Science.gov

Sample records for dato stenocereus griseus

  1. Efficient production of nonactin by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yulian; Zheng, Shaolun

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the production of the cyclic macrotetrolide nonactin from the fermentation culture of Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus. Nonactin is a member of a family of naturally occurring cyclic ionophores known as the macrotetrolide antibiotics. Our fermentation procedure of Streptomyces griseus was performed at 30 °C and 200 rev·min(-1) for 5 days on a rotary shaker. Diaion HP-20 and Amberlite XAD-16 were added to the fermentation medium. Isolated yield of nonactin was up to 80 mg·L(-1) using our methodology. Nonactin is commonly known as an ammonium ionophore and also exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, and antitumor activities. It is also widely used for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes and sensors. Chemical synthesis of nonactin has been achieved by some groups; however, overall yields are very low, making efficient biosynthesis an attractive means of production. PMID:27405846

  2. Chromogenesis mirabilis in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Arai, T; Mikami, Y

    1972-11-01

    A number of chromogenic Streptomyces, producing diffusible melanoid pigment on complex organic media, fail to form melanin pigment on conventionally used synthetic tyrosine agar. By means of our new melanin formation test, almost all the chromogenic streptomyces can now be detected in chemically defined medium. In contrast to ordinary chromogenic streptomyces, two streptomyces species of the International Streptomyces Project, S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. ornatus ISP 5307, produce melanin pigment only on synthetic tyrosine agar, without showing chromogenicity on complex organic media. From the results obtained with S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. phaeochromogenes ISP 5073, it was revealed that melanin formation by Streptomyces, in general, is inhibited by L-cysteine present in organic nitrogen sources incorporated into natural media. Most chromogenic species of streptomyces produce a higher level of tyrosinase and rapidly utilize L-cysteine in the culture media which result in the manifestation of good chromogenicity on natural media. Peculiarity of chromogenicity of S. griseus and S. ornatus might be due to the lower ability to produce tyrosinase and to utilize L-cysteine in the culture medium.

  3. Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Jennifer D.; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Pawloski, Jeffrey L.; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    2003-01-01

    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. To investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female Risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being blindfolded. Clicks emitted by the dolphin were acquired at average amplitudes of 192.6 dB re 1 μPa, with estimated sources levels up to 216 dB re 1 μPa-1 m. Clicks were acquired with peak frequencies as high as 104.7 kHz (Mfp=47.9 kHz), center frequencies as high as 85.7 kHz (Mf0=56.5 kHz), 3-dB bandwidths up to 94.1 kHz (MBW=39.7 kHz), and root-mean-square bandwidths up to 32.8 kHz (MRMS=23.3 kHz). Click durations were between 40 and 70 μs. The data establish that the Risso's dolphin echolocates, and that, aside from slightly lower amplitudes and frequencies, the clicks emitted by the dolphin were similar to those emitted by other echolocating odontocetes. The particular acoustic and behavioral findings in the study are discussed with respect to the possible direction of the sonar transmission beam of the species.

  4. Echolocation in the Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus.

    PubMed

    Philips, Jennifer D; Nachtigall, Paul E; Au, Whitlow W L; Pawloski, Jeffrey L; Roitblat, Herbert L

    2003-01-01

    The Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. To investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female Risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being blindfolded. Clicks emitted by the dolphin were acquired at average amplitudes of 192.6 dB re 1 microPa, with estimated sources levels up to 216 dB re 1 microPa-1 m. Clicks were acquired with peak frequencies as high as 104.7 kHz (Mf(p) = 47.9 kHz), center frequencies as high as 85.7 kHz (Mf(0) = 56.5 kHz), 3-dB bandwidths up to 94.1 kHz (M(BW) = 39.7 kHz), and root-mean-square bandwidths up to 32.8 kHz (M(RMS) = 23.3 kHz). Click durations were between 40 and 70 micros. The data establish that the Risso's dolphin echolocates, and that, aside from slightly lower amplitudes and frequencies, the clicks emitted by the dolphin were similar to those emitted by other echolocating odontocetes. The particular acoustic and behavioral findings in the study are discussed with respect to the possible direction of the sonar transmission beam of the species.

  5. Transmission beam characteristics of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam B; Kloepper, Laura N; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Wan-Hsiu; Jen, I-Fan; Rideout, Brendan P; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    The echolocation system of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) remains poorly studied compared to other odontocete species. In this study, echolocation signals were recorded from a stationary Risso's dolphin with an array of 16 hydrophones and the two-dimensional beam shape was explored using frequency-dependent amplitude plots. Click source parameters were similar to those already described for this species. Centroid frequency of click signals increased with increasing sound pressure level, while the beamwidth decreased with increasing center frequency. Analysis revealed primarily single-lobed, and occasionally vertically dual-lobed, beam shapes. Overall beam directivity was found to be greater than that of the harbor porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, and a false killer whale. The relationship between frequency content, beam directivity, and head size for this Risso's dolphin deviated from the trend described for other species. These are the first reported measurements of echolocation beam shape and directivity in G. griseus. PMID:26827004

  6. Morphological variation and the process of domestication of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Casas, A; Caballero, J; Valiente-Banuet, A; Soriano, J A; Dávila, P

    1999-04-01

    Morphological variation was analyzed in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in central Mexico. The purpose was to evaluate whether morphological divergence between manipulated and wild populations has resulted from domestication processes. Variation of 23 morphological characters was analyzed among 324 individuals from 19 populations of the Tehuacán Valley and La Mixteca Baja. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to group individuals and populations according to their morphological similarity. Individuals grouped according to the way of management and fruit characteristics were the most relevant for grouping. Within each region, sweet fruits with pulp colors other than red were more frequent in cultivated populations, where fruits were also larger, contained more and bigger seeds, and had thinner peel and fewer spines than fruits from wild individuals. Phenotypes common in managed in situ and cultivated populations generally occur in the wild but in lower frequencies. Artificial selection has thus operated by enhancing and maintaining desirable rare phenotypes in managed in situ and cultivated populations, causing divergent patterns of morphological variation from wild populations. Cultivation has caused the strongest level of divergence, but divergence has also been significant with management of wild populations in situ.

  7. Physical, chemical, and antioxidant activity characterization of pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) fruits.

    PubMed

    García-Cruz, Leticia; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Joaquín-Cruz, Elvia

    2013-12-01

    Fruits with red and orange flesh of the columnar cactus pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) were studied to evaluate physical characteristics, total soluble solids, betalains and soluble phenols content, and antioxidant activity. Fruits had, in average, weight of 179.0 g, 9.8 °Brix, 9.4 % carbohydrates, 1.25 % protein, 0.11 % ethereal extract, 0.60 % crude fiber, and 0.62 % ash. Also, fruits resulted rich in Fe (22.8-27.8 mg/kg). Hue angle and contents of betacyanins, betaxanthins (μg/g dry sample), and total soluble phenols (mg GAE/g fresh sample) were 19.8°, 2860.0, 3210.0, and 1.6 in the red material, and 28.9°, 470.0, 2670.0, and 1.2, respectively, in the orange fruit. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the red material, since the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) technique reported 1090.6 and 735.4 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh flesh in red and orange fruits, respectively, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay reported 7.84 and 5.16 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh flesh, respectively. The chromatographic profile showed five betalains in red fruits, but only four of them were observed in those orange fleshed.

  8. Managing diversity: Domestication and gene flow in Stenocereus stellatus Riccob. (Cactaceae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Parker, Kathleen C; Friar, Elizabeth A; Huang, Daisie I; Mashayekhi, Saeideh; Prince, Linda M; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Casas, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite markers (N = 5) were developed for analysis of genetic variation in 15 populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus, managed under traditional agriculture practices in central Mexico. Microsatellite diversity was analyzed within and among populations, between geographic regions, and among population management types to provide detailed insight into historical gene flow rates and population dynamics associated with domestication. Our results corroborate a greater diversity in populations managed by farmers compared with wild ones (HE = 0.64 vs. 0.55), but with regional variation between populations among regions. Although farmers propagated S. stellatus vegetatively in home gardens to diversify their stock, asexual recruitment also occurred naturally in populations where more marginal conditions have limited sexual recruitment, resulting in lower genetic diversity. Therefore, a clear-cut relationship between the occurrence of asexual recruitment and genetic diversity was not evident. Two managed populations adjacent to towns were identified as major sources of gene movement in each sampled region, with significant migration to distant as well as nearby populations. Coupled with the absence of significant bottlenecks, this suggests a mechanism for promoting genetic diversity in managed populations through long distance gene exchange. Cultivation of S. stellatus in close proximity to wild populations has led to complex patterns of genetic variation across the landscape that reflects the interaction of natural and cultural processes. As molecular markers become available for nontraditional crops and novel analysis techniques allow us to detect and evaluate patterns of genetic diversity, genetic studies provide valuable insights into managing crop genetic resources into the future against a backdrop of global change. Traditional agriculture systems play an important role in maintaining genetic diversity for plant species. PMID:23762520

  9. Physical map of the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Lezhava, A; Mizukami, T; Kajitani, T; Kameoka, D; Redenbach, M; Shinkawa, H; Nimi, O; Kinashi, H

    1995-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA of Streptomyces griseus 2247 (a derivative of strain IFO3237) was digested with several restriction endonucleases and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Digestion with AseI and DraI gave 15 and 9 fragments, respectively, the total sizes of which were 7.8 Mb. All the AseI and DraI fragments were aligned on a linear chromosome map by using linking plasmids and cosmids. PFGE analysis of the intact chromosome also showed a linear DNA band of about 8 Mb. Detailed physical maps of both terminal regions were constructed; they revealed the presence of a 24-kb terminal inverted repeat on each end. PFGE analysis with and without proteinase K treatment suggested that each end of the chromosome carries a protein molecule. PMID:7592425

  10. Growth and development of the arborescent cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis in a subtropical semiarid environment, including effects of gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Eulogio; Hernandez, Gerardo; Domingues, Alejandro; Nobel, Park S.

    1998-01-01

    In Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum, an arborescent cactus cultivated in Jalisco, Mexico, for its fruits but studied here in wild populations, stem extension occurred in the autumn at the beginning of the dry season, flowering and fruiting occurred in the spring at the end of the dry season, and new roots grew in the summer during the wet season. The asynchrony of vegetative and reproductive growth reduces competitive sink effects, which may be advantageous for wild populations growing in infertile rocky soils. Seasonal patterns of sugars in the roots and especially the stems of S. queretaroensis were closely related to the main phenological stages, becoming lower in concentration during periods of major stem extension. Cessation of stem extension occurred in 100-year-old plants for which injection of GA(3) reinitiated such growth. Isolated chlorenchyma cylinders had maximum extension in a bathing solution containing 0.1 &mgr;M gibberellic acid.

  11. Social organization of the Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis).

    PubMed

    Mutschler, T; Nievergelt, C M; Feistner, A T

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of the social organization of lemurs is still limited for most species. Where there is sufficient information, it has been shown that lemur social organization differs in essential points from that of other primates. In the field study reported here, demographic structure and life-history processes were investigated in order to characterize the social organization of the Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis). Data were obtained through captures and observations. Alaotran gentle lemurs were found in small groups of up to nine individuals. Although most groups contained just one breeding female, a substantial proportion of groups (35%) had two breeding females. Therefore, Alaotran gentle lemurs cannot be classed as being organized in monogamous family groups. An extended birth season was found, and groups with two breeding females had significantly higher breeding output per adult than groups with a single adult female. Limited data suggest that females emigrate from their natal group while still subadult, whereas males can stay in the natal group until they are fully grown and disperse as adults. Variability in group composition, significantly higher reproductive output per adult in groups with two breeding females, and delayed dispersal of males suggest that Alaotran gentle lemurs pursue a resource-defense mating strategy, rather than a female-defense mating strategy. The suggestion that extant social lemurs may have evolved from a monogamous system, could explain the differences between lemur social systems and those of other primates.

  12. Antagonism of antifungal metabolites from Streptomyces griseus H7602 against Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Young Seong; Kim, Yong Hwan; Moon, Jae Hak; Kim, Kil Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, evidences for antagonism were established by production of antifungal metabolites from Streptomyces griseus H7602, which were active to inhibit mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici in the in vitro assays. Mycelial growth and zoosporangia formation of P. capsici was strongly inhibited in the medium containing the cell free culture filtrate of S. griseus H7602. Antifungal metabolites from the cell free culture filtrate of S. griseus H7602 showed substantial antagonistic effects on P. capsici. In addition, a purified antifungal compound was separated from the antifungal metabolites of S. griseus H7602 and identified to be 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (PCA) by spectra analyses. PCA showed strong antifungal activity and was evaluated for the first time for its antagonism against P. capsici under in vitro conditions. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of PCA was low (4 µg ml(-1)), and the mycelial growth of P. capsici was almost inhibited at concentration of 64 µg ml(-1). This study suggests that the PCA may be useful as biofungicides against P. capsici, and the prominent antagonism of antifungal metabolites from S. griseus H7602 highlights it as a candidate for biocontrol of P. capsici.

  13. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  14. Biocontrol efficacy of Gerris (A) spinolae, Laccotrephes griseus and Gambusia affinis on larval mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, T; Mani, T; Vincent, S; Kumar, L C; Mathews, K T

    1993-12-01

    Predation experiments using Gerris (A) spinolae, Laccotrephes griseus and Gambusia affinis were conducted against IV stage culicine larvae with varying prey densities. Ranking of individual predatory efficiency showed the sequence: large Gambusia > medium Gambusia > small Gambusia > female Laccotrephes > male Laccotrephes > Gerris. Predation under coexistence reveals the significance of predatory efficiency of different predator combinations with reference to prey density and exposure period.

  15. Quantification of polyphenols and flavonoid content and evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of Stenocereus stellatus extracts.

    PubMed

    Soto-Cabrera, Diego; Salazar, Juan R; Nogueda-Gutiérrez, Inés; Torres-Olvera, Mariana; Cerón-Nava, Anabelle; Rosales-Guevara, Juan; Terrazas, Teresa; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia

    2016-08-01

    The hexanic, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts from branches of Stenocereus stellatus were tested in both the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) - induced ear oedema model and antimicrobial activity assay. The % of oedema inhibition, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), as well as the polyphenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Also, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In TPA model, the three extracts showed moderate oedema inhibition. In the antimicrobial activity assay, methanolic extract shows better MIC against all strains. The lowest MICs were for Candida albicans (31 μg/mL) and Rhizopus sp. (15 μg/mL). Also, 50.78 mg eq. of gallic acid/g extract of polyphenol and 115.12 mg eq. of catequine/g extract of flavonoids content were founded in ethyl acetate extract. In the chromatographic analysis, β-sitosterol, β-amyrine, betulin and some other molecules were identified. The results show that S. stellatus possess antimicrobial activities against some fungus species.

  16. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

    2013-05-01

    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15 h and predominantly nocturnal (9 h), pollen was released at 23:00 h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success.

  17. Effects of Plant Size and Weather on the Flowering Phenology of the Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi)

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Flowering phenology is a critical life-history trait that influences reproductive success. It has been shown that genetic, climatic and other factors such as plant size affect the timing of flowering and its duration. The spatial and temporal variation in the reproductive phenology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus thurberi and its association with plant size and environmental cues was studied. Methods Flowering was monitored during 3 years in three populations of S. thurberi along a latitudinal gradient. Plant size was related to phenological parameters. The actual and past weather were used for each site and year to investigate the environmental correlates of flowering. Key Results There was significant variation in the timing of flowering within and among populations. Flowering lasted 4 months in the southern population and only 2 months in the northern population. A single flowering peak was evident in each population, but ocurred at different times. Large plants produced more flowers, and bloomed earlier and for a longer period than small plants. Population synchrony increased as the mean duration of flowering per individual decreased. The onset of flowering is primarily related to the variance in winter minimum temperatures and the duration to the autumn–winter mean maximum temperature, whereas spring mean maximum temperature is best correlated with synchrony. Conclusions Plant size affects individual plant fecundity as well as flowering time. Thus the population structure strongly affects flowering phenology. Indications of clinal variation in the timing of flowering and reproductive effort suggest selection pressures related to the arrival of migrating pollinators, climate and resource economy in a desert environment. These pressures are likely to be relaxed in populations where individual plants can attain large sizes. PMID:18854374

  18. Molecular characterization of a gene encoding a photolyase from Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, T; Takao, M; Oikawa, A; Yasui, A

    1989-01-01

    By using a synthetic DNA probe derived from an amino acid sequence in the most conserved region of three known photolyases (Escherichia coli, Anacystis nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), we isolated a DNA fragment containing two long open reading frames (ORFs) from a genomic DNA library of Streptomyces griseus. One ORF encodes a polypeptide of 455 amino acids (Mr 50594), which exhibits substantial similarities with the other three photolyases. Photoreactivation-repair deficient E. coli cells could be converted into photoreactivatable ones by introduction of plasmids harboring this ORF, indicating that this is the photolyase gene of S. griseus. The deduced aa sequence of Streptomyces photolyase was most similar to that of E. coli. The putative DNA binding site as well as cofactor binding regions were proposed. Images PMID:2501760

  19. Genome Sequence of the Streptomycin-Producing Microorganism Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Jun; Hara, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ikenoya, Miwa; Ikeda, Haruo; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-01

    We determined the complete genome sequence of Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350, a soil bacterium producing an antituberculosis agent, streptomycin, which is the first aminoglycoside antibiotic, discovered more than 60 years ago. The linear chromosome consists of 8,545,929 base pairs (bp), with an average G+C content of 72.2%, predicting 7,138 open reading frames, six rRNA operons (16S-23S-5S), and 66 tRNA genes. It contains extremely long terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of 132,910 bp each. The telomere's nucleotide sequence and secondary structure, consisting of several palindromes with a loop sequence of 5′-GGA-3′, are different from those of typical telomeres conserved among other Streptomyces species. In accordance with the difference, the chromosome has pseudogenes for a conserved terminal protein (Tpg) and a telomere-associated protein (Tap), and a novel pair of Tpg and Tap proteins is instead encoded by the TIRs. Comparisons with the genomes of two related species, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces avermitilis, clarified not only the characteristics of the S. griseus genome but also the existence of 24 Streptomyces-specific proteins. The S. griseus genome contains 34 gene clusters or genes for the biosynthesis of known or unknown secondary metabolites. Transcriptome analysis using a DNA microarray showed that at least four of these clusters, in addition to the streptomycin biosynthesis gene cluster, were activated directly or indirectly by AdpA, which is a central transcriptional activator for secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in the A-factor (a γ-butyrolactone signaling molecule) regulatory cascade in S. griseus. PMID:18375553

  20. Catechol oxidase activity of di-Cu2+-substituted aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Giordano F Z; Ming, Li-June

    2005-11-30

    Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase exhibits activities toward the hydrolyses of peptides and bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate (40 billion fold) and catechol oxidation reported herein with catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) only about 10 times smaller than that of gypsywort catechol oxidase. The multifunctionality of this enzyme suggests that it is a unique system for further exploration of protein structure and function and a template for design of enzymes of diverse activities. PMID:16305209

  1. Diet variation of a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, across an estuarine gradient: trade-offs of quantity for quality?

    PubMed

    Yeager, L A; Layman, C A; Hammerschlag-Peyer, C M

    2014-08-01

    This study examined diet, prey quality and growth for a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, at five sites across an estuarine gradient in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida, U.S.A. Lutjanus griseus diets shifted from dominance by low quality, intertidal crabs upstream to an increased reliance on higher quality shrimp, fishes and benthic crabs downstream. Frequency of L. griseus with empty stomachs was higher at downstream sites. Lutjanus griseus growth rates did not vary among sites. Results indicate that L. griseus may be able to compensate for lower quality prey upstream by consuming more, and thus individuals are able to maintain similar levels of energy balance and growth rates across the estuarine gradient. Elucidating mechanisms, such as compensatory feeding, that enable generalist species to remain successful across habitat conditions are critical to understanding their organismal ecology and may facilitate predictions about the response of generalists to landscape alteration.

  2. Multicentric Benign Epithelial Inclusions in a Free-ranging Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Diaz-Delgado, J; Quesada-Canales, O; Arbelo, M; Sierra, E; Edwards, J F; Suarez-Bonnet, A; Santana-Suarez, C; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Fernandez, A

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical features of multicentric, benign, epithelial inclusions (BEIs) in a free-ranging, adult, female Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). The differential diagnoses included ectopic hamartomatous epithelial inclusions, non-Müllerian choristoma, Müllerian choristoma and low-grade metastatic carcinoma/mesothelioma. The most likely diagnosis of such BEIs was multicentric, embolic, reactive mesothelium, as suggested by cytomorphological and immunophenotypical features of the BEIs, the occurrence of focal pleural rupture and the immunophenotype of the pleural mesothelium. The former represents a pathological condition not previously reported in a marine mammal species, rarely described in animals, and relatively infrequently recognized in man. PMID:27392421

  3. Toxic effects of Streptomyces griseus spores and exudate on gill pathology of freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Morley, N J; Drinkall, J; Jamieson, B J; Wright, R; Parry, J D

    2009-01-01

    Many unexplained fish-kills in British waters are considered microbial in origin and a large proportion of field sites contains elevated concentrations of filamentous actinobacteria. The present study has shown that a strain of Streptomyces griseus, isolated from field sites, elicits pathological changes to the gills of fish under laboratory conditions which mirror those found in situ. These changes include hyperplasia leading to fusion of the secondary lamellae and loss of microridging on the filamental epithelium of the primary lamellae. Juveniles of up to six fish species were exposed to spore suspensions or exudate of S. griseus in the range of 1 x 10(2)-1 x 10(6)spores ml(-1) for up to 96 h. The exudate was more potent than the spores and there was a positive correlation between exudate concentration and the rate and extent of fish gill pathology with bream and rainbow trout being more sensitive than carp, tench and roach. The results are discussed in the context of recognising and managing potential fish mortalities caused by microbial toxins.

  4. [Heterologous expression and enzymatic analysis of Streptomyces griseus trypsin in Streptomyces lividans].

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengbo; Ling, Zhenmin; Kang, Zhen; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-04-01

    Trypsin as an important serine protease has been widely used in food, pharmaceutical and tanning industries. In this study, we successfully expressed trypsin (cloning from Streptomyces griseus ATCC10137) in Streptomyces lividans TK24 and comparatively investigated its enzymatic properties. Specifically, applying S. griseus ATCC 10137 genome as template, we obtained the sprT gene and sub-cloned it into the expression plasmid pIJ86, generating the recombinant strain S. lividans TK24/pIJ86-sprT. When cultivated in R2YE and SELF, the activity of rSGT reached 9.21 U/mL and 8.61 U/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, the results of the enzymatic analysis showed that rSGT exhibited a higher acid tolerance and a higher specificity to hydrolyze amide bonds compared with bovine trypsin (BT). In addition, Zn2+ and organic solvents up-regulated esterase and amidase of rSGT. Taken together, the results obtained herein provide meaningful information for further modification of rSGT and its industrial application.

  5. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a Mediterranean pregnant Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) with transplacental fetal infection.

    PubMed

    Resendes, A R; Almería, S; Dubey, J P; Obón, E; Juan-Sallés, C; Degollada, E; Alegre, F; Cabezón, O; Pont, S; Domingo, M

    2002-10-01

    Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus on the basis of pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast and died a few hours later. At necropsy the dam was in good condition. From the standpoint of pathology, however, it had generalized lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly, enlargement of and multifocal hemorrhage in the adrenal glands, diffuse mucosal hemorrhage of the glandular and pyloric stomach, ulcerative glossitis and stomatitis, focal erosions and reddening of the laryngeal appendix, and severe paraotic sinusitis with intralesional nematodes Crassicauda grampicola. The dolphin was pregnant, most probably in the first gestational trimester. The most prominent microscopic lesions were multifocal granulomatous encephalomyelitis, diffuse subacute interstitial pneumonia, mild multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and nonsuppurative cholangiohepatitis, gastritis and adrenalitis, mild lymphoid depletion, medullary sinus and follicular histyocitosis, and systemic hemosiderosis. The fetus had foci of coagulative and lytic necrosis in the kidneys, the lung, and the heart. Most lesions were associated with tachyzoites and tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii. The diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically. This is the first report on toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (G. griseus) and on transplacental transmission to an early-stage fetus in any cetaceans.

  6. Purification and characterization of a soybean flour-inducible ferredoxin reductase of Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, M; Seetharam, R; Emptage, M H; Sariaslani, F S

    1991-01-01

    We have purified an NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase from crude extracts of Streptomyces griseus cells grown in soybean flour-enriched medium. The purified protein has a molecular weight of 60,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The enzyme requires Mg2+ ion for catalytic activity in reconstituted assays, and its spectral properties resemble those of many other flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing flavoproteins. A relatively large number of hydrophobic amino acid residues are found by amino acid analysis, and beginning with residue 7, a consensus flavin adenine dinucleotide binding sequence, GXGXXGXXXA, is revealed in this protein. In the presence of NADH, the ferredoxin reductase reduces various electron acceptors such as cytochrome c, potassium ferricyanide, dichlorophenolindophenol, and nitroblue tetrazolium. However, only cytochrome c reduction by the ferredoxin reductase is enhanced by the addition of ferredoxin. In the presence of NADH, S. griseus ferredoxin and cytochrome P-450soy, the ferredoxin reductase mediates O dealkylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin. Images FIG. 2 PMID:1938912

  7. Relation of anabolic-catabolic glucose utilization in growth-limited cultures of Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Christner, A; Bormann, E J; Reiche, R

    1983-01-01

    Phenotypically different submerged mycelium conserves had been produced from a spore conserve of the HP-strain Streptomyces griseus and proofed in a product formation culture as a test system. The phenotypical characters induced on the base of the genotype proved in a cultivation cycle during 30-34 reduplications of the biomass constant. Employing the HP phenotype we investigated the possibility of economizing the substrate turnover by utilizing the anabolic potential for the synthesis of secondary substances and/or reducing the conservation catabolism during the stationary growth stage. As criteria for that served the stoichiometric turnover equation of the streptomycin biosynthesis and the quotient qO2/qGluc taking at full substrate oxidation the numerical value 6. During the stationary growth stage the relation of maintenance anabolism to maintenance catabolism in addition to the formation as secondary substances is not fixed in the tested HP phenotypes, but in a striking manner variable. The relation of by-product synthesis to secondary metabolism synthesis, too, is variable in the stationary growth stage with constant maintenance catabolism. Due to those response reactions on phenotypical manipulations an economization of the substrate turnover during the product formation stage with stationary growth is not possible in the streptomycin producer Streptomyces griseus.

  8. Selective strategies for antibiotic fermentation, Part II: Effect of aeration on streptomycin production by Streptomyces griseus JB-19.

    PubMed

    Maladkar, N K

    1991-01-01

    The effect of higher aerated fermentation medium which enhanced streptomycin production by Streptomyces griseus JB-19 was found mainly related to the changes in dextrose consumption, inorganic phosphate utilisation and ammonia nitrogen accumulation under optimal and suboptimal supply of soluble vegetative protein.

  9. Aeromonas dhakensis pneumonia and sepsis in a neonate Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lola; Abarca, M Lourdes; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, M José; Domingo, Mariano

    2015-09-17

    A neonate Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus was found stranded alive on a beach in Catalonia, Spain. Rehabilitation attempts were unsuccessful and it died 2 d later, showing pneumonia and sepsis. A pure bacterial culture was obtained from all tissues and blood and identified as Aeromonas hydrophila using the API 20NE. However, sequencing the rpoD gene showed that the strain in fact belongs to A. dhakensis, making this the first report of fatal haemorrhagic-necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis due to this species in a marine mammal. The A. dhakensis strain GMV-704 produced β-haemolysis, possessed several virulence genes and showed sensitivity to several antimicrobials. This study provides a new potential host for A. dhakensis, and its potential virulence in dolphins and its presence in the marine environment may warrant considering this species a potential threat to marine mammals.

  10. Ultrastructural effects of macrotetrolides of Streptomyces griseus LKS-1 in tissues of Culex pipiens larvae.

    PubMed

    Zizka, Z; Weiser, J; Blumauerova, M; Jizba, J

    1989-01-01

    The isolate of macrotetrolides produced by Streptomyces griseus strain LKS-1 was tested in its effect on the ultrastructure of larvae of Culex pipiens autogenicus. Changes were mainly in mitochondria where the cristae were destroyed and the outer membrane inflated. The endoplasmic reticulum was vacuolized and subsequently the nuclear membranes were seriously affected. Microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells and the surface membrane of these cells were unaltered and there were no changes in the arrangement of cells in the tissues. The effect of macrotetrolides on insect tissues is analogous to the effect of secondary metabolites of fungi such as beauvericin, destruxin E, cyclosporin or tolypin, and differs from the effects of bacterial endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis or B. sphaericus.

  11. Characterization of a novel sesquiterpene cyclase involved in (+)-caryolan-1-ol biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chiaki; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2011-08-12

    Most terpenoids have been isolated from plants and fungi and only a few from bacteria. However, an increasing number of genome sequences indicate that bacteria possess a variety of terpenoid cyclase genes. We characterized a sesquiterpene cyclase gene (SGR2079, named gcoA) found in Streptomyces griseus. When expressed in Streptomyces lividans, gcoA directed production of a sesquiterpene, isolated and determined to be (+)-caryolan-1-ol using spectroscopic analyses. (+)-Caryolan-1-ol was also detected in the crude cell lysate of wild-type S. griseus but not in a gcoA knockout mutant, indicating that GcoA is a genuine (+)-caryolan-1-ol synthase. Enzymatic properties were characterized using N-terminally histidine-tagged GcoA, produced in Escherichia coli. As expected, incubation of the recombinant GcoA protein with farnesyl diphosphate yielded (+)-caryolan-1-ol. However, a small amount of another sesquiterpene was also detected. This was identified as the bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (+)-β-caryophyllene by comparison with an authentic sample using GC-MS. Incorporation of a deuterium atom into the C-9 methylene of (+)-caryolan-1-ol in an in vitro GcoA reaction in deuterium oxide indicated that (+)-caryolan-1-ol was synthesized by a proton attack on the C-8/C-9 double bond of (+)-β-caryophyllene. Several β-caryophyllene synthases have been identified from plants, but these cannot synthesize caryolan-1-ol. Although caryolan-1-ol has been isolated previously from several plants, the enzyme responsible for its biosynthesis has not been identified previously. GcoA is thus the first known caryolan-1-ol synthase. Isolation of caryolan-1-ol from microorganisms is unprecedented. PMID:21693706

  12. Effectiveness of bats as pollinators of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations in La Mixteca Baja, central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arias-Cóyotl, Ethel; Stoner, Kathryn E; Casas, Alejandro

    2006-11-01

    Stenocereus stellatus is an endemic, self-incompatible, columnar cactus found in central Mexico where many of its wild populations have been fragmented. As an economically important species of fruit-producing cactus, S. stellatus occurs in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations. The objectives of this study were to determine the effective pollinators of S. stellatus, to compare pollinator visits and reproductive parameters among the three types of populations, and to determine if nectar feeding-bats are moving among populations. Effective pollinators were the nectarivorous bats Choeronycteris mexicana, Leptonycteris curasoae, and L. nivalis. Fewer total visits per flower per night and fewer visits by Choeronycteris were observed in cultivated populations, while the opposite pattern was observed for Leptonycteris. One aggressive interaction was filmed in which Choeronycteris was physically displaced by Leptonycteris, and Choeronycteris visits were significantly affected by Leptonycteris visits. Cultivated populations received more pollen grains and had more fruit set. Variation in pollinator visits between different populations and the consequent effects on reproductive success were likely a result of competition between bat species, and differences in foraging and in sensitivity of bat species to human populations. Three marked L. curasoae traveled 15 km from their roosting site to their foraging area, and one visited cultivated and managed populations, suggesting that this species may be particularly important in moving pollen among populations.

  13. Evolution under domestication: ongoing artificial selection and divergence of wild and managed Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) populations in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Fabiola; Casas, Alejandro; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C.; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; González-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Tehuacán Valley in Mexico is a principal area of plant domestication in Mesoamerica. There, artificial selection is currently practised on nearly 120 native plant species with coexisting wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations, providing an excellent setting for studying ongoing mechanisms of evolution under domestication. One of these species is the columnar cactus Stenocereus pruinosus, in which we studied how artificial selection is operating through traditional management and whether it has determined morphological and genetic divergence between wild and managed populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 households of three villages to investigate motives and mechanisms of artificial selection. Management effects were studied by comparing variation patterns of 14 morphological characters and population genetics (four microsatellite loci) of 264 plants from nine wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations. Key Results Variation in fruit characters was recognized by most people, and was the principal target of artificial selection directed to favour larger and sweeter fruits with thinner or thicker peel, fewer spines and pulp colours others than red. Artificial selection operates in agroforestry systems favouring abundance (through not felling plants and planting branches) of the preferred phenotypes, and acts more intensely in household gardens. Significant morphological divergence between wild and managed populations was observed in fruit characters and plant vigour. On average, genetic diversity in silvicultural populations (HE = 0·743) was higher than in wild (HE = 0·726) and cultivated (HE = 0·700) populations. Most of the genetic variation (90·58 %) occurred within populations. High gene flow (NmFST > 2) was identified among almost all populations studied, but was slightly limited by mountains among wild populations, and by artificial selection among wild and managed populations. Conclusions

  14. Faeriefungin: a new broad-spectrum antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Nair, M G; Putnam, A R; Mishra, S K; Mulks, M H; Taft, W H; Keller, J E; Miller, J R; Zhu, P P; Meinhart, J D; Lynn, D G

    1989-01-01

    Faeriefungin, a polyol polyene macrolide lactone antibiotic, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus, MSU-32058/ATCC 53668, collected from the soil sample of a fairy ring in an old lawn in Lansing, Michigan. Faeriefungin has some properties similar to the previously reported polyene macrolides, mycoticin and flavofungin, but possesses different physiochemical and biological properties. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Alternaria spp. were completely inhibited by faeriefungin at 3.2 micrograms/ml, Candida spp. at 5.5 micrograms/ml, and Pythium, Phialophora, Leptosphaeria spp., and some selected Gram-negative penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at 16.0 micrograms/ml. At a concentration of 100 ppm, it caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti, Rockefeller strain) and free-living nematodes (Panagrellus redivivus). Unlike the related polyene macrolides, faeriefungin is crystalline and stable with broad-spectrum antimicrobial and insecticidal activity. Preliminary cytotoxicity studies with human erythrocytes and rat liver epithelial cells indicated that faeriefungin and amphotericin B have comparable toxicity. Solution nmr study has indicated that faeriefungin is a mixture of two compounds, faerifungins A [1] and B [2], and that they differ in the attachment of a H or an Me at C-33. PMID:2509636

  15. Improved Production of Active Streptomyces griseus Trypsin with a Novel Auto-Catalyzed Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Ling, Zhenmin; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal sequences play crucial roles in regulating expression, translation, activation and enzymatic properties of proteins. To reduce cell toxicity of intracellular trypsin and increase secretory expression, we developed a novel auto-catalyzed strategy to produce recombinant trypsin by engineering the N-terminus of mature Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT). The engineered N-terminal peptide of SGT was composed of the thioredoxin, glycine-serine linker, His6-tag and the partial bovine trypsinogen pro-peptide (DDDDK). Furthermore, we constructed a variant TLEI with insertion of the artificial peptide at N-terminus and site-directed mutagenesis of the autolysis residue R145. In fed-batch fermentation, the production of extracellular trypsin activity was significantly improved to 47.4 ± 1.2 U·ml−1 (amidase activity, 8532 ± 142.2 U·ml−1 BAEE activity) with a productivity of 0.49 U·ml−1·h−1, which was 329% greater than that of parent strain Pichia pastoris GS115-SGT. This work has significant potential to be scaled-up for microbial production of SGT. In addition, the N-terminal peptide engineering strategy can be extended to improve heterologous expression of other toxic enzymes. PMID:26983398

  16. Hearing abilities and sound reception of broadband sounds in an adult Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan

    2015-08-01

    While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.

  17. Evidence suggests vocal production learning in a cross-fostered Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Neves, Silvana; Furlati, Stefano; Pessani, Daniela; Martin, Vidal; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-07-01

    Vocal learning is a rare skill in mammals, and we have limited information about the contexts in which they use it. Previous studies suggested that cetaceans in general are skilled at imitating sounds, but only few species have been studied to date. To expand this investigation to another species and to investigate the possible influence of the social environment on vocal learning, we studied the whistle repertoire of a female Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) that was stranded at an early age and was subsequently raised in a group of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We show that this cross-fostered animal produced vocal signals more akin to those of its Tursiops poolmates than those of Risso's dolphins in the wild. This is one of very few systematic cross-fostering studies in cetaceans and the first to suggest vocal production learning in the Risso's dolphin. Our findings also suggest that social experience is a major factor in the development of the vocal repertoire in this species. PMID:26874843

  18. Distribution of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Western Gray Squirrels (Sciurus griseus)

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kelly; Salkeld, Daniel J.; Lane, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi infections within its natural hosts are poorly understood. We necropsied four wild-caught western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) that were acquired during a previous study that evaluated the reservoir competence of this rodent for the Lyme disease spirochete. One animal was infected experimentally, whereas the others were infected in the wild before capture. To investigate dissemination of B. burgdorferi and concurrent histopathologic lesions in different tissues, blood specimens, synovial and cerebrospinal fluid, ear-punch biopsies, and diverse tissue samples from skin and various organs were taken and examined by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and histology. Borrelia-positive cultures were obtained from three of the squirrels, that is, from skin biopsies (7 of 20 samples), ear-punch biopsies (2 of 8), and one (1 of 5) lymph node. Sequencing of amplicons confirmed B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) infection in 9 of 10 culture-positive samples and in DNA extracted from all 10 positive cultures. The experimentally infected squirrel yielded most of the positive samples. In contrast, bodily fluids, all other organ specimens from these animals, and all samples from one naturally infected squirrel were negative for Borrelia for both assays. None of the necropsied squirrels exhibited specific clinical signs associated with B. burgdorferi. Similarly, necropsy and histological examination of tissues indicated the presence of underlying infectious processes, none of which could be ascribed conclusively to B. burgdorferi infection. Based on these results, obtained from a small number of animals investigated at a single time point, we suggest that B. burgdorferi s.s. infection in S. griseus may result in rather localized dissemination of spirochetes, and that mild or nonclinical disease might be more common after several months of infection duration. Since spirochetes could be detected in squirrels 7–21 months

  19. Identification of the SGR6065 gene product as a sesquiterpene cyclase involved in (+)-epicubenol biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chiaki; Tezuka, Takeaki; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-11-01

    Recent bacterial genome sequencing projects have shown the presence of many putative sesquiterpene cyclase (SC) genes, especially in the Gram-positive, filamentous bacterial genus Streptomyces. We describe here the characterization of a SC gene (SGR6065, named gecA) from Streptomyces griseus. Overexpression of gecA in Streptomyces lividans produced a sesquiterpene, which was isolated and determined to be (+)-epicubenol using spectroscopic analyses. The N-terminal histidine-tagged GecA protein was produced in Escherichia coli. Incubation of the recombinant GecA protein with farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) yielded (+)-epicubenol as the major product. The K(m) value for FPP and the k(cat) value for (+)-epicubenol formation were calculated to be 254 ± 7.1 nM and 0.026 ± 0.001 s(-1), respectively. The k(cat)/K(m) value (0.10 s(-1) μM(-1)) was broadly comparable to those reported for known bacterial SCs. (+)-Epicubenol was detected in the crude cell lysate of wild-type S. griseus, but not in a gecA-knockout mutant, indicating that GecA is a genuine (+)-epicubenol synthase. Although (+)-epicubenol synthases have been previously purified and characterized from the liverwort Heteroscyphus planus and Streptomyces sp. LL-B7, no (+)-epicubenol synthase gene has been cloned to date. The gecA gene is thus the first example of an (+)-epicubenol synthase-encoding gene. (+)-Epicubenol production was not controlled by the microbial hormone A-factor that induces morphological differentiation and production of several secondary metabolites in S. griseus. PMID:22872183

  20. Self-cloning in Streptomyces griseus of an str gene cluster for streptomycin biosynthesis and streptomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, T; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1985-10-01

    An str gene cluster containing at least four genes (strR, strA, strB, and strC) involved in streptomycin biosynthesis or streptomycin resistance or both was self-cloned in Streptomyces griseus by using plasmid pOA154. The strA gene was verified to encode streptomycin 6-phosphotransferase, a streptomycin resistance factor in S. griseus, by examining the gene product expressed in Escherichia coli. The other three genes were determined by complementation tests with streptomycin-nonproducing mutants whose biochemical lesions were clearly identified. strR complemented streptomycin-sensitive mutant SM196 which exhibited impaired activity of both streptomycin 6-phosphotransferase and amidinotransferase (one of the streptomycin biosynthetic enzymes) due to a regulatory mutation; strB complemented strain SD141, which was specifically deficient in amidinotransferase; and strC complemented strain SD245, which was deficient in linkage between streptidine 6-phosphate and dihydrostreptose. By deletion analysis of plasmids with appropriate restriction endonucleases, the order of the four genes was determined to be strR-strA-strB-strC. Transformation of S. griseus with plasmids carrying both strR and strB genes enhanced amidinotransferase activity in the transformed cells. Based on the gene dosage effect and the biological characteristics of the mutants complemented by strR and strB, it was concluded that strB encodes amidinotransferase and strR encodes a positive effector required for the full expression of strA and strB genes. Furthermore, it was found that amplification of a specific 0.7-kilobase region of the cloned DNA on a plasmid inhibited streptomycin biosynthesis of the transformants. This DNA region might contain a regulatory apparatus that participates in the control of streptomycin biosynthesis.

  1. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G.; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200–300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200–300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats. PMID:26061525

  2. Gender, Season and Management Affect Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Concentrations in Captive Goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L.; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Aunsusin, Anurut; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-01-01

    Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females) at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi), an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females) and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females); and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS), a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females) in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05). Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal) compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal) (p<0.05). Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species. PMID:24637886

  3. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.

