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Sample records for dark stars dark

  1. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  2. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  3. Dark matter that can form dark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, Paolo; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Hyung Do; Scopel, Stefano E-mail: jhhuh@phya.snu.ac.kr E-mail: scopel@sogang.ac.kr

    2010-07-01

    The first stars to form in the Universe may be powered by the annihilation of weakly interacting dark matter particles. These so-called dark stars, if observed, may give us a clue about the nature of dark matter. Here we examine which models for particle dark matter satisfy the conditions for the formation of dark stars. We find that in general models with thermal dark matter lead to the formation of dark stars, with few notable exceptions: heavy neutralinos in the presence of coannihilations, annihilations that are resonant at dark matter freeze-out but not in dark stars, some models of neutrinophilic dark matter annihilating into neutrinos only and lighter than about 50 GeV. In particular, we find that a thermal DM candidate in standard Cosmology always forms a dark star as long as its mass is heavier than ≅ 50 GeV and the thermal average of its annihilation cross section is the same at the decoupling temperature and during the dark star formation, as for instance in the case of an annihilation cross section with a non-vanishing s-wave contribution.

  4. Condensate dark matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Harko, T.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the structure and stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed from the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the critical temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Therefore we model the dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the condensate dark matter star model, the dark matter equation of state can be described by a polytropic equation of state, with polytropic index equal to one. We derive the basic general relativistic equations describing the equilibrium structure of the condensate dark matter star with spherically symmetric static geometry. The structure equations of the condensate dark matter stars are studied numerically. The critical mass and radius of the dark matter star are given by M{sub crit} ≈ 2(l{sub a}/1fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2}M{sub s}un and R{sub crit} ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 6}(l{sub a}/1 fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2} cm respectively, where l{sub a} and m{sub χ} are the scattering length and the mass of dark matter particle, respectively.

  5. Dark neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. B.

    2017-06-01

    There is good evidence that electron-positron pair formation is not present in that section of the pulsar open magnetosphere, which is the source of coherent radio emission, but the possibility of two-photon pair creation in an outer gap remains. Calculation of transition rates for this process based on measured whole-surface temperatures, combined with a survey of γ-ray, X-ray and optical luminosities, expressed per primary beam lepton, shows that few Fermi-LAT pulsars have significant outer-gap pair creation. For radio-loud pulsars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density and an ion-proton plasma, there must be an outward flow of electrons from some other part of the magnetosphere to maintain a constant net charge on the star. In the absence of pair creation, it is likely that this current is the source of GeV γ-emission observed by the Fermi-LAT and its origin is in the region of the outer gap. With negative polar-cap corotational charge density, the compensating current in the absence of pair creation can consist only of ions or protons. These neutron stars are likely to be radio-quiet, have no observable γ-emission, and hence can be described as dark neutron stars.

  6. Dark Energy Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G

    2005-03-08

    Event horizons and closed time-like curves cannot exist in the real world for the simple reason that they are inconsistent with quantum mechanics. Following ideas originated by Robert Laughlin, Pawel Mazur, Emil Mottola, David Santiago, and the speaker it is now possible to describe in some detail what happens physically when one approaches and crosses a region of space-time where classical general relativity predicts there should be an infinite red shift surface. This quantum critical physics provides a new perspective on a variety of enigmatic astrophysical phenomena including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, positron emission, and dark matter.

  7. Dark Wombs of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-02

    This image from the Herschel Observatory, a European Space Agency mission, reveals some of the coldest and darkest material in our galaxy. The yellow filaments show the coldest dust dotted with the youngest embryonic stars.

  8. Dark stars: Gravitational and electromagnetic observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Kouvaris, Chris; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical models of self-interacting dark matter represent a promising answer to a series of open problems within the so-called collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. In case of asymmetric dark matter, self-interactions might facilitate gravitational collapse and potentially lead to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar ϕ4 ) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark objects admit the I -Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable in potential events of gravitational interferometers.

  9. Darkness

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-22

    Saturn's main rings, seen here on their "lit" face, appear much darker than normal. That's because they tend to scatter light back toward its source -- in this case, the Sun. Usually, when taking images of the rings in geometries like this, exposures times are increased to make the rings more visible. Here, the requirement to not over-expose Saturn's lit crescent reveals just how dark the rings actually become. Scientists are interested in images in this sunward-facing ("high phase") geometry because the way that the rings scatter sunlight can tell us much about the ring particles' physical make-up. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 6 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Jan. 12, 2014. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.4 million miles (2.3 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 152 degrees. Image scale is 86 miles (138 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18294

  10. Interaction between bosonic dark matter and stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Macedo, Caio F. B.; Okawa, Hirotada; Palenzuela, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We provide a detailed analysis of how bosonic dark matter "condensates" interact with compact stars, extending significantly the results of a recent Letter [1]. We focus on bosonic fields with mass mB , such as axions, axion-like candidates and hidden photons. Self-gravitating bosonic fields generically form "breathing" configurations, where both the spacetime geometry and the field oscillate, and can interact and cluster at the center of stars. We construct stellar configurations formed by a perfect fluid and a bosonic condensate, and which may describe the late stages of dark matter accretion onto stars, in dark-matter-rich environments. These composite stars oscillate at a frequency which is a multiple of f =2.5 ×1014(mBc2/eV ) Hz . Using perturbative analysis and numerical relativity techniques, we show that these stars are generically stable, and we provide criteria for instability. Our results also indicate that the growth of the dark matter core is halted close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We thus dispel a myth concerning dark matter accretion by stars: dark matter accretion does not necessarily lead to the destruction of the star, nor to collapse to a black hole. Finally, we argue that stars with long-lived bosonic cores may also develop in other theories with effective mass couplings, such as (massless) scalar-tensor theories.

  11. Accretion of Dark Matter by Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Okawa, Hirotada

    2015-09-01

    Searches for dark matter imprints are one of the most active areas of current research. We focus here on light fields with mass mB, such as axions and axionlike candidates. Using perturbative techniques and full-blown nonlinear numerical relativity methods, we show the following. (i) Dark matter can pile up in the center of stars, leading to configurations and geometries oscillating with a frequency that is a multiple of f =2.5 ×1 014(mBc2/eV ) Hz . These configurations are stable throughout most of the parameter space, and arise out of credible mechanisms for dark-matter capture. Stars with bosonic cores may also develop in other theories with effective mass couplings, such as (massless) scalar-tensor theories. We also show that (ii) collapse of the host star to a black hole is avoided by efficient gravitational cooling mechanisms.

  12. Accretion of dark matter by stars.

    PubMed

    Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Okawa, Hirotada

    2015-09-11

    Searches for dark matter imprints are one of the most active areas of current research. We focus here on light fields with mass m_{B}, such as axions and axionlike candidates. Using perturbative techniques and full-blown nonlinear numerical relativity methods, we show the following. (i) Dark matter can pile up in the center of stars, leading to configurations and geometries oscillating with a frequency that is a multiple of f=2.5×10^{14}(m_{B}c^{2}/eV)  Hz. These configurations are stable throughout most of the parameter space, and arise out of credible mechanisms for dark-matter capture. Stars with bosonic cores may also develop in other theories with effective mass couplings, such as (massless) scalar-tensor theories. We also show that (ii) collapse of the host star to a black hole is avoided by efficient gravitational cooling mechanisms.

  13. Supermassive Dark Stars: Detectable in JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Ilie, Cosmin; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica; Bodenheimer, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the universe may be dark stars (DSs), powered by dark matter (DM) heating rather than by nuclear fusion. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which may be their own antipartners, collect inside the first stars and annihilate to produce a heat source that can power the stars for millions to billions of years. In this paper, we show that these objects can grow to be supermassive dark stars (SMDSs) with masses gsim(105-107) M sun. The growth continues as long as DM heating persists, since DSs are large and cool (surface temperature lsim5 × 104 K) and do not emit enough ionizing photons to prevent further accretion of baryons onto the star. The DM may be provided by two mechanisms: (1) gravitational attraction of DM particles on a variety of orbits not previously considered and (2) capture of WIMPs due to elastic scattering. Once the DM fuel is exhausted, the SMDS becomes a heavy main-sequence star; these stars eventually collapse to form massive black holes (BHs) that may provide seeds for supermassive BHs in the universe. SMDSs are very bright, with luminosities exceeding (109-1011) L sun. We demonstrate that for several reasonable parameters, these objects will be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope. Such an observational discovery would confirm the existence of a new phase of stellar evolution powered by DM.

  14. Tier 3 DarkStar on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle is inspected by NASA personnel September 14, 1995, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project utilized Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) to supply responsive and sustained surveillance and reconnaissance data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, it had a wing span of 69 feet and was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. The DarkStar's unusual shape was dictated by the requirement to orbit its target conducting surveillance while still remaining stealthy. Whereas aircraft like the F-117 are designed to be more stealthy from the front, the DarkStar is designed to be more stealthy from the sides.

  15. Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness

    This artist's animation illustrates the universe's early years, from its explosive formation to its dark ages to its first stars and mini-galaxies.

    Scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found patches of infrared light splattered across the sky that might be the collective glow of clumps of the universe's first objects. Astronomers do not know if these first objects were stars or 'quasars,' which are black holes voraciously consuming surrounding gas.

    The movie begins with a flash of color that represents the birth of the universe, an explosion called the Big Bang that occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. A period of darkness ensues, where gas begins to clump together.

    The universe's first stars are then shown springing up out of the gas clumps, flooding the universe with light, an event that probably happened about a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Though these first stars formed out of gas alone, their deaths seeded the universe with the dusty heavy chemical elements that helped create future generations of stars.

    The first stars, called Population III stars (our star is a Population I star), were much bigger and brighter than any in our nearby universe, with masses about 1,000 times that of our sun. They grouped together into mini-galaxies, which then merged to form galaxies like our own mature Milky Way galaxy.

    The first quasars, not shown here, ultimately became the centers of powerful galaxies that are more common in the distant universe.

  16. Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness

    This artist's animation illustrates the universe's early years, from its explosive formation to its dark ages to its first stars and mini-galaxies.

    Scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found patches of infrared light splattered across the sky that might be the collective glow of clumps of the universe's first objects. Astronomers do not know if these first objects were stars or 'quasars,' which are black holes voraciously consuming surrounding gas.

    The movie begins with a flash of color that represents the birth of the universe, an explosion called the Big Bang that occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. A period of darkness ensues, where gas begins to clump together.

    The universe's first stars are then shown springing up out of the gas clumps, flooding the universe with light, an event that probably happened about a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Though these first stars formed out of gas alone, their deaths seeded the universe with the dusty heavy chemical elements that helped create future generations of stars.

    The first stars, called Population III stars (our star is a Population I star), were much bigger and brighter than any in our nearby universe, with masses about 1,000 times that of our sun. They grouped together into mini-galaxies, which then merged to form galaxies like our own mature Milky Way galaxy.

    The first quasars, not shown here, ultimately became the centers of powerful galaxies that are more common in the distant universe.

  17. Star formation in Lynds dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, Tim; Rebull, Luisa

    2008-03-01

    Recent research on star formation in large molecular cloud complexes, such as the Cepheus Flare (Kun 1995), Orion, Perseus (Rebull et al. 2007), and Taurus molecular clouds, have included studies of a number of Lynds dark nebulae (LDN). Less attention has been given to isolated Lynds clouds. Both LDN 981 and LDN 425 are smaller, more isolated, dark molecular clouds that could contain regions of active star formation within them -- they both are associated with IRAS sources, and based on prior shallow surveys, they both have a YSO candidate in the neigborhood. Spitzer observations with IRAC and MIPS will allow us to see deep inside the cloud, deeper than any prior observations could see, and reveal any hidden star formation that is ongoing in these clouds. This project is part of the Spitzer Teachers Program.

  18. Possible dark energy imprints in the gravitational wave spectrum of mixed neutron-dark-energy stars

    SciTech Connect

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D. E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de

    2012-03-01

    In the present paper we study the oscillation spectrum of neutron stars containing both ordinary matter and dark energy in different proportions. Within the model we consider, the equilibrium configurations are numerically constructed and the results show that the properties of the mixed neuron-dark-energy star can differ significantly when the amount of dark energy in the stars is varied. The oscillations of the mixed neuron-dark-energy stars are studied in the Cowling approximation. As a result we find that the frequencies of the fundamental mode and the higher overtones are strongly affected by the dark energy content. This can be used in the future to detect the presence of dark energy in the neutron stars and to constrain the dark-energy models.

  19. Dark Star-Making Factory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-02

    In this infrared view from the Herschel Observatory, a European Space Agency mission, blue shows the warmest dust, and red, the coolest. The choppy clouds of gas and dust are just starting to condense into new stars.

  20. Constraining decaying dark matter with neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-García, M. Ángeles; Silk, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    The amount of decaying dark matter, accumulated in the central regions in neutron stars together with the energy deposition rate from decays, may set a limit on the neutron star survival rate against transitions to more compact objects provided nuclear matter is not the ultimate stable state of matter and that dark matter indeed is unstable. More generally, this limit sets constraints on the dark matter particle decay time, τχ. We find that in the range of uncertainties intrinsic to such a scenario, masses (mχ /TeV) ≳ 9 ×10-4 or (mχ /TeV) ≳ 5 ×10-2 and lifetimes τχ ≲1055 s and τχ ≲1053 s can be excluded in the bosonic or fermionic decay cases, respectively, in an optimistic estimate, while more conservatively, it decreases τχ by a factor ≳1020. We discuss the validity under which these results may improve with other current constraints.

  1. Dark matter and the first stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spolyar, Douglas

    The first stars in the universe (Pop. III stars) mark the birth of the visible and dynamical universe, which we are familiar with: stars galaxies, clusters, etc. They are also important for reionizing the universe, creating the metals needed for subsequent populations of stars and not to mention us. They are possible seeds for super massive black holes which power quasars and are found at the center of galaxies such as the Milky Way galaxy. In this thesis, we argue that if DM is a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP), then DM can be an important heat source for the first stars. WIMPs are arguably from a particle physics perspective the most popular DM candidate and are being looked for in numerous experiments such as LHC, CDMS, and GLAST. DM heating would dramatically change the nature of the first stars. Stars powered by DM are larger and cooler than typical Pop. III stars. These differences would alter the metals and abundances produced by the first stars, the ionization history of the universe, and alter the formation of later stellar populations. Effects caused by stars powered by dark matter may also be tested with 21 cm line Tomography, JWST, 30 meter telescopes, Planck, and GLAST. This thesis has been written with an anthology in mind. Thus the thesis will be organized into an introduction followed by a series of papers which will illuminate the effects which DM can have on the first stars. The first paper will argue that DM can dramatically change the formation of the first stars. The second paper discusses DM capture as an important source of DM for the first stars. The third paper tests the effectiveness of the Blumenthal method. The fourth and fifth papers look at the effects of DM upon the evolution of Pop. III stars. As a note, primordial black holes are also a popular DM candidate. The final paper looks at primordial black hole's effect upon the first stars. Thus, we argue that DM in the guise of WIMPs and primordial black holes can dramatically

  2. On the capture of dark matter by neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Güver, Tolga; Erkoca, Arif Emre; Sarcevic, Ina; Reno, Mary Hall E-mail: aeerkoca@gmail.com E-mail: ina@physics.arizona.edu

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the number of dark matter particles that a neutron star accumulates over its lifetime as it rotates around the center of a galaxy, when the dark matter particle is a self-interacting boson but does not self-annihilate. We take into account dark matter interactions with baryonic matter and the time evolution of the dark matter sphere as it collapses within the neutron star. We show that dark matter self-interactions play an important role in the rapid accumulation of dark matter in the core of the neutron star. We consider the possibility of determining an exclusion region of the parameter space for dark matter mass and dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons as well as dark matter self-interaction cross section, based on the observation of old neutron stars. We show that for a dark matter density of 10{sup 3} GeV/cm{sup 3}and dark matter mass m{sub χ} ∼< 10 GeV, there is a potential exclusion region for dark matter interactions with nucleons that is three orders of magnitude more stringent than without self-interactions. The potential exclusion region for dark matter self-interaction cross sections is many orders of magnitude stronger than the current Bullet Cluster limit. For example, for high dark matter density regions, we find that for m{sub χ} ∼ 10 GeV when the dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons ranges from σ{sub χn} ∼ 10{sup −52} cm{sup 2} to σ{sub χn} ∼ 10{sup −57} cm{sup 2}, the dark matter self-interaction cross section limit is σ{sub χχ} ∼< 10{sup −33} cm{sup 2}, which is about ten orders of magnitude stronger than the Bullet Cluster limit.

  3. On the capture of dark matter by neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güver, Tolga; Emre Erkoca, Arif; Hall Reno, Mary; Sarcevic, Ina

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the number of dark matter particles that a neutron star accumulates over its lifetime as it rotates around the center of a galaxy, when the dark matter particle is a self-interacting boson but does not self-annihilate. We take into account dark matter interactions with baryonic matter and the time evolution of the dark matter sphere as it collapses within the neutron star. We show that dark matter self-interactions play an important role in the rapid accumulation of dark matter in the core of the neutron star. We consider the possibility of determining an exclusion region of the parameter space for dark matter mass and dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons as well as dark matter self-interaction cross section, based on the observation of old neutron stars. We show that for a dark matter density of 103 GeV/cm3and dark matter mass mχ lesssim 10 GeV, there is a potential exclusion region for dark matter interactions with nucleons that is three orders of magnitude more stringent than without self-interactions. The potential exclusion region for dark matter self-interaction cross sections is many orders of magnitude stronger than the current Bullet Cluster limit. For example, for high dark matter density regions, we find that for mχ ~ 10 GeV when the dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons ranges from σχn ~ 10-52 cm2 to σχn ~ 10-57 cm2, the dark matter self-interaction cross section limit is σχχ lesssim 10-33 cm2, which is about ten orders of magnitude stronger than the Bullet Cluster limit.

  4. DARK MATTER POWERED STARS: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, A.; Raue, M.; Kneiske, T.; Horns, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2012-02-01

    The existence of predominantly cold non-baryonic dark matter is unambiguously demonstrated by several observations (e.g., structure formation, big bang nucleosynthesis, gravitational lensing, and rotational curves of spiral galaxies). A candidate well motivated by particle physics is a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP). Self-annihilating WIMPs would affect the stellar evolution especially in the early universe. Stars powered by self-annihilating WIMP dark matter should possess different properties compared with standard stars. While a direct detection of such dark matter powered stars seems very challenging, their cumulative emission might leave an imprint in the diffuse metagalactic radiation fields, in particular in the mid-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this work, the possible contributions of dark matter powered stars (dark stars, DSs) to the extragalactic background light (EBL) are calculated. It is shown that existing data and limits of the EBL intensity can already be used to rule out some DS parameter sets.

  5. Tidal deformability of boson stars and dark matter clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Raissa F. P.; Yang, Huan

    2017-09-01

    In this work we consider minimally-coupled boson stars immersed in a tidal environment and compute their tidal deformability to leading order. We also describe an approximate correspondence between Newtonian boson star configurations (described by the Schrödinger–Poisson equations) and dynamical dark matter clumps (described by the collisionless Boltzmann equation). This allows us to map our results for the tidal deformability of boson stars to approximate statements for dark matter clumps.

  6. Dark Matter Densities During the Formation of the First Stars and in Dark Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo; Sellwood, J. A.; Spolyar, Douglas

    2009-03-01

    The first stars in the universe form inside ~106 M sun dark matter (DM) halos whose initial density profiles are laid down by gravitational collapse in hierarchical structure-formation scenarios. During the formation of the first stars in the universe, the baryonic infall compresses the DM further. The resultant DM density is presented here, using an algorithm originally developed by Young to calculate changes to the profile as a result of adiabatic infall in a spherical halo model; the Young prescription takes into account the noncircular motions of halo particles. The density profiles obtained in this way are found to be within a factor of 2 of those obtained using the simple adiabatic contraction prescription of Blumenthal and colleagues. Our results hold regardless of the nature of the DM or its interactions and rely merely on gravity. If the DM consists of weakly interacting massive particles, which are their own antiparticles, their densities are high enough that their annihilation in the first protostars can indeed provide an important heat source and prevent the collapse all the way to fusion. In short, a "Dark Star" phase of stellar evolution, powered by DM annihilation, may indeed describe the first stars in the universe.

  7. Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-18

    This artist animation illustrates the universe early years, from its explosive formation to its dark ages to its first stars and mini-galaxies. Scientists using NASA Spitzer Space Telescope found patches of infrared light splattered across the sky.

  8. Constraining asymmetric dark matter through observations of compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kouvaris, Chris; Tinyakov, Peter

    2011-04-15

    We put constraints on asymmetric dark matter candidates with spin-dependent interactions based on the simple existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. For a wide range of the parameters (WIMP mass and WIMP-nucleon cross section), weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) can be trapped in progenitors in large numbers and once the original star collapses to a white dwarf or a neutron star, these WIMPs might self-gravitate and eventually collapse forming a mini-black hole that eventually destroys the star. We impose constraints competitive to direct dark matter search experiments, for WIMPs with masses down to the TeV scale.

  9. Constraining the Galaxy's dark halo with RAVE stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piffl, T.; Binney, J.; McMillan, P. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Helmi, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Watson, F.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-12-01

    We use the kinematics of ˜200 000 giant stars that lie within ˜1.5 kpc of the plane to measure the vertical profile of mass density near the Sun. We find that the dark mass contained within the isodensity surface of the dark halo that passes through the Sun ((6 ± 0.9) × 1010 M⊙), and the surface density within 0.9 kpc of the plane ((69 ± 10) M⊙ pc-2) are almost independent of the (oblate) halo's axis ratio q. If the halo is spherical, 46 per cent of the radial force on the Sun is provided by baryons, and only 4.3 per cent of the Galaxy's mass is baryonic. If the halo is flattened, the baryons contribute even less strongly to the local radial force and to the Galaxy's mass. The dark matter density at the location of the Sun is 0.0126 q-0.89 M⊙ pc-3 = 0.48 q-0.89 GeV cm-3. When combined with other literature results we find hints for a mildly oblate dark halo with q ≃ 0.8. Our value for the dark mass within the solar radius is larger than that predicted by cosmological dark-matter-only simulations but in good agreement with simulations once the effects of baryonic infall are taken into account. Our mass models consist of three double-exponential discs, an oblate bulge and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo, and we model the dynamics of the RAVE (RAdial Velocity Experiment) stars in the corresponding gravitational fields by finding distribution functions f J that depend on three action integrals. Statistical errors are completely swamped by systematic uncertainties, the most important of which are the distance to the stars in the photometric and spectroscopic samples and the solar distance to the Galactic Centre. Systematics other than the flattening of the dark halo yield overall uncertainties ˜15 per cent.

  10. Limits on self-interacting dark matter from neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2012-05-11

    We impose new severe constraints on the self-interactions of fermionic asymmetric dark matter based on observations of nearby old neutron stars. Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) self-interactions mediated by Yukawa-type interactions can lower significantly the number of WIMPs necessary for gravitational collapse of the WIMP population accumulated in a neutron star. Even nearby neutron stars located at regions of low dark matter density can accrete a sufficient number of WIMPs that can potentially collapse, form a mini black hole, and destroy the host star. Based on this, we derive constraints on the WIMP self-interactions which in some cases are by several orders of magnitude stricter than the ones from the bullet cluster.

  11. Black holes, pregalactic stars, and the dark matter problem

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.J.

    1985-06-01

    We review the different ways in which black holes might form and discuss their various astrophysical and cosmological consequences. We then consider the various constraints on the form of the dark matter and conclude that black holes could have a significant cosmological density only if they are of primordial origin or remnants of a population of pregalactic stars. This leads us to discuss the other cosmological effects of primordial black holes and pregalactic stars. 239 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Collisions of dark matter axion stars with astrophysical sources

    DOE PAGES

    Eby, Joshua; Leembruggen, Madelyn; Leeney, Joseph; ...

    2017-04-18

    If QCD axions form a large fraction of the total mass of dark matter, then axion stars could be very abundant in galaxies. As a result, collisions with each other, and with other astrophysical bodies, can occur. We calculate the rate and analyze the consequences of three classes of collisions, those occurring between a dilute axion star and: another dilute axion star, an ordinary star, or a neutron star. In all cases we attempt to quantify the most important astrophysical uncertainties; we also pay particular attention to scenarios in which collisions lead to collapse of otherwise stable axion stars, and possible subsequent decay through number changing interactions. Collisions between two axion stars can occur with a high total rate, but the low relative velocity required for collapse to occur leads to a very low total rate of collapses. On the other hand, collisions between an axion star and an ordinary star have a large rate,more » $$\\Gamma_\\odot \\sim 3000$$ collisions/year/galaxy, and for sufficiently heavy axion stars, it is plausible that most or all such collisions lead to collapse. We identify in this case a parameter space which has a stable region and a region in which collision triggers collapse, which depend on the axion number ($N$) in the axion star, and a ratio of mass to radius cubed characterizing the ordinary star ($$M_s/R_s^3$$). Finally, we revisit the calculation of collision rates between axion stars and neutron stars, improving on previous estimates by taking cylindrical symmetry of the neutron star distribution into account. Finally, collapse and subsequent decay through collision processes, if occurring with a significant rate, can affect dark matter phenomenology and the axion star mass distribution.« less

  13. Light dark matter scattering in outer neutron star crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermeño, Marina; Pérez-García, M. Ángeles; Silk, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We calculate for the first time the phonon excitation rate in the outer crust of a neutron star due to scattering from light dark matter (LDM) particles gravitationally boosted into the star. We consider dark matter particles in the sub-GeV mass range scattering off a periodic array of nuclei through an effective scalar-vector interaction with nucleons. We find that LDM effects cause a modification of the net number of phonons in the lattice as compared to the standard thermal result. In addition, we estimate the contribution of LDM to the ion-ion thermal conductivity in the outer crust and find that it can be significantly enhanced at large densities. Our results imply that for magnetized neutron stars the LDM-enhanced global conductivity in the outer crust will tend to reduce the anisotropic heat conduction between perpendicular and parallel directions to the magnetic field.

  14. The Star Formation History of the Lupus Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocholski, A. J.; Hughes, J. D.

    1999-05-01

    In light of recent HIPPARCOS observations we have revised the distance to the Lupus dark cloud complex upwards. This, along with the adoption of newer pre-main sequence mass tracks and isochrones have led to a new mass function and age distribution. We use calculated masses and ages to discuss the progression of star formation through the Lupus clouds, with particular reference to Lupus 3, which is forming intermediate (3-5Mo) stars and a multitude of very low mass stars (<0.3 Mo).

  15. Dark matter, neutron stars, and strange quark matter.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, M Angeles; Silk, Joseph; Stone, Jirina R

    2010-10-01

    We show that self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter accreted onto neutron stars may provide a mechanism to seed compact objects with long-lived lumps of strange quark matter, or strangelets, for WIMP masses above a few GeV. This effect may trigger a conversion of most of the star into a strange star. We use an energy estimate for the long-lived strangelet based on the Fermi-gas model combined with the MIT bag model to set a new limit on the possible values of the WIMP mass that can be especially relevant for subdominant species of massive neutralinos.

  16. Dark Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  17. Dark Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  18. Numerical Simulations of Star Formation in Filamentary Dark Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) are believed to be the precursors to star clusters and massive stars (e.g. Bergin & Tafalla 2007). The complex intertwined braid-like structure of IRDCs (e.g. André et al. 2014) poses a challenge to theorists to explain their dynamics and formation. We have performed large-scale adaptive mesh refinement, driven turbulence, MHD simulations to study the structure and formation of IRDCs. Filamentary structure emerges naturally from the simulations. Magnetic field lines pierce the dark cloud filament primarily in the direction normal to the filament axis. The column density profiles of the main features are well fit by the power law as observations have found (e.g. Hill et al. 2011, Arzoumanian et al. 2011). The dark cloud filaments in the simulation resemble the dark cloud SDC13 (Peretto et al. 2014) and the 3D information from the simulation can be used to explain the observed structure and dynamics of SDC13. We have carried out a detailed analysis of the magnetic field properties of the cloud clumps in our simulations (Li et al. 2015), finding good agreement with the Zeeman observations of Crutcher et al. (2010). We then added radiation, zoomed into the main IRDC filament, and continued one of the simulations to study the star formation inside IRDCs. By including radiation feedback and proto-stellar outflows, we obtain a proto-stellar mass function (PMF) for comparison with theoretical PMFs (McKee & Offner 2010) and the Chabrier IMF. In this presentation, we summarize what we have learned about the formation of filamentary IRDCs, their complex braided filamentary structure, the magnetic properties of cloud clumps inside the IRDC filaments, and star formation in the first half of a free fall time of the system.

  19. Effect of Population III Multiplicity on Dark Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Athena; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    We numerically study the mutual interaction between dark matter (DM) and Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in order to explore the possibility of Pop III dark stars within this physical scenario. We perform a cosmological simulation, initialized at z approx. 100, which follows the evolution of gas and DM. We analyze the formation of the first mini halo at z approx. 20 and the subsequent collapse of the gas to densities of 10(exp 12)/cu cm. We then use this simulation to initialize a set of smaller-scale 'cut-out' simulations in which we further refine the DM to have spatial resolution similar to that of the gas. We test multiple DM density profiles, and we employ the sink particle method to represent the accreting star-forming region. We find that, for a range of DM configurations, the motion of the Pop III star-disk system serves to separate the positions of the protostars with respect to the DM density peak, such that there is insufficient DM to influence the formation and evolution of the protostars for more than approx. 5000 years. In addition, the star-disk system causes gravitational scattering of the central DM to lower densities, further decreasing the influence of DM over time. Any DM-powered phase of Pop III stars will thus be very short-lived for the typical multiple system, and DM will not serve to significantly prolong the life of Pop III stars.

  20. Weighing the local dark matter with RAVE red clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienaymé, O.; Famaey, B.; Siebert, A.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-11-01

    We determine the Galactic potential in the solar neigbourhood from RAVE observations. We select red clump stars for which accurate distances, radial velocities, and metallicities have been measured. Combined with data from the 2MASS and UCAC catalogues, we build a sample of ~4600 red clump stars within a cylinder of 500 pc radius oriented in the direction of the South Galactic Pole, in the range of 200 pc to 2000 pc distances. We deduce the vertical force and the total mass density distribution up to 2 kpc away from the Galactic plane by fitting a distribution function depending explicitly on three isolating integrals of the motion in a separable potential locally representing the Galactic one with four free parameters. Because of the deep extension of our sample, we can determine nearly independently the dark matter mass density and the baryonic disc surface mass density. We find (i) at 1 kpc Kz/ (2πG) = 68.5 ± 1.0 M⊙ pc-2; and (ii) at 2 kpc Kz/ (2πG) = 96.9 ± 2.2 M⊙ pc-2. Assuming the solar Galactic radius at R0 = 8.5 kpc, we deduce the local dark matter density ρDM(z = 0) = 0.0143 ± 0.0011 M⊙pc-3 = 0.542 ± 0.042 Gev cm-3 and the baryonic surface mass density Σbar = 44.4 ± 4.1 M⊙pc-2. Our results are in agreement with previously published Kz determinations up to 1 kpc, while the extension to 2 kpc shows some evidence for an unexpectedly large amount of dark matter. A flattening of the dark halo of order 0.8 can produce such a high local density in combination with a circular velocity of 240 km s-1. It could also be consistent with a spherical cored dark matter profile whose density does not drop sharply with radius. Another explanation, allowing for a lower circular velocity, could be the presence of a secondary dark component, a very thick disc resulting either from the deposit of dark matter from the accretion of multiple small dwarf galaxies, or from the presence of an effective "phantom" thick disc in the context of effective galactic

  1. Carbon star radial velocities and dark matter in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Optical radial velocities of carbon stars in the Milky Way are compared to center-of-mass velocities derived from CO radio emission produced in their circumstellar envelopes. It seems that there is an intrinsic velocity dispersion in the optically measured radial velocities. If the carbon stars in the dwarf spheroidals behave in a fashion similar to those in the Milky Way, then the use of their optical radial velocities to infer the mass-to-light ratio of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the nature of the dark matter in the universe is suspect. Measurement of the radial velocities of K giants may possibly avoid these uncertainties associated with atmospheric motions.

  2. Star Formation in Lynds Dark Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Bemis, G. E.; Paulsen, K. M.; Yueh, N. J.; Rebull, L. M.; DeWolf, C.; DeWolf, T.; Brock, S.; Boerna, J.; Schaefers, J.; McDonald, D. W.; McDonald, J.; Troudt, B.; Wilkinson, B.; Guastella, P.; Peter, A.; Wassmer, W.; Haber, R.; Scaramucci, A.; Spuck, T. S.; Butchart, J.; Holcomb, A.; Karns, B.; Kennedy, S.; Siegel, R.; Weiser, S.; Connelley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Our team observed two Lynds clouds (LDN 425 and LDN 981) using the Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 microns), and MIPS (24 microns). A preliminary literature search provided IRAS data indicating star formation may be taking place in LDN 425 and LDN 981. The goals of this project were to further explore the known young stellar objects (YSOs) in the two clouds and to search for additional embedded YSOs. In this poster we present our observational methods and the results of our observations including SEDs, color-color diagrams, and color composite images. This research was made possible through the Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students and was funded by the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Please see our companion education posters by McDonald et al. titled "Spitzer - Hot and Colorful Student Activities" and Guastella et al. entitled "Research Based Astronomy in The Secondary Classroom: Lessons Developed for Investigating YSOs Using APT, Excel, and MOPEX".

  3. Dark Matter Capture and Annihilation on the First Stars: Preliminary Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Iocco, Fabio

    2008-05-02

    Assuming that Dark Matter is dominated by WIMPs, it accretes by gravitational attraction and scattering over baryonic material and annihilates inside celestial objects, giving rise to a 'Dark Luminosity' which may potentially affect the evolution of stars. We estimate the Dark Luminosity achieved by different kinds of stars in a halo with DM properties characteristic of the ones where the first star formation episode occurs. We find that either massive, metal-free and small, galactic-like stars can achieve Dark Luminosities comparable or exceeding their nuclear ones. This might have dramatic effects over the evolution of the very first stars, known as Population III.

  4. Dark matter and thermal pulses in horizontal-branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearborn, David; Raffelt, Georg; Salati, Pierre; Silk, Joseph; Bouquet, Alain

    1990-05-01

    The evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars, including the effect of energy transfer by dark matter particles ('WIMPs' or 'cosmions') is investigated numerically. If HB stars contain enough cosmions to break core convection, thermal pulses ensue on the core Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale until the central helium abundance is exhausted. These pulses involve brief phases of violent helium burning which establish short episodes of convection where the convective core extends further than it would in the absence of cosmions. The overall duration of the HB phase slightly decreases, and the luminosity dispersion of the HB increases, but neither effect is pronounced enough to conflict with observations. The magnitude difference between the HB and the main-sequence turnoff increases and leads to an overestimate of globular cluster ages. The observed period changes of RR Lyrae stars are consistent with, and even implied by, this scenario.

  5. Dark Matter Substructure, Galaxy Assembly and Star Formation Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simha, Vimal

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological SPH simulations to study galaxy growth and the relationship between dark matter halos and the galaxies that form in them. We find that the distinction between central and satellite galaxies in our simulation is weaker than expected in simple models where only central galaxies are able to accrete mass and `receive' mergers of less massive systems. Instead, in our simulation, satellite galaxies continue to accrete gas and convert it to stars after halo mergers with a larger parent halo. Satellites in our simulation are 0.1-0.2 magnitudes bluer than in models that assume no gas accretion on to satellites after a halo merger (instantaneous `strangulation'), which is sufficient to shift galaxies across the boundary from the `red sequence' to the `blue cloud'. Subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) is a technique for assigning luminosities to simulated dark matter substructures by assuming a strictly monotonic relationship between luminosity and halo mass at the epoch of accretion. We carry out N-body and SPH simulations of a cosmological volume with identical initial conditions, finding that SHAM successfully matches the stellar masses and luminosities of SPH galaxies at a wide range of epochs, albeit with relatively small amounts of scatter. In our SPH simulations that include momentum driven winds, the results are more complex. We examine the relationship between halo assembly and star formation histories with the goal of extending SHAM to a wider domain of observables such as star formation history and colour. In order to guide efforts to fit star formation histories to observed colours or spectra, we investigate parametric fits to the star formation histories of SPH galaxies finding that some commonly used models fail to describe the star formation histories of SPH galaxies but other simple two parameter models achieve greater success.

  6. Dark matter halo environment for primordial star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Ciardi, B.; Maio, U.; Ferrara, A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical properties (such as shape and spin) of high-z haloes likely hosting the first (PopIII) stars with cosmological simulations including detailed gas physics. In the redshift range considered (11 < z < 16) the average sphericity is = 0.3 ± 0.1, and for more than 90 per cent of haloes the triaxiality parameter is T ≲ 0.4, showing a clear preference for oblateness over prolateness. Larger haloes in the simulation tend to be both more spherical and prolate: we find s∝Mαsh and T∝MαTh, with αs ≈ 0.128 and αT = 0.276 at z = 11. The spin distributions of dark matter and gas are considerably different at z = 16, with the baryons rotating slower than the dark matter. At lower redshift, instead, the spin distributions of dark matter and gas track each other almost perfectly, as a consequence of a longer time interval available for momentum redistribution between the two components. The spin of both the gas and dark matter follows a lognormal distribution, with a mean value at z = 16 of <λ> = 0.0184, virtually independent of halo mass. This is in good agreement with previous studies. Using the results of two feedback models (MT1 and MT2) by McKee & Tan and mapping our halo spin distribution into a PopIII initial mass function (IMF), we find that at high z, the IMF closely tracks the spin lognormal distribution. Depending on the feedback model, though, the distribution can be centred at ≈ 65 M⊙ (MT1) or ≈ 140 M⊙ (MT2). At later times, model MT1 evolves into a bimodal distribution with a second prominent peak located at 35-40 M⊙ as a result of the non-linear relation between rotation and halo mass. We conclude that the dark matter halo properties might be a key factor shaping the IMF of the first stars.

  7. Weakly Interacting Massive Particle Dark Matter and First Stars: Suppression of Fragmentation in Primordial Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Iocco, Fabio; Glover, Simon C. O.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-12-01

    We present the first three-dimensional simulations to include the effects of dark matter annihilation feedback during the collapse of primordial minihalos. We begin our simulations from cosmological initial conditions and account for dark matter annihilation in our treatment of the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas. The dark matter is modeled using an analytical density profile that responds to changes in the peak gas density. We find that the gas can collapse to high densities despite the additional energy input from the dark matter. No objects supported purely by dark matter annihilation heating are formed in our simulations. However, we find that dark matter annihilation heating has a large effect on the evolution of the gas following the formation of the first protostar. Previous simulations without dark matter annihilation found that protostellar disks around Population III stars rapidly fragmented, forming multiple protostars that underwent mergers or ejections. When dark matter annihilation is included, however, these disks become stable to radii of 1000 AU or more. In the cases where fragmentation does occur, it is a wide binary that is formed.

  8. Carbon recombination line observations of the sharpless 140 region. [of early stars in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, G. R.; Brown, R. L.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Kakar, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon recombination-line emission has been detected at two frequencies from a dark cloud contiguous with the small H II region Sharpless 140. The observations show the dark cloud to be of unusually low temperature and to have a markedly inhomogeneous density distribution, with localized region of high density surrounding one or more embedded stars. The carbon is probably ionized by photons from both the exciting star of S140 and the embedded stars. The dark cloud and S140 apparently represent two stages of star formation which have occurred over a period of at least 500,000 years in adjacent regions of the same dark cloud.

  9. Tier 3- DarkStar engine run on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle undergoing an engine run on the ramp at, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. More than two years passed before the second Darkstar prototype (article #696) took to the air on June 29, 1998. The vehicle made a total of five flights, the last on January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  10. Tier 3- DarkStar on ramp from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle is inspected by NASA personnel September 14, 1995, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. The second Darkstar prototype (article #696) made five flights between June 29, 1998 and January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  11. Tier 3- DarkStar engine run on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin/Boeing Tier III- (minus) unpiloted aerial vehicle undergoing an engine run on the ramp at, following its arrival at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Tier III Minus project used Dryden ground facilities during the flight test program. The vehicle was developed by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Defense and Space Group to satisfy a goal of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office to supply responsive and sustained data from anywhere within enemy territory, day or night, in all types of weather. Dubbed DarkStar, the vehicle, with a wing span of 69 feet, was designed to fly above 45,000 feet at subsonic speeds on missions lasting more than eight hours. The first DarkStar prototype (article #695) made its first flight on March 29, 1996. At the begininning of its second flight, on April 22, 1996, it crashed on takeoff, and was destroyed. More than two years passed before the second Darkstar prototype (article #696) took to the air on June 29, 1998. The vehicle made a total of five flights, the last on January 9, 1999. The program was cancelled on January 28, 1999.

  12. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jason

    2014-06-24

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  13. White Dwarf Stars in the HET Dark Energy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, Barbara; Winget, D.; Gebhardt, K.; Allende Prieto, C.; Shetrone, M.; Odewahn, S.; Montgomery, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    In this poster, we present the project that will survey all white dwarf stars observed in the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) observations in parallel mode. The final product will be a unique magnitude-limited catalog of as many as 10,000 stars. Since we will use data from an Integral-field Units, our survey will be free of the selection biases that plagued preceding surveys, e.g. the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The critical advantages of our program are our ability to produce a white dwarf luminosity function five magnitudes fainter than the one derived from the Palomar-Green survey and with a similar number of faint stars as the one from SDSS. Our project will help to derive a more precise age of the Galactic disk, and will provide fundamental information about the white dwarf population and the star formation history of the Milky Way, impacting the white dwarf field and many other fields of astronomy.

  14. FINDING HIGH-REDSHIFT DARK STARS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Zackrisson, Erik; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Oestlin, Goeran; Scott, Pat; Sivertsson, Sofia; Iocco, Fabio; Edvardsson, Bengt; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Gondolo, Paolo

    2010-07-01

    The first stars in the history of the universe are likely to form in the dense central regions of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub sun} cold dark matter halos at z {approx} 10-50. The annihilation of dark matter particles in these environments may lead to the formation of so-called dark stars, which are predicted to be cooler, larger, more massive, and potentially more long-lived than conventional population III stars. Here, we investigate the prospects of detecting high-redshift dark stars with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We find that all dark stars with masses up to 10{sup 3} M{sub sun} are intrinsically too faint to be detected by JWST at z > 6. However, by exploiting foreground galaxy clusters as gravitational telescopes do, certain varieties of cool (T{sub eff} {<=} 30, 000 K) dark stars should be within reach at redshifts up to z {approx} 10. If the lifetimes of dark stars are sufficiently long, many such objects may also congregate inside the first galaxies. We demonstrate that this could give rise to peculiar features in the integrated spectra of galaxies at high redshifts, provided that dark stars make up at least {approx}1% of the total stellar mass in such objects.

