materials can reduce primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23320024

  1. H-ATLAS: the far-infrared properties of galaxies in and around the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, C.; Davies, J. I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Eales, S.; Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Maddox, S.; Sansom, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Davis, T.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a far-infrared survey of the Coma cluster and the galaxy filament it resides within. Our survey covers an area of ˜150 deg2 observed by Herschel H-ATLAS (Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey) in five bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm. The SDSS spectroscopic survey (mr ≤ 17.8) is used to define an area (within the virial radius) and redshift selected (4268 < v < 9700 km s-1) sample of 744 Coma cluster galaxies - the Coma Cluster Catalogue. For comparison, we also define a sample of 951 galaxies in the connecting filament - the Coma Filament Catalogue. The optical positions and parameters are used to define appropriate apertures to measure each galaxy's far-infrared emission. We have detected 99 of 744 (13 per cent) and 422 of 951 (44 per cent) of the cluster and filament galaxies in the SPIRE 250 μm band. We consider the relative detection rates of galaxies of different morphological types finding that it is only the S0/Sa population that shows clear differences between the cluster and filament. We find no differences between the dust masses and temperatures of cluster and filament galaxies with the exception of early-type galaxy dust temperatures, which are significantly hotter in the cluster than in the filament (X-ray heating?). From a chemical evolution model, we find no evidence for different evolutionary processes (gas loss or infall) between galaxies in the cluster and filament.

  2. Extended far-infrared emission and star formation in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, A. P.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation into the extended distribution of far-infrared (FIR) emission associated with nearby Seyfert galaxies is made using a set of MEM reconstructions of IRAS Chopped Photometric Channel (CPC) data (Marston 1993). The data is compared to a set of HII/starburst galaxy images similarly processed in order to compare distributions and FIR color properties. It is shown that the central 1 kpc or so of Seyfert galaxies show extended FIR emission. FIR colors suggest that the bulk of this emission is not directly associated with an active nucleus. They further suggest that the origins of the majority of the emission is from heated dust associated with star formation surrounding the nucleus rather than dust heated by the active nucleus. Nearby Seyfert galaxies are shown to have a higher concentration of far-infrared emission from their centers than the HII/starburst galaxies and a number appear to reside in disk galaxies with relatively low ongoing star formation in their disks. An example of this is NGC 7582 which has a smooth disk but an active nucleus/starbust center.

  3. Far-infrared transmission through periodic arrays of cross-shaped holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Luyi; Long, Chang; Tanner, David; Bradman, N.; McFarland, N.; Marbruger, J. B.

    2013-03-01

    The far-infrared transmission of light incident on a free-standing metal film perforated with periodic cross-shaped holes is investigated. These metal-mesh filters show enhanced ``extraordinary'' infrared transmission at particular wavelengths. A number of filter samples having different periodicities and geometries have been measured over frequencies from 20-650 cm-1/0.6-19.5 THz. The results will be compared with calculations from surface plasmon polariton (SPP) theory. It is shown that for certain periodicity and geometry, the SPP mode and the localized surface plasmon (LSP) mode may have their resonance peaks nearly superimposed on each other. The bandwidth of this transmission peak is related to the ratio of the width and length of the cross-shaped holes. The correlation between transmission properties and the incident angle of the far-infrared light has also been measured for both polarization conditions. As the incident angle is increased, the transmission peak shows a blue shift when illuminated by s-polarized light, while for p-polarized light it splits into two parts which shift in opposite directions.

  4. Performance and application of far infrared rays emitted from rare earth mineral composite materials.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Dongbin; Meng, Junping; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Fenping; Liu, Zhiguo; Ding, Yan; Liu, Lihua; Liang, Guangchuan

    2008-03-01

    Rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared using tourmaline and cerous nitrate as raw materials. Through characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found that the composite materials had a better far infrared emitting performance than tourmaline, which depended on many factors such as material composition, microstructure, and surface free energy. Based on the results of the flue gas analyzer and the water boiling test, it was found that the rare earth mineral composite materials could accelerate the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas and diesel oil. The results showed that the addition of Ce led to the improvement of far infrared emitting performance of tourmaline due to the decrease of cell volume caused by the oxidation of more Fe2+ ions and the increase of surface free energy. The application of rare earth mineral composite materials to diesel oil led to a decrease in surface tension and flash point, and the fuel saving ratio could reach 4.5%. When applied to liquefied petroleum gas, the composite materials led to the enhanced combustion, improved fuel consumption by 6.8%, and decreased concentration of CO and O2 in exhaust gases by 59.7% and 16.2%, respectively; but the temperature inside the flue increased by 10.3%.

  5. Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P < 0.01, which means that the effect is significant. It can be explained that the water activated by the ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis.

  6. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CARINA NEBULA FROM FAR-INFRARED TO RADIO WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Salatino, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Polenta, G.

    2012-03-20

    Multi-wavelength observations are necessary for understanding the physical properties of astrophysical sources. In this paper, we use observations in the far-infrared to radio range to derive the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the Carina nebula. To do this, we carefully subtract the irregularly varying diffuse emission from the Galactic plane, which can be of the order of 10% of the nebula flux at these wavelengths. We find that the far-infrared SED can be modeled as emission from a dust population with a single temperature T{sub d} = (34.5{sup +2.0}{sub -1.8}) K and with a spectral index of emissivity {alpha} = -1.37{sup +0.09}{sub -0.08}. We also find a total infrared luminosity of the nebula of (7.4{sup +2.5}{sub -1.4}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} L{sub Sun} and, assuming a single temperature of the dust, a mass of the dust of (9500{sup +4600}{sub -3500}) M{sub Sun }.

  7. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre imaging of HD 76582's circumstellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jonathan P.; Booth, Mark; Holland, Wayne; Matthews, Brenda C.; Greaves, Jane S.; Zuckerman, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Debris discs, the tenuous rocky and icy remnants of planet formation, are believed to be evidence for planetary systems around other stars. The JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disc legacy survey `SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS) observed 100 nearby stars, amongst them HD 76582, for evidence of such material. Here, we present imaging observations by JCMT/SCUBA-2 and Herschel/PACS at sub-millimetre and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We simultaneously model the ensemble of photometric and imaging data, spanning optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths, in a self-consistent manner. At far-infrared wavelengths, we find extended emission from the circumstellar disc providing a strong constraint on the dust spatial location in the outer system, although the angular resolution is too poor to constrain the interior of the system. In the sub-millimetre, photometry at 450 and 850 μm reveals a steep fall-off that we interpret as a disc dominated by moderately sized dust grains (amin = 36 μm), perhaps indicative of a non-steady-state collisional cascade within the disc. A disc architecture of three distinct annuli, comprising an unresolved component at 20 au and outer components at 80 and 270 au, along with a very steep particle size distribution (γ = 5), is proposed to match the observations.

  8. Hi-fidelity multi-scale local processing for visually optimized far-infrared Herschel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Causi, G.; Schisano, E.; Liu, S. J.; Molinari, S.; Di Giorgio, A.

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the "Hi-Gal" multi-band full-plane mapping program for the Galactic Plane, as imaged by the Herschel far-infrared satellite, we have developed a semi-automatic tool which produces high definition, high quality color maps optimized for visual perception of extended features, like bubbles and filaments, against the high background variations. We project the map tiles of three selected bands onto a 3-channel panorama, which spans the central 130 degrees of galactic longitude times 2.8 degrees of galactic latitude, at the pixel scale of 3.2", in cartesian galactic coordinates. Then we process this image piecewise, applying a custom multi-scale local stretching algorithm, enforced by a local multi-scale color balance. Finally, we apply an edge-preserving contrast enhancement to perform an artifact-free details sharpening. Thanks to this tool, we have thus produced a stunning giga-pixel color image of the far-infrared Galactic Plane that we made publicly available with the recent release of the Hi-Gal mosaics and compact source catalog.

  9. Cryogenic Far-Infrared Laser Absorptivity Measurements of the Herschel Space Observatory Telescope Mirror Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Klaassen, Tjeerd; Hovenier, Niels; Jakob, Gerd; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Sternberg, Oren

    2004-07-01

    Far-infrared laser calorimetry was used to measure the absorptivity, and thus the emissivity, of aluminum-coated silicon carbide mirror samples produced during the coating qualification run of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope to be launched by the European Space Agency in 2007. The samples were measured at 77 K to simulate the operating temperature of the telescope in its planned orbit about the second Lagrangian point, L2, of the Earth-Sun system. Together, the telescope's equilibrium temperature in space and the emissivity of the mirror surfaces will determine the far-infrared-submillimeter background and thus the sensitivity of two of the three astronomical instruments aboard the observatory if stray-light levels can be kept low relative to the mirror emission. Absorptivities of both clean and dust-contaminated samples were measured at 70, 118, 184, and 496 μm. Theoretical fits to the data predict absorptivities of 0.2-0.4% for the clean sample and 0.2-0.8% for the dusty sample, over the spectral range of the Herschel Space Observatory instruments.

  10. FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM IN STEPHAN'S QUINTET REVEALED BY AKARI

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toyoaki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Onaka, Takashi; Kitayama, Tetsu

    2011-04-10

    Stephan's Quintet (SQ, HCG92) was observed with the Far-Infrared Surveyor on board AKARI in four far-infrared (IR) bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 {mu}m. The AKARI four-band images show far-IR emission in the intergalactic medium of SQ. In particular, the 160 {mu}m band image shows single peak emission in addition to the structure extending in the north-south direction along the shock ridge as seen in the 140 {mu}m band, H{sub 2} emission, and X-ray emission. Whereas most of the far-IR emission in the shocked region comes from the cold dust component, shock-powered [C II]158 {mu}m emission can significantly contribute to the emission in the 160 {mu}m band that shows a single peak at the shocked region. In the shocked region, the observed gas-to-dust mass ratio is in agreement with the Galactic one. The color temperature of the cold dust component ({approx}20 K) is lower than that in surrounding galaxies ({approx}30 K). We discuss a possible origin of the intergalactic dust emission.

  11. TALC: a new deployable concept for a 20m far-infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Gilles; Sauvage, Marc; Bonnet, Aymeric; Rodriguez, Louis; Ronayette, Samuel; Chanial, Pierre; Scola, Loris; Révéret, Vincent; Aussel, Hervé; Carty, Michael; Durand, Matthis; Durand, Lancelot; Tremblin, Pascal; Pantin, Eric; Berthe, Michel; Martignac, Jérôme; Motte, Frédérique; Talvard, Michel; Minier, Vincent; Bultel, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    TALC, Thin Aperture Light Collector is a 20 m space observatory project exploring some unconventional optical solutions (between the single dish and the interferometer) allowing the resolving power of a classical 27 m telescope. With TALC, the principle is to remove the central part of the prime mirror dish, cut the remaining ring into 24 sectors and store them on top of one-another. The aim of this far infrared telescope is to explore the 600 μm to 100 μm region. With this approach we have shown that we can store a ring-telescope of outer diameter 20m and ring thickness of 3m inside the fairing of Ariane 5 or Ariane 6. The general structure is the one of a bicycle wheel, whereas the inner sides of the segments are in compression to each other and play the rule of a rim. The segments are linked to each other using a pantograph scissor system that let the segments extend from a pile of dishes to a parabolic ring keeping high stiffness at all time during the deployment. The inner corners of the segments are linked to a central axis using spokes as in a bicycle wheel. The secondary mirror and the instrument box are built as a solid unit fixed at the extremity of the main axis. The tensegrity analysis of this structure shows a very high stiffness to mass ratio, resulting into 3 Hz Eigen frequency. The segments will consist of two composite skins and honeycomb CFRP structure build by replica process. Solid segments will be compared to deformable segments using the controlled shear of the rear surface. The adjustment of the length of the spikes and the relative position of the side of neighbor segments let control the phasing of the entire primary mirror. The telescope is cooled by natural radiation. It is protected from sun radiation by a large inflatable solar screen, loosely linked to the telescope. The orientation is performed by inertia-wheels. This telescope carries a wide field bolometer camera using cryocooler at 0.3K as one of the main instruments. This

  12. Effective field theory of dark matter: a global analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liem, Sebastian; Bertone, Gianfranco; Calore, Francesca; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Tait, Tim M. P.; Trotta, Roberto; Weniger, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    We present global fits of an effective field theory description of real, and complex scalar dark matter candidates. We simultaneously take into account all possible dimension 6 operators consisting of dark matter bilinears and gauge invariant combinations of quark and gluon fields. We derive constraints on the free model parameters for both the real (five parameters) and complex (seven) scalar dark matter models obtained by combining Planck data on the cosmic microwave background, direct detection limits from LUX, and indirect detection limits from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We find that for real scalars indirect dark matter searches disfavour a dark matter particle mass below 100 GeV. For the complex scalar dark matter particle current data have a limited impact due to the presence of operators that lead to p-wave annihilation, and also do not contribute to the spin-independent scattering cross-section. Although current data are not informative enough to strongly constrain the theory parameter space, we demonstrate the power of our formalism to reconstruct the theoretical parameters compatible with an actual dark matter detection, by assuming that the excess of gamma rays observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope towards the Galactic centre is entirely due to dark matter annihilations. Please note that the excess can very well be due to astrophysical sources such as millisecond pulsars. We find that scalar dark matter interacting via effective field theory operators can in principle explain the Galactic centre excess, but that such interpretation is in strong tension with the non-detection of gamma rays from dwarf galaxies in the real scalar case. In the complex scalar case there is enough freedom to relieve the tension.

  13. Far-infrared and dc-Magnetotransport of CaMnO3 CaRuO3 Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yordanov, P.; Boris, A. V.; Freeland, J. W.; Kavich, J. J.; Chakhalian, J.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Keimer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We report temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent measurements of the dc resistivity and the far-infrared reflectivity (FIR) (photon energies {h_bar}{omega} = 50-700 cm{sup -1}) of superlattices comprising ten consecutive unit cells of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO{sub 3}, and four to ten unit cells of the correlated paramagnetic metal CaRuO{sub 3}. Below the Neel temperature of CaMnO{sub 3}, the dc resistivity exhibits a logarithmic divergence upon cooling, which is associated with a large negative, isotropic magnetoresistance. The {omega} {yields} 0 extrapolation of the resistivity extracted from the FIR reflectivity, on the other hand, shows a much weaker temperature and field dependence. We attribute this behavior to scattering of itinerant charge carriers in CaRuO{sub 3} from sparse, spatially isolated magnetic defects at the CaMnO{sub 3}-CaRuO{sub 3} interfaces. This field-tunable 'transport bottleneck' effect may prove useful for functional metal-oxide devices.

  14. Heavy dark matter annihilation from effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Ovanesyan, Grigory; Slatyer, Tracy R; Stewart, Iain W

    2015-05-29

    We formulate an effective field theory description for SU(2)_{L} triplet fermionic dark matter by combining nonrelativistic dark matter with gauge bosons in the soft-collinear effective theory. For a given dark matter mass, the annihilation cross section to line photons is obtained with 5% precision by simultaneously including Sommerfeld enhancement and the resummation of electroweak Sudakov logarithms at next-to-leading logarithmic order. Using these results, we present more accurate and precise predictions for the gamma-ray line signal from annihilation, updating both existing constraints and the reach of future experiments.

  15. Nonrelativistic approach for cosmological scalar field dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña-López, L. Arturo

    2014-07-01

    We derive nonrelativistic equations of motion for the formation of cosmological structure in a scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model corresponding to a complex scalar field endowed with a quadratic scalar potential. Starting with the equations of motion written in the Newtonian gauge of scalar perturbations, we separate out the involved fields into relativistic and nonrelativistic parts and find the equations of motion for the latter that can be used to build up the full solution. One important assumption will be that the SFDM field is in the regime of fast oscillations, under which its behavior in the homogeneous regime is exactly that of cold dark matter. The resultant equations are quite similar to the Schrödinger-Poisson system of Newtonian boson stars plus relativistic leftovers, and they can be used to study the formation of cosmological structure in SFDM models, and others alike, to ultimately prove their viability as complete dark matter models.

  16. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN THE DENSE GAS HEATING AND COOLING IN M51 FROM HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, T. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Foyle, K.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. C.; Sauvage, M.; Spinoglio, L.

    2013-10-20

    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in M51, [C II](158 μm), [N II](122 and 205 μm), [O I](63 and 145 μm), and [O III](88 μm). We compare the observed flux of these lines with the predicted flux from a photon-dominated region model to determine characteristics of the cold gas such as density, temperature, and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, G{sub 0}, resolving details on physical scales of roughly 600 pc. We find an average [C II]/F{sub TIR} of 4 × 10{sup –3}, in agreement with previous studies of other galaxies. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of four distinct regions of M51 shows a radially decreasing trend in both the FUV radiation field, G{sub 0}, and the hydrogen density, n, peaking in the nucleus of the galaxy, and then falling off out to the arm and interarm regions. We see for the first time that the FUV flux and gas density are similar in the differing environments of the arm and interarm regions, suggesting that the inherent physical properties of the molecular clouds in both regions are essentially the same.

  17. Accurate determination of the fine-structure intervals in the 3P ground states of C-13 and C-12 by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooksy, A. L.; Saykally, R. J.; Brown, J. M.; Evenson, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate values are presented for the fine-structure intervals in the 3P ground state of neutral atomic C-12 and C-13 as obtained from laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The rigorous analysis of C-13 hyperfine structure, the measurement of resonant fields for C-12 transitions at several additional far-infrared laser frequencies, and the increased precision of the C-12 measurements, permit significant improvement in the evaluation of these energies relative to earlier work. These results will expedite the direct and precise measurement of these transitions in interstellar sources and should assist in the determination of the interstellar C-12/C-13 abundance ratio.

  18. Analyzing Microchips With Dark-Field Negative Photomicrography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszko, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    Inverse development process yields fine details. Photomicrographic technique produces images of integrated-circuit chips. Technique based on dark-field illumination: (chip lit with bright central spot of light and photographed by light scattered or diffracted from spot. Reveals more about microstructure patterns related to photoresist masking than more conventional bright-field method.

  19. Stable 1.25 watts CW far infrared laser radiation at the 119 micron methanol line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam; Pickett, Herbert M.

    1987-01-01

    Far-infrared CW radiation of 1.25 watts has been obtained at the 119 micron methanol line with a CO2 pump power of 125 watts, and the maximum frequency fluctuation of the free running laser is measured to be less than + or - 100 kHz per hour. Reflecting optics have been used, when possible, to minimize CO2 degradation, and the frequency stability is ensured by cooling the input and output couplers. The input and output assemblies within the lasing medium are enclosed to minimize the external effects on the cavity length and to eliminate the mechanical instabilities associated with the use of bellows. The vibrational bottle-neck is broken by cooling the resonator wall to 5 deg and adding He as the buffer gas.

  20. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    This is the second Semiannual Report submitted under Grant NAGW-509 for the development of a Balloon-Borne Three-Meter Telescope for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy. It covers the period 1 March 1984 through 31 August 1984. This grant covers work at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), University of Arizona (UA) and the University of Chicago (UC). SAO is responsible for program management, the gondola structure including the attitude control and aspect systems, mechanical systems, and telemetry and command systems; the UA is responsible for optics design and fabrication; the UC is responsible for determining provisions for focal-plane instrumentation. SAO and the UA share responsibility for the ground support data and control computer.

  1. The Far-Infrared Laser Magnetic Resonance Spectrum of CH2F.

    PubMed

    Nolte; Wagner; Sears; Temps

    1999-05-01

    Far-infrared laser magnetic resonance (FIR-LMR) spectra due to the CH2F radical have been recorded on seven laser lines at wavelengths between 301 and 568 µm. Observed resonances were assigned to fine and hyperfine components of pure rotational transitions of CH2F in the ground vibrational state and the first excited state of the nu4 out-of-plane bending mode. All assigned transitions obey a-dipole selection rules. The data were combined with previously reported microwave results (Y. Endo, C. Yamada, S. Saito, and E. Hirota, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1605 (1983)) and subjected to a least-squares fit to determine the parameters of the effective Hamiltonian describing the v4 = 0 and 1 vibrational levels of the CH2F radical. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. FIFI: The MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Norbert; Genzel, Reinhard; Haggerty, M.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Rumitz, M.; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the performance characteristics of the MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The spectrometer features two or three cryogenic tunable Fabry-Perot filters in series giving spectral resolution R of up to 10(exp 5) in the range of 40 microns less than lambda less than 200 microns, and an imaging 5x5 array of photoconductive detectors with variable focal plane plate scale. The instrument works at background limited sensitivity of up to 2 x 10(exp -19) W cm(exp -2) Hz(exp -1/2) per pixel per resolution element at R = 10(exp 5) on the KAO.

  3. Mid-infrared versus far-infrared (THz) relative intensities of room-temperature Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    2005-02-01

    We have simultaneously recorded the mid-IR and far-IR (a.k.a. terahertz, THz) spectra of the sporulated form of five Bacillus bacteria: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 49760, B. subtilis ATCC 6051, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki ATCC 35866, Bacillus globigii 01, and Bacillus atrophaeus 49337. The 295 K spectra were recorded from ˜8 to 6000 cm -1 using spore counts on the order of 10 9 deposited onto windows transparent in both the mid- and far-infrared. The results indicate that any room-temperature THz absorption features due to the spores are at least 28 times weaker (based on p-p noise) than the corresponding mid-IR amide I band.

  4. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.N.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-07-12

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

  5. Far Infrared Line Profiles from Photodissociation Regions and Warm Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, R. T.; Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1056 awarded to the University of Colorado. The aim of the project was to analyze data obtained over the past several years with the University of Colorado far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Of particular interest were observations of CO and ionized carbon (C II) in photodissociation regions (PDRS) at the interface between UV-ionized H II regions and the neutral molecular clouds supporting star formation. These data, obtained with a heterodyne spectrometer having a resolution of 3.2 MHz, which is equivalent to a velocity resolution of 0.2 km s(exp -1) at 60 microns and 1.0 km s(exp -1) at 300 microns, were analyzed to obtain physical parameters such as density and temperature in the observed PDR.

  6. Infrared Detectors Overview in the Short Wave Infrared to Far Infrared for CLARREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Refaat, Tamer F.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a considerable interest in the broadband detectors for CLARREO Mission, which can be used to detect CO2, O3, H2O, CH4, and other gases. Detection of these species is critical for understanding the Earth?s atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry, and systemic force driving climatic changes. Discussions are focused on current and the most recent detectors developed in SWIR-to-Far infrared range for CLARREO space-based instrument to measure the above-mentioned species. These detector components will make instruments designed for these critical detections more efficient while reducing complexity and associated electronics and weight. We will review the on-going detector technology efforts in the SWIR to Far-IR regions at different organizations in this study.

  7. Mid/far-infrared photo-detectors based on graphene asymmetric quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, E.; Chaabani, R.; Jaziri, S.

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a theoretical study on the electronic properties of a single-layer graphene asymmetric quantum well. Quantification of energy levels is limited by electron–hole conversion at the barrier interfaces and free-electron continuum. Electron–hole conversion at the barrier interfaces can be controlled by introducing an asymmetry between barriers and taking into account the effect of the interactions of the graphene sheet with the substrate. The interaction with the substrate induces an effective mass to carriers, allowing observation of Fabry–Pérot resonances under normal incidence and extinction of Klein tunneling. The asymmetry, between barriers creates a transmission gap between confined states and free-electron continuum, allowing the large graphene asymmetric quantum well to be exploited as a photo-detector operating at mid- and far-infrared frequency regimes.