  4. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats. PMID:26061525

  5. Gender, season and management affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Aunsusin, Anurut; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-01-01

    Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females) at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi), an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females) and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females); and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS), a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females) in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05). Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal) compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal) (p<0.05). Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species. PMID:24637886

  6. Landscape management and domestication of Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) in the Tehuacán Valley: human guided selection and gene flow

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of plant resources and ecosystems practiced by indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica commonly involves domestication of plant populations and landscapes. Our study analyzed interactions of coexisting wild and managed populations of the pitaya Stenocereus pruinosus, a columnar cactus used for its edible fruit occurring in natural forests, silviculturally managed in milpa agroforestry systems, and agriculturally managed in homegardens of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico. We aimed at analyzing criteria of artificial selection and their consequences on phenotypic diversity and differentiation, as well as documenting management of propagules at landscape level and their possible contribution to gene flow among populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to 83 households of the region to document perception of variation, criteria of artificial selection, and patterns of moving propagules among wild and managed populations. Morphological variation of trees from nine wild, silviculturally and agriculturally managed populations was analyzed for 37 characters through univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, indexes of morphological diversity (MD) per population and phenotypic differentiation (PD) among populations were calculated using character states and frequencies. Results People recognized 15 pitaya varieties based on their pulp color, fruit size, form, flavor, and thorniness. On average, in wild populations we recorded one variety per population, in silviculturally managed populations 1.58 ± 0.77 varieties per parcel, and in agriculturally managed populations 2.19 ± 1.12 varieties per homegarden. Farmers select in favor of sweet flavor (71% of households interviewed) and pulp color (46%) mainly red, orange and yellow. Artificial selection is practiced in homegardens and 65% of people interviewed also do it in agroforestry systems. People obtain fruit and branches from different population types and move

  7. Multilocus sequence analysis of Streptomyces griseus isolates delineating intraspecific diversity in terms of both taxonomy and biosynthetic potential.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiaoying; Liu, Ning; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2010-08-01

    Systematics can provide a fundamental framework for understanding the relationships and diversification of organisms. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has shown great promise for an elaborate taxonomic grouping of streptomycete diversity. To evaluate the practical significance of MLSA as a valuable systematic tool for streptomycetes, we examined six endophytic Streptomyces griseus isolates and two S. griseus reference strains possessing obvious antagonistic activities and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, using both housekeeping genes and secondary metabolic genes. All the eight strains contained PKS-I and NRPS genes, but not PKS-II genes, and showed similar diversity in both the MLSA phylogeny based on five housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) and fingerprinting of KS-AT genes. We also inferred a phylogeny based on concatenated amino acid sequences of representative KS-AT genes from the strains, which displayed a topology correlated well with those of housekeeping-gene MLSA and KS-AT fingerprinting. The good congruence observed between phylogenies based on the different datasets verified that the MLSA scheme provided robust resolution at intraspecific level and could predict the overall diversity of secondary metabolic potential within a Streptomyces species, despite somewhat of a discrepancy with antimicrobial data. It is therefore feasible to apply MLSA to dissecting natural diversity of streptomycetes for a better understanding of their evolution and ecology, as well as for facilitating their bioprospecting. PMID:20461465

  8. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  9. Assessment of ovarian activity in captive goral (Naemorhedus griseus) using noninvasive fecal steroid monitoring.

    PubMed

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Pongpiachan, Petai; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-10-15

    To date, there is no information on gonadal steroidogenic activity of female goral (Naemorhedus griseus), a threatened species of Thailand. Captive goral populations have been established to produce animals for ex situ conservation and reintroduction, but as yet none are self-sustaining. The objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the influence of season on ovarian steriodogenic function; and (2) examine the relationship between gonadal hormone excretion and sexual behaviors throughout the year. Fecal samples were collected 5 to 7 days/wk for 15 months from 8 adult females housed at Omkoi Wildlife Breeding Center in Thailand and analyzed for ovarian steroid metabolites using validated enzyme immunoassays. Observations of sexual behaviors and mating were conducted each morning for 30 min/session. Based on fecal estrogen and progestagen metabolite concentrations, the overall estrous cycle length was about 21 days, with a 2- to 3-day follicular phase and an 18- to 20-day luteal phase. Sexual behaviors, most notably tail-up, increased for 2 to 3 days during the time estrogens were elevated during mating. Fecal progestagens were elevated during luteal phases and increased further during gestation, which lasted approximately 7 months. The lactation period was 5 months, and females were anestrus for 2 to 5 of those months, with the exception of one that cycled continuously throughout. Two females conceived around 2 months postpartum and so were pregnant during lactation. Birth records over the past 21 years indicated young are born throughout the year. This combined with the hormonal data suggests that female gorals are not strongly seasonal, at least in captivity, although there was considerable variation among females in estrogen and progestagen patterns. In conclusion, fecal steroid metabolite monitoring is an effective means of assessing ovarian function in this species and will be a useful tool for breeding management and planned development of

  10. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  11. Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Laferrara, Miguel; Bitsch, Matías; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, Maria Celina

    2006-03-31

    The present work was performed to study the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) and to obtain information about its possible role in the sylvatic life cycle of Echinococcu granulosus in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina. Eighty-one foxes were captured and subject to post-mortem analysis. Thirty-one foxes (38.3%) harboured helminths. A total of six helminth species were recovered. Only one adult of E. granulosus was found in the studied samples. The current study is the first report of the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina and showed that this specie is probably not an important reservoir host for E. granulosus.

  12. CebR as a master regulator for cellulose/cellooligosaccharide catabolism affects morphological development in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Marushima, Kazuya; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-10-01

    Streptomyces griseus mutants exhibiting deficient glucose repression of beta-galactosidase activity on lactose-containing minimal medium supplemented with a high concentration of glucose were isolated. One of these mutants had a 12-bp deletion in cebR, which encodes a LacI/GalR family regulator. Disruption of cebR in the wild-type strain caused the same phenotype as the mutant, indicating that CebR is required for glucose repression of beta-galactosidase activity. Recombinant CebR protein bound to a 14-bp inverted-repeat sequence (designated the CebR box) present in the promoter regions of cebR and the putative cellobiose utilization operon, cebEFG-bglC. The DNA-binding activity of CebR was impaired by cellooligosaccharides, including cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose. In agreement with this observation, transcription from the cebE and cebR promoters was greatly enhanced by the addition of cellobiose to the medium. Seven other genes containing one or two CebR boxes in their upstream regions were found in the S. griseus genome. Five of these genes encode putative secreted proteins: two cellulases, a cellulose-binding protein, a pectate lyase, and a protein of unknown function. These five genes and cebEFG-bglC were transcribed at levels 4 to 130 times higher in the DeltacebR mutant than in the wild-type strain, as determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These findings indicate that CebR is a master regulator of cellulose/cellooligosaccharide catabolism. Unexpectedly, the DeltacebR mutant formed very few aerial hyphae on lactose-containing medium, demonstrating a link between carbon source utilization and morphological development. PMID:19648249

  13. A large inversion in the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus caused by replicative transposition of a new Tn3 family transposon.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Uchida, T; Yang, Y; Lezhava, A; Kinashi, H

    2011-04-01

    We have comprehensively analyzed the linear chromosomes of Streptomyces griseus mutants constructed and kept in our laboratory. During this study, macrorestriction analysis of AseI and DraI fragments of mutant 402-2 suggested a large chromosomal inversion. The junctions of chromosomal inversion were cloned and sequenced and compared with the corresponding target sequences in the parent strain 2247. Consequently, a transposon-involved mechanism was revealed. Namely, a transposon originally located at the left target site was replicatively transposed to the right target site in an inverted direction, which generated a second copy and at the same time caused a 2.5-Mb chromosomal inversion. The involved transposon named TnSGR was grouped into a new subfamily of the resolvase-encoding Tn3 family transposons based on its gene organization. At the end, terminal diversity of S. griseus chromosomes is discussed by comparing the sequences of strains 2247 and IFO13350.

  14. Intracellular distribution of estradiol and estrogen binding sites in the uterus and oviducts of the green monkey (cercopithecus griseus)

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseeva, M.L.; Fanchenko, N.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Shchedrina, R.N.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes a comparative investigation of changes in estradoil (E/sub 2/) and progesterone (P) concentrations in the blood plasma and concentrations of E/sub 2/ and estrogen binding sites (EBS) in the uterus and oviducts of C. griseus in the course of the menstrual cycle. A 0.25 aqueous solution of sucrose, 10mM Tris-HC1 buffer containing 1.5 mM EDTA, a 0.1M phosphate buffer containing 0.01% and 0.1% gelatin, antisera against E/sub 2/-17beta and P, labeled 3 /SUB H/ -E/sub 2/-17beta and /sup 3/H-P (specific radioactivity 104 and 96 Ci/nmole respectively), and their unlabeled analogs, 0.5, 1, and 5% suspensions of activated charcoal in buffer with the addition of 0.1% gelatin, and scintillation fluid consisting of 0.5% PPO and 0.05% POPOP in toluene were used. Indirect evidence shows the absence of any additional intracellular mechanisms affecting translocation of activated cytoplasmic estrogenreceptor complexes into the nucleus.

  15. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    PubMed

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. PMID:23307384

  16. Observations on abundance of bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, in an urban waterway in Puget Sound, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Griffing, Denise; Larson, Shawn; Hollander, Joel; Carpenter, Tim; Christiansen, Jeff; Doss, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, is a widely distributed but poorly understood large, apex predator. Anecdotal reports of diver-shark encounters in the late 1990's and early 2000's in the Pacific Northwest stimulated interest in the normally deep-dwelling shark and its presence in the shallow waters of Puget Sound. Analysis of underwater video documenting sharks at the Seattle Aquarium's sixgill research site in Elliott Bay and mark-resight techniques were used to answer research questions about abundance and seasonality. Seasonal changes in relative abundance in Puget Sound from 2003-2005 are reported here. At the Seattle Aquarium study site, 45 sixgills were tagged with modified Floy visual marker tags, along with an estimated 197 observations of untagged sharks plus 31 returning tagged sharks, for a total of 273 sixgill observations recorded. A mark-resight statistical model based on analysis of underwater video estimated a range of abundance from a high of 98 sharks seen in July of 2004 to a low of 32 sharks seen in March of 2004. Both analyses found sixgills significantly more abundant in the summer months at the Seattle Aquarium's research station.

  17. Observations on Abundance of Bluntnose Sixgill Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, in an Urban Waterway in Puget Sound, 2003-2005

    PubMed Central

    Griffing, Denise; Larson, Shawn; Hollander, Joel; Carpenter, Tim; Christiansen, Jeff; Doss, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, is a widely distributed but poorly understood large, apex predator. Anecdotal reports of diver-shark encounters in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s in the Pacific Northwest stimulated interest in the normally deep-dwelling shark and its presence in the shallow waters of Puget Sound. Analysis of underwater video documenting sharks at the Seattle Aquarium’s sixgill research site in Elliott Bay and mark-resight techniques were used to answer research questions about abundance and seasonality. Seasonal changes in relative abundance in Puget Sound from 2003–2005 are reported here. At the Seattle Aquarium study site, 45 sixgills were tagged with modified Floy visual marker tags, along with an estimated 197 observations of untagged sharks plus 31 returning tagged sharks, for a total of 273 sixgill observations recorded. A mark-resight statistical model based on analysis of underwater video estimated a range of abundance from a high of 98 sharks seen in July of 2004 to a low of 32 sharks seen in March of 2004. Both analyses found sixgills significantly more abundant in the summer months at the Seattle Aquarium’s research station. PMID:24475229

  18. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    PubMed

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae.

  19. Copper Levels in Tissues of Dolphins Tursiops truncatus, Stenella coeruleoalba and Grampus griseus from the Croatian Adriatic Coast.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Đokić, Maja; Sedak, Marija; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Benić, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    Copper concentrations were determined in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of three dolphin species. Dolphins of Tursiops truncatus (young and adult), Stenella coeruleoalba and Grampus griseus were stranded along the Croatian coast. Concentrations in tissues of all three dolphin species were highest in the liver (4.92-16.5 μg/g) followed by kidney (2.85-5.29 μg/g). Similar levels were measured in muscle, spleen and lung in range 1.13-3.67 μg/g. Statistics analysis showed significant differences of Cu concentrations for muscle (p = 0.008), kidney (p = 0.04) and liver (p = 0.02) between the three dolphin species. Also, for all three species significant differences between tissue types of the same species were determined (p < 0.001, all). However, there were no significant differences in Cu levels of the same tissues between males and females within same species. Also, significant differences of body length and weight between three dolphin were found (p < 0.001, both).

  20. Copper Levels in Tissues of Dolphins Tursiops truncatus, Stenella coeruleoalba and Grampus griseus from the Croatian Adriatic Coast.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Đokić, Maja; Sedak, Marija; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Benić, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    Copper concentrations were determined in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of three dolphin species. Dolphins of Tursiops truncatus (young and adult), Stenella coeruleoalba and Grampus griseus were stranded along the Croatian coast. Concentrations in tissues of all three dolphin species were highest in the liver (4.92-16.5 μg/g) followed by kidney (2.85-5.29 μg/g). Similar levels were measured in muscle, spleen and lung in range 1.13-3.67 μg/g. Statistics analysis showed significant differences of Cu concentrations for muscle (p = 0.008), kidney (p = 0.04) and liver (p = 0.02) between the three dolphin species. Also, for all three species significant differences between tissue types of the same species were determined (p < 0.001, all). However, there were no significant differences in Cu levels of the same tissues between males and females within same species. Also, significant differences of body length and weight between three dolphin were found (p < 0.001, both). PMID:27246724

  1. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Astrid S; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L

    2013-12-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf.

  2. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P.; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf. PMID:24533325

  3. Seasonal Sexual Segregation by Monomorphic Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus griseus Reflects Different Reproductive Roles during the Pre-Laying Period

    PubMed Central

    Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A.; Phillips, Richard A.; Fifield, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tracking technology has revolutionized knowledge of seabird movements; yet, few studies have examined sex differences in distribution and behavior of small to medium-sized, sexually-monomorphic seabirds. Application of bird-borne geolocation-immersion loggers revealed seasonal segregation in the sexually-monomorphic Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, mainly in the pre-laying period, when there were clear differences in reproductive roles. Shearwaters first returned to the Falkland Islands on 27 Sept±8 d; males, on average, 8 d earlier than females. Prior to egg-laying, distribution at sea, colony attendance and behaviour depended on sex. Males foraged locally over the southern Patagonian Shelf and Burdwood Bank, spending mainly single days at sea and intervening nights in the burrow. Females, who flew for more of the day during this time, foraged in more distant areas of the northern Patagonian Shelf and Argentine Basin that were deeper, warmer and relatively more productive. Attendance of females at the colony was also more variable than that of males and, overall, males were present for significantly more of the pre-laying period (38 vs. 19% of time). Sex differences were reduced following egg-laying, with males and females using similar foraging areas and making trips of similar mean duration in incubation (7.6±2.7 d) and chick-rearing (1.4±1.3 d). Congruence continued into the non-breeding period, with both sexes showing similar patterns of activity and areas of occupancy in the NW Atlantic. Thus, seasonal changes in reproductive roles influenced patterns of sexual segregation; this occurred only early in the season, when male Sooty Shearwaters foraged locally, returning regularly to the colony to defend (or maintain) the burrow or the mate, while females concentrated on building resources for egg development in distant and relatively more productive waters. PMID:24416429

  4. Control by A-Factor of a Metalloendopeptidase Gene Involved in Aerial Mycelium Formation in Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Jun-ya; Suzuki, Ayano; Yamazaki, Haruka; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2002-01-01

    In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone) switches on aerial mycelium formation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. An A-factor-dependent transcriptional activator, AdpA, activates multiple genes required for morphological development and secondary metabolism in a programmed manner. A region upstream of a zinc-containing metalloendopeptidase gene (sgmA) was found among the DNA fragments that had been isolated as AdpA-binding sites. The primary product of sgmA consisted of N-terminal pre, N-terminal pro, mature, and C-terminal pro regions. sgmA was transcribed in an AdpA-dependent manner, and its transcription was markedly enhanced at the timing of aerial mycelium formation. AdpA bound two sites in the region upstream of the sgmA promoter; one was at about nucleotide position −60 (A site) with respect to the transcriptional start point of sgmA, and the other was at about position −260 (B site), as determined by DNase I footprinting. Transcriptional analysis with mutated promoters showed that the A site was essential for the switching on of sgmA transcription and that the B site was necessary for the marked enhancement of transcription at the timing of aerial mycelium formation. Disruption of the chromosomal sgmA gene resulted in a delay in aerial hypha formation by half a day. SgmA is therefore suggested to be associated with the programmed morphological development of Streptomyces, in which this peptidase, perhaps together with other hydrolytic enzymes, plays a role in the degradation of proteins in substrate hyphae for reuse in aerial hypha formation. PMID:12374836

  5. Characterization of FdmV as an Amide Synthetase for Fredericamycin A Biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus ATCC 43944*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yihua; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Ju, Jianhua; Lin, Shuangjun; Rajski, Scott R.; Shen, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Fredericamycin (FDM) A is a pentadecaketide natural product that features an amide linkage. Analysis of the fdm cluster from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 43944, however, failed to reveal genes encoding the types of amide synthetases commonly seen in natural product biosynthesis. Here, we report in vivo and in vitro characterizations of FdmV, an asparagine synthetase (AS) B-like protein, as an amide synthetase that catalyzes the amide bond formation in FDM A biosynthesis. This is supported by the findings that (i) inactivation of fdmV in vivo afforded the ΔfdmV mutant strain SB4027 that abolished FDM A and FDM E production but accumulated FDM C, a biosynthetic intermediate devoid of the characteristic amide linkage; (ii) FdmV in vitro catalyzes conversion of FDM C to FDM B, a known intermediate for FDM A biosynthesis (apparent Km = 162 ± 67 μm and kcat = 0.11 ± 0.02 min−1); and (iii) FdmV also catalyzes the amidation of FDM M-3, a structural analog of FDM C, to afford amide FDM M-6 in vitro, albeit at significantly reduced efficiency. Preliminary enzymatic studies revealed that, in addition to the common nitrogen sources (l-Gln and free amine) of class II glutamine amidotransferases (to which AS B belongs), FdmV can also utilize l-Asn as a nitrogen donor. The amide bond formation in FDM A biosynthesis is proposed to occur after C-8 hydroxylation but before the carbaspirocycle formation. PMID:20926388

  6. Pathologic findings in Western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) from a notoedric mange epidemic in the San Bernardino Mountains, California☆

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T.; Clifford, Deana L.; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345

  7. Characterization of volatiles of necrotic Stenocereus thurberi and Opuntia littoralis and toxicity and olfactory preference of Drosophila melanogster, D. mojavensis wrigleyi, and D. mojavensis sonorensis to necrotic cactus volatiles.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila mojavensis wrigleyi and D. mojavensis sonorensis are geographically separated races of cactophilic fruit flies. D. mojavensis sonorensis inhabits the Sonoran Desert and utilizes necrotic rots of Stenocereus thurberi Engelm. as a food source and to oviposit while D. mojavensis wrigleyi inhabits Santa Catalina Island, California and utilizes the necrotic rots of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell. The objectives of this study were to determine the volatile compositions of the necrotic cacti and to determine if the volatile components show either selective toxicity or attraction toward the fruit flies. The volatile chemical compositions of field-rot specimens of both necrotic cacti were obtained by dynamic headspace (purge-and-trap) and hydrodistillation techniques and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The volatile fraction of necrotic S. thurberi early rot was dominated by carboxylic acids (84.8%) and the late rot by p-cresol (32.6% in the dynamic headspace sample and 55.9% in the hydrodistilled sample). O. littoralis volatiles were dominated by carboxylic acids (86% in the dynamic headspace sample and 89.1% in the hydrodistilled sample). Fifteen compounds that were identified in the necrotic rot volatiles were used to test insecticidal activity and olfactory preference on the cactophilic Drosophila species, as well as D. melanogaster. Differences in toxicity and olfactory preference were observed between the different taxa. Both races of D. mojavensis exhibited toxicity to benzaldehyde and 2-nonanone, while butanoic acid and palmitic acid were tolerated at high concentrations. D. m. wrigleyi demonstrated a greater olfactory preference for anisole, butanoic acid, 2-heptanone, and palmitic acid than did D. m. sonorensis, while D. m. sonorensis demonstrated a greater preference for hexadecane, octanoic acid, and oleic acid than did D. m. wrigleyi.

  8. L-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of L-asparaginase gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Vijaya Raghavan, Rangamaran; Dharani, Gopal; Valsalan Vinithkumar, Nambali; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-07-01

    Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL-1. A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL-1) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein.

  9. l-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of l-asparaginase gene

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Vijaya Raghavan, Rangamaran; Dharani, Gopal; Valsalan Vinithkumar, Nambali; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL−1. A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL−1) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein. PMID:26206135

  10. Coinfection of western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) and other sciurid rodents with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Leonhard, Sarah; Foley, Janet E; Lane, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Overlapping geographic distributions of tick-borne disease agents utilizing the same tick vectors are common, and coinfection of humans, domestic animals, wildlife, and ticks with both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been frequently reported. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the prevalence of both B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter referred to as B. burgdorferi) and A. phagocytophilum in several species of sciurid rodents from northern California, USA. Rodents were either collected dead as road-kills or live-trapped in four state parks from 13 counties. Thirty-seven western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus), nine nonnative eastern gray squirrels (S. carolinensis) and an eastern fox squirrel (S. niger), four Douglas squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii), and two northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology for evidence of coinfection. Of the 14 individual S. griseus that were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi, two (14%) also were PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum and 11 (79%) had serologic evidence of A. phagocytophilum exposure. Two of the four Douglas squirrels were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi and seropositive to A. phagocytophilum. Evidence of coinfection with these zoonotic pathogens in western gray squirrels suggests that both bacteria may be maintained in a similar transmission cycle involving this sciurid and the western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus, the primary bridging vector to humans in the far-western US. PMID:20090047

  11. [Parasite nematodes from Dusycion griseus (Gray, 1837), D. culpaeus (Molina, 1782) and Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Mammalia:Carnivora) in Neuquén, Argentina. Systematics and ecology].

    PubMed

    Stein, M; Suriano, D M; Novaro, A J

    1994-01-01

    Four nematode species (Physaloptera clausa Rudolphi, 1819; Ph. maxillaris Molin, 1860; Protospirura numidica criceticola Quentin, Karimi and Rodrigues De Almeida, 1968; Toxascaris leonina (Von Linstow, 1902) were collected from D. griseus, D. culpaeus and C. chinga in Neuquen Province, Argentina. These hosts were captured from April to August in 1990 and 1991. Ph. clausa and Ph. maxillaris ar redescribed. The systematic position of Ph. clausa is discussed and the authors conclude that this species could be considered the type species of the genus. The possibility that D. griseus and D. culpaeus could be the accidental hosts for P. n. criceticola is discussed. Prevalence, mean intensity and frequency of each species are given. These parameters were related with the diets of the hosts and the parasite life cycles. There was no relationship between parasitic burden of each host and their nutritional condition (Kendall Tau Test). Significant differences exist among the diet of each host and among prevalence values of each parasite species (Homogeneity Test SYSTAT Program).

  12. L-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of L-asparaginase gene.

    PubMed

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Vijaya Raghavan, Rangamaran; Dharani, Gopal; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-07-24

    Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL(-1). A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL(-1)) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein.

  13. N-methylphenylalanyl-dehydrobutyrine diketopiperazine, an A-factor mimic that restores antibiotic biosynthesis and morphogenesis in Streptomyces globisporus 1912-B2 and Streptomyces griseus 1439.

    PubMed

    Matselyukh, Bohdan; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Laatsch, Hartmut; Rohr, Jürgen; Efremenkova, Olga; Khilya, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    The cell-free extracts of a landomycin E-producing strain, Streptomyces globisporus 1912-2, were shown to contain a low-molecular-weight compound that, like A-factor, restored the landomycin E and streptomycin biosynthesis and sporulation of the defective mutants S. globisporus 1912-B2 and S. griseus 1439, respectively. The compound was purified by thin layer chromatography and HPLC. It had an absorption maximum at λmax=245 nm and a molecular mass of m/z 244. On the basis of NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY and NOE) the chemical structure of the compound was elucidated as 6-benzyl-3-eth-(Z)-ylidene-1-methyl-piperazine-2,6-dione ((L)-N-methylphenylalanyl-dehydrobutyrine diketopiperazine (MDD)). The sequences of arpA genes in S. globisporus 1912-2 and S. griseus NBRC 13350 are highly conserved. An explanation for the observed biological activity of MDD was proposed.

  14. Isolation and characterization of tryptophan transaminase and indolepyruvate C-methyltransferase. Enzymes involved in indolmycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Speedie, M K; Hornemann, U; Floss, H G

    1975-10-10

    Two enzymes, tryptophan transaminase and indolepyruvate C-methyltransferase, which are active in the initial steps of the biosynthetic pathway of the antibiotic indolmycin, have been detected and partially purified from cell-free extracts of Streptomyces griseus. The transaminase has been purified 3-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation. At this stage of purification, it catalyzes the alpha-ketoglutarate and pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transamination of L-tryptophan, 3-methyltryptophan, L-pphenylalanine, and L-tyrosine. The C-methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to position 3 of the aliphatic side chain of indolepyruvate. No cofactors are required. The C-methyltransferase has been purified 110-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, DEAE-Sephadex column chromotography, and Bio-Gel A-5m gel filtration. The enzyme has a broad pH optimum of 7.5 to 8.5. A molecular weight of 55,000 +/- 5,000 has been determined by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration with reference proteins and a molecular weight of 58,000 +/- 8,000 has been determined by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The enzyme is relatively stable at temperatures of 0-5 degrees but is destroyed by freezing or by heating. The C-methyltransferase is inhibited strongly by the thiol reagents p-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. The Zn2+ and Fe2+ chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2'-bipyridine also inhibit the enzyme activity but EDTA does not. Michaelis-Menten constants have been determined for the 110-fold purified enzyme as 1.2 X 10(-5) M for S-adenosylmethionine and 4.8 X 10(-6) M for indolepyruvate. The enzyme activity in the crude extract is inhibited competitively by indolmycin (Ki equals 2.3 mM) and L-tryptophan (Ki equals 0.17 mM), but these effects are not observed after the enzyme has been passed through the Sephades G-150 column during purification. The crude extract is capable of methylating phenylpyruvate and p

  15. ATP-Binding Cassette Transport System Involved in Regulation of Morphological Differentiation in Response to Glucose in Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jeong-Woo; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Hirata, Aiko; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2002-01-01

    Streptomyces griseus NP4, which was derived by UV mutagenesis from strain IFO13350, showed a bald and wrinkled colony morphology in response to glucose. Mutant NP4 formed ectopic septa at intervals along substrate hyphae, and each of the compartments developed into a spore which was indistinguishable from an aerial spore in size, shape, and thickness of the spore wall and in susceptibility to lysozyme and heat. The ectopic spores of NP4 formed in liquid medium differed from “submerged spores” in lysozyme sensitivity. Shotgun cloning experiments with a library of the chromosomal DNA of the parental strain and mutant NP4 as the host gave rise to DNA fragments giving two different phenotypes; one complementing the bald phenotype of the host, and the other causing much severe wrinkled morphology in the host. Subcloning identified a gene (dasR) encoding a transcriptional repressor belonging to the GntR family that was responsible for the reversal of the bald phenotype and a gene (dasA) encoding a lipoprotein probably serving as a substrate-binding protein in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system that was responsible for the severe wrinkled morphology. These genes were adjacent but divergently encoded. Two genes, named dasB and dasC, encoding a membrane-spanning protein were present downstream of dasA, which suggested that dasRABC comprises a gene cluster for an ABC transporter, probably for sugar import. dasR was transcribed actively during vegetative growth, and dasA was transcribed just after commencement of aerial hypha formation and during sporulation, indicating that both were developmentally regulated. Transcriptional analysis and direct sequencing of dasRA in mutant NP4 suggested a defect of this mutant in the regulatory system to control the expression of these genes. Introduction of multicopies of dasA into the wild-type strain caused ectopic septation in very young substrate hyphae after only 1 day of growth and subsequent sporulation in response

  16. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  17. Biosynthesis and regulation of grisemycin, a new member of the linaridin family of ribosomally synthesized peptides produced by Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350.

    PubMed

    Claesen, Jan; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2011-05-01

    Our recent identification and genetic analysis of the biosynthetic gene cluster for production of the ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide cypemycin revealed a new class of peptide natural products, the linaridins. Here we describe the identification and characterization of grisemycin, a linaridin produced by a previously unidentified gene cluster in Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that grisemycin possesses at least three of the modifications found in cypemycin, as well as an analogous leader peptidase cleavage site. Expression of putative grisemycin biosynthetic genes in a Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) derivative, combined with deletion of the gene encoding the grisemycin precursor peptide, confirmed the identity of the grisemycin gene cluster. Both grisemycin and cypemycin depend on the transcriptional activator AdpA for wild-type levels of production.

  18. Streptomyces relC mutants with an altered ribosomal protein ST-L11 and genetic analysis of a Streptomyces griseus relC mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, K

    1990-01-01

    Several relaxed (rel) mutants have been obtained from Streptomyces species by selecting colonies resistant to thiopeptin, an analogue of thiostrepton. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, I compared the ribosomal proteins from rel and rel+ pairs of S. antibioticus, S. lavendulae, S. griseoflavus, and S. griseus. It was found that all of the Streptomyces rel mutants thus examined had an altered or missing ribosomal protein, designated tentatively ST-L11. These rel mutants therefore could be classified as relC mutants and were highly sensitive to erythromycin or high temperature. A relC mutant of S. griseus was defective in streptomycin production, but phenotypic reversion of this defect to normal productivity was found at high incidence among progeny of the relC mutant. This phenotypic reversion did not accompany a reappearance of ribosomal protein ST-L11, and furthermore the ability of accumulating ppGpp still remained at a low level, thus suggesting existence of a mutation (named sup) which suppresses the streptomycin deficiency phenotype exhibited by the relC mutant. Genetic analysis revealed that there is a correlation between the rel mutation and the inability to produce streptomycin or aerial mycelia. The sup mutation was found to lie at a chromosomal locus distinct from that of the relC mutation. It was therefore concluded that the dependence of streptomycin production on the normal function of the relC gene could be entirely bypassed by a mutation at the suppressor locus (sup). The suppressing effect of the sup mutation on the relC mutation was blocked when the afs mutation (defective in A-factor synthesis) was introduced into a relC sup double mutant. It is proposed that the sup gene or its product can be direct or indirect target for ppGpp. Images PMID:2113916

  19. Toxic element concentrations in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus), striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's (Grampus griseus) dolphins stranded in eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Ðokić, Maja; Ðuras Gomerčić, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Zadravec, Manuela; Benić, Miroslav; Prevendar Crnić, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) were measured in muscle, liver and kidney of three cetacean species, the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus), striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's (Grampus griseus) dolphins from the Croatian waters of the Adriatic Sea. In all three dolphin species Cd levels decreased in tissues in the order: kidney > liver > muscle, while As and Pb decreased in the order: liver > kidney > muscle for striped and Risso's dolphins, but with the order reversed for liver and kidney in the bottlenose dolphin for Pb. Levels of Hg consistently followed the order: liver > muscle > kidney, with mean concentrations in the liver being 11-34 times higher than in the other tissues. The highest mean concentrations of trace elements were measured in Risso's dolphins at 14.9 μg/g wet weight, for Cd in the kidney, and concentrations in the liver of 2.41, 1,115 and 0.63 μg/g for As, Hg and Pb, respectively. Statistically significant differences between the three dolphin species were determined for Cd, Hg and Pb in liver tissues, for As in muscle and for Cd in kidney. Significant correlations of metals between tissues were determined in all three species. The results presented give an indication of the environmental condition with regard to the content of toxic metals along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea.

  20. Fecal inoculum can be used to determine the rate and extent of in vitro fermentation of dietary fiber sources across three lemur species that differ in dietary profile: Varecia variegata, Eulemur fulvus and Hapalemur griseus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

    2002-10-01

    To estimate fermentative capacity among lemur species, four fiber substrates were tested across three species, Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus and Varecia variegata. The substrates, cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp and citrus pectin, ranged in composition from completely insoluble fiber (IF) to completely soluble fiber (SF), respectively. The lemurs consumed a nutritionally complete biscuit formulated for primates [85 g/100 g diet dry matter (DM)] and locally available produce (15 g/100 g diet DM). Feces were then collected and used to inoculate fermentation tubes prefilled with fiber substrates and an anaerobic growth medium. Dry matter disappearance (DMD), and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were measured in tubes subjected to 6, 12, 24 or 48 h of fermentation. Results were fitted to a logistic growth model. The maximal production (MP) time at which production or disappearance is at one-half maximum (t(50)) and the fermentation rate at 3 h were calculated. The maximal disappearance of DM differed among substrates (citrus pectin > citrus pulp > beet pulp; P < 0.0001) and species (E. fulvus > H. griseus > V. variegata; P < 0.001). V. variegata reached t(50) for acetate and total SCFA production faster than H. griseus or E. fulvus (P < 0.02). Three-hour production rates of acetate and total SCFA were also greater for V. variegata for citrus pulp and citrus pectin (P < 0.01). Few species differences were observed for beet pulp. Results provide evidence for differences in fermentative capacity and suggest that fiber solubility and fermentability should be considered when assessing the nutritional management of lemurs.

  1. The O-Methyltransferase SrsB Catalyzes the Decarboxylative Methylation of Alkylresorcylic Acid during Phenolic Lipid Biosynthesis by Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Chiaki; Funa, Nobutaka; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces griseus contains the srs operon, which is required for phenolic lipid biosynthesis. The operon consists of srsA, srsB, and srsC, which encode a type III polyketide synthase, an O-methyltransferase, and a flavoprotein hydroxylase, respectively. We previously reported that the recombinant SrsA protein synthesized 3-(13′-methyltetradecyl)-4-methylresorcinol, using iso-C16 fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) as a starter substrate and malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA as extender substrates. An in vitro SrsA reaction using [13C3]malonyl-CoA confirmed that the order of extender substrate condensation was methylmalonyl-CoA, followed by two extensions with malonyl-CoA. Furthermore, SrsA was revealed to produce an alkylresorcylic acid as its direct product rather than an alkylresorcinol. The functional SrsB protein was produced in the membrane fraction in Streptomyces lividans and used for the in vitro SrsB reaction. When the SrsA reaction was coupled, SrsB produced alkylresorcinol methyl ether in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). SrsB was incapable of catalyzing the O-methylation of alkylresorcinol, indicating that alkylresorcylic acid was the substrate of SrsB and that SrsB catalyzed the conversion of alkylresorcylic acid to alkylresorcinol methyl ether, namely, by both the O-methylation of the hydroxyl group (C-6) and the decarboxylation of the neighboring carboxyl group (C-1). O-methylated alkylresorcylic acid was not detected in the in vitro SrsAB reaction, although it was presumably stable, indicating that O-methylation did not precede decarboxylation. We therefore postulated that O-methylation was coupled with decarboxylation and proposed that SrsB catalyzed the feasible SAM-dependent decarboxylative methylation of alkylresorcylic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a methyltransferase that catalyzes decarboxylative methylation. PMID:22247507

  2. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over five years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome studies (DATOS). Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first year follow-up. However, results of the application of growth mixture models for both sets of trajectories indicated a subgroup of individuals reverted to a high-risk behavior over time, with a higher level of risk at the 5-year follow-up than their original risk level at intake. Of clients who were engaged in regular injection drug use at intake, 76% continued to inject drug at a Moderate/stable or Increased rate over the 5-year follow-up. PMID:18198171

  3. Bacterial succession in necrotic tissue of agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus).

    PubMed Central

    Foster, J L; Fogleman, J C

    1994-01-01

    The bacterial communities associated with the development of necroses in injured agria cactus tissue were examined in the field by using both human-induced injuries and cactus tissue inoculated with cactophilic bacteria. Whole-cell bacterial fatty acids were used to determine when and where each of 23 detected species occurred. This information was then used to describe successional patterns of bacterial colonization. Although the number of bacterial species in human-induced injuries reached a maximum on day 16, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index increased to a plateau, which reflects a stable bacterial community. The potential of the bacterial community to macerate the injured cactus tissue was also examined, and the results indicate that the bacteria initially colonizing the newly injured cactus tissue were more likely to contain pectinolytic, proteolytic, and lipolytic enzymes than were the bacteria entering the injuries once tissue maceration had already begun. The cactophilic fruit fly Drosophila mojavensis has been previously shown to carry bacteria to newly injured cactus tissue. In these studies, exclusion of these insects did not significantly affect bacterial succession or community structure. This supports our contention that bacteria colonize injured tissue primarily by passive transport, e.g., on wind-blown particles. PMID:8135520

  4. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus) at a Bait Station

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Bryan; Lowry, Dayv; Larson, Shawn; Griffing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species’ worldwide distribution and evolutionary success. PMID:27243237

  5. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus) at a Bait Station.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Bryan; Lowry, Dayv; Larson, Shawn; Griffing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species' worldwide distribution and evolutionary success.

  6. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus).

    PubMed

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W

    2015-01-01

    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals.

  7. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus) at a Bait Station.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Bryan; Lowry, Dayv; Larson, Shawn; Griffing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species' worldwide distribution and evolutionary success. PMID:27243237

  8. Molecular analysis and pathogenicity of the Cladophialophora carrionii complex, with the description of a novel species

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G.S.; Nishikaku, A.S.; Fernandez-Zeppenfeldt, G.; Padín-González, C.; Burger, E.; Badali, H.; Richard-Yegres, N.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits

    2007-01-01

    Cladophialophora carrionii is one of the four major etiologic agents of human chromoblastomycosis in semi-arid climates. This species was studied using sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA, the partial β-tubulin gene and an intron in the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene, in addition to morphology. With all genes a clear bipartition was observed, which corresponded with minute differences in conidiophore morphology. A new species, C. yegresii, was introduced, which appeared to be, in contrast to C. carrionii, associated with living cactus plants. All strains from humans, and a few isolates from dead cactus debris, belonged to C. carrionii, for which a lectotype was designated. Artificial inoculation of cactus plants grown from seeds in the greenhouse showed that both fungi are able to persist in cactus tissue. When reaching the spines they produce cells that morphologically resemble the muriform cells known as the “invasive form” in chromoblastomycosis. The tested clinical strain of C. carrionii proved to be more virulent in cactus than the environmental strain of C. yegresii that originated from the same species of cactus, Stenocereus griseus. The muriform cell expressed in cactus spines can be regarded as the extremotolerant survival phase, and is likely to play an essential role in the natural life cycle of these organisms. PMID:18491001

  9. Replication of biosynthetic reactions enables efficient synthesis of A-factor, a γ-butyrolactone autoinducer from Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jesse B; Adams, Katherine L; Sello, Jason K

    2012-02-28

    We report a concise synthesis of A-factor, the prototypical γ-butyrolactone signalling compound of Streptomyces bacteria. In analogy to enzymatic reactions in A-factor biosynthesis, our synthesis features a tandem esterification-Knoevenagel condensation yielding a 2-acyl butenolide and a surprising, chemoselective conjugate reduction of this α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound using sodium cyanoborohydride.

  10. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. [Lutjanus griseus; Lutjanus synagris; Lutjanus analis; Ocyurus chrysurus

    SciTech Connect

    Bortone, S.A.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    These four snapper species have similar morphologies as well as life history and environmental requirements. With some exceptions they are restricted to tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the western Atlantic. Adults often associate with coral reef and other hard-bottom communities. Juveniles and pre-adults usually inhabit shallow, inshore areas and are often found in seagrass beds. Reproduction usually takes place offshore in the warmer months of the year. Fecundity is positively related to female body size, but there is substantial variation both within and among the species. Juveniles obtain adult body proportions at about 50 mm SL. Approximate total maximum lengths of adults are 900 mm for gray snapper, 446 mm for lane snapper, and 750 mm for mutton and yellowtail snappers. Otoliths are the most preferred body part used to determine age. Most snappers attain sexual maturity after 3 to 5 years at a size range of 180 to 350 mm FL. Males mature at a smaller size than females. Recent commercial catches of gray and lane snappers have been increasing, whereas mutton and yellowtail snappers show no clear trends. Sport fishing probably has a substantial impact on the stocks of all four species. All four snappers feed predominantly on small benthic fishes and crustaceans, but yellowtail snapper feed on more pelagic animals. Upper water temperature tolerance limits are 27.2 to 32.5/sup 0/C and lower limits are 11 to 14/sup 0/C.

  11. Laminar and cytoarchitectonic features of the cerebral cortex in the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Furutani, Rui

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation carried out Nissl, Klüver-Barrera, and Golgi studies of the cerebral cortex in three distinct genera of oceanic dolphins (Risso's dolphin, striped dolphin and bottlenose dolphin) to identify and classify cortical laminar and cytoarchitectonic structures in four distinct functional areas, including primary motor (M1), primary sensory (S1), primary visual (V1), and primary auditory (A1) cortices. The laminar and cytoarchitectonic organization of each of these cortical areas was similar among the three dolphin species. M1 was visualized as five-layer structure that included the molecular layer (layer I), external granular layer (layer II), external pyramidal layer (layer III), internal pyramidal layer (layer V), and fusiform layer (layer VI). The internal granular layer was absent. The cetacean sensory-related cortical areas S1, V1, and A1 were also found to have a five-layer organization comprising layers I, II, III, V and VI. In particular, A1 was characterized by the broadest layer I, layer II and developed band of pyramidal neurons in layers III (sublayers IIIa, IIIb and IIIc) and V. The patch organization consisting of the layer IIIb-pyramidal neurons was detected in the S1 and V1, but not in A1. The laminar patterns of V1 and S1 were similar, but the cytoarchitectonic structures of the two areas were different. V1 was characterized by a broader layer II than that of S1, and also contained the specialized pyramidal and multipolar stellate neurons in layers III and V. PMID:18625031

  12. Projecting Range Limits with Coupled Thermal Tolerance - Climate Change Models: An Example Based on Gray Snapper (Lutjanus griseus) along the U.S. East Coast

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Jonathan A.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Kimball, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    We couple a species range limit hypothesis with the output of an ensemble of general circulation models to project the poleward range limit of gray snapper. Using laboratory-derived thermal limits and statistical downscaling from IPCC AR4 general circulation models, we project that gray snapper will shift northwards; the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the magnitude of climate change. We also evaluate the uncertainty in our projection and find that statistical uncertainty associated with the experimentally-derived thermal limits is the largest contributor (∼ 65%) to overall quantified uncertainty. This finding argues for more experimental work aimed at understanding and parameterizing the effects of climate change and variability on marine species. PMID:23284974

  13. Projecting range limits with coupled thermal tolerance - climate change models: an example based on gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) along the U.S. east coast.

    PubMed

    Hare, Jonathan A; Wuenschel, Mark J; Kimball, Matthew E

    2012-01-01

    We couple a species range limit hypothesis with the output of an ensemble of general circulation models to project the poleward range limit of gray snapper. Using laboratory-derived thermal limits and statistical downscaling from IPCC AR4 general circulation models, we project that gray snapper will shift northwards; the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the magnitude of climate change. We also evaluate the uncertainty in our projection and find that statistical uncertainty associated with the experimentally-derived thermal limits is the largest contributor (∼ 65%) to overall quantified uncertainty. This finding argues for more experimental work aimed at understanding and parameterizing the effects of climate change and variability on marine species.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Streptomyces Phage Nanodon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces phage Nanodon is a temperate double-stranded DNA Siphoviridae belonging to cluster BD1. It was isolated from soil collected in Kilauea, HI, using Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus as a host. PMID:27795236

  15. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J.; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Madigan, Margaret A.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L.; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. Methods The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Results Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005); frequency of reading religious books (x2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005); frequency of watching religious programs (x2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns); and frequency of meditation/prayer (x2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002). Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission and spirituality involves attending religious services weekly, the one marker of the five that involves the highest social interaction/social bonding consistent with Durkheim’s social bond theory. Conclusions Stronger spiritual/religious beliefs and practices are directly associated with remission from abused drugs except crack. Much like the value of having a sponsor, for clients who abuse drugs, regular spiritual practice, particularly weekly attendance at the religious services of their choice is associated with significantly higher remission. These results demonstrate the clinically significant role of spirituality and the social bonds it creates in drug treatment programs. PMID:26052556

  16. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  17. Funciones de partición atómicas: Fuentes confiables de datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D. C.; Milone, L. A.