  15. Dark matter and the first stars: a new phase of stellar evolution.

    PubMed

    Spolyar, Douglas; Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo

    2008-02-08

    A mechanism is identified whereby dark matter (DM) in protostellar halos dramatically alters the current theoretical framework for the formation of the first stars. Heat from neutralino DM annihilation is shown to overwhelm any cooling mechanism, consequently impeding the star formation process and possibly leading to a new stellar phase. A "dark star" may result: a giant ( greater, similar 1 AU) hydrogen-helium star powered by DM annihilation instead of nuclear fusion. Observational consequences are discussed.

  16. DARK STARS: IMPROVED MODELS AND FIRST PULSATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rindler-Daller, T.; Freese, K.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Paxton, B.

    2015-02-01

    We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars (DSs). DSs, which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with previous models, which assumed polytropic interiors. There are some differences in the details, with positive implications for observability. We found that, in the mass range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al., are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of three to four, and more luminous by a factor of two. Our models also confirm previous results, according to which supermassive DSs are very well approximated by (n = 3)-polytropes. We also perform a first study of DS pulsations. Our DS models have pulsation modes with timescales ranging from less than a day to more than two years in their rest frames, at z ∼ 15, depending on DM particle mass and overtone number. Such pulsations may someday be used to identify bright, cool objects uniquely as DSs; if properly calibrated, they might, in principle, also supply novel standard candles for cosmological studies.

  17. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema

    Joseph Silk

    2016-07-12

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  18. A particle dark matter footprint on the first generation of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk

    2014-05-01

    Dark matter particles with properties identical to those of dark matter candidates hinted at by several international collaborations dedicated to the experimental detection of dark matter (DAMA, COGENT, CRESST, and CDMS-II, although not, most notably, by LUX), which also have a dark matter asymmetry that is identical to the observed baryon asymmetry (Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe), may produce a significant impact on the evolution of the first generation of low-metallicity stars. The lifetimes of these stars in different phases of stellar evolution are significantly extended, namely, in the pre-main sequence, main sequence, and red giant phases. In particular, intermediate-mass stars in the red giant phase experience significant changes in their luminosity and chemical composition. The annihilations of dark matter particles affect the interior of the star in such a way that the 3α reaction becomes less efficient in the production of carbon and oxygen. This dark matter effect contradicts the excess of carbon and other metals observed today in stars of low mass and low metallicity. Hence, we can impose an upper limit on the dark matter halo density, and therefore on the redshift, at which the first generation of low-metallicity stars formed.

  19. Dark strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2009-09-15

    Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.

  20. Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-07-02

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter.

  1. Dark matter and dark radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Lotty; Buckley, Matthew R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-15

    We explore the feasibility and astrophysical consequences of a new long-range U(1) gauge field ('dark electromagnetism') that couples only to dark matter, not to the standard model. The dark matter consists of an equal number of positive and negative charges under the new force, but annihilations are suppressed if the dark-matter mass is sufficiently high and the dark fine-structure constant {alpha}-circumflex is sufficiently small. The correct relic abundance can be obtained if the dark matter also couples to the conventional weak interactions, and we verify that this is consistent with particle-physics constraints. The primary limit on {alpha}-circumflex comes from the demand that the dark matter be effectively collisionless in galactic dynamics, which implies {alpha}-circumflex < or approx. 10{sup -3} for TeV-scale dark matter. These values are easily compatible with constraints from structure formation and primordial nucleosynthesis. We raise the prospect of interesting new plasma effects in dark-matter dynamics, which remain to be explored.

  2. Constraining the parameter space of branon dark matter using white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panotopoulos, Grigorios; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-09-01

    In the present work we study the branon dark matter particles impact on compact objects, and we provide the first constraints of the parameter space using white dwarf stars. The branon dark matter model is characterized by two free parameters, namely the branon mass particle M and the brane tension factor f . The latter determines the strength of the interaction of branon dark matter particles with baryons. By considering a typical white dwarf star we were able to obtain constraints on branon dark matter competitive with current limits obtained by direct detection and collider searches. In particular, our results show that (i) for heavy branons with a mass M >10 GeV white dwarfs fail to provide us with bounds better than current limits from dark matter direct detection searches, and (ii) for light branons in the mass range 2 keV dark matter experiments or with the next generation of detectors, the dark matter abundance constraint determines f as a function of M in the range 0.1 dark matter abundance constraint.

  3. Dark matter and dark energy: The critical questions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Turner

    2002-11-19

    Stars account for only about 0.5% of the content of the Universe; the bulk of the Universe is optically dark. The dark side of the Universe is comprised of: at least 0.1% light neutrinos; 3.5% {+-} 1% baryons; 29% {+-} 4% cold dark matter; and 66% {+-} 6% dark energy. Now that we have characterized the dark side of the Universe, the challenge is to understand it. The critical questions are: (1) What form do the dark baryons take? (2) What is (are) the constituent(s) of the cold dark matter? (3) What is the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is causing the Universe to speed up.

  4. Dying Stars Indicate Lots of Dark Matter in Giant Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-04-01

    result is that these measurements also allow an estimate of how much of this giant galaxy is in the form of dark matter. From the large spread in the observed velocities of the 37 planetary nebulae, it is apparent that the total mass of NGC 1399 must be very large, and that no more than 10 percent of this mass is contained in the stars and gas we observe in it. In other words: the remaining 90 percent of the mass of NGC 1399 must consist of dark, ``invisible'' matter. This is another very clear observational confirmation of the apparent presence of dark matter in the Universe, already indicated by various other types of astronomical investigations. Although many suggestions have been made about the nature of this dark matter, nothing is known for sure at this moment. The most important implication of the existence of dark matter is that its gravitational attraction may be sufficient to ultimately stop the current expansion of the Universe. If so, the Universe will later begin to contract and probably end its present phase in a ``Big Crunch'', many billions of years from now. 1 Magda Arnaboldi Gnidica and Ken C. Freeman (Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Canberra ACT, Australia), Xiaohui Hui (Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, U.S.A.), Massimo Capaccioli (Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita' di Padova, Padova, and Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli, Italy) and Holland Ford (Physics and Astronomy Department, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.) 2 Planetary Nebulae are formed when stars like our Sun are about to die and throw off a great shining shell of gas. This gives them the appearance of a small nebula surrounding a central star, and this is why they are called ``planetary'', although they have nothing to do with planets. 3 This light is emitted at wavelength 500.7 nm by doubly ionised oxygen atoms ([O III]) FIGURE CAPTION ESO PR PHOTO 05/94: PLANETARY NEBULAE IN NGC 1399 This photo shows some of

  5. Superradiance in rotating stars and pulsar-timing constraints on dark photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2017-06-01

    In the presence of massive bosonic degrees of freedom, rotational superradiance can trigger an instability that spins down black holes. This leads to peculiar gravitational-wave signatures and distribution in the spin-mass plane, which in turn can impose stringent constraints on ultralight fields. Here, we demonstrate that there is an analogous spindown effect for conducting stars. We show that rotating stars amplify low-frequency electromagnetic waves, and that this effect is largest when the time scale for conduction within the star is of the order of a light crossing time. This has interesting consequences for dark photons, as massive dark photons would cause stars to spin down due to superradiant instabilities. The time scale of the spindown depends on the mass of the dark photon, and on the rotation rate, compactness, and conductivity of the star. Existing measurements of the spindown rate of pulsars place direct constraints on models of dark sectors. Our analysis suggests that dark photons of mass mV˜10-12 eV are excluded by pulsar-timing observations. These constraints also exclude superradiant instabilities triggered by dark photons as an explanation for the spin limit of observed pulsars.

  6. Dark-disk universe.

    PubMed

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

    2013-05-24

    We point out that current constraints on dark matter imply only that the majority of dark matter is cold and collisionless. A subdominant fraction of dark matter could have much stronger interactions. In particular, it could interact in a manner that dissipates energy, thereby cooling into a rotationally supported disk, much as baryons do. We call this proposed new dark matter component double-disk dark matter (DDDM). We argue that DDDM could constitute a fraction of all matter roughly as large as the fraction in baryons, and that it could be detected through its gravitational effects on the motion of stars in galaxies, for example. Furthermore, if DDDM can annihilate to gamma rays, it would give rise to an indirect detection signal distributed across the sky that differs dramatically from that predicted for ordinary dark matter. DDDM and more general partially interacting dark matter scenarios provide a large unexplored space of testable new physics ideas.

  7. Dark catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2017-08-01

    Recently it was shown that dark matter with mass of order the weak scale can be charged under a new long-range force, decoupled from the Standard Model, with only weak constraints from early Universe cosmology. Here we consider the implications of an additional charged particle C that is light enough to lead to significant dissipative dynamics on galactic times scales. We highlight several novel features of this model, which can be relevant even when the C particle constitutes only a small fraction of the number density (and energy density). We assume a small asymmetric abundance of the C particle whose charge is compensated by a heavy X particle so that the relic abundance of dark matter consists mostly of symmetric X and bar X, with a small asymmetric component made up of X and C. As the universe cools, it undergoes asymmetric recombination binding the free Cs into (XC) dark atoms efficiently. Even with a tiny asymmetric component, the presence of C particles catalyzes tight coupling between the heavy dark matter X and the dark photon plasma that can lead to a significant suppression of the matter power spectrum on small scales and lead to some of the strongest bounds on such dark matter theories. We find a viable parameter space where structure formation constraints are satisfied and significant dissipative dynamics can occur in galactic haloes but show a large region is excluded. Our model shows that subdominant components in the dark sector can dramatically affect structure formation.

  8. Spectroscopic Reductions of White Dwarf Stars to Support Dark Energy Survey Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulledge, Deborah Jean; Robertson, Jacob M.; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Smith, J. Allyn; Wester, William; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fix, Mees B.

    2017-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey is an imaging survey that covers 5000 square degrees in the Southern hemisphere to map galaxies and gather information on dark energy. Science requirements for the survey require a 0.5% uncertainty in color, driven by supernova science. The Dark Energy Survey relies a calibration technique that uses white dwarf stars to set zero points. These white dwarf spectra are fit to models which are used to generate synthetic photometry. These values are compared to the measured values from the survey to verify that the zero points are correct. We present results to date of the spectroscopic reductions of these white dwarf stars in support of the calibrations for the Dark Energy Survey.

  9. Enhancement of dark matter capture by neutron stars in binary systems.

    PubMed

    Brayeur, Lionel; Tinyakov, Peter

    2012-08-10

    We study the capture of dark matter particles by neutron stars in close binary systems. By performing a direct numerical simulation, we find that there is a sizable amplification of the rate of dark matter capture by each of the companions. In the case of the binary pulsar PSR J1906+0746 with the orbital period of 4 hours the amplification factor is approximately equal to 3.5. This amplification can be attributed to the energy loss by dark matter particles resulting from their gravitational scattering off moving companions.

  10. Dark coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S. E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2009-07-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.

  11. The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy.

    PubMed

    Spergel, David N

    2015-03-06

    A simple model with only six parameters (the age of the universe, the density of atoms, the density of matter, the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, the scale dependence of this amplitude, and the epoch of first star formation) fits all of our cosmological data . Although simple, this standard model is strange. The model implies that most of the matter in our Galaxy is in the form of "dark matter," a new type of particle not yet detected in the laboratory, and most of the energy in the universe is in the form of "dark energy," energy associated with empty space. Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Keeping the Stars in Our Eyes: Global Astronomy Month's Dark Skies Awareness Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Global Astronomy Month's Dark Skies Awareness Working Group

    2012-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy provided opportunities to experience the beauty of the night sky. Every April since IYA2009, Global Astronomy Month (GAM) carried on the activities with new ones. Its goal is to bring astronomy enthusiasts together to celebrate astronomy and the beauty of observing the sky. Dark Skies Awareness (DSA) is a major program of GAM. Its main "take away" message focuses on reasons and methods for preserving the night sky. With half of the world's population living in cities, many people never experience the wonderment of a pristinely dark sky. "Light pollution” is obscuring people's long-standing natural heritage to view stars. Poorly-aimed and unshielded outdoor lights are the cause of most of the light pollution. They waste more than $2 billion (17 billion kilowatt-hours) of energy in the United States each year. Under unpolluted skies we ought to see more than a couple thousand stars, yet we see less than a hundred from many cities. A number of dark skies events and activities to promote public awareness on how to save energy and save our night sky were held worldwide during GAM2011 and will be held during GAM2012: · International Earth & Sky Photo Contest, April 1-22 · GLOBE at Night, which measures local levels of light pollution over a 10 day period, April 11-20 · International Dark Sky Week, April 14-20 · World Night in Defense of Starlight, April 20 · Dark Sky Rangers, designed to involve young people in preventing light pollution · One Star at a Time, creating accessible public spaces for viewing a dark night sky · Dark Skies Awareness 10 minute audio podcasts and poetry GAM 2012 DSA programs will be presented in terms of lessons learned and plans ahead to redress a disappearing natural heritage-our dark night sky.

  13. Adsorption sites on icosahedral quasicrystal surfaces: Dark stars and white flowers

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, B.; Jenks, C.J.; Thiel, P.A.

    2009-01-12

    From other work, two preferred sites have been suggested for metals and semimetals adsorbed on the fivefold surfaces of icosahedral, Al-based quasicrystals. Because of their appearance in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, these sites are known as dark stars and white flowers. In this paper, we analyze four bulk structural models in physical space to determine the types, chemical decorations, and densities of the dark star - and, to a lesser extent, the white flower - adsorption sites for the fivefold planes of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn. We find that the chemical decorations of these sites are heterogeneous, even within a single model. Both features are also structurally heterogeneous, according to STM measurements, and the structural variation is consistent with the bulk structure models. Finally, from the models, the density of dark stars in the planes correlates with the step height. This may explain previous experimental observations of different properties for different terraces.

  14. Constraining the scalar singlet and inert dark matter models using neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panotopoulos, Grigorios; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-07-01

    We study the scalar singlet as well as the two-Higgs doublet model inert dark matter particles' impact on compact objects, and we provide the first constraints of the parameter space using neutron stars. The models discussed here are characterized by two free parameters, namely the mass Mχ of the scalar particle that plays the role of the dark matter in the Universe, and a dimensionless coupling constant λχ that determines the strength of the interaction of the dark matter particles with the Standard Model Higgs boson. By considering a typical neutron star we are able to obtain constraints on scalar dark matter depending on the dark matter (DM) annihilation cross section and self-interaction coupling constant. Our findings show that (i) for heavy DM particles neutron stars can provide us with bounds better that the current limits from direct detection searches only when the self-annihilations of DM particles are negligible and the DM self-interaction coupling constant is very small, while (ii) for light DM particles the bounds obtained here are comparable to limits from Higgs invisible decays unless the DM particles are extremely light.

  15. Dark Areas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    This 220-mile (350-kilometer) wide view of Pluto from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft illustrates the incredible diversity of surface reflectivities and geological landforms on the dwarf planet. The image includes dark, ancient heavily cratered terrain; bright, smooth geologically young terrain; assembled masses of mountains; and an enigmatic field of dark, aligned ridges that resemble dunes; its origin is under debate. The smallest visible features are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometers) in size. This image was taken as New Horizons flew past Pluto on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19933

  16. MOCCA-SURVEY Database I: Is NGC 6535 a dark star cluster harbouring an IMBH?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askar, Abbas; Bianchini, Paolo; de Vita, Ruggero; Giersz, Mirek; Hypki, Arkadiusz; Kamann, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe the dynamical evolution of a unique type of dark star cluster model in which the majority of the cluster mass at Hubble time is dominated by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). We analysed results from about 2000 star cluster models (Survey Database I) simulated using the Monte Carlo code MOnte Carlo Cluster simulAtor and identified these dark star cluster models. Taking one of these models, we apply the method of simulating realistic `mock observations' by utilizing the Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions (COCOA) and Simulating Stellar Cluster Observation (SISCO) codes to obtain the photometric and kinematic observational properties of the dark star cluster model at 12 Gyr. We find that the perplexing Galactic globular cluster NGC 6535 closely matches the observational photometric and kinematic properties of the dark star cluster model presented in this paper. Based on our analysis and currently observed properties of NGC 6535, we suggest that this globular cluster could potentially harbour an IMBH. If it exists, the presence of this IMBH can be detected robustly with proposed kinematic observations of NGC 6535.

  17. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.; Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.; Hornstrup, A.

    2015-08-27

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. Here, we present the first search for dark matter line emission in the $3-80\\;\\mathrm{keV}$ range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line emission and instead we derive upper limits (95% CL) on the flux, and interpret these constraints in the context of sterile neutrinos and more generic dark matter candidates. NuSTAR does not have the sensitivity to constrain the recently claimed line detection at $3.5\\;\\mathrm{keV}$, but improves on the constraints for energies of $10-25\\;\\mathrm{keV}$.

  18. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster

    DOE PAGES

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.; ...

    2015-08-27

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. Here, we present the first search for dark matter line emission in themore » $$3-80\\;\\mathrm{keV}$$ range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line emission and instead we derive upper limits (95% CL) on the flux, and interpret these constraints in the context of sterile neutrinos and more generic dark matter candidates. NuSTAR does not have the sensitivity to constrain the recently claimed line detection at $$3.5\\;\\mathrm{keV}$$, but improves on the constraints for energies of $$10-25\\;\\mathrm{keV}$$.« less

  19. Dark Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  20. Psychopathology in a Galaxy Far, Far Away: the Use of Star Wars' Dark Side in Teaching.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C W; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2015-12-01

    Star Wars is well known, timeless, universal, and incorporated into shared culture. Trainees have grown up with the movies, and based on their enduring popularity, attending psychiatrists are likely to have seen them too. This article highlights psychopathology from the Dark Side of Star Wars films which can be used in teaching. These include as follows: borderline and narcissistic personality traits, psychopathy, PTSD, partner violence risk, developmental stages, and of course Oedipal conflicts.

  1. Galactic Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Benjamin P.

    The precise phase-space distribution and properties of Galactic dark matter necessary for its direct and indirect detection are currently unknown. Since the distributions of normal and dark matter in the Milky Way are coupled to each other as they both move in the same gravitational potential, constraints on the distribution and properties of dark matter can be derived by studying the distribution of visible matter in the Galaxy and making some general assumptions regarding the phase-space distribution of the dark matter. In this study, the visible components of the Galaxy have been comprehensively reviewed to create an axisymmetric model of the Galaxy that is consistent with the available observations, and the dark matter phase-space distribution is assumed to follow a lowered-isothermal form. Poisson's equations are then solved self-consistently to construct models of the spatial and velocity distribution of Galactic dark matter. The total gravitational potential from normal and dark matter are calculated and compared to the current observations of the rotation curve and to the radial velocity distributions of blue horizontal-branch and blue straggler stars. It is found that this analysis allows for a wide range of parameters for the dark matter. The implications for direct and indirect detection of dark matter are discussed in detail. In the appendices, two additional projects are presented. In Appendix A, the recent observations of the positron fraction and the total electron spectrum in cosmic rays are addressed by considering a nested leaky-box model for the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. This is found to obviate the need for exotic processes such as the annihilation or decay of dark matter to explain the recent observations. In Appendix B, we discuss a novel dark matter detector involving triggered cavitation in acoustic fields. The theory behind the detector is presented in detail, and we discuss the work than has been done to create a prototype

  2. Dark scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present four "dark scenarios" that highlight the key socio-economic, legal, technological and ethical risks to privacy, identity, trust, security and inclusiveness posed by new AmI technologies. We call them dark scenarios, because they show things that could go wrong in an AmI world, because they present visions of the future that we do not want to become reality. The scenarios expose threats and vulnerabilities as a way to inform policy-makers and planners about issues they need to take into account in developing new policies or updating existing legislation. Before presenting the four scenarios and our analysis of each, we describe the process of how we created the scenarios as well as the elements in our methodology for analysing the scenarios.

  3. Dark matter

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. James E.

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again. PMID:24794526

  4. Dark matter.

    PubMed

    Peebles, P James E

    2015-10-06

    The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again.

  5. Analysis of dark matter and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-05-01

    As the law of unity of opposites of the Philosophy tells us, the bright material exists, the dark matter also exists. Dark matter and dark energy should allow the law of unity of opposites. The Common attributes of the matter is radiation, then common attributes of dark matter must be absorb radiation. Only the rotation speed is lower than the speed of light radiation, can the matter radiate, since the speed of the matter is lower than the speed of light, so the matter is radiate; The rotate speed of the dark matter is faster than the light , so the dark matter doesn't radiate, it absorbs radiation. The energy that the dark matter absorb radiation produced (affect the measurement of time and space distribution of variations) is dark energy, so the dark matter produce dark energy only when it absorbs radiation. Dark matter does not radiate, two dark matters does not exist inevitably forces, and also no dark energy. Called the space-time ripples, the gravitational wave is bent radiation, radiation particles should be graviton, graviton is mainly refers to the radiation particles whose wavelength is small. Dark matter, dark energy also confirms the existence of the law of symmetry.

  6. Is Dark Energy Falsifiable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. H.; Schild, R. E.

    2011-11-01

    Is the accelerating expansion of the Universe true, inferred through observations of distant supernovae, and is the implied existence of an enormous amount of anti- gravitational dark energy material driving the accelerating expansion of the universe also true? To be physically useful these propositions must be falsifiable; that is, subject to observational tests that could render them false, and both fail when viscous, diffusive, astro-biological and turbulence effects are included in the interpretation of observations. A more plausible explanation of negative stresses producing the big bang is turbulence at Planck temperatures. Inflation results from gluon viscous stresses at the strong force transition. Anti-gravitational (dark energy) turbulence stresses are powerful but only temporary. No permanent dark energy is needed. At the plasma-gas transition, viscous stresses cause fragmentation of plasma proto-galaxies into dark matter clumps of primordial gas planets, each of which falsifies dark-energy cold-dark-matter cosmologies. Clumps of these planets form all stars, and explain the alleged accelerating expansion of the universe as a systematic dimming error of Supernovae Ia by light scattered in the hot turbulent atmospheres of evaporated planets surrounding central white dwarf stars.

  7. Microlensing of Kepler stars as a method of detecting primordial black hole dark matter.

    PubMed

    Griest, Kim; Lehner, Matthew J; Cieplak, Agnieszka M; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2011-12-02

    If the dark matter consists of primordial black holes (PBHs), we show that gravitational lensing of stars being monitored by NASA's Kepler search for extrasolar planets can cause significant numbers of detectable microlensing events. A search through the roughly 150,000 light curves would result in large numbers of detectable events for PBHs in the mass range 5×10(-10) M(⊙) to 10(-4) M(⊙). Nondetection of these events would close almost 2 orders of magnitude of the mass window for PBH dark matter. The microlensing rate is higher than previously noticed due to a combination of the exceptional photometric precision of the Kepler mission and the increase in cross section due to the large angular sizes of the relatively nearby Kepler field stars. We also present a new formalism for calculating optical depth and microlensing rates in the presence of large finite-source effects.

  8. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  9. Dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter-a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations-from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology-a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)-fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  10. Dark matter universe

    PubMed Central

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  11. Measuring the Shape and Orientation of the Galactic Dark-Matter Halo using Hypervelocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Oleg

    2009-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images of five hypervelocity stars in the Galactic halo in order to establish the first-epoch astrometric frame for them, as a part of a long-term program to measure precise proper motions. The origin of these recently discovered stars, all with positive radial velocities above 540 km/s, is consistent only with being ejected from the deep potential well of the massive black hole at the Galactic center. The deviations of their space motions from purely radial trajectories probe the departures from spherical symmetry of the Galactic potential, mainly due to the triaxiality of the dark-matter halo. Reconstructing the full three-dimensional space motion of the hypervelocity stars, through astrometric proper motions, provides a unique opportunity to measure the shape and orientation of the dark halo. The hypervelocity stars allow measurement of the potential up to 75 kpc from the center, independently of and at larger distances than are afforded by tidal streams of satellite galaxies such as the Sagittarius dSph galaxy. HVS3 may be associated with the LMC, rather then the Galactic center, and would therefore present a case for a supermassive black hole at the center of the LMC. We request one orbit with ACS/WFC for each of the five hypervelocity stars to establish their current positions relative to background galaxies. We will request a repeated observation of these stars in Cycle 17, which will conclusively measure the astrometric proper motions.

  12. Measuring the Shape and Orientation of the Galactic Dark-Matter Halo using Hypervelocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Oleg

    2006-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images of five hypervelocity stars in the Galactic halo in order to establish the first-epoch astrometric frame for them, as a part of a long-term program to measure precise proper motions. The origin of these recently discovered stars, all with positive radial velocities above 540 km/s, is consistent only with being ejected from the deep potential well of the massive black hole at the Galactic center. The deviations of their space motions from purely radial trajectories probe the departures from spherical symmetry of the Galactic potential, mainly due to the triaxiality of the dark-matter halo. Reconstructing the full three-dimensional space motion of the hypervelocity stars, through astrometric proper motions, provides a unique opportunity to measure the shape and orientation of the dark halo. The hypervelocity stars allow measurement of the potential up to 75 kpc from the center, independently of and at larger distances than are afforded by tidal streams of satellite galaxies such as the Sagittarius dSph galaxy. HVS3 may be associated with the LMC, rather then the Galactic center, and would therefore present a case for a supermassive black hole at the center of the LMC. We request one orbit with ACS/WFC for each of the five hypervelocity stars to establish their current positions relative to background galaxies. We will request a repeated observation of these stars in Cycle 17, which will conclusively measure the astrometric proper motions.

  13. Conquest of Darkness by Management of the Stars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-18

    engineering elements for success. World War II to 1954 3 Fort Belvoir, VA * Oscar P. Cleaver 3 Oscar is an early star in Night Vision history. At the...beginning of World War II, he was a pioneer in blackout lighting at Westinghouse. The Corps Figure 2. NIR Sniperscope - Early 1950s I of Engineers needed...such an expert and offered The Corps of Engineers had responsibility for him the position of Chief of the Electrical De- the 60-inch carbon arc

  14. SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND DARK MATTER SEEDING IN NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles

    2013-05-10

    We present a mechanism based on internal self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars that may trigger full or partial conversion into a quark star. We explain how this effect may induce a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that could be classified as short, according to the usual definition based on time duration of the prompt gamma-ray emission. This mechanism differs in many aspects from the most discussed scenario associating short GRBs with compact object binary mergers. We list possible observational signatures that should help distinguish between these two possible classes of progenitors.

  15. Dark-Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  16. Conquest of darkness by management of the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Robert S.

    This text was presented as the Thomas B. Dowd Memorial Lecture for 1991 national Infrared Information Symposium (IRIS). The history of Army Night Vision from World War II to 1972 proves how the right organization with talented people and proper support can succeed. This presentation not only illustrates the growth of image intensifier technology and families of equipment, but the key events and stars that made it all happen. Described are the management techniques used and how to organize for effective research, development, engineering, and production programs; the evolution of the Far Infrared Common Module program is described; and how the Night Vision Laboratory was unique.

  17. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2016-07-12

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  18. Multiscatter stellar capture of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, Joseph; Delgado, Antonio; Martin, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Dark matter may be discovered through its capture in stars and subsequent annihilation. It is usually assumed that dark matter is captured after a single scattering event in the star; however this assumption breaks down for heavy dark matter, which requires multiple collisions with the star to lose enough kinetic energy to become captured. We analytically compute how multiple scatters alter the capture rate of dark matter and identify the parameter space where the effect is largest. Using these results, we then show how multiscatter capture of dark matter on compact stars can be used to probe heavy mX≫TeV dark matter with remarkably small dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections. As one example, it is demonstrated how measuring the temperature of old neutron stars in the Milky Way's center provides sensitivity to high mass dark matter with dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections smaller than the xenon direct detection neutrino floor.

  19. PMS and ZAMS stars associated with the dark cloud LDN 1655

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarría-K, C.; Moreno-Corral, M. A.; de Lara, E.; de la Fuente, E.

    2013-01-01

    We give results of a low-resolution optical spectroscopic study of the bright nebulous stars conforming the tight stellar trapezium embedded in IRAS06548-0815, of the exciting star of IRAS06547-0810, and of the stars associated with reflection nebulae (R-or N-stars) NJ065703.0-081421, NJ065714.1-081016, IRAS06548-0815 D and IRAS06548-0815 G, all objects scarcely observed and apparently pertaining to the dark cloud LDN 1655. Our results given here combined with the corresponding 2MASS near infrared photometry enables us to estimate a photometric distance to LDN1655 of 1.9 ± kpc and to locate the trapezium stars on the (logL∗/L⊙,logTeff) or HR diagram in an attempt to disclose about their true nature. The spectroscopy of IRAS06548-0815 revealed two classic T Tauri, two Herbig Ae/Be stars, four weak-line T Tauri stars, and two probable lithium-rich stars. Additionally, we found that the R-star IRAS06547-0810 is excited by a single B1(V) star, that IRAS06548-0815 D is excited by a SpT. B2/B3(V) star, NJ065703.0-081421 and NJ065714.1-081016 are excited by a B3/B4(V) emission star and an A6(V) star, respectively. The brightest near infrared source of the trapezium, IRS1, has an infrared luminosity comparable to a highly reddened O8(V) star (AV≈29m). The second brightest near infrared source of the trapezium, IRAS06548-0815 C is, optically, a single classical T Tauri star of spectral type K4/K5, but is a resolved binary in the 2MASSKs band, both components being of about the same brightness.

  20. Can dark matter decay in dark energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S. H.; Jesus, J. F.

    2009-02-01

    We analyze the interaction between dark energy and dark matter from a thermodynamical perspective. By assuming they have different temperatures, we study the possibility of occurring a decay from dark matter into dark energy, characterized by a negative parameter Q. We find that, if at least one of the fluids has nonvanishing chemical potential, for instance μx<0 and μdm=0 or μx=0 and μdm>0, the decay is possible, where μx and μdm are the chemical potentials of dark energy and dark matter, respectively. Using recent cosmological data, we find that, for a fairly simple interaction, the dark matter decay is favored with a probability of ˜93% over the dark energy decay. This result comes from a likelihood analysis where only background evolution has been considered.

  1. Chandra's Darkest Bright Star: not so Dark after All?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2008-11-01

    The Chandra High Resolution camera (HRC) has obtained numerous short exposures of the ultraviolet (UV)-bright star Vega (α Lyrae; HD 172167: A0 V), to calibrate the response of the detector to out-of-band (non-X-ray) radiation. A new analysis uncovered a stronger "blue leak" in the imaging section (HRC-I) than reported in an earlier study of Vega based on a subset of the pointings. The higher count rate—a factor of nearly 2 above prelaunch estimates—raised the possibility that genuine coronal X-rays might lurk among the out-of-band events. Exploiting the broader point-spread function of the UV leak compared with soft X-rays identified an excess of counts centered on the target, technically at 3σ significance. A number of uncertainties, however, prevent a clear declaration of a Vegan corona. A more secure result would be within reach of a deep uninterrupted HRC-I pointing.

  2. Observational probes of the connection between Star Formation Efficiency and Dark Matter halo mass of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinova, Veselina; Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Modern simulations predict that the stellar mass and the star formation efficiency of a galaxy are tightly linked to the dark matter (DM) halo mass of that galaxy. This prediction relies on a specific model of galaxy evolution and so testing this prediction directly tests our best models of galaxy formation and evolution. Recent DM numerical studies propose relationships between star formation efficiency and the DM halo mass with two domains based on SF feedback (low-mass) vs. AGN feedback (high-mass), see Moster et al. (2013). The observational probe of such parameters in the relationship imply globally important physics that are fundamental as, e.g., the star formation law (e.g., Kennicutt et al., 1998), the universal depletion time (Leroy et al. 2008), and the origin of the cold gas phase with respect to the stellar disc (Davis et al.2011). Thus, we can directly measure whether this parameterization is correct by estimating the stellar mass, star formation efficiency and dynamical (DM) mass for a set of galaxies at strategically selected points to test if they fall on the predicted relationship.We use CO data from the Extragalactic Database for Galaxy Evolution survey (EDGE) in conjunction with archival 21-cm data and spectroscopic data from Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field spectroscopy Area survey (CALIFA) to measure the stellar vs. halo mass and star-formation-efficiency vs. halo mass relations of the galaxies. We also analyze archival 21-cm spectra to estimate rotation speeds, atomic gas masses and halo masses for a set of EDGE galaxies. Data from CALIFA are used for high quality star formation efficiency and stellar mass measurements. By linking these three parameters - stellar mass, star formation efficiency (SFE) and DM halo mass - we can test the simulation models of how the gas is cooling in the potential wells of the dark matter halos and then forms stars.

  3. Evolution and dynamical properties of Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madarassy, Eniko J. M.; Toth, Viktor T.

    2015-02-01

    Using recently developed nonrelativistic numerical simulation code, we investigate the stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed due to the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the Universe. Because of dark matter accretion, a Bose-Einstein condensed core can also be formed inside massive astrophysical objects such as neutron stars or white dwarfs, for example. Numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of coupled differential equations, we demonstrate, with longer simulation runs, that within the computational limits of the simulation the objects we investigate are stable. Physical properties of a self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensate are examined both in nonrotating and rotating cases.

  4. Image Comparisons of Black Hole vs. Neutron Dark Star by Ray Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froedge, D. T.

    2015-04-01

    In previous papers we have discussed the concept of a theory of gravitation with local energy conservation, and the properties of a large neutron star resulting when the energy of gravitation resides locally with the particle mass and not in the gravitational field. A large neutron star's surface radius grows closer to the gravitational radius as the mass increases. Since the localization of energy applies to the photon, they do not decrease energy rising in a gravitational field, and can escape. Photon trajectories in a strong gravitational field can be investigated by the use of ray tracing procedures. Only a fraction of the blackbody radiation emitted from the surface escapes into space (about 0.00004% for Sag A*). Because of the low % of escaping radiation, the heavy neutron stars considered in this paper will be referred to as a Neutron Dark Star (NDS). In contrast to the Black Hole (BH) which should be totally dark inside the photon shadow, the NDS will appear as a fuzzy low luminosity ball. For Sag A* a full width half maximum diameter is about 3.85 Schwarzschild radii inside the shadow. (http://www.arxdtf.org/css/Image%20Comparisons.pdf). The Event Horizon Telescope should be able to distinguish the difference between the theories.

  5. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  6. Dark matter candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    The types of particles which may provide the nonluminous mass required by big-bang cosmological models are listed and briefly characterized. The observational evidence for the existence of dark matter (outweighing the luminous component by at least a factor of 10) is reviewed; the theoretical arguments favoring mainly nonbaryonic dark matter are summarized; and particular attention is given to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) remaining as relics from the early universe. The WIMPs are classified as thermal relics (heavy stable neutrinos and lighter neutralinos), asymmetric relics (including baryons), nonthermal relics (superheavy magnetic monopoles, axions, and soliton stars), and truly exotic relics (relativistic debris or vacuum energy). Explanations for the current apparent baryon/exotica ratio of about 0.1 in different theoretical scenarios are considered, and the problems of experimental and/or observational dark-matter detection are examined.

  7. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  8. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-12-05

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  9. Dark matter candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    The types of particles which may provide the nonluminous mass required by big-bang cosmological models are listed and briefly characterized. The observational evidence for the existence of dark matter (outweighing the luminous component by at least a factor of 10) is reviewed; the theoretical arguments favoring mainly nonbaryonic dark matter are summarized; and particular attention is given to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) remaining as relics from the early universe. The WIMPs are classified as thermal relics (heavy stable neutrinos and lighter neutralinos), asymmetric relics (including baryons), nonthermal relics (superheavy magnetic monopoles, axions, and soliton stars), and truly exotic relics (relativistic debris or vacuum energy). Explanations for the current apparent baryon/exotica ratio of about 0.1 in different theoretical scenarios are considered, and the problems of experimental and/or observational dark-matter detection are examined.

  10. Peering into the heart of galactic star formation: A detailed characterization of infrared-dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragan, Sarah E.

    2009-09-01

    Everything we know about other galaxies is based on light from massive stars, yet, in our own Galaxy, it's the formation of massive stars that is the least understood. Star formation studies to date have focused on nearby, low-mass regions, but the bulk of star formation takes place in massive clusters, which takes place primarily in the inner-Galaxy, where the bulk of the molecular gas resides. To learn about the conditions under which massive clusters form, we seek out their precursors, called infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs). We present the results of a high-resolution multi-wavelength observational study of IRDCs, which vastly improves our knowledge of the initial conditions of cluster formation. Beginning with IRDC candidates identified with Midcourse Science Experiment (MSX) survey data, we map 41 IRDCs in the N 2 H + 1 [arrow right] 0, CS 2 [arrow right] 1 and C 18 O 1 [arrow right] 0 molecular transitions using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory. We examine the stellar content and absorption structure with Spitzer Space Telescope observations of eleven IRDCs, and we use Very Large Array NH 3 observations to probe the kinematics and chemistry of six IRDCs. Our comprehensive high-resolution study of IRDCs confirms that these objects are cold and dense precursors to massive stars and clusters. For the first time. we quantify IRDC sub-structure on sub-parsec scales and show the kinematic structure of IRDCs is diverse and depends on associated local star- formation activity. Overall, IRDCs exhibit non-thermal dynamics, suggesting that turbulence and systematic motions dominate. IRDC temperatures are between 8 and 16 K and are mostly flat with hints of a rise near the edges due to external heating. This study shows that IRDCs are a unique star-forming environment, one that dominates the star formation in the Milky Way. Using high-resolution observations, we have quantified the structure, star formation, kinematics, and chemistry of infrared-dark clouds. Our

  11. Dark matter in dwarf galaxies: Correcting inferred galaxy masses for the orbital motion of binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, Quinn Eliot

    We introduce a Bayesian methodology for determining the velocity dispersions of dwarf galaxies which takes into account both binarity and contamination by nonmember stars in a self-consistent way. This method can be readily extended to determine masses and related quantities such as the dark matter annihilation cross-section of dwarf galaxies. In addition we show that measured velocity dispersions of dwarf spheroidal galaxies from about 4 to 10 km/s are unlikely to be inflated by more than 30% due to the orbital motion of binary stars, and demonstrate that the intrinsic velocity dispersions can be determined to within a few percent accuracy using multi-epoch observations with 1-2 years as the optimal time interval. This methodology also constrains properties of binary populations (e.g. binary fraction, period distribution) from multi-epoch velocity measurements, and can be applied to both dwarf galaxies as well as star clusters.

  12. Signatures of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltz, Edward Anthony

    It is well known that most of the mass in the universe remains unobserved save for its gravitational effect on luminous matter. The nature of this ``dark matter'' remains a mystery. From measurements of the primordial deuterium abundance, the theory of big bang nucleosynthesis predicts that there are not enough baryons to account for the amount of dark matter observed, thus the missing mass must take an exotic form. Several promising candidates have been proposed. In this work I will describe my research along two main lines of inquiry into the dark matter puzzle. The first possibility is that the dark matter is exotic massive particles, such as those predicted by supersymmetric extensions to the standard model of particle physics. Such particles are generically called WIMPs, for weakly interacting massive particles. Focusing on the so-called neutralino in supersymmetric models, I discuss the possible signatures of such particles, including their direct detection via nuclear recoil experiments and their indirect detection via annihilations in the halos of galaxies, producing high energy antiprotons, positrons and gamma rays. I also discuss signatures of the possible slow decays of such particles. The second possibility is that there is a population of black holes formed in the early universe. Any dark objects in galactic halos, black holes included, are called MACHOs, for massive compact halo objects. Such objects can be detected by their gravitational microlensing effects. Several possibilities for sources of baryonic dark matter are also interesting for gravitational microlensing. These include brown dwarf stars and old, cool white dwarf stars. I discuss the theory of gravitational microlensing, focusing on the technique of pixel microlensing. I make predictions for several planned microlensing experiments with ground based and space based telescopes. Furthermore, I discuss binary lenses in the context of pixel microlensing. Finally, I develop a new technique for

  13. The new Be-type star HD 147196 in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The, P. S.; Perez, M. R.; De Winter, D.; Van Den Ancker, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    The newly discovered hot-emission line star, HD 147196 in the Rho Oph dark cloud region was observed spectroscopically and photometrically and high and low resolution IUE spectra were obtained. The finding of Irvine (1990) that this relatively bright star show its H-alpha-line in emission is confirmed. Previous H-alpha-surveys of the Rho Oph star-forming region did not detect HD 147196 as an H-alpha-emission star, meaning that it must recently be very active and has perhaps transformed itself from a B-type star at shell phase to a Be-phase. The Mg II h + k resonance lines are in absorption and they appear to be interstellar in nature, which means that either the abundance of Mg in the extended atmosphere of the star is low or that the shell is not extended enough to produce emission lines of Mg II. Photometric observations of this B8 V type star do not show any variations during at least the years covered by our monitoring or any excess of NIR radiation in its spectral energy distribution up to the M-passband at 4.8 microns.

  14. Radio constraints on heavily obscured star formation within dark gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Perley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Highly dust-obscured starbursting galaxies (submillimeter galaxies and their ilk) represent the most extreme sites of star formation in the distant universe and contribute significantly to overall cosmic star formation beyond z > 1.5. Some stars formed in these environments may also explode as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and contribute to the population of 'dark' bursts. Here we present Very Large Array wideband radio-continuum observations of 15 heavily dust-obscured Swift GRBs to search for radio synchrotron emission associated with intense star formation in their host galaxies. Most of these targets (11) are not detected. Of the remaining four objects, one detection is marginal, and for two others we cannot yet rule out the contribution of a long-lived radio afterglow. The final detection is secure, but indicates a star formation rate (SFR) roughly consistent with the dust-corrected UV-inferred value. Most galaxies hosting obscured GRBs are therefore not forming stars at extreme rates, and the amount of optical extinction seen along a GRB afterglow sightline does not clearly correlate with the likelihood that the host has a sufficiently high SFR to be radio-detectable. While some submillimeter galaxies do readily produce GRBs, these GRBs are often not heavily obscured—suggesting that the outer (modestly obscured) parts of these galaxies overproduce GRBs and the inner (heavily obscured) parts underproduce GRBs relative to their respective contributions to star formation, hinting at strong chemical or initial mass function gradients within these systems.