  8. Slot Antenna Coupled Thin-Film Warm Carrier Far-Infrared Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Yoshizumi; Suzuki, Kenji

    Slot antenna coupled thin-film warm carrier devices were fabricated, and the detection properties were investigated at 94 and 700 GHz. Two-dimensional 8 × 3 slot antenna arrays fed by a coplanar waveguide were used as the antennas. The thin-film antennas were fabricated with a photolithographic method, and the warm carrier detectors, which have the contact area of 8 × 10-10 cm2, were fabricated with an electron beam lithographic method. The experimental results indicate that the fabricated devices receive the far-infrared radiation with antenna and rectified it with non-linear I-V characteristic. By changing the antenna from the single slot antenna to the two-dimensional 8 × 3 slot antenna array, the detected sensitivity improved by 11 dB.

  9. A highly sensitive scanning far-infrared microscope with quantum Hall detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikushima, Kenji; Sakuma, Hisato; Komiyama, Susumu

    2003-09-01

    We develop a highly sensitive scanning far-infrared (FIR) microscope, which consists of a silicon solid immersion lens that probes FIR and a condenser lens that focuses the FIR onto a small quantum Hall detector (400 μm×400 μm). The solid immersion lens is in contact with the backside of a Hall bar sample, which is moved with a mechanical XY stage. The quantum Hall detector, which function as a narrow band FIR detector (bandwidth of about 2%), is a Hall bar with a large length-to-width ratio in integer quantum Hall effect regimes. The microscope is successfully applied to image extremely weak cyclotron emissions from quantum Hall devices with a spatial resolution of about 50 μm and a signal-to-noise ratio improved by a factor 18 compared to a previous system.

  10. Observing Star and Planet Formation in the Submillimeter and Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2004-01-01

    Stars from in the densest parts of cold interstellar clouds which-due to presence of obscuring dust-cannot be observed with optical telescopes. Recent rapid progress in understanding how stars and planets are formed has gone hand in hand with our ability to observe extremely young systems in the infrared and (submillimeter) spectral regimes. The detections and silhouetted imaging of disks around young objects in the visible and NIR have demonstrated the common occurrence of circumstellar disks and their associated jets and outflows in star forming regions. However, in order to obtain quantitative information pertaining to even earlier evolutionary phases, studies at longer wavelengths are necessary. From spectro-photometric imaging at all wavelengths we learn about the temperature and density structure of the young stellar environment. From narrow band imaging in the far infrared and submillimeter spectral regimes we can learn much about the velocity structure and the chemical makeup (pre-biotic material) of the planet-forming regions.

  11. Determination of the Far-Infrared Cosmic Background Using COBE/DIRBE and WHAM Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, N.; Arendt, R. G.; Dwek, E.; Haffner, L. M.; Hauser, M. G.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at far infrared wavelengths using COBE/DIRBE data is limited by the accuracy to which foreground interplanetary and Galactic dust emission can be modeled and subtracted. Previous determinations of the far infrared CIB (e.g., Hauser et al. 1998) were based on the detection of residual isotropic emission in skymaps from which the emission from interplanetary dust and the neutral interstellar medium were removed. In this paper we use the Wisconsin H(alpha) Mapper (WHAM) Northern Sky Survey as a tracer of the ionized medium to examine the effect of this foreground component on determination of the CIB. We decompose the DIRBE far infrared data for five high Galactic latitude regions into HI- and H(alpha)- correlated components and a residual component. Eased on FUSE H2 absorption line observations, the contribution of a11 H2-correlated component is expected to he negligible. We find the H(alpha)-correlated component to be consistent with zero for each region, and we find that addition of an H(alpha)-correlated component in modeling the foreground emission has negligible effect on derived CIB results. Our CIB detections and 2(sigma) upper limits are essentially the same as those derived by Hauser et al. and are given by (nu)I(sub nu)(nW/sq m/sr) < 75, < 32, 25+/-8, and 13+/-3 at gamma = 60, 100, 140, and 240 microns, respectively. Our residuals have not been subjected to a detailed anisotropy test, so our CIB results do not supersede those of Hauser et al. Mie derive upper limits on the 100 micron emissivity of the ionized medium that are typically about 40% of the 100 micron emissivity of the neutral atomic medium. This low value may be caused in part by a lower dust-to-gas mass ratio in the ionized medium than in the neutral medium, and in part by a shortcoming of using H(alpha) intensity as a tracer of far infrared emission. If H(alpha) is not a reliable tracer, our analysis would underestimate the emissivity of

  12. Symmetric Absorber-Coupled Far-Infrared Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Brown, Ari D. (Inventor); Stevenson, Thomas R. (Inventor); Patel, Amil A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a symmetric absorber-coupled far-infrared microwave kinetic inductance detector including: a membrane having an absorber disposed thereon in a symmetric cross bar pattern; and a microstrip including a plurality of conductor microstrip lines disposed along all edges of the membrane, and separated from a ground plane by the membrane. The conducting microstrip lines are made from niobium, and the pattern is made from a superconducting material with a transition temperature below niobium, including one of aluminum, titanium nitride, or molybdenum nitride. The pattern is disposed on both a top and a bottom of the membrane, and creates a parallel-plate coupled transmission line on the membrane that acts as a half-wavelength resonator at readout frequencies. The parallel-plate coupled transmission line and the conductor microstrip lines form a stepped impedance resonator. The pattern provides identical power absorption for both horizontal and vertical polarization signals.

  13. A Demonstration of TIA Using FD-SOI CMOS OPAMP for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Koichi; Wada, Takehiko; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Arai, Yasuo; Ohno, Morifumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kanada, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Hattori, Yasuki; Ukai, Sota; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Baba, Shunsuke; Kochi, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Keita

    2016-07-01

    We are developing a fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) operated at temperatures below ˜ 4 K. Its application is planned for the readout circuit of high-impedance far-infrared detectors for astronomical observations. We designed a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) using a CMOS operational amplifier (OPAMP) with FD-SOI technique. The TIA is optimized to readout signals from a germanium blocked impurity band (Ge BIB) detector which is highly sensitive to wavelengths of up to ˜ 200 \\upmu m. For the first time, we demonstrated the FD-SOI CMOS OPAMP combined with the Ge BIB detector at 4.5 K. The result promises to solve issues faced by conventional cryogenic ROICs.

  14. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, G; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2008-10-01

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

  15. Effects of particle size on far infrared emission properties of tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Jin, Wei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Gan, Kun; Yuan, Youde

    2010-03-01

    Tourmaline superfine powders with different particle sizes were prepared by grinding, superfine ball milling, and high-speed centrifugation. The powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results show that tourmaline powders exhibit improved far infrared emission properties as the particle size decreases. The increased surface free energy and proportion of the polar component are considered to play an important role for their properties. The spontaneous polarization is increased, and the dipole moment of tourmaline is stimulated to a high energy level more easily for the chemical bond vibration, so that the energy is apt to emit by transition. In the range of 2000-500 cm(-1), the emissivity values of the samples with D50 size of 2.67 microm and 0.2 microm are 0.973 and 0.991, respectively. PMID:20355631

  16. Measurement of the stratospheric hydrogen peroxide concentration profile using far infrared thermal emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Johnson, D. G.; Traub, W. A.; Jucks, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    The first unequivocal measurement of hydrogen peroxide in the stratosphere have been made, a concentration profile obtained from a balloon platform using Fourier transform thermal emission spectroscopy in the far infrared. Measurements were made using the 112/cm R-Q5 branch of the rotational-torsional spectrum, with some confirmation from the 94/cm R-Q4 branch. The volume mixing ratio of H2O2 is 1.6 x 10 to the -10th at 38.4 km, decreasing to 0.6 x 10 to the -10th at 23.8 km, with uncertainties of about 16 percent. These measurements are compared to a recent stratospheric model calculation.

  17. Mid/far-infrared photo-detectors based on graphene asymmetric quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, E.; Chaabani, R.; Jaziri, S.

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a theoretical study on the electronic properties of a single-layer graphene asymmetric quantum well. Quantification of energy levels is limited by electron-hole conversion at the barrier interfaces and free-electron continuum. Electron-hole conversion at the barrier interfaces can be controlled by introducing an asymmetry between barriers and taking into account the effect of the interactions of the graphene sheet with the substrate. The interaction with the substrate induces an effective mass to carriers, allowing observation of Fabry-Pérot resonances under normal incidence and extinction of Klein tunneling. The asymmetry, between barriers creates a transmission gap between confined states and free-electron continuum, allowing the large graphene asymmetric quantum well to be exploited as a photo-detector operating at mid- and far-infrared frequency regimes.

  18. Far-Infrared Hydrogen Lasers in the Peculiar Star MWC 349A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strelnitski, Vladimir; Haas, Michael R.; Smith, Howard A.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Hollenbach, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Far-infrared hydrogen recombination lines H15(alpha)(169.4 micrometers), H12(alpha)(88.8 micrometers), and H10(alpha)(52.5 micrometers) were detected in the peculiar luminous star MWC 349A from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Here it is shown that at least H15(alpha) is strongly amplified, with the probable amplification factor being greater than or about equal to 10(exp 3) and a brightness temperature that is greater than or about equal to 10(exp 7) kelvin. The other two lines also show signs of amplification, although to a lesser degree. Beyond H10(alpha) the amplification apparently vanishes. The newly detected amplified lines fall into the laser wavelength domain. These lasers, as well as the previously detected hydrogen masers may originate in the photoionized circumstellar disk of MWC 349A and constrain the disk's physics and structure.

  19. Far-infrared synchrotron radiation spectroscopy of solids in normal and extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, M.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Marcelli, A.; Calvani, P.; Burattini, E.; Nucara, A.; Postorino, P.; Sacchetti, A.; Arcangeletti, E.; Sheregii, E.; Polit, J.; Kisiel, A.

    2005-01-01

    New opportunities in solid-state physics are offered by SINBAD (Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At DAFNE), the infrared beamline operational at DANE, the storage ring of the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the INFN. During 2003 several experiments, including those supported by the European TARI program, have been successfully performed at SINBAD. In this work we present the preliminary results of high resolution far infrared reflectivity data collected in different ZnxCdyHg(1-x-y)Te quaternary alloys as a function of temperature. The first far-IR investigation of Colossal Magnetoresistance manganites at high pressures, using a diamond anvil cell is also presented. Indeed, FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of insulating-to-metal transitions and charge ordering phenomena that may occur in transition metal oxides.

  20. Somewhere under the rainbow: the visible to far infrared imaging lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Troy A.; Alexay, Christopher C.; Vogel, Steven

    2011-06-01

    This article explores the complex design challenges of optical imaging systems that can operate over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum, covering all bands from the visible to the far infrared simultaneously. Although the focus is placed on a refractive solution to these challenges, an effort to outline the limitations of reflective solutions is also presented. After exploring a novel method to optimize the choice of optical materials, an elegant and efficient example is provided: a refractive lens that is at once a total optical solution (one lens covering a broad spectral range) and a common aperture solution (one lens that works simultaneously with several camera types). This solution, StingRay Optics' own SuperBandTM Optic, is ultimately explored in its functionality to address this need in an advantageous manner.

  1. Far-infrared therapy for cardiovascular, autoimmune, and other chronic health problems: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Shanshan; Wang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Physical therapy (physiotherapy), a complementary and alternative medicine therapy, has been widely applied in diagnosing and treating various diseases and defects. Increasing evidence suggests that convenient and non-invasive far-infrared (FIR) rays, a vital type of physiotherapy, improve the health of patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which FIR functions remain elusive. Hence, the purpose of this study was to review and summarize the results of previous investigations and to elaborate on the molecular mechanisms of FIR therapy in various types of disease. In conclusion, FIR therapy may be closely related to the increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase as well as nitric oxide production and may modulate the profiles of some circulating miRNAs; thus, it may be a beneficial complement to treatments for some chronic diseases that yields no adverse effects. PMID:25716016

  2. Stratospheric minor constituent distributions from far-infrared thermal emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Traub, Wesley A.

    1992-11-01

    We retrieve mixing ratio profiles of O3, H2(O-16), H2(O-17), H2(O-18), HF, and HCl from far-infrared thermal emission observations of the limb in the 80-220 cm/sec spectral region. The observations were made with a balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer as a part of the 1983 Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC-2). A subset of the data was analyzed previously using the method in the work of Traub et al. (1982, 1991); in the present paper we use an alternative method of calibration and analysis, given by Abbas et al. (1985). The retrieved constituent profiles are compared with the measurements made with other instruments on the BIC-2 flights. The results for the concentrations of H2(O-17) and H2(O-18) obtained in this study indicate no isotopic enhancement or depletion with a standard deviation of about 20 percent.

  3. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    Presented are scientific objectives, engineering analysis and design, and results of technology development for a Three-Meter Balloon-Borne Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope. The scientific rationale is based on two crucial instrumental capabilities: high angular resolution which approaches eight arcseconds at one hundred micron wavelength, and high resolving power spectroscopy with good sensitivity throughout the telescope's 30-micron to 1-mm wavelength range. The high angular resolution will allow us to resolve and study in detail such objects as collapsing protostellar condensations in our own galaxy, clusters of protostars in the Magellanic clouds, giant molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and spiral arms in distant galaxies. The large aperture of the telescope will permit sensitive spectral line measurements of molecules, atoms, and ions, which can be used to probe the physical, chemical, and dynamical conditions in a wide variety of objects.

  4. Vibration mitigation in J-TEXT far-infrared diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q.; Chen, J.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, Z. J.; Gao, L.; Chen, W.

    2012-10-15

    Optical structure stability is an important issue for far-infrared (FIR) phase measurements. To ensure good signal quality, influence of vibration should be minimized. Mechanical amelioration and optical optimization can be taken in turn to decrease vibration's influence and ensure acceptable measurement. J-TEXT (Joint Texal Experiment Tokamak, formerly TEXT-U) has two FIR diagnostic systems: a HCN interferometer system for electron density measurement and a three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system (POLARIS) for electron density and Faraday effect measurements. All use phase detection techniques. HCN interferometer system has almost eliminated the influence of vibration after mechanical amelioration and optical optimization. POLARIS also obtained first experimental results after mechanical stability improvements and is expected to further reduce vibration's influence on Faraday angle to 0.1 Degree-Sign after optical optimization.

  5. Far-infrared spectrum and ab initio calculations for vinylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autrey, D.; del Rosario, A.; Laane, J.

    2000-09-01

    The far-infrared spectrum of vinylene carbonate shows five closely spaced bands near 233 cm -1, characteristic of a nearly harmonic ring-puckering potential energy function. Using a coordinate dependent kinetic energy expansion, the potential energy function was determined to be V ( cm-1)=1.652×10 5x 2-1.416×10 5x 4 where x is the puckering coordinate in Å. This shows the molecule to be much more rigid than the similar 3-cyclopenten-1-one due to π bonding interactions involving the oxygen atoms adjacent to the carbonyl group. Ab initio calculations with a B3LYP/6-311++G ∗∗ basis set yield structural data in good agreement with the previous microwave work and also predict vibrational frequencies that correspond closely to the experimental values.

  6. Far-infrared laser magnetic resonance of vibrationally excited CD2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenson, K. M.; Sears, T. J.; Mckellar, A. R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The detection of 13 rotational transitions in the first excited bending state (010) of CD2 using the technique of far-infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy is reported. Molecular parameters for this state are determined from these new data together with existing infrared observations of the v(2) band. Additional information on the ground vibrational state (000) is also provided by the observation of a new rotational transition, and this is combined with existing data to provide a refined set of molecular parameters for the CD2 ground state. One spectrum has been observed that is assigned as a rotational transition within the first excited symmetric stretching state (100) of CD2. These data will be of use in refining the structure and the potential function of the methylene radical.

  7. Far-infrared Spectroscopy of the H2-O2 Van Der Waals Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Hayley; Bennett, Trystan; Karayilan, Aidan; Raston, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the far infrared spectrum of H2-O2 at 80 K in the vicinity of the pure rotational bands of H2. Sharp peaks were observed, which correspond to end-over-end rotational transitions of the H2-O2 molecular complex, that are superimposed over broad collision induced absorptions. We find that the maximum value of the end-over-end rotational quantum number that is bound is seven, which is two more than supported by a recently reported ab initio H2-O2 potential energy surface. The rotational spectrum reported here should therefore greatly help in refining this surface, which is used to calculate scattering processes relevant to the chemistry occurring in interstellar molecular clouds.

  8. Analysis and design of optically pumped far infrared oscillators and amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A waveguide laser oscillator was designed and experimental measurements made of relationships among output power, pressure, pump power, pump frequency, cavity tuning, output beam pattern, and cavity mirror properties for various active gases. A waveguide regenerative amplifier was designed and gain measurements were made for various active gases. An external Fabry-Perot interferometer was fabricated and used for accurate wavelength determination and for measurements of the refractive indices of solids transparent in the far infrared. An electronic system was designed and constructed to provide an appropriate error signal for use in feedback control of pump frequency. Pump feedback from the FIR laser was decoupled using a vibrating mirror to phase modulate the pump signal.

  9. Effects of particle size on far infrared emission properties of tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Jin, Wei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Gan, Kun; Yuan, Youde

    2010-03-01

    Tourmaline superfine powders with different particle sizes were prepared by grinding, superfine ball milling, and high-speed centrifugation. The powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results show that tourmaline powders exhibit improved far infrared emission properties as the particle size decreases. The increased surface free energy and proportion of the polar component are considered to play an important role for their properties. The spontaneous polarization is increased, and the dipole moment of tourmaline is stimulated to a high energy level more easily for the chemical bond vibration, so that the energy is apt to emit by transition. In the range of 2000-500 cm(-1), the emissivity values of the samples with D50 size of 2.67 microm and 0.2 microm are 0.973 and 0.991, respectively.

  10. Far-infrared observations of main sequence stars surrounded by dust shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Paul M.; Smith, Beverly J.; Difrancesco, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have used a 20-channel bolometer array on NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory to obtain photometry and size information for several main sequence stars surrounded by dust shells. The observations were made at 50 and/or 100 micrometers on flights based in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1992, 1993. The stars include the 'Vega-like' star, Beta Pic, as well as two stars, HD 135344 and HD 139614, suggested by subsequent studies to belong possibly to the same class. The results of our observations are best interpreted as upper limits to the far-infrared sizes of the dust clouds around these stars. In addition to the basic size and flux measurements, we have fit simple, optically thin models to the Beta Pic data to explore the range of shell parameters consistent with our limits and with previous observations.

  11. Isotope effects in far-infrared spectra of bis(theophyllinato)copper(II)-complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdżewski, Piotr; Kordon, Ewa

    1998-07-01

    Far-infrared spectra have been measured for 63Cu and 65Cu isotope substituted theophylline (Tp)-metal ion complexes: Cu(Tp) 2(NH 3) 2 · 2H 2O, Cu(Tp) 2(NH 3) 2, Cu(Tp) 2 · 2H 2O and Cu(Tp) 2. In addition, spectrum of Cu(Tp) 2(ND 3) 2 · 2D 2O has been recorded. Metal-theophylline, metal-ammine and water librational and translational modes have been assigned based on observed isotope shifts and complex dehydration effects. The copper-ammine vibrations have been found at 453 and 224 cm -1, whereas the bis(theophyllinato)copper(II) modes have been detected at 192 cm -1 for Cu(Tp) 2(NH 3) 2 and presumably at about 170 cm -1 for Cu(Tp) 2.

  12. Mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy of ices: optical constants and integrated absorbances.

    PubMed

    Hudgins, D M; Sandford, S A; Allamandola, L J; Tielens, A G

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory spectra through the mid-infrared (4000 to 500 cm-1 [2.5-20 micrometers]) have been used to calculate the optical constants (n and k) and integrated absorption coefficients (A) for a variety of pure and mixed molecular ices of relevance to astrophysics. The ices studied were H2O, CH3OH, CO2, OCS, CH4, CO2 + CH4, CO2 + OCS, CO + CH4, CO + OCS, O2 + CH4, O2 + OCS, N2 + CH4, N2 + OCS, H2O + CH4, H2O + OCS, and H2O + CH3OH + CO + NH3. In addition, the measurements have been extended through the far-infrared (500 to 50 cm-1 [20-200 micrometers]) for the H2O, CH3OH, and H2O + CH3OH + CO + NH3 ices.

  13. Solid-state spectroscopy with far-infrared continuous-wave lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, M.

    The results of experimental and theoretical work on far infrared (FIR) spectroscopy are summarized, along with attendant problems. Reviews are presented of experimentation with solid-state spectroscopy using CW FIR lasers in transmission spectroscopy, spectroscopy with a variable parameter, resonator and interferometer investigations, and studies involving surface electromagnetic waves. Attention is also given to refractometry and planar dielectric lightguides, and comparisons are made with the performance obtained with Fourier spectroscopy. The theoretical framework underlying FIR laser spectroscopy is discussed in terms of the physical optics of FIR wavelengths, plane waves, Gaussian modes, and Gaussian beams in spectroscopic experiments. Parameters governing the local optics at FIR wavelengths are considered, noting the limitations of geometric optics in the FIR regime. Applications of the Wigner function for intensity calculations is described and illustrated with several examples. Finally, it is shown that laser spectroscopy is more effective for quantifying the amplitude of radiation than is Fourier spectroscopy.

  14. Bunching properties of a classical microtron-injector for a far infrared free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakevitch, Grigori M.; Serednyakov, Stanislav S.; Vinokurov, Nikolai A.; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jongmin

    2001-12-01

    Longitudinal bunching properties of a classical microtron have been investigated by the numerical simulation of the longitudinal motion of accelerated electrons. The simulations were performed for the 12-turn microtron that has been used as an injector for the KAERI far infrared free electron laser. Based on the bunching properties of the electron beam, the temporal distribution of the coherent undulator radiation power during a macro pulse from the free electron laser was calculated. In the calculations, we took into account the dispersion properties of the accelerating cavity and deviations of the bunch repetition rate that were measured by the heterodyne method in real operating conditions of the microtron. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data.

  15. Tunable far infrared laser spectroscopy of van der Waals bonds: Ar-NH sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, Dz-Hung California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-11-01

    Hyperfine resolved vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra of Ar--NH{sub 3} and (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}, generated in a planar supersonic jet, have been measured with the Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometer. Among the seven rotationally assigned bands, one band belongs to Ar--NH{sub 3}, and the other six belong to (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}. To facilitate the intermolecular vibrational assignment for Ar--NH{sub 3}, a dynamics study aided by a permutation-inversion group theoretical treatment is performed on the rovibrational levels. The rovibrational quantum number correlation between the free internal rotor limit and the semi-rigid limit is established to provide a basic physical picture of the evolution of intermolecular vibrational component states. An anomalous vibronically allowed unique Q branch vibrational band structure is predicted to exist for a near prolate binary complex containing an inverting subunit. According to the model developed in this work, the observed band of Ar--NH{sub 3} centered at 26.470633(17) cm{sup {minus}1} can correlate only to either the fundamental dimeric stretching band for the A{sub 2} states with the NH{sub 3} inversional quantum number v{sub i} = 1, or the K{sub a} = 0 {l arrow} 0 subband of the lowest internal-rotation-inversion difference band. Although the estimated nuclear quadrupole coupling constant favors a tentative assignment in terms of the first possibility, a definitive assignment will require far infrared data and a dynamical model incorporating a potential surface.

  16. Line Intensities in the Far-Infrared Spectrum of H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Schermaul, R.; Winnewisser, M.; Mandin, J.-Y.; Dana, V.; Badaoui, M.; Koput, J.