    Se llevó a cabo una revisión minuciosa del cálculo de funciones de partición atómicas de átomos livianos, en estados neutro y una vez ionizados, partiendo del Hidrógeno y llegando al Sodio, incluyendo también al K I y el Ca II. Al respecto, se realizó una investigación exhaustiva de referencias bibliográficas existentes hasta el presente, las cuales fueron cotejadas con cálculos propios llevados a cabo mediante el procedimiento de depresión del contínuo (0.001 a 0.5 eV). Nuestros resultados muestran un muy buen acuerdo con las expresiones interpolatorias de Traving et al (1966), al presente, la referencia más completa en cuanto a especies atómicas consideradas. Puntualizamos, además, ciertas deficiencias de estas relaciones de ajuste para decrementos del potencial de ionización altos (Δ χ >= 0.5) eV).

  18. Clasificación de asterismos utilizando datos astrométricos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Orellana, R. B.

    Based on accurate positions and proper motion data up to faint magnitudes, we have studied the regions of twenty three objects known in the literature as asterisms. A parametric method was applied to confirm the nature of these objects. The following objects have been classified: Alessi 11, Alessi 17, Brosch 1, Collinder 21, Dol-Dzim 1, Dolidze 31, Dolidze 43, Dolidze 50, Dolidze 51, NGC 272, NGC2063, NGC 2413, NGC 2664, NGC 5155, NGC 5284, NGC 6222, NGC 6360, NGC 6447, NGC 6476, NGC 6480, NGC 6605, NGC 6659, NGC 6728. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Diseno y desarrollo de una base de datos bibliograficos (Design and Development of a Bibliographic Database).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattenella, L. E.; Velazco, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This article briefly describes the development of bibliographic retrieval systems in the Instituto de Beneficio di Minerales (IN BE MI) in Salta, Argentina, using the Mini-micro CDS/ISIS software developed by Unesco. (LRW)

  20. Búsqueda de Sitios para CTA: Análisis de Datos Satelitales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, A. E.; Medina, M. C.; Romero, G. E.

    The CTA Consortium has decided to implement a systematic search for sites for the Observatory. This search will be made in two different steps. The first one consists of a general determination of the possible sites on the basis of some very basic selection criteria, such as geographic latitude, altitude and extension of the flat area needed. For those sites passing these criteria, a more intensive characterization should be made, using available satellite data, together with existing ground or air-based measurements. In this work we compare the behavior of different sites analyzing the aerosol content and the total precipitable water vapor, measured by MODIS instrument. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. La Asociación OB Bochum7 combinando datos IR y ópticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M. A.; Bosch, G. L.; Niemela, V. S.

    We present the results of an analysis of IR data in the region of the galactic OB association Bo7, obtained from the archives of the IRAS satellite mission and the 2MASS survey. Bo7 is located at the end of Perseus spiral arm. Distances of possible members of the Bo7 association were determined calculating the absorption from the E(V-K) colour excess. These members had been previously selected according to their UBV colours and spectra. The distance values obtained with IR excess have a smaller error than those obtained considering the E(B-V) excess. An extended interstellar dust cloud (detected in IRAS maps) is found to be probably associated with the members of Bo7. Two IRAS point sources observed in the region have characteristics of star formation sites. One of these point sources has been observed in CS(2-1) by Bronfman et al. (1996), who determined a value of (LSR) velocity of 44 km/s, close to the velocity of stars in Bo7 (Corti et al. 2003). A group of main sequence O - B0.5 stars appear near the location of the aforementioned IRAS point source, suggesting sequential star formation in the Bo7 region.

  2. Treatment Service Patterns and Organizational Structures: An Analysis of Programs in DATOS-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, Peter J.; Broome, Kirk M.; Flynn, Patrick M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.

    2001-01-01

    Examined availability of various treatment services within a national sample of programs treating adolescent drug abuse patients. Created treatment service delivery profiles and examined them in context of organizational variables. Found that distinct profiles of services existed within residential and outpatient modalities and that these service…

  3. Catálogo de mapas de HI en Galaxias y análisis de los datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. C.

    Se presenta un catálogo de observaciones de HI en extenso en galaxias, publicadas en las principales revistas hasta 1993. Algunos de los mapas catalogados fueron analizados según simples modelos de distribución gausiana, con el objeto de conseguir un valor aproximado de la extensión real del gas. Así se ha encontrado que dicha extensión se relaciona con el tamaño óptico de la galaxia, y se ha obtenido una expresión numérica que permite estimar ``a priori" la dimensión de la componente gaseosa dentro de una galaxia, conociendo la emisión global del gas obtenida en una observación simple, y su dimensión óptica.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fausser, Jean-Luc; Prosper, Prosper; Donati, Giuseppe; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Rumpler, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the Hapalemur griseus species group. In order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and particularly in the cytogenetic distinct subspecies group of Hapalemur griseus, 357 bp sequence of cytochrome b and 438 bp of 12S mitochondrial DNAs were analyzed on a sample of animals captured in areas extending from the north to the south-east of Madagascar. This sample covers all cytogenetically defined types recognized of the genus Hapalemur. Results Phylogenetic trees and distances analyses demonstrate a first emergence of Hapalemur simus followed by H. aureus which is the sister clade of the H. griseus subspecies. Hapalemur griseus is composed of 4 subspecies separated into two clades. The first contains H. g. griseus, H. g. alaotrensis and H. g. occidentalis. The second consists of H. g. meridionalis. A new chromosomal polymorphic variant from the region of Ranomafana, H. griseus ssp, has been analysed and was found in both clades. Conclusions Our results support the raising of H. g. meridionalis to the specific rank H. meridionalis, while neither cytogenetic nor molecular evidences support the raising of H. g. alaotrensis to a species rank despite its morphological characteristics. The new cytotype H. g. ssp which has been previously characterized by cytogenetic studies contains animals clustering either with the group of Hapalemur griseus griseus or with that of Hapalemur meridionalis. This suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism or an introgression of mitochondrial DNA between subspecies. PMID:11914128

  5. Consideraciones acerca del método de los arcos de reducción de datos VLBI astrométricos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Arias, E. F.

    Con el propósito de construir un marco de referencia cuasi-inercial, desarrollamos un sistema de coordenadas inercial introduciendo un nuevo observable: el arco entre un par de radiofuentes. Este método proveerá una mejor herramienta para el análisis y reducción de observaciones VLBI. También conducirá a una solución en donde se determinarán independientemente los parámetros astrométricos y geodésicos. En este trabajo analizamos el caso ideal de observaciones simultáneas de un par de radiofuentes y el caso más realista de observaciones cuasisimultáneas.

  6. Extracción de conocimiento en bases de datos astronómicas mediante redes de neuronas artificiales: aplicaciones en la misión Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustes Villadóniga, Diego

    2014-02-01

    In the so-called IT era, the capabilities of data acquisition systems have increased to such an extent that it has become difficult to store all the information they produce, and analyse it. This explosion of data has recently appeared in the field of Astronomy, where an increasing number of objects are being observed on a regular basis. An example of this is the upcoming Gaia mission, which will pick up multiple properties of a billion stars, whose information will have a volume of approximately a petabyte. The analysis of a similar amount of information inevitably requires the development of new data analysis methods to extract all the knowledge it contains. This thesis is devoted to the development of data analysis methods to be integrated in the Gaia pipeline, such that knowledge can be extracted from the data collected by the mission. In order to analyze the data from the Gaia mission, the European Space Agency organized the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) which is composed of hundreds of scientists and engineers. DPAC is divided into eight Coordination Units (CUs). This thesis is dedicated to algorithm development in CU8, which is responsible for source classification and astrophysical parameters (AP) estimation. Methods based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are developed to perform the tasks related to two different work packages in CU8: the GSP-Spec package (GWP-823), and the OA package (GWP-836). The GSP-Spec package is responsible for estimating stellar APs by means of the Radial Velocity Spectrograph (RVS) spectrum. This work presents the development of one of the GSP-Spec modules, which is based on the application of feed-forward ANNs. A methodology is described, based on the optimization of genetic algorithms and aimed at obtaining an optimal set of configuration parameters for the ANN in each case, depending on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the RVS spectrum and on the type of star to parameterize. Furthermore, in order to improve the AP estimates, wavelet signal processing techniques, applied to the RVS spectrum, are studied. Despite the effectiveness shown by ANNs in estimating APs, in principle they lack the ability to provide an uncertainty value on these estimates, making it impossible to determine their reliability. Because of this, a new architecture for the ANN is presented in which the inputs and outputs are reversed, so that the ANN estimates the RVS spectrum from the APs. Such an architecture is called Generative ANN (GANN) and is applied to the AP estimation of a set of simulated RVS spectra for the Gaia mission, where it is more effective than the conventional ANN model, in the case of faint stars with low SNR. Finally, the GANN can be applied for obtaining the posterior probability of each of the APs according to the RVS spectrum, allowing for their more complete analysis. Given the nature of the Gaia mission, which is the first astronomical mission that will observe, in an unbiased way, the entire sky up to magnitude 20, a large number of outliers are expected. The OA package in CU8 handles the processing of this type of objects, which are defined as those that could not be reliably classified by the methods in the upstream classification packages. OA methods are based on the unsupervised learning of all outliers. Such learning has two parts: clustering and dimensionality reduction. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm is selected as a basis for this learning. Its effectiveness is demonstrated when it is applied, with an optimal configuration, to the Gaia simulations. Furthermore, the algorithm is applied to real outliers from the SDSS catalog. Since a subsequent identification of the clusters obtained by the SOM is necessary, two different methods of identification are applied. The first method is based on the similarity between the SOM prototypes and the Gaia simulations, and the second method is based on the recovery of stored classifications in the SIMBAD catalog by cross-matching celestial coordinates. Thanks to the visualization of the SOM planes, and to both

  7. Astrophysics in Schools: Playing with Observational Data. (Spanish Title: Astrofísica Escolar: Jugando con Datos Observacionales.) Astrofísica Escolar: Brincando com Dados Observacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navone, Hugo D.; Scancich, Miriam; Vázquez, Rubén A.

    2011-07-01

    The use of observational records in the design of teaching sequences in Astrophysics in High Schools is quite uncommon. It is also uncommon the thematic approach within the context provided by Nature of Science. Besides these shortcomings, we should also consider the lack of proposals to use the computer as a laboratory from which nature is studied. These aspects expose the existence of a disconnection between school science and scientist's science, establishing the need for simple educational projects that promote interdisciplinary dialogue between the two fields of knowledge. Based on these assumptions, this paper presents the school reformulation of the redshift-distance problem as addressed by Hubble in his diagram, and explores the main educational dimensions emerging from it. The proposal is directed not only for senior students of high school and/or early 1st year students at University level, but also for students and teachers from teacher training colleges. Practical evidence shows that this proposal is viable, mobilizes interests about issues of Astrophysics and promotes a ludic and cooperative character among students. La utilización de registros observacionales en el diseño de secuencias didácticas en Astrofísica Escolar no es algo usual en el ámbito de la escuela media. Tampoco lo es el abordaje de temáticas desde el contexto que provee Naturaleza de la Ciencia. A estas carencias se le suma la falta de propuestas que hagan intervenir a la computadora como un laboratorio desde el cual se interpela a la naturaleza. Los aspectos mencionados exponen la existencia de un desajuste entre ciencia escolar y ciencia experta estableciendo la necesidad de elaborar proyectos educativos sencillos que promuevan el diálogo interdisciplinar entre ambos campos del conocimiento. Partiendo de estos presupuestos, en este trabajo se presenta la reformulación escolar del problema abordado por Hubble -que diera lugar al diagrama que lleva su nombre- y se exploran las principales dimensiones educativas que emergen del mismo. La propuesta está destinada a alumnos del último año de nivel medio y primeros años de la universidad, y a estudiantes y profesores de Institutos de Formación Docente. Las puestas en práctica realizadas muestran que la propuesta es viable, que moviliza inquietudes en torno a temáticas de Astrofísica y que se fortalece al adquirir un carácter lúdico y cooperativo. A utilização de registros observacionais na construção de seqüências didáticas em Astrofísica Escolar não é algo usual no ensino médio. Tampouco o é uma abordagem de temáticas dentro do contexto da Natureza da Ciência. Agrega-se a estas carências a falta de propostas que estimulem a utilização do computador como um laboratório para estudar a natureza. Os aspectos mencionados expõem a existência de um desajuste entre ciência escolar e ciência avançada, estabelecendo a necessidade de elaborar projetos educativos simples que promovam o diálogo interdisciplinar entre ambos campos do conhecimento. Partindo destes pressupostos, este trabalho apresenta a reformulação escolar do problema abordado por Hubble -a relação entre redshift e distância das galáxias- e se exploram as principais dimensões educativas que emergem do mesmo. A proposta está destinada a alunos do último ano do nível médio, primeiros anos do curso superior e a estudantes e professores de Institutos de Formação Docente. As atividades práticas realizadas mostram que a proposta é viável, que mobiliza inquietudes em torno da temática e da Astrofísica e que se fortalece ao adquirir um caráter lúdico e cooperativo.

  8. La Aplicacion de las Bases de Datos al Estudio Historico del Espanol (The Application of Databases to the Historical Study of Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Gloria Claveria; Lancis, Carlos Sanchez

    1997-01-01

    Notes that the employment of databases to the study of the history of a language is a method that allows for substantial improvement in investigative quality. Illustrates this with the example of the application of this method to two studies of the history of Spanish developed in the Language and Information Seminary of the Independent University…

  9. Extracción de conocimiento en bases de datos astronómicas mediante redes de neuronas artificiales: aplicaciones en la misión Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustes Villadóniga, Diego

    2014-02-01

    In the so-called IT era, the capabilities of data acquisition systems have increased to such an extent that it has become difficult to store all the information they produce, and analyse it. This explosion of data has recently appeared in the field of Astronomy, where an increasing number of objects are being observed on a regular basis. An example of this is the upcoming Gaia mission, which will pick up multiple properties of a billion stars, whose information will have a volume of approximately a petabyte. The analysis of a similar amount of information inevitably requires the development of new data analysis methods to extract all the knowledge it contains. This thesis is devoted to the development of data analysis methods to be integrated in the Gaia pipeline, such that knowledge can be extracted from the data collected by the mission. In order to analyze the data from the Gaia mission, the European Space Agency organized the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) which is composed of hundreds of scientists and engineers. DPAC is divided into eight Coordination Units (CUs). This thesis is dedicated to algorithm development in CU8, which is responsible for source classification and astrophysical parameters (AP) estimation. Methods based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are developed to perform the tasks related to two different work packages in CU8: the GSP-Spec package (GWP-823), and the OA package (GWP-836). The GSP-Spec package is responsible for estimating stellar APs by means of the Radial Velocity Spectrograph (RVS) spectrum. This work presents the development of one of the GSP-Spec modules, which is based on the application of feed-forward ANNs. A methodology is described, based on the optimization of genetic algorithms and aimed at obtaining an optimal set of configuration parameters for the ANN in each case, depending on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the RVS spectrum and on the type of star to parameterize. Furthermore, in order to improve the AP estimates, wavelet signal processing techniques, applied to the RVS spectrum, are studied. Despite the effectiveness shown by ANNs in estimating APs, in principle they lack the ability to provide an uncertainty value on these estimates, making it impossible to determine their reliability. Because of this, a new architecture for the ANN is presented in which the inputs and outputs are reversed, so that the ANN estimates the RVS spectrum from the APs. Such an architecture is called Generative ANN (GANN) and is applied to the AP estimation of a set of simulated RVS spectra for the Gaia mission, where it is more effective than the conventional ANN model, in the case of faint stars with low SNR. Finally, the GANN can be applied for obtaining the posterior probability of each of the APs according to the RVS spectrum, allowing for their more complete analysis. Given the nature of the Gaia mission, which is the first astronomical mission that will observe, in an unbiased way, the entire sky up to magnitude 20, a large number of outliers are expected. The OA package in CU8 handles the processing of this type of objects, which are defined as those that could not be reliably classified by the methods in the upstream classification packages. OA methods are based on the unsupervised learning of all outliers. Such learning has two parts: clustering and dimensionality reduction. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm is selected as a basis for this learning. Its effectiveness is demonstrated when it is applied, with an optimal configuration, to the Gaia simulations. Furthermore, the algorithm is applied to real outliers from the SDSS catalog. Since a subsequent identification of the clusters obtained by the SOM is necessary, two different methods of identification are applied. The first method is based on the similarity between the SOM prototypes and the Gaia simulations, and the second method is based on the recovery of stored classifications in the SIMBAD catalog by cross-matching celestial coordinates. Thanks to the visualization of the SOM planes, and to both methods of identification, it is possible to distinguish between valid observations and observational artifacts. Furthermore, the method allows for the selection of objects of interest for follow-up observations, in order to determine their nature.

  10. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  11. 78 FR 21113 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17845

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... obliquidens), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), blue whales... research on humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must be... and B harassment of humpback whales during photo-identification, behavioral follows, and surface...

  12. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Carcharhinus isodon C. Pelagic Sharks Blue, Prionace glauca Oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus Porbeagle..., Hexanchus griseus Smalltail, Carcharhinus porosus Whale, Rhincodon typus White, Carcharodon carcharias E... obesus Blue shark, Prionace glauca Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Dolphin fish, Coryphaena...

  13. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Carcharhinus isodon C. Pelagic Sharks Blue, Prionace glauca Oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus Porbeagle..., Hexanchus griseus Smalltail, Carcharhinus porosus Whale, Rhincodon typus White, Carcharodon carcharias E... obesus Blue shark, Prionace glauca Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Dolphin fish, Coryphaena...

  14. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  15. Investigation of trophic level and niche partitioning of 7 cetacean species by stable isotopes, and cadmium and arsenic tissue concentrations in the western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-Y; Chou, L-S; Chen, M-H

    2015-04-15

    A total of 24 stranded or bycatch cetaceans, including Balaenoptera omurai, Lagenodelphis hosei, Kogia sima, Stenella attenuata, Grampus griseus, Neophocaena phocaenoides, and Sousa chinensis, were collected from 2001 to 2011 in Taiwan. Using the muscular δ(13)C and δ(15)N data, three ecological groups were identified as the oceanic baleen whale, the neritic, and the coastal toothed whale groups, coinciding with their taxonomy, feeding habits and geographical distribution. A horizontal inshore to offshore distribution was found for the sympatric neritic toothed dolphins, G. griseus, K. sima, S. attenuata, and L. hosei in the outermost offshore waters, accompanying their growth. For the first time we identify Taiwan's Chinese white dolphin, S. chinensis, as an exclusive fish eater. Cd and As bioaccumulated in the G. griseus, L. hosei and S. attenuata increase as they grow. Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found in L. hosei, and G. griseus. PMID:25684592

  16. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  17. Structural changes in freshwater fish and chironomids exposed to bacterial exotoxins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Morley, N J; Ahmad, M; Challis, G L; Wright, R; Bicker, R; Morritt, D

    2012-06-01

    Mass fish mortalities have been reported in the past decade from British waters, often coinciding with blooms of filamentous actinobacteria, particularly strains of Streptomyces griseus. The present study has shown that some fractions of the exudate of S. griseus, prepared after a series of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations, and analysed with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), induced pathological changes to the gills of carp and/or tench fry following exposure under laboratory conditions up to 96 h Similar changes were induced by streptomycin, a secondary metabolite of S. griseus, and these included loss of microridging and fusion of secondary lamellae, with carp fry in the case of the exudate of S. griseus being more sensitive than tench fry, especially with exposure to fraction 9 and selected sub-fractions of 9. Some deformities using a severity index were also observed in the head capsule of larvae of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius, including loss and splitting of teeth on the mentum. The results are discussed in relation to further identification of metabolites derived from samples of the organic filtrate of S. griseus and implications for the functioning of freshwater ecosystems. PMID:22381615

  18. Comparación de las predicciones de cosmologías alternativas al modelo estándar con datos del fondo cósmico de radiación

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccirilli, M. P.; Landau, S. J.; León, G.

    2016-08-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is one of the most powerful tools to study the early Universe and its evolution, providing also a method to test different cosmological scenarios. We consider alternative inflationary models where the emergence of the seeds of cosmic structure from a perfect isotropic and homogeneous universe can be explained by the self-induced collapse of the inflaton wave function. Some of these alternative models may result indistinguishable from the standard model, while others require to be compared with observational data through statistical analysis. In this article we show results concerning the first Planck release, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope, the WMAP and Sloan Digital Sky Survey datasets, reaching good agreement between data and theoretical predictions. For future works, we aim to achieve better limits in the cosmological parameters using the last Planck release.

  19. Caracterización del entorno del los blazares PG1553+113 y 3C66A con datos GEMINI-GMOS en las bandas g' e i'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Zafra, J.; Cellone, S. A.; Andruchow, I.

    The blazars PG1553+113 and 3C66A have been recently detected at TeV energies -rays; however; an accurate modelling of their electromagnetic emission as well as -ray absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL) are prevented by their lack of firm redshift determinations. This is due to the fact that; being objects of the BLLac subclass; their optical spectral have by definition very faint emission lines. In this paper the environment of both objects is photometrically analyzed; looking for overdensities that may trace galaxy clusters. Comparing magnitudes and colors of detected object to those of model galaxies allows us to provide a new constraint to the redshifts of both blazars. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Una novedosa herramienta estadística para desentrañar las características intrínsecas de una distribución de datos astrofísicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, I.; Piatti, A. E.

    The statistical analysis of a sample of data includes the collection; the analysis and the interpretation of them. For example; the construction of histograms has proven to be a powerful tool in statistics; from which it is possible to obtain an overview of the distribution of the data sample considered. In some circumstances; however; the results often depend on the way they are constructed (e.g. size of the bins used; etc.) leading to a variety of possible interpretations. Specifically; this paper presents a statistical method that allows to unravel the intrinsic distribution of a n-dimensional data distribution from "adaptive bins" and the consideration of the errors of the data used. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes.

    PubMed

    Claridge, C A; Schmitz, H

    1978-07-01

    Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.

  2. 75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... bredanensis), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Pursuant to these..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this...

  3. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... bredanensis), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). NMFS received a..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this...

  4. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... bredanensis), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Pursuant to these..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this...

  5. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... bredanensis), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). NMFS received..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this...

  6. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... bredanensis), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Pursuant to these..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this...

  7. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... bredanensis), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Pursuant to these..., 2008 (73 FR 34875), and remain in effect through July 19, 2013. For detailed information on this...

  8. Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, Paris; Tolba, Sahar; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Wellington, Elizabeth M; Wellington, Liz

    2010-03-01

    We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources. PMID:20067498

  9. 77 FR 12010 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... (72 FR 13092), authorized the receipt, import and export of marine mammal specimens (cetaceans and... June 17, 2011 (72 FR 13092), authorized the importation of samples from Risso's (Grampus griseus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB040 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789...

  10. First evidence of fish larvae producing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Staaterman, Erica; Paris, Claire B.; Kough, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic ecology of marine fishes has traditionally focused on adults, while overlooking the early life-history stages. Here, we document the first acoustic recordings of pre-settlement stage grey snapper larvae (Lutjanus griseus). Through a combination of in situ and unprovoked laboratory recordings, we found that L. griseus larvae are acoustically active during the night, producing ‘knock’ and ‘growl’ sounds that are spectrally and temporally similar to those of adults. While the exact function and physiological mechanisms of sound production in fish larvae are unknown, we suggest that these sounds may enable snapper larvae to maintain group cohesion at night when visual cues are reduced. PMID:25274018

  11. Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes.

    PubMed Central

    Claridge, C A; Schmitz, H

    1978-01-01

    Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests. PMID:100053

  12. A Branch Point of Streptomyces Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism Controls the Production of Albomycin

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Aditya; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Van Lanen, Steven; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Albomycin (ABM), also known as grisein, is a sulfur-containing metabolite produced by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 700974. Genes predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of ABM and ABM-like molecules are found in the genomes of other actinomycetes. ABM has potent antibacterial activity, and as a result, many attempts have been made to develop ABM into a drug since the last century. Although the productivity of S. griseus can be increased with random mutagenesis methods, understanding of Streptomyces sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism, which supplies a precursor for ABM biosynthesis, could lead to improved and stable production. We previously characterized the gene cluster (abm) in the genome-sequenced S. griseus strain and proposed that the sulfur atom of ABM is derived from either cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine (Hcy). The gene product, AbmD, appears to be an important link between primary and secondary sulfur metabolic pathways. Here, we show that propargylglycine or iron supplementation in growth media increased ABM production by significantly changing the relative concentrations of intracellular Cys and Hcy. An SAA metabolic network of S. griseus was constructed. Pathways toward increasing Hcy were shown to positively impact ABM production. The abmD gene and five genes that increased the Hcy/Cys ratio were assembled downstream of hrdBp promoter sequences and integrated into the chromosome for overexpression. The ABM titer of one engineered strain, SCAK3, in a chemically defined medium was consistently improved to levels ∼400% of the wild type. Finally, we analyzed the production and growth of SCAK3 in shake flasks for further process development. PMID:26519385

  13. The chromomycin CmmA acetyltransferase: a membrane-bound enzyme as a tool for increasing structural diversity of the antitumour mithramycin.

    PubMed

    García, Beatriz; González-Sabín, Javier; Menéndez, Nuria; Braña, Alfredo F; Núñez, Luz Elena; Morís, Francisco; Salas, José A; Méndez, Carmen

    2011-03-01

    Mithramycin and chromomycin A(3) are two structurally related antitumour compounds, which differ in the glycosylation profiles and functional group substitutions of the sugars. Chromomycin contains two acetyl groups, which are incorporated during the biosynthesis by the acetyltransferase CmmA in Streptomyces griseus ssp. griseus. A bioconversion strategy using an engineered S. griseus strain generated seven novel acetylated mithramycins. The newly formed compounds were purified and characterized by MS and NMR. These new compounds differ from their parental compounds in the presence of one, two or three acetyl groups, attached at 3E, 4E and/or 4D positions. All new mithramycin analogues showed antitumour activity at micromolar of lower concentrations. Some of the compounds showed improved activities against glioblastoma or pancreas tumour cells. The CmmA acetyltransferase was located in the cell membrane and was shown to accept several acyl-CoA substrates. All these results highlight the potential of CmmA as a tool to create structural diversity in these antitumour compounds. PMID:21342468

  14. Growth and secondary production of an eventual reef fish during mangrove residency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunce, Craig H.; Serafy, Joseph E.

    2008-08-01

    Hierarchical data frameworks have been proposed to determine the relative value of fish habitats. Although conceptually accurate, judgments as to which habitat is more "essential" are limited by a lack of available information. This work provides much needed growth and production rates for gray snapper ( Lutjanus griseus), an ontogenetic habitat shifting reef fish, during mangrove residency. Ages were estimated using modal progression analysis of length-frequency distributions coupled with a biologically-realistic spawning date. Growth estimates place age-1 L. griseus at 155 mm (TL), age-2 at 243, and age-3 at 302 mm. These size-at-age estimates are consistent with otolith-based studies and are a natural extension of linear growth models for early juveniles. Lutjanus griseus primarily use southeastern Florida mangrove shoreline habitats for approximately 2 years between 0.86 and 2.84 years of age. Corresponding production:biomass ratios for these cohorts were 1.51 and 0.90. While these values are similar to other estimates for fishes inhabiting vegetated coastal wetlands in North America, they are much less than new estimates from a Bahamian mangrove creek system. These new data highlight important differences between the habitat value of mangrove shorelines of continental (low-relief) and island (high-relief) systems.

  15. A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from triakid sharks.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Akira; Shimizu, Toshiya; Mano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm are described from triakid sharks. We found Platybothrium xiamenensis Wang & Yang, 2001 and Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) from Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle). Based on the morphology of the hooks P. xiamenensis is transferred to the genus Erudituncus Healy, Scholz & Caira, 2001. The specimens studied by us differ from the original description in the number of proglottids and testes and in the size of the cirrus-sac. However, we consider them conspecific with E. xiamenensis due to the consistent hook morphology and laciniations in both descriptions and believe the differences reflect intraspecific variation. The type-host of E. xiamenensis was reported as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann. However, in the present study, this parasite was found only in H. japanica and never in M. griseus although many specimens of the latter host were examined. This suggests that the type-host in the original description has probably been misidentified. We found another undescribed species in M. griseus, Calliobothrium shirozame n. sp., which is distinguished from the congeners by having a unique combination of the number of laciniations: four in the cephalic peduncle, six in the immature proglottids and four in the mature proglottids. PMID:24711114

  16. Phylogenetic revision of Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. Jansen & Franz, 2015 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using taxonomic concept annotations and alignments.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M Andrew; Franz, Nico M

    2015-01-01

    This contribution adopts the taxonomic concept annotation and alignment approach. Accordingly, and where indicated, previous and newly inferred meanings of taxonomic names are individuated according to one specific source. Articulations among these concepts and pairwise, logically consistent alignments of original and revisionary classifications are also provided, in addition to conventional nomenclatural provenance information. A phylogenetic revision of the broad-nosed weevil genera Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982), and Piscatopus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) (Curculionidae [non-focal]: Entiminae [non-focal]: Tanymecini [non-focal]) is presented. Prior to this study, Minyomerus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) contained seven species, whereas the monotypic Piscatopus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) was comprised solely of Piscatopus griseus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982). We thoroughly redescribe these recognized species-level entities and furthermore describe ten species as new to science: Minyomerus bulbifrons sec. Jansen & Franz (2015) (henceforth: [JF2015]), sp. n., Minyomerus aeriballux [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus cracens [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus gravivultus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus imberbus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus reburrus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus politus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus puticulatus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015], sp. n., and Minyomerus trisetosus [JF2015], sp. n. A cladistic analysis using 46 morphological characters of 22 terminal taxa (5/17 outgroup/ingroup) yielded a single most-parsimonious cladogram (L = 82, CI = 65, RI = 82). The analysis strongly supports the monophyly of Minyomerus [JF2015] with eight unreversed synapomorphies, and places Piscatopus griseus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) within the genus as sister to Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015]. Accordingly, Piscatopus sec. Sleeper (1960), syn. n. is changed to junior synonymy of Minyomerus [JF2015], and

  17. The use of marine reserves in evaluating the dive fishery for the warty sea cucumber, Parastichopus parvimensis in California, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, S.C.; Reed, D.C.; Kushner, D.J.; Estes, J.A.; Ono, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe an instance of unusual, agonistic behavior in a flock of migrant Short-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus) . We compare this behavior to that of other flocks feeding at the same time at other locations in the same estuary and then present evidence suggesting that this behavior resulted from the patchy distribution of the probable foraging resource of this flock, eggs of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus). We propose that an extremely patchy resource has increased the agonistic behavior within the flock by increasing the variation in foraging success among individuals.

  18. Phylogenetic revision of Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. Jansen & Franz, 2015 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using taxonomic concept annotations and alignments

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, M. Andrew; Franz, Nico M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This contribution adopts the taxonomic concept annotation and alignment approach. Accordingly, and where indicated, previous and newly inferred meanings of taxonomic names are individuated according to one specific source. Articulations among these concepts and pairwise, logically consistent alignments of original and revisionary classifications are also provided, in addition to conventional nomenclatural provenance information. A phylogenetic revision of the broad-nosed weevil genera Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982), and Piscatopus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) (Curculionidae [non-focal]: Entiminae [non-focal]: Tanymecini [non-focal]) is presented. Prior to this study, Minyomerus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) contained seven species, whereas the monotypic Piscatopus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) was comprised solely of Piscatopus griseus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982). We thoroughly redescribe these recognized species-level entities and furthermore describe ten species as new to science: Minyomerus bulbifrons sec. Jansen & Franz (2015) (henceforth: [JF2015]), sp. n., Minyomerus aeriballux [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus cracens [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus gravivultus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus imberbus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus reburrus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus politus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus puticulatus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015], sp. n., and Minyomerus trisetosus [JF2015], sp. n. A cladistic analysis using 46 morphological characters of 22 terminal taxa (5/17 outgroup/ingroup) yielded a single most-parsimonious cladogram (L = 82, CI = 65, RI = 82). The analysis strongly supports the monophyly of Minyomerus [JF2015] with eight unreversed synapomorphies, and places Piscatopus griseus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) within the genus as sister to Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015]. Accordingly, Piscatopus sec. Sleeper (1960), syn. n. is changed to junior synonymy of

  19. Agnonistic behavior in short-billed dowitchers feeding on a patchy resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, E.P.; Schneider, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we describe an instance of unusual, agonistic behavior in a flock of migrant Short-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus) . We compare this behavior to that of other flocks feeding at the same time at other locations in the same estuary and then present evidence suggesting that this behavior resulted from the patchy distribution of the probable foraging resource of this flock, eggs of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus). We propose that an extremely patchy resource has increased the agonistic behavior within the flock by increasing the variation in foraging success among individuals.

  20. Autoregulation of carbapenem biosynthesis in Erwinia carotovora by analogues of N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S R; Stead, P; Bainton, N J; Salmond, G P; Stewart, G S; Williams, P; Bycroft, B W

    1993-03-01

    N-(3-Oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HSL) (I) is the autoregulator controlling carbapenem antibiotic biosynthesis in Erwinia carotovora ATCC 39048. The chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues of HSL are described. These include alterations of chirality, side-chain modifications, ring size and ring hetero atom. A number of compounds are reported which are capable of restoring the phenotype to a HSL negative mutant but at higher concentrations than HSL. A-factor, the autoregulator of streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus, was not active as an inducer of carbapenem biosynthesis in E. carotovora.

  1. Phylogenetic revision of Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. Jansen & Franz, 2015 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using taxonomic concept annotations and alignments.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M Andrew; Franz, Nico M

    2015-01-01

    This contribution adopts the taxonomic concept annotation and alignment approach. Accordingly, and where indicated, previous and newly inferred meanings of taxonomic names are individuated according to one specific source. Articulations among these concepts and pairwise, logically consistent alignments of original and revisionary classifications are also provided, in addition to conventional nomenclatural provenance information. A phylogenetic revision of the broad-nosed weevil genera Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982), and Piscatopus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) (Curculionidae [non-focal]: Entiminae [non-focal]: Tanymecini [non-focal]) is presented. Prior to this study, Minyomerus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) contained seven species, whereas the monotypic Piscatopus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) was comprised solely of Piscatopus griseus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982). We thoroughly redescribe these recognized species-level entities and furthermore describe ten species as new to science: Minyomerus bulbifrons sec. Jansen & Franz (2015) (henceforth: [JF2015]), sp. n., Minyomerus aeriballux [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus cracens [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus gravivultus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus imberbus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus reburrus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus politus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus puticulatus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015], sp. n., and Minyomerus trisetosus [JF2015], sp. n. A cladistic analysis using 46 morphological characters of 22 terminal taxa (5/17 outgroup/ingroup) yielded a single most-parsimonious cladogram (L = 82, CI = 65, RI = 82). The analysis strongly supports the monophyly of Minyomerus [JF2015] with eight unreversed synapomorphies, and places Piscatopus griseus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) within the genus as sister to Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015]. Accordingly, Piscatopus sec. Sleeper (1960), syn. n. is changed to junior synonymy of Minyomerus [JF2015], and

  2. Evolution of the mojavensis cluster of cactophilic Drosophila with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Heed, W B; Wasserman, M

    1990-01-01

    The mojavensis cluster of the repleta species group of Drosophila (Drosophilidae: Diptera) consists of three species. One is newly described as D. navojoa. A second species, described here as D. arizonae, replaces D. arizonensis, which has become a junior subjective synonym for D. mojavensis, the third species in the cluster. A phylogeny of the three species is presented, based on chromosomal inversions, morphology, and the ability to produce hybrids. Breakage points are assigned for all inversions, and male genitalia are figured; 186 crosses were made from 225 possible combinations among 15 geographic strains from the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Guatemala. It is confirmed that D. mojavensis and D. arizonae are very closely related and shown that D. navojoa is more distantly related in regard to all criteria. This relationship is supported by the geographical positions of the ancestral gene sequences in each species, which show a sequential northwest movement (D. navojoa----D. arizonae----D. mojavensis) from southern Mexico to southern California and northern Arizona. The relationship is also supported by the fact that D. navojoa breeds in Opuntia cactus, an ancestral behavior, whereas the other two species breed chiefly in Stenocereus cacti, a derived behavior. The possible role of this host plant shift in speciation is discussed.

  3. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. I. Root colonization and weathering of igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Bashan, Y; Li, C Y; Lebsky, V K

    2004-09-01

    Dense layers of bacteria and fungi in the rhizoplane of three species of cactus (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia cholla) and a wild fig tree (Ficus palmeri) growing in rocks devoid of soil were revealed by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. These desert plants are responsible for rock weathering in an ancient lava flow at La Purisima-San Isidro and in sedimentary rock in the Sierra de La Paz, both in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The dominant bacterial groups colonizing the rhizoplane were fluorescent pseudomonads and bacilli. Seven of these bacterial species were identified by the 16S rRNA molecular method. Unidentified fungal and actimomycete species were also present. Some of the root-colonizing microorganisms fixed in vitro N(2), produced volatile and non-volatile organic acids that subsequently reduced the pH of the rock medium in which the bacteria grew, and significantly dissolved insoluble phosphates, extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone. The bacteria were able to release significant amounts of useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn from the rocks and were thermo-tolerant, halo-tolerant, and drought-tolerant. The microbial community survived in the rhizoplane of cacti during the annual 10-month dry season. This study indicates that rhizoplane bacteria on cacti roots in rock may be involved in chemical weathering in hot, subtropical deserts.

  4. Holocene vegetation and climate in the Puerto Blanco Mountains, southwestern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Devender, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    Plant macrofossils from 21 pack rat ( Neotoma sp.) middens at 535-605 m from the Puerto Blanco Mountains, southwestern Arizona, provide and excellent history of vegetation and climate for the last 14, 120 yr B.P. in the Sonoran Desert. A late Wisconsin juniper-Joshua tree woodland gave way to a transitional early Holocene desertscrub with sparse Juniperus californica (California juniper) by 10,540 yr B.P. Important Sonoran Desert plants including Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro) and Encelia farinosa (brittle bush) were dominants. Riparian trees such as Acacia greggii (catclaw acacia), Prosopis velutina (velvet mesquite), and Cerdicium floridum (blue palo verde) grew on dry, south-facing slopes in a middle Holocene Sonoran desertscrub in a warm, wet summer climate with frequent winter freezes. Modern subtropical Sonoran desertscrub formed about 4000 yr B.P. as summer rainfall and winter freezes declined. Cercidium microphyllum (foothills palo verde), Sapium biloculare (Mexican jumping bean), Olneya tesota (ironwood) and Stenocereus thurberi (organ pipe cactus) became dominant as riparian trees retreated to wash habitats. The inferences of a latest Wisconsin/early Holocene summer monsoonal maximum by J. E. Kutzbach (1983), Modeling of Holocene climates. In "Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States," Vol. 2, "The Holocene" (H. E. Wright, Ed.), pp. 271-277. Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis) are not supported for the Southwest. Apparently the persistence of late Wisconsin circulation patterns offset any increases in insolation.

  5. Apical meristem organization and lack of establishment of the quiescent center in Cactaceae roots with determinate growth.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Fernando; Shishkova, Svetlana; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2003-10-01

    Some species of Cactaceae from the Sonoran Desert are characterized by a determinate growth pattern of the primary root, which is important for rapid lateral-root formation and seedling establishment. An analysis of the determinate root growth can be helpful for understanding the mechanism of meristem maintenance in plants in general. Stenocereus gummosus (Engelm.) Gibson & Horak and Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson) Britton & Rose are characterized by an open type of root apical meristem. Immunohistochemical analysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into S. gummosus showed that the percentage of cells passing through the S-phase in a 24-h period is the same within the zone where a population of relatively slowly proliferating cells could be established and above this zone in the meristem. This indicated the absence of the quiescent center (QC) in S. gummosus. During the second and the third days of growth, in the distal meristem portion of P. pringlei roots, a compact group of cells that had a cell cycle longer than in the proximal meristem was found, indicating the presence of the QC. However, later in development, the QC could not be detected in this species. These data suggest that during post-germination the absence of the establishment of the QC within the apical meristem and limited proliferative activity of initial cells are the main components of a determinate developmental program and that establishment of the QC is required for maintenance of the meristem and indeterminate root growth in plants.

  6. Bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of three cactus species from semi-arid highlands in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Garrido, J Félix; Montiel-Lugo, Daniel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Torres-Cortes, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C

    2012-05-01

    The nature reserve of Tehuacan-Cuicatlan in central Mexico is known for its diversity and endemism mainly in cactus plants. Although the xerophytic flora is reasonably documented, the bacterial communities associated with these species have been largely neglected. We assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in bulk (non-rhizospheric) soil and the rhizosphere of three cactus plant species: Mammillaria carnea, Opuntia pilifera and Stenocereus stellatus, approached using cultivation and molecular techniques, considering the possible effect of dry and rainy seasons. Cultivation-dependent methods were focused on putative N(2)-fixers and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, in the two media tested the values obtained for dry season samples grouped together regardless of the sample type (rhizospheric or non-rhizospheric), these groups also included the non-rhizospheric sample for rainy season, on each medium. These CFU values were smaller and significantly different from those obtained on rhizospheric samples from rainy season. Genera composition among isolates of the rhizospheric samples was very similar for each season, the most abundant taxa being α-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Interestingly, the genus Ochrobactrum was highly represented among rhizospheric samples, when cultured in N-free medium. The structure of the bacterial communities was approached with molecular techniques targeting partial 16S rRNA sequences such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags. Under these approaches, the most represented bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The first two were also highly represented when using isolation techniques.

  7. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. I. Root colonization and weathering of igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Bashan, Y; Li, C Y; Lebsky, V K

    2004-09-01

    Dense layers of bacteria and fungi in the rhizoplane of three species of cactus (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia cholla) and a wild fig tree (Ficus palmeri) growing in rocks devoid of soil were revealed by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. These desert plants are responsible for rock weathering in an ancient lava flow at La Purisima-San Isidro and in sedimentary rock in the Sierra de La Paz, both in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The dominant bacterial groups colonizing the rhizoplane were fluorescent pseudomonads and bacilli. Seven of these bacterial species were identified by the 16S rRNA molecular method. Unidentified fungal and actimomycete species were also present. Some of the root-colonizing microorganisms fixed in vitro N(2), produced volatile and non-volatile organic acids that subsequently reduced the pH of the rock medium in which the bacteria grew, and significantly dissolved insoluble phosphates, extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone. The bacteria were able to release significant amounts of useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn from the rocks and were thermo-tolerant, halo-tolerant, and drought-tolerant. The microbial community survived in the rhizoplane of cacti during the annual 10-month dry season. This study indicates that rhizoplane bacteria on cacti roots in rock may be involved in chemical weathering in hot, subtropical deserts. PMID:15375735

  8. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics.