  15. The new Be-type star HD 147196 in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The, P. S.; Perez, M. R.; De Winter, D.; Van Den Ancker, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    The newly discovered hot-emission line star, HD 147196 in the Rho Oph dark cloud region was observed spectroscopically and photometrically and high and low resolution IUE spectra were obtained. The finding of Irvine (1990) that this relatively bright star show its H-alpha-line in emission is confirmed. Previous H-alpha-surveys of the Rho Oph star-forming region did not detect HD 147196 as an H-alpha-emission star, meaning that it must recently be very active and has perhaps transformed itself from a B-type star at shell phase to a Be-phase. The Mg II h + k resonance lines are in absorption and they appear to be interstellar in nature, which means that either the abundance of Mg in the extended atmosphere of the star is low or that the shell is not extended enough to produce emission lines of Mg II. Photometric observations of this B8 V type star do not show any variations during at least the years covered by our monitoring or any excess of NIR radiation in its spectral energy distribution up to the M-passband at 4.8 microns.

  16. A new type of compact stellar population: “dark star clusters”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of the presence of large populations of stellar mass black holes (BHs) in star clusters has currently come into focus as an increasing number of BHs are being detected in globular clusters from X-ray and radio observations. By virtue of their ~10 times higher mass than the average stellar mass, these BHs strongly segregate towards the center of their parent star cluster. In that way they become dynamically highly active and potentially invoke a wide variety of physical phenomena; the most important ones being emission of gravitational waves (GWs), formation of X-ray binaries, and expansion of the cluster. However, closer to the Galactic center, a different manifestation of the BH population within a star cluster can take place. We propose, for the first time, that rapid removal of stars from the outer parts of a cluster by the strong tidal field in the inner region of our Galaxy can unveil its BH sub-cluster. The remaining system would apparently be a super-virial star cluster that is gravitationally held compact by an invisible mass. We study the formation and properties of such systems through direct N-body computations and estimate that they can be present in significant numbers (~100) in the inner region of the Milky Way. We call such objects “dark star clusters” (DSCs) as they appear dimmer than normal star clusters of similar total mass and they comprise a predicted, new class of entities. Dark Star Clusters are a natural outcome of star clusters’ evolution in a strong tidal field provided a substantial number of BHs (and neutron stars) are formed with low natal kicks and are retained in them. Hence, the discovery of DSCs will not only constrain the uncertain natal kicks of BHs, thereby scenarios of BH formation, but will also reassure star clusters as potential sites for GW emission for forthcoming ground-based detectors such as the Advanced LIGO. Finally, we discuss whether the Galactic-central IRS 13E can possibly be a DSC.

  17. Joint constraints on the Galactic dark matter halo and Galactic Centre from hypervelocity stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Elena M.; Marchetti, T.; Cacciato, M.; Kuiack, M.; Sari, R.

    2017-05-01

    The mass assembly history of the Milky Way can inform both theory of galaxy formation and the underlying cosmological model. Thus, observational constraints on the properties of both its baryonic and dark matter contents are sought. Here, we show that hypervelocity stars (HVSs) can in principle provide such constraints. We model the observed velocity distribution of HVSs, produced by tidal break-up of stellar binaries caused by Sgr A*. Considering a Galactic Centre (GC) binary population consistent with that inferred in more observationally accessible regions, a fit to current HVS data with significance level >5 per cent can only be obtained if the escape velocity from the GC to 50 kpc is VG ≲ 850 km s-1, regardless of the enclosed mass distribution. When a Navarro, Frenk and White matter density profile for the dark matter halo is assumed, haloes with VG ≲ 850 km s-1 are in agreement with predictions in the Λ cold dark matter model and a subset of models around M200 ˜ 0.5-1.5 × 1012 M⊙ and rs ≲ 35 kpc can also reproduce Galactic circular velocity data. HVS data alone cannot currently exclude potentials with VG > 850 km s-1. Finally, specific constraints on the halo mass from HVS data are highly dependent on the assumed baryonic mass potentials. This first attempt to simultaneously constrain GC and dark halo properties is primarily hampered by the paucity and quality of data. It nevertheless demonstrates the potential of our method, that may be fully realized with the ESA Gaia mission.

  18. Cold Fusion Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Explanation of Cold Fusion [1] ``It is k-capture forming dineutrons followed by absorption by palladium.'' with excess heat energy no more than about .15 MeV per nucleon. Experimentally [1], ^1H and electrons are at high pressure at the center of a palladium wire sample, ``After hours of loading with ^1H, bubbles were present on the wire surface and the wire's resistance had stopped increasing, there was a fizz of hydrogen from the wire within a few seconds after loading current and large bubbles were stopped.'' a repeatable cycle. K-capture rate is affected by environment at the 1/10000 level has has been known since 1946 ( ref. [6]in [1]); and recently has been seen at the 0.35% level for 7Be in C60 [2]. Neutron halos have been seen recently in 8He [3], 6He [4] and others long ago. Conclusions: 1) the evidence for dineutrons is fairly good and as in all K-captures is accompanied by a neutrino emission. collapse of a star to a neutron star has a succession of K-captures in conditions like cold fusion i.e. high pressure. 2)Dark matter is dineutrons from formation of neutron stars and black holes, and dark energy of neutrinos generated in neutron stars, ordinary stars and black holes. If in the latter, then their mass must be zero for an infinite horizon. References: [1] M. Levi, DAMOP Meeting poster paper, session WP, 16-19 May,1995 [2]T. Ohtsuku et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 252501 (2007) [3] V. I. Ryjkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 01901 (2008) [4] L. B. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 ,142501 (2004).

  19. Old Neutron Stars as Probes of Isospin-Violating Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hao; Sun, Kai-Jia; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Isospin-violating dark matter (IVDM), which couples differently with protons and neutrons, provides a promising mechanism to ameliorate the tension among recent direct detection experiments. Assuming dark matter (DM) is non-interacting bosonic asymmetric IVDM, we investigate how the existence of old neutron stars limits the DM-proton scattering cross-section {{σ }p}, especially the effects of the isospin-violating DM-nucleon interactions and the symmetry energy in the equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Our calculations are completely based on general relativity and the structure of neutron stars is obtained by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations with nuclear matter EOS constrained by terrestrial experiments. We find that, by considering the more realistic neutron star model rather than a simple uniform neutron sphere as usual, the {{σ }p} bounds from old neutron stars can be varied by more than an order of magnitude depending on the specific values of the DM neutron-to-proton coupling ratio {{f}n}/{{f}p}, and they can be further varied by more than a factor of two depending on the density dependence of the symmetry energy. In particular, we demonstrate that the observed nearby isolated old neutron star PSR B1257+12 can set a very strong limit on {{σ }p} for low-mass DM particles (≤slant 20 GeV) that reaches a sensitivity beyond the current best limits from direct detection experiments and disfavors the DM interpretation of previously reported positive experimental results, including the IVDM.

  20. Enter the DarkSide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of astrophysical measurements evidence that the stars and gas in all galaxies are immersed in a much larger cloud of non-luminous and non-baryonic dark matter. The nature of the dark matter is still totally unknown, and the resolution of the dark matter puzzle is of fundamental importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and elementary particle physics. One of the major lines of researches directing their efforts at detection of dark matter is direct searches of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with detectors operated in deep underground laboratories. The new generation of direct searches of WIMPs promises to probe the most interesting region of parameters for the dark matter candidates. I will review and describe the DarkSide-50 underground Argon detector at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso.

  1. Distribution of Vesta Dark Materials, Southern View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-03

    This map shows the distribution of dark materials throughout the southern hemisphere of the giant asteroid Vesta. The circles, diamonds, and stars show where the dark material appears in craters, spots and topographic highs.

  2. Dark Energy in the Dark Ages

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2006-04-11

    Non-negligible dark energy density at high redshifts would indicate dark energy physics distinct from a cosmological constant or"reasonable'" canonical scalar fields. Such dark energy can be constrained tightly through investigation of the growth of structure, with limits of<~;;2percent of total energy density at z>> 1 for many models. Intermediate dark energy can have effects distinct from its energy density; the dark ages acceleration can be constrained to last less than 5percent of a Hubble e-fold time, exacerbating the coincidence problem. Both the total linear growth, or equivalently sigma 8, and the shape and evolution of the nonlinear mass power spectrum for z<2 (using the Linder-White nonlinear mapping prescription) provide important windows. Probes of growth, such as weak gravitational lensing, can interact with supernovae and CMB distance measurements to scan dark energy behavior over the entire range z=0-1100.

  3. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: relics from the dark ages

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero

    2014-08-20

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (≳ 140 M {sub ☉}) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  4. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars: Relics from the Dark Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero

    2014-08-01

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (gsim 140 M ⊙) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  5. From Darkness to Light: Observing the First Stars and Galaxies with the Redshifted 21-cm Line using the Dark Ages Radio Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Datta, Abhirup; Furlanetto, Steven; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin; Loeb, Abraham; Harker, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) will reveal when the first stars, black holes, and galaxies formed in the early Universe and will define their characteristics, from the Dark Ages (z=35) to the Cosmic Dawn (z=11). This epoch of the Universe has never been directly observed. The DARE science instrument is composed of electrically-short bi-conical dipole antennas, a correlation receiver, and a digital spectrometer that measures the sky-averaged, low frequency (40-120 MHz) spectral features from the highly redshifted 21-cm HI line that surrounds the first objects. These observations are possible because DARE will orbit the Moon at an altitude of 125 km and takes data when it is above the radio-quiet, ionosphere-free, solar-shielded lunar farside. DARE executes the small-scale mission described in the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (p. 83): 'mapping the Universe's hydrogen clouds using 21-cm radio wavelengths via lunar orbiter from the farside of the Moon'. This mission will address four key science questions: (1) When did the first stars form and what were their characteristics? (2) When did the first accreting black holes form and what was their characteristic mass? (3) When did reionization begin? (4) What surprises emerged from the Dark Ages (e.g., Dark Matter decay). DARE uniquely complements other major telescopes including Planck, JWST, and ALMA by bridging the gap between the smooth Universe seen via the CMB and rich web of galaxy structures seen with optical/IR/mm telescopes. Support for the development of this mission concept was provided by the Office of the Director, NASA Ames Research Center and by JPL/Caltech.

  6. Scale of dark QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Schwaller, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    Most of the mass of ordinary matter has its origin from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A similar strong dynamics, dark QCD, could exist to explain the mass origin of dark matter. Using infrared fixed points of the two gauge couplings, we provide a dynamical mechanism that relates the dark QCD confinement scale to our QCD scale, and hence provides an explanation for comparable dark baryon and proton masses. Together with a mechanism that generates equal amounts of dark baryon and ordinary baryon asymmetries in the early Universe, the similarity of dark matter and ordinary matter energy densities can be naturally explained. For a large class of gauge group representations, the particles charged under both QCD and dark QCD, necessary ingredients for generating the infrared fixed points, are found to have masses at 1-2 TeV, which sets the scale for dark matter direct detection and novel collider signatures involving visible and dark jets.

  7. Chiral Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U (1 )D , which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U (1 )D quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U (1 )D gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U (1 )D charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  8. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Soumagnac, M.T.; et al.

    2013-06-21

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  9. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Soumagnac, M. T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.; Kirk, D.; Sevilla, I.; Bertin, E.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Annis, J.; Busha, M. T.; Da Costa, L. N.; Frieman, J. A.; Gaztanaga, E.; Jarvis, M.; Lin, H.; Percival, W. J.; Santiago, B. X.; Sabiu, C. G.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wolz, L.; Yanny, B.

    2015-04-14

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the gravitational weak lensing and large-scale structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by point spread function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use principal component analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multiparameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20 per cent for stars and by up to 12 per cent for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  10. WEIGHING THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO: A LOWER MASS LIMIT FROM THE FASTEST HALO STAR KNOWN

    SciTech Connect

    Przybilla, Norbert; Tillich, Alfred; Heber, Ulrich; Scholz, Ralf-Dieter

    2010-07-20

    The mass of the Galactic dark matter halo is under vivid discussion. A recent study by Xue et al. revised the Galactic halo mass downward by a factor of {approx}2 relative to previous work, based on the line-of-sight velocity distribution of {approx}2400 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) halo stars. The observations were interpreted with a statistical approach using cosmological galaxy formation simulations, as only four of the six-dimensional phase-space coordinates were determined. Here we concentrate on a close investigation of the stars with the highest negative radial velocity from that sample. For one star, SDSSJ153935.67+023909.8 (J1539+0239 for short), we succeed in measuring a significant proper motion, i.e., full phase-space information is obtained. We confirm the star to be a Population II BHB star from an independent quantitative analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectrum-providing the first non-LTE (NLTE) study of any halo BHB star-and reconstruct its three-dimensional trajectory in the Galactic potential. J1539+0239 turns out to be the fastest halo star known to date, with a Galactic rest-frame velocity of 694{sup +300}{sub -221} km s{sup -1} (full uncertainty range from Monte Carlo error propagation) at its current position. The extreme kinematics of the star allows a significant lower limit to be put on the halo mass in order to keep it bound, of M {sub halo} {>=} 1.7{sup +2.3}{sub -1.1} x 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}. We conclude that the Xue et al. results tend to underestimate the true halo mass as their most likely mass value is consistent with our analysis only at a level of 4%. However, our result confirms other studies that make use of the full phase-space information.

  11. Challenges in Cosmology from the Big Bang to Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    I review the current status of Big Bang Cosmology, with emphasis on current issues in dark matter, dark energy, and galaxy formation. These topics motivate many of the current goals of experimental cosmology which range from targeting the nature of dark energy and dark matter to probing the epoch of the first stars and galaxies.

  12. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  13. Dark matter candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of. Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs.

  14. Impeded Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-12-12

    Here, we consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario \\Impeded Dark Matter". We also demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. Furthermore, for positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  15. Impeded Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy; ...

    2016-12-12

    Here, we consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario \\Impeded Dark Matter". We also demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may evenmore » be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. Furthermore, for positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.« less

  16. Impeded Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-12-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario "Impeded Dark Matter". We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  17. Joint constraints on the Galactic dark matter halo and GC from hypervelocity stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Elena M.; Marchetti, T.; Cacciato, M.; Kuiack, M.; Sari, R.

    2017-01-01

    The mass assembly history of the Milky Way can inform both theory of galaxy formation and the underlying cosmological model. Thus, observational constraints on the properties of both its baryonic and dark matter contents are sought. Here we show that hypervelocity stars (HVSs) can in principle provide such constraints. We model the observed velocity distribution of HVSs, produced by tidal break-up of stellar binaries caused by Sgr A*. Considering a Galactic Centre (GC) binary population consistent with that inferred in more observationally accessible regions, a fit to current HVS data with significance level >5% can only be obtained if the escape velocity from the GC to 50 kpc is V_G ≲ 850 km s-1, regardless of the enclosed mass distribution. When a NFW matter density profile for the dark matter halo is assumed, haloes with V_G ≲ 850 km s-1are in agreement with predictions in the ΛCDM model and that a subset of models around M200 ˜ 0.5 - 1.5 × 1012M⊙ and r_s ≲ 35 kpc can also reproduce Galactic circular velocity data. HVS data alone cannot currently exclude potentials with VG > 850 km s-1. Finally, specific constraints on the halo mass from HVS data are highly dependent on the assumed baryonic mass potentials. This first attempt to simultaneously constrain GC and dark halo properties is primarily hampered by the paucity and quality of data. It nevertheless demonstrates the potential of our method, that may be fully realised with the ESA Gaia mission.

  18. Far-infrared observations of a star-forming region in the Corona Australis dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution far-IR (40-250-micron) survey of a 0.9-sq-deg section of the core region of the Corona Australis dark cloud (containing very young stellar objects such as T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae and Be stars, Herbig-Haro objects, and compact H II regions) is presented. Two extended far-IR sources were found, one associated with the Herbig emission-line star R CrA and the other with the irregular emission-line variable star TY CrA. The two sources have substantially more far-IR radiation than could be expected from a blackbody extrapolation of their near-IR fluxes. The total luminosities of these sources are 145 and 58 solar luminosity, respectively, implying that the embedded objects are of intermediate or low mass. The infrared observations of the sources associated with R CrA and TY CrA are consistent with models of the evolution of protostellar envelopes of intermediate mass. However, the TY CrA source appears to have passed the evolutionary stage of expelling most of the hot dust near the central source, yielding an age of about 1 Myr.

  19. Far-infrared observations of a star-forming region in the Corona Australis dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution far-IR (40-250-micron) survey of a 0.9-sq-deg section of the core region of the Corona Australis dark cloud (containing very young stellar objects such as T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae and Be stars, Herbig-Haro objects, and compact H II regions) is presented. Two extended far-IR sources were found, one associated with the Herbig emission-line star R CrA and the other with the irregular emission-line variable star TY CrA. The two sources have substantially more far-IR radiation than could be expected from a blackbody extrapolation of their near-IR fluxes. The total luminosities of these sources are 145 and 58 solar luminosity, respectively, implying that the embedded objects are of intermediate or low mass. The infrared observations of the sources associated with R CrA and TY CrA are consistent with models of the evolution of protostellar envelopes of intermediate mass. However, the TY CrA source appears to have passed the evolutionary stage of expelling most of the hot dust near the central source, yielding an age of about 1 Myr.

  20. Dark Matter in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine

    2017-06-01

    “What is the Universe made of?” This question is the longest outstanding problem in all of modern physics, and it is one of the most important research topics in cosmology and particle physics today. The ordinary atoms that make up the known universe, from our bodies and the air we breathe to the planets and stars, constitute only 5% of all matter and energy in the cosmos. The remaining 95% is made up of a recipe of 25% dark matter and 70% dark energy, both nonluminous components whose nature remains a mystery. I’ll begin by discussing the evidence that dark matter is the predominant mass in galaxies, and then turn to the hunt to understand its nature. Leading candidates are fundamental particles including WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles), axions, and sterile neutrinos. There are three approaches in the experimental searches for WIMPs: at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva; in underground laboratory experiments; and with astrophysical searches for dark matter annihilation products. If WIMPs do constitute the dark matter, they would have been the power source for the first stars to form in the Universe; these Dark Stars may be detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. At the end of the talk I'll turn to dark energy and its effect on the future of the Universe.

  1. DarkSide search for dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, T.; Alton, D.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Beltrame, P.; Benziger, J.; Bonfini, G.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Bussino, S.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Chidzik, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Condon, C.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Vincenzi, M. De; Haas, E. De; Derbin, A.; Pietro, G. Di; Dratchnev, I.; Durben, D.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Franco, D.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guo, C.; Guray, G.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Joliet, C.; Kayunov, A.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Klemmer, R.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Komor, M.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Li, P.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Lukyanchenko, L.; Lund, A.; Lung, K.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P.; Mohayai, T.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Nelson, A.; Nemtzow, A.; Nurakhov, N.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Perfetto, F.; Pinsky, L.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Sands, W.; Seigar, M.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvarov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Thompson, J.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zehfus, M.; Zhong, W.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-11-22

    The DarkSide staged program utilizes a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with liquid argon as the target material for the scattering of dark matter particles. Efficient background reduction is achieved using low radioactivity underground argon as well as several experimental handles such as pulse shape, ratio of ionization over scintillation signal, 3D event reconstruction, and active neutron and muon vetos. The DarkSide-10 prototype detector has proven high scintillation light yield, which is a particularly important parameter as it sets the energy threshold for the pulse shape discrimination technique. The DarkSide-50 detector system, currently in commissioning phase at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, will reach a sensitivity to dark matter spin-independent scattering cross section of 10-45 cm2 within 3 years of operation.

  2. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  3. Particle Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Gianfranco

    2013-11-01

    Part I. DM in Cosmology: 1. Particle dark matter G. Bertone and J. Silk; 2. Simulations of CDM haloes B. Moore and J. Diemand; 3. MW substructures J. Bullock, M. Kaplinghat and L. Strigari; 4. Gravitational lensing and dark matter Y. Mellier; 5. Dark matter at the centers of galaxies D. Merritt; 6. Modified gravity as an alternative to DM J. Bekenstein; Part II. Candidates: 7. DM production mechanisms G. Gelmini and P. Gondolo; 8. Supersymmetric DM candidates J. Ellis and K. Olive; 9. DM at the EW scale: non-SUSY candidates G. Servant; 10. Non-WIMP candidates J. L. Feng; 11. Axions P. Sikivie; 12. Sterile neutrinos M. Shaposhnikov; Part III. Colliders Searches: 13. SUSY searches at the LHC T. Plehn and G. Polesello; 14. SUSY DM at colliders M. Battaglia and M. E. Peskin; 15. Extra dimensions at the LHC K. Kong, K. Matchev and G. Servant; 16. SUSY tools F. Boudjema, J. Edsjö and P. Gondolo; Part IV. Direct Detection: 17. Direct detection of WIMPs D. G. Cerdeño and A. Green; 18. Annual modulation with NaI(Tl) R. Bernabei and P. Belli; 19. Particle DM and DAMA N. Fornengo; 20. Cryogenic detectors G. Gerbier and J. Gascon; 21. Liquid noble gases E. Aprile and L. Baudis; 22. Directional detectors N. Spooner; 23. Axion searches S. Asztalos; Part V. Indirect Detection and Astrophysical Constraints: 24. Gamma-rays L. Bergström and G. Bertone; 25. Neutrinos F. Halzen and D. Hooper; 26. Antimatter P. Salati, F. Donato and N. Fornengo; 27. Multi-wavelength S. Profumo and P. Ullio; 28. Dark matter and BBN K. Jedamzik and M. Pospelov; 29. Dark matter and stars G. Bertone; Appendix; References; Index.

  4. Inhomogeneous dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav E-mail: viatcheslav.Mukhanov@lmu.de

    2016-02-01

    We modify Einstein General Relativity by adding non-dynamical scalar fields to account simultaneously for both dark matter and dark energy. The dark energy in this case can be distributed in-homogeneously even within horizon scales. Its inhomogeneities can contribute to the late time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, possibly removing some of the low multipole anomalies in the temperature fluctuations of the CMB spectrum. The presence of the inhomogeneous dark matter also influences structure formation in the universe.

  5. Distance to Dark Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception.

    Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies.

    Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness.

    A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is.

    To determine OGLE

  6. Distance to Dark Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception.

    Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies.

    Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness.

    A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is.

    To determine OGLE

  7. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  8. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  9. Holographic Dark Energy Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2011-06-01

    In this article we consider the cosmological model based on the holographic dark energy. We study dark energy density in Universe with arbitrary spatially curvature described by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. We use Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization to specify dark energy density.

  10. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  11. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  12. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2013-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  13. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  14. STAR FORMATION IN THE MASSIVE ''STARLESS'' INFRARED DARK CLOUD G0.253+0.016

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A. E-mail: lzapata@crya.unam.mx

    2013-04-10

    G0.253+0.016 is a remarkable massive infrared dark cloud located within {approx}100 pc of the galactic center. With a high mass of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }, a compact average radius of {approx}2.8 pc, and a low dust temperature of 23 K, it has been believed to be a yet starless precursor to a massive Arches-like stellar cluster. We present sensitive JVLA 1.3 and 5.6 cm radio continuum observations that reveal the presence of three compact thermal radio sources projected against this cloud. These radio sources are interpreted as H II regions powered by {approx}B0.5 zero-age main sequence stars. We conclude that although G0.253+0.016 does not show evidence of O-type star formation, there are certainly early B-type stars embedded in it. We detect three more sources in the periphery of G0.253+0.016 with non-thermal spectral indices. We suggest that these sources may be related to the galactic center region and deserve further study.

  15. The double-dark portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2014-11-01

    In most models of the dark sector, dark matter is charged under some new symmetry to make it stable. We explore the possibility that not just dark matter, but also the force carrier connecting it to the visible sector is charged under this symmetry. This dark mediator then acts as a Double-Dark Portal. We realize this setup in the dark mediator Dark matter model (dmDM), featuring a fermionic DM candidate χ with Yukawa couplings to light scalars ϕ i . The scalars couple to SM quarks via the operator . This can lead to large direct detection signals via the 2 → 3 process χ N → χ N ϕ if one of the scalars has mass ≲ 10 keV. For dark matter Yukawa couplings y χ ˜ 10-3 -10-2, dmDM features a thermal relic dark matter candidate while also implementing the SIDM scenario for ameliorating inconsistencies between dwarf galaxy simulations and observations. We undertake the first systematic survey of constraints on light scalars coupled to the SM via the above operator. The strongest constraints are derived from a detailed examination of the light mediator's effects on stellar astrophysics. LHC experiments and cosmological considerations also yield important bounds. Observations of neutron star cooling exclude the minimal model with one dark mediator, but a scenario with two dark mediators remains viable and can give strong direct detection signals. We explore the direct detection consequences of this scenario and find that a heavy dmDM candidate fakes different WIMPs at different experiments. Large regions of dmDM parameter space are accessible above the irreducible neutrino background.

  16. Dark microglia: Why are they dark?

    PubMed

    Bisht, Kanchan; Sharma, Kaushik; Lacoste, Baptiste; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2016-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we recently characterized a microglial phenotype that is induced by chronic stress, fractalkine receptor deficiency, aging, or Alzheimer disease pathology. These 'dark' microglia appear overly active compared with the normal microglia, reaching for synaptic clefts, and extensively engulfing pre-synaptic axon terminals and post-synaptic dendritic spines. From these findings we hypothesized that dark microglia could be specifically implicated in the pathological remodeling of neuronal circuits, which impairs learning, memory, and other essential cognitive functions. In the present addendum we further discuss about the possible causes of their dark appearance under TEM.

  17. The Dark Matter Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    2014-02-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters revisited: missing mass found; 8. CDM confronts galaxy rotation curves; 9. The new cosmology: dark matter is not enough; 10. An alternative to dark matter: Modified Newtonian Dynamics; 11. Seeing dark matter: the theory and practice of detection; 12. Reflections: a personal point of view; Appendix; References; Index.

  18. Hunting the dark Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Michael; Grohsjean, Alexander; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Penning, Bjoern; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwanenberger, Christian

    2017-04-01

    We discuss a novel signature of dark matter production at the LHC resulting from the emission of an additional Higgs boson in the dark sector. The presence of such a dark Higgs boson is motivated simultaneously by the need to generate the masses of the particles in the dark sector and the possibility to relax constraints from the dark matter relic abundance by opening up a new annihilation channel. If the dark Higgs boson decays into Standard Model states via a small mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, one obtains characteristic large-radius jets in association with missing transverse momentum that can be used to efficiently discriminate signal from backgrounds. We present the sensitivities achievable in LHC searches for dark Higgs bosons with already collected data and demonstrate that such searches can probe large regions of parameter space that are inaccessible to conventional mono-jet or di-jet searches.

  19. The First dark microhalos

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, HongSheng; Taylor, James E.; Silk, Joseph; Hooper, Dan; /Oxford U. /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    Earth-mass dark matter halos are likely to have been the first bound structures to form in the Universe. Whether such objects have survived to the present day in galaxies depends on, among other factors, the rate of encounters with normal stars. In this letter, we estimate the amount of tidal heating and mass loss in microhalos as a result of stellar encounters. We find that while microhalos are only mildly heated in dwarf galaxies of low stellar density, and they should have been completely destroyed in bulge or M32-like regions of high stellar density. In disk galaxies, such as the Milky Way, the disruption rate depends strongly on the orbital parameters of the microhalo; while stochastic radial orbits in triaxial Galactic potential are destroyed first, systems on non-planar retrograde orbits with large pericenters survive the longest. Since many microhalos lose a significant fraction of their material to unbound tidal streams, the final dark matter distribution in the solar neighborhood is better described as a superposition of microstreams rather than as a set of discrete spherical clumps in an otherwise homogeneous medium. Different morphologies of microhalos have implications for direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments.

  20. Dark Forces and Light Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Weiner, Neal; Xue, Wei

    2012-09-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the dark matter, X, is coupled to a new gauge boson, phi, with a relatively low mass (m_phi \\sim 100 MeV-3 GeV). Neither the dark matter nor the new gauge boson have tree-level couplings to the Standard Model. The dark matter in this model annihilates to phi pairs, and for a coupling of g_X \\sim 0.06 (m_X/10 GeV)^1/2 yields a thermal relic abundance consistent with the cosmological density of dark matter. The phi's produced in such annihilations decay through a small degree of kinetic mixing with the photon to combinations of Standard Model leptons and mesons. For dark matter with a mass of \\sim10 GeV, the shape of the resulting gamma-ray spectrum provides a good fit to that observed from the Galactic Center, and can also provide the very hard electron spectrum required to account for the observed synchrotron emission from the Milky Way's radio filaments. For kinetic mixing near the level naively expected from loop-suppressed operators (epsilon \\sim 10^{-4}), the dark matter is predicted to scatter elastically with protons with a cross section consistent with that required to accommodate the signals reported by DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II.

  1. Investigating the Mass Segregation Process in Globular Clusters with Blue Straggler Stars: The Impact of Dark Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrini, Emiliano; Lanzoni, Barbara; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Miocchi, Paolo; Vesperini, Enrico

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a set of N-body simulations aimed at exploring how the process of mass segregation (as traced by the spatial distribution of blue straggler stars, BSSs) is affected by the presence of a population of heavy dark remnants (as neutron stars and black holes (BHs)). To this end, clusters characterized by different initial concentrations and different fractions of dark remnants have been modeled. We find that an increasing fraction of stellar-mass BHs significantly delay the mass segregation of BSSs and the visible stellar component. In order to trace the evolution of BSS segregation, we introduce a new parameter (A +), which can be easily measured when the cumulative radial distribution of these stars and a reference population are available. Our simulations show that A + might also be used as an approximate indicator of the time remaining to the core collapse of the visible component.

  2. Radial systems of dark globules

    SciTech Connect

    Gyul'budagyn, A.L.

    1986-03-01

    The author gives examples of radial systems consisting of dark globules and ''elephant trunks''. Besides already known systems, which contain hot stars at their center, data are given on three radial systems of a new kind, at the center of which there are stars of spectral types later than B. Data are given on 32 globules of radial systems of the association Cep OB2. On the basis of the observational data, it is concluded that at least some of the isolated Bok globules derive from elephant trunks and dark globules forming radial systems around hot stars. It is also suggested that the two molecular clouds situated near the Rosette nebula and possessing velocities differing by ca 20 km/sec from the velocity of the nebula could have been ejected in opposite directions from the center of the nebula. One of these clouds consists of dark globules forming the radial system of the Rosette nebula.

  3. CCD Photometry and Classification of Stars in the North America and Pelican Nebulae Region. III. The Dark Cloud L935

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugalys, V.; Straižys, V.; Vrba, F. J.; Boyle, R. P.; Philip, A. G. Davis; Kazlauskas, A.

    Magnitudes and color indices of 430 stars down to V ˜ 17.5 mag in the eight-color Vilnius + I photometric system were obtained in four areas of diameter 20' within the dark cloud L935 separating the North America and Pelican nebulae. Spectral types, interstellar color excesses, extinctions and distances of stars were determined from the photometric data. The plot of extinction vs. distance shows that the dark cloud begins at a distance of 520±50 pc. About 40 stars in the cloud, mostly K and M dwarfs, are suspected to have Hα emission; these stars also exhibit infrared excesses. Four of them are known pre-main-sequence stars. Our star set contains J205551.3+435225 (V = 13.24) which, according to Camerón and Pasquali (2005), is the O5 V type star ionizing the North America and Pelican nebulae. If this spectral type is confirmed, the star would have an extinction AV between 9 and 10 magnitudes (depending on the accepted extinction law) and a distance which is not very different from the dust cloud distance.

  4. Neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos could be key particles to unravel the nature of the dark matter of the Universe. On the one hand, sterile neutrinos in minimal extensions of the Standard Model are excellent dark matter candidates, producing potentially observable signals in the form of a line in the X-ray sky. On the other hand, the annihilation or the decay of dark matter particles produces, in many plausible dark matter scenarios, a neutrino flux that could be detected at neutrino telescopes, thus providing non-gravitational evidence for dark matter. More conservatively, the non-observation of a significant excess in the neutrino fluxes with respect to the expected astrophysical backgrounds can be used to constrain dark matter properties, such as the self-annihilation cross section, the scattering cross section with nucleons and the lifetime.

  5. Holographic dark energy reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yungui; Wang Bin; Zhang Yuanzhong

    2005-08-15

    We have reexamined the holographic dark energy model by considering the spatial curvature. We have refined the model parameter and observed that the holographic dark energy model does not behave as phantom model. Comparing the holographic dark energy model to the supernova observation alone, we found that the closed Universe is favored. Combining with the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) data, we obtained the reasonable value of the spatial curvature of our Universe.

  6. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  7. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  8. Interacting warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx

    2013-05-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

  9. Dark Matter 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Marc

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews the status of the exciting and fastly evolving field of dark matter research as of summer 2013, when it was discussed at the International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC) 2013 in Rio de Janeiro. It focuses on the three main avenues to detect weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter: direct detection, indirect detection, and collider searches. The article is based on the dark matter rapporteur talk summarizing the presentations given at the conference, filling some gaps for completeness.

  10. Cold dark matter heats up.

    PubMed

    Pontzen, Andrew; Governato, Fabio

    2014-02-13

    A principal discovery in modern cosmology is that standard model particles comprise only 5 per cent of the mass-energy budget of the Universe. In the ΛCDM paradigm, the remaining 95 per cent consists of dark energy (Λ) and cold dark matter. ΛCDM is being challenged by its apparent inability to explain the low-density 'cores' of dark matter measured at the centre of galaxies, where centrally concentrated high-density 'cusps' were predicted. But before drawing conclusions, it is necessary to include the effect of gas and stars, historically seen as passive components of galaxies. We now understand that these can inject heat energy into the cold dark matter through a coupling based on rapid gravitational potential fluctuations, explaining the observed low central densities.

  11. Tidal capture of a primordial black hole by a neutron star: implications for constraints on dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, Paolo; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-06-01

    In a close encounter with a neutron star, a primordial black hole can get gravitationally captured by depositing a considerable amount of energy into nonradial stellar modes of very high angular number l. If the neutron-star equation of state is sufficiently stiff, we show that the total energy loss in the point-particle approximation is formally divergent. Various mechanisms — including viscosity, finite-size effects and the elasticity of the crust — can damp high-l modes and regularize the total energy loss. Within a short time, the black hole is trapped inside the star and disrupts it by rapid accretion. Estimating these effects, we predict that the existence of old neutron stars in regions where the dark-matter density ρ{sub DM}∼>10{sup 2}(σ/km s{sup −1}) GeV cm{sup −3} (where σ is the dark-matter velocity dispersion) limits the abundance of primordial black holes in the mass range 10{sup 17} g∼dark matter constituent.

  12. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  13. Dark matter and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  14. Dark matter and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  15. Metastable dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, Ricardo G.; Abdalla, Elcio

    2017-01-01

    We build a model of metastable dark energy, in which the observed vacuum energy is the value of the scalar potential at the false vacuum. The scalar potential is given by a sum of even self-interactions up to order six. The deviation from the Minkowski vacuum is due to a term suppressed by the Planck scale. The decay time of the metastable vacuum can easily accommodate a mean life time compatible with the age of the universe. The metastable dark energy is also embedded into a model with SU(2)R symmetry. The dark energy doublet and the dark matter doublet naturally interact with each other. A three-body decay of the dark energy particle into (cold and warm) dark matter can be as long as large fraction of the age of the universe, if the mediator is massive enough, the lower bound being at intermediate energy level some orders below the grand unification scale. Such a decay shows a different form of interaction between dark matter and dark energy, and the model opens a new window to investigate the dark sector from the point-of-view of particle physics.

  16. DARK ADAPTATION IN DINEUTES

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Leonard B.

    1938-01-01

    The level of dark adaptation of the whirligig beetle can be measured in terms of the threshold intensity calling forth a response. The course of dark adaptation was determined at levels of light adaptation of 6.5, 91.6, and 6100 foot-candles. All data can be fitted by the same curve. This indicates that dark adaptation follows parts of the same course irrespective of the level of light adaptation. The intensity of the adapting light determines the level at which dark adaptation will begin. The relation between log aI0 (instantaneous threshold) and log of adapting light intensity is linear over the range studied. PMID:19873056

  17. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo E-mail: enfmarti@cern.ch E-mail: redondo@mppmu.mpg.de

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, precise measurements of the number of relativistic species, such as those expected from the Planck satellite, can provide information on the structure of the dark sector. We also discuss the constraints of the interactions between DM and Dark Radiation from their imprint in the matter power spectrum.

  18. Dark matter triggers of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Varela, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to 1.25 M⊙ rules out primordial black holes with masses ˜1019- 1020 gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as 1024 gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar Collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range 1020- 1022 gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large spacetime volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  19. Understanding the Star Formation Process in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF 9: Near-Infrared Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardi, David R.; Woodward, Charles E.; Clemens, Dan P.; Harker, David E.; Rudy, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed a near-infrared JHK survey of a dense core and a diffuse filament region within the filamentary dark cloud GF 9 (LDN 1082). The core region is associated with the IRAS point source PSC 20503+6006 and is suspected of being a site of star formation. The diffuse filament region has no associated IRAS point sources and is likely quiescent. We find that neither the core nor the filament region appears to contain a Class I or Class II young stellar object. As traced by the dust extinction, the core and filament regions contain 26 and 22 solar mass, respectively, with an average H2 volume density for both regions of approximately 2500/cu cm. The core region contains a centrally condensed extinction maximum with a peak extinction of A(sub v) greater than or approximately equal to 10 mag that appears to be associated with the IRAS point source. The average H2 volume density of the extinction core is approximately 8000/cu cm. The dust within the filament, however, shows no sign of a central condensation and is consistent with a uniform-density cylindrical distribution.

  20. Deadly Dark Matter Cusps versus Faint and Extended Star Clusters: Eridanus II and Andromeda XXV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorisco, Nicola C.

    2017-07-01

    The recent detection of two faint and extended star clusters in the central regions of two Local Group dwarf galaxies, Eridanus II and Andromeda XXV, raises the question of whether clusters with such low densities can survive the tidal field of cold dark matter halos with central density cusps. Using both analytic arguments and a suite of collisionless N-body simulations, I show that these clusters are extremely fragile and quickly disrupted in the presence of central cusps ρ ˜ {r}-α with α ≳ 0.2. Furthermore, the scenario in which the clusters were originally more massive and sank to the center of the halo requires extreme fine tuning and does not naturally reproduce the observed systems. In turn, these clusters are long lived in cored halos, whose central regions are safe shelters for α ≲ 0.2. The only viable scenario for hosts that have preserved their primordial cusp to the present time is that the clusters formed at rest at the bottom of the potential, which is easily tested by measurement of the clusters proper velocity within the host. This offers means to readily probe the central density profile of two dwarf galaxies as faint as {L}V˜ 5× {10}5 {L}⊙ and {L}V˜ 6× {10}4 {L}⊙ , in which stellar feedback is unlikely to be effective.

  1. Understanding the Star Formation Process in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF 9: Near-Infrared Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardi, David R.; Woodward, Charles E.; Clemens, Dan P.; Harker, David E.; Rudy, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed a near-infrared JHK survey of a dense core and a diffuse filament region within the filamentary dark cloud GF 9 (LDN 1082). The core region is associated with the IRAS point source PSC 20503+6006 and is suspected of being a site of star formation. The diffuse filament region has no associated IRAS point sources and is likely quiescent. We find that neither the core nor the filament region appears to contain a Class I or Class II young stellar object. As traced by the dust extinction, the core and filament regions contain 26 and 22 solar mass, respectively, with an average H2 volume density for both regions of approximately 2500/cu cm. The core region contains a centrally condensed extinction maximum with a peak extinction of A(sub v) greater than or approximately equal to 10 mag that appears to be associated with the IRAS point source. The average H2 volume density of the extinction core is approximately 8000/cu cm. The dust within the filament, however, shows no sign of a central condensation and is consistent with a uniform-density cylindrical distribution.