    1996-04-01

    Using high resolution Fourier transform spectra (resolution 0.002 cm -1) recorded at the Instituto Ricerca Onde Electromagnetiche Firenze and at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, it has been possible to measure the relative intensities of lines in the far-infrared spectrum of H 2O 2in the 25-400 cm -1spectral region. These intensities were used as input data in a least-squares fit calculation in order to obtain the expansion parameters of the transition moment operator of the pure torsional-rotational transitions of H 2O 2. For these intensity calculations, the theoretical model takes into account the cos γ-type dependence of the dipole moment due to the large amplitude motion of the H atoms relative to the O-O bond, where 2γ is the torsion angle. The value of the dipole moment obtained from the fit of the observed intensities was then scaled to the value obtained from Stark effect measurements. Finally, a synthetic spectrum of the far infrared band of H 2O 2was generated, using the dipole moment expansion determined in this work for the line intensities and the parameters and the Hamiltonian matrix given in a previous analysis (C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. W. C. Johns, and M. Noel, J. Mol. Spectrosc.155,84-104 (1992)) for the line positions. In addition to the (Δ n= ±1, Δ Ka= ∓2) torsional-rotational resonances within the ground vibrational state, which are usually observed for H 2O 2, the Hamiltonian model takes explicitly into account both the vibration-rotation resonances involving the ground state and the v3= 1 vibrational state and the "staggering" effect which is due to the cispotential barrier.

  17. Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiance Spectra Measured by FIRST at Cerro Toco, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed by NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the Space Dynamics Laboratory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. FIRST was initially developed for measuring the far-infrared portion of Earth's longwave spectrum as a balloon borne instrument and later was reconfigured to operate as a ground-based instrument. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed at 17500 ft on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October, 2009. There the integrated precipitable water (IPW) was as low as 0.02 cm. FIRST measurements from days with IPW between 0.024 and 0.035 cm during the campaign are presented here between 200 cm-1 and 800 cm-1. Significant spectral development in the far-IR is observed over the entire 200 cm-1 to 800 cm-1 band. Water vapor and temperature profiles from radiosonde and GVRP measurements are used as inputs to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) utilizing the AER v3.2 line parameter database. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in this study. The residual LBLRTM - FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Measured and model radiances generally agree to within the combined uncertainties for wavenumbers greater than 360 cm-1. At wavenumbers less than 360 cm-1 persistent troughs in the residual are present outside of the combined uncertainties. These features are present on different days and at different water vapor amounts. Possible solutions for these features are discussed.

  18. The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

  19. Revealing the Galactic Center in the Far-Infrared with SOFIA/FORCAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Ryan M.; Herter, Terry; Morris, Mark; Li, Zhiyuan; Becklin, Eric; Adams, Joseph; Hankins, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    We present a summary of far-infrared imaging observations of the inner 40 pc of the Galactic center addressing the dense, dusty torus around Sgr A*, massive star formation, and dust production around massive stars and in the Sgr A East supernova remnant. Observations of warm dust emission were performed using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). The Circumnuclear Ring (CNR) surrounding and heated by central cluster in the vicinity of Sgr A* shows no internal active star formation but does exhibit significant density “clumps,” a surprising result because tidal shearing should act quickly to smear out structure. G-0.02-0.07, a complex consisting of three compact HII regions and one ultracompact HII region, is site of the most recent confirmed star formation within ~10 pc of the Galactic center. Our observations reveal the dust morphologies and SEDs of the regions to constrain the composition and gas-to-dust mass ratios of the emitting dust and identify heating sources candidates from archival near-IR images. FORCAST observations Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) located in and near the Quintuplet Cluster reveal the asymmetric, compressed shell of hot dust surrounding the Pistol Star and provide the first detection of the thermal emission from the symmetric, hot dust envelope surrounding G0.120-0.048. These two LBV’s have nebulae with similar quantities of dust (~0.02 M⊙) but exhibit contrasting appearances due to the external influence of their different environments. Finally, the far-infrared observations indicate the presence of ~0.02 M⊙ of warm (~100 K) dust in the hot interior of the ~10,000 yr-old SgrA East supernova remnant indicating the dust has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

  20. Modeling the light-travel-time effect on the far-infrared size of IRC +10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    1995-01-01

    Models of the far-infrared emission from the large circumstellar dust envelope surrounding the carbon star IRC +10216 are used to assess the importance of the light-travel-time effect (LTTE) on the observed size of the source. The central star is a long-period variable with an average period of 644 +/- 17 days and a peak-to-peak amplitude of two magnituds, so a large light-travel-time effect is seen at 1 min radius. An attempt is made to use the LTTE to reconcile the discrepancy between the observations of Fazio et al. and Lester et al. regarding the far-infrared source size. This discrepancy is reviewed in light of recent, high-spatial-resolution observations at 11 microns by Danchi et al. We conclude that IRC +10216 has been resolved on the arcminute scale by Fazio et al. Convolution of the model intensity profile at 61 microns with the 60 sec x 90 sec Gaussian beam of Fazio et al. yields an observed source size full width at half maximum (FWHM) that ranges from approximately 67 sec to 75 sec depending on the phase of the star and the assumed distance to the source. Using a simple r(exp -2) dust distribution and the 106 deg phase of the Fazio et al. observations, the LTTE model reaches a peak size of 74.3 sec at a distance of 300 pc. This agrees favorably with the 78 sec x 6 sec size measured by Fazio et al. Finally, a method is outlined for using the LTTE as a distance indicator to IRC +10216 and other stars with extended mass outflows.

  1. Far-Infrared and Millimeter Continuum Studies of K-Giants: Alpha Boo and Alpha Tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Carbon, Duane F.; Welch, William J.; Lim, Tanya; Forster, James R.; Goorvitch, David; Thigpen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have imaged two normal, non-coronal, infrared-bright K-giants, alpha Boo and alpha Tau, in the 1.4-millimeter and 2.8-millimeter continuum using BIMA. These stars have been used as important absolute calibrators for several infrared satellites. Our goals are: (1) to probe the structure of their upper photospheres; (2) to establish whether these stars radiate as simple photospheres or possess long-wavelength chromospheres; and (3) to make a connection between millimeter-wave and far-infrared absolute flux calibrations. To accomplish these goals we also present ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) measurements of both these K-giants. The far-infrared and millimeter continuum radiation is produced in the vicinity of the temperature minimum in a Boo and a Tau, offering a direct test of the model photospheres and chromospheres for these two cool giants. We find that current photospheric models predict fluxes in reasonable agreement with those observed for those wavelengths which sample the upper photosphere, namely less than or equal to 170 micrometers in alpha Tau and less than or equal to 125 micrometers in alpha Boo. It is possible that alpha Tau is still radiative as far as 0.9 - 1.4 millimeters. We detect chromospheric radiation from both stars by 2.8 millimeters (by 1.4 millimeters in alpha Boo), and are able to establish useful bounds on the location of the temperature minimum. An attempt to interpret the chromospheric fluxes using the two-component "bifurcation model" proposed by Wiedemann et al. (1994) appears to lead to a significant contradiction.

  2. Far-infrared photometry and mapping of Herbig Ae/Be stars with ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ábrahám, P.; Leinert, Ch.; Burkert, A.; Henning, Th.; Lemke, D.

    2000-02-01

    Seven Herbig Ae/Be stars were observed at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths with ISOPHOT, the photometer on-board the Infrared Space Observatory. At λ{<=}25μm, where the emission mainly arises from a compact circumstellar region, the observed spectral energy distributions can be described by power-law relationships between wavelength and flux density (Fnu {~}ν-n). The exponent of the power-law changes considerably among the stars, from n~0 for MWC 1080 to n~2.3 in the case of LkHα 234, with a typical value of around 1. Interpreting the observed power-law relationships in terms of circumstellar disks, in 5 out of 6 cases relatively shallow radial temperature distributions have to be assumed (T{~}r-q where 0.37{<=}q{<=}0.53). At longer wavelengths the observed emission is spatially extended, and in some cases significant discrepancy with IRAS was found due to beam size effects. The peak of the SEDs (in Fnu ) is typically at 60-100mu m, corresponding to temperatures of around 50 K. At λ>100μm the emission observed by ISOPHOT is never dominated by the Herbig Ae/Be stars. The most likely sources of the far-infrared radiation are dust cores of about 1 arcminute in size. The dust cores are probably located in the vicinity of the stars, and may be related to the star forming process. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the P/I countries France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) with participation of ISAS and NASA.

  3. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  4. Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Wei, Heli; Huang, Hung-Lung; Baum, Bryan A; Hu, Yong X; Kattawar, George W; Mishchenko, Michael I; Fu, Qiang

    2005-09-10

    The single-scattering properties of ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region are computed from a composite method that is based on a combination of the finite-difference time-domain technique, the T-matrix method, an improved geometrical-optics method, and Lorenz-Mie theory. Seven nonspherical ice crystal habits (aggregates, hexagonal solid and hollow columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, spheroids, and droxtals) are considered. A database of the single-scattering properties for each of these ice particles has been developed at 49 wavelengths between 3 and 100 microm and for particle sizes ranging from 2 to 10,000 microm specified in terms of the particle maximum dimension. The spectral variations of the single-scattering properties are discussed, as well as their dependence on the particle maximum dimension and effective particle size. The comparisons show that the assumption of spherical ice particles in the near-IR through far-IR region is generally not optimal for radiative transfer computation. Furthermore, a parameterization of the bulk optical properties is developed for mid-latitude cirrus clouds based on a set of 21 particle size distributions obtained from various field campaigns.

  5. Rototranslational absorption spectra of H/sub 2/-H/sub 2/ pairs in the far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, W.; Frommhold, L.; Birnbaum, G.

    1989-03-01

    For the computation of the induced dipole moments, the collisional H/sub 2/-H/sub 2/ complex is treated as a molecule in the self-consistent field and size-consistent, coupled electron pair approximations. The basis set accounts for 95% of the correlation energies and separates correctly at distant range. The average of the induced dipole components is obtained for the case of both H/sub 2/ molecules in the vibrational groundstate (v = v' = 0) and recast in a simple but accurate analytical form. The analytical dipole expression is used for computations of the spectral moments (sum rules) and line shapes of the collision-induced rototranslational absorption spectra of molecular hydrogen in the far infrared, over a range of frequencies from 0 to 2200 cm/sup -1/, and for temperatures from 77 to 300 K, using a quantum formalism. Proven isotropic potential models are input. Numerical consistency of the line-shape calculations with the sum rules is observed at the 1% level. The comparison of the computational results with the available measurements shows agreement within the estimated uncertainties of the measurements of typically better than 10%. This fact suggests that the theory is capable of predicting these spectra reliably at temperatures for which no measurements exist.

  6. First lasing of the KAERI compact far-infrared free-electron laser driven by a magnetron-based microtron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Young U.; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Cho, Sung Oh; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Jongmin; Kazakevitch, Grigori M.; Vobly, Pavel D.; Gavrilov, Nicolai G.; Kubarev, Vitaly V.; Kulipanov, Gennady N.

    2001-12-01

    The KAERI compact far-infrared (FIR) free-electron laser (FEL) has been operated successfully in the wavelength range of 97-150 μm. It is the first demonstration of FEL lasing by using a magnetron-based classical microtron. We developed a high precision undulator consisting of 80 periods, with each period being 25 mm. The field strength of the undulator can be changed from 4.5 to 6.8 kG with an amplitude deviation of only 0.05% in r.m.s value. The kinetic energy of the electron beam is 6.5 MeV. The average current and pulse duration of the electron beam macropulses are 45 mA and 5.5 μs, respectively. The measured power of the FEL with the electron beam parameters was more than 50 W for a FIR macropulse having a duration of 4 μs. The spectral width of the FEL was measured to be 0.5% of the central wavelength. The FEL system, aside from the racks for the controlling units, is compact enough to be located inside an area of 3×4 m 2.

  7. Unified dark energy and dark matter from a scalar field different from quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2010-02-15

    We explore unification of dark matter and dark energy in a theory containing a scalar field of non-Lagrangian type, obtained by direct insertion of a kinetic term into the energy-momentum tensor. This scalar is different from quintessence, having an equation of state between -1 and 0 and a zero sound speed in its rest frame. We solve the equations of motion for an exponential potential via a rewriting as an autonomous system, and demonstrate the observational viability of the scenario, for sufficiently small exponential potential parameter {lambda}, by comparison to a compilation of kinematical cosmological data.

  8. Signal flow graph approach to multiphoton analysis and transient characteristics of mode-locked far infrared lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The signal flow graph application to the analysis of multiphoton interactions has been developed in this study. It is shown that the Schroedinger equation for the multiphoton interactions can be represented as signal flow graphs in the semiclassical limit. A few examples are given to illustrate the construction, manipulation and application of the graphs. Also, the generation of temporally short far infrared pulses and their evolution in time and space have been examined experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the far infrared pulsewidth can be as short as one-half the pump pulsewidth which is already shorter than the molecular relaxation times. In particular, the far infrared pulse energy is found to be scaled in z as e..sqrt..gz, contrary to the Beer's law growth, e/sup gz/.

  9. Effect of morphology of dispersed nano-CeO2 on far infrared emission property of natural tourmaline.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Liang, Jinsheng

    2011-11-01

    Dispersed nano-CeO2 successfully grew on the surface of natural tourmaline powders by a precipitation method. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that CeO2 (111) nanospots could apparently enhance the far infrared emission property of tourmaline in relation to CeO2 nanoparticles. This is the first report regarding the effect of the morphology of nano-CeO2 on the far infrared emission property of natural tourmaline. The results of the characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that CeO2 (111) nanospots have much more chemisorbed oxygen than CeO2 nanoparticles, which is beneficial to the unit cell volume shrinkage of tourmaline, thus increasing its far infrared emissivity. PMID:22413254

  10. Effect of morphology of dispersed nano-CeO2 on far infrared emission property of natural tourmaline.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Liang, Jinsheng

    2011-11-01

    Dispersed nano-CeO2 successfully grew on the surface of natural tourmaline powders by a precipitation method. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that CeO2 (111) nanospots could apparently enhance the far infrared emission property of tourmaline in relation to CeO2 nanoparticles. This is the first report regarding the effect of the morphology of nano-CeO2 on the far infrared emission property of natural tourmaline. The results of the characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that CeO2 (111) nanospots have much more chemisorbed oxygen than CeO2 nanoparticles, which is beneficial to the unit cell volume shrinkage of tourmaline, thus increasing its far infrared emissivity.

  11. Magneto-optic far-infrared study of Sr14Cu24O41 : Triplet excitations in chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüvonen, D.; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Haas, P.; Dressel, M.; Hwang, J.; Timusk, T.; Wang, Y.-J.; Akimitsu, J.

    2007-10-01

    Using far-infrared spectroscopy, we have studied the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the spin gap modes in the chains of Sr14Cu24O41 . Two triplet modes T1 and T2 were found in the center of the Brillouin zone at Δ1=9.65meV and Δ2=10.86meV in zero magnetic field. The T1 mode was excited when the electric field vector E of the light was polarized along the b axis (perpendicular to the planes of chains and ladders) and T2 was excited for E‖a (perpendicular to the chains and along the rungs). Up to the maximum magnetic field of 18T , applied along the chains, the electron g factors of these two modes were similar, g1c=2.049 and g2c=2.044 . Full linewidth at half maximum for both modes was 1cm-1 (0.12meV) at 4K and increased with T . The temperature dependence of mode energies and line intensities was in agreement with the inelastic neutron scattering results from two groups [M. Matsuda , Phys. Rev. B 59, 1060 (1999); L. P. Regnault , ibid 59, 1055 (1999)]. The T1 mode has not been observed by inelastic neutron scattering in the points of the k space equivalent to the center of the Brillouin zone. Our study indicates that the zone structure model of magnetic excitations of Sr14Cu24O41 must be modified to include a triplet mode at 9.65meV in the center of the magnetic Brillouin zone.

  12. Quantum Dynamics of Dark and Dark-Bright Solitons beyond the Mean-Field Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krönke, Sven; Schmelcher, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Dark solitons are well-known excitations in one-dimensional repulsively interacting Bose-Einstein condensates, which feature a characteristical phase-jump across a density dip and form stability in the course of their dynamics. While these objects are stable within the celebrated Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field theory, the situation changes dramatically in the full many-body description: The condensate being initially in a dark soliton state dynamically depletes and the density notch fills up with depleted atoms. We analyze this process in detail with a particular focus on two-body correlations and the fate of grey solitons (dark solitons with finite density in the notch) and thereby complement the existing results in the literature. Moreover, we extend these studies to mixtures of two repulsively interacting bosonic species with a dark-bright soliton (dark soliton in one component filled with localized atoms of the other component) as the initial state. All these many-body quantum dynamics simulations are carried out with the recently developed multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (ML-MCTDHB).

  13. Heat trap - An optimized far infrared field optics system. [for astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D. A.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Winston, R.; Stiening, R.

    1976-01-01

    The article deals with the design and performance of a heat trap IR system designed to maximize the concentration and efficient reception of far IR and submillimeter wavelength radiation. The test object is assumed to be extended and/or viewed at wavelengths much longer than the detector, and the entrance aperture is limited to the size of the telescope Airy diffraction disk. The design of lenses, cavity, bolometers, light collectors, and mirrors for the system is discussed. Advantages and feasibility of arrays of heat traps are considered. Beam patterns, flux concentration, and performance variation with wavelength are dealt with. The heat trap is recommended for sensing all types of far IR sources and particularly for extended far IR sources.-

  14. Are quiescent galaxies truly devoid of star formation? The mid-, far-infrared and radio properties of quiescent galaxies at z = 0.1 - 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Allison W. S.

    Quiescent galaxy candidates are typically identified by their low unobscured star formation rates from deep field photometric surveys. However, their selection technique relies on the assumption of a universal dust attenuation curve. It is important to verify the selection through independent SFR indicators at longer wavelengths. Current mid-, far-infrared and radio surveys are limited to detecting only galaxies with very strong star formation or AGN activity. Here, I present the first comprehensive stacking results across mid-, far-infrared and radio wavelengths using Spitzer, Herschel and VLA data in the COSMOS field (Man et al. 2014). We find that the rest-frame NUV-r and r-J color criteria, combined with low 24 μm emission, provides a robust selection of truly quiescent galaxies out to z = 3. Additionally, we find evidence of radio emission in excess of the expected total star formation in quiescent galaxies at z ~ 0-1.5, indicative of a ubiquitous presence of low-luminosity radio AGN among them.

  15. Higgs particles interacting via a scalar Dark Matter field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Yajnavalkya; Darewych, Jurij

    2016-07-01

    We study a system of two Higgs particles, interacting via a scalar Dark Matter mediating field. The variational method in the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT is used to derive relativistic wave equations for the two-Higgs system, using a truncated Fock-space trial state. Approximate solutions of the two-body equations are used to examine the existence of Higgs bound states.

  16. Dwarf galaxies in multistate scalar field dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Robles, V. H.; Matos, T.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the velocity dispersion for eight of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellites in the context of finite temperature scalar field dark matter. In this model the finite temperature allows the scalar field to be in configurations that possess excited states, a feature that has proved to be necessary in order to explain the asymptotic rotational velocities found in low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. In this work we show that excited states are not only important in large galaxies but also have visible effects in dwarf spheroidals. Additionally, we stress that contrary to previous works where the scalar field dark matter halos are consider to be purely Bose-Einstein condensates, the inclusion of excited states in these halo configurations provides a consistent framework capable of describing LSB and dwarf galaxies of different sizes without arriving to contradictions within the scalar field dark matter model. Using this new framework we find that the addition of excited states accounts very well for the raise in the velocity dispersion in Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies improving the fit compared to the one obtained assuming all the dark matter to be in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

  17. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance

  18. Liquid phase epitaxial growth and characterization of germanium far infrared blocked impurity band detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaru, Jordana

    2001-05-12

    dropped by an order of magnitude over {approx} 1.5 {micro}m. Layers grown at 550 C did not show significant Sb diffusion. Sn doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) was studied for use in far infrared transparent low temperature contacts for BIB arrays. It was found that {approx}100 nm of ITO deposited on Ge remains electrically conducting at 4 K and is {approx}90% transparent in the far infrared. ITO should be suitable for passivating contacts to Ge BIB arrays.

  19. Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm-1 Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; de Kok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm-1 in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south [1]. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 cm-1 emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it had been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004 [2]. Our far-infrared observations were performed with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini [3]. Although it had been expected that the 220 cm-1 emission would eventually appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm-1feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm-1 ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini images [4]. The 220 cm-1 feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager 1 [5, 6] and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS [7-10]. Until now the 220 cm-1 emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm-1 emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes. References: [1] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 761, L15, 2012. [2

  20. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Malkan, Matthew A.; Smith, Howard A.; González-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fischer, Jacqueline

    2005-04-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 μm) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the seven expected ionic fine-structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119, and 163 μm were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 μm line, when detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modeled together with ISOShort Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the active galactic nucleus (AGN) component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of ~3 kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a `` big blue bump'' is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Brγ equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low-ionization parameter (U=10-3.5) and low densities (n=100 cm-3) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeeded in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of NGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor of 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.3, and the overall continuum as the sum of the contribution of the thermal dust emission in the ionized and neutral components. The OH 119 μm emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, nonlocal, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission

  1. Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ΛCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ΛCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ΛCDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor

  2. Disformal scalar fields and the dark sector of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumalacárregui, M.; Koivisto, T. S.; Mota, D. F.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.

    2010-05-01

    Disformal transformations have proven to be very useful to devise models of the dark sector. In the present paper we apply such transformation to a single scalar field theory as a way to drive the field into a slow roll phase. The canonical scalar field Lagrangian, when coupled to a disformal metric, turns out to have relations to bimetric dark matter theories and to describe many specific dark energy models at various limits, thus providing a surprisingly simple parametrisation of a wide variety of models including tachyon, Chaplygin gas, K-essence and dilatonic ghost condensate. We investigate the evolution of the background and linear perturbations in disformal quintessence in order to perform a full comparison of the predictions with the cosmological data. The dynamics of the expansion, in particular the mechanism of the transition to accelerating phase, is described in detail. We then study the effects of disformal quintessence on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and large scale structures (LSS). A likelihood analysis using the latest data on wide-ranging SNIa, CMB and LSS observations is performed allowing variations in six cosmological parameters and the two parameters specifying the model. We find that while a large region of parameter space remains compatible with observations, models featuring either too much early dark energy or too slow transition to acceleration are ruled out.

  3. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  4. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  5. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  6. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  7. Recognizing pedestrian's unsafe behaviors in far-infrared imagery at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian behavior recognition is important work for early accident prevention in advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). In particular, because most pedestrian-vehicle crashes are occurred from late of night to early of dawn, our study focus on recognizing unsafe behavior of pedestrians using thermal image captured from moving vehicle at night. For recognizing unsafe behavior, this study uses convolutional neural network (CNN) which shows high quality of recognition performance. However, because traditional CNN requires the very expensive training time and memory, we design the light CNN consisted of two convolutional layers and two subsampling layers for real-time processing of vehicle applications. In addition, we combine light CNN with boosted random forest (Boosted RF) classifier so that the output of CNN is not fully connected with the classifier but randomly connected with Boosted random forest. We named this CNN as randomly connected CNN (RC-CNN). The proposed method was successfully applied to the pedestrian unsafe behavior (PUB) dataset captured from far-infrared camera at night and its behavior recognition accuracy is confirmed to be higher than that of some algorithms related to CNNs, with a shorter processing time.