  9. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  10. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  11. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  12. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  13. Phylogenetic origins of Lophocereus (Cactaceae) and the senita cactus-senita moth pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Nason, John D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2002-07-01

    Recent ecological research has revealed that the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus Lophocereus and the pyralid moth Upiga virescens form an obligate pollination mutualism, a rare but important case of coevolution. To investigate the phylogenetic origins of this unusual pollination system, we used molecular sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four taxa within the genus Lophocereus and to determine the phylogenetic position of Lophocereus within the North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae). Our analysis included Lophocereus, six Pachycereus species, Carnegiea gigantea, and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo within the subtribe Pachycereinae, and Stenocereus thurberi as an outgroup within the Stenocereinae. Extensive screening of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes failed to reveal sequence variation within Lophocereus. At a deeper phylogenetic level, however, we found strong support for the placement of Lophocereus within Pachycereus as sister group to the hummingbird-pollinated P. marginatus. We discuss possible hypotheses that may explain the transition from bat pollination (ancestral) to moth and hummingbird pollination in Lophocereus and P. marginatus, respectively. Additional phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Pachycereus should be expanded to include Lophocereus, Carnegiea, Neobuxbaumia, and perhaps other species, whereas P. hollianus may need to be excluded from this clade. Future study will be needed to test taxonomic distinctions within Lophocereus, to test for parallel cladogenesis between phylogroups within Lophocereus and Upiga, and to fully delineate the genus Pachycereus and relationships among genera in the Pachycereinae.

  14. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tchaicka, Ligia; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E.; Wayne, Robert K.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  15. Estimation of intestinal protein digestibility of protein supplements for ruminants using a three-step enzymatic in vitro procedure.

    PubMed

    Hippenstiel, Friederike; Kivitz, Andre; Benninghoff, Jens; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This study included 33 samples with main focus on unprotected or rumen-protected rapeseed and soybean feedstuffs, which were analysed using an enzymatic in vitro procedure (EIVP) in order to determine intestinal crude protein (CP) digestibility (IPD) of ruminally undegraded CP. The EIVP involved the sequential digestion of samples with a protease from Streptomyces griseus, pepsin-HCl and pancreatin. Briefly, the EIVP started with determination of true protein. Feeds were incubated for 18 h in a buffer solution at a constant ratio (41 U/g) of S. griseus protease activity to feed true protein. The dried residues were incubated in pepsin-HCl solution for 1 h, and residues from this step were incubated in pancreatin solution for 24 h. Results appeared to have lower IPD dimensions than literature data of previous studies. In addition, a negative correlation became apparent between acid detergent fibre and IPD, as well as a positive correlation between CP, true protein and IPD. The EIVP in its current, strictly standardised form can be applied to develop a database that can be used for protein evaluation systems for establishing tabular values of IPD. Nevertheless, future studies may be hindered since sufficient reference values, i.e. in vivo data, are completely missing.

  16. Diversity among Streptomyces Strains Causing Potato Scab.

    PubMed

    Doering-Saad, C; Kämpfer, P; Manulis, S; Kritzman, G; Schneider, J; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J; Schrempf, H; Barash, I

    1992-12-01

    Eighty Streptomyces isolates, including 35 potato scab-inducing strains and 12 reference strains of Streptomyces scabies, were physiologically characterized by a total of 329 miniaturized tests. Overall similarities of all strains were determined by numerical taxonomy, with the unweighted average linkage (UPGMA) algorithm and simple matching (S(sm)) and Jaccard (S(j)) coefficients used as measures for similarity. Three cluster groups (A to C) were defined at a similarity level of 80.1% (S(sm)); these groups contained 14 clusters and 24 unclustered strains defined at a similarity level of 86.5% (S(sm)). Cluster group A contained strains phenotypically related to S. griseus or S. exfoliatus, whereas cluster group B contained strains which were phenotypically related to S. violaceus or S. rochei. The majority of the pathogenic isolates and reference strains were assigned to S. violaceus (57%) and S. griseus (22%). A DNA probe derived from the rRNA operon of S. coelicolor IMET 40271 was used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RELPs) among 40 pathogenic and nonpathogenic Streptomyces isolates. Southern blots revealed a high degree of diversity among the pathogenic strains tested. No significant correlation between numerical classification and RFLP grouping of Streptomyces strains could be revealed. The results obtained suggest that RFLP data are of minor importance in classification of Streptomyces species and that genes for pathogenicity determinants are spread among different Streptomyces species by mobilizable elements. PMID:16348823

  17. Diversity among Streptomyces Strains Causing Potato Scab

    PubMed Central

    Doering-Saad, Christiane; Kämpfer, Peter; Manulis, Shulamit; Kritzman, Giora; Schneider, Jörg; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, Jolanta; Schrempf, Hildgund; Barash, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    Eighty Streptomyces isolates, including 35 potato scab-inducing strains and 12 reference strains of Streptomyces scabies, were physiologically characterized by a total of 329 miniaturized tests. Overall similarities of all strains were determined by numerical taxonomy, with the unweighted average linkage (UPGMA) algorithm and simple matching (Ssm) and Jaccard (Sj) coefficients used as measures for similarity. Three cluster groups (A to C) were defined at a similarity level of 80.1% (Ssm); these groups contained 14 clusters and 24 unclustered strains defined at a similarity level of 86.5% (Ssm). Cluster group A contained strains phenotypically related to S. griseus or S. exfoliatus, whereas cluster group B contained strains which were phenotypically related to S. violaceus or S. rochei. The majority of the pathogenic isolates and reference strains were assigned to S. violaceus (57%) and S. griseus (22%). A DNA probe derived from the rRNA operon of S. coelicolor IMET 40271 was used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RELPs) among 40 pathogenic and nonpathogenic Streptomyces isolates. Southern blots revealed a high degree of diversity among the pathogenic strains tested. No significant correlation between numerical classification and RFLP grouping of Streptomyces strains could be revealed. The results obtained suggest that RFLP data are of minor importance in classification of Streptomyces species and that genes for pathogenicity determinants are spread among different Streptomyces species by mobilizable elements. Images PMID:16348823

  18. Towards next generation CHO cell biology: Bioinformatics methods for RNA-Seq-based expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Monger, Craig; Kelly, Paul S; Gallagher, Clair; Clynes, Martin; Barron, Niall; Clarke, Colin

    2015-07-01

    High throughput, cost effective next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled the publication of genome sequences for Cricetulus griseus and several Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. RNA-Seq, the utilization of NGS technology to study the transcriptome, is expanding our understanding of the CHO cell biological system in areas ranging from the analysis of transcription start sites to the discovery of small noncoding RNAs. The analysis of RNA-Seq data, often comprised of several million short reads, presents a considerable challenge. If the CHO cell biology field is to fully exploit the potential of RNA-Seq, the development of robust data analysis pipelines is critical. In this manuscript, we outline bioinformatics approaches for the stages of a typical RNA-Seq expression profiling experiment including quality control, pre-processing, alignment and de novo transcriptome assembly. Algorithms for the analysis of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression as well as methods for the detection of alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data are also presented. At this relatively early stage of Cricetulus griseus genome assembly and annotation, it is likely that a combination of isoform deconvolution and raw count based methods will provide the most complete picture of transcript expression patterns in CHO cell RNA-Seq experiments. PMID:26058739

  19. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae).

    PubMed

    Tchaicka, Ligia; Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena de; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E; Wayne, Robert K; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  20. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  1. Towards next generation CHO cell biology: Bioinformatics methods for RNA-Seq-based expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Monger, Craig; Kelly, Paul S; Gallagher, Clair; Clynes, Martin; Barron, Niall; Clarke, Colin

    2015-07-01

    High throughput, cost effective next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled the publication of genome sequences for Cricetulus griseus and several Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. RNA-Seq, the utilization of NGS technology to study the transcriptome, is expanding our understanding of the CHO cell biological system in areas ranging from the analysis of transcription start sites to the discovery of small noncoding RNAs. The analysis of RNA-Seq data, often comprised of several million short reads, presents a considerable challenge. If the CHO cell biology field is to fully exploit the potential of RNA-Seq, the development of robust data analysis pipelines is critical. In this manuscript, we outline bioinformatics approaches for the stages of a typical RNA-Seq expression profiling experiment including quality control, pre-processing, alignment and de novo transcriptome assembly. Algorithms for the analysis of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression as well as methods for the detection of alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data are also presented. At this relatively early stage of Cricetulus griseus genome assembly and annotation, it is likely that a combination of isoform deconvolution and raw count based methods will provide the most complete picture of transcript expression patterns in CHO cell RNA-Seq experiments.

  2. Identification and characterization of the afsR homologue regulatory gene from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Niranjan; Viet, Hung Trinh; Ishida, Kenji; Tong, Hang Thi; Lee, Hei Chan; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated an afsR homologue, called afsR-p, through genome analysis of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952. AfsR-p shares 60% sequence identity with AfsR from Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2). afsR-p was expressed under the control of the ermE* promoter in its hosts S. peucetius, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, Streptomyces clavuligerus and Streptomyces griseus. We observed overproduction of doxorubicin (4-fold) in S. peucetius, gamma-actinorhodin (2.6-fold) in S. lividans, clavulanic acid (1.5-fold) in S. clavuligerus and streptomycin (slight) in S. griseus. Overproduction was due to expression of the gene in these strains as compared to the wild-type strains harboring the vector only. Comparative study of the expression of afsR-p revealed that regulatory networking in Streptomyces is not uniform. We speculate that phosphorylated AfsR-p becomes bound to the promoter region of afsS. The latter activates other regulatory genes, including pathway regulatory genes, and induces the production of secondary metabolites including antibiotics. We identified specific conserved amino acids and exploited them for the isolation of the partial sequence of the afsR homologue from S. clavuligerus and Streptomyces achromogens (rubradirin producer). Such findings provide additional evidence for the presence of a serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase-dependent global regulatory network in Streptomyces.

  3. Identification and characterization of the afsR homologue regulatory gene from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Niranjan; Viet, Hung Trinh; Ishida, Kenji; Tong, Hang Thi; Lee, Hei Chan; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated an afsR homologue, called afsR-p, through genome analysis of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952. AfsR-p shares 60% sequence identity with AfsR from Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2). afsR-p was expressed under the control of the ermE* promoter in its hosts S. peucetius, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, Streptomyces clavuligerus and Streptomyces griseus. We observed overproduction of doxorubicin (4-fold) in S. peucetius, gamma-actinorhodin (2.6-fold) in S. lividans, clavulanic acid (1.5-fold) in S. clavuligerus and streptomycin (slight) in S. griseus. Overproduction was due to expression of the gene in these strains as compared to the wild-type strains harboring the vector only. Comparative study of the expression of afsR-p revealed that regulatory networking in Streptomyces is not uniform. We speculate that phosphorylated AfsR-p becomes bound to the promoter region of afsS. The latter activates other regulatory genes, including pathway regulatory genes, and induces the production of secondary metabolites including antibiotics. We identified specific conserved amino acids and exploited them for the isolation of the partial sequence of the afsR homologue from S. clavuligerus and Streptomyces achromogens (rubradirin producer). Such findings provide additional evidence for the presence of a serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase-dependent global regulatory network in Streptomyces. PMID:15921897

  4. A DNA-binding factor, ArfA, interacts with the bldH promoter and affects undecylprodigiosin production in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Delin; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Zee-Yong; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Yang, Seung Hwan; Kwon, Hyung-Jin; Suh, Joo-Won

    2009-02-01

    The fact that adpA promoter activity is enhanced by S-adenosylmethionine without the involvement of the A-factor/ArpA regulatory cascade suggests the existence of additional transcriptional regulators for adpA expression in Streptomyces griseus. In this study, an additional adpA promoter regulatory protein, named ArfA, that is conserved among many bacteria was identified using DNA affinity purification from the cell extracts of Streptomyces lividans. The interactions of ArfA with the adpA promoter from S. griseus and with the bldH promoter from S. lividans were specific and both adpA and bldH promoters required ArfA for the wild-type level of their expressions in S. lividans. bldH of S. lividans is a homolog of adpA of S. lividans. ArfA-deletion mutant had only 70% of the normal undecylprodigiosin production. This result was confirmed by reduced redD promoter activity in the ArfA-deletion mutant. These results suggest that ArfA is a new type of DNA-binding regulator.

  5. The Level of AdpA Directly Affects Expression of Developmental Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Masiewicz, Paweł; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpASc) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpASc) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hours (48 to 60 h), and then the signal intensity decreased considerably. AdpASc specifically binds the adpASc promoter region in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that its expression is autoregulated; surprisingly, in contrast to S. griseus, the protein presumably acts as a transcriptional activator. We also demonstrate a direct influence of AdpASc on the expression of several genes whose products play key roles in the differentiation of S. coelicolor: STI, a protease inhibitor; RamR, an atypical response regulator that itself activates expression of the genes for a small modified peptide that is required for aerial growth; and ClpP1, an ATP-dependent protease. The diverse influence of AdpASc protein on the expression of the analyzed genes presumably results mainly from different affinities of AdpASc protein to individual promoters. PMID:21926228

  6. Western gray squirrel (Rodentia: Sciuridae): a primary reservoir host of Borrelia burgdorferi in Californian oak woodlands?

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Mun, Jeomhee; Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars

    2005-05-01

    In California, dense woodlands have been recognized as important biotopes where humans are exposed to the nymphal stage of the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), in the far-western United States. To identify the principal reservoir host(s) of this spirochete, and of closely related spirochetes in the B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex, in dense woodlands in Mendocino County, California, approximately 50 species of birds and mammals, including wood rats and kangaroo rats, were evaluated as potential hosts for vector ticks and borreliae in 2002 and 2003. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses revealed that many vertebrate species had been exposed to one or more members of the B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetal complex, only the western gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus, fulfilled the major criteria for a reservoir host of B. burgdorferi s.s. Ear-punch biopsies from eight of 10 squirrels collected from five separate woodlands were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi s.s., 47% of I. pacificus larvae (n = 64) and 31% of nymphs (n = 49) removed from squirrels contained B. burgdorferi s.l., and the engorgement status of I. pacificus larvae was associated positively with acquisition of spirochetes. Overall, 83 and 100% of the amplicons sequenced from PCR-positive I. pacificus larvae and nymphs, respectively, were identified as B. burgdorferi s.s, Among the five remaining positive I. pacificus larvae, three contained B. bissettii and two had uncharacterized B. burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. was detected in one of five larvae and zero of two nymphs of the Pacific Coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, that likewise had been removed from squirrels. The rickettsial agent of human anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, was detected in the blood or ear biopsies of two squirrels and in one (1.6%) of 64 I. pacificus larvae and

  7. Genomics of ecological adaptation in cactophilic Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Yolanda; Rius, Núria; Delprat, Alejandra; Williford, Anna; Muyas, Francesc; Puig, Marta; Casillas, Sònia; Ràmia, Miquel; Egea, Raquel; Negre, Barbara; Mir, Gisela; Camps, Jordi; Moncunill, Valentí; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cabrero, Josefa; de Lima, Leonardo G; Dias, Guilherme B; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Kapusta, Aurélie; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo G; Torrents, David; Camacho, Juan P; Kuhn, Gustavo C S; Feschotte, Cédric; Clark, Andrew G; Betrán, Esther; Barbadilla, Antonio; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Cactophilic Drosophila species provide a valuable model to study gene-environment interactions and ecological adaptation. Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mojavensis are two cactophilic species that belong to the repleta group, but have very different geographical distributions and primary host plants. To investigate the genomic basis of ecological adaptation, we sequenced the genome and developmental transcriptome of D. buzzatii and compared its gene content with that of D. mojavensis and two other noncactophilic Drosophila species in the same subgenus. The newly sequenced D. buzzatii genome (161.5 Mb) comprises 826 scaffolds (>3 kb) and contains 13,657 annotated protein-coding genes. Using RNA sequencing data of five life-stages we found expression of 15,026 genes, 80% protein-coding genes, and 20% noncoding RNA genes. In total, we detected 1,294 genes putatively under positive selection. Interestingly, among genes under positive selection in the D. mojavensis lineage, there is an excess of genes involved in metabolism of heterocyclic compounds that are abundant in Stenocereus cacti and toxic to nonresident Drosophila species. We found 117 orphan genes in the shared D. buzzatii-D. mojavensis lineage. In addition, gene duplication analysis identified lineage-specific expanded families with functional annotations associated with proteolysis, zinc ion binding, chitin binding, sensory perception, ethanol tolerance, immunity, physiology, and reproduction. In summary, we identified genetic signatures of adaptation in the shared D. buzzatii-D. mojavensis lineage, and in the two separate D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis lineages. Many of the novel lineage-specific genomic features are promising candidates for explaining the adaptation of these species to their distinct ecological niches. PMID:25552534

  8. Determinate primary root growth as an adaptation to aridity in Cactaceae: towards an understanding of the evolution and genetic control of the trait

    PubMed Central

    Shishkova, Svetlana; Las Peñas, María Laura; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alex; Montiel, Jesús; Patiño, Anallely; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Species of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified. Methods Primary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library. Key Results All species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase. Conclusions Primary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of

  9. Genomics of ecological adaptation in cactophilic Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Yolanda; Rius, Núria; Delprat, Alejandra; Williford, Anna; Muyas, Francesc; Puig, Marta; Casillas, Sònia; Ràmia, Miquel; Egea, Raquel; Negre, Barbara; Mir, Gisela; Camps, Jordi; Moncunill, Valentí; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cabrero, Josefa; de Lima, Leonardo G; Dias, Guilherme B; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Kapusta, Aurélie; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo G; Torrents, David; Camacho, Juan P; Kuhn, Gustavo C S; Feschotte, Cédric; Clark, Andrew G; Betrán, Esther; Barbadilla, Antonio; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2014-12-31

    Cactophilic Drosophila species provide a valuable model to study gene-environment interactions and ecological adaptation. Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mojavensis are two cactophilic species that belong to the repleta group, but have very different geographical distributions and primary host plants. To investigate the genomic basis of ecological adaptation, we sequenced the genome and developmental transcriptome of D. buzzatii and compared its gene content with that of D. mojavensis and two other noncactophilic Drosophila species in the same subgenus. The newly sequenced D. buzzatii genome (161.5 Mb) comprises 826 scaffolds (>3 kb) and contains 13,657 annotated protein-coding genes. Using RNA sequencing data of five life-stages we found expression of 15,026 genes, 80% protein-coding genes, and 20% noncoding RNA genes. In total, we detected 1,294 genes putatively under positive selection. Interestingly, among genes under positive selection in the D. mojavensis lineage, there is an excess of genes involved in metabolism of heterocyclic compounds that are abundant in Stenocereus cacti and toxic to nonresident Drosophila species. We found 117 orphan genes in the shared D. buzzatii-D. mojavensis lineage. In addition, gene duplication analysis identified lineage-specific expanded families with functional annotations associated with proteolysis, zinc ion binding, chitin binding, sensory perception, ethanol tolerance, immunity, physiology, and reproduction. In summary, we identified genetic signatures of adaptation in the shared D. buzzatii-D. mojavensis lineage, and in the two separate D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis lineages. Many of the novel lineage-specific genomic features are promising candidates for explaining the adaptation of these species to their distinct ecological niches.

  10. Effects of natural and artificial selection on survival of columnar cacti seedlings: the role of adaptation to xeric and mesic environments

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Susana; Terrazas, Teresa; Casas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe, and Stenocereus pruinosus are species of Mexican columnar cacti that are economically important because of their edible fruits. These species are managed by gathering fruits from the wild, silvicultural management in agroforestry systems, and cultivation in home gardens. Previous studies reported that artificial selection favored individuals that produced larger fruits, which indirectly led to the production of larger seeds and seedlings, with possible effects on survival. We hypothesized that seedlings from managed populations would be larger but more susceptible to xeric conditions than those from wild populations. We evaluated the effects of artificial and natural selection on seedling survival of the three species in wild and managed populations, which were managed with low and high intensity, respectively. We tested seedling performance in gradients of shade (0, 40, and 80%) and humidity (low and high). A GLM of seedling survival showed significant differences among species, shade, and humidity treatments, with each species having environmental requirements associated with their particular adaptations. High humidity decreased seedling survival of all species, and high solar radiation decreased survival of S. pruinosus and P. chichipe. The effect of management type was significant only in S. pruinosus. Significant differences in the initial growth of seedlings among species were detected with ANOVA. In optimal conditions, the hypocotyl and the cotyledons decreased in size and the epicotyl grew, whereas under stress, these structures remained unchanged. The optimum conditions of shade and humidity varied among species and management types. The seedlings of S. pruinosus were the largest and the most susceptible, but in all species, seedlings from managed populations were more susceptible to environmental conditions. Thus, artificial selection influenced the susceptibility of these cacti to xeric environments. PMID

  11. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele.

  12. Genomics of Ecological Adaptation in Cactophilic Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Yolanda; Rius, Núria; Delprat, Alejandra; Williford, Anna; Muyas, Francesc; Puig, Marta; Casillas, Sònia; Ràmia, Miquel; Egea, Raquel; Negre, Barbara; Mir, Gisela; Camps, Jordi; Moncunill, Valentí; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Cabrero, Josefa; de Lima, Leonardo G.; Dias, Guilherme B.; Ruiz, Jeronimo C.; Kapusta, Aurélie; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo G.; Torrents, David; Camacho, Juan P.; Kuhn, Gustavo C.S.; Feschotte, Cédric; Clark, Andrew G.; Betrán, Esther; Barbadilla, Antonio; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Cactophilic Drosophila species provide a valuable model to study gene–environment interactions and ecological adaptation. Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mojavensis are two cactophilic species that belong to the repleta group, but have very different geographical distributions and primary host plants. To investigate the genomic basis of ecological adaptation, we sequenced the genome and developmental transcriptome of D. buzzatii and compared its gene content with that of D. mojavensis and two other noncactophilic Drosophila species in the same subgenus. The newly sequenced D. buzzatii genome (161.5 Mb) comprises 826 scaffolds (>3 kb) and contains 13,657 annotated protein-coding genes. Using RNA sequencing data of five life-stages we found expression of 15,026 genes, 80% protein-coding genes, and 20% noncoding RNA genes. In total, we detected 1,294 genes putatively under positive selection. Interestingly, among genes under positive selection in the D. mojavensis lineage, there is an excess of genes involved in metabolism of heterocyclic compounds that are abundant in Stenocereus cacti and toxic to nonresident Drosophila species. We found 117 orphan genes in the shared D. buzzatii–D. mojavensis lineage. In addition, gene duplication analysis identified lineage-specific expanded families with functional annotations associated with proteolysis, zinc ion binding, chitin binding, sensory perception, ethanol tolerance, immunity, physiology, and reproduction. In summary, we identified genetic signatures of adaptation in the shared D. buzzatii–D. mojavensis lineage, and in the two separate D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis lineages. Many of the novel lineage-specific genomic features are promising candidates for explaining the adaptation of these species to their distinct ecological niches. PMID:25552534

  13. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele. PMID:15726639

  14. Common procedures in hedgehogs, prairie dogs, exotic rodents, and companion marsupials.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2006-05-01

    Nondomesticated species are commonly being kept as companion animals. These include the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albi-ventris), the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys lu-dovicianus), and exotic rodents such as the degu (Octodon degus)and duprasi or fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). Common companion marsupials include the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps),Bennett's or Tammar (Dama) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufo-griseus and Macropus eugenii, respectively), the Brazilian or South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and the North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although many of these animals are now bred domestically and are fairly docile when human-raised, they are essentially wild animals and hence have strong instincts to hide illness and pain.

  15. Microbial Hydroxylation of 1,4-Cineole

    PubMed Central

    Rosazza, John P. N.; Steffens, James J.; Sariaslani, F. Sima; Goswami, Animesh; Beale, John M.; Reeg, Scot; Chapman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Microorganisms were examined for their potential to hydroxylate the oxygenated monoterpene 1,4-cineole. Using gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, screening experiments revealed that hydroxylation at position 2 was the most commonly observed microbial transformation reaction. In most microorganisms, the predominant alcohol metabolite was the 2-endo-alcohol isomer. Preparative-scale incubations were conducted in order to isolate and characterize microbial transformation products by comparison of proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and chromatography profiles with those of cineole standards. Streptomyces griseus yielded 8-hydroxy-1,4-cineole as the major hydroxylation product together with 2-exo- and 2-endo-hydroxy-1,4-cineoles. PMID:16347465

  16. Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid via the indole-3-acetamide pathway in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Manulis, S; Shafrir, H; Epstein, E; Lichter, A; Barash, I

    1994-05-01

    Various Streptomyces spp. including S. violaceus, S. scabies, S. griseus, S. exfoliatus, S. coelicolor and S. lividans secrete indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when fed with L-tryptophan (Trp). Production of IAA was detected in Streptomyces strains causing potato scab as well as in non-pathogenic strains. The pathways for IAA synthesis from Trp were investigated in S. violaceus and S. exfoliatus. Indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-lactic acid (ILA), indole-3-ethanol (IEt) and IAA were identified by HPLC and GC-MS. Streptomyces cells were capable of catabolizing IAM, ILA, IEt and indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAAId) into IAA. Incorporation of radioactivity into IAM, IAA and ILA but not IEt was detected when cells were fed with L-[3-14C]tryptophan. Results indicate the presence of the IAM pathway (Trp-->IAM-->IAA) and the possible presence of additional pathways for IAA biosynthesis in Streptomyces. PMID:8025670

  17. Engineering Protein Allostery: 1.05 Å Resolution Structure and Enzymatic Properties of a Na[superscript +]-activated Trypsin

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Michael J.; Carrell, Christopher J.; Di Cera, Enrico

    2008-05-28

    Some trypsin-like proteases are endowed with Na{sup +}-dependent allosteric enhancement of catalytic activity, but this important mechanism has been difficult to engineer in other members of the family. Replacement of 19 amino acids in Streptomyces griseus trypsin targeting the active site and the Na{sup +}-binding site were found necessary to generate efficient Na{sup +} activation. Remarkably, this property was linked to the acquisition of a new substrate selectivity profile similar to that of factor Xa, a Na{sup -} activated protease involved in blood coagulation. The X-ray crystal structure of the mutant trypsin solved to 1.05 {angstrom} resolution defines the engineered Na{sup +} site and active site loops in unprecedented detail. The results demonstrate that trypsin can be engineered into an efficient allosteric protease, and that Na+ activation is interwoven with substrate selectivity in the trypsin scaffold.

  18. First record of interspecific breeding of Least Bell's Vireo and White-eyed Vireo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blundell, Melissa A.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    We provide the first known documentation of a male Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) breeding with a female White-eyed Vireo (V. griseus) and the first report of a White-eyed Vireo breeding in California at the San Luis Rey River, Oceanside, San Diego County. We discovered the pair building a nest on 12 May 2010. The female laid four eggs, and the pair successfully raised and fledged four nestlings. We collected DNA samples from each nestling and the female during the nestling stage and banded them with a numbered federal leg band for future identification. We obtained detailed nest measurements after fledging and monitored the territory for further nesting attempts. No additional nesting attempts were detected.

  19. Winter status of White-eyed Vireos in northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2004, February 2005, and June 2005, we recaptured a White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) that was banded on 19 May 2004 at the same location on the Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, Madison Parish, LA. This is the first documented permanent resident White-eyed Vireo outside of resident populations known from Florida and southern Texas. This individual appears to be resident near the northern limit of the winter range for the species. Although White-eyed Vireos are uncommon in northeastern Louisiana during winter, we detected other White-eyed Vireos during line transect surveys and banding during winters 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. The lack of research and observation of winter birds in northern Louisiana and the secretive and inconspicuous behavior of White-eyed Vireos in winter may have led to an underestimation of abundance at the northern limits of their winter range.

  20. Interaction between aspergilli and streptomycetes in the soil of potted indoor plants: a preliminary report (contribution to the epidemiology of human aspergillosis).

    PubMed

    Staib, F; Mishra, S K; Blisse, A

    1980-02-29

    The soil of potted ornamental plants as a reservoir for Aspergillus species pathogenic for man is of epidemiological and ecological interest. Isolation of A. niger as the sole hyphomycete from the soil of potted African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha, Gesneriaceae), prompted us to look for A. inger on the surface of the roots of this plant. Small pieces of the roots were inoculated in the nutrient-free agar-gel with and without antibiotics. On the antibiotic-free gel, a dense growth of Streptomyces griseus was consistently observed around the root pieces. But the gel fortified with antibiotics showed pure growth of only A. niger. One of the two strains of S. ariseus isolated from the African violet, showed inhibitory effect against a number of fungi including A. niger but the other strain had no effect on this fungus. The possible influence of streptomycetes on the occurrence of aspergilli in the soil of potted ornamental plants is discussed. PMID:6769046

  1. Export of cytochrome P450 105D1 to the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kaderbhai, M A; Ugochukwu, C C; Kelly, S L; Lamb, D C

    2001-05-01

    CYP105D1, a cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseus, was appended at its amino terminus to the secretory signal of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and placed under the transcriptional control of the native phoA promoter. Heterologous expression in E. coli phosphate-limited medium resulted in abundant synthesis of recombinant CYP105D1 that was translocated across the bacterial inner membrane and processed to yield authentic, heme-incorporated P450 within the periplasmic space. Cell extract and whole-cell activity studies showed that the periplasmically located CYP105D1 competently catalyzed NADH-dependent oxidation of the xenobiotic compounds benzo[a]pyrene and erythromycin, further revealing the presence in the E. coli periplasm of endogenous functional redox partners. This system offers substantial advantages for the application of P450 enzymes to whole-cell biotransformation strategies, where the ability of cells to take up substrates or discard products may be limited.

  2. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test.

  3. Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357

  4. Chitinase activity on amorphous chitin thin films: a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Kittle, Joshua D; Qian, Chen; Roman, Maren; Esker, Alan R

    2013-08-12

    Chitinases are widely distributed in nature and have wide-ranging pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. This work highlights a real-time and label-free method to assay Chitinase activity via a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The chitin substrate was prepared by spincoating a trimethylsilyl chitin solution onto a silica substrate, followed by regeneration to amorphous chitin (RChi). The QCM-D and AFM results clearly showed that the hydrolysis rate of RChi films increased as Chitinase (from Streptomyces griseus) concentrations increased, and the optimal temperature and pH for Chitinase activity were around 37 °C and 6-8, respectively. The Chitinase showed greater activity on chitin substrates, having a high degree of acetylation, than on chitosan substrates, having a low degree of acetylation.

  5. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test. PMID:26611089

  6. Taxonomic study on nonpathogenic streptomycetes isolated from common scab lesions on potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Doumbou, C L; Akimov, V; Côté, M; Charest, P M; Beaulieu, C

    2001-11-01

    Numerical analysis was carried out to compare sixteen nonpathogenic actinomycetes isolated from common scab lesions on potato tubers with Streptomyces scabiei type strain as well as with other streptomycete groups. These isolates were divided into two classes according to their level of similarity with S. scabiei. Isolates resembling S. scabiei were associated with S. griseoruber or with S. violaceusniger while isolates exhibiting less than 61% of similarity with S. scabiei were phenotypically related to S. albidoflavus or to S. atroolivaceus. Sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of each isolate was obtained and compared against the GenBank nucleotide database. No significant match could be established between the sequences of two potato isolates and the ones available in the GenBank database. The other isolates were closely related with S. setonii (S. griseus), S. mirabilis, S. fimbriatus, S. violaceoruber, S. melanosporofaciens and S. thermocarboxydus.

  7. Effect of pamamycin-607 on secondary metabolite production by Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Katsura, Hirotaka; Kato, Risako; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Natsume, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the aerial mycelium-inducing compound, pamamycin-607, on antibiotic production by several Streptomyces spp. was examined. Exposure to 6.6 µM pamamycin-607 stimulated by 2.7 fold the puromycin production by Streptomyces alboniger NBRC 12738, in which pamamycin-607 had first been isolated, and restored aerial mycelium formation. Pamamycin-607 also stimulated the respective production of streptomycin by S. griseus NBRC 12875 and that of cinerubins A and B by S. tauricus JCM 4837 by approximately 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 fold. The antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. 91-a was identified as virginiamycin M(1), and its synthesis was enhanced 2.6 fold by pamamycin-607. These results demonstrate that pamamycin-607 not only restored or stimulated aerial mycelium formation, but also stimulated secondary metabolite production.

  8. Win-stay, lose-switch and public information strategies for patch fidelity of songbirds with rare extra-pair paternity

    PubMed Central

    Campomizzi, Andrew J.; Morrison, Michael L.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Farrell, Shannon L.; Wilkins, R. Neal

    2012-01-01

    Determining where organisms breed and understanding why they breed in particular locations are fundamental biological questions with conservation implications. Breeding-site fidelity is common in migratory, territorial songbirds and is typically thought to occur following reproductive success with a social mate and success of nearby conspecifics. It is currently unknown if frequency of extra-pair paternity in a population influences use of information about reproductive success of nearby conspecifics for site fidelity decisions. We investigated patch fidelity of white-eyed vireos (Vireo griseus) based on reproductive success and quantified frequency of extra-pair paternity. We found support only for females making patch fidelity decisions following reproductive success with a social mate. Patch fidelity of males was not associated with reproductive success of nearby conspecifics, suggesting males may not use this information when extra-pair paternity is infrequent or the association is non-existent in this species. PMID:22389763

  9. Identification of a cryptic type III polyketide synthase (1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase) from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Oh, Tae-Jin; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2008-10-31

    We identified a 1,134-bp putative type III polyketide synthase from the sequence analysis of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, named Sp-RppA, which is characterized as 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase and shares 33% identity with SCO1206 from S. coelicolor A3(2) and 32% identity with RppA from S. griseus. The 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase is known to catalyze the sequential decarboxylative condensation, intramolecular cyclization, and aromatization of an oligoketide derived from five units of malonyl-CoA to give 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene, which spontaneously oxidizes to form 2,5,7-trihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (flaviolin). In this study, we report the in vivo expression and in vitro synthesis of flaviolin from purified gene product (Sp-RppA). PMID:18612244

  10. Redescription of Hexanchus nakamurai Teng 1962, (Chondrichthyes: Hexanchiformes: Hexanchidae), with designation of a neotype.

    PubMed

    Ebert, David A; White, William T; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Hexanchus nakamurai Teng, 1962 is one of two valid nominal species in the genus Hexanchus; the other being H. griseus. The taxonomic history of H. nakamurai is somewhat convoluted due to questions about the validity of whether it constituted a publication or an unpublished dissertation. The issue appeared to have been resolved once it was determined that the Teng's original description met the criteria under the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature code (Article 8a) of a publication. However, recent molecular studies have indicated that the western North Atlantic H. nakamurai (= ? H. vitulus) may be distinct from western Indian Ocean H. nakamurai. Compounding the issue is the loss of the holotype of H. nakamurai from Taiwan. A neotype is herein designated and the species redescribed based on the neotype and eight additional Taiwanese specimens.

  11. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region.

  12. Distribution of Cd and As in organs and tissues of four marine mammal species stranded along the Italian coasts.

    PubMed

    Bellante, Antonio; Sprovieri, Mario; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Manta, Daniela Salvagio; Barra, Marco; Filiciotto, Francesco; Bonanno, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of Cd and As were determined in organs and tissues (muscle, heart, kidney, lung and liver) of four cetacean species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Truncatus truncatus, Grampus griseus and Ziphius cavirostris) stranded along the Italian coasts during the period 2000-2009. Significant differences were found between Cd concentrations in the different analysed tissues. Particularly, the kidney shows the highest concentrations of Cd in all analysed specimens, followed by the liver. No systematic or statistically significant difference in As concentrations was found in the analysed tissues. Considerable differences of Cd and As values in samples from different geographical areas (Sicily Channel, Adriatic Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea) were found, with the highest values measured in samples from the Sicily Channel. This basically suggests that anthropogenic and natural sources significantly affect Cd and As content in cetaceans.

  13. Specificity of proteinase K at P2 to P3' sub-sites and its comparison to other serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    Specificity of the commercially important serine protease, proteinase K, has been investigated by measuring free energies of association of proteinase K with turkey ovomucoid third domain inhibitor variants at contact positions P2, P1, P1', P2', and P3'. Correlations of these values were run with similar values that have been obtained for six other serine proteases. Among the six proteases, subtilisin Carlsberg shows a near perfect correlation (Pearson Product correlation coefficient = 0.93 to 0.99) with proteinase K at all of these positions. Proteinase K has only 35% sequence identity with subtilisin Carlsberg, yet, the two enzymes are nearly identical in their specificity at P2 to P3' positions. With other serine proteases such as bovine chymotrypsin, human leukocyte elastase, porcine pancreatic elastase, Streptomyces griseus protease A and B, proteinase K showed relatively poor or no correlation.

  14. Functional analysis of SGR4635-induced enhancement of pigmented antibiotic production in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Chi, Won-Jae; Lee, Soon-Youl; Lee, Jaehag

    2011-10-01

    The Gram-positive mycelium-producing bacterium Streptomyces undergoes complex morphological differentiation after autolytic degradation of the vegetative mycelium. Cell-wall breakdown during growth stimulates cell development and secondary metabolite production by Streptomyces. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) produced by cell-wall lysis acts as a signal molecule, triggering the production of secondary metabolites in S. coelicolor A3(2). Here, we report that introduction of multiple copies of the GlcNAc-internalizing gene (sgr4635, encoding nagE2) of S. griseus activates actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin production during the late growth of S. lividans in the absence of GlcNAc. Furthermore, the repressor-type transcriptional regulator DasR binds to two operator sites upstream of sgr4635. Our findings indicate that sgr4635 induces DasR-mediated antibiotic production by internalizing the GlcNAc accumulated from cell-wall lysis.

  15. Purification and Characterization of a Keratinolytic Serine Proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus

    PubMed Central

    Bressollier, Philippe; Letourneau, François; Urdaci, Maria; Verneuil, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthetic substrates, and its remarkably high level of NH2-terminal sequence homology with Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) showed that the new enzyme, designated SAKase, was homologous to SGPB. We tested the activity of SAKase with soluble and fibrous substrates (elastin, keratin, and type I collagen) and found that it was very specific for keratinous substrates compared to SGPB and proteinase K. PMID:10347045

  16. Common procedures in hedgehogs, prairie dogs, exotic rodents, and companion marsupials.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2006-05-01

    Nondomesticated species are commonly being kept as companion animals. These include the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albi-ventris), the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys lu-dovicianus), and exotic rodents such as the degu (Octodon degus)and duprasi or fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). Common companion marsupials include the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps),Bennett's or Tammar (Dama) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufo-griseus and Macropus eugenii, respectively), the Brazilian or South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and the North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although many of these animals are now bred domestically and are fairly docile when human-raised, they are essentially wild animals and hence have strong instincts to hide illness and pain. PMID:16759954

  17. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving.

  18. Expression of Streptomyces genes encoding extracellular enzymes in Brevibacterium lactofermentum: secretion proceeds by removal of the same leader peptide as in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, R F; Gil, J A; Martín, J F

    1992-12-01

    The alpha-amylase gene (amy) from Streptomyces griseus IMRU 3570 and the beta-galactosidase gene (lac) from S. lividans were subcloned into Brevibacterium lactofermentum or B. lactofermentum/Escherichia coli shuttle vectors. The amy gene was not expressed in B. lactofermentum from its own promoter but was efficiently expressed when the promoter of the kanamycin resistance gene (kan) was inserted upstream of the promoterless amylase gene. The lac gene from S. lividans was subcloned without its native promoter and was expressed when placed downstream of pBL1 promoters P2 or P3. The alpha-amylase was secreted extracellularly by removal of the same 28-amino acid leader peptide as in S. lividans. The amy and lac genes provide useful markers for selection of transformants and will facilitate the study of protein secretion in B. lactofermentum.

  19. Aspects of maturation and reproduction in hexanchiform and squaliform sharks.

    PubMed

    White, W T; Dharmadi

    2010-04-01

    Three species of hexanchiform sharks belonging to two families and 12 species of squaliform sharks belonging to three families were recorded in fish landing site surveys in eastern Indonesia. Of these, the Squalidae were the most abundant species landed, with Squalus hemipinnis, Squalus edmundsi and Squalus montalbani contributing 0.4, 0.4 and 0.5% to the total number of sharks recorded in a 5 year survey of Indonesian fish landing sites. In comparison, the hexanchid Hexanchus griseus contributed the largest percentage to the total shark biomass. For many species, the majority of the catch consisted of immature fishes, which had not yet been able to reproduce. The data presented in this article are the first biological data reported on most of these shark species and are thus vital for fisheries managers and conservation assessors. PMID:20537019

  20. Isolation of streptomycin-nonproducing mutants deficient in biosynthesis of the streptidine moiety or linkage between streptidine 6-phosphate and dihydrostreptose.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, T; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1985-03-01

    Eight streptidine idiotrophic mutants (SD20, SD81, SD141, SD189, SD245, SD261, SD263, and SD274) which required streptidine to produce streptomycin were derived from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 10137 by UV mutagenesis. By both the characterization of intermediates accumulated by the idiotrophs and the assay of enzymes involved in streptidine biosynthesis, the biochemical lesions of the mutants were deduced as follows: SD20 and SD263, transamination; SD81, SD261, and SD274, phosphorylation; SD141, transamidination; SD189, dehydrogenation; SD245, linkage between streptidine 6-phosphate and dihydrostreptose. An accumulation of streptidine 6-phosphate was found in SD245 to impair its aminotransferase activity. This finding suggests that aminotransferase activity might have been negatively controlled by the end product, streptidine 6-phosphate, of the streptidine biosynthetic pathway.