  2. Dark Energy, Black Holes and Exploding Stars: NASA's Chandra Observatory Marks Five Years of Scientific Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    On Aug. 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. The Marshall Center manages the Chandra program. On August 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. "Humans cannot see X-rays, but Chandra can," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin C. Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "And what the observatory has revealed in five short years has been nothing short of amazing. Thanks to Chandra, we've gleaned new information on dark energy, black holes, exploding stars and all other categories of astronomical objects." "Chandra's resolving power is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper headline a half-mile away," said Chandra Program Manager Keith Hefner of the Marshall Center. "It's an engineering marvel that has performed nearly flawlessly and provided major science discoveries over the past five years." A Chandra timeline reveals some of its most noteworthy discoveries: * Chandra finds a ring around the Crab Nebula. After only two months in space, the observatory reveals a brilliant ring around the heart of the Crab Pulsar in the Crab Nebula - the remains of a stellar explosion - providing clues about how the nebula is energized by a pulsing neutron, or collapsed, star. (Sept. 28, 1999) * Chandra reveals a possible black hole in the Milky Way. Culminating 25 years of searching by astronomers, researchers say that a faint X-ray source, newly

  3. Dark microglia: Why are they dark?

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Kanchan; Sharma, Kaushik; Lacoste, Baptiste; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we recently characterized a microglial phenotype that is induced by chronic stress, fractalkine receptor deficiency, aging, or Alzheimer disease pathology. These ‘dark’ microglia appear overly active compared with the normal microglia, reaching for synaptic clefts, and extensively engulfing pre-synaptic axon terminals and post-synaptic dendritic spines. From these findings we hypothesized that dark microglia could be specifically implicated in the pathological remodeling of neuronal circuits, which impairs learning, memory, and other essential cognitive functions. In the present addendum we further discuss about the possible causes of their dark appearance under TEM. PMID:28042375

  4. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  5. The Light and Dark Face of a Star-Forming Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-03-01

    Today, ESO is unveiling an image of the little known Gum 19, a faint nebula that, in the infrared, appears dark on one half and bright on the other. On one side hot hydrogen gas is illuminated by a supergiant blue star called V391 Velorum. New star formation is taking place within the ribbon of luminous and dark material that brackets V391 Velorum's left in this perspective. After many millennia, these fledgling stars, coupled with the explosive demise of V391 Velorum as a supernova, will likely alter Gum 19's present Janus-like appearance. Gum 19 is located in the direction of the constellation Vela (the Sail) at a distance of approximately 22 000 light years. The Gum 19 moniker derives from a 1955 publication by the Australian astrophysicist Colin S. Gum that served as the first significant survey of so-called HII (read "H-two") regions in the southern sky. HII refers to hydrogen gas that is ionised, or energised to the extent that the hydrogen atoms lose their electrons. Such regions emit light at well-defined wavelengths (or colours), thereby giving these cosmic clouds their characteristic glow. And indeed, much like terrestrial clouds, the shapes and textures of these HII regions change as time passes, though over the course of eons rather than before our eyes. For now, Gum 19 has somewhat of a science fiction-esque, "rip in spacetime" look to it in this image, with a narrow, near-vertical bright region slashing across the nebula. Looking at it, you could possibly see a resemblance to a two-toned angelfish or an arrow with a darkened point. This new image of the evocative Gum 19 object was captured by an infrared instrument called SOFI, mounted on ESO's New Technology Telescope (NTT) that operates at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. SOFI stands for Son of ISAAC, after the "father" instrument, ISAAC, that is located at ESO's Very Large Telescope observatory at Paranal to the north of La Silla. Observing this nebula in the infrared allows astronomers to see

  6. Dark Energy, or Worse

    ScienceCinema

    Professor Sean Carroll

    2016-07-12

    General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

  7. Working the Dark Edges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Environmentalism's wider and wilder possibilities today appear as regions of seeming darkness that bracket or frame acceptable environmental thinking. One of these barely-mentionable darknesses is outer space--the cosmos. Another is the inner and chthonic powers of the land and natural beings generally. This essay aims to bring these two kinds of…

  8. Dark Energy, or Worse

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Sean Carroll

    2006-11-13

    General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

  9. Working the Dark Edges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Environmentalism's wider and wilder possibilities today appear as regions of seeming darkness that bracket or frame acceptable environmental thinking. One of these barely-mentionable darknesses is outer space--the cosmos. Another is the inner and chthonic powers of the land and natural beings generally. This essay aims to bring these two kinds of…

  10. Fingerprinting dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sapone, Domenico; Kunz, Martin

    2009-10-15

    Dark energy perturbations are normally either neglected or else included in a purely numerical way, obscuring their dependence on underlying parameters like the equation of state or the sound speed. However, while many different explanations for the dark energy can have the same equation of state, they usually differ in their perturbations so that these provide a fingerprint for distinguishing between different models with the same equation of state. In this paper we derive simple yet accurate approximations that are able to characterize a specific class of models (encompassing most scalar-field models) which is often generically called 'dark energy'. We then use the approximate solutions to look at the impact of the dark energy perturbations on the dark matter power spectrum and on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  11. Dark cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ping-Kai; Kusenko, Alexander; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2017-02-22

    If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Here, most of our results are fairly general andmore » apply to a broad class of dark matter models.« less

  12. Warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2016-06-21

    The cold dark matter paradigm has been extremely successful in explaining the large-scale structure of the Universe. However, it continues to face issues when confronted by observations on sub-Galactic scales. A major caveat, now being addressed, has been the incomplete treatment of baryon physics. We first summarize the small-scale issues surrounding cold dark matter and discuss the solutions explored by modern state-of-the-art numerical simulations including treatment of baryonic physics. We identify the too big to fail in field galaxies as among the best targets to study modifications to dark matter, and discuss the particular connection with sterile neutrino warm dark matter. We also discuss how the recently detected anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray lines, when interpreted as sterile neutrino dark matter decay, provide a very good description of small-scale observations of the Local Group.

  13. The dark halo of the milky Way

    PubMed

    Alcock

    2000-01-07

    Most of the matter in the Milky Way is invisible to astronomers. Precise numbers are elusive, but it appears that the dark component is 20 times as massive as the visible disk of stars and gas. This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars. The composition of this dark halo is unknown, but it may comprise a mixture of ancient, degenerate dwarf stars and exotic, hypothetical elementary particles.

  14. Dark matter in NGC 4472

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to constrain the total mass distribution of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 by constructing simultaneous equilibrium models for the gas and stars. Emphasis is given to reconciling the value of the emission-weighted average value of kT derived from the Ginga spectrum with the amount of dark matter needed to account for velocity dispersion observations.

  15. Dark matter dynamical friction versus gravitational wave emission in the evolution of compact-star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, L. Gabriel; Rueda, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    The measured orbital period decay of relativistic compact-star binaries, with characteristic orbital periods ˜0.1 days , is explained with very high precision by the gravitational wave (GW) emission of an inspiraling binary in a vacuum predicted by general relativity. However, the binary gravitational binding energy is also affected by an usually neglected phenomenon, namely the dark matter dynamical friction (DMDF) produced by the interaction of the binary components with their respective DM gravitational wakes. Therefore, the inclusion of the DMDF might lead to a binary evolution which is different from a purely GW-driven one. The entity of this effect depends on the orbital period and on the local value of the DM density, hence on the position of the binary in the Galaxy. We evaluate the DMDF produced by three different DM profiles: the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, the nonsingular-isothermal-sphere (NSIS) and the Ruffini-Argüelles-Rueda (RAR) DM profile based on self-gravitating keV fermions. We first show that indeed, due to their Galactic position, the GW emission dominates over the DMDF in the Neutron star (NS)-NS, NS-(White Dwarf) WD and WD-WD binaries for which measurements of the orbital decay exist. Then, we evaluate the conditions (i.e. orbital period and Galactic location) under which the effect of DMDF on the binary evolution becomes comparable to, or overcomes, the one of the GW emission. We find that, for instance for 1.3 - 0.2 M⊙ NS-WD, 1.3 - 1.3 M⊙ NS-NS, and 0.25 - 0.50 M⊙ WD-WD, located at 0.1 kpc, this occurs at orbital periods around 20-30 days in a NFW profile while, in a RAR profile, it occurs at about 100 days. For closer distances to the Galactic center, the DMDF effect increases and the above critical orbital periods become interestingly shorter. Finally, we also analyze the system parameters (for all the DM profiles) for which DMDF leads to an orbital widening instead of orbital decay. All the above imply that a direct

  16. A LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STAR INTERACTING WITH A NEARBY INFRARED DARK CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Rizzo, J. Ricardo; Henkel, Christian

    2014-04-01

    G79.29+0.46 is a nebula created by a luminous blue variable (LBV) star candidate characterized by two almost circular concentric shells. In order to investigate whether the shells are interacting with the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G79.3+0.3 located at the southwestern border of the inner shell, we conducted Jansky Very Large Array observations of NH{sub 3}(1, 1), (2, 2) and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, and combined them with previous Effelsberg data. The overall NH{sub 3} emission consists of one main clump, named G79A, elongated following the shape of the IRDC, plus two fainter and smaller cores to the north, which spatially match the inner infrared shell. We analyzed the NH{sub 3} spectra at each position with detected emission and inferred linewidth, rotational temperature, column density, and abundance maps, and find that: (1) the linewidth of NH{sub 3}(1, 1) in the northern cores is 0.5 km s{sup –1}, slightly larger than in their surroundings; (2) the NH{sub 3} abundance is enhanced by almost one order of magnitude toward the northwestern side of G79A; (3) there is one ''hot slab'' at the interface between the inner infrared shell and the NH{sub 3} peak of G79A; and (4) the western and southern edges of G79A present chemical differentiation, with c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} tracing more external layers than NH{sub 3}, similar to what is found in photon-dominated regions. Overall, the kinematics and physical conditions of G79A are consistent with both shock-induced and UV radiation-induced chemistry driven by the LBV star. Therefore, the IRDC is not likely associated with the star-forming region DR15, but located farther away, near G79.29+0.46 at 1.4 kpc.

  17. Through a glass, darkly.

    PubMed

    Rittenberry, Ronnie

    2005-10-01

    The technology available in today's auto-darkening welding helmets was the stuff of science fiction to welders 30 years ago. A single lens capable of darkening automatically to a variable, preset shade level the instant an arc is struck would have sounded about as realistic as a "Star Trek"-style "transporter" or a cell phone that can take pictures. "It would have been complete and total science fiction," said Kevin Coughlin, president of Hoodlum Welding Gear, Minneapolis. "The technology really didn't exist, so it would be like me telling you your car will be flying in 20 years--you'd look at me and laugh. Even 25 years ago, if someone had told me [the lens] would go from clear to dark when you spark, I'd have said, 'Yeah, right, sure it does.' "

  18. A Submillimetre Study of Massive Star Formation Within the W51 Complex and Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Harriet Alice Louise

    Despite its importance the fundamental question of how massive stars form remains unanswered, with improvements to both models and observations having crucial roles to play. To quote Bate et al. (2003) computational models of star formation are limited because "conditions in molecular clouds are not sufficiently well understood to be able to select a representative sample of cloud cores for the initial conditions". It is this notion that motivates the study of the environments within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), known sites of massive star formation, at the clump and core level. By studying large populations of these objects, it is possible to make conclusions based on global properties. With this in mind I study the dense molecular clumps within one of the most massive GMCs in the Galaxy: the W51 GMC. New observations of the W51 GMC in the 12CO, 13CO and C18O (3-2) transitions using the HARP instrument on the JCMT are presented. With the help of the clump finding algorithm CLUMPFIND a total of 1575 dense clumps are identified of which 1130 are associated with the W51 GMC, yielding a dense mass reservoir of 1.5 × 10^5 M contained within these clumps. Of these clumps only 1% by number are found to be super-critical, yielding a super-critical clump formation efficiency of 0.5%, below current SFE estimates of the region. This indicates star formation within the W51 GMC will diminish over time although evidence from the first search for molecular outflows presents the W51 GMC in an active light with a lower limit of 14 outflows. The distribution of the outflows within the region searched found them concentrated towards the W51A region. Having much smaller sizes and masses, obtaining global properties of clumps and cores within IRDCs required studying a large sample of these objects. To do this pre-existing data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue was utilised to study IRDCs within a catalogues based on 8 μm data. This data identified

  19. Pseudoscalar portal dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Gori, Stefania; Lin, Tongyan; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2015-07-01

    A fermion dark matter candidate with a relic abundance set by annihilation through a pseudoscalar can evade constraints from direct detection experiments. We present simplified models that realize this fact by coupling a fermion dark sector to a two-Higgs doublet model. These models are generalizations of mixed bino-Higgsino dark matter in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, with more freedom in the couplings and scalar spectra. Annihilation near a pseudoscalar resonance allows a significant amount of parameter space for thermal relic dark matter compared to singlet-doublet dark matter, in which the fermions couple only to the standard model (SM) Higgs doublet. In a general two-Higgs doublet model, there is also freedom for the pseudoscalar to be relatively light and it is possible to obtain thermal relic dark matter candidates even below 100 GeV. In particular, we find ample room to obtain dark matter with mass around 50 GeV and fitting the Galactic center excess in gamma-rays. This region of parameter space can be probed by LHC searches for heavy pseudoscalars or electroweakinos, and possibly by other new collider signals.

  20. Exothermic dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Saraswat, Prashant; Harnik, Roni; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2010-09-15

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, and XENON10. The dark matter consists of at least two light states with mass {approx}few GeV and splittings {approx}5 keV. It is natural for the heavier states to be cosmologically long-lived and to make up an O(1) fraction of the dark matter. Direct detection rates are dominated by the exothermic reactions in which an excited dark matter state downscatters off of a nucleus, becoming a lower energy state. In contrast to (endothermic) inelastic dark matter, the most sensitive experiments for exothermic dark matter are those with light nuclei and low threshold energies. Interestingly, this model can also naturally account for the observed low-energy events at CoGeNT. The only significant constraint on the model arises from the DAMA/LIBRA unmodulated spectrum but it can be tested in the near future by a low-threshold analysis of CDMS-Si and possibly other experiments including CRESST, COUPP, and XENON100.

  1. Layers and Dark Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-08

    The target of this observation as seen by ASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is a circular depression in a dark-toned unit associated with a field of cones to the northeast. At the image scale of a Context Camera image, the depression appears to expose layers especially on the sides or walls of the depression, which are overlain by dark sands presumably associated with the dark-toned unit. HiRISE resolution, which is far higher than that of the Context Camera and its larger footprint, can help identify possible layers. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19358

  2. Dark Spots and Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As winter turns to spring at the south polar ice cap of Mars, the rising sun reveals dark spots and fans emerging from the cold polar night. Using visual images (left) and temperature data (right) from the Thermal Emission Imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, scientists have built a new model for the origin of the dark markings. Scientists propose the markings come from dark sand and dust strewn by high-speed jets of carbon-dioxide gas. These erupt from under a layer of carbon-dioxide ice that forms each Martian winter.

  3. SBC Dark Current Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This takes a series of SBC dark measurements over a continuous period of about 6 hours {4 orbits}. The aim is to collect dark images during an extended SBC on-time. Earlier measurements indicate that the dark current increases with SBC on-time and may also be increasing with overall SBC use. The 6-hour time matches the longest time used by any observer. As with all SBC observations this needs continuous SAA free time.This program is executed once per cycle. The last exposures were taken in Mar 2013 under Program 13161.

  4. Dark matter in voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Richard; Doroshkevich, Andrei G.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    1995-07-01

    The theory of the formation of large-scale structure in the universe through the action of gravitational instability imply the existence of substantial amounts of baryonic dark matter, of the order of 50% of the total baryon content in the universe, in the ``voids'' or under-dense regions seen in the large-scale distribution of galaxies. We discuss also the large-scale structure of dark matter expected in voids and the present and future possibilities for the observation of this baryonic dark matter in ``voids.''

  5. [Dark matter and dark energy of the universe].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Peris, José

    2005-01-01

    At the turn of the 20th Century, the Universe was thought to consist of our solar system, the Sun, planets, satellites and comets, floating under the Milky Way. The astronomers were ignorant of the existence of galaxies, clusters, quasars and black holes. Over the last ten years the Cosmology has made remarkable progress in our understanding of the composition of the Universe: 23 per cent is in an unknown form called dark matter; 73 per cent in another form called dark energy; 3 per cent is made of free hydrogen and helium atoms; 0.5 per cent makes up all the light we see in the night including the stars, clusters and superclusters; 0.3 per cent is in free neutrino particles; and finally, 0.03 per cent is in the heavier nuclei of which the Sun, the Earth and ourselves are made. In this work we study specially the dark matter and the dark energy. The first one appears to be attached to galaxies, and astronomers agree that it is cold, meaning that the particles that make up that matter are not moving fast. Very recently astronomers discovered that a tremendous amount of the so-cahled dark energy exists and that it is pushing and accelerating the expansion of the Universe. Should this expansion continue for another 14,000 million years, the sky will darken with only a handful of galaxies remaining visible.

  6. Non-Abelian dark matter and dark radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buen-Abad, Manuel A.; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo; Schmaltz, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new class of dark matter models with unusual phenomenology. What is ordinary about our models is that dark matter particles are weakly interacting massive particles; they are weakly coupled to the standard model and have weak scale masses. What is unusual is that they come in multiplets of a new dark non-Abelian gauge group with milliweak coupling. The massless dark gluons of this dark gauge group contribute to the energy density of the Universe as a form of weakly self-interacting dark radiation. In this paper we explore the consequences of having (i) dark matter in multiplets, (ii) self-interacting dark radiation, and (iii) dark matter which is weakly coupled to dark radiation. We find that (i) dark matter cross sections are modified by multiplicity factors which have significant consequences for collider searches and indirect detection, and (ii) dark gluons have thermal abundances which affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as dark radiation. Unlike additional massless neutrino species the dark gluons are interacting and have vanishing viscosity and (iii) the coupling of dark radiation to dark matter represents a new mechanism for damping the large scale structure power spectrum. A combination of additional radiation and slightly damped structure is interesting because it can remove tensions between global Λ CDM fits from the CMB and direct measurements of the Hubble expansion rate (H0) and large scale structure (σ8).

  7. Inflation, dark matter, and dark energy in the string landscape.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Andrew R; Ureña-López, L Arturo

    2006-10-20

    We consider the conditions needed to unify the description of dark matter, dark energy, and inflation in the context of the string landscape. We find that incomplete decay of the inflaton field gives the possibility that a single field is responsible for all three phenomena. By contrast, unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single field, separate from the inflaton, appears rather difficult.

  8. Study of Dark-matter Admixed Neutron Stars Using the Equation of State from the Rotational Curves of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we employ the dark matter equations of state (DMEOSs) obtained from the rotational curves of galaxies as well as the fermionic DMEOS with m=1.0 {GeV} to study the structure of dark-matter admixed neutron stars (DMANSs). Applying the equation of state in the Skyrme framework for the neutron matter (NM), we calculate the mass–radius relation for different DMANSs with various DMEOSs and central pressure of dark matter (DM) to NM ratios. Our results show that for some DMEOSs, the mass–radius relations are in agreement with new observations, e.g., EXO 1745-248, 4U 1608-52, and 4U 1820-30, which are inconsistent with normal neutron stars. We conclude that both DMEOSs and central pressure ratios of DM to NM affect the slope of the mass–radius relation of DMANSs. This is because of the interaction between DM and NM, which leads to gravitationally or self-bound DMANSs. We study the radius of the NM sphere as well as the radius of the DM halo for different DMANSs. The results confirm that, in some cases, a NM sphere with a small radius is surrounded by a halo of DM with a larger radius. Our calculations verify that, due to the different degrees of DM domination in DMANSs, with a value of the visible radius of a star two possible DMANSs with different masses can exist. The gravitational redshift is also calculated for DMANSs with different DMEOSs and central pressure ratios. The results explain that the existence of DM in a DMANS leads to higher values of gravitational redshift of the star.

  9. Dark gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    Many theories of dark matter (DM) predict that DM particles can be captured by stars via scattering on ordinary matter. They subsequently condense into a DM core close to the center of the star and eventually annihilate. In this work, we trace DM capture and annihilation rates throughout the life of a massive star and show that this evolution culminates in an intense annihilation burst coincident with the death of the star in a core collapse supernova. The reason is that, along with the stellar interior, also its DM core heats up and contracts, so that the DM density increases rapidly during the final stages of stellar evolution. We argue that, counterintuitively, the annihilation burst is more intense if DM annihilation is a p -wave process than for s -wave annihilation because in the former case, more DM particles survive until the supernova. If among the DM annihilation products are particles like dark photons that can escape the exploding star and decay to standard model particles later, the annihilation burst results in a flash of gamma rays accompanying the supernova. For a galactic supernova, this "dark gamma-ray burst" may be observable in the Čerenkov Telescope Array.

  10. Path to the Dark Side

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-09

    The moon Iapetus, like the "force" in Star Wars, has both a light side and a dark side. Scientists think that Iapetus' (914 miles or 1471 kilometers across) dark/light asymmetry was actually created by material migrating away from the dark side. For a simulation of how scientists think the asymmetry formed, see Thermal Runaway Model . Lit terrain seen here is on the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Iapetus. North on Iapetus is up and rotated 43 degrees to the right. The image was taken in green light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Jan. 4, 2015. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 2.5 million miles (4 million kilometers) from Iapetus. Image scale is 15 miles (24 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia18307

  11. Light and Dark Tricks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-04

    Capturing the interplay between light and shadow, NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward the night side of Saturn where sunlight reflected off the rings has dimly illuminated what would otherwise be the dark side of the planet.

  12. Dark Polar Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-01

    This MOC image shows dunes in the martian north polar region. The dunes are composed of dark, coarse sand. The white areas around the dunes are the last remaining areas of seasonal carbon dioxide frost cover

  13. Inflatable Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ˜MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  14. Dark and Light Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-08

    NASA Cassini spacecraft examines Titan dark and light seasonal hemispheric dichotomy as it images the moon with a filter sensitive to near-infrared light. This image also shows Titan north polar hood.

  15. The Dark Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario

    2010-04-01

    1. A brief history of dark matter Vera Rubin; 2. Microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds Kailash Sahu; 3. Searching for galactic dark matter Harvey Richer; 4. Hot gas in clusters of galaxies and Omega Megan Donahue; 5. Tracking the Baryon density from the Big Bang to the present Gary Steigman; 6. Modified Newtonian dynamics and its implications Bob Sanders; 7. Cosmological parameters and quintessence from radio galaxies Ruth Daly and Eric Guerra; 8. The mass density of the Universe Neta Bahcall; 9. Growth of structure in the Universe John Peacock; 10. Cosmological implications of the most distant supernova (known) Adam Riess; 11. Dynamical probes of the Halo mass function Chris Kochanek; 12. Detection of gravitational waves from inflation Marc Kamionkowski and Andrew Jaffe; 13. Cosmological constant problems and their solution Alex Vilenkin; 14. Dark Matter and dark energy: a physicist's perspective Michael Dine.

  16. Xenophobic dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason; Sanford, David

    2013-07-01

    We consider models of xenophobic dark matter, in which isospin-violating dark matter-nucleon interactions significantly degrade the response of xenon direct detection experiments. For models of near-maximal xenophobia, with neutron-to-proton coupling ratio fn/fp≈-0.64, and dark matter mass near 8 GeV, the regions of interest for CoGeNT and CDMS-Si and the region of interest identified by Collar and Fields in CDMS-Ge data can be brought into agreement. This model may be tested in future direct, indirect, and collider searches. Interestingly, because the natural isotope abundance of xenon implies that xenophobia has its limits, we find that this xenophobic model may be probed in the near future by xenon experiments. Near-future data from the LHC and Fermi-LAT may also provide interesting alternative probes of xenophobic dark matter.

  17. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  18. Ghost dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp E-mail: naoshi@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2010-05-01

    We revisit ghost dark matter, the possibility that ghost condensation may serve as an alternative to dark matter. In particular, we investigate the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background evolution and the large-scale structure (LSS) in the ΛGDM universe, i.e. a late-time universe dominated by a cosmological constant and ghost dark matter. The FRW background of the ΛGDM universe is indistinguishable from that of the standard ΛCDM universe if M∼>1eV, where M is the scale of spontaneous Lorentz breaking. From the LSS we find a stronger bound: M∼>10eV. For smaller M, ghost dark matter would have non-negligible sound speed after the matter-radiation equality, and thus the matter power spectrum would significantly differ from observation. These bounds are compatible with the phenomenological upper bound M∼<100GeV known in the literature.

  19. Is dark energy evolving?

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com

    2013-02-01

    We look for evidence for the evolution in dark energy density by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Distance redshift data from supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) along with WMAP7 distance priors are used to put constraints on curvature parameter Ω{sub k} and dark energy parameters. The data sets are consistent with a flat Universe. The constraints on the dark energy evolution parameters obtained from supernovae (including CMB distance priors) are consistent with a flat ΛCDM Universe. On the other hand, in the parameter estimates obtained from the addition of BAO data the second principal component, which characterize a non-constant contribution from dark energy, is non-zero at 1σ. This could be a systematic effect and future BAO data holds key to making more robust claims.

  20. Detailing Dark Spokes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-09

    NASA Cassini spacecraft images dark spokes on Saturn B ring. Spokes are radial markings on Saturn rings that continue to interest scientists, and they can be seen here stretching left to right across the image.

  1. Resonant Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Fox, Patrick J.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    It is usually assumed that dark matter direct detection is sensitive to a large fraction of the dark matter (DM) velocity distribution. We propose an alternative form of dark matter-nucleus scattering which only probes a narrow range of DM velocities due to the existence of a resonance, a DM-nucleus bound state, in the scattering - resonant dark matter (rDM). The scattering cross section becomes highly element dependent, has increased modulation and as a result can explain the DAMA/LIBRA results whilst not being in conflict with other direct detection experiments. We describe a simple model that realizes the dynamics of rDM, where the DM is the neutral component of a fermionic weak triplet whose charged partners differ in mass by approximately 10 MeV.

  2. Dark matter detectors as dark photon helioscopes.

    PubMed

    An, Haipeng; Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2013-07-26

    Light new particles with masses below 10 keV, often considered as a plausible extension of the standard model, will be emitted from the solar interior and can be detected on Earth with a variety of experimental tools. Here, we analyze the new "dark" vector state V, a massive vector boson mixed with the photon via an angle κ, that in the limit of the small mass mV has its emission spectrum strongly peaked at low energies. Thus, we utilize the constraints on the atomic ionization rate imposed by the results of the XENON10 experiment to set the limit on the parameters of this model: κ×mV<3×10(-12)  eV. This makes low-threshold dark matter experiments the most sensitive dark vector helioscopes, as our result not only improves current experimental bounds from other searches by several orders of magnitude but also surpasses even the most stringent astrophysical and cosmological limits in a seven-decade-wide interval of mV. We generalize this approach to other light exotic particles and set the most stringent direct constraints on "minicharged" particles.

  3. Simulations: The dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods. Both methods are, in principle, simple. However, simple does not mean risk-free. In the literature, many of the pitfalls in the field are mentioned, but usually as a footnote --and these footnotes are scattered over many papers. The present paper focuses on the "dark side" of simulation: it is one big footnote. I should stress that "dark", in this context, has no negative moral implication. It just means: under-exposed.

  4. Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2016-06-03

    We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10^{-3}-1  fb range.

  5. Dark Matter Hunters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Annika

    2017-06-01

    We know just enough about dark matter to design beautiful and plausible particle models for it, but not enough to sharpen searches in this vast theoretical parameter space. In this talk, I will highlight new ideas from the community to cover this large parameter space, and how new laboratory measurements and techniques are helping the community probe previously inaccessible types of dark matter microphysics. I will discuss open questions and possible future directions.

  6. The Local Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Helfer, H.L.

    2005-10-21

    The observations of the extended rotation curves of some galaxies provide important constraints upon the nature of the local dark matter present in the halos of these galaxies. Using these constraints, one can show that the halo dark matter cannot be some population of conventional astronomical objects and (most probably) cannot be a population of exotic non-interacting particles. We suggest that the halos can be regarded as large spatial fluctuations in a classic scalar field.

  7. Dark Matter Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Guido; Kamionkowski, Marc; Sigurdson, Kris

    This chapter is intended to provide a brief pedagogical review of dark matter for the newcomer to the subject. We begin with a discussion of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter. The standard weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) scenario—the motivation, particle models, and detection techniques—is then reviewed. We provide a brief sampling of some recent variations to the standard WIMP scenario, as well as some alternatives (axions and sterile neutrinos). Exercises are provided for the reader.

  8. Dark matter: theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M S

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the "standard model" of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for "new physics." The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10(-6)-10(-4) eV), a light neutrino (20-90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV-2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. PMID:11607395

  9. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. . Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  10. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. |

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  11. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1993-06-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the [open quotes]standard model[close quotes] of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for [open quotes]new physics.[close quotes] The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10[sup [minus]6]--10[sup [minus]4] eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs.

  12. Reconsidering Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2012-02-01

    There is a difference between (a) distances of remote standard candles, SN Type Ia, and (b) distances based upon their red shifts. It was believed that these galaxies had accelerated and used Dark Energy. There are 2 assumptions not supported by observations. The first is that the red shifts for remote galaxies are due to the Doppler Effect associated with receding velocity. Hubble only observed red shifts as a function of distances of known stars, and never measured receding velocities. He suggested the Doppler Effect as a cause, but expressed doubt about the suggestion. There are other causes for a red shift - gravity red shift of light from the sun, and loss of photon energy by gravity interaction of photons with dust and gas in interstellar space. The second assumption is that Hubble's linear relationship between the observed red shift and the distance will be valid at very large distances. Increasing red shift corresponds to a decrease of photon energy towards zero, and cannot be used for very remote stars - where the photon energy approaches zero and the red shift dependence becomes nonlinear and asymptotic to a constant value. This predicts the difference between the galaxy distances and the distances determined from their observed red shifts. The recent Nobel Prize (to Schmidt, Reis, and Perlmutter) needs reexamination. Two basic assumptions that are the foundation of their work may not be accurate. Details are in my earlier essays in ``The Misunderstood Universe'', 2009. .

  13. Constraining the Nature of Dark Matter with the Star-formation History of the Faintest Local Group Dwarf Galaxy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Alice; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Λ warm dark matter (ΛWDM), realized by collisionless particles of 1-3 keV, has been proposed as an alternative scenario to Λ-Cold-Dark Matter (ΛCDM) for the dwarf galaxy scale discrepancies. We present an approach to test the viability of such WDM models using star-formation histories (SFHs) of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high-time-resolution SFHs with the collapse redshift of their dark halos in CDM and WDM. Collapse redshift is inferred after determining the subhalo infall mass. This is based on the dwarf current mass inferred from stellar kinematics, combined with cosmological simulation results on subhalo evolution. WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale, forming significantly later than CDM, are the most difficult to reconcile with early truncation of star formation (z ≥ 3). The ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) provide the most stringent constraints. Using six UFDs and eight classical dSphs, we show that a 1 keV particle is strongly disfavored, consistently with other reported methods. Excluding other models is only hinted for a few UFDs. Other UFDs for which the lack of robust constraints on halo mass prevents us from carrying out our analysis rigorously, show a very early onset of star formation that will strengthen the constraints delivered by our method in the future. We discuss the various caveats, notably the low number of dwarfs with accurately determined SFHs and the uncertainties when determining the subhalo infall mass, most notably the baryonic physics. Our preliminary analysis may serve as a pathfinder for future investigations that will combine accurate SFHs for local dwarfs with direct analysis of WDM simulations with baryons.

  14. Dark matter dynamics and indirect detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Merritt, David; /Rochester Inst. Tech.

    2005-04-01

    Non-baryonic, or ''dark'', matter is believed to be a major component of the total mass budget of the universe. We review the candidates for particle dark matter and discuss the prospects for direct detection (via interaction of dark matter particles with laboratory detectors) and indirect detection (via observations of the products of dark matter self-annihilations), focusing in particular on the Galactic center, which is among the most promising targets for indirect detection studies. The gravitational potential at the Galactic center is dominated by stars and by the supermassive black hole, and the dark matter distribution is expected to evolve on sub-parsec scales due to interaction with these components. We discuss the dominant interaction mechanisms and show how they can be used to rule out certain extreme models for the dark matter distribution, thus increasing the information that can be gleaned from indirect detection searches.

  15. Cosmological evolution with interaction between dark energy and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Yuri L.; Kostenko, Alexander; Lemets, Oleg A.; Yerokhin, Danylo A.

    2015-12-01

    In this review we consider in detail different theoretical topics associated with interaction in the dark sector. We study linear and nonlinear interactions which depend on the dark matter and dark energy densities. We consider a number of different models (including the holographic dark energy and dark energy in a fractal universe), with interacting dark energy and dark matter, have done a thorough analysis of these models. The main task of this review was not only to give an idea about the modern set of different models of dark energy, but to show how much can be diverse dynamics of the universe in these models. We find that the dynamics of a universe that contains interaction in the dark sector can differ significantly from the Standard Cosmological Model.

  16. Astrophysical Probes of Dark Matter Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Matthew

    The majority of matter in the universe is dark matter, made up of some particle beyond those in the Standard Model of particle physics. So far we have very little information about what dark matter is and how it interacts, except through gravity. Constraints from halo shapes and the Bullet Cluster give upper bounds on the self-interaction strength of dark matter, but these bounds are very weak: roughly the same size as nuclear physics cross sections, which are very large by the standards of particle physics. Given how little we know about dark matter, it is important to search for it in as broad a context as possible. Existing direct and indirect detection analyses are typically motivated by simple particle physics models like WIMP dark matter. This research will aim to widen the scope of searches for dark matter by considering a more complete range of particle physics models, working out their implications for astrophysical data, and interpreting existing data in terms of these new models. New models of dark matter can affect searches in a variety of ways. Signals may show up in conventional indirect detection searches, e.g. in gamma rays detected by Fermi-LAT or in antiprotons detected by AMS-02. The new particle physics content of the models could be reflected in surprising spectral shapes or other features of such signals, or in gamma rays with a different profile on the sky than expected in typical models. The PI has worked, for example, on a model in which signals may arise from a dark disk, which is just one of many possibilities. Signals of new dark matter models might also arise in more subtle ways. Structure in the dark sector could influence the development of structure in the visible sector, indirectly. For instance, a dark matter disk or other dark structures could alter the orbits of stars in the galaxy and may be detectable through detailed studies of the kinematics of stellar populations. Dark accretion disks could exist around astrophysical objects

  17. Levitating dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < -1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger `Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  18. Vectorlike sneutrino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yi-Lei; Zhu, Shou-hua

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) extended with one vectorlike lepton doublet L -L ¯ and one right-handed neutrino N . The neutral vecotorlike sneutrino can be a candidate of dark matter. To avoid the interaction with the nucleons by exchanging a Z boson, the mass splitting between the real part and the imaginary part of the sneutrino field is needed. Compared with the MSSM sneutrino dark matter, the mass splitting between the vectorlike sneutrino field can be more naturally acquired without large A terms and constraints on the neutralino masses. We have also calculated the relic density and the elastic scattering cross sections with the nucleons in the cases that the dark matter particles coannihilate with or without the MSSM slepton doublets. The elastic scattering cross sections with the nucleons are well below the LUX bounds. In the case that the dark matter coannihilates with all the MSSM slepton doublets, the mass of the dark matter can be as light as 370 GeV.

  19. MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2011-10-01

    This proposal monitors the behavior of the dark current in each of the MAMA detectors, to look for evidence of change in the dark rate, indicative of detector problems developing.The basic monitor takes two 1300s TIME-TAG darks bi-weekly with each detector. The pairs of exposures for each detector are linked so that they are taken at opposite ends of the same SAA free interval. This pairing of exposures will make it easier to separate long and short term temporal variability from temperature dependent changes.For both detectors, additional blocks of exposures are taken once a year. These are groups of three 1314 s TIME-TAG darks for each of the MAMA detectors, distributed over a single SAA free interval. This will give more information on the brightness of the FUV MAMA dark current as a function of the amount of time that the HV has been on, and for the NUV MAMA will give a better measure of the short term temperature dependence.

  20. MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    This proposal monitors the behavior of the dark current in each of the MAMA detectors, to look for evidence of change in the dark rate, indicative of detector problems developing.The basic monitor takes two 1300s TIME-TAG darks bi-weekly with each detector. The pairs of exposures for each detector are linked so that they are taken at opposite ends of the same SAA free interval. This pairing of exposures will make it easier to separate long and short term temporal variability from temperature dependent changes.For both detectors, additional blocks of exposures are taken once a year. These are groups of three 1314 s TIME-TAG darks for each of the MAMA detectors, distributed over a single SAA free interval. This will give more information on the brightness of the FUV MAMA dark current as a function of the amount of time that the HV has been on, and for the NUV MAMA will give a better measure of the short term temperature dependence.

  1. Axion dark matter searches

    DOE PAGES

    Stern, Ian P.

    2014-01-01

    We report nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a μeV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 μeV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axionsmore » at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.« less

  2. Axion dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Ian P.

    2014-01-01

    We report nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a μeV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 μeV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  3. Dark Energy. What the ...?

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, Risa

    2007-10-30

    What is the Universe made of? This question has been asked as long as humans have been questioning, and astronomers and physicists are finally converging on an answer. The picture which has emerged from numerous complementary observations over the past decade is a surprising one: most of the matter in the Universe isn't visible, and most of the Universe isn't even made of matter. In this talk, I will explain what the rest of this stuff, known as 'Dark Energy' is, how it is related to the so-called 'Dark Matter', how it impacts the evolution of the Universe, and how we can study the dark universe using observations of light from current and future telescopes.

  4. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    PubMed

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Nearly Supersymmetric Dark Atoms

    DOE PAGES

    Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Jankowiak, Martin; Rube, Tomas; ...

    2011-01-01

    Theories of dark matter that support bound states are an intriguing possibility for the identity of the missing mass of the Universe. This article proposes a class of models of supersymmetric composite dark matter where the interactions with the Standard Model communicate supersymmetry breaking to the dark sector. In these models, supersymmetry breaking can be treated as a perturbation on the spectrum of bound states. Using a general formalism, the spectrum with leading supersymmetry effects is computed without specifying the details of the binding dynamics. The interactions of the composite states with the Standard Model are computed, and several benchmarkmore » models are described. General features of nonrelativistic supersymmetric bound states are emphasized.« less

  6. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-09

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  7. Dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Alessandro

    These lectures begin with a brief survey of the astrophysical and cosmological evidence for dark matter. We then consider the three principal theoretically motivated types of dark matter, sterile neutrinos, axions and SUSY WIMPs. In chapter 4 we discuss the motivations for the so-called neutrino minimal standard model, nuMSM, an extension of the SM with three sterile neutrinos with masses similar to the charged fermions. In chapter 5 we briefly recall the strong CP problem of the SM and the solution proposed by Peccei and Quinn leading to the prediction of axions and of their characteristics. We then discuss the experimental status and perspectives. In chapter 6 we assume that the reader to be acquainted with the theoretical motivations for SUSY and move directly to the direct search for dark matter and the description of the principal detector techniques: scintillators, noble fluids and bolometers. We conclude with an outlook on the future perspectives.

  8. Surveying the dark side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, Roberto; Bower, Richard

    2006-08-01

    We examine the prospects for the next generation of surveys aimed at elucidating the nature of dark energy. We review the methods that can be used to determine the redshift evolution of the dark-energy equation-of-state parameter w, highlighting their respective strengths and potential weaknesses. All of the attractive methods require surveys covering more than 5-10 000 square degrees of the sky. We examine the accuracy that each method is likely to deliver within a decade, and discuss the difficulties arising from systematic uncertainties associated with the techniques. We conclude that the proposed photometric and redshift surveys have the potential to deliver measurements of w with percent accuracy at several redshifts out to z~ 3. Of particular interest will be the combination of weak lensing and baryonic acoustic oscillations measurements. This exquisite precision is likely to have a fundamental impact on our understanding of the nature of dark energy, providing the necessary guidance for its theoretical explanation.

  9. Does Dark Matter Exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.; Kosowsky, A.

    The success of the ΛCDM model on large scales does not extend down to galaxy scales. We list a dozen problems of the dark matter hypothesis, some of which arise in specific models for the formation of structure in the universe, while others are generic and require fine tuning in any dark matter theory. Modifications to the theory, such as adding properties to the DM particles beyond gravitational interactions, or simply a better understanding of the physics of galaxy formation, may resolve some problems, but a number of conspiracies and correlations are unlikely to yield to this approach. The alternative is that mass discrepancies result from of a non-Newtonian law of gravity, a hypothesis which avoids many of the more intractable problems of dark matter. A modified law of gravity is not without formidable difficulties of its own, but it is no longer obvious that they are any more daunting than those facing DM.

  10. Nearly Supersymmetric Dark Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Jankowiak, Martin; Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-12

    Theories of dark matter that support bound states are an intriguing possibility for the identity of the missing mass of the Universe. This article proposes a class of models of supersymmetric composite dark matter where the interactions with the Standard Model communicate supersymmetry breaking to the dark sector. In these models supersymmetry breaking can be treated as a perturbation on the spectrum of bound states. Using a general formalism, the spectrum with leading supersymmetry effects is computed without specifying the details of the binding dynamics. The interactions of the composite states with the Standard Model are computed and several benchmark models are described. General features of non-relativistic supersymmetric bound states are emphasized.

  11. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-01

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  12. Tunguska dark matter ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froggatt, C. D.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2015-04-01

    It is suggested that the Tunguska event in June 1908 was due to a cm-large ball of a condensate of bound states of 6 top and 6 antitop quarks containing highly compressed ordinary matter. Such balls are supposed to make up the dark matter as we earlier proposed. The expected rate of impact of this kind of dark matter ball with the earth seems to crudely match a time scale of 200 years between the impacts. The main explosion of the Tunguska event is explained in our picture as material coming out from deep within the earth, where it has been heated and compressed by the ball penetrating to a depth of several thousand km. Thus the effect has some similarity with volcanic activity as suggested by Kundt. We discuss the possible identification of kimberlite pipes with earlier Tunguska-like events. A discussion of how the dark matter balls may have formed in the early universe is also given.

  13. Axion dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Ian P.; Collaboration: ADMX Collaboration; ADMX-HF Collaboration

    2014-06-24

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a μeV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 μeV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  14. The Bullet cluster at its best: weighing stars, gas, and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraficz, D.; Kneib, J.-P.; Richard, J.; Morandi, A.; Limousin, M.; Jullo, E.; Martinez, J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present a new strong lensing mass reconstruction of the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) at z = 0.296, based on WFC3 and ACS HST imaging and VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy. The strong lensing constraints underwent substantial revision compared to previously published analysis, there are now 14 (six new and eight previously known) multiply-imaged systems, of which three have spectroscopically confirmed redshifts (including one newly measured from this work). Methods: The reconstructed mass distribution explicitly included the combination of three mass components: (i) the intra-cluster gas mass derived from X-ray observation; (ii) the cluster galaxies modeled by their fundamental plane scaling relations and (iii) dark matter. Results: The model that includes the intra-cluster gas is the one with the best Bayesian evidence. This model has a total rms value of 0.158″ between the predicted and measured image positions for the 14 multiple images considered. The proximity of the total rms to resolution of HST/WFC3 and ACS (0.07-0.15''FWHM) demonstrates the excellent precision of our mass model. The derived mass model confirms the spatial offset between the X-ray gas and dark matter peaks. The fraction of the galaxy halos mass to total mass is found to be fs = 11 ± 5% for a total mass of 2.5 ± 0.1 × 1014M⊙ within a 250 kpc radial aperture.

  15. Dark Energy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Cosmology is presently facing the deep mystery of the origin of the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Be it a cosmological constant, a homogeneous scalar field, or a more complex inhomogeneous field possibly inducing effective modifications of the laws of gravity, such elusive physical entity is indicated with the general term of “Dark Energy”. The growing role played by numerical N-body simulations in cosmological studies as a fundamental connection between theoretical modeling and direct observations has led to impressive advancements also in the development and application of specific algorithms designed to probe a wide range of Dark Energy scenarios. Over the last decade, a large number of independent and complementary investigations have been carried out in the field of Dark Energy N-body simulations, starting from the simplest case of homogeneous Dark Energy models up to the recent development of highly sophisticated iterative solvers for a variety of Modified Gravity theories. In this review -which is meant to be complementary to the general Review by Kuhlen et al. (2012) [1] published in this Volume - I will discuss the range of scenarios for the cosmic acceleration that have been successfully investigated by means of dedicated N-body simulations, and I will provide a broad summary of the main results that have been obtained in this rather new research field. I will focus the discussion on a few selected studies that have led to particularly significant advancements in the field, and I will provide a comprehensive list of references for a larger number of related works. Due to the vastness of the topic, the discussion will not enter into the finest details of the different implementations and will mainly focus on the outcomes of the various simulations studies. Although quite recent, the field of Dark Energy simulations has witnessed huge developments in the last few years, and presently stands as a reliable approach to the investigation

  16. Big Mysteries: Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-15

    Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

  17. Big Mysteries: Dark Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

  18. The Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, Brenna; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Dark Energy is the dominant constituent of the universe and they have little understanding of it. They describe a new project aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx} 5%, with four separate techniques. The survey will image 5000 deg{sup 2} in the southern sky and collect 300 million galaxies, 30,000 galaxy clusters, and 2000 Type Ia supernovae. The survey will be carried out using a new 3 deg{sup 2} mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO.