  8. Modeling the HD 32297 Debris Disk With Far-Infrared Herschel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, J.K.; Lebreton, J.; Roberge, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    HD 32297 is a young A-star (approx. 30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 micron..We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains>2 micron consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7 sigma detection of [C ii] emission at 158 micron with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected

  9. Materials Characterization and Integration for Background Limited Far-Infrared Bolometric Detector Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Benford, Dominic J.; Chervenak, James A.; Henry, Ross; Kletetschka, Gunther; Mikula, Vilem; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U.-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-12-01

    We discuss materials characterization and integration considerations for large-format, antenna-coupled, low-noise, cryogenic, bolometer arrays for far-infrared space-based observatories. The suitability of Bi as an antenna termination resistor and annealed gold for microstrip and groundplane, in the context of using each to optimize signal and bandwidth of the receiver is addressed. Bismuth is chosen as a candidate termination resistor material because films can be made with the 10-100 Ω/□ needed to impedance-match the antenna in a compact, stable, and reproducible manner. We characterize both the DC electronic transport and the THz optical properties of thermally evaporated (TE) and ion assisted thermally evaporated (IAE) Bi. It is found that the residual resistance ratio of the IAE Bi is an order of magnitude higher than that of TE Bi in the relevant impedance range. Furthermore, we show that we have produced IAE Bi films with linear response across the THz band. We discuss the possibility of employing other, much lower volume, absorber materials including TiAu and PdAu alloys. A comparison of the expected noise in a standard coupling resistor for each material is made. A technique of fabricating 150 nm gold films having a low temperature resistivity equal to 3.5×10-9 Ωm via thermal annealing is also presented. We model the response of these candidate films in an antenna circuit for THz radiation.

  10. Thermal stability of lightweight graphite glass sandwich reflectors for far infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluege, J. H.; Mayor, R. A.; Hoffman, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Graphite fiber-reinforced glass matrix composites are being developed for a variety of structural applications requiring excellent thermomechanical stability. These materials are ideally suited for lightweight, high strength, thermally stable infrared mirrors because of their low density, low thermal expansion, high strength and stiffness, and their ability to be machined, replicated and figured using standard polishing techniques. These properties are particularly promising for applications such as a 3-meter balloon-borne far-infrared and submillimeter telescope mirror which must be both very lightweight and able to retain its figure accuracy when cycled between room temperature and its operating temperature of -50 C. This paper presents the results of a set of low temperature optical tests conducted to determine the figure stability of a 30-cm diameter, frit-bonded graphite/glass mirror in the +20 to -60 C temperature range using a 10.6 micron laser interferometer. The results indicate that the residual change in figure was less than 0.3 microns, rms.

  11. Laboratory far-infrared spectroscopy of terrestrial sulphides to support analysis of cosmic dust spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusentsova, T.; Peale, R. E.; Maukonen, D.; Figueiredo, P.; Harlow, G. E.; Ebel, D. S.; Nissinboim, A.; Sherman, K.; Lisse, C. M.

    2012-03-01

    As an aid in interpreting data from space far-infrared (far-IR) missions, such as the Herschel Space Observatory with its Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, this paper presents spectroscopic studies of selected naturally occurring terrestrial sulphide minerals in the wavelength range 15-250 μm. The data can also be used to support the return from other, both past and planned, IR space missions, such as the Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer, SOFIA, SPiCA and Millimetron. In this study, we present far-IR spectra for 11 natural sulphide minerals in the form of dispersed powders of micron particle dimensions. Samples of various sulphides from the American Museum of Natural History mineral collection were selected based on criteria of diversity and potential astrophysical relevancy, based on their identification in Stardust, in stratospheric interplanetary dust particle samples, or in meteorites. Mineral species include digenite, galena, alabandite, sphalerite, wurtzite, covellite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite and stibnite. Most of the sulphides examined possess prominent and characteristic features in the far-IR range. Spectra obtained are compared to those available from previous studies. Far-IR peak frequencies and mass absorption coefficient values are tabulated. Effects of particle size distribution, low temperature, and provenance on IR spectra are demonstrated for selected samples.

  12. Micro-Spec: An Ultracompact, High-sensitivity Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and submillimeter ranges promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (micron-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of (is) approximately 90% has been developed for initial demonstration and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  13. Improved collision strengths and line ratios for forbidden [O III] far-infrared and optical lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palay, Ethan; Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Eissner, Werner

    2012-06-01

    Far-infrared and optical [O III] lines are useful temperature-density diagnostics of nebular as well as dust obscured astrophysical sources. Fine-structure transitions among the ground state levels 1 s22 s22 p33 P 0,1,2 give rise to the 52- and 88-?m lines, whereas transitions among the 3 P 0,1,2, 1 D 2, 1 S 0 levels yield the well-known optical lines λλ4363, 4959 and 5007 Å. These lines are excited primarily by electron impact excitation. However, despite their importance in nebular diagnostics collision strengths for the associated fine-structure transitions have not been computed taking full account of relativistic effects. We present Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculations for the collision strengths with highly resolved resonance structures. We find significant differences of up to 20 per cent in the Maxwellian averaged rate coefficients from previous works. We also tabulate these to lower temperatures down to 100 K to enable determination of physical conditions in cold dusty environments such photodissociation regions and ultraluminous infrared galaxies observed with the Herschel Space Observatory. We also examine the effect of improved collision strengths on temperature- and density-sensitive line ratios.

  14. Far Infrared Line Profiles from Photodissociation Regions and Warm Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, R. T.; Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1056 awarded to the University of Colorado. The aim of the project was to analyze data obtained over the past several years with the University of Colorado far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer (Betz & Boreiko 1993) aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Of particular interest were observations of CO and ionized carbon (C II) in photodissociation regions (PDRs) at the interface between UV-ionized H II regions and the neutral molecular clouds supporting star formation. These data, obtained with a heterodyne spectrometer having a resolution of 3.2 MHz, which is equivalent to a velocity resolution of 0.2 km/s at 60 microns and 1.0 km/s at 300 microns, were analyzed to obtain physical parameters such as density and temperature in the observed PDR. The publication resulting from the work reported here is appended. No inventions were made nor was any federally owned property acquired as a result of the activities under this grant.

  15. Far Infrared Line Profiles from Photodissociation Regions and Warm Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, R. T.; Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1056 awarded to the University of Colorado. The aim of the project was to analyze data obtained over the past several years with the University of Colorado far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer (Betz Boreiko 1993) aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Of particular interest were observations of CO and ionized carbon (C II) in photodissociation regions (PDRS) at the interface between UV-ionized H II regions and the neutral molecular clouds supporting star formation. These data, obtained with a heterodyne spectrometer having a resolution of 3.2 MHz, which is equivalent to a velocity resolution of 0.2 km/s at 60 microns and 1.0 km/s at 300 microns, were analyzed to obtain physical parameters such as density and temperature in the observed PDR. The publication resulting from the work reported here is appended. No inventions were made nor was any federally owned property acquired as a result of the activities under this grant.

  16. Detection of small surface vessels in near, medium, and far infrared spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Milewski, S.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Zyczkowski, M.

    2011-11-01

    Protection of naval bases and harbors requires close co-operation between security and access control systems covering land areas and those monitoring sea approach routes. The typical location of naval bases and harbors - usually next to a large city - makes it difficult to detect and identify a threat in the dense regular traffic of various sea vessels (i.e. merchant ships, fishing boats, tourist ships). Due to the properties of vessel control systems, such as AIS (Automatic Identification System), and the effectiveness of radar and optoelectronic systems against different targets it seems that fast motor boats called RIB (Rigid Inflatable Boat) could be the most serious threat to ships and harbor infrastructure. In the paper the process and conditions for the detection and identification of high-speed boats in the areas of ports and naval bases in the near, medium and far infrared is presented. Based on the results of measurements and recorded thermal images the actual temperature contrast delta T (RIB / sea) will be determined, which will further allow to specify the theoretical ranges of detection and identification of the RIB-type targets for an operating security system. The data will also help to determine the possible advantages of image fusion where the component images are taken in different spectral ranges. This will increase the probability of identifying the object by the multi-sensor security system equipped additionally with the appropriate algorithms for detecting, tracking and performing the fusion of images from the visible and infrared cameras.

  17. What Shapes the Far-infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Hayward, Christopher C.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2016-02-01

    To explore the connection between the global physical properties of galaxies and their far-infrared (FIR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we study the variation in the FIR SEDs of a set of 51 hydrodynamically simulated galaxies, both mergers and isolated systems representative of low- and high-redshift galaxies, that are generated by performing dust radiative transfer in post-processing. We study the FIR SEDs using principal component (PC) analysis, and find that 97% of the variance in the sample can be explained by two PCs. The first PC characterizes the wavelength of the peak of the FIR SED, and the second encodes the breadth of the SED. We find that the coefficients of both PCs can be predicted well using a double power law in terms of the IR luminosity and dust mass, which suggests that these two physical properties are the primary determinants of galaxies’ FIR SED shapes. Incorporating galaxy sizes does not significantly improve our ability to predict the FIR SEDs. Our results suggest that the observed redshift evolution in the effective dust temperature at a fixed IR luminosity is not driven by geometry: the SEDs of z∼ 2-3 ultraluminous IR galaxies (ULIRGs) are cooler than those of local ULIRGs, not because the high-redshift galaxies are more extended, but rather because they have higher dust masses at fixed IR luminosity. Finally, based on our simulations, we introduce a two-parameter set of SED templates that depend on both IR luminosity and dust mass.

  18. Balloon-borne far-infrared spectrophotometry of the galactic center region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapatz, S.; Haser, L.; Hofmann, R.; Oda, N.; Wilczek, R.

    Far-infrared observations of the galactic center have been carried through with the MPE 1m balloon-borne telescope "Golden Dragon". The measurements are composed of photometric scanning (33 - 95 μm) of the inner 4arcmin×4arcmin and low resolution spectroscopy (Δν = 10 cm-1) of the center and of a position approximately 1.5arcmin to the north. A Mars spectrum has been obtained for calibration. The spatial resolution of the photometry map is increased using the Maximum Entropy Method and the resulting map is compared to other observations in the same and other spectral regions. A clear asymmetry in the ring-like structure around the center indicates the presence of noncircular motions. The shape of the spectra is fairly smooth with at least no prominent dust features. A simple modelling shows a drastic increase of column density within 2 pc from the center and a modest drop over the next 3 pc to the north.

  19. First extragalactic detection of far-infrared CH rotational lines from the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, J.; Wilson, C.; Maloney, P.; Spinoglio, L.; Kamenetzky, J. R.; Schirm, M.; Santaella, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first extragalactic detections of several CH rotational transitions in the far-infrared (FIR) in four nearby galaxies: NGC 1068, Arp 220, M 82 and NGC 253 using the Herschel Space Observatory. The CH lines in all four galaxies are a factor of 2 - 4 brighter than the corresponding HCN and HCO+ J = 6-5 lines (also detected in the same spectra). In the star formation dominated galaxies, M 82, NGC 253 and Arp 220, the CH/CO abundance ratio is low 1E-5), implying that the CH is primarily arising in diffuse and translucent gas where the chemistry is driven by UV radiation as found in the Milky Way ISM. In NGC 1068, which has a luminous AGN, the CH/CO ratio is an order of magnitude higher suggesting that CH formation is driven by an X-ray dominated region. Our XDR models show that both the CH and CO abundances in NGC 1068 can be explained by an XDR-driven chemistry for gas densities and molecular hydrogen column densities that are well constrained by the CO observations. We conclude that the CH/CO ratio may a good indicator of the presence of AGN in galaxies. We also discuss the feasibility of detecting CH in intermediate- to high-z galaxies with ALMA.

  20. Far-infrared line emission from the galaxy. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The diffuse 157.74 micron (CII) emission from the Galaxy was sampled at several galactic longitudes near the galactic plane including complete scan across the plane at (II) = 2.16 deg and (II) = 7.28 deg. The observed (CII) emission profiles follow closely the nearby (12)CO (J=1to0) emission profiles. The (CII) emission probably arises in neutral photodissociation regions near the edges of giant moleclar clouds (GMC's). These regions have densities of approximately 350 cm(-3) and temperatures of approximately 300 K, and amount to 4x10(8) solar mass of hydrogen in the inner Galaxy. The total 157.74 micron luminosity of the Galaxy is estimated to be 6x10(7) solar luminosity. Estimates were also made of the galactic emission in other far-infrared (FIR) cooling lines. The (CII) line was found to be the dominant FIR emission line from the galaxy and the primary coolant for the warm neutral gas near the galactic plane. Other cooling lines predicted to be prominent in the galactic spectrum are discussed. The 145.53 micron (OI) emission line from the Orion nebula was also measured.

  1. EVOLUTION OF THE FAR-INFRARED CLOUD AT TITAN’S SOUTH POLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E.; Kok, R. de; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S.

    2015-05-10

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm{sup −1} far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north, the cloud, which extends from 55 N to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the south pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in 2013 December showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 S. The ring was centered 4° from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in 2014 January) was also offset by 4°, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 S with a minimum at 80 S. The shape of the gas emission distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the south pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline from 2015 to 2016.

  2. The far-infrared emission of the radio-loud quasar 3C 318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podigachoski, P.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Steendam, S.

    2016-01-01

    3C 318, a radio-loud quasar at z = 1.574, is a subgalactic-sized radio source, and a good test-bed for the interplay between black hole and galaxy growth in the high-z Universe. Based on its IRAS, ISO, and SCUBA detections, it has long been considered as one of the most intrinsically luminous (LIR > 1013 L⊙) infrared sources in the Universe. Recent far-infrared data from the Herschel Space Observatory reveal that most of the flux associated with 3C 318, measured with earlier instruments, in fact comes from a bright nearby source. Optical imaging and spectroscopy show that this infrared-bright source is a strongly star-forming pair of interacting galaxies at z = 0.35. Adding existing Spitzer and SDSS photometry, we perform a spectral energy distribution analysis of the pair, and find that it has a combined infrared luminosity of LIR = 1.5 × 1012 L⊙, comparable to other intermediate-redshift ultra-luminous infrared galaxies studied with Herschel. Isolating the emission from 3C 318's host, we robustly constrain the level of star formation to a value a factor of three lower than that published earlier, which is more in line with the star formation activity found in other Herschel-detected 3CR objects at similar redshift.

  3. Micro-Spec: an ultracompact, high-sensitivity spectrometer for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R; Wollack, Edward J

    2014-02-20

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and submillimeter ranges promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (μ-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of ~90% has been developed for initial demonstration and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  4. The Far Infrared Spectroscopic Explorer (FIRSPEX): probing the lifecycle of the ISM in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigopoulou, D.; Caldwell, M.; Ellison, B.; Pearson, C.; Caux, E.; Cooray, A.; Gallego, J. D.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P.; Kramer, C.; Lis, D. C.; Molinari, S.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Savini, G.; Tan, B. K.; Tielens, X.; Viti, S.; Wiedner, M.; Yassin, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Far Infrared Spectroscopic Explorer (FIRSPEX) is a novel European-led astronomy mission concept developed to enable large area ultra high spectroscopic resolution surveys in the THz regime. FIRSPEX opens up a relatively unexplored spectral and spatial parameter space that will produce an enormously significant scientific legacy by focusing on the properties of the multi-phase ISM, the assembly of molecular clouds in our Galaxy and the onset of star formation; topics which are fundamental to our understanding of galaxy evolution. The mission uses a heterodyne instrument and a ~1.2 m primary antenna to scan large areas of the sky in a number of discreet spectroscopic channels from L2. The FIRSPEX bands centered at [CI] 809 GHz, [NII]1460 GHz, [CII]1900 GHz and [OI]4700 GHz have been carefully selected to target key atomic and ionic fine structure transitions difficult or impossible to access from the ground but fundamental to the study of the multi-phase ISM in the Universe. The need for state-of-the-art sensitivity dictates the use of superconducting mixers configured either as tunnel junctions or hot electron bolometers. This technology requires cooling to low temperatures, approaching 4K, in order to operate. The receivers will operate in double sideband configuration providing a total of 7 pixels on the sky. FIRSPEX will operate from L2 in both survey and pointed mode enabling velocity resolved spectroscopy of large areas of sky as well as targeted observations.

  5. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-01-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine–xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals’ body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology. PMID:26632788

  6. Bright debris disk candidates detected with the AKARI/FAR-infrared surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiong; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Peng E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    We cross-correlate the Hipparcos main-sequence star catalog with the AKARI/FIS catalog and identify 136 stars (at >90% reliability) with far-infrared detections in at least one band. After rejecting 57 stars classified as young stellar objects, Be stars and other type stars with known dust disks or with potential contaminations, and 4 stars without infrared excess emission, we obtain a sample of 75 candidate stars with debris disks. Stars in our sample cover spectral types from B to K with most being early types. This represents a unique sample of luminous debris disks that derived uniformly from an all-sky survey with a spatial resolution factor of four better than the previous such survey by IRAS. Moreover, by collecting the infrared photometric data from other public archives, almost three-quarters of them have infrared excesses in more than one band, allowing an estimate of the dust temperatures. We fit the blackbody model to the broadband spectral energy distribution of these stars to derive the statistical distribution of the disk parameters. Four B stars with excesses in four or more bands require a double blackbody model, with the high one around 100 or 200 K and the low one around 40-50 K.

  7. Far-infrared spectroscopy of salt penetration into a collagen fiber scaffold.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Maya; Yamada, Akira; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kojima, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    We employed far-infrared spectroscopy to observe the amount of salt that penetrates into collagen fiber masses. The absorption properties of collagen sheets prepared from tilapia skin, bovine skin, rat tail, and sea cucumber dermis were measured using a transmission Fourier transform spectrometer in a band from approximately 100 to 700 cm(-1). We confirmed that the absorbance spectra of the four types of dried collagen sheet show good agreement, even though the amino acid compositions differed. The absorbance peaks observed in the band corresponded to collective vibrations of plural functional groups such as methylene and imino groups in collagen. When salt solution was added to the collagen sheets and then dried, the spectral shapes of the sheets at approximately 166 cm(-1) were clearly different from those of the plain collagen sheets. The differential absorbance between wavenumbers 166 cm(-1) and 250 cm(-1) sensitively reflected the difference between higher-order structures, and the salt diffusion (crystallization) depended on the collagen fiber condition. From these results, we consider that spectral changes can be used for the numerical evaluation of salt penetration into a collagen fiber scaffold.

  8. A Study of the Radio Continuum Far Infrared Correlation at Small Scales in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Martinez, Monica I.; Allen, R. J.; Wiklind, T.; Loinard, L.

    2006-12-01

    We present a study of the behavior of the Radio Continuum (RC) Far Infrared (FIR) correlation on scales corresponding to the size of small molecular clouds. This was done by comparing the spatial distribution of RC emission and FIR emission from a sample of several regions, distributed within the range 79 ≤ l ≤ 174 in the Galaxy. We have examined the 408 and 1420 MHz mosaic images of the sample, from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), which later were compared with images at 60 and 100 μm. Preliminary results suggest that the RC -FIR correlation still holds at small scales, since a good qualitative correlation between RC and FIR emission is found. The physical process involved that may cause such correlation will be discussed as well as the nature of the RC emission. This research makes use of data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey.

  9. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E.; de Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S.

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm (sup -1) far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north the cloud, which extends from 55 North to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the South Pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in December 2013 showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 South. The ring was centered 4 degrees from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in January 2014) was also offset by 4 degrees, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 South with a minimum at 80 South. The shape of the gas emissions distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the South Pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline during 2015-16.

  10. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism. PMID:27451750

  11. Novel far infrared imaging sensor based on the use of titanium-nickel shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ho-Pui; Chung, Jonathan C. Y.; Ng, Ki-Cheong; Cheng, K. L.; Wu, Shu-Yuen

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we describe a novel imaging sensor design1 that uses the thermo-mechanical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys (SMAs) for detecting far infrared radiation (FIR). A thin NiTi SMA cantilever is coated with a FIR absorbing layer on one surface, while the other is coated with a highly reflecting metallic layers such as gold. Upon absorption of FIR, the temperature of the cantilever changes. This causes the tilt angle of the cantilever to change as well. The deflection is very large if the temperature change coincides with the temperature range of the phase transformation of the NiTi SMA. The detection of the mechanical movements in the cantilever is achieved by illuminating the reflective side using a visible laser beam. A Michelson interferometer is used to covert the reflected light into optical modulation. In doing this, very small displacement in the cantilever can be visualized as laser intensity variation. A single element device has been fabricated for this purpose and our initial experimental results have demonstrated the successful detection of FIR. An estimation of angular deflection per unit change of temperature suggests that our approach can offer sensitivity higher than the reported design based on the use of bi-material strips. We envisage that a two-dimensional array of such devices can lead to the possibility of realizing a practical low-cost infrared imaging device operating under room temperature conditions.

  12. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism.

  13. Pedestrian Detection in Far-Infrared Daytime Images Using a Hierarchical Codebook of SURF

    PubMed Central

    Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images. PMID:25871724

  14. Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers: comparative analysis by far-infrared and ultraviolet induced polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-06

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIP(uv) possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIP(FIR) radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot's of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high- and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%-94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%-97.1% and 94.4%-101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively.

  15. Application of far-infrared irradiation in the manufacturing process of green tea.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Young; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Jo, Seong-Chun; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2006-12-27

    Seven kinds of green tea leaves were manufactured with far-infrared (FIR) irradiation, and the physicochemical characteristics of the green tea were determined. Appropriate FIR irradiation during the manufacturing process significantly increased the polyphenolic content of green tea. FIR irradiation at 90 degrees C for 10 min, replacing the roasting step, and of the fully processed green tea leaves (GTP3) increased the total phenol content of green tea from 475.6 to 811.1 mg/g and the total flavanol content from 175.7 to 208.7 mg/g, as compared to the control. Epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate increased from 57.68 and 9.60 mg/g in a nonirradiated control to 89.88 and 16.33 mg/g in GTP3, respectively. Ascorbic acid, caffeine, and nitrite scavenging activities were also increased in GTP3. However, the overall color change of GTP3 was negligible. These results indicate that the chemical properties of green tea are significantly affected by FIR irradiation at specific stages of the manufacturing process of green tea leaves and that this FIR irradiation results in high-quality green tea.

  16. Synchrotron Based Fourier Transform Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of CH3NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twagirayezu, Sylvestre; Billinghurst, Brant E.; May, Tim; Dawadi, Mahesh B.; Perry, David S.

    2013-06-01

    As a slightly asymmetric top molecule (κ = 0.25) with both a free internal rotor and a methyl group, CH_3NO_2 is a benchmark system for studies of torsional motion in a 6-fold potential and of the coupling between a large amplitude vibration and other small-amplitude vibrations. For this purpose, rotationally resolved infrared spectra of CH_3NO_2, have been recorded using the Far-Infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source, which is equipped with a high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR spectrometer. The observed infrared spectra, in the range 550-1000cm^{-1}, are the average of 300 interferometer scans collected at a nominal resolution of 0.00096cm^{-1}. Two a-type bands, centered at 657.08cm^{-1}for NO symmetric bend and at 917.99cm^{-1}for CN-stretch, have been measured. The initial analysis of a number of torsional states is currently being carried out and the progress will be reported in this talk.

  17. In-flight Far-Infrared Performance of the CIRS Instrument on Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Brasunas, John C.; Lakew, Brook; Fettig, Rainer; Jennings, Donald E.; Carlson, Ronald; Kunde, Virgil G.

    2004-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini consists of two interferometers: a conventional Michelson for the mid-infrared; and a Martin-Puplett type in the far-infrared employing wire grid polarizers to split, recombine and analyze the radiation. The far-IR focal plane (FP1) assembly uses two thermopile detectors to measure the final transmitted and reflected beams at the polarizer-analyzer: if one fails, the interferometer can still operate, albeit with a lower efficiency. The combined effect is for good response from 10 to 300/cm, and declining response to 600/cm. This paper will examine in-flight performance of the far-IR interferometer, including NESR and response. Regular noise spikes, resulting from pickup from other electrical sub-systems has been found on the CIRS interferograms, and the removal of these effects is discussed. The radiometric calibration is described, and then we show how the calibration was applied to science data taken during the Jupiter flyby of December 2000. Finally, we discuss signal-to-noise on the calibrated spectra, emphasizing limitations of the current instrument and the potential for improvement in future missions.