  1. Distribution of Cd and As in organs and tissues of four marine mammal species stranded along the Italian coasts.

    PubMed

    Bellante, Antonio; Sprovieri, Mario; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Manta, Daniela Salvagio; Barra, Marco; Filiciotto, Francesco; Bonanno, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of Cd and As were determined in organs and tissues (muscle, heart, kidney, lung and liver) of four cetacean species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Truncatus truncatus, Grampus griseus and Ziphius cavirostris) stranded along the Italian coasts during the period 2000-2009. Significant differences were found between Cd concentrations in the different analysed tissues. Particularly, the kidney shows the highest concentrations of Cd in all analysed specimens, followed by the liver. No systematic or statistically significant difference in As concentrations was found in the analysed tissues. Considerable differences of Cd and As values in samples from different geographical areas (Sicily Channel, Adriatic Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea) were found, with the highest values measured in samples from the Sicily Channel. This basically suggests that anthropogenic and natural sources significantly affect Cd and As content in cetaceans. PMID:22797766

  2. Activation and Characterization of a Cryptic Polycyclic Tetramate Macrolactam Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunzi; Huang, Hua; Liang, Jing; Wang, Meng; Lu, Lu; Shao, Zengyi; Cobb, Ryan E.; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) are a widely distributed class of natural products with important biological activities. However, many of them have not been characterized. Here we apply a plug and play synthetic biology strategy to activate a cryptic PTM biosynthetic gene cluster SGR810-815 from Streptomyces griseus and discover three potential PTMs. This gene cluster is highly conserved in phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains and contains an unusual hybrid polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) which resembles iterative PKSs known in fungi. To further characterize this gene cluster, we use the same synthetic biology approach to create a series of gene deletion constructs and elucidate the biosynthetic steps for the formation of the polycyclic system. The strategy we employ bypasses the traditional laborious processes to elicit gene cluster expression and should be generally applicable to many other silent or cryptic gene clusters for discovery and characterization of new natural products. PMID:24305602

  3. Win-stay, lose-switch and public information strategies for patch fidelity of songbirds with rare extra-pair paternity.

    PubMed

    Campomizzi, Andrew J; Morrison, Michael L; Dewoody, J Andrew; Farrell, Shannon L; Wilkins, R Neal

    2012-01-01

    Determining where organisms breed and understanding why they breed in particular locations are fundamental biological questions with conservation implications. Breeding-site fidelity is common in migratory, territorial songbirds and is typically thought to occur following reproductive success with a social mate and success of nearby conspecifics. It is currently unknown if frequency of extra-pair paternity in a population influences use of information about reproductive success of nearby conspecifics for site fidelity decisions. We investigated patch fidelity of white-eyed vireos (Vireo griseus) based on reproductive success and quantified frequency of extra-pair paternity. We found support only for females making patch fidelity decisions following reproductive success with a social mate. Patch fidelity of males was not associated with reproductive success of nearby conspecifics, suggesting males may not use this information when extra-pair paternity is infrequent or the association is non-existent in this species. PMID:22389763

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes and PCR Analysis of the nec1 Gene from Streptomyces spp. Causing Common Scab, Pitted Scab, and Netted Scab in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kreuze, J F; Suomalainen, S; Paulin, L; Valkonen, J P

    1999-06-01

    ABSTRACT The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes (nucleotides 29 to 1,521) from various Streptomyces strains pathogenic to potato were compared. These included 10 pathogenic Streptomyces strains isolated from potato scab lesions in Finland, the type strains of S. aureofaciens NRRL 2209(T) and S. lydicus ATCC 25470(T), 'S. griseus subsp. scabies' ATCC 10246, and two S. griseus strains that were originally deposited to the collection as pathogens. The nucleotide sequence (>94.5% sequence identity [SI]) and length (1,469 to 1,481 nucleotides) of the analyzed region varied. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes placed Finnish strains into three species, supported by previously characterized morphological and physiological traits. Six Finnish strains, including two strains that deviated from the others in one trait (no spiral sporophores or D-xylose utilization), had identical 16S rRNA genes and were identified as S. scabies (99.9% SI to S. scabies ATCC 49173). Three Finnish strains were identified as S. turgidiscabies, a species previously described only in Japan (99.9% SI to S. turgidiscabies ATCC 700248). Finnish strain 317 and S. aureofaciens NRRL 2209 (99.8% SI) were placed in a distinct phylogenetic cluster together with Kitosatospora spp., which suggests that S. aureofaciens may belong to the recently revived genus Kitosatospora. In pathogenicity tests, S. scabies caused characteristic symptoms of common scab, S. turgidiscabies caused mainly pitted scab, and S. aureofaciens caused netted scab and necrotic lesions on stolons of potato cultivars Bintje and Matilda in the greenhouse. The nec1 gene and the intergenic region between nec1 and the 5' transposase pseudogene ORFtnp were successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction from S. scabies ATCC 49173 and the pathogenic Finnish strains of S. scabies, but not from a nonpathogenic strain of S. scabies, three pathogenic and two nonpathogenic strains of S. turgidiscabies, and S. aureofaciens.

  5. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  6. Intraguild Predation in Heteroptera: Effects of Density and Predator Identity on Dipteran Prey.

    PubMed

    Brahma, S; Sharma, D; Kundu, M; Saha, N; Saha, G K; Aditya, G

    2015-08-01

    In tropical freshwaters, different species of water bugs (Heteroptera) constitute a guild sharing similar prey resources including chironomid and mosquito larvae. Assuming possibilities of intraguild predation (IGP) among the constituent members, an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of prey and predator density on the mortality of mosquito and chironomid larvae (shared prey), using Laccotrephes griseus Guérin-Méneville (Hemiptera: Nepidae) and Ranatra filiformis Fabricius (Hemiptera: Nepidae) as IG predators and Anisops bouvieri Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) as IG prey. The predation on mosquito and chironomid larvae varied with the density and combinations of the predators. When present as conspecific IG predators, L. griseus exhibited greater effect on the prey mortality than R. filiformis. The effects on shared prey suggest that the two predators are not substitutable in terms of the effect on the shared prey mortality. The mortality of A. bouvieri (IG prey) at low shared prey density was significantly different (p < 0.05) from high shared prey density. In view of predatory effect of the heteropteran predators on the dipteran larvae, the results suggest possible interference by the presence of A. bouvieri as an intermediate predator. It seems that the presence of heteropteran predators including A. bouvieri as IG prey may benefit the dipteran prey under situations when the density is low in tropical waters. The intensity of the predatory effect may differ based on the species composition at IG predator level. For mosquito biological control, the interactions between the predators may not be substitutable and are independent in their effects.

  7. Intraguild Predation in Heteroptera: Effects of Density and Predator Identity on Dipteran Prey.

    PubMed

    Brahma, S; Sharma, D; Kundu, M; Saha, N; Saha, G K; Aditya, G

    2015-08-01

    In tropical freshwaters, different species of water bugs (Heteroptera) constitute a guild sharing similar prey resources including chironomid and mosquito larvae. Assuming possibilities of intraguild predation (IGP) among the constituent members, an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of prey and predator density on the mortality of mosquito and chironomid larvae (shared prey), using Laccotrephes griseus Guérin-Méneville (Hemiptera: Nepidae) and Ranatra filiformis Fabricius (Hemiptera: Nepidae) as IG predators and Anisops bouvieri Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) as IG prey. The predation on mosquito and chironomid larvae varied with the density and combinations of the predators. When present as conspecific IG predators, L. griseus exhibited greater effect on the prey mortality than R. filiformis. The effects on shared prey suggest that the two predators are not substitutable in terms of the effect on the shared prey mortality. The mortality of A. bouvieri (IG prey) at low shared prey density was significantly different (p < 0.05) from high shared prey density. In view of predatory effect of the heteropteran predators on the dipteran larvae, the results suggest possible interference by the presence of A. bouvieri as an intermediate predator. It seems that the presence of heteropteran predators including A. bouvieri as IG prey may benefit the dipteran prey under situations when the density is low in tropical waters. The intensity of the predatory effect may differ based on the species composition at IG predator level. For mosquito biological control, the interactions between the predators may not be substitutable and are independent in their effects. PMID:26174962

  8. Grados de comprobación de estudios de terapias integrales (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información acerca de cómo sopesar la fuerza de los datos probatorios obtenidos de los estudios de investigación sobre terapias integrales, alternativas y complementarias en seres humanos con cáncer.

  9. Stem biomechanics of three columnar cacti from the Sonoran Desert.

    PubMed

    Molina-Freaner, F; Tinoco-Ojanguren, C; Niklas, K

    1998-08-01

    The allometric relationship of stem length L with respect to mean stem diameter D was determined for 80 shoots of each of three columnar cactus species (Stenocereus thurberi, Lophocereus schottii, and S. gummosus) to determine whether this relationship accords with that predicted by each of three contending models purporting to describe the mechanical architecture of vertical shoots (i.e., geometric, stress, and elastic similitude, which predict L proportional to D(alpha), with alpha = 1/1, 1/2, and 2/3, respectively). In addition, anatomical, physical, and biomechanical stem properties were measured to determine how the stems of these three species maintain their elastic stability as they increase in size. Reduced major axis regression of L with respect to D showed that alpha = 2.82 ± 0.14 for S. thurberi, 2.32 ± 0.19 for L. schottii, and 4.21 ± 0.31 for S. gummosus. Thus, the scaling exponents for the allometry of L differed significantly from that predicted by each of the three biomechanical models. In contrast, these exponents were similar to that for the allometry previously reported for saguaro. Analyses of biomechanical data derived from bending tests performed on 30 stems selected from each of the three species indicated that the bulk stem tissue stiffness was roughly proportional to L2, while stem flexural rigidity (i.e., the ability to resist a bending force) scaled roughly as L3. Stem length was significantly and positively correlated with the volume fraction of wood, while regression analysis of the pooled data from the three species (i.e., 90 stems) indicated that bulk tissue stiffness scaled roughly as the 5/3-power of the volume fraction of wood in stems. These data were interpreted to indicate that wood served as the major stiffening agent in stems and that this tissue accumulates at a sufficient rate to afford unusually high scaling exponents tot stem length with respect to stem diameter (i.e., disproportionately large increments of stem length

  10. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial

  11. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  12. Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.E.; Peterson, J.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

  13. Surface charge of protoplasts and their significance in cell-cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Nagata, T; Melchers, G

    1978-01-01

    ζ-potential of mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), petunia (Petunia hybrida Hort.), turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walpers) was determined by use of a cell electrophoresis apparatus. All protoplasts examined showed a constant negative value of-10 to-35 mV. The addition of CaCl2 nullified the ζ-potential of tobacco protoplasts. This phenomenon is explained by DLVO theory of colloid science, which has been successfully applied to animal cells. Furthermore, positively charged polymers reversed the ζ-potential to positive values. Treatment of the protoplast surface with several enzymes was carried out to characterize the chemical nature of suface charges. The removal of surface charges was most conspicuous by the treatment of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2), but did not occur upon treatment with α-neuraminidase (EC 3.2.1.18) or Streptomyces griseus pronase. Thus a major part of the surface charge originates from the phosphate groups at the cell membrane. The significance of these studies for the properties of the protoplast surface in cell adhesion is discussed.

  14. A novel detergent-stable solvent-tolerant serine thiol alkaline protease from Streptomyces koyangensis TN650.

    PubMed

    Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bejar, Wacim; Boulkour Touioui, Souraya; Hmidi, Maher; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    An alkaline proteinase (STAP) was produced from strain TN650 isolated from a Tunisian off-shore oil field and assigned as Streptomyces koyangensis strain TN650 based on physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 45125.17-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of TQSNPPSWGLDRIDQTTAFTKACSIKY, thus sharing high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. The results showed that this protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and partially inhibited by 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) (DTNB), which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine thiol protease family. Using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for protease activity were pH 10 and 70 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at pH 7-10 and 30-60 °C for 24 h. STAP exhibited high catalytic efficiency, significant detergent stability, and elevated organic solvent resistance compared to the SG-XIV proteases from S. griseus and KERAB from Streptomyces sp. AB1. The stap gene encoding STAP was isolated, and its DNA sequence was determined. These properties make STAP a potential candidate for future application in detergent formulations and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis.

  15. A Simple and Efficient Method of Slow Freezing for Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Iha, Momoe; Nishishita, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Nishikawa, Shinichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Protocols available for the cryopreservation of human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are very inefficient and laborious compared to those for the cryopreservation of murine ES/iPS cells or other general cell lines. While the vitrification method may be adequate when working with small numbers of human ES/iPS cells, it requires special skills and is unsuitable when working with large cell numbers. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method for the cryopreservation of hES/hiPS cells that is based on a conventional slow freezing method that uses a combination of Pronase/EDTA for Stem™ and CP-5E™ [final concentrations: 6 % hydroxyethyl starch, 5 % DMSO, and 5 % ethylene glycol in saline]. CP-5E™ is highly effective for the cryopreservation of small cell clumps produced by hES/hiPS colony detachment in the presence of Pronase and EDTA (Pronase/EDTA for Stem™, a formulation containing multiple digestive enzymes from Streptomyces griseus). This novel method would be quite useful for large-scale hES/iPS cell banking for use in clinical applications.

  16. Shearwater Foraging in the Southern Ocean: The Roles of Prey Availability and Winds

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Ben; Shaffer, Scott A.; Sokolov, Serguei; Woehler, Eric J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Einoder, Luke; Hindell, Mark; Hosie, Graham; Pinkerton, Matt; Sagar, Paul M.; Scott, Darren; Smith, Adam; Thompson, David R.; Vertigan, Caitlin; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2010-01-01

    Background Sooty (Puffinus griseus) and short-tailed (P. tenuirostris) shearwaters are abundant seabirds that range widely across global oceans. Understanding the foraging ecology of these species in the Southern Ocean is important for monitoring and ecosystem conservation and management. Methodology/Principal Findings Tracking data from sooty and short-tailed shearwaters from three regions of New Zealand and Australia were combined with at-sea observations of shearwaters in the Southern Ocean, physical oceanography, near-surface copepod distributions, pelagic trawl data, and synoptic near-surface winds. Shearwaters from all three regions foraged in the Polar Front zone, and showed particular overlap in the region around 140°E. Short-tailed shearwaters from South Australia also foraged in Antarctic waters south of the Polar Front. The spatial distribution of shearwater foraging effort in the Polar Front zone was matched by patterns in large-scale upwelling, primary production, and abundances of copepods and myctophid fish. Oceanic winds were found to be broad determinants of foraging distribution, and of the flight paths taken by the birds on long foraging trips to Antarctic waters. Conclusions/Significance The shearwaters displayed foraging site fidelity and overlap of foraging habitat between species and populations that may enhance their utility as indicators of Southern Ocean ecosystems. The results highlight the importance of upwellings due to interactions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with large-scale bottom topography, and the corresponding localised increases in the productivity of the Polar Front ecosystem. PMID:20532034

  17. Retransformation of marker-free potato for enhanced resistance against fungal pathogens by pyramiding chitinase and wasabi defensin genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Darwish, Nader Ahmed; Khattak, Bushra; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kong, Kynet; Shimomae, Kazuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    Multi-auto-transformation vector system has been one of the strategies to produce marker-free transgenic plants without using selective chemicals and plant growth regulators and thus facilitating transgene stacking. In the study reported here, retransformation was carried out in marker-free transgenic potato CV. May Queen containing ChiC gene (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) with wasabi defensin (WD) gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica) to pyramid the two disease resistant genes. Molecular analyses of the developed shoots confirmed the existence of both the genes of interest (ChiC and WD) in transgenic plants. Co-expression of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR, northern blot, and western blot analyses. Disease resistance assay of in vitro plants showed that the transgenic lines co-expressing both the ChiC and WD genes had higher resistance against the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt) and Alternaria solani (early blight) compared to the non-transformed control and the transgenic lines expressing either of the ChiC or WD genes. The disease resistance potential of the transgenic plants could be increased by transgene stacking or multiple transformations. PMID:24802621

  18. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    PubMed

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication. PMID:24239097

  19. Insights into the molecular interactions between aminopeptidase and amyloid beta peptide using molecular modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Dhanavade, Maruti J; Sonawane, Kailas D

    2014-08-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The accumulation of Aβ peptides in AD brain was caused due to overproduction or insufficient clearance and defects in the proteolytic degradation of Aβ peptides. Hence, Aβ peptide degradation could be a promising therapeutic approach in AD treatment. Recent experimental report suggests that aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus KK565 (SGAK) can degrade Aβ peptides but the interactive residues are yet to be known in detail at the atomic level. Hence, we developed the three-dimensional model of aminopeptidase (SGAK) using SWISS-MODEL, Geno3D and MODELLER. Model built by MODELLER was used for further studies. Molecular docking was performed between aminopeptidase (SGAK) with wild-type and mutated Aβ peptides. The docked complex of aminopeptidase (SGAK) and wild-type Aβ peptide (1IYT.pdb) shows more stability than the other complexes. Molecular docking and MD simulation results revealed that the residues His93, Asp105, Glu139, Glu140, Asp168 and His255 are involved in the hydrogen bonding with Aβ peptide and zinc ions. The interactions between carboxyl oxygen atoms of Glu139 of aminopeptidase (SGAK) with water molecule suggest that the Glu139 may be involved in the nucleophilic attack on Ala2-Glu3 peptide bond of Aβ peptide. Hence, amino acid Glu139 of aminopeptidase (SGAK) might play an important role to degrade Aβ peptides, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Spatial variation of deep diving odontocetes' occurrence around a canyon region in the Ligurian Sea as measured with acoustic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Neuheimer, Anna; Au, Whitlow

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the distribution of animals is of paramount importance for management and conservation, especially for species that are impacted by anthropogenic threats. In the case of marine mammals there has been a growing concern about the impact of human-made noise, in particular for beaked whales and other deep diving odontocetes. Foraging (measured via echolocation clicks at depth) was studied for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) using three passive acoustics recorders moored to the bottom of the ocean in a canyon area in the Ligurian Sea between July and December 2011. A Generalized Linear Model was used to test whether foraging was influenced by location and day of the year, including the possibility of interactions between predictors. Contrary to previous studies conducted by visual surveys in this area, all species were detected at all locations, suggesting habitat overlapping. However, significant differences were found in the occurrence of each species at different locations. Beaked and sperm whales foraged significantly more in the northern and western locations, while long-finned pilot whales and Risso's dolphins hunted more in the northern and eastern location.

  1. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  2. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  3. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  4. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Rick A; Furnas, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, "Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests" [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km(2) grid cells of forest habitat. PMID:26937448

  5. Streptomyces turgidiscabies sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, K; Tanaka, F; Takeuchi, T; Kuninaga, S

    1998-04-01

    A new bacterial species is described, for which the name Streptomyces turgidiscabies is proposed. This organism causes potato (Solanum tuberosum) scab in eastern Hokkaido, Japan; the lesions caused are distinctly erumpent. In culture, S. turgidiscabies is distinct from other scab-causing Streptomyces species, having flexuous spore chains and grey mass colour. The spores of this organism are cylindrical and smooth. Its cell walls contain the LL-diaminopimelic acid isomer, and its DNA G + C content is 71 mol%. S. turgidiscabies does not produce melanin or other diffusible pigments, does not grow on agar media at pH 4.0 or 37 degrees C, is positive for utilization of raffinose and inulin as a carbon source, and is sensitive to streptomycin (20 micrograms ml-1), penicillin G (10 IU ml-1), polymyxin B (15 micrograms ml-1), and thallium acetate (10 micrograms ml-1). The levels of DNA relatedness within S. turgidiscabies strains are high but relatedness between strains of this species and strains of S. acidiscabies, S. scabies, S. caviscabies, S. griseus, S. setonii and S. tendae are low. The type strain is SY9113T (= ATCC 700248T = IFO 16080T).

  6. Shearwaters as ecosystem indicators: Towards fishery-independent metrics of fish abundance in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyday, Shannon E.; Ballance, Lisa T.; Field, David B.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2015-06-01

    Shearwaters are ideal for monitoring ocean conditions in the California Current because these predators are abundant, conspicuous, and responsive to oceanographic variability. Herein we evaluated black-vented (Puffinus opisthomelas), Buller's (P. bulleri), flesh-footed (P. carneipes), pink-footed (P. creatopus), short-tailed (P. tenuirostris), and sooty (P. griseus) shearwaters as fishery-independent indicators of predatory or prey fish availability. We analyzed four years (1996, 2001, 2005, 2008) of monthly (August-November) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seabird surveys, and United States Geological Survey Pacific Coast Fisheries Database catch, from the California coast to 200 nm offshore. An ordination of shearwater abundance and fish catch revealed that the shearwaters and 11 fish/squid species were significantly correlated with one or more of three principal components, which explained 86% of the variation and revealed distinct species assemblages. We evaluated multiple linear regression models for 19 fisheries using five shearwater metrics: density, aggregation, and behavior (traveling, stationary, feeding), three oceanographic indices, and latitude. Eight of these models had a shearwater metric as the primary predictor. In particular, feeding black-vented shearwater abundance explained 75% of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) longline catch. This research illustrates the utility of shearwaters as ecosystem indicators, with direct application for predicting fishery catch of commercial importance.

  7. Prey preferences among the community of deep-diving odontocetes from the Bay of Biscay, Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitz, Jérôme; Cherel, Yves; Bertin, Stéphane; Kiszka, Jeremy; Dewez, Alexandre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Long-finned pilot whales ( Globicephala melas), Risso's dolphins ( Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales ( Peponocephala electra), Cuvier's beaked whales ( Ziphius cavirostris), Sowerby's beaked whales ( Mesoplodon bidens), northern bottlenose whales ( Hyperoodon ampullatus), sperm whales ( Physeter macrocephalus), dwarf sperm whales ( Kogia sima) and pygmy sperm whales ( Kogia breviceps) make up the large community of deep-diving odontocetes occurring off the Bay of Biscay, northeast Atlantic. The ecology of these toothed cetaceans is poorly documented worldwide. The present study described their prey preferences from stomach content analysis and showed resource partitioning within the assemblage. The majority of the species appeared to be mostly teutophageous. Fish was an important food source only for the Sowerby's beaked whale and, to a lesser extent, for the long-finned pilot whale. In terms of foraging habitats inferred from prey composition, either pelagic oceanic or demersal neritic habitats were exploited by toothed whales in the Bay of Biscay, with only the long-finned pilot whale foraging in the two habitats. Finally, with more than 14,000 identified cephalopods from 39 species, the present study highlighted also the poorly known deep-sea cephalopod community off the Bay of Biscay using top predators as biological samplers.

  8. Static inflation and deflation pressure-volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J

    2011-11-15

    Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure-volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg(-1)) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLC(est)) from body mass (M(b)) by applying the equation: TLC(est)=0.135 M(b)(0.92). Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure-volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases.

  9. Static inflation and deflation pressure–volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H.; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure–volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg–1) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLCest) from body mass (Mb) by applying the equation: TLCest=0.135 Mb0.92. Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure–volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases. PMID:22031747

  10. Total number and volume of Von Economo neurons in the cerebral cortex of cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Butti, Camilla; Sherwood, Chet C; Hakeem, Atiya Y; Allman, John M; Hof, Patrick R

    2009-07-10

    Von Economo neurons (VENs) are a type of large, layer V spindle-shaped neurons that were previously described in humans, great apes, elephants, and some large-brained cetaceans. Here we report the presence of Von Economo neurons in the anterior cingulate (ACC), anterior insular (AI), and frontopolar (FP) cortices of small odontocetes, including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), and the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The total number and volume of VENs and the volume of neighboring layer V pyramidal neurons and layer VI fusiform neurons were obtained by using a design-based stereologic approach. Two humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) brains were investigated for comparative purposes as representatives of the suborder Mysticeti. Our results show that the distribution of VENs in these cetacean species is comparable to that reported in humans, great apes, and elephants. The number of VENs in these cetaceans is also comparable to data available from great apes, and stereologic estimates indicate that VEN volume follows in these cetacean species a pattern similar to that in hominids, the VENs being larger than neighboring layer V pyramidal cells and conspicuously larger than fusiform neurons of layer VI. The fact that VENs are found in species representative of both cetacean suborders in addition to hominids and elephants suggests that these particular neurons have appeared convergently in phylogenetically unrelated groups of mammals possibly under the influence of comparable selective pressures that influenced specifically the evolution of cortical domains involved in complex cognitive and social/emotional processes. PMID:19412956

  11. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine. PMID:23034277

  12. Cetaceans of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, C. R.; Pollock, C.; Cronin, C.; Taylor, S.

    2001-05-01

    Surveys carried out to the north and west of Scotland have recorded 15 species of cetacean between 1979 and 1998. These were fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus) , sei whale ( B. borealis) , minke whale ( B. acutorostrata) , humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae) , sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus) , northern bottlenose whale ( Hyperoodon ampullatus) , Sowerby's beaked whale ( Mesoplodon bidens) , killer whale ( Orcinus orca) , long-finned pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) , Atlantic white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) , white-beaked dolphin ( L. albirostris) , Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus) , bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) , common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) . Atlantic white-sided dolphin was the most abundant species in the region with a total of 6317 animals recorded. Harbour porpoise was the most frequently sighted cetacean species. The geographical distribution of sightings indicate that cetacean species have varying ecological requirements, with species such as sperm whale, pilot whale and white-sided dolphin favouring deep water off the continental shelf edge, while minke whale, white-beaked dolphin and harbour porpoise were apparently limited to the continental shelf. The diversity of species recorded in the region suggests that the Atlantic Frontier is an important habitat for cetaceans.

  13. Automatic classification of delphinids based on the representative frequencies of whistles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hao; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-08-01

    Classification of odontocete species remains a challenging task for passive acoustic monitoring. Classifiers that have been developed use spectral features extracted from echolocation clicks and whistle contours. Most of these contour-based classifiers require complete contours to reduce measurement errors. Therefore, overlapping contours and partially detected contours in an automatic detection algorithm may increase the bias for contour-based classifiers. In this study, classification was conducted on each recording section without extracting individual contours. The local-max detector was used to extract representative frequencies of delphinid whistles and each section was divided into multiple non-overlapping fragments. Three acoustical parameters were measured from the distribution of representative frequencies in each fragment. By using the statistical features of the acoustical parameters and the percentage of overlapping whistles, correct classification rate of 70.3% was reached for the recordings of seven species (Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis, Delphinus capensis, Peponocephala electra, Grampus griseus, Stenella longirostris longirostris, and Stenella attenuata) archived in MobySound.org. In addition, correct classification rate was not dramatically reduced in various simulated noise conditions. This algorithm can be employed in acoustic observatories to classify different delphinid species and facilitate future studies on the community ecology of odontocetes. PMID:26328716

  14. Brief communication: Effect of size biases in the coefficient of variation on assessing intraspecific variability in the prosimian skeleton.

    PubMed

    Fulwood, Ethan L; Kramer, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the effect of a measurement size bias in coefficients of variation on the evaluation of intraspecific skeletal variability in a sample of eight prosimian species (Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus, Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, Galago senegalensis, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Nycticebus coucang, and Tarsius syrichta). Measurements with smaller means were expected to have higher coefficients of variation (CVs) due to the impact of instrumental precision on the ability to assess variability. This was evaluated by testing for a negative correlation between CVs and means in the total sample, within each species, and within each measurement, and by testing for the leveraging impact of small measurements on the significance of comparisons of variability between regions of the prosimian skeleton. Three comparisons were made: cranial versus postcranial variability, epiphysis versus diaphysis variability, and forelimb versus hindlimb variability. CVs were significantly negatively correlated with means within the total sample (r(2) = 0.208, P < 0.0001) and within each species. CVs and means were significantly correlated within only three of the measurements, which may reflect the relatively low body size range of the species studied. As predicted by the higher variability of smaller measurements, removing the smallest measurements from comparisons of variable classes containing measurements of different mean magnitudes pushed the comparisons below significance. These results indicate caution should be exercised when using CVs to assess variability across sets of measurements with different means.

  15. 3-Amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Uematsu, Kouji; Tsuge, Yota; Teramura, Hiroshi; Okai, Naoko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Katsuyama, Yohei; Sugai, Yoshinori; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Hirano, Ko; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    The production of the bioplastic precursor 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-AHBA) from sweet sorghum juice, which contains amino acids and the fermentable sugars sucrose, glucose and fructose, was assessed to address the limitations of producing bio-based chemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain KT01 expressing griH and griI derived from Streptomyces griseus produced 3,4-AHBA from the sweet sorghum juice of cultivar SIL-05 at a final concentration (1.0 g l(-1)) that was 5-fold higher than that from pure sucrose. Fractionation of sweet sorghum juice by nanofiltration (NF) membrane separation (molecular weight cut-off 150) revealed that the NF-concentrated fraction, which contained the highest concentrations of amino acids, increased 3,4-AHBA production, whereas the NF-filtrated fraction inhibited 3,4-AHBA biosynthesis. Amino acid supplementation experiments revealed that leucine specifically enhanced 3,4-AHBA production by strain KT01. Taken together, these results suggest that sweet sorghum juice is a potentially suitable feedstock for 3,4-AHBA production by recombinant C. glutamicum. PMID:26409852

  16. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    PubMed

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats.

  17. Structure of an MmyB-Like Regulator from C. aurantiacus, Member of a New Transcription Factor Family Linked to Antibiotic Metabolism in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Lesley, Scott A.; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are important bacterial sources of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Many antibiotic gene clusters are controlled by pathway-specific activators that act in response to growth conditions. Here we present the crystal structure of an MmyB-like transcription regulator MltR (PDB code 3pxp) (Caur_2278) from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, in complex with a fatty acid (myristic acid). MltR is a distant homolog of the methylenomycin activator MmyB and consists of an Xre-type N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding module that is related to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain. This structure has enabled identification of a new family of bacterial transcription factors that are distributed predominantly in actinomycetes. Bioinformatics analysis of MltR and other characterized family members suggest that they are likely associated with antibiotic and fatty acid metabolism in actinomycetes. Streptomyces coelicolor SCO4944 is a candidate as an ancestral member of the family. Its ortholog in S. griseus, SGR_6891, is induced by A-factor, a γ-butyrolactone that controls antibiotic production and development, and is adjacent to the A-factor synthase gen, afsA. The location of mltR/mmyB homologs, in particular those adjacent to less well-studied antibiotic-related genes, makes them interesting genetic markers for identifying new antibiotic genes. A model for signal-triggered DNA-binding by MltR is proposed. PMID:22844465

  18. Proteolysis in dry fermented sausages: The effect of selected exogenous proteases.

    PubMed

    Díaz, O; Fernandez, M; De Fernando, G D; de la Hoz, L; Ordoñez, J A

    1997-05-01

    The effect of three commercial proteases (pronase E from Streptomyces griseus, aspartyl proteinase from Aspergillus oryzae and papain) on protein breakdown and the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages was investigated. Water soluble, non-protein, 5% phosphotungstic acid soluble, 5% sulphosalicylic acid soluble and total volatile basic nitrogen contents increased during fermentation, stabilizing later until the end of ripening (26th day). Nitrogen values were always greater in the aspartyl proteinase added batch in comparison with the other protease added batches. Total free amino acid changes showed a similar pattern to those observed for the 5% sulphosalicylic acid soluble nitrogen. The electrophoretic studies demonstrated that proteolysis of high molecular weight myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins was more prominent in protease added batches. It was especially intensive in papain one. The dominant amino acids at the end of ripening were similar in all batches. Tyramine and histamine increased throughout ripening. No significant differences in sensory properties were found between control and pronase E and papain added batches, but they were significantly different (p < 0.01) from the sausages containing aspartyl proteinase, due to an excessive softening. The effect of exogenous enzyme addition on the flavour potentiation of dry fermented sausage is discussed. PMID:22061850

  19. Boar spermatozoa as a biosensor for detecting toxic substances in indoor dust and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M A; Mikkola, R; Rasimus, S; Hoornstra, D; Salin, P; Rahkila, R; Heikkinen, M; Mattila, S; Peltola, J; Kalso, S; Salkinoja-Salonen, M

    2010-10-01

    The presence, quantity and origins of potentially toxic airborne substances were searched in moisture damaged indoor environments, where building related ill health symptoms were suspected and reference sites with no health complaints. Boar spermatozoa were used as the toxicity sensor. Indoor aerosols and dusts were collected from kindergartens, schools, offices and residences (n=25) by electrostatic filtering, vacuuming, wiping from elevated surfaces and from the interior of personal computers. Toxicity was measured from the ethanol or methanol extracts of the dusts and aerosols. EC(50) was expressed as the lowest concentration of the airborne substance that inhibited motility of >50% of the exposed sperm cells compared to vehicle control, within 30 min, 1 day or 3-4 days of exposure. Remarkably toxic aerosols (EC(50) griseus cultures was evaluated using a flow-through chamber. Significant amounts of valinomycin (LC-MS assay) and toxicity (boar sperm motility assay) were carried by air and were after 14 days mainly recovered from the interior surfaces of the flow chamber.

  20. Preliminary Observations of Population Genetics and Relatedness of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, in Two Northeast Pacific Estuaries

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Shawn; Farrer, Debbie; Lowry, Dayv; Ebert, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The broadnose sevengill shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, a common coastal species in the eastern North Pacific, was sampled during routine capture and tagging operations conducted from 2005–2012. One hundred and thirty three biopsy samples were taken during these research operations in Willapa Bay, Washington and in San Francisco Bay, California. Genotypic data from seven polymorphic microsatellites (derived from the related sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus) were used to describe N. cepedianus genetic diversity, population structure and relatedness. Diversity within N. cepedianus was found to be low to moderate with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.41, expected heterozygosity of 0.53, and an average of 5.1 alleles per microsatellite locus. There was no evidence of a recent population bottleneck based on genetic data. Analyses of genetic differences between the two sampled estuaries suggest two distinct populations with some genetic mixing of sharks sampled during 2005–2006. Relatedness within sampled populations was high, with percent relatedness among sharks caught in the same area indicating 42.30% first-order relative relationships (full or half siblings). Estuary-specific familial relationships suggest that management of N. cepedianus on the U.S. West Coast should incorporate stock-specific management goals to conserve this ecologically important predator. PMID:26052706

  1. A new species of Limatulichthys Isbrücker & Nijssen (Loricariidae, Loricariinae) from the western Guiana Shield .

    PubMed

    Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Lefebvre, Stéphanie L; Lujan, Nathan K

    2014-11-17

    Limatulichthys nasarcus n. sp. is described as a new species based on 15 specimens from the Ventuari and Caura Rivers in Southern Venezuela. The new species can be distinguished from its only congener, L. griseus, by the presence of anterior abdominal plates half the size of those at center of abdomen (vs. plates similar in size); distinct spots less than half of diameter of naris across entire dorsum, including snout and head (vs. indistinct dorsal spots larger or equal than diameter of naris); lateral portions of head and opercle with dark well-defined spots larger than those on dorsum (vs. spots on lateral portions of head and opercle equal in size to those on remainder of body); snout profile in dorsal view broadly rounded (vs. acutely triangular); head longer (21.4-24.2 SL vs. 17.7-21.0%); and anal fin longer (15.7-18.0 SL vs. 13.7-15.6%). Distinctiveness of the two species is further supported by their non-overlapping distribution in multivariate morphospace. The disjunct distribution of L. nasarcus across both the Caura and Ventuari rivers exclusive of the main Orinoco River channel contributes to a growing body of evidence supporting the historical connection between headwaters of these drainages. The hypothesized existence of a 'proto-Berbice' paleodrainage provides one explanation for such a connection.

  2. Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, R; Iwata, N; Ishikawa, K; Fukuda, H; Fujino, T; Suzuki, A

    1996-11-01

    Ajoene, a garlic-derived sulfur-containing compound that prevents platelet aggregation, exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Growth of gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Streptomyces griseus, was inhibited at 5 micrograms of ajoene per ml. Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus plantarum also were inhibited below 20 micrograms of ajoene per ml. For gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Xanthomonas maltophilia, MICs were between 100 and 160 micrograms/ml. Ajoene also inhibited yeast growth at concentrations below 20 micrograms/ml. The microbicidal effect of ajoene on growing cells was observed at slightly higher concentrations than the corresponding MICs. B. cereus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were killed at 30 micrograms of ajoene per ml after 24 h of cultivation when cultivation was started at 10(5) cells per ml. However, the minimal microbicidal concentrations for resting cells were at 10 to 100 times higher concentrations than the corresponding MICs. The disulfide bond in ajoene appears to be necessary for the antimicrobial activity of ajoene, since reduction by cysteine, which reacts with disulfide bonds, abolished its antimicrobial activity.

  3. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    PubMed

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication.

  4. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia.

  5. Evaluation of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) as ecologically significant hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet E

    2008-07-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a potentially fatal, emerging rickettsial disease of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sciurids from multiple areas of northern California were infested with ticks or exposed to or infected with A. phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect-fluorescent antibody (IFA) serology. Sciurids of nine different tree- and ground-dwelling species were assessed: arboreal squirrels (western and eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus griseus and S. carolinensis, and Douglas squirrels, Tamiasciurus douglasii) but not northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) had greater evidence of exposure and current infection than did semiarboreal or ground dwelling sciurids (California ground squirrels, Spermophilus beecheyi, and chipmunks, Tamias spp.). Western gray squirrels had the most extensive exposure (70.7% seroprevalence and 12.1% PCR prevalence). Positive squirrels were identified in all regions where squirrels were collected. A logistic regression identified being a western gray squirrel (OR = 20.5, P = 2.95 X 10(-8)) and from the north coastal region of California (OR = 9.052, P = 1.41 X 10(-6)) as having the highest risk of exposure to A. phagocytophilum. Five of nine sciurid species had evidence of infestation with Ixodes pacificus or I. spinipalpis that could vector A. phagocytophilum. Extensive exposure from multiple areas suggests sciurids may be important in the maintenance of GA in California and indicates that studies of reservoir competence of these species are warranted. PMID:18714881

  6. Introduced and native congeners use different resource allocation strategies to maintain performance during infection.

    PubMed

    Coon, Courtney A C; Brace, Amber J; McWilliams, Scott R; McCue, Marshall D; Martin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hosts can manage parasitic infections using an array of tactics, which are likely to vary contingent on coevolutionary history between the host and the parasite. Here we asked whether coping ability of congeners that differ in host-parasite coevolutionary history differed in response to experimental infections with a coccidian parasite. House sparrows (Passer domesticus) and gray-headed sparrows (Passer griseus) are sympatric and ecologically similar, but house sparrows are recent colonizers of Kenya, the site of our comparison, whereas gray-headed sparrows are native. We evaluated three variables as barometers of infection coping ability: vertical flight, pectoral muscle size, and fat score. We also measured routing of a dose of (13)C-labeled leucine, an essential amino acid, among tissues to compare resource allocation strategies in response to infection. We found that burden effects on performance were minimal in both species, but house sparrows maintained considerably higher burdens than gray-headed sparrows regardless of exposure. House sparrows also had more exogeneous leucine tracer in all tissues after 24 h, demonstrating a difference in the way the two species allocate or distribute resources. We argue that house sparrows may be maintaining larger resource reserves to mitigate costs associated with exposure and infection. Additionally, in response to increased parasite exposure, gray-headed sparrows had less leucine tracer in their spleens and more in their gonads, whereas house sparrows did not change allocation, perhaps indicating a trade-off that is not experienced by the introduced species.

  7. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClelland, P.J; Coote,; Trow,; Hutchins,; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  8. Differences in foraging activity of deep sea diving odontocetes in the Ligurian Sea as determined by passive acoustic recorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Neuheimer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the trophic roles of deep-diving odontocete species and how they vary in space and time is challenged by our ability to observe foraging behavior. Though sampling methods are limited, foraging activity of deep-diving odontocetes can be monitored by recording their biosonar emissions. Daily occurrence of echolocation clicks was monitored acoustically for five months (July-December 2011) in the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) using five passive acoustic recorders. Detected odontocetes included Cuvier's beaked whales (Zipuhius cavirostris), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). The results indicated that the foraging strategies varied significantly over time, with sperm whales switching to nocturnal foraging in late September whereas Risso's dolphins and pilot whales foraged mainly at night throughout the sampling period. In the study area, winter nights are about five hours longer than summer nights and an analysis showed that pilot whales and Risso's dolphins adjusted their foraging activity with the length of the night, foraging longer during the longer winter nights. This is the first study to show that marine mammals exhibit diurnal foraging patterns closely correlated to sunrise and sunset.

  9. Effect of covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol on immunogenicity and circulating life of bovine liver catalase.

    PubMed

    Abuchowski, A; McCoy, J R; Palczuk, N C; van Es, T; Davis, F F

    1977-06-10

    Methoxypolyethylene glycols of 1900 daltons (PEG-1900) or 5000 daltons (PEG-5000) were covalently attached to bovine liver catalase using 2,4,6-trichloro-s-triazine as the coupling agent. Rabbits were immunized by the intravenous and intramuscular routes with catalase modified by covalent attachment of PEG-1900 to 43% of the amino groups (PEG-1900-catalase). The intravenous antiserum did not yield detectable antibodies against PEG-1900-catalase or native catalase, as determined by Ouchterlony and complement fixation methods, whereas the intramuscular antiserum contained antibodies to both PEG-1900-catalase and catalase. PEG-1900 did not react with either antiserum. Catalase was prepared in which PEG-5000 was attached to 40% of the amino groups (PEG-5000-catalase). This catalase preparation did not react with either antiserum. PEG-1900-catalase retained 93% of its enzymatic activity; PEG-5000-catalase retained 95%. PEG-5000-catalase resisted digestion by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and a protease from Streptomyces griseus. PEG-1900-catalase and PEG-5000-catalase exhibited enhanced circulating lives in the blood of acatalasemic mice during repetitive intravenous injections. No evidence was seen of an immune response to injections of the modified enzymes. Mice injected repetitively with PEG-5000-catalase remained immune competent for unmodieied catalase, and no evidence of tissue or organ damage was seen. PMID:16907

  10. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts.

  11. Marine fisheries declines viewed upside down: human impacts on consumer-driven nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Layman, Craig A; Allgeier, Jacob E; Rosemond, Amy D; Dahlgren, Craig P; Yeager, Lauren A

    2011-03-01

    We quantified how two human impacts (overfishing and habitat fragmentation) in nearshore marine ecosystems may affect ecosystem function by altering the role of fish as nutrient vectors. We empirically quantified size-specific excretion rates of one of the most abundant fishes (gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus) in The Bahamas and combined these with surveys of fish abundance to estimate population-level excretion rates. The study was conducted across gradients of two human disturbances: overfishing and ecosystem fragmentation (estuaries bisected by roads), to evaluate how each could result in reduced population-level nutrient cycling by consumers. Mean estimated N and P excretion rates for gray snapper populations were on average 456% and 541% higher, respectively, in unfished sites. Ecosystem fragmentation resulted in significant reductions of recycling rates by snapper, with degree of creek fragmentation explaining 86% and 72% of the variance in estimated excretion for dissolved N and P, respectively. Additionally, we used nutrient limitation assays and primary producer nutrient content to provide a simple example of how marine fishery declines may affect primary production. This study provides an initial step toward integrating marine fishery declines and consumer-driven nutrient recycling to more fully understand the implications of human impacts in marine ecosystems.

  12. Preliminary Observations of Population Genetics and Relatedness of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, in Two Northeast Pacific Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Larson, Shawn; Farrer, Debbie; Lowry, Dayv; Ebert, David A

    2015-01-01

    The broadnose sevengill shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, a common coastal species in the eastern North Pacific, was sampled during routine capture and tagging operations conducted from 2005-2012. One hundred and thirty three biopsy samples were taken during these research operations in Willapa Bay, Washington and in San Francisco Bay, California. Genotypic data from seven polymorphic microsatellites (derived from the related sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus) were used to describe N. cepedianus genetic diversity, population structure and relatedness. Diversity within N. cepedianus was found to be low to moderate with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.41, expected heterozygosity of 0.53, and an average of 5.1 alleles per microsatellite locus. There was no evidence of a recent population bottleneck based on genetic data. Analyses of genetic differences between the two sampled estuaries suggest two distinct populations with some genetic mixing of sharks sampled during 2005-2006. Relatedness within sampled populations was high, with percent relatedness among sharks caught in the same area indicating 42.30% first-order relative relationships (full or half siblings). Estuary-specific familial relationships suggest that management of N. cepedianus on the U.S. West Coast should incorporate stock-specific management goals to conserve this ecologically important predator.