  19. Dark-energy thermodynamic models

    SciTech Connect

    Besprosvany, Jaime; Izquierdo, German

    2010-12-07

    We study cosmological consequences of dark-energy thermodynamic models. The assumption that dark energy is conformed of quanta, and an extensivity argument generalize its equation of state. This implies that dark energy and another key component exchange energy. The energy densities of dark energy and the other component then tend asymptotically to a constant, thus explaining the coincidence of dark matter and dark energy today. On the other hand, a model of non-relativistic particles in a Bose-Einstein condensate, with a short-range attractive interaction, produces acceleration. It is shown that the phantom-acceleration regime, at the beginning of the universe, solves the horizon problem.

  20. Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier

    2005-01-01

    Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

  1. Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier

    2005-01-01

    Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

  2. Dark Energy and The Dark Matter Relic Abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Rosati, Francesca

    2004-11-17

    Two mechanisms by which the quintessence scalar could enhance the relic abundance of dark matter particles are discussed. These effects can have an impact on supersymmetric candidates for dark matter.

  3. Sterile neutrino portal to Dark Matter II: exact dark symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Miguel; Rius, Nuria; Sanz, Verónica

    2017-06-01

    We analyze a simple extension of the standard model (SM) with a dark sector composed of a scalar and a fermion, both singlets under the SM gauge group but charged under a dark sector symmetry group. Sterile neutrinos, which are singlets under both groups, mediate the interactions between the dark sector and the SM particles, and generate masses for the active neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. We explore the parameter space region where the observed Dark Matter relic abundance is determined by the annihilation into sterile neutrinos, both for fermion and scalar Dark Matter particles. The scalar Dark Matter case provides an interesting alternative to the usual Higgs portal scenario. We also study the constraints from direct Dark Matter searches and the prospects for indirect detection via sterile neutrino decays to leptons, which may be able to rule out Dark Matter masses below and around 100 GeV.

  4. New interactions in the dark sector mediated by dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Brookfield, Anthony W.; Bruck, Carsten van de; Hall, Lisa M. H.

    2008-02-15

    Cosmological observations have revealed the existence of a dark matter sector, which is commonly assumed to be made up of one particle species only. However, this sector might be more complicated than we currently believe: there might be more than one dark matter species (for example, two components of cold dark matter or a mixture of hot and cold dark matter) and there may be new interactions between these particles. In this paper we study the possibility of multiple dark matter species and interactions mediated by a dark energy field. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution in these scenarios. We find that the background evolution of a system of multiple dark matter particles (with constant couplings) mimics a single fluid with a time-varying coupling parameter. However, this is no longer true on the perturbative level. We study the case of attractive and repulsive forces as well as a mixture of cold and hot dark matter particles.

  5. Dark energy and dark matter from primordial QGP

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Vaishali Upadhyaya, G. K.

    2015-07-31

    Coloured relics servived after hadronization might have given birth to dark matter and dark energy. Theoretical ideas to solve mystery of cosmic acceleration, its origin and its status with reference to recent past are of much interest and are being proposed by many workers. In the present paper, we present a critical review of work done to understand the earliest appearance of dark matter and dark energy in the scenario of primordial quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase after Big Bang.

  6. Models for SIMP dark matter and dark photon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Min; Seo, Min-Seok

    2016-06-21

    We give a review on the SIMP paradigm and discuss a consistent model for SIMP dark mesons in the context of a dark QCD with flavor symmetry. The Z′-portal interaction is introduced being compatible with stable dark mesons and is responsible for making the SIMP dark mesons remain in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during the freeze-out process. The SIMP parameter space of the Z′ gauge boson can be probed by future collider and direct detection experiments.

  7. Dark energy and dark matter from primordial QGP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Vaishali; Upadhyaya, G. K.

    2015-07-01

    Coloured relics servived after hadronization might have given birth to dark matter and dark energy. Theoretical ideas to solve mystery of cosmic acceleration, its origin and its status with reference to recent past are of much interest and are being proposed by many workers. In the present paper, we present a critical review of work done to understand the earliest appearance of dark matter and dark energy in the scenario of primordial quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase after Big Bang.

  8. Dark-field competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbach, Christoph; mcissbc

    2014-04-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “Dark field illuminates X-ray imaging” (25 February, http://ow.ly/ulJnl), which concerns new research by Robert Cernik and colleagues (Proc. R. Soc. A 10.1098/rspa.2013.0629).

  9. Dichromatic dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Su, Meng; Zhao, Yue

    2013-02-01

    Both the robust INTEGRAL 511 keV gamma-ray line and the recent tentative hint of the 135 GeV gamma-ray line from Fermi-LAT have similar signal morphologies, and may be produced from the same dark matter annihilation. Motivated by this observation, we construct a dark matter model to explain both signals and to accommodate the two required annihilation cross sections that are different by more than six orders of magnitude. In our model, to generate the low-energy positrons for INTEGRAL, dark matter particles annihilate into a complex scalar that couples to photon via a charge-radius operator. The complex scalar contains an excited state decaying into the ground state plus an off-shell photon to generate a pair of positron and electron. Two charged particles with non-degenerate masses are necessary for generating this charge-radius operator. One charged particle is predicted to be long-lived and have a mass around 3.8 TeV to explain the dark matter thermal relic abundance from its late decay. The other charged particle is predicted to have a mass below 1 TeV given the ratio of the two signal cross sections. The 14 TeV LHC will concretely test the main parameter space of this lighter charged particle.

  10. Arcadia Planitia Dark Splotch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-16

    Arcadia Planitia occupies a region just north of Amazonis Planitia, one of the brightest and dustiest regions on Mars. Along the boundary between these two regions is a dark splotch roughly 600 km long that is relatively free of dust. This THEMIS image straddles the border of the dark splotch, producing the dramatic change in brightness from north to south. Note that many of the small craters in the dark portion of the image contain bright material on their floor. It may be that a mantle of dust has been stripped back revealing the dark surface of the splotch but the crater floors have retained the dust. Alternatively, the bright material may represent a more resistant unit that once covered the area and is difficult to erode from the crater floors. Either way, the presence of the bright material in so many craters produces a scene that is quite unusual for the surface of Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04038

  11. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  12. Inflatable Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUT or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.

  13. Inflatable Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUTmore » or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.« less

  14. Exceptional composite dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Carmona, Adrián; Chala, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    We study the dark matter phenomenology of non-minimal composite Higgs models with SO(7) broken to the exceptional group G_2. In addition to the Higgs, three pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons arise, one of which is electrically neutral. A parity symmetry is enough to ensure this resonance is stable. In fact, if the breaking of the Goldstone symmetry is driven by the fermion sector, this Z_2 symmetry is automatically unbroken in the electroweak phase. In this case, the relic density, as well as the expected indirect, direct and collider signals are then uniquely determined by the value of the compositeness scale, f. Current experimental bounds allow one to account for a large fraction of the dark matter of the Universe if the dark matter particle is part of an electroweak triplet. The totality of the relic abundance can be accommodated if instead this particle is a composite singlet. In both cases, the scale f and the dark matter mass are of the order of a few TeV.

  15. Heart of Darkness.

    PubMed

    Alken, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Significant literature has an impact on the reader. Reading the novella Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad as a young boy rose emotions comparable to those I felt when losing a patient after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as a grown up. The case of a 37-year-old woman with bilateral staghorn and a fatal outcome after PCNL is presented and alternatives are discussed.

  16. Dark Barchan Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows north polar sand dunes in the summertime. During winter and early spring, north polar dunes are covered with bright frost. When the frost sublimes away, the dunes appear darker than their surroundings. To a geologist, sand has a very specific meaning. A sand grain is defined independently of its composition; it is a particle with a size between 62.5 and 2000 microns. Two thousand microns equals 2 millimeters. The dunes are dark because they are composed of sand grains made of dark minerals and/or rock fragments. Usually, dark grains indicate the presence of unoxidized iron, for example, the dark volcanic rocks of Hawaii, Iceland, and elsewhere. This dune field is located near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Dune slip faces indicate winds that blow from the upper left toward lower right. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. Dark Slope Streaks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-20

    Dark streaks are visible on the slopes of hills and crater rims in Amazonis Planitia. It is thought that the removal of dust by downslope movement reveals the darker rocks beneath. Orbit Number: 60745 Latitude: 13.62 Longitude: 191.678 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-08-24 11:59 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20072

  18. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  19. NUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The basic monitor takes two 1300s TIME-TAG darks bi-weekly.. The pairs of exposures are linked so that they are taken about 6 hours apart in the same SAA free interval. This pairing of exposures will make it easier to separate long and short term temporal variability from temperature dependent changes.

  20. FUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2012-10-01

    The monitor takes six 1300s TIME-TAG darks every six weeks. The exposures are distributed over about six hours from initial turn-on to characterize the rate increase as a function of turn-on time and temperature. The frequency has been reduced from bi-weekly to once every six weeks to stay within a reasonable orbit count.

  1. FUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The monitor takes six 1300s TIME-TAG darks every six weeks. The exposures are distributed over about six hours from initial turn-on to characterize the rate increase as a function of turn-on time and temperature.

  2. NUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2012-10-01

    The basic monitor takes two 1300s TIME-TAG darks bi-weekly.. The pairs of exposures are linked so that they are taken about 6 hours apart in the same SAA free interval. This pairing of exposures will make it easier to separate long and short term temporal variability from temperature dependent changes.

  3. Dark energy and dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlen, Michael; Strigari, Louis E.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Primack, Joel R.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate the effect of dark energy on the density profiles of dark matter haloes with a suite of cosmological N-body simulations and use our results to test analytic models. We consider constant equation of state models, and allow both w>=-1 and w < -1. Using five simulations with w ranging from -1.5 to -0.5, and with more than ~1600 well-resolved haloes each, we show that the halo concentration model of Bullock et al. accurately predicts the median concentrations of haloes over the range of w, halo masses and redshifts that we are capable of probing. We find that the Bullock et al. model works best when halo masses and concentrations are defined relative to an outer radius set by a cosmology-dependent virial overdensity. For a fixed power spectrum normalization and fixed-mass haloes, larger values of w lead to higher concentrations and higher halo central densities, both because collapse occurs earlier and because haloes have higher virial densities. While precise predictions of halo densities are quite sensitive to various uncertainties, we make broad comparisons to galaxy rotation curve data. At fixed power spectrum normalization (fixed σ8), w > -1 quintessence models seem to exacerbate the central density problem relative to the standard w=-1 model. For example, models with w~=- 0.5 seem disfavoured by the data, which can be matched only by allowing extremely low normalizations, σ8<~ 0.6. Meanwhile w < -1 models help to reduce the apparent discrepancy. We confirm that the halo mass function of Jenkins et al. provides an excellent approximation to the abundance of haloes in our simulations and extend its region of validity to include models with w < -1.

  4. Shedding light on baryonic dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Halo dark matter, if it is baryonic, may plausibly consist of compact stellar remnants. Jeans mass clouds containing 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 8th solar masses could have efficiently formed stars in the early universe and could plausibly have generated, for a suitably top-heavy stellar initial mass function, a high abundance of neutron stars as well as a small admixture of long-lived low mass stars. Within the resulting clusters of dark remnants, which eventually are tidally disrupted when halos eventually form, captures of neutron stars by nondegenerate stars resulted in formation of close binaries. These evolve to produce, by the present epoch, an observable X-ray signal associated with dark matter aggregations in galaxy cluster cores.

  5. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  6. The Search for Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema

    Orrell, John

    2016-07-12

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  7. The Search for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, John

    2013-11-20

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  8. Dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, Laura

    2016-08-01

    More than 80 years after its first postulation in modern form, the existence and distribution of dark matter in our Universe is well established. Dark matter is the gravitational glue that holds together galaxies, galaxy clusters and structures on the largest cosmological scales, and an essential component to explain the observed fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background. Yet its existence is inferred indirectly, through its gravitational influence on luminous matter, and its nature is not known. A viable hypothesis is that dark matter is made of new, elementary particles, with allowed masses and interaction strengths spanning a wide range. Two well-motivated classes of candidates are axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), and experimental efforts have now reached sensitivities that allow them to test this hypothesis. Axions, produced non-thermally in the early Universe, can be detected by exploiting their predicted couplings to photons and electrons. WIMPs can be detected directly by looking for their collisions with atomic nuclei ultra-low background detectors, or indirectly, through the observation of their annihilation products such as neutrinos, gamma rays, positrons and antiprotons over the astrophysical background. A complementary method is the production of dark matter particles at colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider, where they could be observed indirectly via missing transverse energy, or via associated particle production. I will review the main experimental efforts to search for dark matter particles, and the existing constraints on the interaction cross sections. I will also discuss future experiments, their complementarity and their ability to measure the properties of these particles.

  9. Dark photon relic dark matter production through the dark axion portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Kunio; Lee, Hye-Sung; Yun, Seokhoon

    2017-06-01

    We present a new mechanism to produce the dark photon (γ') in the early Universe with the help of the axion (a ) using a recently proposed dark axion portal. The dark photon, a light gauge boson in the dark sector, can be relic dark matter if its lifetime is long enough. The main process we consider is a variant of the Primakoff process f a →f γ' mediated by a photon, which is possible with the axion-photon-dark photon coupling. The axion is thermalized in the early Universe because of the strong interaction and it can contribute to the nonthermal dark photon production through the dark axion portal coupling. It provides a two-component dark matter sector, and the relic density deficit issue of the axion dark matter can be addressed by the compensation with the dark photon. The dark photon dark matter can also address the reported 3.5 keV x-ray excess via the γ'→γ a decay.

  10. Constraining Dark Matter and Dark Energy Models using Astrophysical Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Agnieszka M.

    This thesis addresses astrophysical probes to constrain dark matter (DM) and dark energy models. Primordial black holes (PBHs) remain one of the few DM candidates within the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This thesis presents a new probe of this PBH DM, using the microlensing of the source stars monitored by the already existing Kepler satellite. With its photometric precision and the large projected cross section of the nearby stars, it is found that previous constraints on PBH DM could theoretically be extended by two orders of magnitude. Correcting a well-known microlensing formula, a limb-darkening analysis is included, and a new approximation is calculated for future star selection. A preliminary prediction is calculated for the planned Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope. A preliminary study of the first two years of publicly available Kepler data is presented. The investigation yields many new sources of background error not predicted in the theoretical calculations, such as stellar flares and comets in the field of view. Since no PBH candidates are detected, an efficiency of detection is therefore calculated by running a Monte Carlo with fake limb-darkened finite-source microlensing events. It is found that with just the first 8 quarters of data, a full order of magnitude of the PBH mass range can be already constrained. Finally, one of the astrophysical probes of dark energy is also addressed - specifically, the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurement in the gas distribution, as detected in quasar absorption lines. This unique measurement of dark energy at intermediate redshifts is being measured by current telescope surveys. The last part of this thesis therefore focuses on understanding the systematic effects in such a detection. Since the bias between the underlying dark matter distribution and the measured gas flux distribution is based on gas physics, hydrodynamic simulations are used to understand the evolution of neutral hydrogen over

  11. Foreword: Dark energy and CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Huterer, Dragan

    2015-03-01

    Maps of the Universe when it was 400,000 years old from observations of the cosmic microwave background and over the last ten billion years from galaxy surveys point to a compelling cosmological model. This model requires a very early epoch of accelerated expansion, inflation, during which the seeds of structure were planted via quantum mechanical fluctuations. These seeds began to grow via gravitational instability during the epoch in which dark matter dominated the energy density of the universe, transforming small perturbations laid down during inflation into nonlinear structures such as million light-year sized clusters, galaxies, stars, planets, and people. Over the past few billion years, we have entered a new phase, during which the expansion of the Universe is accelerating presumably driven by yet another substance, dark energy.

  12. X-ray Observations of the Variable Star V1735 Cygni and the IC 5146 Dark Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Steve L.; Briggs, K. R.; Guedel, M.; Sokal, K. R.

    2008-09-01

    The variable star V1735 Cyg (= Elias 1-12) is located in the IC 5146 dark cloud, a region of active low-mass star formation that has been extensively studied in the optical and infrared. We present results of an X-ray observation of IC 5146 with XMM-Newton, centered on V1735 Cyg. This star is a member of the class of FU Orionis variables that undergo strong optical outbursts thought to be linked to episodic accretion. Hard X-ray emission was detected from V1735 Cyg at a characteristic temperature kT > 5 keV, in some respects similar to that recently detected in the prototype FU Ori (Skinner et al. 2006, ApJ, 643, 995). We compare the X-ray properties of V1735 Cyg and FU Ori and discuss possible emission mechanisms in the framework of a complex physical environment that likely involves accretion, strong winds, magnetic fields, and possible binarity. We also report the discovery of a second X-ray source located 24 arc-secs northeast of V1735 Cyg that may be associated with a deeply embedded young star previously detected in sub-mm observations. This research is supported by NASA/GSFC grant NNX06AE93G.

  13. Dark matter and the habitability of planets

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Steffen, Jason H. E-mail: jsteffen@fnal.gov

    2012-07-01

    In many models, dark matter particles can elastically scatter with nuclei in planets, causing those particles to become gravitationally bound. While the energy expected to be released through the subsequent annihilations of dark matter particles in the interior of the Earth is negligibly small (a few megawatts in the most optimistic models), larger planets that reside in regions with higher densities of slow moving dark matter could plausibly capture and annihilate dark matter at a rate high enough to maintain liquid water on their surfaces, even in the absence of additional energy from starlight or other sources. On these rare planets, it may be dark matter rather than light from a host star that makes it possible for life to emerge, evolve, and survive.

  14. Hidden SU(N) glueball dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Soni, Amarjit; Zhang, Yue

    2016-06-21

    Here we investigate the possibility that the dark matter candidate is from a pure non-abelian gauge theory of the hidden sector, motivated in large part by its elegance and simplicity. The dark matter is the lightest bound state made of the confined gauge fields, the hidden glueball. We point out this simple setup is capable of providing rich and novel phenomena in the dark sector, especially in the parameter space of large N. They include self-interacting and warm dark matter scenarios, Bose-Einstein condensation leading to massive dark stars possibly millions of times heavier than our sun giving rise to gravitationalmore » lensing effects, and indirect detections through higher dimensional operators as well as interesting collider signatures.« less

  15. Dynamics of dark energy with a coupling to dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Maartens, Roy; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2008-07-15

    Dark energy and dark matter are the dominant sources in the evolution of the late universe. They are currently only indirectly detected via their gravitational effects, and there could be a coupling between them without violating observational constraints. We investigate the background dynamics when dark energy is modeled as exponential quintessence and is coupled to dark matter via simple models of energy exchange. We introduce a new form of dark sector coupling, which leads to a more complicated dynamical phase space and has a better physical motivation than previous mathematically similar couplings.

  16. Theory and Motivations of Dark Sector Dark Matter and Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Philip

    2017-01-01

    We present the theory and motivations underlying ``dark'' or ``hidden'' sector dark matter and new force scenarios. Dark sector scenarios with sub-GeV mass scales have attracted particular attention in the past several years, motivated in part by findings from direct detection, satellite, and LHC experiments, as well as precision measurements. Moreover, these scenarios offer some of the simplest and least explored possibilities for dark matter. As such, sub-GeV dark sector scenarios have become the focus of a broad and growing international program of experiments.

  17. How dark chocolate is processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on dark chocolate. The botanical name for the cacao tree is Theobroma cacao, which literally means “food of the Gods.” Dark chocolate is both delicious and nutritious. Production of dark chocolate will be des...

  18. The local dark matter density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.

    2014-06-01

    I review current efforts to measure the mean density of dark matter near the Sun. This encodes valuable dynamical information about our Galaxy and is also of great importance for ‘direct detection’ dark matter experiments. I discuss theoretical expectations in our current cosmology; the theory behind mass modelling of the Galaxy; and I show how combining local and global measures probes the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo and the possible presence of a ‘dark disc’. I stress the strengths and weaknesses of different methodologies and highlight the continuing need for detailed tests on mock data—particularly in the light of recently discovered evidence for disequilibria in the Milky Way disc. I collate the latest measurements of ρdm and show that, once the baryonic surface density contribution Σb is normalized across different groups, there is remarkably good agreement. Compiling data from the literature, I estimate Σb = 54.2 ± 4.9 M⊙pc-2, where the dominant source of uncertainty is in the H i gas contribution. Assuming this contribution from the baryons, I highlight several recent measurements of ρdm in order of increasing data complexity and prior, and, correspondingly, decreasing formal error bars. Comparing these measurements with spherical extrapolations from the Milky Way’s rotation curve, I show that the Milky Way is consistent with having a spherical dark matter halo at R0 ˜ 8 kpc. The very latest measures of ρdm based on ˜10 000 stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey appear to favour little halo flattening at R0, suggesting that the Galaxy has a rather weak dark matter disc, with a correspondingly quiescent merger history. I caution, however, that this result hinges on there being no large systematics that remain to be uncovered in the SDSS data, and on the local baryonic surface density being Σb ˜ 55 M⊙pc-2. I conclude by discussing how the new Gaia satellite will be transformative. We will obtain much tighter

  19. DARK MATTER CORES IN THE FORNAX AND SCULPTOR DWARF GALAXIES: JOINING HALO ASSEMBLY AND DETAILED STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Amorisco, N. C.; Zavala, J.; De Boer, T. J. L.

    2014-02-20

    We combine the detailed star formation histories of the Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals with the mass assembly history of their dark matter (DM) halo progenitors to estimate if the energy deposited by Type II supernovae (SNe II) is sufficient to create a substantial DM core. Assuming the efficiency of energy injection of the SNe II into DM particles is ε{sub gc} = 0.05, we find that a single early episode, z ≳ z {sub infall}, that combines the energy of all SNe II due to explode over 0.5 Gyr is sufficient to create a core of several hundred parsecs in both Sculptor and Fornax. Therefore, our results suggest that it is energetically plausible to form cores in cold dark matter (CDM) halos via early episodic gas outflows triggered by SNe II. Furthermore, based on CDM merger rates and phase-space density considerations, we argue that the probability of a subsequent complete regeneration of the cusp is small for a substantial fraction of dwarf-size halos.

  20. The vacuum's dark particles behave like dark matter and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, John

    2015-04-01

    Building on the governing hypothesis that self-information is equal to action, I solve for the time step of the vacuum. The resulting equations (both quantum diffusion and Friedmann's equations) argue that a dark particle, or special black hole, exists at hbar or twice the reduced Planck mass where the Hawking temperature breaks down. It is hypothesized that if neutral hydrogen is nearby the dark particles are able to couple with the background field and thus have a density that looks like dark matter. If hydrogen is not around, the dark particles become frozen leading to a constant density of black body radiation similar to dark energy. If the Universe's dark particles (away from neutral hydrogen) became frozen during the re-ionization of the Universe's history, its BBR density is well within confidence ranges for the cosmological constant. This hypothesis can also explain the recent observations that dark matter decays into dark energy.

  1. Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Putter, Roland de; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-05-15

    The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a){ne}-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c{sub s{ne}}1), and early presence of dark energy [{Omega}{sub de}(a<<1){ne}0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

  2. Dark Energy Coupled with Dark Matter in the Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang

    2004-06-01

    To model the observed Universe containing both dark energy and dark matter, we study the effective Yang Mills condensate model of dark energy and add a non-relativistic matter component as the dark matter, which is generated out of the decaying dark energy at a constant rate Gamma, a parameter of our model. For the Universe driven by these two components, the dynamic evolution still has asymptotic behaviour: the expansion of the Universe is accelerating with an asymptotically constant rate H, and the densities of both components approach to finite constant values. Moreover, OmegaLambdasimeq0.7 for dark energy and Omegamsimeq0.3 for dark matter are achieved if the decay rate Gamma is chosen such that Gamma/H~1.

  3. Dark matter and dark energy: summary and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John

    2003-11-15

    This paper reviews the progress reported at the Discussion Meeting and advertises some possible future directions in our drive to understand dark matter and dark energy. Additionally, a first attempt is made to place in context the exciting new results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite, which were published shortly after this meeting. In the first part of this paper, pieces of observational evidence shown here that bear on the amounts of dark matter and dark energy are reviewed. Subsequently, particle candidates for dark matter are mentioned, and detection strategies are discussed. Finally, ideas are presented for calculating the amounts of dark matter and dark energy, and possibly relating them to laboratory data.

  4. Dark Spots on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-02

    This recent image of Titan reveals more complex patterns of bright and dark regions on the surface, including a small, dark, circular feature, completely surrounded by brighter material. During the two most recent flybys of Titan, on March 31 and April 16, 2005, Cassini captured a number of images of the hemisphere of Titan that faces Saturn. The image at the left is taken from a mosaic of images obtained in March 2005 (see PIA06222) and shows the location of the more recently acquired image at the right. The new image shows intriguing details in the bright and dark patterns near an 80-kilometer-wide (50-mile) crater seen first by Cassini's synthetic aperture radar experiment during a Titan flyby in February 2005 (see PIA07368) and subsequently seen by the imaging science subsystem cameras as a dark spot (center of the image at the left). Interestingly, a smaller, roughly 20-kilometer-wide (12-mile), dark and circular feature can be seen within an irregularly-shaped, brighter ring, and is similar to the larger dark spot associated with the radar crater. However, the imaging cameras see only brightness variations, and without topographic information, the identity of this feature as an impact crater cannot be conclusively determined from this image. The visual infrared mapping spectrometer, which is sensitive to longer wavelengths where Titan's atmospheric haze is less obscuring -- observed this area simultaneously with the imaging cameras, so those data, and perhaps future observations by Cassini's radar, may help to answer the question of this feature's origin. The new image at the right consists of five images that have been added together and enhanced to bring out surface detail and to reduce noise, although some camera artifacts remain. These images were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera using a filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 938 nanometers -- considered to be the imaging science subsystem's best spectral filter

  5. Supernovae and Weinberg's Higgs portal dark radiation and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Huitzu; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2017-07-01

    The observed burst duration and energies of the neutrinos from Supernova 1987A strongly limit the possibility of any weakly-interacting light particle species being produced in the proto-neutron star (PNS) core and leading to efficient energy loss. We reexamine this constraint on Weinberg's Higgs portal model, in which the dark radiation particles (the Goldstone bosons) and the dark matter candidate (a Majorana fermion) interact with Standard Model (SM) fields solely through the mixing of the SM Higgs boson and a light Higgs boson. In order for the Goldstone bosons to freely stream out of the PNS core region, the Higgs portal coupling has to be about a factor of 4-9 smaller than the current collider bound inferred from the SM Higgs invisible decay width. We find that in the energy loss rate calculations, results obtained by using the one-pion exchange (OPE) approximation and the SP07 global fits for the nucleon-nucleon total elastic cross section differ only by a factor ≲ 3. The SN 1987A constraints surpass those set by laboratory experiments or by the energy loss arguments in other astrophysical objects such as the gamma-ray bursts, even with other nuclear uncertainties taken into account. Furthermore, the SN 1987A constraints are comparable to bounds from the latest dark matter direct search for low-mass WIMPs (≲10 GeV.)

  6. Evolution of the dark matter distribution at the galactic center.

    PubMed

    Merritt, David

    2004-05-21

    Annihilation radiation from neutralino dark matter at the Galactic center (GC) would be greatly enhanced if the dark matter were strongly clustered around the supermassive black hole (SBH). The existence of a dark matter "spike" is made plausible by the observed, steeply rising stellar density near the GC SBH. Here the time-dependent equations describing gravitational interaction of the dark matter with the stars are solved. Scattering of dark matter particles by stars would substantially lower the dark matter density near the GC SBH over 10 Gyr, due both to kinetic heating and to capture of dark matter particles by the SBH. This evolution implies a decrease by several orders of magnitude in the observable flux of annihilation products compared with models that associate a steep, dark matter spike with the SBH.

  7. EFFECT OF STREAMING MOTION OF BARYONS RELATIVE TO DARK MATTER ON THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2011-03-20

    We evaluate the effect of a supersonic relative velocity between the baryons and dark matter on the thermal and density evolution of the first gas clouds at z {approx}< 50. Through a series of cosmological simulations, initialized at z{sub i} = 100 with a range of relative streaming velocities and minihalo formation redshifts, we find that the typical streaming velocities will have little effect on the gas evolution. Once the collapse begins, the subsequent evolution of the gas will be nearly indistinguishable from the case of no streaming, and star formation will still proceed in the same way, with no change in the characteristic Pop III stellar masses. Reionization is expected to be dominated by halo masses of {approx}>10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, for which the effect of streaming should be negligible.

  8. Star Formation in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF-9: a Multi-Wavelength Intra-Cloud Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardi, David Robert

    Filamentary dark clouds (FDCs) are a subclass of small molecular clouds containing small numbers of somewhat regularly spaced dense cores connected by lower density gas and dust. Most of the previous work performed on FDCs has concerned the star formation properties of individual dense cores within the FDCs and has not concerned the FDCs as entities of their own. As a result little is known about the general star formation properties of FDCs. The primary question addressed in this work is 'Within filamentary dark clouds, how does the star formation process within a core region compare to that within a filamentary region?' In order to address the above question, a multi-wavelength observational comparative study has been performed upon a representative dense core (hereafter, GF9-Core) and filamentary region (hereafter, GF9-Fila) within the FDC GF-9 (LDN 1082). At the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, the core and filamentary region were observed in the rotational transitions of 12CO/ (J=1/to0),/ 13CO/ (J=1/to0)/ and/ CS/ (J=2/to1) covering a region of 10' x 8'. The temperature, density and kinematic structures of the two regions were deduced from the radio imaging spectroscopy data and were used to estimate the energy balance of the regions. We also obtained 70, 100, 135 and 200 μm images from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) covering approximately 12' x 9' which were used to investigate the temperature and density distributions of the dust within the two regions. Finally, at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory using the Aerospace Corporation NICMOS3 camera, the core and filament were imaged in the near-infrared broadband filters J, H, and K-short covering a slightly smaller region of 7' x 7'. The near-infrared survey data were used to search for embedded Class I and Class II protostars and to investigate the density distribution of the dust. We have found that the evolutionary processes of the core region and the filament region proceed along similar

  9. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  10. Dark Skies Rangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Creating awareness about the importance of the protection of our dark skies is the main goal of the Dark Skies Rangers project, a joint effort from the NOAO and the Galileo Teacher Training Program. Hundreds of schools and thousands of students have been reached by this program. We will focus in particular on the experience being developed in Portugal where several municipalities have now received street light auditing produced by students with suggestions on how to enhance the energy efficiency of illumination of specific urban areas. In the International Year of Light we are investing our efforts in exporting the successful Portuguese experience to other countries. The recipe is simple: train teachers, engage students, foster the participation of local community and involve local authorities in the process. In this symposium we hope to draft the cookbook for the near future.

  11. Complex Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    After a century of study, scientists have come to the realization that the ordinary matter made of atoms is a minority in the universe. In order to explain observations, it appears that there exists a new and undiscovered kind of matter, called dark matter, that is five times more prevalent than ordinary matter. The evidence for this new matter’s existence is very strong, but scientists know only a little about its nature. In today’s video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about an exciting and unconventional idea, specifically that dark matter might have a very complex set of structures and interactions. While this idea is entirely speculative, it is an interesting hypothesis and one that scientists are investigating.

  12. Complex Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-04-16

    After a century of study, scientists have come to the realization that the ordinary matter made of atoms is a minority in the universe. In order to explain observations, it appears that there exists a new and undiscovered kind of matter, called dark matter, that is five times more prevalent than ordinary matter. The evidence for this new matter’s existence is very strong, but scientists know only a little about its nature. In today’s video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about an exciting and unconventional idea, specifically that dark matter might have a very complex set of structures and interactions. While this idea is entirely speculative, it is an interesting hypothesis and one that scientists are investigating.

  13. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  14. Radiative light dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedes, A.; Karamitros, D.; Pilaftsis, A.

    2017-06-01

    We present a Peccei-Quinn (PQ)-symmetric two-Higgs doublet model that naturally predicts a fermionic singlet dark matter in the mass range 10 keV-1 GeV. The origin of the smallness of the mass of this light singlet fermion arises predominantly at the one-loop level, upon soft or spontaneous breakdown of the PQ symmetry via a complex scalar field in a fashion similar to the so-called Dine-Fischler-Sredniki-Zhitnitsky axion model. The mass generation of this fermionic radiative light dark matter (RLDM) requires the existence of two heavy vectorlike SU(2) isodoublets, which are not charged under the PQ symmetry. We show how the RLDM can be produced via the freeze-in mechanism, thus accounting for the missing matter in the Universe. Finally, we briefly discuss possible theoretical and phenomenological implications of the RLDM model for the strong C P problem and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  15. The Dark Energy Survey: More than dark energy - An overview

    DOE PAGES

    Abbott, T.

    2016-03-21

    This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae andmore » other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars, and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Lambda+ Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Lastly, highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 Trans Neptunian Objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).« less

  16. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, Vinu; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Aleksic, J.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.

    2016-08-01

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from ‘Science Verification’, and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  17. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark Energy Survey Collaboration; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Aleksić, J.; Allam, S.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Blazek, J.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S.; Brooks, D.; Brunner, R. J.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Caminha, G. B.; Capozzi, D.; Carlsen, J.; Carnero-Rosell, A.; Carollo, M.; Carrasco-Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clerkin, L.; Collett, T.; Conselice, C.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, T. M.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dodelson, S.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Estrada, J.; Etherington, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fabbri, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Guarnieri, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartley, W.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Jouvel, S.; Kessler, R.; King, A.; Kirk, D.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Manera, M.; Maraston, C.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Melchior, P.; Merson, A.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Morice-Atkinson, X.; Naidoo, K.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Ostrovski, F.; Palmese, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Peoples, J.; Percival, W. J.; Plazas, A. A.; Reed, S. L.; Refregier, A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Ross, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sako, M.; Sánchez, C.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Soumagnac, M.; Suchyta, E.; Sullivan, M.; Swanson, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Whiteway, L.; Wilcox, H.; Yanny, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-08-01

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  18. The Dark Energy Survey: More than dark energy - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.

    2016-03-21

    This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars, and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Lambda+ Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Lastly, highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 Trans Neptunian Objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  19. THE DARK MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David; McKee, Christopher F. E-mail: dhollenbach@seti.or

    2010-06-20

    The mass of molecular gas in an interstellar cloud is often measured using line emission from low rotational levels of CO, which are sensitive to the CO mass, and then scaling to the assumed molecular hydrogen H{sub 2} mass. However, a significant H{sub 2} mass may lie outside the CO region, in the outer regions of the molecular cloud where the gas-phase carbon resides in C or C{sup +}. Here, H{sub 2} self-shields or is shielded by dust from UV photodissociation, whereas CO is photodissociated. This H{sub 2} gas is 'dark' in molecular transitions because of the absence of CO and other trace molecules, and because H{sub 2} emits so weakly at temperatures 10 K dark mass and find that the fraction of the molecular mass in this dark component is remarkably constant ({approx}0.3 for average visual extinction through the cloud A-bar{sub V{approx_equal}}8) and insensitive to the incident ultraviolet radiation field strength, the internal density distribution, and the mass of the molecular cloud as long as A-bar{sub V}, or equivalently, the product of the average hydrogen nucleus column and the metallicity through the cloud, is constant. We also find that the dark mass fraction increases with decreasing A-bar{sub V}, since relatively more molecular H{sub 2} material lies outside the CO region in this case.

  20. Helmholtz dark solitons.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Posada, P; McDonald, G S

    2003-05-15

    A general dark-soliton solution of the Helmholtz equation (with defocusing Kerr nonlinearity) that has on- and off-axis, gray and black, paraxial and Helmholtz solitons as particular solutions, is reported. Modifications to soliton transverse velocity, width, phase period, and existence conditions are derived and explained in geometrical terms. Simulations verify analytical predictions and also demonstrate spontaneous formation of Helmholtz solitons and transparency of their interactions.

  1. Waharau Dark Sky Weekend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Ursuka

    2004-06-01

    The Waharau Dark Sky weekend event, organized by Keith Edwards and Dean Jonkers of the Auckland Astronomical Society, happens at least twice a year, and is not to be missed. The event isn't catered, there are no speakers or lectures, it's not even organized chaos. It is a weekend of relaxation in the company of like-minded friends, exploring the night skies, checking out the latest skywatching tools, and having fun.

  2. Natural Neutrino Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gurwich, Ilya

    2010-06-23

    1 construct a general description for neutrino dark energy models, that do not require exotic particles or strange couplings. With the help of the above, this class of models is reduced to a single function with several constraints. It is shown that these models lead to some concrete predictions that can be verified (or disproved) within the next decade, using results from PLANK, EUCLID and JDEM.

  3. Dynamics of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Edmund J.

    2007-11-20

    I briefly review attempts that have been made to model dark energy. These include models of a cosmological constant, dynamical models where a scalar field may be responsible for the observed late time acceleration through to the possibility that we are not fully in control of the gravity sector and the acceleration may be some manifestation of modified gravity. In all cases we will see some degree of fine tuning is required with the current models.

  4. Heart of Darkness

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significant literature has an impact on the reader. Reading the novella Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad as a young boy rose emotions comparable to those I felt when losing a patient after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as a grown up. The case of a 37-year-old woman with bilateral staghorn and a fatal outcome after PCNL is presented and alternatives are discussed. PMID:27868094

  5. Multi-Component Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-11-01

    We explore multi-component dark matter models where the dark sector consists of multiple stable states with different mass scales, and dark forces coupling these states further enrich the dynamics. The multi-component nature of the dark matter naturally arises in supersymmetric models, where both R parity and an additional symmetry, such as a Z{sub 2}, is preserved. We focus on a particular model where the heavier component of dark matter carries lepton number and annihilates mostly to leptons. The heavier component, which is essentially a sterile neutrino, naturally explains the PAMELA, ATIC and synchrotron signals, without an excess in antiprotons which typically mars other models of weak scale dark matter. The lighter component, which may have a mass from a GeV to a TeV, may explain the DAMA signal, and may be visible in low threshold runs of CDMS and XENON, which search for light dark matter.

  6. On dark energy isocurvature perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinmin; Li, Mingzhe E-mail: limz@nju.edu.cn

    2011-06-01

    Determining the equation of state of dark energy with astronomical observations is crucially important to understand the nature of dark energy. In performing a likelihood analysis of the data, especially of the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data the dark energy perturbations have to be taken into account both for theoretical consistency and for numerical accuracy. Usually, one assumes in the global fitting analysis that the dark energy perturbations are adiabatic. In this paper, we study the dark energy isocurvature perturbation analytically and discuss its implications for the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Furthermore, with the current astronomical observational data and by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform a global analysis of cosmological parameters assuming general initial conditions for the dark energy perturbations. The results show that the dark energy isocurvature perturbations are very weakly constrained and that purely adiabatic initial conditions are consistent with the data.

  7. Dark antiatoms can explain DAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallemacq, Quentin; Cudell, Jean-René

    2015-02-01

    We show that the existence of a sub-dominant form of dark matter, made of dark "antiatoms" of mass m~ 1 TeV and size dot a0~ 3 fm, can explain the results of direct detection experiments, with a positive signal in DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA and no signal in other experiments. The signal comes from the binding of the dark antiatoms to thallium, a dopant in DAMA, and is not present for the constituent atoms of other experiments. The dark antiatoms are made of two particles oppositely charged under a dark U(1) symmetry and can bind to terrestrial atoms because of a kinetic mixing between the photon and the massless dark photon, such that the dark particles acquire an electric millicharge ~ ± 5.10-4e. This millicharge enables them to bind to high-Z atoms via radiative capture, after they thermalize in terrestrial matter through elastic collisions.

  8. Unparticle dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, D.-C.; Stojkovic, Dejan; Dutta, Sourish

    2009-09-15

    We examine a dark energy model where a scalar unparticle degree of freedom plays the role of quintessence. In particular, we study a model where the unparticle degree of freedom has a standard kinetic term and a simple mass potential, the evolution is slowly rolling and the field value is of the order of the unparticle energy scale ({lambda}{sub u}). We study how the evolution of w depends on the parameters B (a function of unparticle scaling dimension d{sub u}), the initial value of the field {phi}{sub i} (or equivalently, {lambda}{sub u}) and the present matter density {omega}{sub m0}. We use observational data from type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations and the cosmic microwave background to constrain the model parameters and find that these models are not ruled out by the observational data. From a theoretical point of view, unparticle dark energy model is very attractive, since unparticles (being bound states of fundamental fermions) are protected from radiative corrections. Further, coupling of unparticles to the standard model fields can be arbitrarily suppressed by raising the fundamental energy scale M{sub F}, making the unparticle dark energy model free of most of the problems that plague conventional scalar field quintessence models.

  9. Colors in the dark

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Villalón, Antía; Gas, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are plastidial isoprenoid pigments essential for plant life. High carotenoid levels are found in chloroplasts and chromoplasts, but they are also produced in the etioplasts of seedlings that germinate in the dark. Our recent work has shown that an enhanced production of carotenoids in plastids of dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings results in an improved transition to photosynthetic development (greening) upon illumination, illustrating the relevance of regulating etioplast carotenoid biosynthesis for plant fitness. We showed that the biosynthesis of etioplast carotenoids is controlled at the level of phytoene synthase (PSY), the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step of the pathway. Upregulation of PSY is necessary and sufficient to increase the production of carotenoids in dark-grown seedlings, in part because it triggers a feedback mechanism leading to the post-transcriptional accumulation of flux-controlling enzymes of the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which synthesizes the substrates for PSY activity. Based on these and other recent data on the molecular mechanisms controlling deetiolation, we propose a model for the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in etioplasts. PMID:19826226

  10. Gravitational effects of condensate dark matter on compact stellar objects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Wang, F.Y.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: fayinwang@gmail.com

    2012-10-01

    We study the gravitational effect of non-self-annihilating dark matter on compact stellar objects. The self-interaction of condensate dark matter can give high accretion rate of dark matter onto stars. Phase transition to condensation state takes place when the dark matter density exceeds the critical value. A compact degenerate dark matter core is developed and alter the structure and stability of the stellar objects. Condensate dark matter admixed neutron stars is studied through the two-fluid TOV equation. The existence of condensate dark matter deforms the mass-radius relation of neutron stars and lower their maximum baryonic masses and radii. The possible effects on the Gamma-ray Burst rate in high redshift are discussed.