  18. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-11-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals' body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology. PMID:26632788

  19. Atrazine Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Far-Infrared and Ultraviolet Induced Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high-and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. PMID:24398982

  20. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of defatted sesame meal extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of far-infrared (FIR) irradiation on the antioxidant activities of sesame meal, half of sesame seeds were FIR-irradiated and then oil was extracted from the seeds. The resulting defatted sesame meal (DSM) was extracted with methanol, and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extract were determined. FIR irradiation of sesame seeds for 30 min increased the total phenol content from 34.0 to 59.0 muM and radical scavenging activity of DSM extracts from 26.40 to 68.76%. The induction time of lipid oxidation of oil added to extracts was also retarded from 0.82 to 0.96 h. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, several low molecular weight phenolic compounds, such as p-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoferulic acid, and o-coumaric acid, were frequently detected in FIR-irradiated DSM extracts as compared to unirradiated ones. These results indicated that FIR irradiation of sesame seeds increased the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of DSM. PMID:15740030

  1. THz instrumentation for the Herschel Space Observatory's heterodyne instrument for far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John C.; Mehdi, Imran; Ward, John S.; Maiwald, Frank W.; Ferber, Robert R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Schlecht, Erich T.; Gill, John J.; Hatch, William A.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Stern, Jeffrey A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Weinreb, Sander; Bumble, Bruce; Pukala, David M.; Javadi, Hamid H.; Finamore, Bradley P.; Lin, Robert H.; Dengler, Robert J.; Velebir, James R.; Luong, Edward M.; Tsang, Raymond; Peralta, Alejandro; Wells, Mary; Chun, William; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Karpov, Alexandre; Phillips, Thomas; Miller, David; Maestrini, Alain E.; Erickson, Neal; Swift, Gerald; Liao, K. T.; Paquette, Michael

    2004-10-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) on ESA's Herschel Space Observatory utilizes a variety of novel RF components in its five SIS receiver channels covering 480- 1250 GHz and two HEB receiver channels covering 1410-1910 GHz. The local oscillator unit will be passively cooled while the focal plane unit is cooled by superfluid helium and cold helium vapors. HIFI employs W-band GaAs amplifiers, InP HEMT low noise IF amplifiers, fixed tuned broadband planar diode multipliers, high power W-band Isolators, and novel material systems in the SIS mixers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is managing the development of the highest frequency (1119-1250 GHz) SIS mixers, the local oscillators for the three highest frequency receivers as well as W-band power amplifiers, high power W-band isolators, varactor diode devices for all high frequency multipliers and InP HEMT components for all the receiver channels intermediate frequency amplifiers. The NASA developed components represent a significant advancement in the available performance. This paper presents an update of the performance and the current state of development.

  2. THz frequency receiver instrumentation for Herschel's heterodyne instrument for far infrared (HIFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John C.; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich; Maiwald, Frank; Maestrini, Alain; Gill, John J.; Martin, Suzanne C.; Pukala, Dave; Ward, J.; Kawamura, Jonathan; McGrath, William R.; Hatch, William; Harding, Dennis G.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Stern, Jeffry A.; Bumble, Bruce; Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Ferber, Robert; Miller, David; Karpov, Alexandre; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Phillips, Thomas G.; Erickson, Neal R.; Swift, Jerry; Chung, Yun; Lai, Richard; Wang, Huei

    2003-03-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) on ESA's Herschel Space Observatory is comprised of five SIS receiver channels covering 480-1250 GHz and two HEB receiver channels covering 1410-1910 GHz. Two fixed tuned local oscillator sub-bands are derived from a common synthesizer to provide the front-end frequency coverage for each channel. The local oscillator unti will be passively cooled while the focal plane unit is cooled by superfluid helium and cold helium vapors. HIFI employs W-band GaAs amplifiers, InP HEMT low noise IF amplifiers, fixed tuned broadband planar diode multipliers, and novel material systems in the SIS mixtures. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is managing the development of the highest frequency (1119-1250 GHz) SIS mixers, the highest frequency (1650-1910 GHz) HEB mixers, local oscillators for the three highest frequency receivers as well as W-band power amplifiers, varactor diode devices for all high frequency multipliers and InP HEMT components for all the receiver channels intermediate frequency amplifiers. The NASA developed components represent a significant advancement in the available performance. The current state of the art for each of these devices is presented along with a programmatic view of the development effort.

  3. Technology and Capibilities of the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Phillips, T. G.

    2004-05-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) on ESA's Herschel Space Observatory is comprised of five SIS receiver channels covering 480-1250 GHz and two HEB receiver channels covering 1410-1910 GHz. Two fixed tuned local oscillator sub-bands are derived from a common synthesizer to provide the front-end frequency coverage for each channel. The local oscillator unit will be passively cooled while the focal plane unit is cooled by superfluid helium and cold helium vapors. The HIFI receivers employ W-band GaAs amplifiers, InP HEMT low noise IF amplifiers, fixed tuned broadband planar diode multipliers, and novel material systems in the SIS and HEB mixers. The HIFI instrument is built by an international consortium lead by Space Research Organization the Netherlands with a substantial contribution by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. HIFI combines the new receiver technology and a variety of potential observing modes into an extremely power system with unprecedented sensitivity and capability. HIFI will be available for all to use through the Herschel open time proposal process. An overview of the HIFI technology, receiver configuration, functionality and observing capabilities will be presented.

  4. Cation-network interactions in binary alkali metal borate glasses. A far-infrared study

    SciTech Connect

    Kamitsos, E.I.; Karakassides, M.A.; Chryssikos, G.D.

    1987-10-22

    The far-infrared spectra of compositions probing the glass-forming regions of all five binary alkali metal borate systems chi M/sub 2/O x (1 - chi)B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (0 < chi less than or equal to 0.40, M = Na; and 0 < chi less than or equal to 0.35, M = K, Rb, Cs) have been measured and analyzed to systematically study the alkali metal cation-network interactions and their compositional dependence. Band deconvolution of the measured spectra showed the presence of two distinct distributions of alkali metal cation sites in Li, Na, and K glasses. Similar results have been obtained for rubidium and cesium borate glasses of compositions chi > 0.25. One distribution of cation sites has been observed for the lower alkali metal content Rb and Cs glasses. The fractions of cations in the two different network sites have also been evaluated. The squares of the frequencies of the cation-motion bands were found to vary linearly with composition, and exhibit kinks at chi similarly ordered 20, for all but the Cs glasses. This behavior was explained on the basis of the network structural changes known to occur at this composition.

  5. Exploring Conformation Selective Far Infrared Action Spectroscopy of Isolated Molecules and Solvated Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Daniël; Rijs, Anouk; Mahé, Jérôme; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Far-Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been labeled as a promising method for identifying structural motifs in large molecules. However, several hurdles have kept this promising spectral region from breaking through to widespread use for gas phase experiments. Normal modes in the far-IR mostly have weak intensities, and high brightness sources of far-IR radiation are rare. Moreover, standard density functional theory - applied to identify the specific molecular structure responsible for the measured IR spectra - does not reproduce features in the far-IR well. This mismatch can be attributed to the high degree of anharmonicity of many of the normal modes present in the far-IR. We have overcome these hurdles by combining an advanced laser source with novel experiments and high-level dynamical calculations. We present far-IR spectra of a family of phenolic molecules and solvated clusters, obtained using the free electron laser FELIX. By employing IR-UV ion-dip spectroscopy in the gas phase, we are able to obtain conformer specific far-IR spectra of isolated molecules or solvated clusters. The studied systems display both intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding, enabling us to study the merits of far-IR action spectroscopy for direct probing of these weak interactions. Moreover, the combination of far-IR experiments with quantum chemical calculations allows us to test the limits of the harmonic approximation in DFT calculations, and to test the possibilities of employing a more sophisticated technique, namely Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

  6. MODELING THE HD 32297 DEBRIS DISK WITH FAR-INFRARED HERSCHEL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J. K.; Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-07-20

    HD 32297 is a young A-star ({approx}30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 {mu}m. We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains >2 {mu}m consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7{sigma} detection of [C II] emission at 158 {mu}m with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected.

  7. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far-Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; deKok, R,; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 micron, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes. From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 +/- 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 +/- 1.3 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80S to 30N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 +/- 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 +/- 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models. We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of 0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  8. Fundamental Limits on the Imaging and Polarisation Properties of Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher N.; Withington, Stafford; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Far-infrared bolometric detectors are used extensively in ground-based and space-borne astronomy, and thus it is important to understand their optical behaviour precisely. We have studied the intensity and polarisation response of free-space bolometers, and shown that when the size of the absorber is reduced below a wavelength, the response changes from being that of a classical optical detector to that of a few-mode antenna. We have calculated the modal content of the reception patterns, and found that for any volumetric detector having a side length of less than a wavelength, three magnetic and three electric dipoles characterize the behaviour. The size of the absorber merely determines the relative strengths of the contributions. The same formalism can be applied to thin-film absorbers, where the induced current is forced to flow in a plane. In this case, one magnetic and two electric dipoles characterize the behaviour. The ability to model easily the intensity, polarisation, and straylight characteristics of electrically-small detectors will be of great value when designing high-performance polarimetric imaging arrays.

  9. Atomic and molecular far-infrared lines from high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallini, L.

    2015-03-01

    The advent of Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA), with its unprecedented sensitivity, makes it possible the detection of far-infrared (FIR) metal cooling and molecular lines from the first galaxies that formed after the Big Bang. These lines represent a powerful tool to shed light on the physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in high-redshift sources. In what follows we show the potential of a physically motivated theoretical approach that we developed to predict the ISM properties of high redshift galaxies. The model allows to infer, as a function of the metallicity, the luminosities of various FIR lines observable with ALMA. It is based on high resolution cosmological simulations of star-forming galaxies at the end of the Epoch of Reionization (z˜eq6) , further implemented with sub-grid physics describing the cooling and the heating processes that take place in the neutral diffuse ISM. Finally we show how a different approach based on semi-analytical calculations can allow to predict the CO flux function at z>6.

  10. Far infrared reflectance of sintered nickel manganite samples for negative temperature coefficient thermistors

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, M.V. . E-mail: maria@mi.sanu.ac.yu; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Aleksic, O.S.; Zorba, T.T.; Savic, S.M.; Lukovic, D.T.

    2007-08-07

    Single phase complex spinel (Mn, Ni, Co, Fe){sub 3}O{sub 4} samples were sintered at 1050, 1200 and 1300 deg. C for 30 min and at 1200 deg. C for 120 min. Morphological changes of the obtained samples with the sintering temperature and time were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Room temperature far infrared reflectivity spectra for all samples were measured in the frequency range between 50 and 1200 cm{sup -1}. The obtained spectra for all samples showed the presence of the same oscillators, but their intensities increased with the sintering temperature and time in correlation with the increase in sample density and microstructure changes during sintering. The measured spectra were numerically analyzed using the Kramers-Kroenig method and the four-parameter model of coupled oscillators. Optical modes were calculated for six observed ionic oscillators belonging to the spinel structure of (Mn, Ni, Co, Fe){sub 3}O{sub 4} of which four were strong and two were weak.

  11. Balloon measurements of stratospheric HCl and HF by far infrared emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibasaki, Kazuo; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.; Traub, Wesley A.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed atmospheric thermal emission spectra obtained with the balloon-borne FIRS-2 far infrared Fourier transform spectrometer during balloon flights from Palestine, Texas on May 12-13, 1988 and from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on September 26-27, 1989 and on July 4-5, 1990. Seven and two pure rotational transition lines in 100-205 cm(exp -1) range are analyzed for deriving vertical profiles of stratospheric HCl and HF, respectively. We obtain both the daytime and nighttime average vertical profiles from 15 to 50 km. We compare these profiles with the ones obtained in June, 1983 with the first version of FIRS spectrometer during the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC-2). BIC-2 results were revised to be consistent with the present analysis which uses the latest spectral parameters. According to our comparison results no increase is recognized for HCl but about 3 percent per year increase for HF from 1983 to 1990, assuming a linear trend. These annual increase rates are smaller than those reported by other groups. Recently Rinsland et al. (1991) and Wallace and Livingston (1991) reported long term behavior of total HCl and HF observed on Kit Peak between 1977 and 1990. As Kit Peak is located near both balloon launching sites, Palestine and Fort Sumner, we think our results are favorably comparable with theirs. Comparison results with ours and ground-based measurements will be presented and discussed.

  12. Possibility of observation of polaron normal modes at the far-infrared spectrum of acetanilide and related organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalosakas, G.; Aubry, S.; Tsironis, G. P.

    1998-10-01

    We use a stationary and normal mode analysis of the semiclassical Holstein model in order to connect the low-frequency linear polaron modes to low-lying far-infrared lines of the acetanilide spectrum and through parameter fitting we comment on the validity of the polaron results in this system.

  13. Far-infrared and thermal studies on low-temperature materials. Progress report, March 16, 1980-February 18, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.

    1981-02-18

    The progress report herein deals with setting up and testing the facility for the modulation far infrared spectroscopy with a He/sup 3/-cooled bolometer system. The important result on the heat capacity measurement of liquid crystals is also included.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of far-infrared loops in the Galaxy (Konyves+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.; Moor, A.; Kiss, Z. T.; Toth, L. V.

    2006-11-01

    An all-sky survey of loop- and arc-like intensity enhancements has been performed in order to investigate the large-scale structure of the diffuse far-infrared emission. We used maps made of 60 and 100um processed IRAS data (Sky Survey Atlas and dust infrared emission maps) to identify large-scale structures: loops, arcs or cavities, in the far-infrared emission in the Galaxy. Distances were attributed to a subsample of loops using associated objects. We identified 462 far-infrared loops, analyzed their individual FIR properties and their distribution. This data forms the Catalogue of Far-Infrared Loops in the Galaxy. We obtained observational estimates of fin~30% and fout~5% for the hot gas volume filling factor of the inward and outward Galactic neighbourhood of the Solar System. We obtained a slope of the power law size luminosity function {beta}=1.37 for low Galactic latitudes in the outer Milky Way. Deviations in the celestial distribution of far-infrared loops clearly indicate, that violent events frequently overwrite the structure of the interstellar matter in the inner Galaxy. Our objects trace out the spiral arm structure of the Galaxy in the neighbourhood of the Sun and their distribution clearly suggests that there is an efficient process that can generate loop-like features at high Galactic latitudes. Power law indices of size luminosity distributions suggest, that the structure of the ISM is ruled by supernovae and stellar winds at low Galactic latitudes while it is governed by supersonic turbulence above the Galactic plane. (4 data files).

  15. Human detection based on the generation of a background image by using a far-infrared light camera.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eun Som; Choi, Jong-Suk; Lee, Ji Hoon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Le, Toan Thanh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-03-19

    The need for computer vision-based human detection has increased in fields, such as security, intelligent surveillance and monitoring systems. However, performance enhancement of human detection based on visible light cameras is limited, because of factors, such as nonuniform illumination, shadows and low external light in the evening and night. Consequently, human detection based on thermal (far-infrared light) cameras has been considered as an alternative. However, its performance is influenced by the factors, such as low image resolution, low contrast and the large noises of thermal images. It is also affected by the high temperature of backgrounds during the day. To solve these problems, we propose a new method for detecting human areas in thermal camera images. Compared to previous works, the proposed research is novel in the following four aspects. One background image is generated by median and average filtering. Additional filtering procedures based on maximum gray level, size filtering and region erasing are applied to remove the human areas from the background image. Secondly, candidate human regions in the input image are located by combining the pixel and edge difference images between the input and background images. The thresholds for the difference images are adaptively determined based on the brightness of the generated background image. Noise components are removed by component labeling, a morphological operation and size filtering. Third, detected areas that may have more than two human regions are merged or separated based on the information in the horizontal and vertical histograms of the detected area. This procedure is adaptively operated based on the brightness of the generated background image. Fourth, a further procedure for the separation and removal of the candidate human regions is performed based on the size and ratio of the height to width information of the candidate regions considering the camera viewing direction and perspective

  16. Human detection based on the generation of a background image by using a far-infrared light camera.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eun Som; Choi, Jong-Suk; Lee, Ji Hoon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Le, Toan Thanh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    The need for computer vision-based human detection has increased in fields, such as security, intelligent surveillance and monitoring systems. However, performance enhancement of human detection based on visible light cameras is limited, because of factors, such as nonuniform illumination, shadows and low external light in the evening and night. Consequently, human detection based on thermal (far-infrared light) cameras has been considered as an alternative. However, its performance is influenced by the factors, such as low image resolution, low contrast and the large noises of thermal images. It is also affected by the high temperature of backgrounds during the day. To solve these problems, we propose a new method for detecting human areas in thermal camera images. Compared to previous works, the proposed research is novel in the following four aspects. One background image is generated by median and average filtering. Additional filtering procedures based on maximum gray level, size filtering and region erasing are applied to remove the human areas from the background image. Secondly, candidate human regions in the input image are located by combining the pixel and edge difference images between the input and background images. The thresholds for the difference images are adaptively determined based on the brightness of the generated background image. Noise components are removed by component labeling, a morphological operation and size filtering. Third, detected areas that may have more than two human regions are merged or separated based on the information in the horizontal and vertical histograms of the detected area. This procedure is adaptively operated based on the brightness of the generated background image. Fourth, a further procedure for the separation and removal of the candidate human regions is performed based on the size and ratio of the height to width information of the candidate regions considering the camera viewing direction and perspective

  17. Measurement of the spectral signature of small carbon clusters at near and far infrared wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J.; Saykally, R.

    1991-01-01

    A significant percentage of the carbon inventory of the circumstellar and interstellar media may be in the form of large refractory molecules (or small grains) referred to as carbon clusters. At the small end, uneven numbers of carbon atoms seem to be preferred, whereas above 12 atoms, clusters containing an even number of carbon atoms appear to be preferred in laboratory chemistry. In the lab, the cluster C-60 appears to be a particularly stable form and has been nicknamed Bucky Balls because of its resemblance to a soccer ball and to geodesic domes designed by Buckminster Fuller. In order to investigate the prevalence of these clusters, and their relationship to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have become the newest focus of IR astronomy, it is necessary to determine the spectroscopic characteristics of these clusters at near and far infrared wavelengths. Described here is the construction of a near to far IR laser magnetic resonance spectrometer that has been built at the University of California Berkeley in order to detect and characterize these spectra. The equipment produces carbon clusters by laser evaporation of a graphitic target. The clusters are then cooled in a supersonic expansion beam in order to simulate conditions in the interstellar medium (ISM). The expansion beam feeds into the spectrometer chamber and permits concentrations of clusters sufficiently high as to permit ultra-high resolution spectroscopy at near and far IR wavelengths. The first successful demonstration of this apparatus occurred last year when the laboratory studies permitted the observational detection of C-5 in the stellar outflow surrounding IRC+10216 in the near-IR. Current efforts focus on reducing the temperature of the supersonic expansion beam that transport the C clusters evaporated from a graphite target into the spectrometer down to temperatures as low as 1 K.

  18. Far-infrared Dust Temperatures and Column Densities of the MALT90 Molecular Clump Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Contreras, Yanett; Smith, Howard A.; Jackson, James M.; Hoq, Sadia; Rathborne, Jill M.

    2015-12-01

    We present dust column densities and dust temperatures for ˜3000 young, high-mass molecular clumps from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz survey, derived from adjusting single-temperature dust emission models to the far-infrared intensity maps measured between 160 and 870 μm from the Herschel/Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-Gal) and APEX/APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) surveys. We discuss the methodology employed in analyzing the data, calculating physical parameters, and estimating their uncertainties. The population average dust temperature of the clumps are 16.8 ± 0.2 K for the clumps that do not exhibit mid-infrared signatures of star formation (quiescent clumps), 18.6 ± 0.2 K for the clumps that display mid-infrared signatures of ongoing star formation but have not yet developed an H ii region (protostellar clumps), and 23.7 ± 0.2 and 28.1 ± 0.3 K for clumps associated with H ii and photo-dissociation regions, respectively. These four groups exhibit large overlaps in their temperature distributions, with dispersions ranging between 4 and 6 K. The median of the peak column densities of the protostellar clump population is 0.20 ± 0.02 g cm-2, which is about 50% higher compared to the median of the peak column densities associated with clumps in the other evolutionary stages. We compare the dust temperatures and column densities measured toward the center of the clumps with the mean values of each clump. We find that in the quiescent clumps, the dust temperature increases toward the outer regions and that these clumps are associated with the shallowest column density profiles. In contrast, molecular clumps in the protostellar or H ii region phase have dust temperature gradients more consistent with internal heating and are associated with steeper column density profiles compared with the quiescent clumps.

  19. Electrochemically induced far-infrared difference spectroscopy on metalloproteins using advanced synchrotron technology.

    PubMed

    Vita, Nicolas; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Bremond, Nicolas; Berthomieu, Dorothée; Roy, Pascale; Berthomieu, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    New information on a protein's structure, intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, or metal-ligand bond properties can be unraveled in the far-infrared (far-IR)-terahertz-domain (600-3 cm(-1) or 18-0.1 THz). In this study, we compare the performances of thermal sources with synchrotron far-IR to record reaction-induced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) difference signals with proteins in solution. Using the model protein Cu-azurin placed in a short path length electrochemical cell adapted for transmission spectroscopy in vacuum-purged optics, we show that minute spectral shifts induced by metal isotope labeling or temperature changes are detected using the far-IR beamline AILES of the synchrotron SOLEIL. On one hand, these data allow us to identify modes involving Cu-ligand vibrations and pave the way for the analysis of metal sites or metal redox states of proteins not amenable to resonance Raman spectroscopy. On another hand, small band shifts or changes in band intensity upon temperature modifications show that far-IR difference spectroscopy allows one to extract from a complex background hydrogen-bonding signatures directly relevant to the protein function. For Cu-azurin, a temperature-sensitive IR mode involving Cu(II)-His vibrations points to the role of a hydrogen bond between a Cu histidine ligand and the water solvent in tuning the Cu(II)-histidine bond properties. Furthermore, these experimental data support the possible role of a His117-water interaction in electron-transfer activity of Cu-azurin proposed by theoretical studies.

  20. A Monte Carlo approach to evolution of the far-infrared luminosity function with BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Gaelen; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Patanchon, Guillaume; Scott, Douglas; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viero, Marco P.; Wiebe, Donald V.

    2011-10-01

    We constrain the evolution of the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) luminosity function out to high redshift, by combining several pieces of complementary information provided by the deep Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope surveys at 250, 350 and 500 μm, as well as other FIR and millimetre data. Unlike most other phenomenological models, we characterize the uncertainties in our fitted parameters using Monte Carlo Markov Chains. We use a bivariate local luminosity function that depends only on FIR luminosity and 60-to-100 μm colour, along with a single library of galaxy spectral energy distributions indexed by colour, and apply simple luminosity and density evolution. We use the surface density of sources, Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) measurements and redshift distributions of bright sources, for which identifications have been made, to constrain this model. The precise evolution of the FIR luminosity function across this crucial range has eluded studies at longer wavelengths (e.g. using SCUBA and MAMBO) and at shorter wavelengths (e.g. with Spitzer), and should provide a key piece of information required for the study of galaxy evolution. Our adoption of Monte Carlo methods enables us not only to find the best-fitting evolution model, but also to explore correlations between the fitted parameters. Our model-fitting approach allows us to focus on sources of tension coming from the combination of data sets. We specifically find that our choice of parametrization has difficulty fitting the combination of CIB measurements and redshift distribution of sources near 1 mm. Existing and future data sets will be able to dramatically improve the fits, as well as break strong degeneracies among the models. Two particular examples that we find to be crucial are: obtaining robust information on redshift distributions and placing tighter constraints on the range of spectral shapes for low-luminosity (LFIR < 1010 L⊙) sources.