  13. Retransformation of marker-free potato for enhanced resistance against fungal pathogens by pyramiding chitinase and wasabi defensin genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Darwish, Nader Ahmed; Khattak, Bushra; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kong, Kynet; Shimomae, Kazuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    Multi-auto-transformation vector system has been one of the strategies to produce marker-free transgenic plants without using selective chemicals and plant growth regulators and thus facilitating transgene stacking. In the study reported here, retransformation was carried out in marker-free transgenic potato CV. May Queen containing ChiC gene (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) with wasabi defensin (WD) gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica) to pyramid the two disease resistant genes. Molecular analyses of the developed shoots confirmed the existence of both the genes of interest (ChiC and WD) in transgenic plants. Co-expression of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR, northern blot, and western blot analyses. Disease resistance assay of in vitro plants showed that the transgenic lines co-expressing both the ChiC and WD genes had higher resistance against the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt) and Alternaria solani (early blight) compared to the non-transformed control and the transgenic lines expressing either of the ChiC or WD genes. The disease resistance potential of the transgenic plants could be increased by transgene stacking or multiple transformations.

  14. Damselfish with neurofibromatosis exhibit cytotoxicity toward tumor targets.

    PubMed

    McKinney, E C; Schmale, M C

    1994-01-01

    Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a malignant transmissible disease affecting Schwann cells, and is the only naturally occurring animal model of human neurofibromatosis type 1. The current study was designed to determine whether fish in the early stages of disease have measurable immune responses toward DNF tumor cells. Three DNF tumor cell lines were used as targets in standard 51Cr cytotoxic assays. In addition, Lutjanus griseus erythrocytes served as nonspecific targets, and concanavalon A (Con A) blasts from healthy animals served as normal target cells. Results of this study show that tumor-bearing damselfish have cells capable of destroying tumor targets but healthy animals display minimal, if any, reactivity toward the DNF tumor lines. The majority of antitumor activity resides in the spleen; the pronephros appears to contain the majority of nonspecific activity. Data also show that some of the effector cells are analogous to the nonspecific cytotoxic cells of catfish. No lysis of healthy damselfish targets was observed. Thus damselfish have cytotoxic cells capable of interacting with tumor targets, but in the majority of animals this response is not adequate to circumvent the process of tumorigenesis.

  15. Production of N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine from Mycelial Waste by a Combination of Bacterial Chitinases and an Insect N-Acetyl-d-glucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weixing; Wang, Di; Liu, Tian; Yang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) has great potential to be used as a food additive and medicine. The enzymatic degradation of chitin-containing biomass for producing GlcNAc is an eco-friendly approach but suffers from a high cost. The economical efficiency can be improved by both optimizing the member and ratio of the chitinolytic enzymes and using new inexpensive substrates. To address this, a novel combination of bacterial and insect chitinolytic enzymes was developed in this study to efficiently produce GlcNAc from the mycelia of Asperillus niger, a fermentation waste. This enzyme combination contained three bacterial chitinases (chitinase A from Serratia marcescens (SmChiA), SmChiB, SmChiC) and one insect N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase from Ostrinia furnacalis (OfHex1) in a ratio of 39.1% of SmChiA, 26.7% of SmChiB, 32.9% of SmChiC, and 1.3% of OfHex1. A yield of 6.3 mM (1.4 mg/mL) GlcNAc with a purity of 95% can be obtained from 10 mg/mL mycelial powder in 24 h. The enzyme combination reported here exhibited 5.8-fold higher hydrolytic activity over the commercial chitinase preparation derived from Streptomyces griseus. PMID:27546481

  16. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    PubMed Central

    Sweitzer, Rick A.; Furnas, Brett J.

    2016-01-01

    These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat. PMID:26937448

  17. A preliminary report on the distribution of lizards in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Cogălniceanu, Dan; Castilla, Aurora M; Valdeón, Aitor; Gosá, Alberto; Al-Jaidah, Noora; Alkuwary, Ali; Saifelnasr, Essam O. H.; Mas-Peinado, Paloma; Richer, Renee; Al-Hemaidi, Ahmad Amer Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have updated the list of the lizard species present in Qatar and produced the first distribution maps based on two field surveys in 2012 and 2013. We used the QND95/Qatar National Grid with a grid of 10 × 10 km squares for mapping. Our results show the occurrence of 21 lizard species in Qatar, from the 15 species indicated in the last biodiversity report conducted in 2004. The most abundant family found in Qatar is Gekkonidae with nine species (Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Hemidactylus robustus, H. flaviviridis, H. persicus, Stenodactylus arabicus, S. slevini, S. doriae, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis), followed by Lacertidae with four species (Acanthodactylus schmidti, A. opheodurus, Mesalina brevirostris, M. adramitana), Agamidae with three species (Trapelus flavimaculatus, Uromastyx aegyptia, Phrynocephalus arabicus), Scincidae with two species (Scincus mitranus, Trachylepis septemtaeniata), and Varanidae (Varanus griseus), Sphaerodactylidae (Pristurus rupestris) and Trogonophiidae (Diplometopon zarudnyi) with one species each. The species richness fluctuated largely across Qatar between one and eleven species per grid square. We believe that the lizard fauna records in Qatar are still incomplete and that additional studies are required. However, our study here fills a gap concerning lizard biodiversity knowledge in the Gulf Region. PMID:24493961

  18. Tetraphyllidean plerocercoids from Western Mediterranean cetaceans and other marine mammals around the world: a comprehensive morphological analysis.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Celia; Aznar, Francisco Javier; Raga, Juan Antonio

    2005-02-01

    Tetraphyllidean plerocercoids have occasionally been reported in marine mammals, but they have rarely been described in detail, and the ecological significance of these infections is unclear. We described plerocercoids collected from the mucosa of the terminal colon and rectum, the anal crypts, and the hepatopancreatic ducts of 7 striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, 1 Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, and 3 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus from the Spanish Mediterranean. We also examined undescribed plerocercoids from 3 cetacean species from the Atlantic and the Pacific. All plerocercoids had a lanceolate body, and a scolex with an apical sucker and 4 sessile monolocular bothridia. The bothridia had free posterior edges and an accessory sucker at their anterior end. Under light microscopy, the bothridia of some Mediterranean specimens looked bilocular without accessory suckers, but a true accessory sucker was observed in histological sections. A principal component analysis revealed 2 stable clusters of specimens along the first principal component regardless of host species. These "large" and "small" morphotypes are thought to represent early migratory stages of Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii. The similarity in scolex morphology, the observation of plerocercoids buried in intestinal regions close to the sites where M. grimaldii and P. delphini occur, and the coexistence of all larval forms in the same individual hosts would support this hypothesis. Future molecular analysis may confirm it.

  19. S-Adenosylmethionine induces BldH and activates secondary metabolism by involving the TTA-codon control of bldH expression in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Delin; Kwon, Hyung-Jin; Suh, Joo-Won

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, a mechanism for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to promote secondary metabolism was characterized in terms of bldH sl) expression in Streptomyces lividans. A previous study demonstrated that SAM, on application at 2 microM, induces the transcription of the strR promoter (strRp), which originates from Streptomyces griseus, in S. lividans. An inactivation study verified that bldH sl is essential to strRp transcription in S. lividans and it was demonstrated that the effects of SAM on the induction of strRp activity, on the transcription of redZ and actII-orf4, and on antibiotic production were compromised when the unique leucine TTA-codon of bldH sl was changed to TTG. Western blot analysis revealed that SAM supplementation enhances the expression of bldH sl when the TTA-codon was intact but not when the TTG replacement was provided. This study validates the involvement of BldH sl in the potentiating effect of SAM on the antibiotic production and substantiates that SAM controls the expression of bldH sl through the TTA-codon control in translating bldH mRNA. It is argued here that the intracellular SAM-level modulates the maturation of bldA, which encodes the UUA-codon tRNA and controls secondary metabolism in S. lividans.

  20. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives. PMID:26903208

  1. Evolutionary Relations of Hexanchiformes Deep-Sea Sharks Elucidated by Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Keiko; Tomita, Taketeru; Suzuki, Shingo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Sano, Kazumi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kono, Azumi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K.; Tanaka, Sho

    2013-01-01

    Hexanchiformes is regarded as a monophyletic taxon, but the morphological and genetic relationships between the five extant species within the order are still uncertain. In this study, we determined the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of seven sharks including representatives of the five Hexanchiformes, one squaliform, and one carcharhiniform and inferred the phylogenetic relationships among those species and 12 other Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) species for which the complete mitogenome is available. The monophyly of Hexanchiformes and its close relation with all other Squaliformes sharks were strongly supported by likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 13,749 aligned nucleotides of 13 protein coding genes and two rRNA genes that were derived from the whole mDNA sequences of the 19 species. The phylogeny suggested that Hexanchiformes is in the superorder Squalomorphi, Chlamydoselachus anguineus (frilled shark) is the sister species to all other Hexanchiformes, and the relations within Hexanchiformes are well resolved as Chlamydoselachus, (Notorynchus, (Heptranchias, (Hexanchus griseus, H. nakamurai))). Based on our phylogeny, we discussed evolutionary scenarios of the jaw suspension mechanism and gill slit numbers that are significant features in the sharks. PMID:24089661

  2. GeneOptimizer program-assisted cDNA reengineering enhances sRAGE autologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen; Kim, Ji Min; Medina, Danny; Lakatta, Edward G; Lin, Li

    2014-03-01

    Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is a secreted mammalian protein that functions as a decoy to counter-react RAGE signaling-resultant pathological conditions, and has high therapeutic potentials. Our prior studies showed that recombinant human sRAGE expressed in Chinese hamster, Ceanothus griseus, ovary (CHO) cells is modified by specific N-glycosylation, and exhibits higher bioactivity than that expressed in other host systems including insect Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Here, we show that GeneOptimizer software program-assisted, reengineered sRAGE cDNA enhances the recombinant protein expression in CHO cells. The cDNA sequence encoding human sRAGE was optimized for RNA structure, stability, and codon usages in CHO cells. We found that such optimization augmented sRAGE expression over 2 folds of its wild-type counterpart. We also studied how individual parameter impacted sRAGE autologous expression in CHO cells, and whether sRAGE bioactivity was compromised. We found that the enhanced expression appeared not to affect sRAGE N-glycosylation and bioactivity. Optimization of sRAGE expression provides a basis for future large-scale production of this protein to meet medical needs. PMID:24373844

  3. The utility of diversity profiling using Illumina 18S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate Toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming coccidia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Madalyn K; Phalen, David N; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-01-30

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity to screen a single DNA sample and detect pathogen DNA from thousands of host DNA sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. The technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. In this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity profiling NGS approach using Illumina small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect Toxoplasma gondii in previously confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis. We then tested the diagnostic approach with species-specific PCR genotyping, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to systematically characterise the disease and associate causality. We show that the Euk7A/Euk570R primer set targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene can be used as a species-specific assay for cyst-forming coccidia and discriminate T. gondii. Overall, the approach is cost-effective and improves diagnostic decision support by narrowing the differential diagnosis list with more certainty than was previously possible. Furthermore, it supplements the limitations of cryptic protozoan morphology and surpasses the need for species-specific PCR primer combinations.

  4. Comparative visual function in predatory fishes from the Indian River Lagoon.

    PubMed

    McComb, D Michelle; Kajiura, Stephen M; Horodysky, Andrij Z; Frank, Tamara M

    2013-01-01

    Visual temporal resolution and spectral sensitivity of three coastal teleost species (common snook [Centropomus undecimalis], gray snapper [Lutjanus griseus], and pinfish [Lagodon rhomboides]) were investigated by electroretinogram. Temporal resolution was quantified under photopic and scotopic conditions using response waveform dynamics and maximum critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFmax). Photopic CFFmax was significantly higher than scotopic CFFmax in all species. The snapper had the shortest photoreceptor response latency time (26.7 ms) and the highest CFFmax (47 Hz), suggesting that its eyes are adapted for a brighter photic environment. In contrast, the snook had the longest response latency time (36.8 ms) and lowest CFFmax (40 Hz), indicating that its eyes are adapted for a dimmer environment or nocturnal lifestyle. Species spectral responses ranged from 360 to 620 nm and revealed the presence of rods sensitive to dim and twilight conditions, as well as multiple cone visual pigments providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Collectively, our results demonstrate differences in visual function among species inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon system, representative of their unique ecology and life histories.

  5. Philometrid nematodes infecting fishes from the Everglades National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2010-09-01

    The following three species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from marine perciform fishes of the Everglades National Park (northern Gulf of Mexico), Florida, U.S.A.: Philometra brevispicula sp. n. (male and females) from the subcutaneous tissue of mouth of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus) (Lutjanidae), Philometroides grandipapillatus sp. n. (only females) from pectoral fin muscle of the crevalle jack Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) (Carangidae), and Caranginema americanum Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza et Salgado-Maldonado, 2008 (females) from the subcutaneous fascia of trunk muscle in crevalle jack C. hippos. Philometra brevispicula is mainly characterized by small cephalic papillae of the external circle, the absence of oesophageal teeth and the presence of small caudal projections in gravid female, markedly short spicules (45 microm) in male, and by its location in the host. Philometroides grandipapillatus differs from congeners mainly in the shape of the cephalic region (narrow, conspicuously protruding), large cephalic papillae of the external circle and the absence of caudal projections in female, and by the site of infection in the host. Caranginema americanum is for the first time recorded from the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  6. A chitin-like component in Aedes aegypti eggshells, eggs and ovaries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Mônica F; Dos Santos, Amanda S; Marotta, Humberto R; Mansur, Juliana F; Ramos, Isabela B; Machado, Ednildo A; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Eberlin, Marcos N; Kaiser, Carlos R; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Vasconcellos, Ana Maria H

    2007-12-01

    An insoluble white substance was prepared from extracts of eggshells of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito and dengue vector. Its infrared and proton NMR spectra were similar to that of standard commercial chitin. This putative chitin-like material, also obtained from ovaries, newly laid and dark eggs, was hydrolyzed in acid and a major product was identified by HPLC to be glucosamine. The eggshell acid hydrolysate was also analyzed by ESI-MS and an ion identical to a glucosamine monoprotonated species was detected. The presence of chitin was also analyzed during different developmental stages of the ovary using a fluorescent microscopy technique and probes specific for chitin. The results showed that a chitin-like material accumulates in oocytes during oogenesis. Streptomyces griseus chitinase pre-treatment of oocytes greatly reduced the chitin-derived fluorescence. Chitinase activity was detected in newborn larvae and eggs prior to hatching. Feeding experiments indicated that the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron inhibited chitin synthesis, either when mosquitoes were allowed to feed directly on lufenuron-treated chickens or when an artificial feeding system was used. Lufenuron inhibited egg hatch, larval development and reduced mosquito viability. These data demonstrate for the first time that (1) a chitin-like material is present in A. aegypti eggs, ovaries and eggshells; (2) a chitin synthesis inhibitor can be used to inhibit mosquito oogenesis; and (3) chitin synthesis inhibitors have potential for controlling mosquito populations. PMID:17967344

  7. A new species of Limatulichthys Isbrücker & Nijssen (Loricariidae, Loricariinae) from the western Guiana Shield .

    PubMed

    Londoño-Burbano, Alejandro; Lefebvre, Stéphanie L; Lujan, Nathan K

    2014-01-01

    Limatulichthys nasarcus n. sp. is described as a new species based on 15 specimens from the Ventuari and Caura Rivers in Southern Venezuela. The new species can be distinguished from its only congener, L. griseus, by the presence of anterior abdominal plates half the size of those at center of abdomen (vs. plates similar in size); distinct spots less than half of diameter of naris across entire dorsum, including snout and head (vs. indistinct dorsal spots larger or equal than diameter of naris); lateral portions of head and opercle with dark well-defined spots larger than those on dorsum (vs. spots on lateral portions of head and opercle equal in size to those on remainder of body); snout profile in dorsal view broadly rounded (vs. acutely triangular); head longer (21.4-24.2 SL vs. 17.7-21.0%); and anal fin longer (15.7-18.0 SL vs. 13.7-15.6%). Distinctiveness of the two species is further supported by their non-overlapping distribution in multivariate morphospace. The disjunct distribution of L. nasarcus across both the Caura and Ventuari rivers exclusive of the main Orinoco River channel contributes to a growing body of evidence supporting the historical connection between headwaters of these drainages. The hypothesized existence of a 'proto-Berbice' paleodrainage provides one explanation for such a connection. PMID:25543793

  8. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives.

  9. Trace metals, stable isotope ratios, and trophic relations in seabirds from the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E

    2005-12-01

    Trace elements including mercury, cadmium, selenium, and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (sigma15N) were measured in tissues of Pacific seabirds. Two species of albatross (Diomedea immutabilis, Diomedea nigripes), four species of shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri, Puffinus carneipes, Puffinus griseus, Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) were collected opportunistically by an experimental fishery in the North Pacific Ocean. Two species each of petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Oceanodroma furcata) and auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cerorhinca monocerata) were collected at breeding colonies on the north coast of British Columbia, Canada. Concentrations of toxic trace metals varied considerably among the pelagic nonbreeders; highest concentrations consistently were in D. nigripes (e.g., Hg), 70-fold greater than F. corniculata (e.g., Cd), eightfold greater than P. tenuirostris (e.g., Se), and fourfold greater than F. corniculata. Most essential trace elements varied little among species, consistent with physiological regulation. Values for sigma15N correlated positively with hepatic Se (r = 0.771, p = 0.025) and negatively with Co (r = 0.817, p = 0.013). Among the four breeding species, there were significant positive associations for sigma15N in muscle and hepatic Se (r = 0.822, p = 0.002), Hg (r = 0.744, p = 0.0001), and Cd (r = 0.589, p = 0.003). Differences in time scales integrated by sigma15N versus trace metals in tissues probably reduced the apparent associations between trace-metal exposure and diet.

  10. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts. PMID:21497672

  11. Historical and current records of aquarium cetaceans in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peijun; Sun, Ni; Yao, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2012-01-01

    The number of cetaceans housed in aquariums in China is increasing. Detailed information on the historical and current population status has not been reported, despite its importance for successful breeding and population management. Questionnaires were conducted between December 2006 and May 2009, and the information was used to construct studbooks. Our survey showed that 10 species had been introduced to aquariums since 1978, including 26 (with 15 in the current population) finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), 5 (5) false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), 94 (80) common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 48 (30) Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), 36 (32) beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 10 (10) pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 8 (8) Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), 2 (2) short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), 2 (2) Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and 5 (0) baiji dolphins (Lipotes vexillifer). The number of cetaceans has increased markedly in the past 32 years, especially since 1995. Currently, 184 individuals are under human care throughout China, a number larger than any other country with an International Species Information System membership. In addition, the Annual Survival Rates of bottlenose dolphins (0.959) and beluga whales (0.968) were found higher than those reported previously (0.93-0.951 and 0.94-0.954, respectively). PMID:21674602

  12. Static inflation and deflation pressure-volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J

    2011-11-15

    Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure-volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg(-1)) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLC(est)) from body mass (M(b)) by applying the equation: TLC(est)=0.135 M(b)(0.92). Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure-volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases. PMID:22031747

  13. Historical and current records of aquarium cetaceans in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peijun; Sun, Ni; Yao, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2012-01-01

    The number of cetaceans housed in aquariums in China is increasing. Detailed information on the historical and current population status has not been reported, despite its importance for successful breeding and population management. Questionnaires were conducted between December 2006 and May 2009, and the information was used to construct studbooks. Our survey showed that 10 species had been introduced to aquariums since 1978, including 26 (with 15 in the current population) finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), 5 (5) false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), 94 (80) common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 48 (30) Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), 36 (32) beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 10 (10) pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 8 (8) Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), 2 (2) short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), 2 (2) Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and 5 (0) baiji dolphins (Lipotes vexillifer). The number of cetaceans has increased markedly in the past 32 years, especially since 1995. Currently, 184 individuals are under human care throughout China, a number larger than any other country with an International Species Information System membership. In addition, the Annual Survival Rates of bottlenose dolphins (0.959) and beluga whales (0.968) were found higher than those reported previously (0.93-0.951 and 0.94-0.954, respectively).

  14. Impact of forest type and management strategy on avian densities in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Avian territory densities were determined from 20 Breeding Bird Censuses in mature (>30 years) bottomland hardwood stand: and 18 Breeding Bird Censuses in young (6-9 years old) cottonwood (Populas deltoides) plantations in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Avian species richness, diversity, and territory density were greater (p 0.05). Even so, detrended correspondence analysis based on avian territory densities readily segregated forest types and silvicultural treatments. Timber harvest within bottomland hardwood stands resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in cottonwood stands by increasing the densities of early-successional species such as Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens), and Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). Conversely, regenerating cottonwood stands from root sprouts, rather than planting stem cuttings, resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in bottomland hardwood stands by increasing densities of species such as White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) and Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). Tree species diversity, angular canopy cover, and midstory density were positively associated with bird species assemblages in bottomland hardwood stands, whereas vegetation density at ground level was positively associated with bird communities in cottonwood plantations. Conversion of agricultural fields to short-rotation cottonwood plantations results in increased breeding bird populations by adding up to 140 additional territories 40 ha-1. Even so, relative conservation values, derive, from indicator species analysis and Partners in Flight concern scores, suggest that mature bottomland hardwood forests are twice as 'valuable' for bird conservation as are cottonwood plantations.

  15. Use of In-Biofilm Expression Technology To Identify Genes Involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development†

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Antonio; Gallant, Claude V.; Jarvi, Keith; Burrows, Lori L.

    2003-01-01

    Mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms form complex three-dimensional architecture and are tolerant of antibiotics and other antimicrobial compounds. In this work, an in vivo expression technology system, originally designed to study virulence-associated genes in complex mammalian environments, was used to identify genes up-regulated in P. aeruginosa grown to a mature (5-day) biofilm. Five unique cloned promoters unable to promote in vitro growth in the absence of purines after recovery from the biofilm environment were identified. The open reading frames downstream of the cloned promoter regions were identified, and knockout mutants were generated. Insertional mutation of PA5065, a homologue of Escherichia coli ubiB, was lethal, while inactivation of PA0240 (a porin homologue), PA3710 (a putative alcohol dehydrogenase), and PA3782 (a homologue of the Streptomyces griseus developmental regulator adpA) had no effect on planktonic growth but caused defects in biofilm formation in static and flowing systems. In competition experiments, mutants demonstrated reduced fitness compared with the parent strain, comprising less than 0.0001% of total biofilm cells after 5 days. Therefore, using in-biofilm expression technology, we have identified novel genes that do not affect planktonic growth but are important for biofilm formation, development, and fitness. PMID:12700249

  16. Sylvatic maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales) in Northern California: untangling the web of transmission.

    PubMed

    Brown, R N; Peot, M A; Lane, R S

    2006-07-01

    Lyme borreliosis is associated with several genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) (Spirochaetales), but human disease has been associated only with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner in the western United States. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rrf-rrl amplicons from 124 tick and mammalian isolates from various habitats yielded 13 RFLP patterns. Of these patterns, six were patterns previously associated either with Borrelia bissettii Postic, Marti Ras, Lane, Hendson & Baranton or Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., and the remaining seven patterns belonged to diverse and previously uncharacterized Borrelia spp. Uncharacterized Borrelia spp. were cultured most frequently from Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall and California kangaroo rats, Dipodomys californicus Merriam, inhabiting grasslands, and B. bissettii from I. spinipalpis and dusky-footed woodrats, Neotoma fuscipes Baird, associated with oak woodlands or chaparral. B. burgdorferi s.s. typically was isolated from host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls collected in dense oak woodlands, woodland-grass, or redwood forests. Although some isolates of B. burgdorferi s.s. were cultured from woodrats, there was no clear association of this human pathogen with any vertebrate host. These findings, along with recent evidence indicating that the western gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus Ord, may be an important reservoir of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Californian oak woodlands, suggest that our earlier hypothesis implicating an enzootic cycle involving woodrats and I. spinipalpis is insufficient to account for observed patterns of infection in nature.

  17. Community ecology and disease risk: lizards, squirrels, and the Lyme disease spirochete in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Lane, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne zoonotic diseases are often maintained in complex transmission cycles involving multiple vertebrate hosts and their arthropod vectors. In the state of California, U.S.A., the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease, is transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. Several mammalian species serve as reservoir hosts of the spirochete, but levels of tick infestation, reservoir competence, and Borrelia-infection prevalence vary widely among such hosts. Here, we model the host (lizards, Peromyscus mice, Californian meadow voles, dusky-footed wood rats, and western gray squirrels), vector, and pathogen community of oak woodlands in northwestern California to determine the relative importance of different tick hosts. Observed infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in host-seeking I. pacificus nymphs was 1.8-5.3%, and our host-community model estimated an infection prevalence of 1.6-2.2%. The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) was the only source of infected nymphs. Lizards, which are refractory to Borrelia infection, are important in feeding subadult ticks but reduce disease risk (nymphal infection prevalence). Species identity is therefore critical in understanding and determining the local disease ecology. PMID:20380218

  18. Introduced and native congeners use different resource allocation strategies to maintain performance during infection.

    PubMed

    Coon, Courtney A C; Brace, Amber J; McWilliams, Scott R; McCue, Marshall D; Martin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hosts can manage parasitic infections using an array of tactics, which are likely to vary contingent on coevolutionary history between the host and the parasite. Here we asked whether coping ability of congeners that differ in host-parasite coevolutionary history differed in response to experimental infections with a coccidian parasite. House sparrows (Passer domesticus) and gray-headed sparrows (Passer griseus) are sympatric and ecologically similar, but house sparrows are recent colonizers of Kenya, the site of our comparison, whereas gray-headed sparrows are native. We evaluated three variables as barometers of infection coping ability: vertical flight, pectoral muscle size, and fat score. We also measured routing of a dose of (13)C-labeled leucine, an essential amino acid, among tissues to compare resource allocation strategies in response to infection. We found that burden effects on performance were minimal in both species, but house sparrows maintained considerably higher burdens than gray-headed sparrows regardless of exposure. House sparrows also had more exogeneous leucine tracer in all tissues after 24 h, demonstrating a difference in the way the two species allocate or distribute resources. We argue that house sparrows may be maintaining larger resource reserves to mitigate costs associated with exposure and infection. Additionally, in response to increased parasite exposure, gray-headed sparrows had less leucine tracer in their spleens and more in their gonads, whereas house sparrows did not change allocation, perhaps indicating a trade-off that is not experienced by the introduced species. PMID:24940920

  19. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales.

    PubMed

    Au, W W; Nachtigall, P E; Pawloski, J L

    1997-05-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-Hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. One of the major concerns is the possible effect of the ATOC signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. In order to address this issue, the hearing sensitivity of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) and a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to the ATOC sound was measured behaviorally. A staircase procedure with the signal levels being changed in 1-dB steps was used to measure the animals' threshold to the actual ATOC coded signal. The results indicate that small odontocetes such as the Pseudorca and Grampus swimming directly above the ATOC source will not hear the signal unless they dive to a depth of approximately 400 m. A sound propagation analysis suggests that the sound-pressure level at ranges greater than 0.5 km will be less than 130 dB for depths down to about 500 m. Several species of baleen whales produce sounds much greater than 170-180 dB. With the ATOC source on the axis of the deep sound channel (greater than 800 m), the ATOC signal will probably have minimal physical and physiological effects on cetaceans.

  20. Gene Cluster Involved in the Biosynthesis of Griseobactin, a Catechol-Peptide Siderophore of Streptomyces sp. ATCC 700974▿

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, Silke I.; Braun, Volkmar

    2010-01-01

    The main siderophores produced by streptomycetes are desferrioxamines. Here we show that Streptomyces sp. ATCC 700974 and several Streptomyces griseus strains, in addition, synthesize a hitherto unknown siderophore with a catechol-peptide structure, named griseobactin. The production is repressed by iron. We sequenced a 26-kb DNA region comprising a siderophore biosynthetic gene cluster encoding proteins similar to DhbABCEFG, which are involved in the biosynthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (DHBA) and in the incorporation of DHBA into siderophores via a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Adjacent to the biosynthesis genes are genes that encode proteins for the secretion, uptake, and degradation of siderophores. To correlate the gene cluster with griseobactin synthesis, the dhb genes in ATCC 700974 were disrupted. The resulting mutants no longer synthesized DHBA and griseobactin; production of both was restored by complementation with the dhb genes. Heterologous expression of the dhb genes or of the entire griseobactin biosynthesis gene cluster in the catechol-negative strain Streptomyces lividans TK23 resulted in the synthesis and secretion of DHBA or griseobactin, respectively, suggesting that these genes are sufficient for DHBA and griseobactin biosynthesis. Griseobactin was purified and characterized; its structure is consistent with a cyclic and, to a lesser extent, linear form of the trimeric ester of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-arginyl-threonine complexed with aluminum under iron-limiting conditions. This is the first report identifying the gene cluster for the biosynthesis of DHBA and a catechol siderophore in Streptomyces. PMID:19915026

  1. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    PubMed

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats. PMID:19371744

  2. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Rick A; Furnas, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, "Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests" [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km(2) grid cells of forest habitat.

  3. Parasite fauna of the house rat Rattus rattus diardii in Kuala Lumpur and nearby villages.

    PubMed

    Leong Tak Seng; Lim Boo Liat; Yap, L F; Krishnasamy, M

    1979-03-01

    One hundred and fifty one house rats, Rattus rattus diardii from five different localities, Jinjang, Dato Keramat, Kuala Lumpur, Sungai Besi and Selayang Baru, were examined for parasites. Nineteen species of parasites were recovered. Hymenolepis diminuta and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis are the predominant species. The dominancy of the parasite species in the rats differed in each locality: Hymenolepis diminuta in Dato Keramat and Kuala Lumpur; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in Sungai Besi; Gongylomena neoplasticum in Jinjang and Selayang Baru. The influences of human habitats on the parasite fauna of house rats are discussed.

  4. [Life style, dietary habits and nutritional evaluation of Hospital de Mérida health professionals].

    PubMed

    Márquez Moreno, Raúl; Beato Víbora, Pilar Isabel; Tormo García, M Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Se estudiaron hábitos de vida y diversos aspectos nutricionales y la relación entre ellos en personal sanitario del Hospital de Mérida del Servicio Extremeño de Salud (SES). MÉTODO: Se contó con la participación voluntaria de 43 trabajadores en activo los cuales autorrealizaron un cuestionario de datos personales, estilos de vida y un registro alimentario de siete días. Además se les midieron una serie de datos antropométricos.

  5. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  6. [Orality and writing: argumentation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Paúls, Beatriz; Moreno-Campos, Verónica

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. Este trabajo profundiza en las diferencias de competencia linguistica de niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) en oralidad y escritura. Objetivos. Verificar si estos niños presentan en las tareas orales los mismos problemas de control inhibitorio y de autorregulacion que se han señalado en investigaciones basadas en datos escritos, y describir tales problemas (falta de adecuacion, produccion inadecuada) segun aparecen en nuestros datos orales. Pacientes y metodos. Se analiza una argumentacion escrita y otra oral de 25 participantes entre 9 y 11 años. En la tarea escrita los niños redactaron sus argumentaciones y en la tarea oral se filmo su interaccion argumentativa con una colaboradora; se analizo en cada caso el tipo de argumentaciones utilizadas (logicas, falaces, de sancion o moralistas). Resultados. Se comprueba la diferencia evidente entre los resultados de las dos pruebas, lo que indica la necesidad de revisar los mecanismos de evaluacion verbal y de completar los resultados escritos con pruebas de destreza oral. Los problemas normalmente asociados a las tareas escritas no aparecen en lenguaje oral; los participantes son capaces de seguir el hilo discursivo y aportar nuevas argumentaciones relacionadas con el tema. Conclusiones. Los datos analizados ponen de manifiesto la dificultad adicional que supone la tarea escrita para los niños con TDAH, la fiabilidad de los resultados orales respecto a las habilidades linguisticas y la necesidad de usar ambos tipos de datos en la evaluacion.

  7. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  8. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes the importance of outdoor training adaptation.

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Jara; Dominguez, D; Til, L; González-Gross, M; Drobnic, F

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: En los últimos años, el descubrimiento de receptores musculares para la vitamina D sugiere un papel significativo de esta vitamina en el tejido muscular, adquiriendo una relevancia especial en deportistas. No existen apenas datos disponibles acerca de las concentraciones de vitamina D en deportistas de élite Españoles.

  9. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  10. Hidrógeno neutro en el Hemisferio Austral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.

    Se muestran los resultados de la distribución del HI en el cielo austral, obtenidos a partir de los datos de un relevamiento en la línea de 21 cm recientemente concluido en el IAR. Se discuten algunos de los principales problemas que pueden confrontarse con las observaciones de HI de nuestra Galaxia.

  11. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  12. Complementos de vitamina E aumentan riesgo de cáncer de próstata

    Cancer.gov

    De acuerdo a una revisión ulterior de los datos del Estudio del Selenio y la Vitamina E para Prevenir el Cáncer (SELECT), los hombres que tomaron diariamente 400 unidades internacionales (U.I.) de vitamina E tuvieron más cánceres de próstata que los hombr

  13. A Look at Psychometrics in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Swaminathan, H.

    Comments are made on the review papers presented by six Dutch psychometricians: Ivo Molenaar, Wim van der Linden, Ed Roskam, Arnold Van den Wollenberg, Gideon Mellenbergh, and Dato de Gruijter. Molenaar has embraced a pragmatic viewpoint on Bayesian methods, using both empirical and pure approaches to solve educational research problems. Molenaar…

  14. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  15. The Vocational Guidance Research Database: A Scientometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Buils, Raquel; Gil-Beltran, Jose Manuel; Caballer-Miedes, Antonio; Martinez-Martinez, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of…

  16. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Cost Español: Datos breves Facts about Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world’s most ... antibiotic use is a key strategy to control antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance in children is of particular concern ...

  17. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  18. Monitoring bird population trends in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Bystrak, D.; Geissler, P.H.; Purroy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Se ofrece un nuevo metodo para computar las oscilaciones demograficas de las aves a lo largo de los anos. Con los datos suministrados por el proyecto 'Aves nidificantes en Norteamerica' , se indican en la Tabla 1 las pautas de cambio numerico de una serie seleccionada de aves holarticas.

  19. Homogeneity and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  20. Combinación de Valores de Longitud del Día (LOD) según ventanas de frecuencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, L. I.; Arias, E. F.; Gambis, D.

    El concepto de solución combinada se sustenta en el hecho de que las diferentes series temporales de datos derivadas a partir de distintas técnicas de la Geodesia Espacial son muy disimiles entre si. Las principales diferencias, fácilmente detectables, entre las distintas series son: diferente intervalo de muestreo, extensión temporal y calidad. Los datos cubren un período reciente de 27 meses (julio 96-oct. 98). Se utilizaron estimaciones de la longitud del día (LOD) originadas en 10 centros operativos del IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) a partir de las técnicas GPS (Global Positioning System) y SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging). La serie temporal combinada así obtenida se comparó con la solución EOP (Parámetros de la Orientación Terrestre) combinada multi-técnica derivada por el IERS (C04). El comportamiento del ruido en LOD para todas las técnicas mostró ser dependiente de la frecuencia (Vondrak, 1998). Por esto, las series dato se dividieron en ventanas de frecuencia, luego de haberles removido bies y tendencias. Luego, se asignaron diferentes factores de peso a cada ventana discriminando por técnicas. Finalmente estas soluciones parcialmente combinadas se mezclaron para obtener la solución combinada final. Sabemos que la mejor solución combinada tendrá una precisión menor que la precisión de las series temporales de datos que la originaron. Aun así, la importancia de una serie combinada confiable de EOP, esto es, de una precisión aceptable y libre de sistematismos evidentes, radica en la necesidad de una base de datos EOP de referencia para el estudio de fenómenos geofísicos que motivan variaciones en la rotación terrestre.

  1. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B R; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  2. Transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi and B. bissettii in relation to habitat type in northwestern California.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Mun, Jeomhee; Salkeld, Daniel J; Lane, Robert S

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which rodent species serve as primary reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in commonly occurring woodland types in inland areas of northwestern California, and to examine whether chaparral or grassland serve as source habitats for dispersal of B. burgdorferi- or B. bissettii-infected rodents into adjacent woodlands. The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) was commonly infected with B. burgdorferi in oak woodlands, whereas examination of 30 dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) and 280 Peromyscus spp. mice from 13 widely spaced Mendocino County woodlands during 2002 and 2003 yielded only one infected woodrat and one infected deer mouse (P. maniculatus). These data suggest that western gray squirrels account for the majority of production by rodents of fed Ixodes pacificus larvae infected with B. burgdorferi in the woodlands sampled. Infections with B. burgdorferi also were rare in woodrats (0/47, 0/3) and mice (3/66, 1/6) captured in chaparral and grassland, respectively, and therefore these habitats are unlikely sources for dispersal of this spirochete into adjacent woodlands. On the other hand, B. bissettii was commonly detected in both woodrats (22/47) and mice (15/66) in chaparral. We conclude that the data from this and previous studies in northwestern California are suggestive of a pattern where inland oak-woodland habitats harbor a B. burgdorferi transmission cycle driven primarily by I. pacificus and western gray squirrels, whereas chaparral habitats contain a B. bissettii transmission cycle perpetuated largely by I. spinipalpis, woodrats and Peromyscus mice. The dominant role of western gray squirrels as reservoirs of B. burgdorferi in certain woodlands offers intriguing opportunities for preventing Lyme disease by targeting these animals by means of either host-targeted acaricides or oral vaccination against B. burgdorferi. PMID:20514140

  3. Histological, immunohistochemical and pathological features of the pituitary gland of odontocete cetaceans from the Western gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D F; Haubold, E M; Tajima, Y

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary glands were recovered from dolphins and small whales found stranded along the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico over a 15-year period (1991-2006). One hundred animals of 14 species were found to be suitable for inclusion in this study. Of these, 72 were Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Other species included were the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), the short finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhyncha), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Fraser's dolphin (Lagenorhynchus hosei), rough-tooth dolphin (Steno bredanensis), Gervais's beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus) and an infant sperm whale (Physeter catodon). The pituitary weights in T. truncatus ranged from 0.69 g in a 109-cm long neonate to 3.44 g in a large (277 cm) male. More typical weights were in the range of 0.95-2.35 g (mean=1.65+/-0.70 g) The cetacean pituitary consisted of two distinct parts, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis, which were separated by a thin fibrous membrane in all species examined, in contrast to terrestrial mammals in which the parts are apposed and joined through a pars intermedia. Cell types were identified with conventional stains and immunohistochemistry. Cells positive for adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin were identified with appropriate antibodies. Lesions, which were few, included one pituicytoma of the pars nervosa and a squamous cyst in T. truncatus, and colloid cysts in several species. Nodular aggregates of single cell types were common, probably representing a physiological variant. PMID:18621384

  4. Ordination of breeding birds in relation to environmental gradients in three southeastern United States floodplain forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wakeley, J.S.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Antrobus, T.J.; Fischer, R.A.; Barrow, W.C.; Hamel, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    We used an ordination approach to identify factors important to the organization of breeding bird communities in three floodplains: Cache River, Arkansas (AR), Iatt Creek, Louisiana (LA), and the Coosawhatchie River, South Carolina (SC), USA. We used 5-min point counts to sample birds in each study area each spring from 1995 to 1998, and measured ground-surface elevations and a suite of other habitat variables to investigate bird distributions and community characteristics in relation to important environmental gradients. In both AR and SC, the average number of Neotropical migrant species detected was lowest in semipermanently flooded Nyssa aquatica Linnaeus habitats and greatest in the highest elevation floodplain zone. Melanerpes carolinus Linnaeus, Protonotaria citrea Boddaert, Quiscalus quiscula Linnaeus, and other species were more abundant in N. aquatica habitats, whereas Wilsonia citrina Boddaert, Oporornis formosus Wilson, Vireo griseus Boddaert, and others were more abundant in drier floodplain zones. In LA, there were no significant differences in community metrics or bird species abundances among forest types. Canonical correspondence analyses revealed that structural development of understory vegetation was the most important factor affecting bird distributions in all three study areas; however, potential causes of these structural gradients differed. In AR and SC, differences in habitat structure were related to the hydrologic gradient, as indexed by ground-surface elevation. In LA, structural variations were related mainly to the frequency of canopy gaps. Thus, bird communities in all three areas appeared to be organized primarily in response to repeated localized disturbance. Our results suggest that regular disturbance due to flooding plays an important role in structuring breeding bird communities in floodplains subject to prolonged inundation, whereas other agents of disturbance (e.g., canopy gaps) may be more important in headwater systems

  5. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  6. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B R; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  7. Comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the hearts of cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Alastair A; Carr, Peter A; Currie, Richard J W

    2007-07-01

    The structure of the cardiac foramen ovale from 17 species representing six cetacean families, the Monodontidae, Phocoenidae, Delphinidae, Ziphiidae, Balaenidae and the Balaenopteridae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. Eight white whale fetuses (Delphinapterus leucas) and a narwhal fetus (Monodon monoceros) represented the Monodontidae; one fetal and nine neonatal harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and a finless porpoise fetus (Neophocoena phocoenoides) represented the Phocoenidae; two white-beaked dolphin fetuses (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), four fetal and one neonatal Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus), a Risso's dolphin fetus (Grampus griseus), two common bottle-nosed dolphin neonates (Tursiops truncatus), a female short-beaked common dolphin fetus (Delphinus delphis), four killer whale fetuses (Orcinus orca) and two long-finned pilot whale fetuses (Globicephala melas) represented the Delphinidae; two northern bottlenose whale fetuses (Hyperoodon ampullatus) represented the Ziphiidae; one bowhead whale fetus (Balaena mysticetus) represented the Balaenidae and five Common minke whale fetuses (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), one blue whale fetus (Balaenoptera musculus), nine fin whale fetuses (Balaenoptera physalus) and four humpback whale fetuses (Megaptera novaeangliae) represented the Balaenopteridae. The hearts of an additional two incompletely identified toothed and four baleen whale fetuses were also studied. In each species the fold of tissue derived from the cardiac septum primum and subtended by the foramen ovale had the appearance of a short tunnel or sleeve which was fenestrated at its distal end. In the toothed whales the tissue fold was tunnel-shaped with the interatrial septum as the floor whereas in baleen whales it was more sleeve-like. In toothed whales thin threads extended from the fold to insert into the interatrial septum whereas a network of threads covered the distal end of the sleeve in the baleen

  8. Management of Protected Areas and Its Effect on an Ecosystem Function: Removal of Prosopis flexuosa Seeds by Mammals in Argentinian Drylands

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Valeria E.; Miguel, Florencia; Cona, Mónica I.