  11. Stealth dark matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, T.; Brower, R. C.; Buchoff, M. I.; Fleming, G. T.; Jin, X.-Y.; Kiskis, J.; Kribs, G. D.; Neil, E. T.; Osborn, J. C.; Rebbi, C.; Rinaldi, E.; Schaich, D.; Schroeder, C.; Syritsyn, S.; Vranas, P.; Weinberg, E.; Witzel, O.; Lattice Strong Dynamics LSD Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    We present a new model of stealth dark matter: a composite baryonic scalar of an S U (ND) strongly coupled theory with even ND≥4 . All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vectorlike representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to S U (4 ), and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements, basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominantly electroweak-breaking masses. A lower bound on the dark baryon mass mB≳300 GeV is obtained from the indirect requirement that the lightest dark meson not be observable at LEP II. We briefly survey some intriguing properties of stealth dark matter that are worthy of future study, including collider studies of dark meson production and decay; indirect detection signals from annihilation; relic abundance estimates for both symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms; and direct detection through electromagnetic polarizability, a detailed study of which will appear in a companion paper.

  12. Falsification of dark energy by fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded for the discovery from observations of increased supernovae dimness interpreted as distance, so that the Universe expansion rate has changed from a rate decreasing since the big bang to one that is now increasing, driven by anti-gravity forces of a mysterious dark energy material comprising 70% of the Universe mass-energy. Fluid mechanical considerations falsify both the accelerating expansion and dark energy concepts. Kinematic viscosity is neglected in current stan- dard models of self-gravitational structure formation, which rely on cold dark matter CDM condensations and clusterings that are also falsified by fluid mechanics. Weakly collisional CDM particles do not condense but diffuse away. Photon viscosity predicts su- perclustervoid fragmentation early in the plasma epoch and protogalaxies at the end. At the plasma-gas transition, the plasma fragments into Earth-mass gas planets in trillion planet clumps (proto-globular-star-cluster PGCs). The hydrogen planets freeze to form the dark matter of galaxies and merge to form their stars. Dark energy is a systematic dimming error for Supernovae Ia caused by dark matter planets near hot white dwarf stars at the Chandrasekhar carbon limit. Evaporated planet atmospheres may or may not scatter light from the events depending on the line of sight.

  13. Seven-color Photometry and Classification of Stars in the Vicinity of the Dark Cloud Tgu H994 (ldn 1399, 1400 and 1402)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čepas, V.; Zdanavičius, J.; Zdanavičius, K.; Straižys, V.; Laugalys, V.

    The results of CCD photometry in the seven-color Vilnius system are given for 727 stars down to V = 17 mag in a 1.5 square degree field in the region of dark cloud TGU H994 P1 (or LDN 1399, LDN 1400 and LDN 1402) in Camelopardalis. Using the intrinsic color indices and photometric reddening-free Q-parameters, two-dimensional spectral types for 73% of stars are determined.

  14. Can the periodic spectral modulations observed in 236 Sloan Sky Survey stars be due to dark matter effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, Fabrizio; Licata, Ignazio

    2017-09-01

    The search for dark matter (DM) is one of the most active and challenging areas of current research. Possible DM candidates are ultralight fields such as axions and weak interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Axions piled up in the center of stars are supposed to generate matter/DM configurations with oscillating geometries at a very rapid frequency, which is a multiple of the axion mass m B (Brito et al (2015); Brito et al (2016)). Borra and Trottier (2016) recently found peculiar ultrafast periodic spectral modulations in 236 main sequence stars in the sample of 2.5 million spectra of galactic halo stars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (˜1% of main sequence stars in the F-K spectral range) that were interpreted as optical signals from extraterrestrial civilizations, suggesting them as possible candidates for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) program. We argue, instead, that this could be the first indirect evidence of bosonic axion-like DM fields inside main sequence stars, with a stable radiative nucleus, where a stable DM core can be hosted. These oscillations were not observed in earlier stellar spectral classes probably because of the impossibility of starting a stable oscillatory regime due to the presence of chaotic motions in their convective nuclei. The axion mass values, (50< {m}B< 2.4× {10}3) μ {eV}, obtained from the frequency range observed by Borra and Trottier, (0.6070< f< 0.6077) THz, agree with the recent theoretical results from high-temperature lattice quantum chromodynamics (Borsanyi et al (2016); Borsanyi et al (2016b)).

  15. Dark Skies are a Universal Resource: IYA Programs on Dark Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Bueter, C.; Pompea, S. M.; Berglund, K.; Mann, T.; Gay, P.; Crelin, B.; Collins, D.; Sparks, R.

    2008-05-01

    The loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource is a growing concern. It impacts not only astronomical research, but also health, ecology, safety, economics and energy conservation. Because of its relevance, "Dark Skies” is a theme of the US Node for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people involved in a variety of dark skies-related programs. To reach this goal, the ASP session will immerse participants in hands-on, minds-on activities, events and resources on dark skies awareness. These include a planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking, a digital photography contest, The Great Switch Out, Earth Hour, National Dark Skies Week, a traveling exhibit, a 6-minute video tutorial, Dark Skies Teaching Sites, Astronomy Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy Nights, and unaided-eye and digital-meter star counting programs like GLOBE at Night. The ASP "Dark Skies” session is offered to provide IYA dark skies-related programs to a variety of attendees. Participants include professional or amateur astronomers, education and public outreach professionals, science center/museum/planetarium staff and educators who want to lead activities involving dark skies awareness in conjunction with IYA. During the session, each participant will be given a package of educational materials on the various dark skies programs. We will provide the "know-how” and the means for session attendees to become community leaders in promoting these dark skies programs as public events at their home institutions during IYA. Participants will be able to jump-start their education programs through the use of well-developed instructional materials and kits sent later if they commit to leading IYA dark skies activities. For more information about the IYA Dark Skies theme, visit http://astronomy2009.us/darkskies/.

  16. Tracing dark energy with quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šredzińska, Justyna; Czerny, Bożena; Bilicki, M.; Hryniewicz, K.; Krupa, M.; Kurcz, A.; Marziani, P.; Pollo, A.; Pych, W.; Udalski, A.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of dark energy, driving the accelerated expansion of the Universe, is one of the most important issues in modern astrophysics. In order to understand this phenomenon, we need precise astrophysical probes of the universal expansion spanning wide redshift ranges. Quasars have recently emerged as such a probe, thanks to their high intrinsic luminosities and, most importantly, our ability to measure their luminosity distances independently of redshifts. Here we report our ongoing work on observational reverberation mapping using the time delay of the Mg II line, performed with the South African Large Telescope (SALT). The concept of dark energy was introduced in the process of understanding the evolution of the Universe. This is one of the most interesting topic in modern astronomy followed by the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Precise measurement of this effect is a key to understand the nature of this medium, and we need good probes to do that. Quasars appears as an ideal candidate for this purpose as these objects are highly luminous and detected in wide range of redshift. From Big Bang to present time a lot of things happened and we are able to see amazing structures of galaxies and stars. In the beginning of Universe everything was blurred in space and the concept of dark energy was introduced in the process of understanding its evolution. The discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe gives us possibility to define new interesting topics in modern astronomy. Although there are some theoretical explanation for the existence of dark energy, yet it has remained the biggest puzzle among the astronomers and physicist.

  17. Understanding Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greyber, Howard

    2009-11-01

    By careful analysis of the data from the WMAP satellite, scientists were surprised to determine that about 70% of the matter in our universe is in some unknown form, and labeled it Dark Energy. Earlier, in 1998, two separate international groups of astronomers studying Ia supernovae were even more surprised to be forced to conclude that an amazing smooth transition occurred, from the expected slowing down of the expansion of our universe (due to normal positive gravitation) to an accelerating expansion of the universe that began at at a big bang age of the universe of about nine billion years. In 1918 Albert Einstein stated that his Lambda term in his theory of general relativity was ees,``the energy of empty space,'' and represented a negative pressure and thus a negative gravity force. However my 2004 ``Strong'' Magnetic Field model (SMF) for the origin of magnetic fields at Combination Time (Astro-ph0509223 and 0509222) in our big bang universe produces a unique topology for Superclusters, having almost all the mass, visible and invisible, i.e. from clusters of galaxies down to particles with mass, on the surface of an ellipsoid surrounding a growing very high vacuum. If I hypothesize, with Einstein, that there exists a constant ees force per unit volume, then, gradually, as the universe expands from Combination Time, two effects occur (a) the volume of the central high vacuum region increases, and (b) the density of positive gravity particles in the central region of each Supercluster in our universe decreases dramatically. Thus eventually Einstein's general relativity theory's repulsive gravity of the central very high vacuum region becomes larger than the positive gravitational attraction of all the clusters of galaxies, galaxies, quasars, stars and plasma on the Supercluster shell, and the observed accelerating expansion of our universe occurs. This assumes that our universe is made up mostly of such Superclusters. It is conceivable that the high vacuum

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    Doetinchem, H Gast, T Kirn and S Schael Axion searches with helioscopes and astrophysical signatures for axion(-like) particles K Zioutas, M Tsagri, Y Semertzidis, T Papaevangelou, T Dafni and V Anastassopoulos The indirect search for dark matter with IceCube Francis Halzen and Dan Hooper DIRECT DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS Gaseous dark matter detectors G Sciolla and C J Martoff Search for dark matter with CRESST Rafael F Lang and Wolfgang Seidel DIRECT AND INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:THEORY Dark matter annihilation around intermediate mass black holes: an update Gianfranco Bertone, Mattia Fornasa, Marco Taoso and Andrew R Zentner Update on the direct detection of dark matter in MSSM models with non-universal Higgs masses John Ellis, Keith A Olive and Pearl Sandick Dark stars: a new study of the first stars in the Universe Katherine Freese, Peter Bodenheimer, Paolo Gondolo and Douglas Spolyar Determining the mass of dark matter particles with direct detection experiments Chung-Lin Shan The detection of subsolar mass dark matter halos Savvas M Koushiappas Neutrino coherent scattering rates at direct dark matter detectors Louis E Strigari Gamma rays from dark matter annihilation in the central region of the Galaxy Pasquale Dario Serpico and Dan Hooper DARK MATTER MODELS The dark matter interpretation of the 511 keV line Céline Boehm Axions as dark matter particles Leanne D Duffy and Karl van Bibber Sterile neutrinos Alexander Kusenko Dark matter candidates Lars Bergström Minimal dark matter: model and results Marco Cirelli and Alessandro Strumia Shedding light on the dark sector with direct WIMP production Partha Konar, Kyoungchul Kong, Konstantin T Matchev and Maxim Perelstein Axinos as dark matter particles Laura Covi and Jihn E Kim

  19. Unified dark energy-dark matter model with inverse quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Ansoldi, Stefano; Guendelman, Eduardo I. E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il

    2013-05-01

    We consider a model where both dark energy and dark matter originate from the coupling of a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term to, both, a metric measure and a non-metric measure. An interacting dark energy/dark matter scenario can be obtained by introducing an additional scalar that can produce non constant vacuum energy and associated variations in dark matter. The phenomenology is most interesting when the kinetic term of the additional scalar field is ghost-type, since in this case the dark energy vanishes in the early universe and then grows with time. This constitutes an ''inverse quintessence scenario'', where the universe starts from a zero vacuum energy density state, instead of approaching it in the future.

  20. Cosmology of q-deformed dark matter and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di˙l, Emre

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we propose a novel dark cosmology consisting an interacting q-deformed spinor field dark matter and scalar field dark energy. We investigate the proposed deformed dark cosmology in metric-affine Einstein- Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory. Firstly, we construct the action integral of the model, in order to obtain the energy-momentum tensor of the deformed dark matter and dark energy, from which the energy density and pressure of the deformed dark matter and dark energy can be obtained, respectively. After obtaining the deformed energy densities and pressures, we set up the Friedmann equations, continuity equations and equation of motions for this dark model. Then, we obtain the attractor solutions and stability analysis of the model for the accelerated expansion phase of the universe. We also investigate the effect of deformation parameter on the stable accelerated expansion behavior. Consequently, by mapping the interaction term and the field potentials we present the relationship between them and obtain the constraint on the interaction term in order to obtain a stable attractor solution.

  1. The dark cube: dark and light character profiles.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people's malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument) rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument). We put forward the dark cube (cf. Cloninger's character cube) comprising eight dark profiles that can be used to compare individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant. Our aim was to investigate in which circumstances individuals who are high in each one of the dark character traits differ in Cloninger's "light" character traits: self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. We also investigated if people's dark character profiles were associated to their light character profiles. Method. A total of 997 participants recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) responded to the Short Dark Triad and the Short Character Inventory. Participants were allocated to eight different dark profiles and eight light profiles based on their scores in each of the traits and any possible combination of high and low scores. We used three-way interaction regression analyses and t-tests to investigate differences in light character traits between individuals with different dark profiles. As a second step, we compared the individuals' dark profile with her/his character profile using an exact cell-wise analysis conducted in the ROPstat software (http://www.ropstat.com). Results. Individuals who expressed high levels of Machiavellianism and those who expressed high levels of psychopathy also expressed low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Individuals with high levels of narcissism, in contrast

  2. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri

    2017-06-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V(varphi) = ½m2varphi2, while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, langlewrangle simeq 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m2varphi2 potential in describing dark matter.

  3. Enhancing dark matter annihilation rates with dark bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Cai, Yi; Dent, James B.; Leane, Rebecca K.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2017-07-01

    Many dark matter interaction types lead to annihilation processes which suffer from p -wave suppression or helicity suppression, rendering them subdominant to unsuppressed s -wave processes. We demonstrate that the natural inclusion of dark initial state radiation can open an unsuppressed s -wave annihilation channel and, thus, provide the dominant dark matter annihilation process for particular interaction types. We illustrate this effect with the bremsstrahlung of a dark spin-0 or dark spin-1 particle from fermionic dark matter, χ ¯ χ →f ¯ f ϕ or f ¯f Z'. The dark initial state radiation process, despite having a 3-body final state, proceeds at the same order in the new physics scale Λ as the annihilation to the 2-body final state χ ¯χ →f ¯f . This opens an unsuppressed s wave at lower order in Λ than the well-studied lifting of helicity suppression via Standard Model final state radiation or virtual internal bremsstrahlung. This dark bremsstrahlung process should influence LHC and indirect detection searches for dark matter.

  4. Condensates as components of dark matter and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capolupo, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    We report on recent results according to which the vacuum condensate characterizing many physical systems can give contributions to dark energy and dark matter of the universe. In particular, it is shown that thermal states of the intercluster medium, the vacuum energy of fields in curved space-time and of mixed neutrinos contribute to the dark matter. The vacuum condensates generated by the mixing of axions and photons and the one produced by superpartners of neutrinos may represent a component of the dark energy.

  5. Dark Forces and Dark Matter in a Hidden Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Hidden sectors in connection with GeV-scale dark forces and dark matter are not only a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model such as string theory and SUSY but are also phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon in particular is also searched for and constrained by laboratory experiments, the current status of which will be presented here. Furthermore, several models of hidden sectors containing in addition a dark matter particle will be examined regarding their consistency with the dark matter relic abundance and direct detection experiments.

  6. News and Views: Galaxy collisions show new dark matter behaviour; Nomad planets in Milky Way may outnumber stars and carry life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    The Bullet Cluster is the type example of the behaviour of dark matter in a fast galaxy collision: the dark matter haloes of colliding galaxies do not interact but continue on their way, taking the visible galaxies with them, while the hot gases from each galaxy interact. Now data from a galactic merger in Abell 520 suggest that dark matter does not always behave in this way. Gravitational microlensing data suggest our galaxy may be awash with nomad planets, wandering in space far from host stars. Researchers at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology estimate there may be up to 100 000 such planets in the Milky Way alone - and they may hold life.

  7. Constraining Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, Augusta

    2010-12-01

    Future advances in cosmology will depend on the next generation of cosmological observations and how they shape our theoretical understanding of the universe. Current theoretical ideas, however, have an important role to play in guiding the design of such observational programs. The work presented in this thesis concerns the intersection of observation and theory, particularly as it relates to advancing our understanding of the accelerated expansion of the universe (or the dark energy). Chapters 2 - 4 make use of the simulated data sets developed by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) for a number of cosmological observations currently in the experimental pipeline. We use these forecast data in the analysis of four quintessence models of dark energy: the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis and Inverse Power Law (IPL) models. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques we examine the ability of each simulated data set to constrain the parameter space of these models. We examine the potential of the data for differentiating time-varying models from a pure cosmological constant. Additionally, we introduce an abstract parameter space to facilitate comparison between models and investigate the ability of future data to distinguish between these quintessence models. In Chapter 5 we present work towards understanding the effects of systematic errors associated with photometric redshift estimates. Due to the need to sample a vast number of deep and faint galaxies, photometric redshifts will be used in a wide range of future cosmological observations including gravitational weak lensing, baryon accoustic oscillations and type 1A supernovae observations. The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from such observations. We introduce a method for parameterizing uncertainties in modeling assumptions affecting photometric redshift calculations and for propagating these

  8. Review of dark photon searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, Achim

    2016-11-01

    Dark Photons are hypothetical extra-U(1) gauge bosons, which are motivated by a number of astrophysical anomalies as well as the presently seen deviation between the Standard Model prediction and the direct measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g - 2)μ. The Dark Photon does not serve as the Dark Matter particle itself, but acts as a messenger particle of a hypothetical Dark Sector with residual interaction to the Standard Model. We review recent Dark Photon searches, which were carried out in a global effort at various hadron and particle physics facilities. We also comment on the perspectives for future invisble searches, which directly probe the existence of Light Dark Matter particles.

  9. The DarkSide awakens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-05-01

    The DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.

  10. A Stab in the Dark?

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Test the influence of darkness in the street robbery crime event alongside temperature. Methods: Negative binomial regression models tested darkness and temperature as predictors of street robbery. Units of analysis were four 6-hr time intervals in two U.K. study areas that have different levels of darkness and variations of temperature throughout the year. Results: Darkness is a key factor related to robbery events in both study areas. Traversing from full daylight to full darkness increased the predicted volume of robbery by a multiple of 2.6 in London and 1.2 in Glasgow. Temperature was significant only in the London study area. Interaction terms did not enhance the predictive power of the models. Conclusion: Darkness is an important driving factor in seasonal variation of street robbery. A further implication of the research is that time of the day patterns are crucial to understanding seasonal trends in crime data. PMID:25076797

  11. Dark Polar Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  12. Dark Polar Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    20 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer in December 2004, shows dark, windblown sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars. A vast sea of sand dunes nearly surrounds the north polar cap. These landforms are located near 80.3oN, 144.1oW. Light-toned features in the image are exposures of the substrate that underlies the dune field. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  13. Dark Slope Streaks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-21

    This VIS image shows several dark slope streaks on the inner rim of an unnamed crater in Terra Sabaea. These features are thought to be formed by downslope movement of material the removes some of the surface dust, revealing the darker rock beneath. The channel to the north of the crater is Indus Vallis. Orbit Number: 68696 Latitude: 18.7889 Longitude: 40.4151 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2017-06-09 10:50 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21792

  14. Dark Slope Streaks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-07

    This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the inner rim of an unnamed crater on the western margin of Daedalia Planum. Numerous dark streaks are visible on the faces of the inner rim. A possible mode of formation of these features is the down slope movement of a block/rock that disturbs the surface dust revealing the darker rock beneath. Orbit Number: 63851 Latitude: -11.9984 Longitude: 213.542 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2016-05-06 07:05 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20775

  15. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Speckhard, Eric G; Ng, Kenny C Y; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-22

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  16. Direct search for dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  17. Extending dark optical trapping geometries.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Aidan S

    2012-07-01

    New counterpropagating geometries are presented for localizing ultracold atoms in the dark regions created by the interference of Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams. In particular dark helices, an "optical revolver," axial lattices of rings, and axial lattices of ring lattices of rings are considered and a realistic scheme for achieving phase stability is explored. The dark nature of these traps will enable their use as versatile tools for low-decoherence atom interferometry with zero differential light shifts.

  18. Direct detection of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, P.

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the latest results of Dark Matter direct detection will be summarized, with particular care to the DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 results and the evidence with high confidence level obtained by exploiting the model independent Dark Matter annual modulation signature for the presence of Dark Matter particles in the galactic halo. Results from other experiments using different procedures, different techniques and different target-materials will be shortly discussed. Results, implications and experimental perspectives will be addressed.

  19. The DarkSide project

    SciTech Connect

    Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Albuquerque, Ivone Freire Da Mota; Alexander, Thomas R.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, Henning O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, Bianca; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, Severino; Cadeddu, Matteo; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, Macro; Catalanotti, Sergio; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, Sandro; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, Mario; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, Giuseppe; Edkins, E.; Empl, Anton; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A.; Granato, Francesco; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M. Y.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; Hungerford, Edward; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, Alexander; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y. Q.; Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, Alissa; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, James; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, Marco; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, Andrew; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Savarese, Claudio; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Singh, Parth; Skorokhvatov, Mikhail; Smirnov, Oleg; Sotnikov, Albert; Stanford, Chris; Suvorov, Yura; Tartaglia, Roberto; Tatarowicz, John; Testera, Gemma; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, Eugenii; Vishneva, Alina; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wada, Masayuki; Walker, Susan E.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, James; Wojcik, M.; Xiang, Xin; Xu, Jingke; Yang, C. G.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zec, Adam; Zhong, W. L.; Zhu, Chengliang; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    DarkSide is a graded experimental project based on radiopure argon, and is now, and will be, used in direct dark matter searches. The present DarkSide-50 detector, operating at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, is a dual-phase, 50 kg, liquid argon time-projection-chamber surrounded by an active liquid scintillator veto. It is designed to be background free in 3 years of operation. DS-50 performances, when filled with atmospheric argon, are reported. However DS-50 filled with underground argon, shows impressive reduction of the 39Ar isotope. The application of this powerful technology in a future generation of the DarkSide program is discussed.

  20. Dark Matter, Waves, and Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Orvin

    2011-10-01

    In 1994 I wrote article for Physics Essays (Waves in Dark Matter) showing how the solar system is organized and stabilized by dark matter standing waves from the dark matter oscillating sun. Wave velocity is apparently inversely proportional to the square root of the dark matter density. At the sun's surface the wave velocity is near 1.25 m/s. More recently I have found local dark matter waves that appear to travel near 25 m/s near April 1 and appear to organize plants. They travel between plants and artificial transmitters and receivers, and penetrate my local hill. From my measurements the local dark matter density is a function of the time of year. The data indicate that dark matter interacts much more than just with gravity as others have surmised. I present experimental proofs and a local dark matter density equation in terms of the measured velocity. The waves and the earth's location may be very important for nature's organization. The observed behavior appears to go a long way towards dark matter identification. These waves also may explain the rings of the gaseous planets in terms of oscillating layers. See the ring article on the web site Darkmatterwaves.com.

  1. Dense cores in dark clouds - Young embedded stars at 2 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, P. J.; Myers, P. C.; Wright, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five visually opaque regions which contain strong sources of NH3 (1,1) line emission (dense cores) have been surveyed for evidence of associated stars at two microns. Five such stars have been found, of which three - in B5, L1489, and L1582 - are optically invisible and probably embedded in their associated cores. The stars in B5 and L1489 have 2-100 micron spectra and luminosity similar to those of HL Tau, a very young T Tauri star. These stars probably formed in the cores where they are now seen. These results tend to confirm earlier suggestions that low-mass stars form in dense cores.

  2. Optical Dark Rogue Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisquet, Benoit; Kibler, Bertrand; Morin, Philippe; Baronio, Fabio; Conforti, Matteo; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Photonics enables to develop simple lab experiments that mimic water rogue wave generation phenomena, as well as relativistic gravitational effects such as event horizons, gravitational lensing and Hawking radiation. The basis for analog gravity experiments is light propagation through an effective moving medium obtained via the nonlinear response of the material. So far, analogue gravity kinematics was reproduced in scalar optical wave propagation test models. Multimode and spatiotemporal nonlinear interactions exhibit a rich spectrum of excitations, which may substantially expand the range of rogue wave phenomena, and lead to novel space-time analogies, for example with multi-particle interactions. By injecting two colliding and modulated pumps with orthogonal states of polarization in a randomly birefringent telecommunication optical fiber, we provide the first experimental demonstration of an optical dark rogue wave. We also introduce the concept of multi-component analog gravity, whereby localized spatiotemporal horizons are associated with the dark rogue wave solution of the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger system.

  3. The Dark Energy Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.

    2015-04-11

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250-μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15μm x 15μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.263" per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  4. The Dark Energy Camera

    DOE PAGES

    Flaugher, B.

    2015-04-11

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250-μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar.more » The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15μm x 15μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.263" per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.« less

  5. Optical Dark Rogue Wave

    PubMed Central

    Frisquet, Benoit; Kibler, Bertrand; Morin, Philippe; Baronio, Fabio; Conforti, Matteo; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Photonics enables to develop simple lab experiments that mimic water rogue wave generation phenomena, as well as relativistic gravitational effects such as event horizons, gravitational lensing and Hawking radiation. The basis for analog gravity experiments is light propagation through an effective moving medium obtained via the nonlinear response of the material. So far, analogue gravity kinematics was reproduced in scalar optical wave propagation test models. Multimode and spatiotemporal nonlinear interactions exhibit a rich spectrum of excitations, which may substantially expand the range of rogue wave phenomena, and lead to novel space-time analogies, for example with multi-particle interactions. By injecting two colliding and modulated pumps with orthogonal states of polarization in a randomly birefringent telecommunication optical fiber, we provide the first experimental demonstration of an optical dark rogue wave. We also introduce the concept of multi-component analog gravity, whereby localized spatiotemporal horizons are associated with the dark rogue wave solution of the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger system. PMID:26864099

  6. (Mainly) axion dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The strong CP problem of QCD is at heart a problem of naturalness: why is the FF ˜ term highly suppressed in the QCD Lagrangian when it seems necessary to explain why there are three and not four light pions? The most elegant solution posits a spontaneously broken Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry which requires the existence of the axion field a. The axion field settles to the minimum of its potential thus removing the offensive term but giving rise to the physical axion whose coherent oscillations can make up the cold dark matter. Only now are experiments such as ADMX beginning to explore QCD axion parameter space. Since a bonafide scalar particle- the Higgs boson- has been discovered, one might expect its mass to reside at the axion scale fa ˜ 1011 GeV. The Higgs mass is elegantly stabilized by supersymmetry: in this case the axion is accompanied by its axino and saxion superpartners. Requiring naturalness also in the electroweak sector implies higgsino-like WIMPs so then we expect mixed axion-WIMP dark matter. Ultimately we would expect detection of both an axion and a WIMP while signals for light higgsinos may show up at LHC and must show up at ILC.

  7. Optical Dark Rogue Wave.

    PubMed

    Frisquet, Benoit; Kibler, Bertrand; Morin, Philippe; Baronio, Fabio; Conforti, Matteo; Millot, Guy; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2016-02-11

    Photonics enables to develop simple lab experiments that mimic water rogue wave generation phenomena, as well as relativistic gravitational effects such as event horizons, gravitational lensing and Hawking radiation. The basis for analog gravity experiments is light propagation through an effective moving medium obtained via the nonlinear response of the material. So far, analogue gravity kinematics was reproduced in scalar optical wave propagation test models. Multimode and spatiotemporal nonlinear interactions exhibit a rich spectrum of excitations, which may substantially expand the range of rogue wave phenomena, and lead to novel space-time analogies, for example with multi-particle interactions. By injecting two colliding and modulated pumps with orthogonal states of polarization in a randomly birefringent telecommunication optical fiber, we provide the first experimental demonstration of an optical dark rogue wave. We also introduce the concept of multi-component analog gravity, whereby localized spatiotemporal horizons are associated with the dark rogue wave solution of the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger system.

  8. The Dark Energy Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaugher, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Honscheid, K.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Alvarez, O.; Angstadt, R.; Annis, J. T.; Antonik, M.; Ballester, O.; Beaufore, L.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bigelow, B.; Bonati, M.; Boprie, D.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Campa, J.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Castander, F. J.; Castilla, J.; Cease, H.; Cela-Ruiz, J. M.; Chappa, S.; Chi, E.; Cooper, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Dede, E.; Derylo, G.; DePoy, D. L.; de Vicente, J.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eiting, J.; Elliott, A. E.; Emes, J.; Estrada, J.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flores, R.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gladders, M. D.; Gregory, B.; Gutierrez, G. R.; Hao, J.; Holland, S. E.; Holm, S.; Huffman, D.; Jackson, C.; James, D. J.; Jonas, M.; Karcher, A.; Karliner, I.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kron, R. G.; Kubik, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuk, K.; Lahav, O.; Lathrop, A.; Lee, J.; Levi, M. E.; Lewis, P.; Li, T. S.; Mandrichenko, I.; Marshall, J. L.; Martinez, G.; Merritt, K. W.; Miquel, R.; Muñoz, F.; Neilsen, E. H.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Olsen, J.; Palaio, N.; Patton, K.; Peoples, J.; Plazas, A. A.; Rauch, J.; Reil, K.; Rheault, J.-P.; Roe, N. A.; Rogers, H.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R. H.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R.; Schubnell, M.; Schultz, K.; Schurter, P.; Scott, L.; Serrano, S.; Shaw, T. M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Stefanik, A.; Stuermer, W.; Suchyta, E.; Sypniewski, A.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tighe, R.; Tran, C.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wang, G.; Watson, M.; Weaverdyck, C.; Wester, W.; Woods, R.; Yanny, B.; DES Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.°2 diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4 m telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five-element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane of 250 μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 megapixel focal plane comprises 62 2k × 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k × 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 μm × 15 μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.″263 pixel-1. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 s with 6-9 electron readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  9. THE DARK ENERGY CAMERA

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Alvarez, O.; Angstadt, R.; Annis, J. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Honscheid, K.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Bonati, M.; Antonik, M.; Brooks, D.; Ballester, O.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Beaufore, L.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bigelow, B.; Boprie, D.; Campa, J.; Castander, F. J.; Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2015-11-15

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.°2 diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4 m telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five-element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane of 250 μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 megapixel focal plane comprises 62 2k × 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k × 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 μm × 15 μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.″263 pixel{sup −1}. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 s with 6–9 electron readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  10. Central Dark Matter Distribution In Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Se-Heon; Brook, C.; Governato, F.; Brinks, E.; Mayer, L.; de Blok, E.; Brooks, A.; Walter, F.

    2012-01-01

    Central dark matter distribution in dwarf galaxies Se-Heon Oh, Chris Brook, Fabio Governato, Elias Brinks, Lucio Mayer, W.J.G. de Blok, Alyson Brooks and Fabian Walter We present high-resolution mass models of 7 nearby dwarf galaxies from "The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey” (THINGS) and compare these with those from hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies assuming a ΛCDM cosmology. The simulations include the effect of baryonic feedback processes, such as gas cooling, star formation, cosmic UV background heating and most importantly, physically motivated gas outflows driven by supernovae (SNe). For the THINGS dwarf galaxies, we derive the mass models for the dark matter component by subtracting the contribution from baryons, derived from our HI observations and using the "Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey” (SINGS) 3.6μm data, from the total kinematics, leaving only the contribution by the Dark Matter halo. In parallel, we perform dark matter mass modeling of the simulated dwarf galaxies in exactly the same way as the observed THINGS dwarf galaxies. From a direct comparison between the observations and simulations, we find that the dark matter rotation curves of the simulated dwarf galaxies rise less steeply in the inner regions than those of dark-matter-only simulations based on the ΛCDM paradigm, and are more consistent with those of the THINGS dwarf galaxies. In addition, the mean value of the logarithmic inner dark matter density slopes, α, of the simulated galaxies is approximately -0.4 ± 0.1, which is in good agreement with α = -0.29 ± -0.07 of the THINGS dwarf galaxies. This shows that the baryonic feedback processes in the simulations are efficient in flattening the initial cusps with α = -1.0 to -1.5 predicted from dark-matter-only simulations, and render the dark matter halo mass distribution more similar to that observed in nearby dwarf galaxies.

  11. Baryonic Distributions in Galaxy Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Emily E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role and significance of dark matter in the evolution of baryonic components (i.e., conversion of the gaseous disk into stars) is a critical aspect for realistic models of galaxy evolution. In an effort to address fundamental questions regarding the growth and distribution of stellar disks in dark matter halos in a statistical manner, we have undertaken a project correlating structural properties and star formation activity with the dark matter properties of the host galaxy. The project uses a statistical sample of 45 nearby galaxies which are optimally suited for rotation curve decomposition analysis. The dataset includes deep Spitzer 3.6μm images to trace the stellar distribution, neutral and ionized gas rotation curves to trace the total mass distribution, and optical images to examine the dominant stellar populations. Using a sub-set of galaxies from the full sample, we find that the distribution of the baryonic mass relative to the total mass is roughly self-similar in more massive galaxies when normalized by the average stellar disk scale length measured at 3.6μm. We additionally observe an emerging trend between total baryonic mass and the radius at which the total mass distribution transitions from baryon-dominated to dark matter-dominated. However, we find no significant correlation between the distribution of dark matter and structural properties of the stellar disk, such as changes in color or star formation activity.

  12. Correlation between dark matter and dark radiation in string compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Cicoli, Michele; Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it E-mail: kusinha@syr.edu

    2014-10-01

    Reheating in string compactifications is generically driven by the decay of the lightest modulus which produces Standard Model particles, dark matter and light hidden sector degrees of freedom that behave as dark radiation. This common origin allows us to find an interesting correlation between dark matter and dark radiation. By combining present upper bounds on the effective number of neutrino species N{sub eff} with lower bounds on the reheating temperature as a function of the dark matter mass m{sub DM} from Fermi data, we obtain strong constraints on the (N{sub eff}, m{sub DM})-plane. Most of the allowed region in this plane corresponds to non-thermal scenarios with Higgsino-like dark matter. Thermal dark matter can be allowed only if N{sub eff} tends to its Standard Model value. We show that the above situation is realised in models with perturbative moduli stabilisation where the production of dark radiation is unavoidable since bulk closed string axions remain light and do not get eaten up by anomalous U(1)s.

  13. The Photosynthetic Dark Reactions Do Not Operate in the Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the common misconception persistent in high school and college level introductory biology texts that "dark reactions" of the Calvin cycle actually occur in the dark. Explains that they are indirectly dependent on the presence of light for their activity. (ASK)

  14. DarkSUSY: Computing Supersymmetric Dark Matter Properties Numerically

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, P.

    2004-07-16

    The question of the nature of the dark matter in the Universe remains one of the most outstanding unsolved problems in basic science. One of the best motivated particle physics candidates is the lightest supersymmetric particle, assumed to be the lightest neutralino - a linear combination of the supersymmetric partners of the photon, the Z boson and neutral scalar Higgs particles. Here we describe DarkSUSY, a publicly-available advanced numerical package for neutralino dark matter calculations. In DarkSUSY one can compute the neutralino density in the Universe today using precision methods which include resonances, pair production thresholds and coannihilations. Masses and mixings of supersymmetric particles can be computed within DarkSUSY or with the help of external programs such as FeynHiggs, ISASUGRA and SUSPECT. Accelerator bounds can be checked to identify viable dark matter candidates. DarkSUSY also computes a large variety of astrophysical signals from neutralino dark matter, such as direct detection in low-background counting experiments and indirect detection through antiprotons, antideuterons, gamma-rays and positrons from the Galactic halo or high-energy neutrinos from the center of the Earth or of the Sun. Here we describe the physics behind the package. A detailed manual will be provided with the computer package.

  15. The Photosynthetic Dark Reactions Do Not Operate in the Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the common misconception persistent in high school and college level introductory biology texts that "dark reactions" of the Calvin cycle actually occur in the dark. Explains that they are indirectly dependent on the presence of light for their activity. (ASK)

  16. Dark matter candidates: front runners and dark horses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srednicki, M.

    A good case can be made for believing that there is a substantial amount of nonbaryonic dark matter in the universe, most likely composed of an as-yet-undiscovered elementary particle. The various candidates for this particle, both front runners and dark horses, are reviewed.

  17. Soft X-ray observations of pre-main sequence stars in the chamaeleon dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Kriss, Gerard A.

    1987-01-01

    Einstein IPC observations of the nearby Chamaeleon I star forming cloud show 22 well-resolved soft X-ray sources in a 1x2 deg region. Twelve are associated with H-alpha emission line pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, and four with optically selected PMS stars. Several X-ray sources have two or more PMS stars in their error circles. Optical spectra were obtained at CTIO of possible stellar counterparts of the remaining X-ray sources. They reveal 5 probable new cloud members, K7-MO stars with weak or absent emission lines. These naked X-ray selected PMS stars are similar to those found in the Taurus-Auriga cloud. The spatial distributions and H-R diagrams of the X-ray and optically selected PMS stars in the cloud are very similar. Luminosity functions indicate the Chamaeleon stars are on average approximately 5 times more X-ray luminous than Pleiad dwarfs. A significant correlation between L sub x and optical magnitude suggests this trend may continue within the PMS phase of stellar evolution. The relation of increasing X-ray luminosity with decreasing stellar ages is thus extended to stellar ages as young as 1 million years.

  18. Neutrino signals from dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkoca, Arif Emre

    Large-scale neutrino telescopes will be powerful tools to observe multitude of mysterious phenomena happening in the Universe. The dark matter puzzle is listed as one of them. In this study, indirect detection of dark matter via neutrino signals is presented. The upward muon, the contained muon and the hadronic shower fluxes are calculated, assuming annihilation/decay of the dark matter in the core of the astrophysical objects and in the Galactic center. Direct neutrino production and secondary neutrino production from the decay of Standard Model particles produced in the annihilation/decay of dark matter are studied. The results are contrasted to the ones previously obtained in the literature, illustrating the importance of properly treating muon propagation and energy loss for the upward muon flux. The dependence of the dark matter signals on the density profile, the dark matter mass and the detector threshold are discussed. Different dark matter models (gravitino, Kaluza-Klein and leptophilic) which can account for recent observations of some indirect searches are analyzed regarding their detection in the kilometer size neutrino detectors in the near future. Muon and shower rates and the minimum observation times in order to reach 2sigma detection significance are evaluated, with the result suggesting that the optimum cone half angles chosen about the Galactic center are about 10° (50°) for the muon (shower) events. A detailed analysis shows that for the annihilating dark matter models such as the leptophilic and Kaluza-Klein models, upward and contained muon as well as showers yield promising signals for dark matter detection in just a few years of observation, whereas for decaying dark matter models, the same observation times can only be reached with showers. The analytical results for the final fluxes are also obtained as well as parametric forms for the muon and shower fluxes for the dark matter models considered in this study.

  19. Stealth Dark Matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal

    DOE PAGES

    Appelquist, T.; Brower, R. C.; Buchoff, M. I.; ...

    2015-10-23

    We present a new model of "Stealth Dark Matter": a composite baryonic scalar of an SU(ND) strongly coupled theory with even ND ≥ 4. All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vectorlike representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to SU(4), and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements,more » basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominantly electroweak-breaking masses. A lower bound on the dark baryon mass mB ≳ 300 GeV is obtained from the indirect requirement that the lightest dark meson not be observable at LEP II. Furthermore, we briefly survey some intriguing properties of stealth dark matter that are worthy of future study, including collider studies of dark meson production and decay; indirect detection signals from annihilation; relic abundance estimates for both symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms; and direct detection through electromagnetic polarizability, a detailed study of which will appear in a companion paper.« less

  20. Stealth Dark Matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal

    SciTech Connect

    Appelquist, T.; Brower, R. C.; Buchoff, M. I.; Fleming, G. T.; Jin, X. -Y.; Kiskis, J.; Kribs, G. D.; Neil, E. T.; Osborn, J. C.; Rebbi, C.; Rinaldi, E.; Schaich, D.; Schroeder, C.; Syritsyn, S.; Vranas, P.; Weinberg, E.; Witzel, O.

    2015-10-23

    We present a new model of "Stealth Dark Matter": a composite baryonic scalar of an SU(ND) strongly coupled theory with even ND ≥ 4. All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vectorlike representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to SU(4), and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements, basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominantly electroweak-breaking masses. A lower bound on the dark baryon mass mB ≳ 300 GeV is obtained from the indirect requirement that the lightest dark meson not be observable at LEP II. Furthermore, we briefly survey some intriguing properties of stealth dark matter that are worthy of future study, including collider studies of dark meson production and decay; indirect detection signals from annihilation; relic abundance estimates for both symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms; and direct detection through electromagnetic polarizability, a detailed study of which will appear in a companion paper.

  1. Halo cold dark matter and microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Evalyn; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-12-01

    There is good evidence that most of the baryons in the Universe are dark and some evidence that most of the matter in the Universe is nonbaryonic with cold dark matter (cdm) being a promising possibility. We discuss expectations for the abundance of baryons and cdm in the halo of our galaxy and locally. We show that in plausible cdm models the local density of cdm is at least $10^{-25}\\gcmm3$. We also discuss what one can learn about the the local cdm density from microlensing of stars in the LMC by dark stars in the halo and, based upon a suite of reasonable two-component halo models, conclude that microlensing is not a sensitive probe of the local cdm density.

  2. Soft X-ray observations of pre-main-sequence stars in the Chamaeleon dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Kriss, Gerard A.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Chamaeleon I cloud, a star-forming region, are reported. A total of 22 distinct X-ray sources, most associated with previously identified premain sequence stars, are found. The spatial distributions and HR diagrams of the stars are very similar, suggesting that they are coeval. Luminosity functions suggest that the stars have an average X-ray luminosity (Lx) several times that of the Pleiades dwarfs. The value of Lx is significantly correlated with optical magnitude, though no relation between X-ray emission and any photometric or emission line characteristic is present. It is suggested that a Skumanich-type power-law relation may be present over the entire range of stellar ages between 10 to the 6th and 10 to the 10th yr.

  3. Soft X-ray observations of pre-main-sequence stars in the Chamaeleon dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Kriss, Gerard A.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Chamaeleon I cloud, a star-forming region, are reported. A total of 22 distinct X-ray sources, most associated with previously identified premain sequence stars, are found. The spatial distributions and HR diagrams of the stars are very similar, suggesting that they are coeval. Luminosity functions suggest that the stars have an average X-ray luminosity (Lx) several times that of the Pleiades dwarfs. The value of Lx is significantly correlated with optical magnitude, though no relation between X-ray emission and any photometric or emission line characteristic is present. It is suggested that a Skumanich-type power-law relation may be present over the entire range of stellar ages between 10 to the 6th and 10 to the 10th yr.