  1. The AU Mic Debris Disk: Far-infrared and Submillimeter Resolved Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Holland, Wayne; Booth, Mark; Kalas, Paul; MacGregor, Meredith; Wilner, David; Vandenbussche, Bart; Olofsson, Göran; Blommaert, Joris; Brandeker, Alexis; Dent, W. R. F.; de Vries, Bernard L.; Di Francesco, James; Fridlund, Malcolm; Graham, James R.; Greaves, Jane; Heras, Ana M.; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Ivison, R. J.; Pantin, Eric; Pilbratt, Göran L.

    2015-10-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimeter maps from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope of the debris disk host star AU Microscopii. Disk emission is detected at 70, 160, 250, 350, 450, 500, and 850 μm. The disk is resolved at 70, 160, and 450 μm. In addition to the planetesimal belt, we detect thermal emission from AU Mic’s halo for the first time. In contrast to the scattered light images, no asymmetries are evident in the disk. The fractional luminosity of the disk is 3.9× {10}-4 and its milimeter-grain dust mass is 0.01 {M}\\oplus (±20%). We create a simple spatial model that reconciles the disk spectral energy distribution as a blackbody of 53 ± 2 K (a composite of 39 and 50 K components) and the presence of small (non-blackbody) grains which populate the extended halo. The best-fit model is consistent with the “birth ring” model explored in earlier works, i.e., an edge-on dust belt extending from 8.8 to 40 AU, but with an additional halo component with an {r}-1.5 surface density profile extending to the limits of sensitivity (140 AU). We confirm that AU Mic does not exert enough radiation force to blow out grains. For stellar mass-loss rates of 10–100 times solar, compact (zero porosity) grains can only be removed if they are very small; consistently with previous work, if the porosity is 0.9, then grains approaching 0.1 μm can be removed via corpuscular forces (i.e., the stellar wind).

  2. Micro-spec: an Integrated Direct-detection Spectrometer for Far-infrared Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements.Micro-Spec (µ-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 (micrometers) wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due tothe large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a approximately 10 sq cm silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for micro-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance.Two point designs with resolving power of 260 and 520 and an RMS phase error less than approximately 0.004 radians were developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  3. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E.; de Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S.

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm-1 far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north, the cloud, which extends from 55 N to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the south pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in 2013 December showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 S. The ring was centered 4deg from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in 2014 January) was also offset by 4deg, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 S with a minimum at 80 S. The shape of the gas emission distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the south pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline from 2015 to 2016. Key words: molecular processes - planets and satellites: atmospheres - planets and satellites: composition - planets and satellites: individual (Titan) - radiation mechanisms: thermal

  4. Water vapor in Titan's stratosphere from Cassini CIRS far-infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bézard, B.; de Kok, R.; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-08-01

    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar, F.M. et al. [2004]. Space Sci. Rev. 115, 169-297). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 μm, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes (NEMESIS (Irwin, P.G.J. et al. [2008]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 109, 1136-1150) and ART (Coustenis, A. et al. [2007]. Icarus 189, 35-62; Coustenis, A. et al. [2010]. Icarus 207, 461-476). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 ± 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 ± 1.3 × 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80°S to 30°N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 ± 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 ± 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models (e.g. Lara, L.M., Lellouch, F., Lopez-Moreno, J.J., Rodrigo, R. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res. 101(23), 261; Wilson, E.H., Atreya, S.K. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E6; Hörst, S.M., Vuitton, V., Yelle, R.V. [2008]. J. Geophys. Res., 113, E10). We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of ˜0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  5. Clinical effects of far-infrared therapy in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ko-Hsin; Li, Wen-Tyng

    2007-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the sixth most common chronic illness worldwide, which has a significant impact on patients' quality of life. The actual cost of AR is staggering, approximately $5.6 billion being spent annually in direct medical costs and other indirect costs. Therefore, it should be taken seriously upon its evaluation and treatment. AR is an IgE-mediated inflammation, which symptoms are likely due to increased vascular permeability. Current therapeutic options such as avoidance of allergen, medication and immunotherapy are unsatisfactory. Far-infrared (FIR) is an invisible electromagnetic wave with a wavelength longer than that of visible light. It has been used to treat vascular diseases as a result of an increase in blood flow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of FIR therapy in patients with AR. Thirty-one patients with AR were enrolled in this study. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was placed to face the patient's nasal region at a distance of 30 cm. The treatment was performed for 40 min every morning for 7 days. Every day, patients recorded their symptoms in a diary before and during treatment. Each symptom of rhinitis was rated on a 4-point scale (0-3) according to severity. During the period of FIR therapy, the symptoms of eye itching, nasal itching, nasal stuffiness, rhinorrhea and sneezing were all significantly improved. Smell impairment was not improved until after the last treatment. No obvious adverse effect was observed in the patients during treatment and follow-up. We concluded that FIR therapy could improve the symptoms of AR and might serve as a novel treatment modality for AR. PMID:18002246

  6. The nuclear and integrated far-infrared emission of nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-González, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Ramos-Almeida, C.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Esquej, P.; González-Martín, O.; Ichikawa, K.; López-Rodríguez, E.; Povic, M.; Roche, P. F.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) 70-500 μm imaging observations obtained with Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) of 33 nearby (median distance of 30 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies from the Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) catalogue. We obtain the FIR nuclear (r = 1 kpc and r = 2 kpc) and integrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We estimate the unresolved nuclear emission at 70 μm and we fit the nuclear and integrated FIR SEDs with a grey body model. We find that the integrated FIR emission of the RSA Seyferts in our sample is dominated by emission from the host galaxy, with dust properties similar to those of normal galaxies (non-AGN). We use four criteria to select galaxies whose nuclear 70 μm emission has a significant AGN contribution: (1) elevated 70/160 μm flux ratios, (2) spatially resolved, high dust temperature gradient, (3) 70 μm excess emission with respect to the fit of the FIR SEDs with a grey body, and (4) excess of nuclear SFR obtained from 70 μm over SFR from mid-infrared indicators. 16 galaxies (48 per cent of the initial sample) satisfy at least one of these conditions, whereas 10 satisfy half or more. After careful examination of these, we select six bona fide candidates (18 per cent of the initial sample) and estimate that ˜40-70 per cent of their nuclear (r = 1-2 kpc) 70 μm emission is contributed by dust heated by the AGN.

  7. EVOLVING STARBURST MODELING OF FAR-INFRARED/SUBMILLIMETER/MILLIMETER LINE EMISSION. II. APPLICATION TO M 82

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Lihong

    2009-11-01

    We present starburst models for far-infrared/sub-millimeter/millimeter line emission of molecular and atomic gas in an evolving starburst region, which is treated as an ensemble of noninteracting hot bubbles that drive spherical shells of swept-up gas into a surrounding uniform gas medium. These bubbles and shells are driven by stellar winds and supernovae within massive star clusters formed during an instantaneous starburst. The underlying stellar radiation from the evolving clusters affects the properties and structure of photodissociation regions (PDRs) in the shells, and hence the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the molecular and atomic line emission from these swept-up shells and the associated parent giant molecular clouds contain a signature of the stage of evolution of the starburst. The physical and chemical properties of the shells and their structure are computed using a simple, well-known similarity solution for the shell expansion, a stellar population synthesis code, and a time-dependent PDR chemistry model. The SEDs for several molecular and atomic lines ({sup 12}CO and its isotope {sup 13}CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, C, O, and C{sup +}) are computed using a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium line radiative transfer model. By comparing our models with the available observed data of nearby infrared bright galaxies, especially M 82, we constrain the models and in the case of M 82, we provide estimates for the ages (5-6 Myr, 10 Myr) of recent starburst activity. We also derive a total H{sub 2} gas mass of approx(2-3.4) x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun} for the observed regions of the central 1 kpc starburst disk of M 82.

  8. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Peter; Trayford, James W.; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-10-01

    The Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A discrepancy in the f250/f350 versus f350/f500 submm colour-colour relation implies that part of the simulated dust is insufficiently heated, likely because of limitations in our sub-grid model for star-forming regions. We also investigate the effect of adjusting the metal-to-dust ratio and the covering factor of the photodissociation regions surrounding the star-forming cores. We are able to constrain the important dust-related parameters in our method, informing the calculation of dust attenuation for EAGLE galaxies in the UV and optical domain.

  9. TICFIRE: a far infrared payload to monitor the evolution of thin ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Jean-Pierre; Royer, Alain; Châteauneuf, François; Bouzid, Yacine; Blanchard, Yann; Hamel, Jean-François; de Lafontaine, Jean; Gauthier, Pierre; O'Neill, Norman T.; Pancrati, Ovidiu; Garand, Louis

    2011-11-01

    The TICFIRE mission concept developed with the support of the Canadian Space Agency aims: 1) to improve measurements of water-vapour concentration in the low limit, where cold regions are most sensitive and 2) to determine the contribution of Thin Ice Clouds (TIC) to the energy balance and the role of their microphysical properties on atmospheric cooling. TICFIRE is a process-oriented mission on a micro-satellite platform dedicated to observe key parameters of TIC forming in the cold regions of the Poles and globally, in the upper troposphere. It locates cloud top profiles at the limb and measures at nadir the corresponding upwelling radiance of the atmosphere directly in the thermal window and in the Far Infrared (FIR) spectrum over cold geographical regions, precisely where most of the atmospheric thermal cooling takes place. Due to technological limitations, the FIR spectrum (17 to 50 μm) is not regularly monitored by conventional sensors despite its major importance. This deficiency in key data also impacts operational weather forecasting. TICFIRE will provide on a global scale a needed contribution in calibrated radiance assimilation near the IR maximum emission to improve weather forecast. TICFIRE is therefore a science-driven mission with a strong operational component. The TICFIRE payload consists of two instruments; the main one being a Nadir-looking multiband radiometer based on uncooled microbolometer technology and covering a large spectral range from 7.9 μm to 50 μm. The secondary one is an imager that performs Limb measurements and provides cloud vertical structure information. This paper presents the key payload requirements, the conceptual design, and the estimated performance of the TICFIRE payload. Current technology developments in support to the mission are also presented.

  10. The AU Mic Debris Disk: Far-infrared and Submillimeter Resolved Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Holland, Wayne; Booth, Mark; Kalas, Paul; MacGregor, Meredith; Wilner, David; Vandenbussche, Bart; Olofsson, Göran; Blommaert, Joris; Brandeker, Alexis; Dent, W. R. F.; de Vries, Bernard L.; Di Francesco, James; Fridlund, Malcolm; Graham, James R.; Greaves, Jane; Heras, Ana M.; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Ivison, R. J.; Pantin, Eric; Pilbratt, Göran L.

    2015-10-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimeter maps from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope of the debris disk host star AU Microscopii. Disk emission is detected at 70, 160, 250, 350, 450, 500, and 850 μm. The disk is resolved at 70, 160, and 450 μm. In addition to the planetesimal belt, we detect thermal emission from AU Mic’s halo for the first time. In contrast to the scattered light images, no asymmetries are evident in the disk. The fractional luminosity of the disk is 3.9× {10}-4 and its milimeter-grain dust mass is 0.01 {M}\\oplus (±20%). We create a simple spatial model that reconciles the disk spectral energy distribution as a blackbody of 53 ± 2 K (a composite of 39 and 50 K components) and the presence of small (non-blackbody) grains which populate the extended halo. The best-fit model is consistent with the “birth ring” model explored in earlier works, i.e., an edge-on dust belt extending from 8.8 to 40 AU, but with an additional halo component with an {r}-1.5 surface density profile extending to the limits of sensitivity (140 AU). We confirm that AU Mic does not exert enough radiation force to blow out grains. For stellar mass-loss rates of 10-100 times solar, compact (zero porosity) grains can only be removed if they are very small; consistently with previous work, if the porosity is 0.9, then grains approaching 0.1 μm can be removed via corpuscular forces (i.e., the stellar wind).

  11. Robust and fast pedestrian detection method for far-infrared automotive driving assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiong; Zhuang, Jiajun; Ma, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Despite considerable effort has been contributed to night-time pedestrian detection for automotive driving assistance systems recent years, robust and real-time pedestrian detection is by no means a trivial task and is still underway due to the moving cameras, uncontrolled outdoor environments, wide range of possible pedestrian presentations and the stringent performance criteria for automotive applications. This paper presents an alternative night-time pedestrian detection method using monocular far-infrared (FIR) camera, which includes two modules (regions of interest (ROIs) generation and pedestrian recognition) in a cascade fashion. Pixel-gradient oriented vertical projection is first proposed to estimate the vertical image stripes that might contain pedestrians, and then local thresholding image segmentation is adopted to generate ROIs more accurately within the estimated vertical stripes. A novel descriptor called PEWHOG (pyramid entropy weighted histograms of oriented gradients) is proposed to represent FIR pedestrians in recognition module. Specifically, PEWHOG is used to capture both the local object shape described by the entropy weighted distribution of oriented gradient histograms and its pyramid spatial layout. Then PEWHOG is fed to a three-branch structured classifier using support vector machines (SVM) with histogram intersection kernel (HIK). An off-line training procedure combining both the bootstrapping and early-stopping strategy is introduced to generate a more robust classifier by exploiting hard negative samples iteratively. Finally, multi-frame validation is utilized to suppress some transient false positives. Experimental results on FIR video sequences from various scenarios demonstrate that the presented method is effective and promising.

  12. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS Far-infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; de Kok, R.; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first detection of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere by disk-average observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Coustenis et al. 1998) we report here the successful detection of stratospheric water vapor using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar et al. 2004). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 microns, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes (NEMESIS, Irwin et al 2008 and ART, Coustenis et al. 2007, 2010). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of (0.14 0.05) ppb at an altitude of 97 kilometers, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 kilometers) surface normalized column abundance of (3.7 plus or minus 1.3) x 10(exp 14) molecules per square centimeter. In the latitude range 80 S to 30 N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of (0.13 plus or minus 0.04) ppb at an altitude of 115 kilometers and (0.45 plus or minus 0.15) ppb at an altitude of 230 kilometers, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models (e.g. Lara et al. 1996, Wilson and Atreya 2004, Horst et al. 2008); retrieved scaling factors (from approximately 0.1 to approximately 0.6) to the water profile suggested by these models show that water vapor is present in Titan stratosphere with less abundance than predicted.

  13. Metallicity and far-infrared luminosity of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Leah E.; Hamann, Fred

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of an exploratory study of broad-line region (BLR) metallicity in 34 2.2 <= z <= 4.6 quasars with far-infrared (FIR) luminosities (LFIR) from 1013.4 to <=1012.1 Lsolar. Quasar samples sorted by LFIR might represent an evolutionary sequence if the star formation rates (SFRs) in quasar hosts generally diminish across quasar lifetimes. We use rest-frame ultraviolet spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to construct three composite spectra sorted by LFIR, corresponding to average SFRs of 4980, 2130 and <=340 Msolar yr-1 after correcting for a nominal quasar FIR contribution. The measured NV λ1240/CIV λ1550 and SiIV λ1397+OIV] λ1402/CIV λ1550 emission line ratios indicate supersolar BLR metallicities in all three composites, with no evidence for a trend with the star formation rate. The formal derived metallicities, Z ~ 5-9Zsolar, are similar to those derived for the BLRs of other quasars at similar redshifts and luminosities. These results suggest that the ongoing star formation in the host is not responsible for the metal enrichment of the BLR gas. Instead, the BLR gas must have been enriched before the visible quasar phase. These results for high quasar metallicities, regardless of LFIR, are consistent with evolution scenarios wherein visibly bright quasars appear after the main episode(s) of star formation and metal enrichment in the host galaxies. Finally, young quasars, those more closely associated with a recent merger or a blowout of gas and dust, may exhibit tracers of these events, such as redder continuum slopes and higher incidence of narrow absorption lines. With the caveat of small sample sizes, we find no relation between LFIR and the reddening or the incidence of absorption lines.

  14. Temperature dependence of far-infrared difference reflectivity of YBa2Cu3O7-y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, H.; Bauer, G.; Vogl, G.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    1989-04-01

    Far-infrared difference reflectivity spectra (50-450 cm-1) below, across and above the transition temperature on polycrystalline single-phase YBa2Cu3O7-y samples were measured. The data are compared with model fits using the explicit temperature dependence of the Mattis-Bardeen conductivity, an effective-medium approach and temperature-dependent phonon oscillator parameters and alternatively a plasma model. For the plasma model we alternatively use a generalized Drude-like expression with a frequency-dependent damping after Thomas et al. [Phys. Rev. B 36, 846 (1987)] or the original model with Orenstein et al. [Phys. Rev. B 36, 729 (1987)] and Sherwin, Richards, and Zettl [Phys. Rev. B 37, 1587 (1988)] with a Drude contribution plus a mid-infrared oscillator, but with constant carrier relaxation rates. The models explain the difference reflectivity data (precision <0.2%) with a fitting accuracy of 1-2 % (Mattis-Bardeen model) or 2-3 % (plasma model) over the full temperature range. In order to investigate their applicability, reflectivity, and conductivity data of a highly oriented YBa2Cu3O7-y sample, as recently published by Bonn et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2249 (1987)], were also fitted with both models. Because of the frequency dependence of the free-carrier damping rates, it was important to fulfill the Kramers-Kronig relations between the real and the imaginary part of the dynamic conductivity in the calculations. For both models the characteristic dependences of the conductivity on frequency and temperature are given. Whereas, naturally, the Mattis-Bardeen model yields a gaplike depression of the conductivity for frequencies below an assumed gap, the plasma model results in somewhat smoother dependences of Re(σ(ω)) and Im(σ(ω)) in the frequency region of interest.

  15. Planck intermediate results. XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Joncas, G.; Jones, A.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-06-01

    The dust-Hi correlation is used to characterize the emission properties of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) from far infrared wavelengths to microwave frequencies. The field of this investigation encompasses the part of the southern sky best suited to study the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds. We cross-correlate sky maps from Planck, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE), at 17 frequencies from 23 to 3000 GHz, with the Parkes survey of the 21 cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen, over a contiguous area of 7500 deg2 centred on the southern Galactic pole. We present a general methodology to study the dust-Hi correlation over the sky, including simulations to quantify uncertainties. Our analysis yields four specific results. (1) We map the temperature, submillimetre emissivity, and opacity of the dust per H-atom. The dust temperature is observed to be anti-correlated with the dust emissivity and opacity. We interpret this result as evidence of dust evolution within the diffuse ISM. The mean dust opacity is measured to be (7.1 ± 0.6) × 10-27 cm2 H-1 × (ν/ 353 GHz)1.53 ± 0.03 for 100 ≤ ν ≤ 353 GHz. This is a reference value to estimate hydrogen column densities from dust emission at submillimetre and millimetre wavelengths. (2) We map the spectral index βmm of dust emission at millimetre wavelengths (defined here as ν ≤ 353 GHz), and find it to be remarkably constant at βmm = 1.51 ± 0.13. We compare it with the far infrared spectral index βFIR derived from greybody fits at higher frequencies, and find a systematic difference, βmm - βFIR = - 0.15, which suggests that the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) flattens at ν ≤ 353 GHz. (3) We present spectral fits of the microwave emission correlated with Hi from 23 to 353 GHz, which separate dust and anomalous microwave emission (AME). We show that the flattening of the dust SED can be accounted for with

  16. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex. III. Detailed cloud structure and feedback effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatagliata, V.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Gaczkowski, B.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The star formation process in large clusters/associations can be strongly influenced by the feedback from high-mass stars. Whether the resulting net effect of the feedback is predominantly negative (cloud dispersal) or positive (triggering of star formation due to cloud compression) is still an open question. Aims: The Carina Nebula complex (CNC) represents one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We use our Herschel far-infrared observations to study the properties of the clouds over the entire area of the CNC (with a diameter of ≈3.2°, which corresponds to ≈125 pc at a distance of 2.3 kpc). The good angular resolution (10''-36'') of the Herschel maps corresponds to physical scales of 0.1-0.4 pc, and allows us to analyze the small-scale (i.e., clump-size) structures of the clouds. Methods: The full extent of the CNC was mapped with PACS and SPIRE in the 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm bands. We determined temperatures and column densities at each point in these maps by modeling the observed far-infrared spectral energy distributions. We also derived a map showing the strength of the UV radiation field. We investigated the relation between the cloud properties and the spatial distribution of the high-mass stars and computed total cloud masses for different density thresholds. Results: Our Herschel maps resolve for the first time the small-scale structure of the dense clouds over the entire spatial extent of the CNC. Several particularly interesting regions, including the prominent pillars south of η Car, are analyzed in detail. We compare the cloud masses derived from the Herschel data with previous mass estimates based on sub-mm and molecular line data. Our maps also reveal a peculiar wave-like pattern in the northern part of the Carina Nebula. Finally, we characterize two prominent cloud complexes at the periphery of our Herschel maps, which are probably molecular clouds in the Galactic background. Conclusions: We find that the

  17. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). III. Far-infrared cooling lines in low-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karska, A.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wampfler, S. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Visser, R.; Nisini, B.; San José-García, I.; Bruderer, S.; Śniady, P.; Doty, S.; Fedele, D.; Yıldız, U. A.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Liseau, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-04-01

    Context. Understanding the physical phenomena involved in the earlierst stages of protostellar evolution requires knowledge of the heating and cooling processes that occur in the surroundings of a young stellar object. Spatially resolved information from its constituent gas and dust provides the necessary constraints to distinguish between different theories of accretion energy dissipation into the envelope. Aims. Our aims are to quantify the far-infrared line emission from low-mass protostars and the contribution of different atomic and molecular species to the gas cooling budget, to determine the spatial extent of the emission, and to investigate the underlying excitation conditions. Analysis of the line cooling will help us characterize the evolution of the relevant physical processes as the protostar ages. Methods. Far-infrared Herschel-PACS spectra of 18 low-mass protostars of various luminosities and evolutionary stages are studied in the context of the WISH key program. For most targets, the spectra include many wavelength intervals selected to cover specific CO, H2O, OH, and atomic lines. For four targets the spectra span the entire 55-200 μm region. The PACS field-of-view covers ~47" with the resolution of 9.4". Results. Most of the protostars in our sample show strong atomic and molecular far-infrared emission. Water is detected in 17 out of 18 objects (except TMC1A), including 5 Class I sources. The high-excitation H2O 818-707 63.3 μm line (Eu/kB = 1071 K) is detected in 7 sources. CO transitions from J = 14-13 up to J = 49 - 48 are found and show two distinct temperature components on Boltzmann diagrams with rotational temperatures of ~350 K and ~700 K. H2O has typical excitation temperatures of ~150 K. Emission from both Class 0 and I sources is usually spatially extended along the outflow direction but with a pattern that depends on the species and the transition. In the extended sources, emission is stronger off source and extended on &≥10,000 AU

  18. Effective field theory of dark matter from membrane inflationary paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on dark matter relic abundance from effective field theory of inflation from tensor-to-scalar ratio (r), in case of Randall-Sundrum single membrane (RSII) paradigm. Using semi-analytical approach we establish a direct connection between the dark matter relic abundance (ΩDMh2) and primordial gravity waves (r), which establishes a precise connection between inflation and generation of dark matter within the framework of effective field theory in RSII membrane. Further assuming the UV completeness of the effective field theory perfectly holds good in the prescribed framework, we have explicitly shown that the membrane tension, σ ≤ O(10-9) Mp4, bulk mass scale M5 ≤ O(0.04 - 0.05) Mp, and cosmological constant Λ˜5 ≥ - O(10-15) Mp5, in RSII membrane plays the most significant role to establish the connection between dark matter and inflation, using which we have studied the features of various mediator mass scale suppressed effective field theory "relevant operators" induced from the localized s, t and u channel interactions in RSII membrane. Taking a completely model independent approach, we have studied an exhaustive list of tree-level Feynman diagrams for dark matter annihilation within the prescribed setup and to check the consistency of the obtained results, further we apply the constraints as obtained from recently observed Planck 2015 data and Planck + BICEP2 + Keck Array joint data sets. Using all of these derived results we have shown that to satisfy the bound on, ΩDMh2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, as from Planck 2015 data, it is possible to put further stringent constraint on r within, 0.01 ≤ r ≤ 0.12, for thermally averaged annihilation cross-section of dark matter, < σv > ≈ O(10-28 - 10-27) cm3 / s, which are very useful to constrain various membrane inflationary models.