    2016-01-01

    The ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. This study was conducted in two protected areas in the Monte Desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the Man and Biosphere Ñacuñán Reserve; FR) and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (Ischigualasto Park; UFR). The study focuses on Prosopis flexuosa seed removal by different functional mammal groups: “seed predators”, “scatter-hoarders”, and “opportunistic frugivores”. Under both interventions, the relative contribution to seed removal by different functional mammal groups was assessed, as well as how these groups respond to habitat heterogeneity (i.e. vegetation structure) at different spatial scales. Camera traps were used to identify mammal species removing P. flexuosa seeds and to quantify seed removal; remote sensing data helped analyze habitat heterogeneity. In the FR, the major fruit removers were a seed predator (Graomys griseoflavus) and a scatter-hoarder (Microcavia asutralis). In the UFR, the main seed removers were the opportunistic frugivores (Lycalopex griseus and Dolichotis patagonum), who removed more seeds than the seed predator in the FR. The FR shows higher habitat homogeneity than the UFR, and functional groups respond differently to habitat heterogeneity at different spatial scales. In the FR, because large herbivores are locally extinct (e.g. Lama guanicoe) and domestic herbivores are excluded, important functions of large herbivores are missing, such as the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity, which provides habitats for medium-sized opportunistic frugivores with consequent improvement of quality and quantity of seed dispersal services. In the UFR, with low densities of large herbivores, probably one important ecosystem function this group performs is to increase

  9. Spring-time distributions of migratory marine birds in the southern California Current: Oceanic eddy associations and coastal habitat hotspots over 17 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, P. P. W.; Sydeman, W. J.; Bograd, S. J.; Hyrenbach, K. D.

    2006-02-01

    We used a 17-year time series of shipboard observations to address the hypothesis that marine birds associate with persistent hydrographic features in the southern California Current System (CCS). Overall, approximately 27,000 km of ocean habitat were surveyed, averaging 1600 km per cruise. We identified mesoscale features (eddy centers and the core of the California Current), based on dynamic height anomalies, and considered habitat associations for seven migratory seabird species: black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), Cook's petrel ( Pterodroma cookii), Leach's storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa), dark shearwaters (mainly sooty shearwater Puffinus griseus, with a few short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis), red phalarope ( Phalaropus fulicaria), and red-necked phalarope ( Phalaropus lobatus). We explored associations (presence/absence and density relationships) of marine birds with mesoscale features (eddies, current jet) and metrics of primary productivity (chlorophyll a and nitrate concentrations). Mesoscale eddies were consistently identified in the study region, but were spatially and temporally variable. The resolved eddies were large-scale features associated with meanders of the equatorward-flowing California Current. Cook's petrel was found offshore with no specific habitat affinities. Black-footed albatross, red phalarope, and Leach's storm petrel were found in association with offshore eddies and/or the core of the California Current, but the functional relationship for these species varied, possibly reflecting differences in flight capabilities. The more coastal species, including the shearwaters, fulmar, and red-necked phalarope, were positively associated with proxies of primary productivity. Of the hydrographic habitats considered, the upwelling region of Point Conception appears to be an important "hotspot" of sustained primary production and marine bird concentrations. Point Conception and

  10. In vitro study of the proteolytic degradation of Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Paola; Arai, Takayuki; Boschi, Alessandra; Monti, Patrizia; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Freddi, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    In this study, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (Ap-SF) films were incubated with Protease Type XXI from Streptomyces griseus, at 37 degrees C, to investigate the degradation behavior in an in vitro model system. The enzyme-resistant fractions of Ap-SF films and the soluble peptides formed by proteolytic degradation were collected at specified times, from 1 to 17 days, and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, FT-Raman, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Proteolysis resulted in extensive weight loss and progressive fragmentation of films, especially at long degradation times. A range of soluble peptides was formed by proteolysis. By high performance-size exclusion chromatography it was found that their average molecular weight changed with the time of incubation. The chemical analysis of the enzyme-resistant fraction of Ap-SF films at different times of degradation indicated that the proteolytic attack preferentially occurred in the less ordered Gly rich sequences and that the contribution of the Ala rich crystalline regions to the composition of biodegraded films became progressively larger. Accordingly, DSC and spectroscopic results showed an enhancement of the crystalline character of the biodegraded films. From the behavior of the most important thermal transitions, it was deduced that the alpha-helix domains probably represent the most enzyme-resistant fraction. The in vitro approach used in the present study seems to be a valid tool for studying the rate and mechanism of degradation of Ap-SF films and of other biopolymers of potential biomedical utility.

  11. Diurnal and nocturnal visual capabilities in shorebirds as a function of their feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L M; McNeil, R; Cabana, T; Lachapelle, P

    1999-01-01

    Some shorebird species forage with the same feeding strategy at night and during daytime, e.g. visual pecking in the Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia) or tactile probing in the Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus). The American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) uses tactile probing, by day and by night, but sometimes pecks for insects during daytime. The Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is a visual pecker, both by day and by night, and sometimes forages tactilely on windy (agitated water surface) moonless nights. Territorial Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) are visual peckers during daylight and on moonlight conditions but switch to tactile feeding under lower light conditions. It could be postulated that some shorebird species would switch from visual feeding during daytime to tactile foraging at night because they have poor night vision compared to species that are always sight foragers irrespective of the time of the day. This issue was examined by comparing retinal structure and function in the above species. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were obtained at different light intensities from anesthetized birds, and the retinae were processed for histological observations. Based on ERGs, retinal sensitivity, and rod:cone ratios, both plovers and stilts are well adapted for nocturnal vision. Although they have low rod density compared to that of stilts and plovers, Willets and woodcocks have a scotopic retinal sensitivity similar to that of stilts and plovers but rank midway between plovers and dowitchers for the b-wave amplitude. Dowitchers have the lowest scotopic b-wave amplitude and retinal sensitivity and appear the least well adapted for night vision. Based on photopic ERGs and cone densities, although stilts, Willets and dowitchers appear as well adapted for daytime vision, plovers occupy the last rank of all species examined. Compared to the nighttime tactile feeders and those that switch from daytime visual pecking to tactile feeding at night

  12. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Tieleman, B Irene; Visser, G Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20-22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus; 85-112 g), lesser golden plover (Pluvialis dominicana; 150-156 g), Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica; 205-274 g), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus; 380 g). We tested two opposing hypotheses: the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, which posits that growth rate in chicks is inversely related to functional maturity of tissues, and the fast growth rate-high metabolism hypothesis, which suggests that rapid growth is possible only with a concomitant increase in either RMR or PMR. We have found no evidence that chicks of shorebirds with fast growth rates have lower RMRs or lower PMRs, as would be predicted by the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, but our data suggested that faster-growing chest muscles resulted in increased thermogenic capacity, consistent with the fast growth-high metabolism hypothesis. The development of homeothermy in smaller species is a consequence primarily of greater metabolic intensities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient between a chick's body and environment that can be maintained in the absence of a net radiative load increased rapidly with body mass during development and was highest in least sandpipers and lowest among godwits. Chicks of smaller species could maintain a greater temperature gradient at a particular body mass because of their higher mass-specific maximum metabolic rates.

  13. Mercury in Hazel Bolete Leccinum griseum and soil substratum: Distribution, bioconcentration and dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Krasińska, Grażyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the accumulation and distribution of total mercury (Hg) in fruiting bodies of edible wild-grown mushroom Hazel Bolete Leccinum griseum (Quél.) Singer, collected from six spatially distantly distributed places across Poland and to assess the probable dietary intake of the element by consumers. Mercury content of fungal and soil samples were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) with a direct sample thermal decomposition coupled with gold wool trap of Hg and its further desorption and quantitative measurement at the wavelength of 296 nm. The median values of Hg content in caps of L. griseum collected from less-contaminated places (< 0.10 mg Hg kg(-1) dry matter in upper 0-10 cm layer of soil substratum) were from 0.23 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.43 mg kg(-1) dm. And for more contaminated topsoil (0.15 mg Hg kg(-1) dry matter), the median in caps was about 1.5 mg kg(-1) dry matter. The mushroom L. griseum has potential to accumulate Hg in fruiting bodies, while quantities of this element noted in consignments of this species originating from the forests with typical background values of Hg in topsoil are low. In the light of the published value of PTWI for Hg consumption of fruiting bodies of L. griseus emerged in forests of Poland is without health risk for consumers. Information on total mercury and methylmercury in Fungi of the genus Leccinum is also described briefly.

  14. A Column Experiment To Determine Black Shale Degradation And Colonization By Means of δ13C and 14C Analysis Of Phospholipid Fatty Acids And DNA Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, A.; Gleixner, G.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the degradation of black shale organic matter by microbial communities. We inoculated two columns respectively, with the fungi Schizophyllum commune, the gram-positive bacterium Pseudomonas putida and the gram-negative bacteria Streptomyces griseus and Streptomyces chartreusis. These microorganisms are known to degrade a wide variety of organic macromolecules. Additionally, we had two sets of control columns. To one set the same nutrient solution was added as to the inoculated columns and to the other set only sterile deionised water was supplied. All columns contained 1.5 kg of freshly crushed not autoclaved black shale material with a particle size of 0.63-2 mm. The columns were incubated at 28° C and 60% humidity in the dark. The aim was to investigate, which microorganisms live on black shales and if these microorganisms are able to degrade ancient organic matter. We used compound specific stable isotope measurement techniques and compound specific 14C-dating methods. After 183 days PLFAs were extracted from the columns to investigate the microbial community, furthermore we extracted on one hand total-DNA of column material and on the other hand DNA from pure cultures isolates which grew on Kinks-agar B, Starch-casein-nitrate-agar (SCN) and on complete-yeast-medium-agar (CYM). According to the PLFA analysis bacteria dominated in the columns, whereas in pure cultures more fungi were isolated. A principal component analysis revealed differences between the columns in accordance with the inoculation, but it seems that the inoculated microorganisms were replaced by the natural population. For AMS measurements palmitic acid (C 16:0) was re-isolated from total-PLFA-extract with a preparative fraction collector (PFC). Preliminary results of the study revealed that microorganisms are able to degrade black shale material and that PLFA analysis are useful methods to be combined with analysis of stable isotope and 14C measurements to study microbial

  15. The use of DNA barcoding to monitor the marine mammal biodiversity along the French Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Eric; Méheust, Eleonore; Fuchs, Sandra; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Quillivic, Yann; Viricel, Amélia; Hassani, Sami; Jung, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-30

    In the last ten years, 14 species of cetaceans and five species of pinnipeds stranded along the Atlantic coast of Brittany in the North West of France. All species included, an average of 150 animals strand each year in this area. Based on reports from the stranding network operating along this coast, the most common stranding events comprise six cetacean species (Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Phocoena phocoena)and one pinniped species (Halichoerus grypus). Rare stranding events include deep-diving or exotic species, such as arctic seals. In this study, our aim was to determine the potential contribution of DNA barcoding to the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity as performed by the stranding network. We sequenced more than 500 bp of the 5' end of the mitochondrial COI gene of 89 animals of 15 different species (12 cetaceans, and three pinnipeds). Except for members of the Delphininae, all species were unambiguously discriminated on the basis of their COI sequences. We then applied DNA barcoding to identify some "undetermined" samples. With again the exception of the Delphininae, this was successful using the BOLD identification engine. For samples of the Delphininae, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial control region (MCR), and using a non-metric multidimentional scaling plot and posterior probability calculations we were able to determine putatively each species. We then showed, in the case of the harbour porpoise, that COI polymorphisms, although being lower than MCR ones, could also be used to assess intraspecific variability. All these results show that the use of DNA barcoding in conjunction with a stranding network could clearly increase the accuracy of the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity. PMID:24453548

  16. The use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    M Cristina Fossi And Letizia Marsili

    1997-01-01

    Marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. Most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. The development of a series of non destructive techniques to evaluate biomarker responses and residue levels is recommended for the hazard assessment and conservation of endangered species of marine mammals. Here we review the current status of the non destructive biomarker approach in marine mammals, describing the biological materials available for non destructive tests in stranded brain, liver, blood, skin, subcutaneous blubber, muscle and fur and free ranging animals blood, skin biopsy, fur and faeces and the respective biomarker techniques mixed function oxidase activity and DNA damage in skin biopsy samples; porphyrins in faeces and fur; esterases, porphyrins, clinical biochemical parameter, vitamin A and micronuclei in blood samples. Residue analysis can be carried out in the various biological materials. We also report the results of applying this methodological approach to cetaceans minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, fin whale-- Balaenoptera physalus, beluga whale-- Delphinapterus leucas, short finned pilot whale-- Globicephala macrorhynchus, harbour porpoise -- Phocoena phocoena, Rissos dolphin-- Risso s Grampus griseus, Dall s porpoise-- Phocoenoides dalli dalli, melon headed whale-- Peponocephala electra, bottlenose dolphin -- Tursiops truncatus, striped dolphin-- Stenella coeruleoalba, spinner dolphin-- Stenella longirostris, killer whale-- Orcinus orca and pinnipeds northern fur seal- Callorhinus ursinus, hooded seal-- Cystophora cristata, grey seal-- Halichoerus grypus, harbour seal-- Phoca vitulina

  17. Interaction of proteases with legume seed inhibitors. Molecular features.

    PubMed

    de Seidl, D S

    1996-12-01

    Streptomyces griseus, but do not interact with either animal digestive or plant thiol enzymes. PMID:9137634

  18. Protein serine/threonine kinases in signal transduction for secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Umeyama, T; Lee, P-C; Horinouchi, S

    2002-08-01

    A number of proteins in the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptomyces are phosphorylated on their serine/threonine and tyrosine residues in response to developmental phases. AfsR is one of these proteins and acts as a transcriptional factor in both the regulation of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and morphological differentiation in Streptomyces griseus. In S. coelicolor A3(2), AfsR is phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by more than three protein kinases whose kinase activity is enhanced by means of autophosphorylation on their serine and threonine residues. The degree of autophosphorylation of AfsK is regulated by KbpA which, by binding directly to the kinase domain of AfsK, inhibits its autophosphorylation. Phosphorylation of AfsR enhances its DNA-binding activity and causes it to bind the promoter elements, including -35, of afsS, thus resulting in activation of afsS transcription. ATPase activity of AfsR is essential for this transcriptional activation, probably because the energy available from ATP hydrolysis is required for the isomerization of the closed complex between AfsR and RNA polymerase to a transcriptionally competent open complex. afsS, encoding a 63-amino-acid protein, then activates transcription of actII-ORF4, a pathway-specific transcriptional activator in the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster, in an as yet unknown way. Distribution of the afsK- afsR systems in a wide variety of Streptomyces species and the presence of many phosphorylated proteins in a given Streptomyces strain suggest that the signal transduction via not only two-component regulatory systems but also serine/threonine kinases generally regulates secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in this genus.

  19. Transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi and B. bissettii in relation to habitat type in northwestern California

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Mun, Jeomhee; Salkeld, Daniel J.; Lane, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which rodent species serve as primary reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in commonly occurring woodland types in inland areas of northwestern California, and to examine whether chaparral or grassland serve as source habitats for dispersal of B. burgdorferi- or B. bissettii-infected rodents into adjacent woodlands. The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) was commonly infected with B. burgdorferi in oak woodlands, whereas examination of 30 dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) and 280 Peromyscus spp. mice from 13 widely spaced Mendocino County woodlands during 2002 and 2003 yielded only one infected woodrat and one infected deer mouse (P. maniculatus). These data suggest that western gray squirrels account for the majority of production by rodents of fed Ixodes pacificus larvae infected with B. burgdorferi in the woodlands sampled. Infections with B. burgdorferi also were rare in woodrats (0/47, 0/3) and mice (3/66, 1/6) captured in chaparral and grassland, respectively, and therefore these habitats are unlikely sources for dispersal of this spirochete into adjacent woodlands. On the other hand, B. bissettii was commonly detected in both woodrats (22/47) and mice (15/66) in chaparral. We conclude that the data from this and previous studies in northwestern California are suggestive of a pattern where inland oak-woodland habitats harbor a B. burgdorferi transmission cycle driven primarily by I. pacificus and western gray squirrels, whereas chaparral habitats contain a B. bissettii transmission cycle perpetuated largely by I. spinipalpis, woodrats and Peromyscus mice. The dominant role of western gray squirrels as reservoirs of B. burgdorferi in certain woodlands offers intriguing opportunities for preventing Lyme disease by targeting these animals by means of either host-targeted acaricides or oral vaccination against B. burgdorferi. PMID:20514140

  20. Differential exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent species in northern California.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Clueit, S Bernadette; Brown, Richard N

    2008-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic tick-borne rickettsial pathogen that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) in humans, horses, and dogs. In California, dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) are a putative reservoir host, and Ixodes pacificus is a vector for transmission from rodents to humans, dogs, and horses. Cases are clustered in coastal and Sierra Nevada foothill regions, but not necessarily in proximity to infected woodrats. This study was designed to compare exposures and active infections of A. phagocytophilum in multiple rodents at a fine spatial scale in a hyperenzootic area and to evaluate the spatial clustering of infections. Of 331 rodents, the seroprevalence was 14.5%, with 60% in tree squirrels (Sciurus griseus and Tamiasciurus douglasii), 29% in woodrats, 14% in flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), and 5% in chipmunks (Tamias senex). No seropositive ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) were detected. The seroprevalence was significantly higher west of the Trinity River (23.1%) than east (11.8%) of the river. One Douglas squirrel and one western gray squirrel were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive. There was more spatial clustering among seropositive animals compared with all animals tested across the spatial scales evaluated, and this clustering was significantly greater than expected by chance alone. A significant cluster of 24 seropositive animals was found west of the Trinity River, with a population of 56 animals considered within the 50% population-at-risk, and a radius of 362.8 meters. The diversity of cricetine and sciurid rodents infected suggests that squirrels and chipmunks may be underappreciated contributors to A. phagocytophilum ecology in the western United States. The spatial clustering of exposed animals suggests interesting underlying spatially heterogeneous environmental variables that could facilitate the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in nature. PMID:18047398

  1. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales

    SciTech Connect

    Au, W.W.; Nachtigall, P.E.; Pawloski, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-Hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. One of the major concerns is the possible effect of the ATOC signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. In order to address this issue, the hearing sensitivity of a false killer whale ({ital Pseudorca crassidens}) and a Risso{close_quote}s dolphin ({ital Grampus griseus}) to the ATOC sound was measured behaviorally. A staircase procedure with the signal levels being changed in 1-dB steps was used to measure the animals{close_quote} threshold to the actual ATOC coded signal. The results indicate that small odontocetes such as the {ital Pseudorca} and {ital Grampus} swimming directly above the ATOC source will not hear the signal unless they dive to a depth of approximately 400 m. A sound propagation analysis suggests that the sound-pressure level at ranges greater than 0.5 km will be less than 130 dB for depths down to about 500 m. Several species of baleen whales produce sounds much greater than 170{endash}180 dB. With the ATOC source on the axis of the deep sound channel (greater than 800 m), the ATOC signal will probably have minimal physical and physiological effects on cetaceans. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  2. A 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of lemurs kept in two zoos in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites may be a major threat to lemurs kept in captivity, as they are a common cause of diarrhea. In this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in 40 lemurs kept under different husbandry and climatic conditions at two sites in Madagascar. Involved species were black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), eastern grey bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus), greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus), red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer), common brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus), crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus), and Sclater's black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). At site 1 (Tsimbazaza Zoological Park), lemurs were kept in small enclosures with daily cleaning of the cement soiling and without routine anthelmintic program, whereas at site 2 (Ivoloina Zoological Park), lemurs received routine anthelmintic prophylaxis and were housed in small enclosure with daily cleaning of sandy soil enclosures. A total of five genera of nematode eggs from the orders Strongylida, Oxyurida, and Enoplida were recovered and identified from 198 out of 240 samples (83%) at site 1 and 79% (189 out of 240) at site 2 with the use of a modified McMaster technique. Significant differences were found for parasites from the order Strongylida between the two sites. The differences may be due to climate conditions and the presumed life cycle of these parasites. No significant differences were found for parasites from the other orders. No significant differences were noted between sexes or between seasons. No clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in either lemur collection.

  3. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Maillard, Julien; Blánquez, Paqui; Barry, David A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  4. Characterization of the sporulation-related gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)meso-diaminopimelic-acid-hydrolysing peptidase I of Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 as a member of the metallo(zinc) carboxypeptidase A family. Modular design of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hourdou, M L; Guinand, M; Vacheron, M J; Michel, G; Denoroy, L; Duez, C; Englebert, S; Joris, B; Weber, G; Ghuysen, J M

    1993-01-01

    The sporulation-related gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)meso-diaminopimelic-acid-hydrolysing peptidase I of Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 has been analysed by proton-induced X-ray emission. It contains 1 equivalent Zn2+ per mol of protein. As derived from gene cloning and sequencing, the B. sphaericus Zn peptidase I is a two-module protein. A 100-amino-acid-residue N-terminal domain consisting of two tandem segments of similar sequences, is fused to a 296-amino-acid-residue C-terminal catalytic domain. The catalytic domain belongs to the Zn carboxypeptidase A family, the closest match being observed with the Streptomyces griseus carboxypeptidase [Narahashi (1990) J. Biochem. 107, 879-886] and with the family prototype, bovine carboxypeptidase A. The catalytic domain of the B. sphaericus peptidase I possesses, distributed along the amino-acid sequence, peptide segments, a triad His162-Glu165-His307 and a dyad Tyr347-Glu366 that are equivalent to secondary structures, the zinc-binding triad His69-Glu72-His196 and the catalytic dyad Tyr248-Glu270 of bovine carboxypeptidase A respectively. The N-terminal repeats of the B. sphaericus peptidase I have similarity with the C-terminal repeats of the Enterococcus hirae muramidase 2, the Streptococcus (now Enterococcus) faecalis autolysin and the Bacillus phi PZA and phi 29 lysozymes, to which a role in the recognition of a particular moiety of the bacterial cell envelope has been tentatively assigned. Detergents enhance considerably the specific activity of the B. sphaericus peptidase I. Images Figure 1 PMID:8503890

  5. Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.; Gorissen, M. W.; Meijer, G. J.; Van't Hof, T.; den Hartog, C.

    2000-07-01

    The nursery function of various biotopes for coral reef fishes was investigated on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Length and abundance of 16 commercially important reef fish species were determined by means of visual censuses during the day in six different biotopes: mangrove prop-roots ( Rhizophora mangle) and seagrass beds ( Thalassia testudinum) in Lac Bay, and four depth zones on the coral reef (0 to 3 m, 3 to 5 m, 10 to 15 m and 15 to 20 m). The mangroves, seagrass beds and shallow coral reef (0 to 3 m) appeared to be the main nursery biotopes for the juveniles of the selected species. Mutual comparison between biotopes showed that the seagrass beds were the most important nursery biotope for juvenile Haemulon flavolineatum, H. sciurus, Ocyurus chrysurus, Acanthurus chirurgus and Sparisoma viride, the mangroves for juvenile Lutjanus apodus, L. griseus, Sphyraena barracuda and Chaetodon capistratus, and the shallow coral reef for juvenile H. chrysargyreum, L. mahogoni , A. bahianus and Abudefduf saxatilis. Juvenile Acanthurus coeruleus utilized all six biotopes, while juvenile H. carbonarium and Anisotremus surinamensis were not observed in any of the six biotopes. Although fishes showed a clear preference for a specific nursery biotope, most fish species utilized multiple nursery biotopes simultaneously. The almost complete absence of juveniles on the deeper reef zones indicates the high dependence of juveniles on the shallow water biotopes as a nursery. For most fish species an (partial) ontogenetic shift was observed at a particular life stage from their (shallow) nursery biotopes to the (deeper) coral reef. Cluster analyses showed that closely related species within the families Haemulidae, Lutjanidae and Acanthuridae, and the different size classes within species in most cases had a spatial separation in biotope utilization.

  6. Production of marker-free disease-resistant potato using isopentenyl transferase gene as a positive selection marker.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    The use of antibiotic or herbicide resistant genes as selection markers for production of transgenic plants and their continuous presence in the final transgenics has been a serious problem for their public acceptance and commercialization. MAT (multi-auto-transformation) vector system has been one of the different strategies to excise the selection marker gene and produce marker-free transgenic plants. In the present study, ipt (isopentenyl transferase) gene was used as a selection marker gene. A chitinase gene, ChiC (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) was used as a gene of interest. ChiC gene was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH1 to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21 by gateway cloning and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. The infected tuber discs of potato were cultured on hormone- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Seven of the 35 explants infected with the pMAT21/ChiC produced shoots. The same antibiotic- and hormones-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the shoots (ipt like and normal shoots). Molecular analyses of genomic DNA from transgenic plants confirmed the integration of gene of interest and excision of the selection marker in 3 of the 7 clones. Expression of ChiC gene was confirmed by Northern blot and western blot analyses. Disease-resistant assay of the marker-free transgenic, in vitro and greenhouse-grown plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Alternaria solani (early blight), Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt). From these results it could be concluded that ipt gene can be used as a selection marker to produce marker-free disease-resistant transgenic potato plants on PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium.

  7. ET743: Chemical analysis of the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Manning, Thomas; Rhodes, Emily; Loftis, Richard; Phillips, Dennis; Demaria, Don; Newman, David; Rudloe, Jack

    2006-05-10

    The sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata produces the powerful drug ET743. In this study Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are systematically used to measure elemental and molecular species in a Florida Keys mangrove ecosystem that contains the sea squirt. ICP-AES is used to measure the concentration of 27 elements down to the parts per billion level in 16 organisms and 3 sediment samples that reside in the mangrove ecosystem including turtle grass, blue crabs, fire sponge, and lettuce slugs. MALDI-MS is used to search for ET743 in these same organisms and sediment samples. A mass spectral feature corresponding to ET743 is identified in the extract of the sea squirt, red mangrove root (Rhizophera mangle), the schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and a sediment sample taken from the ecosystem. We use MALDI-MS to study the impact that various environmental conditions, such as UV light, I(2), cation binding (Fe(+3), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2)), metal oxide nanoparticles (FeO, CuO, TiO(2), ZnO, Al(2)O(3)), a common mineral (CaCO(3)), and extremes in acidity (0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH) have on the ET743 structure. The data provide potential structures (degradation products, metal-ligand complexes, etc.) that might be present in organism or sedimentary extracts that are similar to ET743. We are studying the marine geochemistry of this ecosystem so a broth can be developed and tested for producing this marine natural product. PMID:16644544

  8. The use of DNA barcoding to monitor the marine mammal biodiversity along the French Atlantic coast

    PubMed Central

    Alfonsi, Eric; Méheust, Eleonore; Fuchs, Sandra; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Quillivic, Yann; Viricel, Amélia; Hassani, Sami; Jung, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the last ten years, 14 species of cetaceans and five species of pinnipeds stranded along the Atlantic coast of Brittany in the North West of France. All species included, an average of 150 animals strand each year in this area. Based on reports from the stranding network operating along this coast, the most common stranding events comprise six cetacean species (Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Phocoena phocoena)and one pinniped species (Halichoerus grypus). Rare stranding events include deep-diving or exotic species, such as arctic seals. In this study, our aim was to determine the potential contribution of DNA barcoding to the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity as performed by the stranding network. We sequenced more than 500 bp of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial COI gene of 89 animals of 15 different species (12 cetaceans, and three pinnipeds). Except for members of the Delphininae, all species were unambiguously discriminated on the basis of their COI sequences. We then applied DNA barcoding to identify some “undetermined” samples. With again the exception of the Delphininae, this was successful using the BOLD identification engine. For samples of the Delphininae, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial control region (MCR), and using a non-metric multidimentional scaling plot and posterior probability calculations we were able to determine putatively each species. We then showed, in the case of the harbour porpoise, that COI polymorphisms, although being lower than MCR ones, could also be used to assess intraspecific variability. All these results show that the use of DNA barcoding in conjunction with a stranding network could clearly increase the accuracy of the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity. PMID:24453548

  9. The role of the white-eyed vireo in the dispersal of bersera fruit on the Yucatan Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenberg, R.; Foster, M.S.; Marquez-Valdelamar, L.

    1995-01-01

    White-eyed vireos (Vireo griseus) winter in the forests and secondary growth of the Yucatan Peninsula where Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is an abundant tree Twenty-five per cent of all white-eyed vireos observed foraging visited Bursera trees In addition, presence and abundance of territorial white-eyed vireos in small forest patches were correlated with the size of the Bursera crop Vireos were the most reliable dispersers of Bursera seeds These birds visited 32 of 35 trees observed for at least three hours. They accounted for approximately half of all bird visits, and two-thirds of the seeds dispersed. Most of the other species rarely visited (<5% of visits) or failed to remove seeds from the tree. Peculiarities of phenology and fruit structure may contribute to the tendency of Bursera to be dispersed by relatively few species The capsules of Bursera fruits do not open when the fruit ripens; birds apparently locate ripe fruit using visual cues, although these are few In addition, only a small portion of the crop ripens daily over a 7- or 8-month period. The vireo-Bursera simaruba relationship, found regionally on the Yucatan Peninsula, may result from the prolonged fruit ripening period (October-March), the relatively depauperate frugivore community and the relatively high density of small Bursera trees in the hurricane-disturbed dry forests. Small trees at all times, and all trees from October to February, depend upon territorial vireos for continuous, highly efficient local dispersal of a small number of fruits In March and April residual fruits ripen rapidly and synchronously, attracting a greater variety of visitors for broad spectrum dispersal during a period of food scarcity. Thus, Bursera has an unusual two-phase phenological pattern, perhaps alternately to take advantage of both specialized and opportunistic dispersers.

  10. Transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi and B. bissettii in relation to habitat type in northwestern California.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Mun, Jeomhee; Salkeld, Daniel J; Lane, Robert S

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which rodent species serve as primary reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in commonly occurring woodland types in inland areas of northwestern California, and to examine whether chaparral or grassland serve as source habitats for dispersal of B. burgdorferi- or B. bissettii-infected rodents into adjacent woodlands. The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) was commonly infected with B. burgdorferi in oak woodlands, whereas examination of 30 dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) and 280 Peromyscus spp. mice from 13 widely spaced Mendocino County woodlands during 2002 and 2003 yielded only one infected woodrat and one infected deer mouse (P. maniculatus). These data suggest that western gray squirrels account for the majority of production by rodents of fed Ixodes pacificus larvae infected with B. burgdorferi in the woodlands sampled. Infections with B. burgdorferi also were rare in woodrats (0/47, 0/3) and mice (3/66, 1/6) captured in chaparral and grassland, respectively, and therefore these habitats are unlikely sources for dispersal of this spirochete into adjacent woodlands. On the other hand, B. bissettii was commonly detected in both woodrats (22/47) and mice (15/66) in chaparral. We conclude that the data from this and previous studies in northwestern California are suggestive of a pattern where inland oak-woodland habitats harbor a B. burgdorferi transmission cycle driven primarily by I. pacificus and western gray squirrels, whereas chaparral habitats contain a B. bissettii transmission cycle perpetuated largely by I. spinipalpis, woodrats and Peromyscus mice. The dominant role of western gray squirrels as reservoirs of B. burgdorferi in certain woodlands offers intriguing opportunities for preventing Lyme disease by targeting these animals by means of either host-targeted acaricides or oral vaccination against B. burgdorferi.

  11. Phylogeny of the lemuridae revisited: evidence from communication signals.

    PubMed

    Macedonia, J M; Stanger, K F

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the extant lemurid prosimians were assessed cladistically using stereotyped vocal, olfactory, and visual communication characters. Among our results are 3 findings of particular importance. First, our data are consistent with those from several recent studies of highly repeated DNA fragments in supporting a close phyletic affinity between Lemur catta and the genus Hapalemur. Moreover, our results indicate that L. catta is nested within the Hapalemur clade as the sister taxon to Hapalemur griseus/Hapalemur aureus. We interpret character states shared between Hapalemur simus and L. catta as primitive retentions by L. catta. Second, our findings agree with the DNA data in proposing a sister group relationship for Eulemur coronatus and Eulemur rubriventer. Third, our results question the validity of assigning Varecia variegata to the Lemuridae. For the characters we examined, Varecia more resembled indrids than lemurids, and the position of Varecia could be swapped with any of our outgroups (Indri, Propithecus, Daubentonia) without affecting tree topology. Previous workers sometimes have linked Varecia with various lemurids on grounds of ambiguously defined characters or on incorrect data gleaned from the literature. In those studies, the placement of Varecia in the Lemuridae usually has depended more on the minimization of character state conflicts (i.e. parsimony), than on demonstrable synapomorphies. In addition, data from DNA research have failed to demonstrate any pattern that links Varecia with Lemur, Hapalemur, or Eulemur. Results of the present study suggest that shared Varecia-indrid character states may be symplesiomorphic retentions in the Indridae, and that Varecia could be phyletically more primitive than either the indrids or lemurids. PMID:7813970

  12. Synthesis and uptake of the compatible solutes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in response to salt and heat stresses.

    PubMed

    Bursy, Jan; Kuhlmann, Anne U; Pittelkow, Marco; Hartmann, Holger; Jebbar, Mohamed; Pierik, Antonio J; Bremer, Erhard

    2008-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) synthesizes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine upon the imposition of either salt (0.5 M NaCl) or heat stress (39 degrees C). The cells produced the highest cellular levels of these compatible solutes when both stress conditions were simultaneously imposed. Protection against either severe salt (1.2 M NaCl) or heat stress (39 degrees C) or a combination of both environmental cues could be accomplished by adding low concentrations (1 mM) of either ectoine or 5-hydroxyectoine to S. coelicolor A3(2) cultures. The best salt and heat stress protection was observed when a mixture of ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine (0.5 mM each) was provided to the growth medium. Transport assays with radiolabeled ectoine demonstrated that uptake was triggered by either salt or heat stress. The most effective transport and accumulation of [(14)C]ectoine by S. coelicolor A3(2) were achieved when both environmental cues were simultaneously applied. Our results demonstrate that the accumulation of the compatible solutes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine allows S. coelicolor A3(2) to fend off the detrimental effects of both high salinity and high temperature on cell physiology. We also characterized the enzyme (EctD) required for the synthesis of 5-hydroxyectoine from ectoine, a hydroxylase of the superfamily of the non-heme-containing iron(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (EC 1.14.11). The gene cluster (ectABCD) encoding the enzymes for ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine biosynthesis can be found in the genome of S. coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces scabiei, and Streptomyces chrysomallus, suggesting that these compatible solutes play an important role as stress protectants in the genus Streptomyces.

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in sympatric snapper species from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Chesney, Edward; Shine, James P; Maage, Amund; Senn, David B

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of marine fish is a major route of toxic methyl mercury (MeHg) exposure to ocean apex predators and human populations. Here we explore the influence of trophic structure on total mercury (Hg) accumulation in red snapper (RS, Lutjanus campechanus) and gray snapper (GS, Lutjanus griseus) from the coastal Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi River. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the effectiveness of the use of offshore recreational fishing charter boats and marinas as sources of fish samples and (2) compare species differences in Hg bioaccumulation, trophic position, and carbon sources. Our data show that length-normalized Hg concentrations (> or = 97% as MeHg in tissue of both species) were 230% greater in GS in comparison to RS collected from the same general area. Stable C and N isotope signatures (delta15N and delta13C) indicate that GS occupy a slightly higher trophic position (approximately 30% of one trophic position higher) on the Gulf food web in comparison to RS and that GS appear to incorporate higher trophic positioned prey, continually and at smaller sizes. Mercury was strongly correlated with combined delta15N and delta13C in pooled species data, arguing that most of the substantial difference in Hg bioaccumulation between RS and GS can be explained by modest differences in their trophic position and, to a lesser degree, carbon sources, which had low variation and high overlap among species. These observations demonstrate that even minor to moderate differences in trophic position and food habits in sympatric species can create relatively large differences in bioaccumulation regimes and underscores the importance of quantitative characterization of trophic structure in marine MeHg bioaccumulation studies.

  14. A Functional myo-Inositol Dehydrogenase Gene Is Required for Efficient Nitrogen Fixation and Competitiveness of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191 To Nodulate Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqiao; Krishnan, Ammulu Hari; Kim, Yong-Woong; Wacek, Thomas J.; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2001-01-01

    Inositol derivative compounds provide a nutrient source for soil bacteria that possess the ability to degrade such compounds. Rhizobium strains that are capable of utilizing certain inositol derivatives are better colonizers of their host plants. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the myo-inositol dehydrogenase gene (idhA) of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191, the first enzyme responsible for inositol catabolism. The deduced IdhA protein has a molecular mass of 34,648 Da and shows significant sequence similarity with protein sequences of Sinorhizobium meliloti IdhA and MocA; Bacillus subtilis IolG, YrbE, and YucG; and Streptomyces griseus StrI. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutants revealed no detectable myo-inositol dehydrogenase activity and failed to grow on myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Northern blot analysis and idhA-lacZ fusion expression studies indicate that idhA is inducible by myo-inositol. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutant was drastically affected in its ability to reduce nitrogen and revealed deteriorating bacteroids inside the nodules. The number of bacteria recovered from such nodules was about threefold lower than the number of bacteria isolated from nodules initiated by S. fredii USDA191. In addition, the idhA mutant was also severely affected in its ability to compete with the wild-type strain in nodulating soybean. Under competitive conditions, nodules induced on soybean roots were predominantly occupied by the parent strain, even when the idhA mutant was applied at a 10-fold numerical advantage. Thus, we conclude that a functional idhA gene is required for efficient nitrogen fixation and for competitive nodulation of soybeans by S. fredii USDA191. PMID:11274120

  15. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    PubMed Central

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  16. Seasonal and Ontogenetic Changes in Movement Patterns of Sixgill Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly S.; Williams, Greg D.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding movement patterns is fundamental to population and conservation biology. The way an animal moves through its environment influences the dynamics of local populations and will determine how susceptible it is to natural or anthropogenic perturbations. It is of particular interest to understand the patterns of movement for species which are susceptible to human activities (e.g. fishing), or that exert a large influence on community structure, such as sharks. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored the patterns of movement of 34 sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus using two large-scale acoustic arrays inside and outside Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Sixgill sharks were residents in Puget Sound for up to at least four years before making large movements out of the estuary. Within Puget Sound, sixgills inhabited sites for several weeks at a time and returned to the same sites annually. Across four years, sixgills had consistent seasonal movements in which they moved to the north from winter to spring and moved to the south from summer to fall. Just prior to leaving Puget Sound, sixgills altered their behavior and moved twice as fast among sites. Nineteen of the thirty-four sixgills were detected leaving Puget Sound for the outer coast. Three of these sharks returned to Puget Sound. Conclusions/Significance For most large marine predators, we have a limited understanding of how they move through their environment, and this clouds our ability to successfully manage their populations and their communities. With detailed movement information, such as that being uncovered with acoustic monitoring, we can begin to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of large predators within the framework of their ecosystems. PMID:20838617

  17. Comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the hearts of cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Alastair A; Carr, Peter A; Currie, Richard J W

    2007-07-01

    The structure of the cardiac foramen ovale from 17 species representing six cetacean families, the Monodontidae, Phocoenidae, Delphinidae, Ziphiidae, Balaenidae and the Balaenopteridae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. Eight white whale fetuses (Delphinapterus leucas) and a narwhal fetus (Monodon monoceros) represented the Monodontidae; one fetal and nine neonatal harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and a finless porpoise fetus (Neophocoena phocoenoides) represented the Phocoenidae; two white-beaked dolphin fetuses (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), four fetal and one neonatal Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus), a Risso's dolphin fetus (Grampus griseus), two common bottle-nosed dolphin neonates (Tursiops truncatus), a female short-beaked common dolphin fetus (Delphinus delphis), four killer whale fetuses (Orcinus orca) and two long-finned pilot whale fetuses (Globicephala melas) represented the Delphinidae; two northern bottlenose whale fetuses (Hyperoodon ampullatus) represented the Ziphiidae; one bowhead whale fetus (Balaena mysticetus) represented the Balaenidae and five Common minke whale fetuses (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), one blue whale fetus (Balaenoptera musculus), nine fin whale fetuses (Balaenoptera physalus) and four humpback whale fetuses (Megaptera novaeangliae) represented the Balaenopteridae. The hearts of an additional two incompletely identified toothed and four baleen whale fetuses were also studied. In each species the fold of tissue derived from the cardiac septum primum and subtended by the foramen ovale had the appearance of a short tunnel or sleeve which was fenestrated at its distal end. In the toothed whales the tissue fold was tunnel-shaped with the interatrial septum as the floor whereas in baleen whales it was more sleeve-like. In toothed whales thin threads extended from the fold to insert into the interatrial septum whereas a network of threads covered the distal end of the sleeve in the baleen

  18. Mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the Delphinidae with an emphasis on the Globicephalinae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous DNA-based phylogenetic studies of the Delphinidae family suggest it has undergone rapid diversification, as characterised by unresolved and poorly supported taxonomic relationships (polytomies) for some of the species within this group. Using an increased amount of sequence data we test between alternative hypotheses of soft polytomies caused by rapid speciation, slow evolutionary rate and/or insufficient sequence data, and hard polytomies caused by simultaneous speciation within this family. Combining the mitogenome sequences of five new and 12 previously published species within the Delphinidae, we used Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods to estimate the phylogeny from partitioned and unpartitioned mitogenome sequences. Further ad hoc tests were then conducted to estimate the support for alternative topologies. Results We found high support for all the relationships within our reconstructed phylogenies, and topologies were consistent between the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees inferred from partitioned and unpartitioned data. Resolved relationships included the placement of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) as sister taxon to the rest of the Globicephalinae subfamily, placement of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) within the Globicephalinae subfamily, removal of the white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) from the Delphininae subfamily and the placement of the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) as sister taxon to the rest of the Delphininae subfamily rather than within the Globicephalinae subfamily. The additional testing of alternative topologies allowed us to reject all other putative relationships, with the exception that we were unable to reject the hypothesis that the relationship between L. albirostris and the Globicephalinae and Delphininae subfamilies was polytomic. Conclusion Despite their rapid diversification, the increased sequence data yielded by mitogenomes enables the resolution of a strongly

  19. Comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the hearts of cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Alastair A; Carr, Peter A; Currie, Richard J W

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the cardiac foramen ovale from 17 species representing six cetacean families, the Monodontidae, Phocoenidae, Delphinidae, Ziphiidae, Balaenidae and the Balaenopteridae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. Eight white whale fetuses (Delphinapterus leucas) and a narwhal fetus (Monodon monoceros) represented the Monodontidae; one fetal and nine neonatal harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and a finless porpoise fetus (Neophocoena phocoenoides) represented the Phocoenidae; two white-beaked dolphin fetuses (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), four fetal and one neonatal Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus), a Risso's dolphin fetus (Grampus griseus), two common bottle-nosed dolphin neonates (Tursiops truncatus), a female short-beaked common dolphin fetus (Delphinus delphis), four killer whale fetuses (Orcinus orca) and two long-finned pilot whale fetuses (Globicephala melas) represented the Delphinidae; two northern bottlenose whale fetuses (Hyperoodon ampullatus) represented the Ziphiidae; one bowhead whale fetus (Balaena mysticetus) represented the Balaenidae and five Common minke whale fetuses (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), one blue whale fetus (Balaenoptera musculus), nine fin whale fetuses (Balaenoptera physalus) and four humpback whale fetuses (Megaptera novaeangliae) represented the Balaenopteridae. The hearts of an additional two incompletely identified toothed and four baleen whale fetuses were also studied. In each species the fold of tissue derived from the cardiac septum primum and subtended by the foramen ovale had the appearance of a short tunnel or sleeve which was fenestrated at its distal end. In the toothed whales the tissue fold was tunnel-shaped with the interatrial septum as the floor whereas in baleen whales it was more sleeve-like. In toothed whales thin threads extended from the fold to insert into the interatrial septum whereas a network of threads covered the distal end of the sleeve in the baleen

  20. Studies on prekallikrein of bovine plasma. II. Activation of prekallikrein with proteinases and properties of kallikrein activated by bovine Hageman factor.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Nagasawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1980-01-01

    Activation of bovine plasma prekallikrein was investigated with several proteinases. Highly purified bovine plasma prekallikrein was rapidly activated to kallikrein [EC 3.4.21.8] by bovine activated Hageman factor, trypsin [EC 3.4.21.4] and Pronase P (proteinases from Streptomyces griseus) and more gradually by papain [EC 3.4.22.2] and ficin [EC 3.4.22.3]. Activation of prekallikrein was also observed with bovine plasmin [EC 3.4.21.7], but not with bovine clotting factors Xa (Stuart factor) [EC 3.4.21.6] and IXa (Christmas factor) or thrombin [EC 3.4.21.5]. Urokinase [EC 3.4.99.26], Reptilase, collagenase [EC 3.4.24.3], elastase [EC 3.4.21.11], alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1], Nagarse [EC 3.4.21.14], and stem bromelain [EC 3.4.22 4] did not convert prekallikrein to kallikrein. Plasma kallikrein activated to Hageman factor released kinin rapidly from bovine high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen. However, from bovine low molecular weight (LMW) kininogen, liberation of kinin was extremely slow. The kallikrein activity was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), Trasylol, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), and N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), but not by egg-white trypsin inhibitor (EWTI), lima bean trypsin inhibitor (LBTI), heparin or hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene). The kallikrein formed an enzyme-inhibitor complex with SBTI and Trasylol, but not with LBTI. Prekallikrein did not react with SBTI. Prekallikrein consists of a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight about 90,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Activation of prekallikrein by Hageman factor was found to involve cleavage of the single peptide bond on the disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain, and no change of molecular weight was observed during the activation. The peptide bond cleaved in prekallikrein by the activation was an Arg-X peptide bond on a disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain.