  4. ASCA Observations of the T Tauri Star SU Aurigae and the Surrounding L1517 Dark Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Walter, Frederick M.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a approximately equals 40 ks pointed Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observation of the L1517 star-forming region, centered on the X-ray-bright T Tauri star SU Aurigae. This star has the highest X-ray luminosity of any classical T Tauri star in the Taurus-Auriga region, and its optical spectra show evidence for both mass inflow and outflow. Strong X-ray emission was detected from SU Aur (L(sub x) = 10(exp 30.9) ergs s(exp -1)) as well as weaker emission from five other pre-main-sequence stars. Although no large-amplitude flares were detected, the X-ray emission of SU Aur showed clear variability in the form of a slow decline in count rate during the 1.3 day observation. We provide the first direct comparison of the coronal differential emission measure (DEM) distribution of a classical T Tauri star with that of a young main-sequence star of similar spectral type. The DEM distributions of SU Aur (G2; age 3 Myr) and the young solar-like star EK Draconis (GO V; age 70 Myr) are qualitatively similar, with both showing a bimodal temperature distribution characterized by a cool plasma component peaking at approximately 8-9 MK and a hot component peaking at approximately 20-21 MK. However, there is a striking difference in the relative proportion of plasma at high temperatures in the two stars, with hot plasma (>20 MK) accounting for approximately equals 80% of the volume emission measure of SU Aur, compared to only approximately equals 40% in EK Dra. These results provide new insight into the changes that will occur in the corona of a T Tauri star as it descends onto the main sequence. A sharp decline in the fraction of coronal plasma at flarelike temperatures will occur during the late-T Tauri and post-T Tauri phases, and other recent X-ray studies have shown that this decline will continue after the young solar-like star reaches the main sequence.

  5. ASCA Observations of the T Tauri Star SU Aurigae and the Surrounding L1517 Dark Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Walter, Frederick M.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a approximately equals 40 ks pointed Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observation of the L1517 star-forming region, centered on the X-ray-bright T Tauri star SU Aurigae. This star has the highest X-ray luminosity of any classical T Tauri star in the Taurus-Auriga region, and its optical spectra show evidence for both mass inflow and outflow. Strong X-ray emission was detected from SU Aur (L(sub x) = 10(exp 30.9) ergs s(exp -1)) as well as weaker emission from five other pre-main-sequence stars. Although no large-amplitude flares were detected, the X-ray emission of SU Aur showed clear variability in the form of a slow decline in count rate during the 1.3 day observation. We provide the first direct comparison of the coronal differential emission measure (DEM) distribution of a classical T Tauri star with that of a young main-sequence star of similar spectral type. The DEM distributions of SU Aur (G2; age 3 Myr) and the young solar-like star EK Draconis (GO V; age 70 Myr) are qualitatively similar, with both showing a bimodal temperature distribution characterized by a cool plasma component peaking at approximately 8-9 MK and a hot component peaking at approximately 20-21 MK. However, there is a striking difference in the relative proportion of plasma at high temperatures in the two stars, with hot plasma (>20 MK) accounting for approximately equals 80% of the volume emission measure of SU Aur, compared to only approximately equals 40% in EK Dra. These results provide new insight into the changes that will occur in the corona of a T Tauri star as it descends onto the main sequence. A sharp decline in the fraction of coronal plasma at flarelike temperatures will occur during the late-T Tauri and post-T Tauri phases, and other recent X-ray studies have shown that this decline will continue after the young solar-like star reaches the main sequence.

  6. The structure and early evolution of massive star forming regions. Substructure in the infrared dark cloud SDC13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, C.; Fuller, G. A.; Peretto, N.; Zhang, Q.; Traficante, A.; Avison, A.; Jimenez-Serra, I.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Investigations into the substructure of massive star forming regions are essential for understanding the observed relationships between core mass distributions and mass distributions in stellar clusters, differentiating between proposed mechanisms of massive star formation. Aims: We study the substructure in the two largest fragments (i.e. cores) MM1 and MM2, in the infrared dark cloud complex SDC13. As MM1 appears to be in a later stage of evolution than MM2, comparing their substructure provides an insight in to the early evolution of massive clumps. Methods: We report the results of high resolution SMA dust continuum observations towards MM1 and MM2. Combining these data with Herschel observations, we carry out RADMC-3D radiative transfer modelling to characterise the observed substructure. Results: SMA continuum data indicates 4 sub-fragments in the SDC13 region. The nature of the second brightest sub-fragment (B) is uncertain as it does not appear as prominent at the lower MAMBO resolution or at radio wavelengths. Statistical analysis indicates that it is unlikely to be a background source, an AGB star, or the free-free emission of a HII region. It is plausible that B is a runaway object ejected from MM1. MM1, which is actively forming stars, consists of two sub-fragments A and C. This is confirmed by 70 μmHerschel data. While MM1 and MM2 appear quite similar in previous low resolution observations, at high resolution, the sub-fragment at the centre of MM2 (D) is much fainter than sub-fragment at the centre of MM1 (A). RADMC-3D models of MM1 and MM2 are able to reproduce these results, modelling MM2 with a steeper density profile and higher mass than is required for MM1. The relatively steep density profile of MM2 depends on a significant temperature decrease in its centre, justified by the lack of star formation in MM2. A final stellar population for MM1 was extrapolated, indicating a star formation efficiency typical of regions of core and cluster

  7. Optimizing New Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, J. Anthony

    2013-08-26

    Next generation “Stage IV” dark energy experiments under design during this grant, and now under construction, will enable the determination of the properties of dark energy and dark matter to unprecedented precision using multiple complementary probes. The most pressing challenge in these experiments is the characterization and understanding of the systematic errors present within any given experimental configuration and the resulting impact on the accuracy of our constraints on dark energy physics. The DETF and the P5 panel in their reports recommended “Expanded support for ancillary measurements required for the long-term program and for projects that will improve our understanding and reduction of the dominant systematic measurement errors.” Looking forward to the next generation Stage IV experiments we have developed a program to address the most important potential systematic errors within these experiments. Using data from current facilities it has been feasible and timely to undertake a detailed investigation of the systematic errors. In this DOE grant we studied of the source and impact of the dominant systematic effects in dark energy measurements, and developed new analysis tools and techniques to minimize their impact. Progress under this grant is briefly reviewed in this technical report. This work was a necessary precursor to the coming generations of wide-deep probes of the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The research has already had an impact on improving the efficiencies of all Stage III and IV dark energy experiments.

  8. Planetarium Show on Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, R. Michael

    2016-05-31

    We describe a new planetarium show about Dark Matter entitled “Phantom of the Universe”. When completed in late 2014, it will feature the exciting story of dark matter, from the Big Bang to its anticipated discovery at the Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. D.; Foot, R.

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless "dark photon" (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  10. Make dark matter charged again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2017-05-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a U(1) gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viability of darkly-charged dark matter. Future analyses and measurements should probe a promising region of parameter space for this model.

  11. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.D.; Foot, R. E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless 'dark photon' (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  12. Implications of the observation of dark matter self-interactions for singlet scalar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Robyn; Godfrey, Stephen; Logan, Heather E.; Peterson, Andrea D.; Poulin, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    Evidence for dark matter self-interactions has recently been reported based on the observation of a spatial offset between the dark matter halo and the stars in a galaxy in the cluster Abell 3827. Interpreting the offset as due to dark matter self-interactions leads to a cross section measurement of σDM/m ˜(1 - 1.5 ) cm2 g-1 , where m is the mass of the dark matter particle. We use this observation to constrain singlet scalar dark matter coupled to the standard model and to two-Higgs-doublet models. We show that the most natural scenario in this class of models is very light dark matter, below about 0.1 GeV, whose relic abundance is set by freeze-in, i.e., by slow production of dark matter in the early universe via extremely tiny interactions with the Higgs boson, never reaching thermal equilibrium. We also show that the dark matter abundance can be established through the usual thermal freeze-out mechanism in the singlet scalar extension of the Yukawa-aligned two-Higgs-doublet model, but that it requires rather severe fine tuning of the singlet scalar mass.

  13. Seeking the light in the dark: Quests for identifying Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chun Yu

    The night sky is a beautiful display of stars and galaxies. We have come a long way to realize that they are made with substances that can be produced and studied on Earth. However, it has been discovered that those substances make up only 5% of the observable Universe, with the remaining 95% being mysterious substances called dark matter and dark energy, both of which have never been observed directly. Their nature is among the most profound questions in modern science, and unquestionably holds the key to the fundamentals of the Universe and laws of physics. In this dissertation, I discuss a series of papers related to studies of dark matter. I revisit the problem of dark matter annihilation in the extragalactic background radiation, and show that they are sensitive to the properties of the smallest dark matter halos. I show that the newly discovered high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can be used to test secret neutrino interactions through their propagation in the Cosmic Neutrino Background. I discuss how we use the Fermi-GBM to search for sterile neutrino dark matter in a region of parameter space that is not probed otherwise. I discuss a novel method for testing dark matter annihilation/decay signals with a line spectrum. Lastly, I discuss new and interesting results from gamma-ray observations of the Sun, and how this is related to future dark matter searches from the Sun.

  14. Jovian Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A recently discovered black spot in Jupiter's clouds is darker than any feature ever before observed on the giant planet. The spot may be the result of a downward spiraling wind that blows away high clouds and reveals deeper, very dark cloud layers. These three panels depict the same area of Jupiter's atmosphere. A map of Jovian temperatures near 250 millibar pressure (top) panel is derived from the photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument on NASA's Galileo Jupiter orbiter. This map is compared with maps derived from images of the same area in visible light (middle panel)and thermal radiation sensitive to cloud-top temperatures (bottom panel).

    The single downward-pointing arrow in the top panel indicates the location of a warm area that corresponds to the position of a so-called 'black spot'(shown in the middle panel), a feature that is about a year old. Features this dark are rare on Jupiter. The bottom panel, sensitive to temperatures at Jupiter's cloud tops, shows this feature as a bright object, meaning that upper-level cold clouds are missing - allowing us to see deeper into Jupiter's warmer interior. The dark visible appearance of the feature than most likely represents the color of very deep clouds. The warm temperatures and cloud-free conditions imply that this feature is a region where dry upper-atmospheric gas is being forced to converge, is warmed up and then forced to descend, clearing out clouds. It is the opposite of wet, upwelling gas in areas such as Jupiter's Great Red Spot or white ovals. On the other hand, it is unlike the dry and relatively cloudless feature into which the Galileo probe descended in 1995, because that region had the same temperatures as its surroundings and did not appear nearly as dark as this new spot.

    The temperatures sampled by the photopolarimeter radiometer are near the top of Jupiter's troposphere, where wind motions control the atmosphere. The top row of arrows shows the location of temperature waves in a warm region

  15. Dark light Higgs bosons.

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, P.; Liu, T.; Wagner, C. E. M.; Wang, L.-T.; Zhang, H.

    2011-03-24

    We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, ?, and flavor physics.

  16. Jovian Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A recently discovered black spot in Jupiter's clouds is darker than any feature ever before observed on the giant planet. The spot may be the result of a downward spiraling wind that blows away high clouds and reveals deeper, very dark cloud layers. These three panels depict the same area of Jupiter's atmosphere. A map of Jovian temperatures near 250 millibar pressure (top) panel is derived from the photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument on NASA's Galileo Jupiter orbiter. This map is compared with maps derived from images of the same area in visible light (middle panel)and thermal radiation sensitive to cloud-top temperatures (bottom panel).

    The single downward-pointing arrow in the top panel indicates the location of a warm area that corresponds to the position of a so-called 'black spot'(shown in the middle panel), a feature that is about a year old. Features this dark are rare on Jupiter. The bottom panel, sensitive to temperatures at Jupiter's cloud tops, shows this feature as a bright object, meaning that upper-level cold clouds are missing - allowing us to see deeper into Jupiter's warmer interior. The dark visible appearance of the feature than most likely represents the color of very deep clouds. The warm temperatures and cloud-free conditions imply that this feature is a region where dry upper-atmospheric gas is being forced to converge, is warmed up and then forced to descend, clearing out clouds. It is the opposite of wet, upwelling gas in areas such as Jupiter's Great Red Spot or white ovals. On the other hand, it is unlike the dry and relatively cloudless feature into which the Galileo probe descended in 1995, because that region had the same temperatures as its surroundings and did not appear nearly as dark as this new spot.

    The temperatures sampled by the photopolarimeter radiometer are near the top of Jupiter's troposphere, where wind motions control the atmosphere. The top row of arrows shows the location of temperature waves in a warm region

  17. Dark Slope Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 March 2004 Martian slope streaks occur in the regions most heavily mantled by fine, dry dust, particularly Tharsis, Arabia, and the knobby areas between Amazonis and Cerberus. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some examples of dark slope streaks off of buttes, mesas, and massifs in a dust-mantled crater in central Arabia Terra. New slope streaks form from time to time in the modern martian environment; the streaks in this image probably formed within the past decade. To create them, dust slid or avalanched down the slopes in an almost liquid-like manner. The image is located near 6.8oN, 321.7oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  18. Dark Slope Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-457, 19 August 2003

    This June 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a crater rim mantled with fine dust near 7.6oN, 171.8oW. Occasional avalanches of dust have created dark streaks that are tapered at their source and broaden downslope. A suite of particularly large streaks are seen in the lower right quarter of the picture. The MOC narrow angle camera does not take color images; this full-resolution (1.5 m/pixel; 5 ft/pixel) picture has been 'colorized' using data from a previous color image of Mars. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  19. In the dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M.; Pointon, Tony

    2009-05-01

    Bravo to Kate Oliver for her Lateral Thoughts article "Clutching at dark straws" (March p80). Her suggestion that astronomers might have something to offer economists was beautifully put. I am inspired to add that financiers have something to teach physicists as well: they have developed a way of extracting, and pocketing, real money from the zero-point money that permeates the entire economy. I suspect that they have developed a mechanism for collecting the temporally reversed Hawking money that radiates from the black holes of future taxpayers. Unfortunately, if physicists are unable to replicate this success quickly, it seems likely that the black hole will have completely evaporated before the trickledown effect has had time to introduce the social equilibrium required to maximize future tax revenues.

  20. Avian dark cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  1. Assisted dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2009-11-15

    Cosmological scaling solutions, which give rise to a scalar-field density proportional to a background fluid density during radiation and matter eras, are attractive to alleviate the energy scale problem of dark energy. In the presence of multiple scalar fields, the scaling solution can exit to the epoch of cosmic acceleration through the so-called assisted inflation mechanism. We study cosmological dynamics of a multifield system in details with a general Lagrangian density p={sub i=1}{sup n}X{sub i}g(X{sub i}e{sup {lambda}{sub i}}{sup {phi}{sub i}}), where X{sub i}=-({nabla}{phi}{sub i}){sup 2}/2 is the kinetic energy of the ith field {phi}{sub i}, {lambda}{sub i} is a constant, and g is an arbitrary function in terms of Y{sub i}=X{sub i}e{sup {lambda}{sub i}}{sup {phi}{sub i}}. This covers most of the scalar-field models of dark energy proposed in literature that possess scaling solutions. Using the bound coming from big-bang nucleosynthesis and the condition under which each field cannot drive inflation as a single component of the universe, we find the following features: (i) a transient or eternal cosmic acceleration can be realized after the scaling matter era, (ii) a thawing property of assisting scalar fields is crucial to determine the evolution of the field equation of state w{sub {phi}}, and (iii) the field equation of state today can be consistent with the observational bound w{sub {phi}}<-0.8 in the presence of multiple scalar fields.

  2. The search for dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, David B.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss the search for dark matter. We first review the data from LUX that excludes the low-mass WIMP region and slightly lowers the XENON100 limits. We provide a brief review of the problems with the claimed low-mass signals. We discuss the current expectations for SUSY-WIMP dark matter and show why very massive detectors like Darwin may be required. We discuss some theoretical predictions from the meeting. There was compelling evidence from events observed in the Galactic Center by Fermi-LAT of WIMP dark matter at the UCLA meeting. We recount the Richard Arnowitt Lectures at UCLA dark matter symposiums and his role in the development of the strategy to detect SUGRA dark matter. In Honor of Richard Arnowitt.

  3. Reconstructing and deconstructing dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2004-06-07

    The acceleration of the expansion of the universe, ascribed to a dark energy, is one of the most intriguing discoveries in science. In addition to precise, systematics controlled data, clear, robust interpretation of the observations is required to reveal the nature of dark energy. Even for the simplest question: is the data consistent with the cosmological constant? there are important subtleties in the reconstruction of the dark energy properties. We discuss the roles of analysis both in terms of the Hubble expansion rate or dark energy density {rho}DE(z) and in terms of the dark energy equation of state w(z), arguing that each has its carefully defined place. Fitting the density is best for learning about the density, but using it to probe the equation of state can lead to instability and bias.

  4. Dark matter and cosmological nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    Existing dark matter problems, i.e., dynamics, galaxy formation and inflation, are considered, along with a model which proposes dark baryons as the bulk of missing matter in a fractal universe. It is shown that no combination of dark, nonbaryonic matter can either provide a cosmological density parameter value near unity or, as in the case of high energy neutrinos, allow formation of condensed matter at epochs when quasars already existed. The possibility that correlations among galactic clusters are scale-free is discussed. Such a distribution of matter would yield a fractal of 1.2, close to a one-dimensional universe. Biasing, cosmic superstrings, and percolated explosions and hot dark matter are theoretical approaches that would satisfy the D = 1.2 fractal model of the large-scale structure of the universe and which would also allow sufficient dark matter in halos to close the universe.

  5. Light thoughts on dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2004-04-01

    The physical process leading to the acceleration of the expansion of the universe is unknown. It may involve new high energy physics or extensions to gravitation. Calling this generically dark energy, we examine the consistencies and relations between these two approaches, showing that an effective equation of state function w(z) is broadly useful in describing the properties of the dark energy. A variety of cosmological observations can provide important information on the dynamics of dark energy and the future looks bright for constraining dark energy, though both the measurements and the interpretation will be challenging. We also discuss a more direct relation between the spacetime geometry and acceleration, via ''geometric dark energy'' from the Ricci scalar, and superacceleration or phantom energy where the fate of the universe may be more gentle than the Big Rip.

  6. Inflationary imprints on dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2015-11-01

    We show that dark matter abundance and the inflationary scale H could be intimately related. Standard Model extensions with Higgs mediated couplings to new physics typically contain extra scalars displaced from vacuum during inflation. If their coupling to Standard Model is weak, they will not thermalize and may easily constitute too much dark matter reminiscent to the moduli problem. As an example we consider Standard Model extended by a Z2 symmetric singlet s coupled to the Standard Model Higgs Φ via λ Φ†Φ s2. Dark matter relic density is generated non-thermally for λ lesssim 10-7. We show that the dark matter yield crucially depends on the inflationary scale. For H~ 1010 GeV we find that the singlet self-coupling and mass should lie in the regime λsgtrsim 10-9 and mslesssim 50 GeV to avoid dark matter overproduction.

  7. Dark matter and cosmological nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    Existing dark matter problems, i.e., dynamics, galaxy formation and inflation, are considered, along with a model which proposes dark baryons as the bulk of missing matter in a fractal universe. It is shown that no combination of dark, nonbaryonic matter can either provide a cosmological density parameter value near unity or, as in the case of high energy neutrinos, allow formation of condensed matter at epochs when quasars already existed. The possibility that correlations among galactic clusters are scale-free is discussed. Such a distribution of matter would yield a fractal of 1.2, close to a one-dimensional universe. Biasing, cosmic superstrings, and percolated explosions and hot dark matter are theoretical approaches that would satisfy the D = 1.2 fractal model of the large-scale structure of the universe and which would also allow sufficient dark matter in halos to close the universe.

  8. The dark side of plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Gómez, D E; Teo, Z Q; Altissimo, M; Davis, T J; Earl, S; Roberts, A

    2013-08-14

    Plasmonic dark modes are pure near-field modes that can arise from the plasmon hybridization in a set of interacting nanoparticles. When compared to bright modes, dark modes have longer lifetimes due to their lack of a net dipole moment, making them attractive for a number of applications. We demonstrate the excitation and optical detection of a collective dark plasmonic mode from individual plasmonic trimers. The trimers consist of triangular arrangements of gold nanorods, and due to this symmetry, the lowest-energy dark plasmonic mode can interact with radially polarized light. The experimental data presented confirm the excitation of this mode, and its assignment is supported with an electrostatic approximation wherein these dark modes are described in terms of plasmon hybridization. The strong confinement of energy in these modes and their associated near fields hold great promise for achieving strong coupling to single photon emitters.

  9. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-06-15

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei.

  10. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-06-01

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei.

  11. The Dark Heart of the King

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-29

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer captured this image of a hidden star-forming cloud of dust and gas located in the constellation of Cepheus. What appears to the naked eye as the blackness of space is in fact a dark nebula.

  12. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  13. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  14. Gravitational wave from dark sector with dark pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumura, Koji; Yamada, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the spectra of gravitational waves produced by chiral symmetry breaking in dark quantum chromodynamics (dQCD) sector. The dark pion (π) can be a dark matter candidate as weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) or strongly interacting massive particle (SIMP). For a WIMP scenario, we introduce the dQCD sector coupled to the standard model (SM) sector with classical scale invariance and investigate the annihilation process of the dark pion via the 2π → 2 SM process. For a SIMP scenario, we investigate the 3π → 2π annihilation process of the dark pion as a SIMP using chiral perturbation theory. We find that in the WIMP scenario the gravitational wave background spectra can be observed by future space gravitational wave antennas. On the other hand, when the dark pion is the SIMP dark matter with the constraints for the chiral perturbative limit and pion-pion scattering cross section, the chiral phase transition becomes crossover and then the gravitational waves are not produced.

  15. Dancing in the dark: darkness as a signal in plants.

    PubMed

    Seluzicki, Adam; Burko, Yogev; Chory, Joanne

    2017-01-03

    Daily cycles of light and dark provide an organizing principle and temporal constraints under which life on Earth evolved. While light is often the focus of plant studies, it is only half the story. Plants continuously adjust to their surroundings, taking both dawn and dusk as cues to organize their growth, development and metabolism to appropriate times of day. In this review, we examine the effects of darkness on plant physiology and growth. We describe the similarities and differences between seedlings grown in the dark versus those grown in light-dark cycles, and the evolution of etiolated growth. We discuss the integration of the circadian clock into other processes, looking carefully at the points of contact between clock genes and growth-promoting gene-regulatory networks in temporal gating of growth. We also examine daily starch accumulation and degradation, and the possible contribution of dark-specific metabolic controls in regulating energy and growth. Examining these studies together reveals a complex and continuous balancing act, with many signals, dark included, contributing information and guiding the plant through its life cycle. The extraordinary interconnection between light and dark is manifest during cycles of day and night and during seedling emergence above versus below the soil surface. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dark matter constraints from stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, A.; Domínguez, I.; Straniero, O.

    2016-01-01

    The study of dark matter constraints from its effect on star evolution has been discussed in recent years. We propose a star evolution simulation approach to determine those costraints from properties related to star evolutionary stages and propose globular cluster observables in order to check those constraints. My work in progress (my PhD project research) employs FRANEC code to simulate complete star evolution from pre-main sequence to AGB phase, and regards several DM candidates like axions or WIMPs, motivated by different unsolved physical problems. Detailed energy production or energy loss due to DM particles are included, taking into account the expected interaction between dark matter particles and stellar plasma within different models.

  17. Dark Matter near the Sun: Simulated Star Counts and the Oort Limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilden, D.; Bahcall, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    An ensemble of orbits passing through the solar position was generated for a specific mass model of the galaxy. These orbits are randomly sampled to form simulated density distributions of tracer stars perpendicular to the galactic disk. The simulated distributions are analyzed to determine the sampling errors in a self consistent derivation of the total amount of matter near the Sun (the Oort limit).

  18. Dark Energy Coupled with Relativistic Dark Matter in Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang

    2003-10-01

    Recent observations favour an accelerating Universe dominated by the dark energy. We take the effective Yang-Mills condensate as the dark energy and couple it to a relativistic matter which is created by the decaying condensate. The dynamic evolution has asymptotic behaviour with finite constant energy densities, and the fractional densities OmegaLambda~0.7 for dark energy and Omegam~0.3 for relativistic matter are achieved at proper values of the decay rate. The resulting expansion of the Universe is in the de Sitter acceleration.

  19. Mapping Dark Matter Halos with Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Greene, J. E.; Graves, G.

    2013-07-01

    Galaxies of all sizes form and evolve in the centers of dark matter halos. As these halos constitute the large majority of the total mass of a galaxy, dark matter certainly plays a central role in the galaxy's formation and evolution. Yet despite our understanding of the importance of dark matter, observations of the extent and shape of dark matter halos have been slow in coming. The paucity of data is particularly acute in elliptical galaxies. Happily, concerted effort over the past several years by a number of groups has been shedding light on the dark matter halos around galaxies over a wide range in mass. The development of new instrumentation and large surveys, coupled with the tantalizing evidence for a direct detection of dark matter from the AMS experiment, has brought on a golden age in the study of galactic scale dark matter halos. I report on results using extended stellar kinematics from integrated light to dynamically model massive elliptical galaxies in the local universe. I use the integral field power of the Mitchell Spectrograph to explore the kinematics of stars to large radii (R > 2.5 r_e). Once the line-of-sight stellar kinematics are measured, I employ orbit-based, axisymmetric dynamical modeling to explore a range of dark matter halo parameterizations. Globular cluster kinematics at even larger radii are used to further constrain the dynamical models. The dynamical models also return information on the anisotropy of the stars which help to further illuminate the primary formation mechanisms of the galaxy. Specifically, I will show dynamical modeling results for the first and second rank galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, M49 and M87. Although similar in total luminosity and ellipticity, these two galaxies show evidence for different dark matter halo shapes, baryon to dark matter fractions, and stellar anisotropy profiles. Moreover, the stellar velocity dispersion at large radii in M87 is significantly higher than the globular clusters at the same

  20. The redshift evolution of the distribution of star formation among dark matter halos as seen in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Wang, Lingyu; Doré, Olivier; Lagache, Guilaine; Sargent, Mark; Daddi, Emanuele; Cousin, Morgane; Aussel, Hervé

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed a strong correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of the majority of star-forming galaxies, the so-called star-forming main sequence. An empirical modeling approach (the 2-SFM framework) that distinguishes between the main sequence and rarer starburst galaxies is capable of reproducing most statistical properties of infrared galaxies, such as number counts, luminosity functions, and redshift distributions. In this paper, we extend this approach by establishing a connection between stellar mass and halo mass with the technique of abundance matching. Based on a few simple assumptions and a physically motivated formalism, our model successfully predicts the (cross-)power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB), the cross-correlation between CIB and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing, and the correlation functions of bright, resolved infrared galaxies measured by Herschel, Planck, ACT, and SPT. We use this model to infer the redshift distribution of CIB-anisotropies and of the CIB × CMB lensing signal, as well as the level of correlation between CIB-anisotropies at different wavelengths. We study the link between dark matter halos and star-forming galaxies in the framework of our model. We predict that more than 90% of cosmic star formation activity occurs in halos with masses between 1011.5 and 1013.5 M⊙. If taking subsequent mass growth of halos into account, this implies that the majority of stars were initially (at z > 3) formed in the progenitors of clusters (Mh(z = 0) > 1013.5 M⊙), then in groups (1012.5 < Mh(z = 0) < 1013.5 M⊙) at 0.5 < z < 3, and finally in Milky-Way-like halos (1011.5 < Mh(z = 0) < 1012.5 M⊙) at z < 0.5. At all redshifts, the dominant contribution to the SFR density stems from halos of mass ~1012 M⊙, in which the instantaneous star formation efficiency - defined here as the ratio between SFR and baryonic accretion rate - is maximal (~70%). The strong redshift

  1. Dark matter cores all the way down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.; Agertz, O.; Collins, M. L. M.

    2016-07-01

    We use high-resolution simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies to study the physics of dark matter cusp-core transformations at the edge of galaxy formation: M200 = 107-109 M⊙. We work at a resolution (˜4 pc minimum cell size; ˜250 M⊙ per particle) at which the impact from individual supernovae explosions can be resolved, becoming insensitive to even large changes in our numerical `sub-grid' parameters. We find that our dwarf galaxies give a remarkable match to the stellar light profile; star formation history; metallicity distribution function; and star/gas kinematics of isolated dwarf irregular galaxies. Our key result is that dark matter cores of size comparable to the stellar half-mass radius r1/2 always form if star formation proceeds for long enough. Cores fully form in less than 4 Gyr for the M200 = 108 M⊙ and ˜14 Gyr for the 109 M⊙ dwarf. We provide a convenient two parameter `CORENFW' fitting function that captures this dark matter core growth as a function of star formation time and the projected stellar half-mass radius. Our results have several implications: (i) we make a strong prediction that if Λcold dark matter is correct, then `pristine' dark matter cusps will be found either in systems that have truncated star formation and/or at radii r > r1/2; (ii) complete core formation lowers the projected velocity dispersion at r1/2 by a factor of ˜2, which is sufficient to fully explain the `too-big-to-fail problem'; and (iii) cored dwarfs will be much more susceptible to tides, leading to a dramatic scouring of the sub-halo mass function inside galaxies and groups.

  2. A Dark Matter Disc in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.; Bruch, T.; Baudis, L.; Debattista, V. P.; Agertz, O.; Mayer, L.; Brooks, A. M.; Governato, F.; Peter, A. H. G.; Lake, G.

    2010-06-01

    Dark matter direct detection experiments need to know the local phase space density of dark matter fdm(r,v,t) in order to derive dark matter particle properties. To date, calculations for fdm(r,v,t) have been based on simulations that model the dark matter alone. Here we include the influence of the baryonic matter. We find that a star/gas disc at high redshift (z~1) causes merging satellites to be preferentially dragged towards the disc plane. This results in an accreted dark matter disc that contributes ~0.25-1 times the non-rotating halo density at the Solar position. We discuss the impact of the dark disc on dark matter direct detection experiments, and how we might be able to detect it in future Galactic surveys.

  3. Dark matter near the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of dark matter in the disk of the Galaxy at the solar position is determined by comparing the observed distributions of tracer stars with the predictions obtained from different assumptions of how the unseen matter is distributed. The major uncertainties, observational and theoretical, are estimated. For all the observed samples, typical models imply that about half of the mass in the solar vicinity must be in the form of unobserved matter. The volume density of unobserved material near the sun is about 0.1 solar mass/cu pc; the corresponding column density is about 30 solar masses/cu pc. This, so far unseen, material must be in a disk with an exponential scale height of less than 0.7 kpc. All the existing observations are consistent with the unseen disk material being in the form of stars not massive enough to burn hydrogen. It is suggested that the unseen material that is required to hold up the rotation curves of galaxies and to satisfy the virial theorem for clusters of galaxies might also be in the form of low-mass stars.

  4. Astrophysical Probes of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profumo, S.

    2013-08-01

    What is the connection between how the dark matter was produced in the early universe and how we can detect it today? Where does the WIMP miracle come from, and is it really a "WIMP" miracle? What brackets the mass range for thermal relics? Where does <συ> come from, and what does it mean? What is the difference between chemical and kinetic decoupling? Why do some people think that dark matter cannot be lighter than 40 GeV? Why is bbar b such a popular annihilation final state? Why is antimatter a good way to look for dark matter? Why should the cosmic-ray positron fraction decline with energy? How do you calculate the flux of neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in a celestial body, and when is it independent of the dark matter pair-annihilation rate? How does dark matter produce photons? -- Read these lecture notes, do the suggested 10 exercises, and you will find answers to all of these questions (and to many more on what You Always Wanted to Know About Dark Matter But Were Afraid to Ask).

  5. Dark Matter Searches With GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Wai, Lawrence; Nuss, E.

    2007-02-05

    Indirect detection of particle dark matter relies upon pair annihilation of Weakly Interaction Massive Particles (WIMPs), which is complementary to the well known techniques of direct detection (WIMP-nucleus scattering) and collider production (WIMP pair production). Pair annihilation of WIMPs results in the production of gamma-rays, neutrinos, and anti-matter. Of the various experiments sensitive to indirect detection of dark matter, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) may play the most crucial role in the next few years. After launch in late 2007, The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) will survey the gamma-ray sky in the energy range of 20MeV-300GeV. By eliminating charged particle background above 100 MeV, GLAST may be sensitive to as yet to be observed Milky Way dark matter subhalos, as well as WIMP pair annihilation spectral lines from the Milky Way halo. Discovery of gamma-ray signals from dark matter in the Milky Way would not only demonstrate the particle nature of dark matter; it would also open a new observational window on galactic dark matter substructure. Location of new dark matter sources by GLAST would dramatically alter the experimental landscape; ground based gamma ray telescopes could follow up on the new GLAST sources with precision measurements of the WIMP pair annihilation spectrum.

  6. Phases of cannibal dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; ...

    2016-12-13

    A hidden sector with a mass gap undergoes an epoch of cannibalism if number changing interactions are active when the temperature drops below the mass of the lightest hidden particle. During cannibalism, the hidden sector temperature decreases only logarithmically with the scale factor. We consider the possibility that dark matter resides in a hidden sector that underwent cannibalism, and has relic density set by the freeze-out of two-to-two annihilations. We identify three novel phases, depending on the behavior of the hidden sector when dark matter freezes out. During the cannibal phase, dark matter annihilations decouple while the hidden sector ismore » cannibalizing. During the chemical phase, only two-to-two interactions are active and the total number of hidden particles is conserved. During the one way phase, the dark matter annihilation products decay out of equilibrium, suppressing the production of dark matter from inverse annihilations. We map out the distinct phenomenology of each phase, which includes a boosted dark matter annihilation rate, new relativistic degrees of freedom, warm dark matter, and observable distortions to the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.« less

  7. Phases of cannibal dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele

    2016-12-13

    A hidden sector with a mass gap undergoes an epoch of cannibalism if number changing interactions are active when the temperature drops below the mass of the lightest hidden particle. During cannibalism, the hidden sector temperature decreases only logarithmically with the scale factor. We consider the possibility that dark matter resides in a hidden sector that underwent cannibalism, and has relic density set by the freeze-out of two-to-two annihilations. We identify three novel phases, depending on the behavior of the hidden sector when dark matter freezes out. During the cannibal phase, dark matter annihilations decouple while the hidden sector is cannibalizing. During the chemical phase, only two-to-two interactions are active and the total number of hidden particles is conserved. During the one way phase, the dark matter annihilation products decay out of equilibrium, suppressing the production of dark matter from inverse annihilations. We map out the distinct phenomenology of each phase, which includes a boosted dark matter annihilation rate, new relativistic degrees of freedom, warm dark matter, and observable distortions to the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  8. Phenomenology of ELDER dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2017-08-01

    We explore the phenomenology of Elastically Decoupling Relic (ELDER) dark matter. ELDER is a thermal relic whose present density is determined primarily by the cross-section of its elastic scattering off Standard Model (SM) particles. Assuming that this scattering is mediated by a kinetically mixed dark photon, we argue that the ELDER scenario makes robust predictions for electron-recoil direct-detection experiments, as well as for dark photon searches. These predictions are independent of the details of interactions within the dark sector. Together with the closely related Strongly-Interacting Massive Particle (SIMP) scenario, the ELDER predictions provide a physically motivated, well-defined target region, which will be almost entirely accessible to the next generation of searches for sub-GeV dark matter and dark photons. We provide useful analytic approximations for various quantities of interest in the ELDER scenario, and discuss two simple renormalizable toy models which incorporate the required strong number-changing interactions among the ELDERs, as well as explicitly implement the coupling to electrons via the dark photon portal.

  9. Phases of cannibal dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele

    2016-12-01

    A hidden sector with a mass gap undergoes an epoch of cannibalism if number changing interactions are active when the temperature drops below the mass of the lightest hidden particle. During cannibalism, the hidden sector temperature decreases only logarithmically with the scale factor. We consider the possibility that dark matter resides in a hidden sector that underwent cannibalism, and has relic density set by the freeze-out of two-to-two annihilations. We identify three novel phases, depending on the behavior of the hidden sector when dark matter freezes out. During the cannibal phase, dark matter annihilations decouple while the hidden sector is cannibalizing. During the chemical phase, only two-to-two interactions are active and the total number of hidden particles is conserved. During the one way phase, the dark matter annihilation products decay out of equilibrium, suppressing the production of dark matter from inverse annihilations. We map out the distinct phenomenology of each phase, which includes a boosted dark matter annihilation rate, new relativistic degrees of freedom, warm dark matter, and observable distortions to the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  10. Cosmology of fermionic dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckel, Tillmann; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2007-11-15

    We explore a model for a fermionic dark matter particle family which decouples from the rest of the particles when at least all standard model particles are in equilibrium. We calculate the allowed ranges for mass and chemical potential to be compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculations and WMAP data for a flat universe with dark energy ({omega}{sub {lambda}}{sup 0}=0.72, {omega}{sub M}{sup 0}=0.27, h=0.7). Futhermore we estimate the free streaming length for fermions and antifermions to allow comparison to large scale structure data (LSS). We find that for dark matter decoupling when all standard model particles are present even the least restrictive combined BBN calculation and WMAP results allow us to constrain the initial dark matter chemical potential to a highest value of 6.3 times the dark matter temperature. In this case, the resulting mass range is at most 1.8 eV{<=}m{<=}53 eV, where the upper bound scales linearly with g{sub eff}{sup s}(T{sub Dec}). From LSS we find that, similar to ordinary warm dark matter models, the particle mass has to be larger than {approx}500 eV [meaning g{sub eff}{sup s}(T{sub Dec})>10{sup 3}] to be compatible with observations of the Ly {alpha} forest at high redshift, but still the dark matter chemical potential over temperature ratio can exceed unity.

  11. Dark antiatoms can explain DAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Wallemacq, Quentin; Cudell, Jean-René E-mail: jr.cudell@ulg.ac.be

    2015-02-01

    We show that the existence of a sub-dominant form of dark matter, made of dark ''antiatoms'' of mass m∼ 1 TeV and size a-dot {sub 0}∼ 3 fm, can explain the results of direct detection experiments, with a positive signal in DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA and no signal in other experiments. The signal comes from the binding of the dark antiatoms to thallium, a dopant in DAMA, and is not present for the constituent atoms of other experiments. The dark antiatoms are made of two particles oppositely charged under a dark U(1) symmetry and can bind to terrestrial atoms because of a kinetic mixing between the photon and the massless dark photon, such that the dark particles acquire an electric millicharge ∼ ± 5.10{sup −4}e. This millicharge enables them to bind to high-Z atoms via radiative capture, after they thermalize in terrestrial matter through elastic collisions.

  12. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  13. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  14. The outburst and nature of young eruptive low mass stars in dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Mallick, K. K.; Tej, A.; Sahu, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Mohan, V.

    The FU Orionis (FUor) or EX Orionis (EXor) phenomenon has attracted increasing attention in recent years and is now accepted as a crucial element in the early evolution of low-mass stars. FUor and EXor eruptions of young stellar objects (YSOs) are caused by strongly enhanced accretion from the surrounding disk. FUors display optical outbursts of ˜ 4 mag or more and last for several decades, whereas EXors show smaller outbursts (Δm ˜ 2 - 3 mag) that last from a few months to a few years and may occur repeatedly. Therefore, FUor/EXor eruptions represent a rare but very important phenomenon in early stellar evolution, during which a young low-mass YSO brightens by up to several optical magnitudes. Hence, long-term observations of this class of eruptive variables are important to design theoretical models of low-mass star formation. In this paper, we present recent results from our long-term monitoring observations of three rare types of eruptive young variables with the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) and the 2-m IUCAA Girawali Observatory (IGO) telescope.

  15. Cosmological constraints on decoupled dark photons and dark Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Joshua; Jedamzik, Karsten; Walker, Devin G.E.

    2016-11-16

    Any neutral boson such as a dark photon or dark Higgs that is part of a non-standard sector of particles can mix with its standard model counterpart. When very weakly mixed with the Standard Model, these particles are produced in the early Universe via the freeze-in mechanism and subsequently decay back to standard model particles. In this work, we place constraints on such mediator decays by considering bounds from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find both nucleosynthesis and CMB can constrain dark photons with a kinetic mixing parameter between log ϵ∼−10 to −17 for masses between 1 MeV and 100 GeV. Similarly, the dark Higgs mixing angle ϵ with the Standard Model Higgs is constrained between log ϵ∼−6 to −15. Dramatic improvement on the bounds from CMB spectral distortions can be achieved with proposed experiments such as PIXIE.

  16. Dark energy and dark matter perturbations in singular universes

    SciTech Connect

    Denkiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the evolution of density perturbations of dark matter and dark energy in cosmological models which admit future singularities in a finite time. Up to now geometrical tests of the evolution of the universe do not differentiate between singular universes and ΛCDM scenario. We solve perturbation equations using the gauge invariant formalism. The analysis shows that the detailed reconstruction of the evolution of perturbations within singular cosmologies, in the dark sector, can exhibit important differences between the singular universes models and the ΛCDM cosmology. This is encouraging for further examination and gives hope for discriminating between those models with future galaxy weak lensing experiments like the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Euclid or CMB observations like PRISM and CoRE.

  17. A two measure model of dark energy and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Singleton, Douglas; Yongram, N. E-mail: dougs@csufresno.edu

    2012-11-01

    In this work we construct a unified model of dark energy and dark matter. This is done with the following three elements: a gravitating scalar field, φ with a non-conventional kinetic term, as in the string theory tachyon; an arbitrary potential, V(φ); two measures — a metric measure ((−g){sup 1/2}) and a non-metric measure (Φ). The model has two interesting features: (i) For potentials which are unstable and would give rise to tachyonic scalar field, this model can stabilize the scalar field. (ii) The form of the dark energy and dark matter that results from this model is fairly insensitive to the exact form of the scalar field potential.