  19. EUV Dark-Field Microscopy for Defect Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Juschkin, L.; Maryasov, A.; Herbert, S.; Aretz, A.; Bergmann, K.; Lebert, R.

    2011-09-09

    An actinic EUV microscope for defect detection on mask blanks for operation in dark field using a table-top discharge-produced plasma source has been developed. Several test structures (pits and bumps) on multilayer mirrors were investigated by our Schwarzschild objective-based EUV microscope at 13.5-nm wavelength and then characterized with an atomic force microscope. Possible defect-detection limits with large field of view and moderate magnification are discussed in terms of required irradiation dose and system performance.

  20. Spherical collapse of dark matter haloes in tidal gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischke, Robert; Pace, Francesco; Meyer, Sven; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2016-08-01

    We study the spherical collapse model in the presence of external gravitational tidal shear fields for different dark energy scenarios and investigate the impact on the mass function and cluster number counts. While previous studies of the influence of shear and rotation on δc have been performed with heuristically motivated models, we try to avoid this model dependence and sample the external tidal shear values directly from the statistics of the underlying linearly evolved density field based on first order Lagrangian perturbation theory. Within this self-consistent approach, in the sense that we restrict our treatment to scales where linear theory is still applicable, only fluctuations larger than the scale of the considered objects are included into the sampling process which naturally introduces a mass dependence of δc. We find that shear effects are predominant for smaller objects and at lower redshifts, i. e. the effect on δc is at or below the percent level for the ΛCDM model. For dark energy models we also find small but noticeable differences, similar to ΛCDM. The virial overdensity ΔV is nearly unaffected by the external shear. The now mass dependent δc is used to evaluate the mass function for different dark energy scenarios and afterwards to predict cluster number counts, which indicate that ignoring the shear contribution can lead to biases of the order of 1σ in the estimation of cosmological parameters like Ωm, σ8 or w.

  1. Spherical collapse of dark matter haloes in tidal gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischke, Robert; Pace, Francesco; Meyer, Sven; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2016-11-01

    We study the spherical collapse model in the presence of external gravitational tidal shear fields for different dark energy scenarios and investigate the impact on the mass function and cluster number counts. While previous studies of the influence of shear and rotation on δc have been performed with heuristically motivated models, we try to avoid this model dependence and sample the external tidal shear values directly from the statistics of the underlying linearly evolved density field based on first-order Lagrangian perturbation theory. Within this self-consistent approach, in the sense that we restrict our treatment to scales where linear theory is still applicable, only fluctuations larger than the scale of the considered objects are included into the sampling process which naturally introduces a mass dependence of δc. We find that shear effects are predominant for smaller objects and at lower redshifts, i. e. the effect on δc is at or below the percent level for the ΛCDM model. For dark energy models we also find small but noticeable differences, similar to ΛCDM. The virial overdensity ΔV is nearly unaffected by the external shear. The now mass dependent δc is used to evaluate the mass function for different dark energy scenarios and afterwards to predict cluster number counts, which indicate that ignoring the shear contribution can lead to biases of the order of 1σ in the estimation of cosmological parameters like Ωm, σ8 or w.

  2. Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. I. Herschel far-infrared imaging of the Cygnus OB2 environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Blazere, A.; André, Ph.; Anderson, L. D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Comerón, F.; Didelon, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Guarcello, M. G.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Marston, A.; Minier, V.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Röllig, M.; Roy, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Tremblin, P.; White, G. J.; Wright, N. J.

    2016-06-01

    The radiative feedback of massive stars on molecular clouds creates pillars, globules and other features at the interface between the H II region and molecular cloud. Optical and near-infrared observations from the ground as well as with the Hubble or Spitzer satellites have revealed numerous examples of such cloud structures. We present here Herschel far-infrared observations between 70 μm and 500 μm of the immediate environment of the rich Cygnus OB2 association, performed within the Herschel imaging survey of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) program. All of the observed irradiated structures were detected based on their appearance at 70 μm, and have been classified as pillars, globules, evaporating gasous globules (EGGs), proplyd-like objects, and condensations. From the 70 μm and 160 μm flux maps, we derive the local far-ultraviolet (FUV) field on the photon dominated surfaces. In parallel, we use a census of the O-stars to estimate the overall FUV-field, that is 103-104 G0 (Habing field) close to the central OB cluster (within 10 pc) and decreases down to a few tens G0, in a distance of 50 pc. From a spectral energy distribution (SED) fit to the four longest Herschel wavelengths, we determine column density and temperature maps and derive masses, volume densities and surface densities for these structures. We find that the morphological classification corresponds to distinct physical properties. Pillars and globules are massive (~500 M⊙) and large (equivalent radius r ~ 0.6 pc) structures, corresponding to what is defined as "clumps" for molecular clouds. EGGs and proplyd-likeobjects are smaller (r ~ 0.1 and 0.2 pc) and less massive (~10 and ~30 M⊙). Cloud condensations are small (~0.1 pc), have an average mass of 35 M⊙, are dense (~6 × 104 cm-3), and can thus be described as molecular cloud "cores". All pillars and globules are oriented toward the Cyg OB2 association center and have the longest estimated photoevaporation lifetimes, a few million

  3. Fourier transform far infrared spectrum of CD 3OD: detailed analysis in the torsional ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indranath; Duan, Yun-Bo; Klee, Stefan

    2004-06-01

    High resolution Fourier transform (FT) far infrared (FIR) spectra of CD 3OD isotopomer of methanol have been measured in the range 20-350 cm -1 at a resolution of 0.0017 cm -1 using a Bruker spectrometer. The spectra were recorded in various runs at pressure in the range of 0.2-0.8 mbar both at room temperature and at -60 °C. The spectra show complicated splitting due to strong torsional-rotational interactions in the molecule. Detailed assignments have been achieved mainly for the torsional ground state levels. The assigned transition wavenumbers along with the previously known microwave (MW) [J. Chem. Phys. 23 (1955) 1195; J. Chem. Phys. 56 (1972) 5887; Spectrochim. Acta A 54 (1998) 1375], and recently measured millimeter-wave (MMW) lines [I. Mukhopadhyay, R.A.H. Butler, F.C. DeLucia, E. Herbst, in preparation], were fit to an eighth order Hamiltonian [J. Chem. Phys. 104 (1996) 3914; J. Chem. Phys. 110 (1999) 927; J. Mol. Spectrosc. 193 (1999) 418; Chem. Phys. 263 (2001) 263; Chem. Phys. 257 (2000) 91; Chem. Phys. 280 (2002) 119; Chem. Phys. (2003) in press] with 62 varied parameters. The data set consisted of a total of 3211 transitions with 2959 FIR transitions from the ground torsional state with rotational angular momentum K ranging from 0 to 19 and J ranging from 0 to 45, and 237 MW and MMW transitions. The fit converged with a standard deviation of 0.0007 cm -1 for the FIR component of the data and the standard deviation for the MW and MMW transitions was 560 kHz. The standard deviation for the FIR lines is well compared with the estimated experimental accuracy of 0.0002 cm -1 for clean unblended lines. Here we report the actual measured wavenumbers with their assignments, some of these were not included in the fit. The complete data set fitted is not included here for the sake of economy of space but can be obtained from IM.

  4. A REDSHIFT SURVEY OF HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SELECTED STARBURSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSCURED STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C. M.; Budynkiewicz, J.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Bethermin, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Burgarella, D.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ivison, R. J.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey peaks at z = 0.85, with 731 sources at z < 2 and a tail of sources out to z {approx} 5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (({Delta}z/(1 + z{sub spec})) = 0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. The infrared data are used to directly measure integrated infrared luminosities and dust temperatures independent of radio or 24 {mu}m flux densities. By probing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) at its peak, we estimate that the vast majority (72%-83%) of z < 2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1 mm. We find that dust temperature traces infrared luminosity, due in part to the SPIRE wavelength selection biases, and partially from physical effects. As a result, we measure no significant trend in SPIRE color with redshift; if dust temperature were independent of luminosity or redshift, a trend in SPIRE color would be expected. Composite infrared SEDs are constructed as a function of infrared luminosity, showing the increase in dust temperature with luminosity, and subtle change in near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral properties. Moderate evolution in the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation is measured for this partially radio-selected sample, with q{sub IR}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup -0.30{+-}0.02} at z < 2. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z < 1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24 {mu}m extrapolations of the LIRG

  5. FAR-INFRARED DUST TEMPERATURES AND COLUMN DENSITIES OF THE MALT90 MOLECULAR CLUMP SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Smith, Howard A.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Contreras, Yanett; Rathborne, Jill M.; Jackson, James M.; Hoq, Sadia

    2015-12-20

    We present dust column densities and dust temperatures for ∼3000 young, high-mass molecular clumps from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz survey, derived from adjusting single-temperature dust emission models to the far-infrared intensity maps measured between 160 and 870 μm from the Herschel/Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-Gal) and APEX/APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) surveys. We discuss the methodology employed in analyzing the data, calculating physical parameters, and estimating their uncertainties. The population average dust temperature of the clumps are 16.8 ± 0.2 K for the clumps that do not exhibit mid-infrared signatures of star formation (quiescent clumps), 18.6 ± 0.2 K for the clumps that display mid-infrared signatures of ongoing star formation but have not yet developed an H ii region (protostellar clumps), and 23.7 ± 0.2 and 28.1 ± 0.3 K for clumps associated with H ii and photo-dissociation regions, respectively. These four groups exhibit large overlaps in their temperature distributions, with dispersions ranging between 4 and 6 K. The median of the peak column densities of the protostellar clump population is 0.20 ± 0.02 g cm{sup −2}, which is about 50% higher compared to the median of the peak column densities associated with clumps in the other evolutionary stages. We compare the dust temperatures and column densities measured toward the center of the clumps with the mean values of each clump. We find that in the quiescent clumps, the dust temperature increases toward the outer regions and that these clumps are associated with the shallowest column density profiles. In contrast, molecular clumps in the protostellar or H ii region phase have dust temperature gradients more consistent with internal heating and are associated with steeper column density profiles compared with the quiescent clumps.

  6. HerMES: The Far-infrared Emission from Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A.; Assef, R. J.; Bock, J.; Casey, C. M.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.; Viero, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-09-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ~ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg2 of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have langzrang = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r + observations using a color cut of r + - [24] >= 7.5 (AB mag) and S 24 >= 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (>=3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 1012 L ⊙ and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 1012 L ⊙, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S 24 >= 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S 24 >= 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ~ 2.

  7. HerMES: THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A.; Assef, R. J.; Bock, J.; Riechers, D.; Schulz, B.; Casey, C. M.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Ibar, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Magdis, G.; Rigopoulou, D.; Marchetti, L.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Scott, Douglas; and others

    2013-09-20

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ∼ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg{sup 2} of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have (z) = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r {sup +} observations using a color cut of r {sup +} – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉} and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉}, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ∼ 2.

  8. Laboratory microwave, millimeter wave and far-infrared spectra of dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, A.; Van, V.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Dimethyl sulfide, CH3SCH3 (DMS), is a nonrigid, sulfur-containing molecule whose astronomical detection is considered to be possible in the interstellar medium. Very accurate spectroscopic constants were obtained by a laboratory analysis of rotational microwave and millimeter wave spectra, as well as rotation-torsional far-infrared (FIR) spectra, which can be used to predict transition frequencies for a detection in interstellar sources. Aims: This work aims at the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state and ground torsional band ν15 of DMS in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40 GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110 GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. Results: DMS has two equivalent methyl internal rotors with a barrier height of about 730 cm-1. We performed a fit, using the XIAM and BELGI-Cs-2Tops codes, that contained the new measurements and previous transitions reported in the literature for the ground torsional state νt = 0 (including the four torsional species AA, AE, EA and EE) and for the ground torsional band ν15 = 1 ← 0 (including only the AA species). In the microwave region, we analyzed 584 transitions with J ≤ 30 of the ground torsional state νt = 0 and 18 transitions with J ≤ 5 of the first excited torsional state νt = 1. In the FIR range, 578 transitions belonging to the torsional band ν15 = 1 ← 0 with J ≤ 27 were assigned. Totally, 1180 transitions were included in a global fit with 21 accurately determined parameters. These parameters can be used to produce a reliable line-list for an astrophysical detection of DMS. Full Tables B.1 and C.1, and Table E.1 are

  9. Axion Dark Matter Coupling to Resonant Photons via Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Ben T; Parker, Stephen R; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-04-22

    We show that the magnetic component of the photon field produced by dark matter axions via the two-photon coupling mechanism in a Sikivie haloscope is an important parameter passed over in previous analysis and experiments. The interaction of the produced photons will be resonantly enhanced as long as they couple to the electric or magnetic mode structure of the haloscope cavity. For typical haloscope experiments the electric and magnetic couplings are equal, and this has implicitly been assumed in past sensitivity calculations. However, for future planned searches such as those at high frequency, which synchronize multiple cavities, the sensitivity will be altered due to different magnetic and electric couplings. We define the complete electromagnetic form factor and discuss its implications for current and future dark matter axion searches over a wide range of masses. PMID:27152793

  10. Axion Dark Matter Coupling to Resonant Photons via Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Ben T; Parker, Stephen R; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-04-22

    We show that the magnetic component of the photon field produced by dark matter axions via the two-photon coupling mechanism in a Sikivie haloscope is an important parameter passed over in previous analysis and experiments. The interaction of the produced photons will be resonantly enhanced as long as they couple to the electric or magnetic mode structure of the haloscope cavity. For typical haloscope experiments the electric and magnetic couplings are equal, and this has implicitly been assumed in past sensitivity calculations. However, for future planned searches such as those at high frequency, which synchronize multiple cavities, the sensitivity will be altered due to different magnetic and electric couplings. We define the complete electromagnetic form factor and discuss its implications for current and future dark matter axion searches over a wide range of masses.

  11. Axion Dark Matter Coupling to Resonant Photons via Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Ben T.; Parker, Stephen R.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the magnetic component of the photon field produced by dark matter axions via the two-photon coupling mechanism in a Sikivie haloscope is an important parameter passed over in previous analysis and experiments. The interaction of the produced photons will be resonantly enhanced as long as they couple to the electric or magnetic mode structure of the haloscope cavity. For typical haloscope experiments the electric and magnetic couplings are equal, and this has implicitly been assumed in past sensitivity calculations. However, for future planned searches such as those at high frequency, which synchronize multiple cavities, the sensitivity will be altered due to different magnetic and electric couplings. We define the complete electromagnetic form factor and discuss its implications for current and future dark matter axion searches over a wide range of masses.

  12. Measurement of ionic polarization of SrTiO3 single crystal by far-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanehara, Kazuki; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2014-07-01

    We developed a far-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometer for measuring the complex permittivity of high-permittivity materials in the terahertz (THz) region and demonstrated the dielectric function of SrTiO3 single crystal at 0.75-21 THz. The responses of the Slater, Last, and O6 displacive modes, which are all optical phonon modes of SrTiO3 at room temperature, were clearly observed. The complex permittivity measured by the ellipsometer agreed with the permittivity simulated by a damped harmonic oscillator model. The far-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry is useful to analyze the phonon modes of high-permittivity materials, which enable us to understand the contribution of the ionic polarizations to the low-frequency permittivity.

  13. MIRI: A multichannel far-infrared laser interferometer for electron density measurements on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.K.; Johnson, L.C.; Anderson, H.M.; Chouinard, R.; Foote, V.S.; Ma, C.H.; Clifton, B.J.

    1987-07-01

    A ten-channel far-infrared laser interferometer which is routinely used to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the electron density profile on the TFTR tokamak is described and representative results are presented. This system has been designed for remote operation in the very hostile environment of a fusion reactor. The possible expansion of the system to include polarimetric measurements is briefly outlined. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Star formation in the inner galaxy: A far-infrared and radio study of two H2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Werner, M. W.; Harvey, P. M.; Evans, N. J.; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Far-infrared and radio continuum maps have been made of the central 6' of the inner-galaxy HII regions G30.8-0.0 (in the W43 complex) and G25.4-0.2, along with radio and molecular line measurements at selected positions. The purpose of this study is an effort to understand star formation in the molecular ring at 5 kpc in galactic radius. Measurements at several far infrared wavelengths allow the dust temperature structures and total far infrared fluxes to be determined. Comparison of the radio and infrared maps shows a close relationship between the ionized gas and the infrared-emitting material. There is evidence that parts of G30.8 are substantially affected by extinction, even at far-infrared wavelengths. Using radio recombination line and CO line data for G25.4-0.2, the distance ambiguity for this source is resolved. The large distance previously ascribed to the entire complex is found to apply to only one of the two main components. The confusion in distance determination is found to result from an extraordinary near-superposition of two bright HII regions. Using the revised distances of 4.3 kpc for G25.4SE and 12 kpc for G25.4NW, it is found that the latter, which is apparently the fainter of the two sources, is actually the more luminous. The ratio of total luminosity to ionizing luminosity is very similar to that of HII regions in the solar circle. Assuming a coeval population of ionizing stars, a normal initial mass function is indicated.

  15. Star formation in the inner galaxy: A far-infrared and radio study of two H2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Werner, M. W.; Harvey, P. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Far-infrared and radio continuum maps have been made of the central 6' of the inner-galaxy H II regions G30.8-0.0 (in the W43 complex) and G25.4-02., along with radio and molecular line measurements at selected positions. An effort is made to understand far infrared wavelingths allow the dust temperature structures and total far infrared fluxes to be determined. Comparison of the radio and infrared maps shows a close relationship between the ionized gas and the infrared-emitting material. There is evidence that parts of G30.8 are substantially affected by extinction, even at far-infrared wavelengths. For G25.4-0.2, the radio recombination line and CO line data permit resolution of the distance ambiguity for this source. The confusion in distance determination is found to result from an extraordinary near-superposition of two bright H II regions. Using revised distances of 4.3 kpc for G26.4SE and 12 kpc for G25.4NW, that the latter, which is apparently the fainter of the two sources, is actually the more luminous. Though it is not seen on the Palomar Sky Survey, G25.4SE is easily visible in the 9532A line of S III and is mapped in this line. The ratio of total luminosity to ionizing luminosity is very similar to that of H II regions in the solar circle. Assuming a coeval population of ionizing stars, a normal initial mass function is indicated.

  16. Far infrared video detection and difference frequency mixing with tilted c-axis epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 - delta thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, W. M.; Berr, M.; Kalbeck, A.; Prettl, W.; Huggard, P. G.

    1996-06-01

    Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films, grown with a controllable misalignment between c-axis and surface normal, exhibit a sensitive photoresponse to far infrared laser radiation at temperatures below Tc. While no photoresponse was observed in c-axis normal films, a sensitivity of 0.2 V/W was measured at a wavelength of 432 μm for a film with a 20° c-axis tilt. Difference frequency mixing of two laser modes has also been demonstrated at intermediate frequencies between 200 kHz and 6 MHz. Both mixing and video detection are believed to originate in the ac Josephson effect: the effect of the tilted growth is to allow a component of the radiation field to be applied along the c-axis, thus modulating the relatively weak Josephson coupling in this direction.

  17. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  18. Effective field theory of dark energy: a dynamical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Frusciante, Noemi; Raveri, Marco; Silvestri, Alessandra E-mail: mraveri@sissa.it

    2014-02-01

    The effective field theory (EFT) of dark energy relies on three functions of time to describe the dynamics of background cosmology. The viability of these functions is investigated here by means of a thorough dynamical analysis. While the system is underdetermined, and one can always find a set of functions reproducing any expansion history, we are able to determine general compatibility conditions for these functions by requiring a viable background cosmology. In particular, we identify a set of variables that allows us to transform the non-autonomous system of equations into an infinite-dimensional one characterized by a significant recursive structure. We then analyze several autonomous sub-systems, obtained truncating the original one at increasingly higher dimension, that correspond to increasingly general models of dark energy and modified gravity. Furthermore, we exploit the recursive nature of the system to draw some general conclusions on the different cosmologies that can be recovered within the EFT formalism and the corresponding compatibility requirements for the EFT functions. The machinery that we set up serves different purposes. It offers a general scheme for performing dynamical analysis of dark energy and modified gravity models within the model independent framework of EFT; the general results, obtained with this technique, can be projected into specific models, as we show in one example. It also can be used to determine appropriate ansätze for the three EFT background functions when studying the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in the context of large scale structure tests of gravity.

  19. Phonons and hybrid modes in the high and low temperature far infrared dynamics of hexagonal TmMnO3.

    PubMed

    Massa, Néstor E; del Campo, Leire; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Martínez-Lope, María Jesús; Alonso, José Antonio

    2014-07-01

    We report on temperature dependent TmMnO3 far infrared emissivity and reflectivity spectra from 1910 K to 4 K. At the highest temperature the number of infrared bands is lower than that predicted for centrosymmetric P63/mmc (D(4)(6h)) (Z = 2) space group due to high temperature anharmonicity and possible defect induced bitetrahedra misalignments. On cooling, at ~1600 ± 40 K, TmMnO3 goes from non-polar to an antiferroelectric-ferroelectric polar phase reaching the ferroelectric onset at ~700 K. Room temperature reflectivity is fitted using 19 oscillators and this number of phonons is maintained down to 4 K. A weak phonon anomaly in the band profile at 217 cm(-1) (4 K) suggests subtle Rare Earth magneto-electric couplings at ~TN and below. A low energy collective excitation is identified as a THz instability associated with room temperature eg electrons in a d-orbital fluctuating environment. It condenses into two modes that emerge pinned to the E-type antiferromagnetic order hardening simultaneously down to 4 K. They obey power laws with TN as the critical temperature and match known zone center magnons. The one peaking at 26 cm(-1), with critical exponent β=0.42 as for antiferromagnetic order in a hexagonal lattice, is dependent on the Rare Earth ion. The higher frequency companion at ~50 cm(-1), with β=0.25, splits at ~TN into two peaks. The weaker band of the two is assimilated to the upper branch of the gap opening in the transverse acoustical (TA) phonon branch crossing the magnetic dispersion found in YMnO3. (Petit et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 266604). The stronger second band at ~36 cm(-1) corresponds to the lower branch of the TA gap. We assign both excitations as zone center magneto-electric hybrid quasiparticles, concluding that in NdMnO3 perovskite the equivalent picture corresponds to an instability which may be driven by an external field to transform NdMnO3 into a multiferroic compound by perturbation enhancing the TA

  20. Phonons and hybrid modes in the high and low temperature far infrared dynamics of hexagonal TmMnO3.

    PubMed

    Massa, Néstor E; del Campo, Leire; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Martínez-Lope, María Jesús; Alonso, José Antonio

    2014-07-01

    We report on temperature dependent TmMnO3 far infrared emissivity and reflectivity spectra from 1910 K to 4 K. At the highest temperature the number of infrared bands is lower than that predicted for centrosymmetric P63/mmc (D(4)(6h)) (Z = 2) space group due to high temperature anharmonicity and possible defect induced bitetrahedra misalignments. On cooling, at ~1600 ± 40 K, TmMnO3 goes from non-polar to an antiferroelectric-ferroelectric polar phase reaching the ferroelectric onset at ~700 K. Room temperature reflectivity is fitted using 19 oscillators and this number of phonons is maintained down to 4 K. A weak phonon anomaly in the band profile at 217 cm(-1) (4 K) suggests subtle Rare Earth magneto-electric couplings at ~TN and below. A low energy collective excitation is identified as a THz instability associated with room temperature eg electrons in a d-orbital fluctuating environment. It condenses into two modes that emerge pinned to the E-type antiferromagnetic order hardening simultaneously down to 4 K. They obey power laws with TN as the critical temperature and match known zone center magnons. The one peaking at 26 cm(-1), with critical exponent β=0.42 as for antiferromagnetic order in a hexagonal lattice, is dependent on the Rare Earth ion. The higher frequency companion at ~50 cm(-1), with β=0.25, splits at ~TN into two peaks. The weaker band of the two is assimilated to the upper branch of the gap opening in the transverse acoustical (TA) phonon branch crossing the magnetic dispersion found in YMnO3. (Petit et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 266604). The stronger second band at ~36 cm(-1) corresponds to the lower branch of the TA gap. We assign both excitations as zone center magneto-electric hybrid quasiparticles, concluding that in NdMnO3 perovskite the equivalent picture corresponds to an instability which may be driven by an external field to transform NdMnO3 into a multiferroic compound by perturbation enhancing the TA

  1. Far infrared conductivity of charge density wave materials and the oxygen isotope effect in high-T sub c superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Creager, W.N.

    1991-09-01

    The far infrared reflectance and conductivity of (Ta{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}Se{sub 4}){sub 2}I and TaS{sub 3} have been measured to determine the origin of a huge infrared resonance that dominates the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics along with the pinned acoustic phason mode in the related materials (TaSe{sub 4}){sub 2}I and K{sub 0. 3}MoO{sub 3}. The measurements cover frequencies from 3 to 700cm{sup {minus}1} and the temperature range from 15K to 300K. In the niobium-doped alloys (Ta{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}Se{sub 4}){sub 2}I, the size and frequency of the giant infrared mode remain nearly constant as the impurity concentration x is increased. For TaS{sub 3}, the pinned acoustic phason near 0.5cm{sup {minus}1} dominates {var epsilon}({omega}) and an additional small mode lies near 9cm{sup {minus}1}. The latter mode is much smaller than the infrared mode in other CDW materials. These results rule out several models of a generic infrared mode'' in CDW excitations. They are compared in detail to the predictions of a recent theory attributing the infrared mode to a bound collective mode localized at impurity sites within the crystal. The transmittance of K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} has been measured at 1.2K with a strong dc electric field applied across the crystal. Under these conditions, the charge density wave depins abruptly and carries large currents with near-zero differential resistance. For some samples, the low-frequency transmittance is enhanced slightly when the CDW depins. The magnitude of the oxygen isotope effect in the high-{Tc} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} has been determined by substitution of {sup 18}O for {sup 16}O. A series of cross-exchanges was performed on high-quality polycrystalline specimens to eliminate uncertainties due to sample heat treatments and sample inhomogeneities.

  2. Phonons and hybrid modes in the high and low temperature far infrared dynamics of hexagonal TmMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Néstor E.; del Campo, Leire; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Jesús Martínez-Lope, María; Alonso, José Antonio

    2014-07-01

    We report on temperature dependent TmMnO3 far infrared emissivity and reflectivity spectra from 1910 K to 4 K. At the highest temperature the number of infrared bands is lower than that predicted for centrosymmetric P63/mmc \\left(\\text{D}_{6\\text{h}}^{4}\\right) (Z = 2) space group due to high temperature anharmonicity and possible defect induced bitetrahedra misalignments. On cooling, at ~1600 ± 40 K, TmMnO3 goes from non-polar to an antiferroelectric-ferroelectric polar phase reaching the ferroelectric onset at ~700 K. Room temperature reflectivity is fitted using 19 oscillators and this number of phonons is maintained down to 4 K. A weak phonon anomaly in the band profile at 217 cm-1 (4 K) suggests subtle Rare Earth magneto-electric couplings at ~TN and below. A low energy collective excitation is identified as a THz instability associated with room temperature eg electrons in a d-orbital fluctuating environment. It condenses into two modes that emerge pinned to the E-type antiferromagnetic order hardening simultaneously down to 4 K. They obey power laws with TN as the critical temperature and match known zone center magnons. The one peaking at 26 cm-1, with critical exponent β=0.42 as for antiferromagnetic order in a hexagonal lattice, is dependent on the Rare Earth ion. The higher frequency companion at ~50 cm-1, with β=0.25, splits at ~TN into two peaks. The weaker band of the two is assimilated to the upper branch of the gap opening in the transverse acoustical (TA) phonon branch crossing the magnetic dispersion found in YMnO3. (Petit et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 266604). The stronger second band at ~36 cm-1 corresponds to the lower branch of the TA gap. We assign both excitations as zone center magneto-electric hybrid quasiparticles, concluding that in NdMnO3 perovskite the equivalent picture corresponds to an instability which may be driven by an external field to transform NdMnO3 into a multiferroic compound by

  3. Dark-field circular depolarization optical coherence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kalpesh; Zhang, Pengfei; Yeo, Eugenia Li Ling; Kah, James Chen Yong; Chen, Nanguang

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a widely used structural imaging modality. To extend its application in molecular imaging, gold nanorods are widely used as contrast agents for OCM. However, they very often offer limited sensitivity as a result of poor signal to background ratio. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a novel OCM implementation based on dark-field circular depolarization detection can efficiently detect circularly depolarized signal from gold nanorods and at the same time efficiently suppress the background signals. This results into a significant improvement in signal to background ratio. PMID:24049689

  4. HERschel key program heritage: A far-infrared source catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Hony, Sacha; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Matsuura, Mikako; Oliveira, Joana M.; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Srinivasan, Sundar; and others

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  5. Herschel Key Program Heritage: a Far-Infrared Source Catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Gordon, Karl; Hony, Sacha; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sauvage, Marc; Boyer, Martha L.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Matsuura, Mikako; Oliveira, Joana M.; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Whitney, Barbara; Woods, Paul M.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  6. The optical constants of crystalline silicate particles in mid- and far-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Hiroshi; Koike, Chiyoe; Shibai, Hiroshi; Tuchiyama, Akira; Mizutani, Kohei

    The optical constants from the mid to far infrared region are presented for the crystalline silicate particles with submicron size, i.e. olivine, forsterite, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene particles which are considered as major constituents of interplanetary, interstellar and circumstellar dust. The olivine, clinoproxene and orthopyroxene are natural from Ichinomegata, Akita and have the following characteristics, olivine: (Mg_0.90Fe_0.10)_2SiO_2(Fo_90), rho = 3.36g/cm^3 clinopyroxene: Ca(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)_2O_6 Mg / (Mg+Fe) = 0.90 - 0.92, Al_2O_3 = 1.9 - 4.9 wt%, rho = 3.28 g/cm^3 orthopyroxene: (Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)O_3 3.36g / cm^3 Mg / (Mg+Fe) = 0.89 - 0.90, Al_2O_3 = 3.3 - 4.0 wt%, rho = 3.32 g/cm^3 The forsterite (Mg_2SiO_4, [Mg / (Mg+Fe) = 1]) is synthesized by the CZ method (Takei 1976). The optical constants have been derived from the transmission spectra of the particles with use of Kramers-Kronig relation (Rouleau and Martin 1991). The transmissions from 5 microns to 30 microns and 25 microns to 100 microns were measured respectively for KBr pellets and polyethylene sheets containing the particles. Under Rayleigh approximation (lambda gg particle size) the imaginary part of the polarizability A per unit volume has a form of A = (epsilon/epsilon_h-1) / ((epsilon/epsilon_h-1)L+1) where epsilon: dielectric constant of particle, epsilon_h: dielectric constant of host medium and L: shape parameter of dust with assumption of homogeneous spheroid. The imaginary part of A is proportional to the transmission T as Aimg = lambda/{(2pi nhost)} rho/M ln (1/T). Imaginary part of A at infrared region are given from our measurements, and with applying Kramers-Kronig relation to the polarizability the real part of A can be derived, then the optical constants of particles are evaluated from equation of A. The silicate's strong absorption features around 10 microns and 11 microns were measured for the particles placed on the surface of KBr or glass plate (not embedded in KBr

  7. MAGNETIC FIELDS IN HIGH-MASS INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, T.; Kauffmann, J.; Tan, J. C.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Carey, S. J.; Menten, K. M.

    2015-01-20

    High-mass stars are cosmic engines known to dominate the energetics in the Milky Way and other galaxies. However, their formation is still not well understood. Massive, cold, dense clouds, often appearing as infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), are the nurseries of massive stars. No measurements of magnetic fields in IRDCs in a state prior to the onset of high-mass star formation (HMSF) have previously been available, and prevailing HMSF theories do not consider strong magnetic fields. Here, we report observations of magnetic fields in two of the most massive IRDCs in the Milky Way. We show that IRDCs G11.11–0.12 and G0.253+0.016 are strongly magnetized and that the strong magnetic field is as important as turbulence and gravity for HMSF. The main dense filament in G11.11–0.12 is perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the lower density filament merging onto the main filament is parallel to the magnetic field. The implied magnetic field is strong enough to suppress fragmentation sufficiently to allow HMSF. Other mechanisms reducing fragmentation, such as the entrapment of heating from young stars via high-mass surface densities, are not required to facilitate HMSF.

  8. Precision Higgs Physics, Effective Field Theory, and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Brian Quinn

    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson calls for detailed studies of its properties. As precision measurements are indirect probes of new physics, the appropriate theoretical framework is effective field theory. In the first part of this thesis, we present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. The covariant derivative expansion dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of renormalization group running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. With a detailed understanding of how to use the SM EFT, we then turn to applications and study in detail two well-motivated test cases. The first is singlet scalar field that enables the first-order electroweak phase transition for baryogenesis; the second example is due to scalar tops in the MSSM. We find both Higgs and electroweak measurements are sensitive probes of these cases. The second part of this thesis centers around dark matter, and consists of two studies. In the first, we examine the effects of relic dark matter annihilations on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The magnitude of these effects scale simply with the dark matter mass and annihilation cross-section, which we derive. Estimates based on these scaling behaviors indicate that BBN severely constrains hadronic and radiative dark

  9. Unified Dark Matter scalar field models with fast transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Bruni, Marco; Piattella, Oliver F.; Pietrobon, Davide E-mail: marco.bruni@port.ac.uk E-mail: davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the general properties of Unified Dark Matter (UDM) scalar field models with Lagrangians with a non-canonical kinetic term, looking specifically for models that can produce a fast transition between an early Einstein-de Sitter CDM-like era and a later Dark Energy like phase, similarly to the barotropic fluid UDM models in JCAP01(2010)014. However, while the background evolution can be very similar in the two cases, the perturbations are naturally adiabatic in fluid models, while in the scalar field case they are necessarily non-adiabatic. The new approach to building UDM Lagrangians proposed here allows to escape the common problem of the fine-tuning of the parameters which plague many UDM models. We analyse the properties of perturbations in our model, focusing on the the evolution of the effective speed of sound and that of the Jeans length. With this insight, we can set theoretical constraints on the parameters of the model, predicting sufficient conditions for the model to be viable. An interesting feature of our models is that what can be interpreted as w{sub DE} can be < −1 without violating the null energy conditions.

  10. Spatially multiplexed dark-field microspectrophotometry for nanoplasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Pini, V.; Kosaka, P. M.; Ruz, J. J.; Malvar, O.; Encinar, M.; Tamayo, J.; Calleja, M.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the effect of the substrate on the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles is key for deepening our understanding of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. This coupling gives rise to shifts of the LSPR as well as changes in the scattering pattern shape. The problem requires of high-throughput techniques that present both high spatial and spectral resolution. We present here a technique, referred to as Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry (SMMS), able to perform polarization-resolved spectral and spatial analysis of the scattered light over large surface areas. The SMMS technique provides three orders of magnitude faster spectroscopic analysis than conventional dark-field microspectrophotometry, with the capability for mapping the spatial distribution of the scattered light intensity with lateral resolution of 40 nm over surface areas of 0.02 mm2. We show polarization-resolved dark-field spectral analysis of hundreds of gold nanoparticles deposited on a silicon surface. The technique allows determining the effect of the substrate on the LSPR of single nanoparticles and dimers and their scattering patterns. This is applied for rapid discrimination and counting of monomers and dimers of nanoparticles. In addition, the diameter of individual nanoparticles can be rapidly assessed with 1 nm accuracy. PMID:26953042

  11. Spatially multiplexed dark-field microspectrophotometry for nanoplasmonics.

    PubMed

    Pini, V; Kosaka, P M; Ruz, J J; Malvar, O; Encinar, M; Tamayo, J; Calleja, M

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the effect of the substrate on the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles is key for deepening our understanding of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. This coupling gives rise to shifts of the LSPR as well as changes in the scattering pattern shape. The problem requires of high-throughput techniques that present both high spatial and spectral resolution. We present here a technique, referred to as Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry (SMMS), able to perform polarization-resolved spectral and spatial analysis of the scattered light over large surface areas. The SMMS technique provides three orders of magnitude faster spectroscopic analysis than conventional dark-field microspectrophotometry, with the capability for mapping the spatial distribution of the scattered light intensity with lateral resolution of 40 nm over surface areas of 0.02 mm(2). We show polarization-resolved dark-field spectral analysis of hundreds of gold nanoparticles deposited on a silicon surface. The technique allows determining the effect of the substrate on the LSPR of single nanoparticles and dimers and their scattering patterns. This is applied for rapid discrimination and counting of monomers and dimers of nanoparticles. In addition, the diameter of individual nanoparticles can be rapidly assessed with 1 nm accuracy.

  12. Spatially multiplexed dark-field microspectrophotometry for nanoplasmonics.

    PubMed

    Pini, V; Kosaka, P M; Ruz, J J; Malvar, O; Encinar, M; Tamayo, J; Calleja, M

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the effect of the substrate on the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles is key for deepening our understanding of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. This coupling gives rise to shifts of the LSPR as well as changes in the scattering pattern shape. The problem requires of high-throughput techniques that present both high spatial and spectral resolution. We present here a technique, referred to as Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry (SMMS), able to perform polarization-resolved spectral and spatial analysis of the scattered light over large surface areas. The SMMS technique provides three orders of magnitude faster spectroscopic analysis than conventional dark-field microspectrophotometry, with the capability for mapping the spatial distribution of the scattered light intensity with lateral resolution of 40 nm over surface areas of 0.02 mm(2). We show polarization-resolved dark-field spectral analysis of hundreds of gold nanoparticles deposited on a silicon surface. The technique allows determining the effect of the substrate on the LSPR of single nanoparticles and dimers and their scattering patterns. This is applied for rapid discrimination and counting of monomers and dimers of nanoparticles. In addition, the diameter of individual nanoparticles can be rapidly assessed with 1 nm accuracy. PMID:26953042

  13. Annular dark field transmission electron microscopy for protein structure determination.

    PubMed

    Koeck, Philip J B

    2016-02-01

    Recently annular dark field (ADF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been advocated as a means of recording images of biological specimens with better signal to noise ratio (SNR) than regular bright field images. I investigate whether and how such images could be used to determine the three-dimensional structure of proteins given that an ADF aperture with a suitable pass-band can be manufactured and used in practice. I develop an approximate theory of ADF-TEM image formation for weak amplitude and phase objects and test this theory using computer simulations. I also test whether these simulated images can be used to calculate a three-dimensional model of the protein using standard software and discuss problems and possible ways to overcome these. PMID:26656466

  14. Large-scale magnetic fields, dark energy, and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Federico R.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2010-08-15

    Cosmological magnetic fields are being observed with ever increasing correlation lengths, possibly reaching the size of superclusters, therefore disfavoring the conventional picture of generation through primordial seeds later amplified by galaxy-bound dynamo mechanisms. In this paper we put forward a fundamentally different approach that links such large-scale magnetic fields to the cosmological vacuum energy. In our scenario the dark energy is due to the Veneziano ghost (which solves the U(1){sub A} problem in QCD). The Veneziano ghost couples through the triangle anomaly to the electromagnetic field with a constant which is unambiguously fixed in the standard model. While this interaction does not produce any physical effects in Minkowski space, it triggers the generation of a magnetic field in an expanding universe at every epoch. The induced energy of the magnetic field is thus proportional to cosmological vacuum energy: {rho}{sub EM{approx_equal}}B{sup 2{approx_equal}}(({alpha}/4{pi})){sup 2{rho}}{sub DE}, {rho}{sub DE} hence acting as a source for the magnetic energy {rho}{sub EM}. The corresponding numerical estimate leads to a magnitude in the nG range. There are two unique and distinctive predictions of our proposal: an uninterrupted active generation of Hubble size correlated magnetic fields throughout the evolution of the Universe; the presence of parity violation on the enormous scales 1/H, which apparently has been already observed in CMB. These predictions are entirely rooted into the standard model of particle physics.

  15. Research on Field Emission and Dark Current in ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kexin; Li, Yongming; Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli

    2013-09-01

    Field emission and dark current are issues of concern for SRF cavity performance and SRF linac operation. Complete understanding and reliable control of the issue are still needed, especially in full-scale multi-cell cavities. Our work aims at developing a generic procedure for finding an active field emitter in a multi-cell cavity and benchmarking the procedure through cavity vertical test. Our ultimate goal is to provide feedback to cavity preparation and cavity string assembly in order to reduce or eliminate filed emission in SRF cavities. Systematic analysis of behaviors of field emitted electrons is obtained by ACE3P developed by SLAC. Experimental benchmark of the procedure was carried out in a 9-cell cavity vertical test at JLab. The energy spectrum of Bremsstrahlung X-rays is measured using a NaI(Tl) detector. The end-point energy in the X-ray energy spectrum is taken as the highest kinetic electron energy to predict longitudinal position of the active field emitter. Angular location of the field emitter is determined by an array of silicon diodes around irises of the cavity. High-resolution optical inspection was conducted at the predicted field emitter location.

  16. Development of a far-infrared Ge:Ga monolithic array for a possible application to SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahata, Mai; Kamiya, Shuhei; Matsuura, Shuji; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Sawayama, Yoshihiro; Doi, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Takao; Wada, Takehiko; Kawada, Hidehiro; Creten, Ybe; Okcan, Burak; Raab, Walfried; Poglitsch, Albrecht

    2010-07-01

    We present the current status of the development of a far-infrared monolithic Ge:Ga photoconductor array proposed for the SAFARI instrument onboard SPICA, which is a future infrared space mission. SPICA has a large (3-m class) cooled (<6 K) telescope, which enables us to make astronomical observations with high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity in the mid- and far-infrared wavelength. As a candidate detector to cover the 45-110 μm band of a far-infrared focal plan instrument of SAFARI, we are developing a large format monolithic Ge:Ga array. The monolithic Ge:Ga array is directly connected to cryogenic readout electronics (CRE) using the Au-Indium bumping technology. Our goal is to develop a 64×64 Ge:Ga array, on the basis of existing technologies and experience in making the 3×20 Ge:Ga monolithic arrays for the AKARI satellite. In order to realize a larger format array with better sensitivity than that of the AKARI array, we have been making some technical improvements; (1) development of the Au-In bumping technology to realize the large format array, (2) optimization of the structure of the transparent electrode to achieve the better sensitivity, (3) development of an anti-reflection coating to reduce interference fringe between the Ge substrate, and (4) Use of the low-noise cryogenic readout electronics with low power consumption. We fabricated the prototype 5×5 Ge:Ga arrays to demonstrate and evaluate the properties of monolithic array. We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of these elemental technologies, and also show the results of performance measurements for the prototype Ge:Ga arrays.

  17. Interpretation of dark-field contrast and particle-size selectivity in grating interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Susanna K.; Pai, Vinay; Auxier, Julie; Stein, Ashley F.; Bennett, Eric E.; Kemble, Camille K.; Xiao Xianghui; Lee, Wah-Keat; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Wen, Han Harald

    2011-08-01

    In grating-based x-ray phase sensitive imaging, dark-field contrast refers to the extinction of the interference fringes due to small-angle scattering. For configurations where the sample is placed before the beamsplitter grating, the dark-field contrast has been quantified with theoretical wave propagation models. Yet when the grating is placed before the sample, the dark-field contrast has only been modeled in the geometric optics regime. Here we attempt to quantify the dark-field effect in the grating-before-sample geometry with first-principle wave calculations and understand the associated particle-size selectivity. We obtain an expression for the dark-field effect in terms of the sample material's complex refractive index, which can be verified experimentally without fitting parameters. A dark-field computed tomography experiment shows that the particle-size selectivity can be used to differentiate materials of identical x-ray absorption.

  18. Far-infrared sensor for cirrus (FIRSC): an aircraft-based Fourier-transform spectrometer to measure cloud radiance.

    PubMed

    Vanek, M D; Nolt, I G; Tappan, N D; Ade, P A; Gannaway, F C; Hamilton, P A; Lee, C; Davis, J E; Predko, S

    2001-05-01

    We describe an aircraft-based Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) designed to measure the Earth outgoing radiance spectrum in the far-infrared-submillimeter spectral range. The instrument features include a rapid-scan FTS to obtain high spatial resolution from a moving aircraft platform, a sensitive two-channel detector, and a CCD camera for recording the nadir cloud scene with each scan record. Such measurements demonstrate the sensitivity of Earth radiance to high clouds and provide spectral data for improving techniques for remote sensing and retrieval of atmospheric and cloud properties.

  19. The Study of Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies in the Early Universe Through Far-Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanog, Jae Alyson

    In this thesis I use far-infrared (far-IR) observations performed by the Herschel Space Observatory to study dusty star-forming galaxies, which are believed to be the likely progenitors of massive elliptical galaxies. More specifically, I investigate the far-IR emission of dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), analyze the near-IR imaging of Herschel-selected lensed galaxies, and investigate the rest-frame UV emission of HFLS3, a z = 6.34 Herschel-selected starburst.

  20. Effect of nano-sized cerium-zirconium oxide solid solution on far-infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Yang, Liqing; Hu, Weijie; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Haojing

    2015-10-01

    Far-infrared functional nanocomposites were prepared by the co-precipitation method using natural tourmaline (XY3Z6Si6O18(BO3)3V3W, where X is Na+, Ca2+, K+, or vacancy; Y is Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Cr3+, Li+, or Ti4+; Z is Al3+, Mg2+, Cr3+, or V3+; V is O2-, OH-; and W is O2-, OH-, or F-) powders, ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate and zirconium(IV) nitrate pentahydrate as raw materials. The reference sample, tourmaline modified with ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate alone was also prepared by a similar precipitation route. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr has a better far-infrared emission property than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the mechanism for oxygen evolution during the heat process in the two composite materials was systematically studied. The XPS spectra show that Fe3+ ratio inside tourmaline modified with Ce alone can be raised by doping Zr. Moreover, it is showed that there is a higher Ce3+ ratio inside the tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. In addition, XRD results indicate the formation of CeO2 and Ce1-xZrxO2 crystallites during the heat treatment and further TEM observations show they exist as nanoparticles on the surface of tourmaline powders. Based on these results, we attribute the improved far-infrared emission properties of Ce-Zr doped tourmaline to the enhanced unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arisen from much more oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ inside the tourmaline caused by the change in the catalyst redox properties of CeO2 brought about by doping with Zr4+. In all samples, tourmaline modified with 7.14 wt.% Ce and 1.86 wt.% Zr calcined at 800∘C for 5 h has the best far-infrared emission property with the maximum emissivity value of 98%.