  18. The dark cube: dark and light character profiles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people’s malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument) rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument). We put forward the dark cube (cf. Cloninger’s character cube) comprising eight dark profiles that can be used to compare individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant. Our aim was to investigate in which circumstances individuals who are high in each one of the dark character traits differ in Cloninger’s “light” character traits: self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. We also investigated if people’s dark character profiles were associated to their light character profiles. Method. A total of 997 participants recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) responded to the Short Dark Triad and the Short Character Inventory. Participants were allocated to eight different dark profiles and eight light profiles based on their scores in each of the traits and any possible combination of high and low scores. We used three-way interaction regression analyses and t-tests to investigate differences in light character traits between individuals with different dark profiles. As a second step, we compared the individuals’ dark profile with her/his character profile using an exact cell-wise analysis conducted in the ROPstat software (http://www.ropstat.com). Results. Individuals who expressed high levels of Machiavellianism and those who expressed high levels of psychopathy also expressed low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Individuals with high levels of

  19. Cosmological constraints on decoupled dark photons and dark Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Joshua; Jedamzik, Karsten; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2016-11-01

    Any neutral boson such as a dark photon or dark Higgs that is part of a non-standard sector of particles can mix with its standard model counterpart. When very weakly mixed with the Standard Model, these particles are produced in the early Universe via the freeze-in mechanism and subsequently decay back to standard model particles. In this work, we place constraints on such mediator decays by considering bounds from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find both nucleosynthesis and CMB can constrain dark photons with a kinetic mixing parameter between log epsilon ~ -10 to -17 for masses between 1 MeV and 100 GeV . Similarly, the dark Higgs mixing angle epsilon with the Standard Model Higgs is constrained between log epsilon ~ -6 to -15. Dramatic improvement on the bounds from CMB spectral distortions can be achieved with proposed experiments such as PIXIE.

  20. Cosmological Constraints on Decoupled Dark Photons and Dark Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Joshua; Jedamzik, Karsten; Walker, Devin G.E.

    2016-05-23

    Any neutral boson such as a dark photon or dark Higgs that is part of a non-standard sector of particles can mix with its standard model counterpart. When very weakly mixed with the Standard Model, these particles are produced in the early Universe via the freeze-in mechanism and subsequently decay back to standard model particles. In this work, we place constraints on such mediator decays by considering bounds from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find both nucleosynthesis and CMB can constrain dark photons with a kinetic mixing parameter between log ϵ ~ -10 to -17 for masses between 1 MeV and 100 GeV. Similarly, the dark Higgs mixing angle ϵ with the Standard Model Higgs is constrained between log ϵ ~ -6 to -15. Dramatic improvement on the bounds from CMB spectral distortions can be achieved with proposed experiments such as PIXIE.

  1. Results from the DarkSide-50 Dark Matter Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Alden

    2016-01-01

    While there is tremendous astrophysical and cosmological evidence for dark matter, its precise nature is one of the most significant open questions in modern physics. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a particularly compelling class of dark matter candidates with masses of the order 100 GeV and couplings to ordinary matter at the weak scale. Direct detection experiments are aiming to observe the low energy (<100 keV) scattering of dark matter off normal matter. With the liquid noble technology leading the way in WIMP sensitivity, no conclusive signals have been observed yet. The DarkSide experiment is looking for WIMP dark matter using a liquid argon target in a dual-phase time projection chamber located deep underground at Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. Currently filled with argon obtained from underground sources, which is greatly reduced in radioactive 39Ar, DarkSide-50 recently made the most sensitive measurement of the 39Ar activity in underground argon and used it to set the strongest WIMP dark matter limit using liquid argon to date. This work describes the full chain of analysis used to produce the recent dark matter limit, from reconstruction of raw data to evaluation of the final exclusion curve. The DarkSide- 50 apparatus is described in detail, followed by discussion of the low level reconstruction algorithms. The algorithms are then used to arrive at three broad analysis results: The electroluminescence signals in DarkSide-50 are used to perform a precision measurement of ii longitudinal electron diffusion in liquid argon. A search is performed on the underground argon data to identify the delayed coincidence signature of 85Kr decays to the 85mRb state, a crucial ingredient in the measurement of the 39Ar activity in the underground argon. Finally, a full description of the WIMP search is given, including development of cuts, efficiencies, energy scale, and exclusion

  2. Dark Sky Protection and Education - Izera Dark Sky Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Kolomanski, Sylwester; Mrozek, Tomasz; Zakowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Darkness of the night sky is a natural component of our environment and should be protected against negative effects of human activities. The night darkness is necessary for balanced life of plants, animals and people. Unfortunately, development of human civilization and technology has led to the substantial increase of the night-sky brightness and to situation where nights are no more dark in many areas of the World. This phenomenon is called "light pollution" and it can be rank among such problems as chemical pollution of air, water and soil. Besides the environment, the light pollution can also affect e.g. the scientific activities of astronomers - many observatories built in the past began to be located within the glow of city lights making the night observations difficult, or even impossible.In order to protect the natural darkness of nights many so-called "dark sky parks" were established, where the darkness is preserved, similar to typical nature reserves. The role of these parks is not only conservation but also education, supporting to make society aware of how serious the problem of the light pollution is.History of the dark sky areas in Europe began on November 4, 2009 in Jizerka - a small village situated in the Izera Mountains, when Izera Dark Sky Park (IDSP) was established - it was the first transboundary dark sky park in the World. The idea of establishing that dark sky park in the Izera Mountains originated from a need to give to the society in Poland and Czech Republic the knowledge about the light pollution. Izera Dark Sky Park is a part of the astro-tourism project "Astro Izery" that combines tourist attraction of Izera Valley and astronomical education under the wonderful starry Izera sky. Besides the IDSP, the project Astro Izery consists of the set of simple astronomical instruments (gnomon, sundial), natural educational trail "Solar System Model", and astronomical events for the public. In addition, twice a year we organize a 3-4 days

  3. Dark matter in modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragawa, Taishi; Matsuzaki, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    We explore a new horizon of modified gravity from the viewpoint of particle physics. As a concrete example, we take the F (R ) gravity to raise a question: can a scalar particle ("scalaron") derived from the F (R ) gravity be a dark matter candidate? We place the limit on the parameter in a class of F (R ) gravity model from the constraint on the scalaron as a dark matter. The role of the screening mechanism and compatibility with the dark energy problem are addressed.

  4. Mixed dark matter from technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Alexander; Frandsen, Mads T.; Sarkar, Subir; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We study natural composite cold dark matter candidates which are pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGB) in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Some of these can have a significant thermal relic abundance, while others must be mainly asymmetric dark matter. By considering the thermal abundance alone we find a lower bound of m{sub W} on the pNGB mass when the (composite) Higgs is heavier than 115 GeV. Being pNGBs, the dark matter candidates are in general light enough to be produced at the LHC.

  5. Capturing prokaryotic dark matter genomes.

    PubMed

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Ribière, Céline; Parisot, Nicolas; Beugnot, Réjane; Defois, Clémence; Petit-Biderre, Corinne; Boucher, Delphine; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Prokaryotes are the most diverse and abundant cellular life forms on Earth. Most of them, identified by indirect molecular approaches, belong to microbial dark matter. The advent of metagenomic and single-cell genomic approaches has highlighted the metabolic capabilities of numerous members of this dark matter through genome reconstruction. Thus, linking functions back to the species has revolutionized our understanding of how ecosystem function is sustained by the microbial world. This review will present discoveries acquired through the illumination of prokaryotic dark matter genomes by these innovative approaches. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond two dark energy parameters.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Devdeep; Sullivan, Scott; Joudaki, Shahab; Amblard, Alexandre; Holz, Daniel E; Cooray, Asantha

    2008-06-20

    Our ignorance of dark energy is generally described by a two-parameter equation of state. In these approaches, a particular ad hoc functional form is assumed, and only two independent parameters are incorporated. We propose a model-independent, multiparameter approach to fitting dark energy and show that next-generation surveys will constrain the equation of state in three or more independent redshift bins to better than 10%. Future knowledge of dark energy will surpass two numbers (e.g., [w{0},w{1}] or [w{0},w{a}]), and we propose a more flexible approach to the analysis of present and future data.

  7. Detection of cosmic dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Primack, J.R.; Seckel, D.; Sadoulet, B.

    1988-01-01

    This is a mid-1988 status report on attempts to detect particle dark matter. We have some prejudice in limiting ourselves to dark matter candidates that we feel are especially motivated: weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), axions, and light neutrinos. Much of our review centers on the possibility of detecting WIMPs. This is partly because there exist several methods by which WIMPs may be detected in the next decade, whereas for axions the prospects are more uncertain and for light neutrinos essentially nonexistent. In addition, we feel that WIMPs provide a natural way for a critical density of dark matter to occur within the context of plausible particle theories. (AIP)

  8. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema

    Baltz, Ted

    2016-07-12

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  9. Falsification of Dark Energy by Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2012-03-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for the discovery of accelerating super- novae dimness, suggesting a remarkable reversal in the expansion rate of the Universe from a decrease to an increase, driven by anti-gravity forces of a mysterious dark energy material comprising 70% of the Universe mass-energy. Fluid mechanics and Herschel- Planck-Spitzer-Hubble etc. space telescope observations falsify both the accelerating ex- pansion rate and dark energy concepts. Kinematic viscosity is neglected in models of self-gravitational structure formation. Large plasma photon viscosity predicts protosu- perclustervoid fragmentation early in the plasma epoch and protogalaxies at the end. At the plasma-gas transition, the gas protogalaxies fragment into Earth-mass rogue plan- ets in highly persistent, trillion-planet clumps (proto-globular-star-cluster PGCs). PGC planets freeze to form the dark matter of galaxies and merge to form their stars, giving the hydrogen triple-point (14 K) infrared emissions observed. Dark energy is a system- atic dimming error for Supernovae Ia caused by partially evaporated planets feeding hot white dwarf stars at the Chandrasekhar carbon limit. Planet atmospheres may or may not dim light from SNe-Ia events depending on the line of sight.

  10. Halo Microlensing and Dark Baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, A. P. S.

    1993-12-01

    (While Pierce lectures review past accomplishments, customarily, this talk concerns efforts which we have pursued for some years and which are now reaching fruition. We present elsewhere at this meeting results from research cited for the Prize.) Dark matter exists in the halos of spiral galaxies, and the least radical alternative for its identity is normal matter produced by primordial nucleosynthesis. This matter could easily be hidden in large, condensed objects. Paczynski pointed out in 1986 that if condensations of Galactic halo matter are sufficiently massive, they will produce detectable amplification of background starlight by gravitational lensing. Several groups recently reported possible detections of this effect after surveying large numbers of stars in the Galactic Bulge and LMC. The connection between these events and massive, dark halos is unclear and likely to remain so for some time, given the rate at which they are detected. Following Paczynski's realization, we stressed that a much higher event rate, a statistical control sample, sensitivity to a much broader mass range, and modulation of the predicted lensing rate with galactocentric distance can all be realized by a different experiment: observing the halo of M31 (and the Galaxy) using stars in M31. In some ways, M31 is a more difficult target than the LMC or the Bulge, given the faintness of its stars, but our observations in 1991 and 1993 indicate that these problems have been surmounted. We can detect stellar variability even under extremely crowded conditions like those in M31's inner disk, and can monitor a sufficient number of stars to study halo lensing. We present results from our initial survey which indicates that the required sensitivity can be reached to confirm or reject the hypothesis that sub-solar masses like those detected in our Galaxy make up the missing spiral galaxy mass. It is possible that we may use the data already obtained (and still being analyzed) to place

  11. Dark matter and dark energy from quark bag model

    SciTech Connect

    Brilenkov, Maxim; Eingorn, Maxim; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Zhuk, Alexander E-mail: maxim.eingorn@gmail.com E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the present expansion of our Universe endowed with relict colored objects — quarks and gluons — that survived hadronization either as isolated islands of quark-gluon ''nuggets'' or spread uniformly in the Universe. In the first scenario, the QNs can play the role of dark matter. In the second scenario, we demonstrate that uniform colored objects can play the role of dark energy providing the late-time accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  12. Detecting dark matter with imploding pulsars in the galactic center.

    PubMed

    Bramante, Joseph; Linden, Tim

    2014-11-07

    The paucity of old millisecond pulsars observed at the galactic center of the Milky Way could be the result of dark matter accumulating in and destroying neutron stars. In regions of high dark matter density, dark matter clumped in a pulsar can exceed the Schwarzschild limit and collapse into a natal black hole which destroys the pulsar. We examine what dark matter models are consistent with this hypothesis and find regions of parameter space where dark matter accumulation can significantly degrade the neutron star population within the galactic center while remaining consistent with observations of old millisecond pulsars in globular clusters and near the solar position. We identify what dark matter couplings and masses might cause a young pulsar at the galactic center to unexpectedly extinguish. Finally, we find that pulsar collapse age scales inversely with the dark matter density and linearly with the dark matter velocity dispersion. This implies that maximum pulsar age is spatially dependent on position within the dark matter halo of the Milky Way. In turn, this pulsar age spatial dependence will be dark matter model dependent.

  13. Searching for a dark photon with DarkLight

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, R.

    2016-07-30

    Here, we describe the current status of the DarkLight experiment at Jefferson Laboratory. DarkLight is motivated by the possibility that a dark photon in the mass range 10 to 100 MeV/c2 could couple the dark sector to the Standard Model. DarkLight will precisely measure electron proton scattering using the 100 MeV electron beam of intensity 5 mA at the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovering linac incident on a windowless gas target of molecular hydrogen. We will detect the complete final state including scattered electron, recoil proton, and e+e- pair. A phase-I experiment has been funded and is expected to take data in the next eighteen months. The complete phase-II experiment is under final design and could run within two years after phase-I is completed. The DarkLight experiment drives development of new technology for beam, target, and detector and provides a new means to carry out electron scattering experiments at low momentum transfers.

  14. Progress toward a Dark Photon Search with DarkLight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corliss, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Despite compelling astrophysical evidence for the existence of dark matter in the universe, we have yet to positively identify it in any terrestrial experiment. If such matter is indeed a new particle, it may have a new interaction as well, carried by a dark counterpart to the photon. The DarkLight experiment proposes to search for such a beyond-the-standard-model dark photon through complete reconstruction of the final states of electron-proton collisions. In order to accomplish this, the experiment requires a moderate-density target and a very high intensity, low energy electron beam. Building on an initial beam test in 2012, the DarkLight collaboration began Phase I of the experiment with several weeks of beam time in the summer of 2016, using the Low Energy Recirculator Facility at Jefferson Lab. I will review the technical challenges of DarkLight's design, and discuss our multi-phase approach toward a full measurement, including our current status. This work is supported by DOE grants DE-FG02-94ER40818 and DE-SC0011970, and NSF MRI grant PHY-1437402.

  15. Searching for a dark photon with DarkLight

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, R.

    2016-07-30

    Here, we describe the current status of the DarkLight experiment at Jefferson Laboratory. DarkLight is motivated by the possibility that a dark photon in the mass range 10 to 100 MeV/c2 could couple the dark sector to the Standard Model. DarkLight will precisely measure electron proton scattering using the 100 MeV electron beam of intensity 5 mA at the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovering linac incident on a windowless gas target of molecular hydrogen. We will detect the complete final state including scattered electron, recoil proton, and e+e- pair. A phase-I experiment has been funded and is expected to take data in the next eighteen months. The complete phase-II experiment is under final design and could run within two years after phase-I is completed. The DarkLight experiment drives development of new technology for beam, target, and detector and provides a new means to carry out electron scattering experiments at low momentum transfers.

  16. Searching for a dark photon with DarkLight

    DOE PAGES

    Corliss, R.

    2016-07-30

    Here, we describe the current status of the DarkLight experiment at Jefferson Laboratory. DarkLight is motivated by the possibility that a dark photon in the mass range 10 to 100 MeV/c2 could couple the dark sector to the Standard Model. DarkLight will precisely measure electron proton scattering using the 100 MeV electron beam of intensity 5 mA at the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovering linac incident on a windowless gas target of molecular hydrogen. We will detect the complete final state including scattered electron, recoil proton, and e+e- pair. A phase-I experiment has been funded and is expected to take datamore » in the next eighteen months. The complete phase-II experiment is under final design and could run within two years after phase-I is completed. The DarkLight experiment drives development of new technology for beam, target, and detector and provides a new means to carry out electron scattering experiments at low momentum transfers.« less

  17. The Other Dark Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazmino, John

    In previous demonstrations of New York's elimination of luminous graffiti from its skies, I focused attention on large-scale projects in the showcase districts of Manhattan. Although these works earned passionate respect in the dark sky movement, they by the same token were disheartening. New York was in some quarters of the movement regarded more as an unachievable Shangri-La than as a role model to emulate. This presentation focuses on scenes of light abatement efforts in parts of New York which resemble other towns in scale and density. I photographed these scenes along a certain bus route in Brooklyn on my way home from work during October 2001. This route circulates through various "bedroom communities," each similar to a mid-size to large town elsewhere in the United States. The sujbects included individual structures - stores, banks, schools - and streetscapes mimicking downtowns. The latter protrayed a mix of atrocious and excellent lighting practice, being that these streets are in transition by the routine process of replacement and renovation. The fixtures used - box lamps, fluted or Fresnel globes, subdued headsigns, indirect lighting - are casually obtainable by property managers at local outlets for lighting apparatus. They are routinely offered to the property managers by storefront designers, security services, contractors, and the community improvement or betterment councils.

  18. Viscous dark fluid universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  19. Probing gravitational dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian

    2015-03-01

    So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χs. It is a Bbb Z2 odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξsχs2Script R, where ξs is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξsχs2Script R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξhH†HScript R, induces effective couplings between χs2 and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.

  20. Probing gravitational dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-03-01

    So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a Z{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.

  1. Probing gravitational dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian

    2015-03-27

    So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a ℤ{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.

  2. Dark Slope Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-412, 5 July 2003

    On the dry, desert planet, Mars, wind is not the only contemporary geologic process that modifies the surface. Gravity also has a role to play. In regions such as Amazonis, Tharsis, and Arabia, most surfaces are covered by mantles of very fine dust. From time to time, an avalanche occurs on a dust-covered slope. This process is happening today, because changes have been observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over the course if its mission, which began in September 1997. This picture shows a variety of dark slope streaks, formed by avalanches of dust, on the walls of a crater in southwest Amazonis near 7.6oN, 171.8oW. The size and shape of each slope streak, including the wide feature near the upper right, is determined by the steepness and texture of the slope on which it occurs. New slope streaks in some regions have been observed to form over periods of less than a few months to a year. This picture was taken in June 2003, and is illuminated from the lower left. The image is 2.3 km (1.4 mi) wide.

  3. Oscillating asymmetric dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2012-05-01

    We study the dynamics of dark matter (DM) particle-antiparticle oscillations within the context of asymmetric DM. Oscillations arise due to small DM number-violating Majorana-type mass terms, and can lead to recoupling of annihilation after freeze-out and washout of the DM density. Asymmetric DM oscillations "interpolate" between symmetric and asymmetric DM freeze-out scenarios, and allow for a larger DM model-building parameter space. We derive the density matrix equations for DM oscillations and freeze-out from first principles using nonequilibrium field theory, and our results are qualitatively different than in previous studies. DM dynamics exhibits particle-vs-antiparticle "flavor" effects, depending on the interaction type, analogous to neutrino oscillations in a medium. "Flavor-sensitive" DM interactions include scattering or annihilation through a new vector boson, while "flavor-blind" interactions include scattering or s-channel annihilation through a new scalar boson. In particular, we find that flavor-sensitive annihilation does not recouple when coherent oscillations begin, and that flavor-blind scattering does not lead to decoherence.

  4. Dark state lasers.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Cale M; Popović, Miloš A

    2014-07-15

    We propose a new type of laser resonator based on imaginary energy-level splitting (imaginary coupling or quality factor Q-splitting) in a pair of coupled microcavities. A particularly advantageous arrangement involves two microring cavities with different free-spectral ranges in a configuration wherein they are coupled by far-field interference in a shared radiation channel. A novel Vernier-like effect for laser resonators is designed in which only one longitudinal resonant mode has a lower loss than the small-signal gain and can achieve lasing while all other modes are suppressed. This configuration enables ultrawidely tunable single-frequency lasers based on either homogeneously or inhomogeneously broadened gain media. The concept is an alternative to the common external cavity configurations for achieving tunable single-mode operation in a laser. The proposed laser concept builds on a high-Q "dark state," which is established by radiative interference coupling and bears a direct analogy to parity-time symmetric Hamiltonians in optical systems. Variants of this concept should be extendable to parametric-gain-based oscillators, enabling widely tunable single-frequency light sources.

  5. Imperfect Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: alexander.vikman@lmu.de

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  6. Gravitational lenses and dark matter - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models are presented for guiding the application of gravitational lenses to probe the characteristics of dark matter in the universe. Analytical techniques are defined for quantifying the mass associated with lensing galaxies (in terms of the image separation), determining the quantity of dark mass of the lensing bodies, and estimating the mass density of the lenses. The possibility that heavy halos are made of low mass stars is considered, along with the swallowing of central images of black holes or cusps in galactic nuclei and the effects produced on a lensed quasar image by nonbaryonic halos. The observable effects of dense groups and clusters and the characteristics of dark matter strings are discussed, and various types of images which are possible due to lensing phenomena and position are described.

  7. Dark Side Ring of Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-23

    NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward the dark side of Saturn largest moon as a circle of light is produced by sunlight scattering through the periphery of Titan atmosphere. A detached, high-altitude global haze layer encircles the moon.

  8. Dark Energy Rules the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley Lab theoretical physicist Eric Linder previews his Nov. 24, 2008 talk on the mystery of dark energy. Catch his full lecture here: http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/servlets/purl/1007511?format=mp4

  9. Dark Spot and Jovian Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-24

    This enhanced-color image of a mysterious dark spot on Jupiter seems to reveal a Jovian "galaxy" of swirling storms. Juno acquired this JunoCam image on Feb. 2, 2017, at 5:13 a.m. PDT (8:13 a.m. EDT), at an altitude of 9,000 miles (14,500 kilometers) above the giant planet's cloud tops. This publicly selected target was simply titled "Dark Spot." In ground-based images it was difficult to tell that it is a dark storm. Citizen scientist Roman Tkachenko enhanced the color to bring out the rich detail in the storm and surrounding clouds. Just south of the dark storm is a bright, oval-shaped storm with high, bright, white clouds, reminiscent of a swirling galaxy. As a final touch, he rotated the image 90 degrees, turning the picture into a work of art. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21386

  10. The Dark Matter of Biology.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jennifer L

    2016-09-06

    The inside of the cell is full of important, yet invisible species of molecules and proteins that interact weakly but couple together to have huge and important effects in many biological processes. Such "dark matter" inside cells remains mostly hidden, because our tools were developed to investigate strongly interacting species and folded proteins. Example dark-matter species include intrinsically disordered proteins, posttranslational states, ion species, and rare, transient, and weak interactions undetectable by biochemical assays. The dark matter of biology is likely to have multiple, vital roles to regulate signaling, rates of reactions, water structure and viscosity, crowding, and other cellular activities. We need to create new tools to image, detect, and understand these dark-matter species if we are to truly understand fundamental physical principles of biology. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The LZ dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinsey, D. N.; LZ Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The LUX and ZEPLIN collaborations have merged to construct a 7 tonne two-phase Xe dark matter detector, known as LUX-ZEPLIN or LZ. Chosen as one of the Generation 2 suite of dark matter direct detection experiments, LZ will probe spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross sections down to 2 × 10-48 cm2 at 50 GeV/c2 within 3 years of operation, covering a substantial range of theoretically-motivated dark matter candidates. Along with dark matter interactions with Xe nuclei, LZ will also be sensitive to solar neutrinos emitted by the pp fusion process in the sun, neutrinos emitted by a nearby supernova and detected by coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, certain classes of axions and axion-like particles, and neutrinoless double-beta decay of 136Xe. The design of LZ is presented, along with its expected backgrounds and projected sensitivity.

  12. Direct reconstruction of dark energy.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

    2010-05-28

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z≲1 using just SNAP-quality data.

  13. Throwing light on dark energy.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Robert P

    2003-06-20

    Supernova observations show that the expansion of the universe has been speeding up. This unexpected acceleration is ascribed to a dark energy that pervades space. Supernova data, combined with other observations, indicate that the universe is about 14 billion years old and is composed of about 30%matter and 70%dark energy. New observational programs can trace the history of cosmic expansion more precisely and over a larger span of time than has been done to date to learn whether the dark energy is a modern version of Einstein's cosmological constant or another form of dark energy that changes with time. Either conclusion is an enigma that points to gaps in our fundamental understanding of gravity.

  14. Holographic Ricci Dark Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we consider holographic Ricci dark energy model, and by using general relativity equations obtain time-dependent density of the Universe. We show that the resulting density in independent of space curvature.

  15. A History of Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Hooper, Dan

    2016-05-16

    Although dark matter is a central element of modern cosmology, the history of how it became accepted as part of the dominant paradigm is often ignored or condensed into a brief anecdotical account focused around the work of a few pioneering scientists. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a broader historical perspective on the observational discoveries and the theoretical arguments that led the scientific community to adopt dark matter as an essential part of the standard cosmological model.

  16. Scalar graviton as dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, Yu. F.

    2015-06-15

    The basics of the theory of unimodular bimode gravity built on the principles of unimodular gauge invariance/relativity and general covariance are exposed. Besides the massless tensor graviton of General Relativity, the theory includes an (almost) massless scalar graviton treated as the gravitational dark matter. A spherically symmetric vacuum solution describing the coherent scalar-graviton field for the soft-core dark halos, with the asymptotically flat rotation curves, is demonstrated as an example.

  17. Did LIGO Detect Dark Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias; Munoz, Julian; Ali-Haimoud, Yacine; Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely; Raccanelli, Alvise; Riess, Adam

    2017-01-01

    There is a possibility that the recent LIGO detection of gravitational waves originated from the merger of two primordial black holes, making up the dark matter. Thirty solar mass black holes, as detected by LIGO, lie within an allowed mass window for primordial black hole dark matter. Interestingly, our best estimates of the number of observable mergers fall within the range implied by current LIGO data. I will explain these estimates and discuss the (considerable!) theoretical uncertainties.

  18. Macroscopic theory of dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris

    A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant [1]. Space-like and time-like massive vector fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like massive vector field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves [2]. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe [3]. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution corresponds to the particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows to analyse the main properties of the dark sector analytically and avoid unnecessary model assumptions. It opens a possibility to trace how the additional attraction of the space-like dark matter, dominating in the galaxy scale, transforms into the elastic repulsion of the time-like dark matter, dominating in the scale of the Universe. 1. B. E. Meierovich. "Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology". Phys. Rev. D 84, 064037 (2011). 2. B. E. Meierovich. "Galaxy rotation curves driven by massive vector fields: Key to the theory of the dark sector". Phys. Rev. D 87, 103510, (2013). 3. B. E. Meierovich. "Towards the theory of the evolution of the Universe". Phys. Rev. D 85, 123544 (2012).

  19. Scalar graviton as dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirogov, Yu. F.

    2015-06-01

    The basics of the theory of unimodular bimode gravity built on the principles of unimodular gauge invariance/relativity and general covariance are exposed. Besides the massless tensor graviton of General Relativity, the theory includes an (almost) massless scalar graviton treated as the gravitational dark matter. A spherically symmetric vacuum solution describing the coherent scalar-graviton field for the soft-core dark halos, with the asymptotically flat rotation curves, is demonstrated as an example.

  20. Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Ellis, Richard; Scoville, Nick; Leauthaud, Alexie; Finoguenov, Alexis; Capak, Peter; Bacon, David; Aussel, Hervé; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koekemoer, Anton; McCracken, Henry; Mobasher, Bahram; Pires, Sandrine; Refregier, Alexandre; Sasaki, Shunji; Starck, Jean-Luc; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Taylor, Andy; Taylor, James

    2007-01-18

    Ordinary baryonic particles (such as protons and neutrons) account for only one-sixth of the total matter in the Universe. The remainder is a mysterious 'dark matter' component, which does not interact via electromagnetism and thus neither emits nor reflects light. As dark matter cannot be seen directly using traditional observations, very little is currently known about its properties. It does interact via gravity, and is most effectively probed through gravitational lensing: the deflection of light from distant galaxies by the gravitational attraction of foreground mass concentrations. This is a purely geometrical effect that is free of astrophysical assumptions and sensitive to all matter--whether baryonic or dark. Here we show high-fidelity maps of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, resolved in both angle and depth. We find a loose network of filaments, growing over time, which intersect in massive structures at the locations of clusters of galaxies. Our results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built.

  1. Magnetic Enhancements to Dark Matter Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, William G.; Tinsley, Todd

    2017-01-01

    The rate of dark matter annihilation should be greatest where the dark matter density is maximal. This is typically in the gravity wells of large stars where it also happens to be true that magnetic fields can be very large. In this poster we present an examination of how these intense magnetic fields can alter the cross section for dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs. We work within the framework of the minimally supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model (MSSM), and we choose its lightest neutralino as our dark matter candidate. Within this theory, dark matter can annihilate into many different final-state particles through several channels. We restrict our analysis to an electron-positron pair final state because of the low mass and reasonable detection signature. Since strong magnetic fields change how momentum is conserved for charged particles, this calculation investigates the relationship between the annihilation cross section and the electron's and positron's landau level. This is work is supported by NASA/Arkansas Space Grant Consortium and the Hendrix College Odyssey Program.

  2. Direct detection with dark mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Surujon, Ze'ev; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2014-11-01

    We introduce dark mediator Dark Matter (dmDM) where the dark and visible sectors are connected by at least one light mediator ϕ carrying the same dark charge that stabilizes DM. ϕ is coupled to the Standard Model via an operator q bar qϕϕ* / Λ, and to dark matter via a Yukawa coupling yχχc bar χϕ. Direct detection is realized as the 2 → 3 process χN → χ bar Nϕ at tree-level for mϕ ≲ 10 keV and small Yukawa coupling, or alternatively as a loop-induced 2 → 2 process χN → χN. We explore the direct-detection consequences of this scenario and find that a heavy O (100 GeV) dmDM candidate fakes different O (10 GeV) standard WIMPs in different experiments. Large portions of the dmDM parameter space are detectable above the irreducible neutrino background and not yet excluded by any bounds. Interestingly, for the mϕ range leading to novel direct detection phenomenology, dmDM is also a form of Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM), which resolves inconsistencies between dwarf galaxy observations and numerical simulations.

  3. Dark matter beams at LBNF

    SciTech Connect

    Coloma, Pilar; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2016-04-08

    High-intensity neutrino beam facilities may produce a beam of light dark matter when protons strike the target. Searches for such a dark matter beam using its scattering in a nearby detector must overcome the large neutrino background. We characterize the spatial and energy distributions of the dark matter and neutrino beams, focusing on their differences to enhance the sensitivity to dark matter. We find that a dark matter beam produced by a Z$^{'}$ boson in the GeV mass range is both broader and more energetic than the neutrino beam. The reach for dark matter is maximized for a detector sensitive to hard neutral-current scatterings, placed at a sizable angle off the neutrino beam axis. In the case of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a detector placed at roughly 6 degrees off axis and at a distance of about 200 m from the target would be sensitive to Z$^{'}$ couplings as low as 0.05. This search can proceed symbiotically with neutrino measurements. We also show that the MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE detectors, which are on Fermilab’s Booster beamline, happen to be at an optimal angle from the NuMI beam and could perform searches with existing data. As a result, this illustrates potential synergies between LBNF and the short-baseline neutrino program if the detectors are positioned appropriately.

  4. Skew-flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; ...

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in whichmore » dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.« less

  5. Skew-flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.

  6. Dark D-brane cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Koivisto, Tomi; Wills, Danielle; Zavala, Ivonne E-mail: d.e.wills@durham.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    Disformally coupled cosmologies arise from Dirac-Born-Infeld actions in Type II string theories, when matter resides on a moving hidden sector D-brane. Since such matter interacts only very weakly with the standard model particles, this scenario can provide a natural origin for the dark sector of the universe with a clear geometrical interpretation: dark energy is identified with the scalar field associated to the D-brane's position as it moves in the internal space, acting as quintessence, while dark matter is identified with the matter living on the D-brane, which can be modelled by a perfect fluid. The coupling functions are determined by the (warped) extra-dimensional geometry, and are thus constrained by the theory. The resulting cosmologies are studied using both dynamical system analysis and numerics. From the dynamical system point of view, one free parameter controls the cosmological dynamics, given by the ratio of the warp factor and the potential energy scales. The disformal coupling allows for new scaling solutions that can describe accelerating cosmologies alleviating the coincidence problem of dark energy. In addition, this scenario may ameliorate the fine-tuning problem of dark energy, whose small value may be attained dynamically, without requiring the mass of the dark energy field to be unnaturally low.

  7. Skew-flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.

  8. Dark matter beams at LBNF

    DOE PAGES

    Coloma, Pilar; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia; ...

    2016-04-08

    High-intensity neutrino beam facilities may produce a beam of light dark matter when protons strike the target. Searches for such a dark matter beam using its scattering in a nearby detector must overcome the large neutrino background. We characterize the spatial and energy distributions of the dark matter and neutrino beams, focusing on their differences to enhance the sensitivity to dark matter. We find that a dark matter beam produced by a Zmore » $$^{'}$$ boson in the GeV mass range is both broader and more energetic than the neutrino beam. The reach for dark matter is maximized for a detector sensitive to hard neutral-current scatterings, placed at a sizable angle off the neutrino beam axis. In the case of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a detector placed at roughly 6 degrees off axis and at a distance of about 200 m from the target would be sensitive to Z$$^{'}$$ couplings as low as 0.05. This search can proceed symbiotically with neutrino measurements. We also show that the MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE detectors, which are on Fermilab’s Booster beamline, happen to be at an optimal angle from the NuMI beam and could perform searches with existing data. As a result, this illustrates potential synergies between LBNF and the short-baseline neutrino program if the detectors are positioned appropriately.« less

  9. Dark matter and global symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Mambrini, Yann; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-08-03

    General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Here, assuming that (i) global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii) the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1) couplings, that (iii) the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv) the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime

  10. Dark matter and global symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Mambrini, Yann; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-08-03

    General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Sawmore » models. Here, assuming that (i) global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii) the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1) couplings, that (iii) the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv) the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime« less

  11. Direct detection with dark mediators

    DOE PAGES

    Curtin, David; Surujon, Ze'ev; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2014-10-16

    We introduce dark mediator Dark Matter (dmDM) where the dark and visible sectors are connected by at least one light mediator Φ carrying the same dark charge that stabilizes DM. Φ is coupled to the Standard Model via an operator q¯qΦΦ*/Λ, and to dark matter via a Yukawa coupling yχX¯cXΦ. Direct detection is realized as the 2 → 3 process χN → χ¯NΦ at tree-level for mΦ≲10 keV and small Yukawa coupling, or alternatively as a loop-induced 2 → 2 process χN → χN. We explore the direct-detection consequences of this scenario and find that a heavy O(100 GeV) dmDMmore » candidate fakes different O(10 GeV) standard WIMPs in different experiments. Large portions of the dmDM parameter space are detectable above the irreducible neutrino background and not yet excluded by any bounds. Interestingly, for the mΦ range leading to novel direct detection phenomenology, dmDM is also a form of Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM), which resolves inconsistencies between dwarf galaxy observations and numerical simulations.« less

  12. The DarkSide awakens

    DOE PAGES

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; ...

    2016-06-09

    Here, the DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. Themore » new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.« less

  13. Dark matter and global symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambrini, Yann; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-09-01

    General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i) global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii) the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O (1) couplings, that (iii) the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv) the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime.

  14. Reconciling MOND and dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneton, Jean-Philippe; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo; Famaey, Benoit

    2009-03-01

    Observations of galaxies suggest a one-to-one analytic relation between the inferred gravity of dark matter at any radius and the enclosed baryonic mass, a relation summarized by Milgrom's law of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). However, present-day covariant versions of MOND usually require some additional fields contributing to the geometry, as well as an additional hot dark matter component to explain cluster dynamics and cosmology. Here, we envisage a slightly more mundane explanation, suggesting that dark matter does exist but is the source of MOND-like phenomenology in galaxies. We assume a canonical action for dark matter, but also add an interaction term between baryonic matter, gravity, and dark matter, such that standard matter effectively obeys the MOND field equation in galaxies. We show that even the simplest realization of the framework leads to a model which reproduces some phenomenological predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) and MOND at those scales where these are most successful. We also devise a more general form of the interaction term, introducing the medium density as a new order parameter. This allows for new physical effects which should be amenable to observational tests in the near future. Hence, this very general framework, which can be furthermore related to a generalized scalar-tensor theory, opens the way to a possible unification of the successes of CDM and MOND at different scales.

  15. The DarkSide awakens

    SciTech Connect

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; M Albuquerque, I. F.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D’Angelo, D.; D’Incecco, M.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Foster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K. R.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-06-09

    Here, the DarkSide program at LNGS aims to perform background-free WIMP searches using two phase liquid argon time projection chambers, with the ultimate goal of covering all parameters down to the so-called neutrino floor. One of the distinct features of the program is the use of underground argon with has a reduced content of the radioactive 39Ar compared to atmospheric argon. The DarkSide Collaboration is currently operating the DarkSide-50 experiment, the first such WIMP detector using underground argon. Operations with underground argon indicate a suppression of 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The new results obtained with DarkSide-50 and the plans for the next steps of the DarkSide program, the 20t fiducial mass DarkSide-20k detector and the 200 t fiducial Argo, are reviewed in this proceedings.

  16. Observed trend in the star formation history and the dark matter fraction of galaxies at redshift z ≈ 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Shravan; Cappellari, Michele

    2015-12-01

    We study the star formation history for a sample of 154 galaxies with stellar mass 10^{10}≲ M_{*} ≲ 10^{12} { M_{⊙}} in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 0.9. We do this using stellar population models combined with full-spectrum fitting of good quality spectra and high-resolution photometry. For a subset of 68 galaxies (M_{*}≳ 10^{11}{ M_{⊙}}) we additionally construct dynamical models. These use an axisymmetric solution to the Jeans equations, which allows for velocity anisotropy, and adopts results from abundance matching techniques to account for the dark matter content. We find that (i) the trends in star formation history observed in the local Universe are already in place by z ˜ 1: the most massive galaxies are already passive, while lower mass ones have a more extended star formation histories, and the lowest mass galaxies are actively forming stars; (ii) we place an upper limit of a factor 1.5 to the size growth of the massive galaxy population; (iii) we present strong evidence for low dark matter fractions within 1Re (median of 9 per cent and 90th percentile of 21 per cent) for galaxies with M_{*} ≳ 10^{11} { M_{⊙}} at these redshifts; and (iv) we confirm that these galaxies have, on average, a Salpeter normalization of the stellar initial mass function.

  17. Dwarf Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colín, P.; Klypin, A.; Valenzuela, O.; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    We study properties of dark matter halos at high redshifts z=2-10 for a vast range of masses with the emphasis on dwarf halos with masses of 107-109 h-1 Msolar. We find that the density profiles of relaxed dwarf halos are well fitted by the Navarro, Frenk, & White (NFW) profile and do not have cores. We compute the halo mass function and the halo spin parameter distribution and find that the former is very well reproduced by the Sheth & Tormen model, while the latter is well fitted by a lognormal distribution with λ0=0.042 and σλ=0.63. We estimate the distribution of concentrations for halos in a mass range that covers 6 orders of magnitude, from 107 to 1013 h-1 Msolar, and find that the data are well reproduced by the model of Bullock et al. The extrapolation of our results to z=0 predicts that present-day isolated dwarf halos should have a very large median concentration of ~35. We measure the subhalo circular velocity functions for halos with masses that range from 4.6×109 to 1013 h-1 Msolar and find that they are similar when normalized to the circular velocity of the parent halo. Dwarf halos studied in this paper are many orders of magnitude smaller than well-studied cluster- and Milky Way-sized halos. Yet, in all respects the dwarfs are just downscaled versions of the large halos. They are cuspy and, as expected, more concentrated. They have the same spin parameter distribution and follow the same mass function that was measured for large halos.

  18. Peaking Into the Dark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    In this dramatic scene, an unnamed crater in Mercury's northern volcanic plains is bathed in darkness as the sun sits low on the horizon. Rising from the floor of the crater is its central peak, a small mountain resulting from the crater's formation. A central peak is a type of crater morphology that lies between "simple" and "peak ring" in the range of crater morphology on Mercury. This image was acquired as a high-resolution targeted observation. Targeted observations are images of a small area on Mercury's surface at resolutions much higher than the 200-meter/pixel morphology base map. It is not possible to cover all of Mercury's surface at this high resolution, but typically several areas of high scientific interest are imaged in this mode each week. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. During the first two years of orbital operations, MESSENGER acquired over 150,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Dynamical Dark Matter from strongly-coupled dark sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Huang, Fei; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

    2017-02-01

    Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose Standard-Model decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. Previous studies of this framework have focused on a particular class of DDM ensembles—motivated primarily by Kaluza-Klein towers in theories with extra dimensions—in which the density of dark states scales roughly as a polynomial of the mass. In this paper, by contrast, we study the properties of a different class of DDM ensembles in which the density of dark states grows exponentially with mass. Ensembles with this Hagedorn-like property arise naturally as the "hadronic" resonances associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector; they also arise naturally as the gauge-neutral bulk states of Type I string theories. We study the dynamical properties of such ensembles, and demonstrate that an appropriate DDM-like balancing between decay widths and abundances can emerge naturally—even with an exponentially rising density of states. We also study the effective equations of state for such ensembles, and investigate some of the model-independent observational constraints on such ensembles that follow directly from these equations of state. In general, we find that such constraints tend to introduce correlations between various properties of these DDM ensembles such as their associated mass scales, lifetimes, and abundance distributions. For example, we find that these constraints allow DDM ensembles with energy scales ranging from the GeV scale all the way to the Planck scale, but that the total present-day cosmological abundance of the dark sector must be spread across an increasing number of different states in the ensemble as these energy scales are dialed from the Planck scale down to the GeV scale. Numerous other correlations and constraints are also discussed.

  20. Dark matter: Observational manifestation and experimental searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, I. B.; Bolotin, Yu. L.; Boyarsky, A. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Babyk, Iu. V.; Iakubovskyi, D. A.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Sergeev, S. G

    2015-08-01

    This monograph is the third issue of a three volume edition under the general title "Dark Energy and Dark Matter in the Universe". The authors discuss the astrophysical direct and indirect manifestation and properties of dark matter in galaxies, galaxy clusters and groups; the different mechanisms of energy exchange between dark energy and dark matter that expand the capabilities of the Standard Cosmological Model; the experimental search for dark matter particle candidates (including the sterile neutrinos, solar axions,weakly-interacting massive particles, and superheavy dark matter particles) using space, ground-based, and underground observatories.