  1. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, S; Taghizadeh, A

    2013-08-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (p<0.001). For carbohydrate fraction, the highest C fraction was also observed in GP (2.67%) and in relation to the other citrus pulps (p<0.001). Ruminal CP disappearance was highest in OP (71.89%) (p<0.001). The level of post-ruminal CP disappearance, measured by MTSP, was highest for BP (34.94%) (p<0.001). The highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was found for TP (80.44%) followed by that estimated for BP (78.38%) (p<0.001). The estimated metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) varied from 9.77 for LP to 12.91 for BP. Tangerine pulp had the highest true rumen digestibility (TRD) (p<0.001). According to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products.

  2. Optimisation of the detection of bacterial proteases using adsorbed immunoglobulins as universal substrates.

    PubMed

    Abuknesha, Ram A; Jeganathan, Fiona; Wildeboer, Dirk; Price, Robert G

    2010-06-15

    Bacterial proteases, Type XXIV from Bacillus licheniformens and Type XIV from Streptomyces griseus, were used to investigate the utility and optimisation of a solid phase assay for proteases, using immunoglobulin proteins as substrates. Immunoglobulins IgA and IgG were adsorbed on to surfaces of ELISA plates and exposed to various levels of the bacterial proteases which led to digestion and desorption of proportional amounts of the immunoglobulins. The assay signal was developed by measuring the remaining proteins on the polystyrene surface with appropriate enzyme-labelled anti-immunoglobulin reagents. The assay was fully optimised in terms of substrate levels employing ELISA techniques to titrate levels of adsorbed substrates and protease analytes. The critical factor which influences assay sensitivity was found to be the substrate concentration, the levels of adsorbed immunoglobulins. The estimated detection limits for protease XXIV and XIV were 10micro units/test and 9micro units/test using IgA as a substrate. EC(50) values were calculated as 213 and 48micro units/test for each protease respectively. Using IgG as a substrate, the estimated detection limits were 104micro units/test for protease XXIV and 9micro units/test for protease XIV. EC(50) values were calculated at 529micro units/test and 28micro units/test for protease XXIV and XIV respectively. The solid phase protease assay required no modification of the substrates and the adsorption step is merely simple addition of immunoglobulins to ELISA plates. Adsorption of the immunoglobulins to polystyrene enabled straightforward separation of reaction mixtures prior to development of assay signal. The assay exploits the advantages of the technical facilities of ELISA technology and commercially available reagents enabling the detection and measurement of a wide range of proteases. However, the key issue was found to be that in order to achieve the potential performance of the simple assay, optimisation of the

  3. First description of deep-water elasmobranch assemblages in the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Edward J.; Brooks, Annabelle M. L.; Williams, Sean; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Abercrombie, Debra; Chapman, Demian D.; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A.; Grubbs, R. Dean

    2015-05-01

    Deep-sea chondrichthyans, like many deep-water fishes, are very poorly understood at the most fundamental biological, ecological and taxonomic levels. Our study represents the first ecological investigation of deep-water elasmobranch assemblages in The Bahamas, and the first assessment of species-specific resilience to capture for all of the species captured. Standardised deep-water longline surveys (n=69) were conducted September to December 2010 and 2011 between 472 m and 1024 m deep, resulting in the capture of 144 sharks from 8 different species. These included the Cuban dogfish, Squalus cubensis, the bigeye sixgill shark, Hexanchus nakamurai, the bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis insularis, the roughskin dogfish, Centroscymnus owstoni, Springer's sawtail catshark, Galeus springeri and the false catshark, Pseudotriakis microdon. Preliminary genetic analysis indicated two or more species of gulper sharks, Centrophorus spp.; however, for the present study they were treated as a single species complex. Water depth and distance from the rocky structure of the Exuma Sound wall were inversely correlated with species richness, whereas seabed temperature was directly correlated with species richness. These variables also had a significant influence on the abundance and distribution of many species. Expanded depth ranges were established for S. cubensis and H. nakamurai, which, in the case of S. cubensis, is thought to be driven by thermal preferences. At-vessel mortality rates increased significantly with depth, and post-release mortality was thought to be high for some species, in part due to high post-release predation. This study highlights the importance of utilising strategic geographic locations that provide easy access to deep water, in combination with traditional expedition-based deep-ocean science, to accelerate the acquisition of fundamental ecological and biological insights into deep-sea elasmobranchs.

  4. Nesting success of birds in different silvicultural treatments in southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, D.R.; Martin, T.E.; Melchiors, M.A.; Thill, R.E.; Wigley, T.B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined nesting success and levels of nest predation and cowbird parasitism among five different silvicultural treatments: regenerating (3-6 years old), mid-rotation (12-15 years old), and thinned (17-23 years old) pine plantations, single-tree selection, and late-rotation pine-hardwood stands in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas from 1993 to 1995. We monitored 1674 nests. Differences in daily mortality and daily predation rate among two or more treatments were found for 4 and 3 of 12 species, respectively. These differences were lost following Bonferroni adjustments, but thinned stands had higher levels of predation than single-tree selection stands when predation levels were averaged across species. Daily predation rates were positively correlated with the relative abundance of birds, suggesting that nest predators respond to prey availability (i.e., nests) in a density-dependent manner. The relative abundance of cowbirds differed among treatments, with the highest densities in regenerating, thinned, and single-tree selection stands. Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) experienced higher levels of parasitism in thinned than regenerating plantations, whereas White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus) experienced higher parasitism in regenerating plantations than in mid-rotation or thinned plantations. Several shrub-nesting and 1 ground-nesting species had lower nesting success in thinned and regenerating plantations than has been reported in previously published studies. Thus, some seral stages of even-aged management may provide low-quality nesting habitat for several early-successional bird species. In contrast, many species nesting in mid-rotation and single-tree selection stands had nesting success similar to or greater than that found in previous studies, suggesting that some silvicultural treatments, when embedded in a largely forested landscape, may provide suitable habitat for forest land birds without affecting their

  5. An adhesive protein capsule of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Orskov, I; Birch-Andersen, A; Duguid, J P; Stenderup, J; Orskov, F

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the adhesive capacity of three hemagglutinating Escherichia coli strains that had earlier been described as nonfimbriated was studied. The strains that were isolated from human disease adhered to human buccal and urinary tract epithelial cells, an adhesion that was not inhibited by D-mannose. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that the three strains produced a common antigen, Z1, developed after growth at 37 degrees C but not 18 degrees C. One of the strains produced an additional antigen, Z2, of almost the same electrophoretic mobility in crossed immunoelectrophoresis. A mutant of this strain deficient of its polysaccharide K antigen had maintained the adhesive capacity, indicating that the K antigen was not responsible for adhesion. A further mutant of the acapsular mutant produced a strongly reduced amount of the Z antigens and had lost the ability to adhere. The Z1 (and Z2?) antigens were therefore deemed to be responsible for adhesion. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts of cells of the three strains, a heavy Coomassie-blue stained line was seen, indicating the presence of a protein subunit of molecular weight slightly above 14,400. By immunoblotting with absorbed antiserum, it was shown that this protein was the same as that detected by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Protease from Streptomyces griseus, but not trypsin, digested the protein. Heating to 100 degrees C did not affect it. By immunoelectron microscopy of embedded and sectioned bacteria that had first been treated with specific antisera and ferritin-labeled antirabbit immunoglobulin, the protein adhesin-antibody complex was found to surround the bacteria as a heavy capsule. After negative staining with uranylacetate (pH approximately 4), the capsule appeared as a mesh of very fine filaments. The possible role of this capsule in the pathogenesis of disease is discussed. Images PMID:2856913

  6. The Influence of Topographic and Dynamic Cyclic Variables on the Distribution of Small Cetaceans in a Shallow Coastal System

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Marijke N.; Simmonds, Mark P.; Reijnders, Peter J. H.; Aarts, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. To study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and the poorly known Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from Bardsey Island (Wales, UK) in summer (2001–2007). Using Kernel analysis and Generalized Additive Models it was shown that porpoises and Risso’s appeared to be linked to topographic and dynamic cyclic variables with both species using different core areas (dolphins to the West and porpoises to the East off Bardsey). Depth, slope and aspect and a low variation in current speed (for Risso’s) were important in explaining the patchy distributions for both species. The prime temporal conditions in these shallow coastal systems were related to the tidal cycle (Low Water Slack and the flood phase), lunar cycle (a few days following the neap tidal phase), diel cycle (afternoons) and seasonal cycle (peaking in August) but differed between species on a temporary but predictable basis. The measure of tidal stratification was shown to be important. Coastal waters generally show a stronger stratification particularly during neap tides upon which the phytoplankton biomass at the surface rises reaching its maximum about 2–3 days after neap tide. It appeared that porpoises occurred in those areas where stratification is maximised and Risso’s preferred more mixed waters. This fine-scale study provided a temporal insight into spatial distribution of two species that single studies conducted over broader scales (tens or hundreds of kilometers) do not achieve. Understanding which topographic and cyclic variables drive the patchy distribution of porpoises and Risso’s in a Headland/Island system may form the initial basis for identifying potentially critical habitats for these species. PMID:24466031

  7. Species Delimitation in Taxonomically Difficult Fungi: The Case of Hymenogaster

    PubMed Central

    Stielow, Benjamin; Bratek, Zoltan; Orczán, Akos Kund I.; Rudnoy, Szabolcs; Hensel, Gunnar; Hoffmann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background False truffles are ecologically important as mycorrhizal partners of trees and evolutionarily highly interesting as the result of a shift from epigeous mushroom-like to underground fruiting bodies. Since its first description by Vittadini in 1831, inappropriate species concepts in the highly diverse false truffle genus Hymenogaster has led to continued confusion, caused by a large variety of prevailing taxonomical opinions. Methodology In this study, we reconsidered the species delimitations in Hymenogaster based on a comprehensive collection of Central European taxa comprising more than 140 fruiting bodies from 20 years of field work. The ITS rDNA sequence dataset was subjected to phylogenetic analysis as well as clustering optimization using OPTSIL software. Conclusions Among distinct species concepts from the literature used to create reference partitions for clustering optimization, the broadest concept resulted in the highest agreement with the ITS data. Our results indicate a highly variable morphology of H. citrinus and H. griseus, most likely linked to environmental influences on the phenology (maturity, habitat, soil type and growing season). In particular, taxa described in the 19th century frequently appear as conspecific. Conversely, H. niveus appears as species complex comprising seven cryptic species with almost identical macro- and micromorphology. H. intermedius and H. huthii are described as novel species, each of which with a distinct morphology intermediate between two species complexes. A revised taxonomy for one of the most taxonomically difficult genera of Basidiomycetes is proposed, including an updated identification key. The (semi-)automated selection among species concepts used here is of importance for the revision of taxonomically problematic organism groups in general. PMID:21311589

  8. No energetic cost of anthropogenic disturbance in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Butler, Luke K; Hayden, Tim J; Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin C

    2009-03-01

    Anthropogenic or natural disturbances can have a significant impact on wild animals. Therefore, understanding when, how and what type of human and natural events disturb animals is a central problem in wildlife conservation. However, it can be difficult to identify which particular environmental stressor affects an individual most. We use heart rate telemetry to quantify the energy expenditure associated with different types of human-mediated and natural disturbances in a breeding passerine, the white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus). We fitted 0.5g heart rate transmitters to 14 male vireos and continuously recorded heart rate and activity for two days and three nights on a military installation. We calibrated heart rate to energy expenditure for five additional males using an open-flow, push-through respirometry system showing that heart rate predicted 74 per cent of energy expenditure. We conducted standardized disturbance trials in the field to experimentally simulate a natural stressor (predator presence) and two anthropogenic stressors. Although birds initially showed behavioural and heart rate reactions to some disturbances, we could not detect an overall increase in energy expenditure during 1- or 4-hours disturbances. Similarly, overall activity rates were unaltered between control and experimental periods, and birds continued to perform parental duties despite the experimental disturbances. We suggest that vireos quickly determined that disturbances were non-threatening and thus showed no (costly) physiological response. We hypothesize that the lack of a significant response to disturbance in vireos is adaptive and may be representative of animals with fast life histories (e.g. short lifespan, high reproductive output) so as to maximize energy allocation to reproduction. Conversely, we predict that energetic cost of human-mediated disturbances will be significant in slow-living animals. PMID:19129135

  9. Cleavage of peptide bonds bearing ionizable amino acids at P{sub 1} by serine proteases with hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Qasim, Mohammad A.; Song, Jikui; Markley, John L.; Laskowski, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Large pK shifts in ionizable groups when buried in the protein interior. {yields} Substrate dependent shifts in pH optimum for serine proteases. {yields} Lys side chain is a stronger acid in serine protease S{sub 1} pocket than Asp side chain. -- Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Xxx-pNA (where Xxx = Leu, Asp or Lys) catalyzed by bovine chymotrypsin (CHYM) or Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) has been studied at different pH values in the pH range 3-11. The pH optima for substrates having Leu, Asp, and Lys have been found to be 7.5-8.0, 5.5-6.0, and {approx}10, respectively. At the normally reported pH optimum (pH 7-8) of CHYM and SGPB, the substrate with Leu at the reactive site is more than 25,000-fold more reactive than that with Asp. However, when fully protonated, Asp is nearly as good a substrate as Leu. The pK values of the side chains of Asp and Lys in the hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket of CHYM and SGPB have been calculated from pH-dependent hydrolysis data and have been found to be about 9 for Asp and 7.4 and 9.7 for Lys for CHYM and SGPB, respectively. The results presented in this communication suggest a possible application of CHYM like enzymes in cleaving peptide bonds contributed by acidic amino acids between pH 5 and 6.

  10. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  11. Physical and Chemical Processes Opacity Project: an Overview and Some Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. El Proyecto de la Opacidad es un esfuerzo internacional dedicado a calcular con precisi6n la gran cantidad de datos at6micos que se necesitan para estimar opacidades en los envolventes estelares. Describimos el panorama general del proyecto incluyendo aspectos astrofisicos, flsico-at6micos y computacionales. El volumen y calidad de los datos que se estan generando se puede apreciar en los resultados preliminares que se presentan. ABSTRACT The Opacity Project is an international effort dedicated to the calculation of the vast, accurate, atomic data required to estimate stellar envelope opacities. We give an overview of the project including astrophysical, atomic-physical and computational aspects. The volume and quality of the data which are being generated can be appreciated in the preliminary results that are presented. }% words: ATOMIC PROCESSES - OPACITIES - STARS-INThRIORS

  12. Fotometría de grupos compactos de galaxias: Shakhbazian 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, J. M.; Calderón, J. H.; Gimeno, N. G.; Díaz, R. J.

    Continuando con la fotometría CCD de Grupos de Galaxias Compactos de Shakhbazyan (SCGG) en este trabajo se presentan nuevos resultados preliminares sobre los grupos Shakbazyan 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362. EL objeto del proyecto es contribuir al estudio de las propiedades físicas de tales grupos y contribuir a las bases de datos para mejora de las estadísticas. Los datos fueron adquiridos con el Telescopio JKT del Observatorio Norte Europeo. El análisis de las imágenes en las bandas I y B como del índice de color B-I permitió reidentificar las galaxias catalogadas, resultando las mismas muy enrojecidas y verificando que predominan las galaxias tempranas, resultados consistentes con los obtenidos para otros grupos y por otros autores.

  13. HI en la dirección de la denominada ``Ventana de Puppis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.; Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.

    Analizando los datos combinados de los relevamientos de HI de Hartmann & Burton (1997) y Arnal et.al (2000), hemos detectado la presencia de una estructura en forma de ``shell" en la denominada ``ventana de Puppis". Esta estructura, cuyo centro se encuentra en la dirección (l = 245 deg, b = -5 deg) tiene un diámetro angular de ˜ 18 deg y es detectada en el rango de velocidades (LSR) entre -9 y +6 km/seg. El análisis de los datos sugiere que esta estructura puede haberse originado en una perturbación en el denominado ``Feature A" de Lindblad (1973), a una distancia de 150-200 pc del Sol. Se determinaron parámetros tales como Masa y Energía Cinética del Shell y se analiza un posible origen del mismo.

  14. Astronomía y Física: un matrimonio Sartriano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Desde el siglo XVII, Física y Astronomía han formado un matrimonio similar al de Sartre y Beauvoir: lleno de amores contingentes, pero firme y duradero. En la charla examino tres de los frutos más recientes de este matrimonio: - La confirmación de la Relatividad General con datos astronómicos. - Astrofísica y Física de neutrinos. - Teorías de supercuerdas y astronomía.

  15. [Thermolabile drugs stability faced with an accidental interruption in the cold chain].

    PubMed

    Ricote-Lobera, I; Ortiz-Martín, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Santos-Mena, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una guía actualizada sobre la estabilidad delos medicamentos termolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticaque, según ficha técnica, deben conservarse bajorefrigeración o congelación, expuestos accidentalmente a temperaturasde conservación fuera del rango recomendado por elfabricante.Métodos: Se revisó la información sobre las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles a distintas temperaturas de los medicamentostermolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticade un hospital de 400 camas que, según el fabricante, debenconservarse bajo refrigeración o congelación. Se excluyeron losmedicamentos incluidos en ensayos clínicos. Los datos de estabilidadse obtuvieron a partir de la ficha técnica, la informacióncontenida en las dos últimas guías de conservación de medicamentostermolábiles publicadas en España y a través de las consultasrealizadas a los laboratorios (vía telefónica o por e-mail).Resultados: Se confeccionó una tabla con las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles actualmente a distintas temperaturas de209 presentaciones de distintas especialidades farmacéuticas.Se solicitaron datos de estabilidad actualizados de 172 de ellasa los laboratorios.Conclusiones: La guía elaborada constituye una herramientaque facilita la toma de decisiones del farmacéutico ante unarotura accidental de la cadena de frío, cuando sea necesarioconocer si el fármaco puede ser utilizado y no sea posible contactarcon el laboratorio fabricante.

  16. El medio interestelar alrededor de estrellas Of: HD 108

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    Hemos analizado la distribución del hidrógeno neutro interestelar en la vecindad de la estrella Of HD 108 en base a perfiles de la línea de 21 cm. Estos datos nos han permitido encontrar una probable burbuja interestelar asociada a la estrella. Comparamos estos resultados con la emisión en otros rangos espectrales y estimamos los principales parámetros físicos de la estructura.

  17. Observación solar desde el espacio, resultados recientes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    Presentaremos un resumen de los resultados más recientes sobre la física del sol, obtenidos por medio del análisis de datos de satélites artificiales como el Yohkoh, SOHO y COMPTON/GRO. En particular, nos referiremos a la acción y dinámica de los campos magnéticos en la generación de fenómenos activos y el calentamiento coronal.

  18. Ponte en onda: prende la energía limpia, (Spanish) Get Current

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    Cambiar a tecnologías de energía limpia significa que fortalecemos la economía y protegemos al medio ambiente. Este libreto de actividades educativas para todas las edades promueve el uso consciente de la energía, con datos de distintas formas de energía aplicables y una variedad de rompecabezas y crucigramas en temas energéticos.

  19. Ajuste de parámetros libres en teorías de campos camaleones a partir de espectros de nubes moleculares galácticas y experimentos terrestres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teppa Pannia, F. A.; Landau, S. J.

    Resultados recientes, basados en el análisis de espectros moleculares de nubes galácticas a través del método del amoníaco, han arrojado nuevos límites sobre la variación del parámetro adimensional μ=m_e /m_p. Los resultados indican Δ μ/μ = (μ_{obs}-μ_{lab})/μ_{lab}= (2.2± 0.4_{est} ±0.3_{sist}) times 10 ^{-8}, en acuerdo con una variación no nula de dicha cantidad (Levshakov et al. 2010). En este trabajo, motivado por los datos astronómicos, estudiamos la solución lineal del modelo teórico fenomenológico de campo escalar camaleón, presentado por Mota y Shaw (2007), que predice variaciones en μ. Con el fin de cotejar estas predicciones con los resultados observacionales, utilizamos datos de experimentos terrestres que testean violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia para analizar el valor de los parámetros libres presentes en el modelo. El trabajo realizado muestra que la solución estudiada no se puede ajustar a los datos experimentales, sugiriendo que el modelo lineal debe ser descartado para explicar las observaciones astronómicas. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Cerebral networks of sustained attention and working memory: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study based on the Continuous Performance Test.

    PubMed

    Bartés-Serrallonga, M; Adan, A; Solé-Casals, J; Caldú, X; Falcón, C; Pérez-Pàmies, M; Bargalló, N; Serra-Grabulosa, J M

    2014-04-01

    Introduccion. Uno de los paradigmas mas utilizados en el estudio de la atencion es el Continuous Performance Test (CPT). La version de pares identicos (CPT-IP) se ha utilizado ampliamente para evaluar los deficits de atencion en los trastornos del neurodesarrollo, neurologicos y psiquiatricos. Sin embargo, la localizacion de la activacion cerebral de las redes atencionales varia significativamente segun el diseño de resonancia magnetica funcional (RMf) usado. Objetivo. Diseñar una tarea para evaluar la atencion sostenida y la memoria de trabajo mediante RMf para proporcionar datos de investigacion relacionados con la localizacion y el papel de estas funciones. Sujetos y metodos. El estudio conto con la participacion de 40 estudiantes, todos ellos diestros (50%, mujeres; rango: 18-25 años). La tarea de CPT-IP se diseño como una tarea de bloques, en la que se combinaban los periodos CPT-IP con los de reposo. Resultados. La tarea de CPT-IP utilizada activa una red formada por regiones frontales, parietales y occipitales, y estas se relacionan con funciones ejecutivas y atencionales. Conclusiones. La tarea de CPT-IP utilizada en nuestro trabajo proporciona datos normativos en adultos sanos para el estudio del sustrato neural de la atencion sostenida y la memoria de trabajo. Estos datos podrian ser utiles para evaluar trastornos que cursan con deficits en memoria de trabajo y en atencion sostenida.

  1. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  2. [Prevalence of antiparkinsonian treatment complications: a systematic review and estimation of projections].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanchis, Daniel; Frutos Pérez-Surio, Alberto Frutos; López del Val, Luis J

    2015-08-01

    Introduccion. El desarrollo de la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) presenta diferentes complicaciones derivadas de la propia enfermedad, pero tambien de su tratamiento. La aparicion de efectos adversos con el uso de antiparkinsonianos es comun y su manejo es complicado, por lo que se hace necesario determinar el impacto epidemiologico de estos problemas relacionados con los medicamentos antiparkinsonianos. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de los efectos adversos del tratamiento de los sintomas motores de la EP y su posible impacto a largo plazo. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo una revision sistematica en bases de datos biomedicas desde el año 2004; se seleccionaron los estudios mas relevantes y se identificaron las frecuencias de los efectos adversos mas comunes. Se proyectaron los datos obtenidos para estimar su impacto a largo plazo. Resultados. Se identificaron 218 estudios, de los cuales 24 fueron seleccionados para la revision. Se obtuvieron datos para 20 tipos de complicaciones del tratamiento antiparkinsoniano, entre las que se encuentran problemas cardiacos, edemas y sintomas neuropsiquiatricos. Conclusion. Las estimaciones realizadas indican que el numero de pacientes de EP y, consecuentemente, la prevalencia de los efectos adversos de los tratamientos antiparkinsonianos pueden duplicarse en el año 2050.

  3. Relevamiento total del hemisferio sur celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, J. A.; Colomb, F. R.; Hurrel, E.; Larrarte, J. J.; Sanz, A. J.; Testori, J. C.; Reich, P.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    En el presente artículo se describe el relevamiento del cielo en el Hemisferio Sur Celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz para declinaciones δ<= -19o realizado con la Antena II de 30 metros de diámetro del IAR. Este relevamiento posee igual sensibilidad (3xr.m.s=50 mK) que el realizado en el Hemisferio Norte con el radiotelescopio de 25 metros de Stockert de la Universidad de Bonn, operado por el Max-Planck Institute für Radioastronomie ( Reich W., 1982, A&ASS 48, 219; Reich P. and Reich W., 1986, A&ASS 63, 205). Con los datos obtenidos por ambos radiotelescopios se posee una base de datos de todo el cielo en esta frecuencia. En esta publicación presentamos los detalles del sistema receptor, técnicas de observación y reducción de datos, calibración y discusión de los errores en los resultados.

  4. [Calibration tools menu and calculation of the composition nutritional food; validity and variability].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Hernández Rodríguez, B

    2014-04-01

    Introducción: Las tablas de composición de alimentos (TCA) constituyen una herramienta básica para conocer el aporte de energía y la composición nutricional de los mismos. Objetivos: Demostrar mediante un menú modelo la variabilidad existente entre las distintas TCAs y bases de datos de los programas informáticos empleados. Métodos: Se calibró un menú con el programa Alimentador, y fue valorado posteriormente con los programas DIAL, EasyDiet, y con las TCAs de la RedBEDCA, CESNID, Mataix, 2003 y Moreiras O., 2013. Resultados: Muchos de los nutrientes no se pudieron comparar por la falta de datos. El rango de los datos comparables obtenidos para cada nutriente, difiere entre un 8% y un 84%, siendo mayor en micronutrientes que en macronutrientes o energía. Conclusión: Hemos demostrado la variabilidad entre las TCA y algunos programas informáticos, lo que resulta en cuestionarse la validez científica del uso de estas herramientas, tan habituales para profesionales de la nutrición.

  5. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  6. [Validation of self-reported weight and height university population and factors associated with differences between self reported and measured antropometrics].

    PubMed

    Savane, Fatoumauta Rosita; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Ma; García de la Hera, Manuela; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Sempere-Orts, María; Vioque, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es un problema de salud pública importante que se asocia a un mayor riesgo muerte por enfermedades crónico-degenerativas como diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios cánceres. En estudios epidemiológicos de amplio tamaño donde a veces solo es posible obtener datos auto-referido de peso y talla, pueden surgir dudas sobre las estimaciones del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Objetivo: En este estudio se comparan datos auto-referido de peso, talla e IMC frente a datos obtenidos por medición directa en población adulta joven, y se analizan los factores asociados a la discrepancia entre datos referidos y medidos. Metodología: Entre 2006-2012 un total de 628 universitarios de ciencias de la salud (476 mujeres) aceptaron cumplimentar un cuestionario con preguntas sobre peso y talla y realizar posteriormente un examen físico con la toma del peso y talla siguiendo protocolos estandarizados en ropa ligera. El peso de la ropa ligera se sustrajo del peso medido en 1 kg para los hombres y 0,9 kg para las mujeres. Se analizó la validez de las estimaciones antropométricas auto-referidas frente a las medidas para peso, talla y obesidad mediante índices de sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos y índice kappa y se usó regresión lineal múltiple para analizar los factores asociados a las discrepancias entre datos referidos y medidos. Resultado: La media del peso, talla e IMC auto-referido fueron 62,5 kg, 167,6 cm y 22,1 kg/m2, y de los medidos, 62,6 kg, 167,4 cm y 22,2 kg/m2 respectivamente. Las correlaciones entre datos declararos y medidos fueron de r = 0,97, 0,96 y 0,95 respectivamente. La sensibilidad para detectar exceso de peso (IMC ≥?25 kg/m2) mediante datos declarados fue del 81,0%, la especificidad del 98,5%, el valor predictivo positivo 90,6% y el índice kappa de 0,75. La discrepancia entre peso, talla e IMC medido y declarado se asoció significativamente con una mayor edad, y para la talla también con un

  7. The roles of birds, lizards, and rodents as hosts for the western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Lane, Robert S

    2004-12-01

    We compared the infestation by ixodid ticks of lizards, rodents, and birds collected simultaneously within areas representing common habitat types in Mendocino County, CA. Lizards were infested only by Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, birds by I. pacificus and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), and rodents by I. pacificus, I. spinipalpis Hadwen and Nuttall, I. woodi Bishopp, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, and D. variabilis (Say). Infestation by I. pacificus larvae and nymphs of lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird and Girard; Elgaria spp.) and western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus Ord) (means of 9-35 larvae and 5-6 nymphs per animal) was several times greater than for Neotoma fuscipes Baird woodrats, Peromyscus spp. mice, and birds (means of 0.9-3.5 larvae and 0-0.3 nymphs). Overall, Borrelia-refractory lizards accounted for 84% of I. pacificus larvae and 91% of nymphs collected from animals in dense woodlands. Bird species frequently utilizing tick-questing substrates such as leaf litter (guild I birds) were more heavily infested by I. pacificus subadults (5.2 larvae and 1.0 nymphs per bird) than guild IV birds with minimal perceived contact with tick-questing substrates (0.08 larvae and 0.06 nymphs per bird). Notably, guild I birds carried similar larval loads and at least 20-fold higher nymphal loads relative to woodrats and mice. Only guild IV birds carried as few I. pacificus nymphs as did these rodents. The ratios of larvae to nymphs suggest that, relative to birds, lizards, and squirrels (infested by 1.3-6.0 larvae per nymph), nocturnally active ground-dwelling rodents such as woodrats and mice are underutilized by the nymphal stage (69 to >100 larvae per nymph). The western gray squirrel and guild I-II birds (e.g., the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis [L.]) were the only potential reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner (the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America) that were frequently infested

  8. Survey for evidence of Colorado tick fever virus outside of the known endemic area in California.

    PubMed

    Lane, R S; Emmons, R W; Devlin, V; Dondero, D V; Nelson, B C

    1982-07-01

    A virus very similar or identical to Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus was recovered from the blood clot of one of 104 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) examined during a survey for various zoonotic agents in mammals and ticks from the University of California, Hopland Field Station, Mendocino County, California, 1974--79. This is the first reported isolation of a CTF-like virus from L. californicus, and only the second time such a virus has been found in northwestern California. Mendocino County is located far outside the known distributional ranges of the most common mammalian hosts of CTF virus and of Dermacentor andersoni, the only proven tick vector for man. The viral isolate is very similar to a CTF-like virus previously recovered from the blood and spleen of a western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) from San Luis Obispo County, an area also outside of the previously-known CTF area. Virus was not isolated from 14 additional species of mammals (354 specimens) or from eight species of ticks (4,487 individuals), but CTF-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 28 of 771 (3.6%) sera from seven of 15 mammalian species including significant titers (greater than or equal to 1:8) in two species and one subspecies not previously reported as natural hosts, i.e., brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), pinyon mouse (P. truei), and Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). CTF indirect immunofluorescent antibodies also were detected in 26 of 129 (20.2%) sera belonging to four of five mammalian species tested. Neutralizing antibodies were found in sera of deer from other localities in Mendocino County, from a deer mouse from Napa County, and from a brush rabbit from Monterey County as well. These findings suggest that a virus identical or similar to CTF virus is widespread in northwestern-westcentral California, and that surveillance for human cases of CTF or a similar disease should be extended to cover this region. PMID:7102919

  9. Cycloheximide: No Ordinary Bitter Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Formaker, Bradley K.; Frank, Marion E.

    2007-01-01

    Cycloheximide (CyX), a toxic antibiotic with a unique chemical structure generated by the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus, has emerged as a primary focus of studies on mammalian bitter taste. Rats and mice avoid it at concentrations well below the thresholds for most bitter stimuli and T2R G-protein-coupled receptors specific for CyX with appropriate sensitivity are identified for those species. Like mouse and rat, golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, also detected and rejected micromolar levels of CyX, although 1 mM CyX failed to activate the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Hamsters showed an initial tolerance for 500 μM CyX, but after that, avoidance of CyX dramatically increased, plasticity not reported for rat or mouse. As the hamster lineage branches well before division of the mouse-rat lineage in evolutionary time, differences between hamster and mouse-rat reactions to CyX are not surprising. Furthermore, unlike hamster LiCl-induced learned aversions, the induced CyX aversion neither specifically nor robustly generalized to other non-ionic bitter stimuli; and unlike adverse reactions to other chemosensory stimuli, aversions to CyX were not mollified by adding a sweetener. Thus, CyX is unlike other bitter stimuli. The gene for the high-affinity CyX receptor is a member of a cluster of 5 orthologous T2R genes that are likely rodent specific; this “CyX clade” is found in the mouse, rat and probably hamster, but not in the human or rabbit genome. The rodent CyX-T2R interaction may be one of multiple lineage-specific stimulus-receptor interactions reflecting a response to a particular environmental toxin. The combination of T2R multiplicity, species divergence and gene duplication results in diverse ligands for multiple species-specific T2R receptors, which confounds definition of ‘bitter’ stimuli across species. PMID:17400304

  10. Increasing the hydrolysis constant of the reactive site upon introduction of an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Hikaru; Kumazaki, Takashi; Kojima, Shuichi; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Miura, Kin-Ichiro; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2011-08-01

    P14C/N39C is the disulfide variant of the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant (OMSVP3) introducing an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond near the reactive site on the basis of the sequence homology between OMSVP3 and ascidian trypsin inhibitor. This variant exhibits a narrower inhibitory specificity. We have examined the effects of introducing a Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the flexible N-terminal loop of OMSVP3 on the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis, as well as the thermal stability of reactive site intact inhibitors. P14C/N39C can be selectively cleaved by Streptomyces griseus protease B at the reactive site of OMSVP3 to form a reactive site modified inhibitor. The conversion rate of intact to modified P14C/N39C is much faster than that for wild type under any pH condition. The pH-independent hydrolysis constant (K(hyd) °) is estimated to be approximately 5.5 for P14C/N39C, which is higher than the value of 1.6 for natural OMSVP3. The reactive site modified form of P14C/N39C is thermodynamically more stable than the intact one. Thermal denaturation experiments using intact inhibitors show that the temperature at the midpoint of unfolding at pH 2.0 is 59 °C for P14C/N39C and 58 °C for wild type. There have been no examples, except P14C/N39C, where introducing an engineered disulfide causes a significant increase in K(hyd) °, but has no effect on the thermal stability. The site-specific disulfide introduction into the flexible N-terminal loop of natural Kazal-type inhibitors would be useful to further characterize the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis.

  11. Habitat use and preferences of cetaceans along the continental slope and the adjacent pelagic waters in the western Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzellino, A.; Gaspari, S.; Airoldi, S.; Nani, B.

    2008-03-01

    The physical habitat of cetaceans occurring along the continental slope in the western Ligurian Sea was investigated. Data were collected from two different sighting platforms, one of the two being a whale-watching boat. Surveys, conducted from May to October and from 1996 to 2000, covered an area of approximately 3000 km 2 with a mean effort of about 10,000 km year -1. A total of 814 sightings was reported, including all the species occurring in the area: Stenella coeruleoalba, Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Ziphius cavirostris, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis. A Geographic Information System was used to integrate sighting data to a set of environmental characteristics, which included bottom gradient, area between different isobaths, and length and linearity of the isobaths within a cell unit. Habitat use was analysed by means of a multi-dimensional scaling, MDS, analysis. Significant differences were found in the habitat preference of most of the species regularly occurring in the area. Bottlenose dolphin, Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale were found strongly associated to well-defined depth and slope gradient characteristics of the shelf-edge and the upper and lower slope. The hypothesis of habitat segregation was considered for Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale. Canonical discriminant functions using depth and slope as predictors outlined clear and not overlapping habitat preferences for Risso's dolphin and Cuvier's beaked whale, whereas a partial overlapping of the habitat of the other two species was observed for sperm whale. Such a partitioning of the upper and lower slope area may be the result of the common feeding habits and suggests a possible competition of these three species. A temporal segregation in the use of the slope area was also observed for sperm whales and Risso's dolphins. Fin whales, and the occasionally encountered common dolphin and long

  12. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the California current system (1985-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin’s auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly

  13. At-sea distribution and abundance of seabirds off southern California: A 20-year comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.W.; McChesney, G.J.; McIver, W.R.; Carter, H.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Golightly, R.T.; Ackerman, J.T.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Perry, W.M.; Yee, J.L.; Pierson, M.O.; McCrary, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted aerial at-sea and coastal surveys to examine the distribution and abundance of seabirds off southern California, from Cambria, California, to the Mexican border. From May 1999-January 2002, we flew 102 d, covered >54,640 km of transect lines, and conducted nine complete surveys of southern California in January, May, and September. We identified 54 species comprising 12 families and counted >135,000 individuals. Seabird densities were greater along island and mainland coastlines than at sea and were usually greatest in January surveys. Densities were greatest at sea near the northern Channel Islands in January and north of Point Conception in May, and lowest in the southwestern portion of the Southern California Bight in all survey months. On coastal transects, seabird densities were greatest along central and southern portions of the mainland coastline from Point Arguello to Mexico. We estimated that 981,000 ?? 144,000 (x?? ?? SE) seabirds occurred in the study area in January, 862,000 ?? 95,000 in May, and 762,000 ?? 72,000 in September. California Gulls (Larus californicus), Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis), and Cassin's Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) were most abundant in January surveys at sea, whereas Sooty and Short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus griseus and P. tenuirostris), phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.), and Western Gulls (Larus. occidentalis) were most abundant in May and September surveys. On coastal transects, California Gulls, Western Grebes, Western Gulls, and Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) were most abundant in January; Western Grebes, Western Gulls, Surf Scoters, and Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) were most abundant in May; and Sooty Shearwaters, Short-tailed Shearwaters, Western Gulls, Western Grebes, Brown Pelicans, and Heermann's Gulls (Larus heermanni) were most abundant in September. Compared to historical seabird densities collected in the same area two decades ago (1975-1978 and 1980-1983), abundance

  14. Ocean warming and seabird communities of the southern California Current System (1987-98): response at multiple temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyrenbach, K. David; Veit, Richard R.

    2003-08-01

    Declines in ocean productivity and shifts in species assemblages along the West Coast of North America during the second half of the XXth century have been attributed to the concurrent warming of the California Current. This paper addresses changes in the avifauna off southern California between May 1987 and September 1998, in response to shifting water mass distributions over short (<1 year) and long (interannual) temporal scales. More specifically, our research focuses on the relative importance of distinct foraging guilds and species assemblages with an affinity for warm and cold water. Over the long term, the avifauna off southern California shifted from a 'high-productivity' community typical of eastern boundary upwelling systems, to a 'low-productivity' assemblage similar to those inhabiting the subtropical gyres. Overall seabird abundance decreased; the relative importance of cold-water seabirds that dive in pursuit of prey declined; and warm-water species that feed at the surface and plunge to capture prey became more numerous. These community-level changes are consistent with the northward shifts in species ranges and the declining ocean productivity anticipated as a result of global warming. However, the response of individual taxa with an affinity for warm-water and cold-water conditions has been more difficult to predict, due to differences in species-specific responses to ocean warming. The three cold-water species investigated (Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, and Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) decreased in abundance during this study. On the other hand, only one of the six warm-water species considered (Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus) increased significantly over the long term. Yet, the warm-water Leach's Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa) increased between 1987 and 1993, and then declined between 1994 and 1998. Moreover, cross-correlations between seasonally adjusted anomalies of

  15. Shorebird roost-site selection at two temporal scales: Is human disturbance a factor?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.A.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    1. Roost-site selection in shorebirds is governed by ambient factors, including environmental conditions and human disturbance. Determination of the extent to which these factors affect roost use and the associated implications for shorebird habitat protection is important for conservation strategies and informed management of human recreational use of these habitats. Shorebird conservation as a whole is a high priority world-wide because a large proportion of shorebird species is in decline. However, little is understood about the consistency of roost use by different species, what conditions affect species-specific roost-site selection, and at what spatial and temporal scales conditions influence selection. 2. We studied high-tide roost-site selection by eight species of non-breeding shorebirds on a critically important stopover and wintering refuge. We calculated spatial and temporal variability in roost use for each species based on counts and consistency of incidence. We then examined roost-site selection in relation to structural, environmental and human disturbance factors, and how this varied across spatial and temporal scales. 3. Most roosts were used less than 50% of the time, although larger roosts were used more consistently. This varied among species, with red knot Calidris canutus tending to concentrate at a few roosts and American oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, dowitcher Limnodromus griseus and Limnodromus scolopaceus and ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres more diffusely distributed among roosts. 4. At an annual scale, the principal factors affecting shorebird presence at roosts were roost length (size), local region, substrate and aspect. The extent and direction of these effects varied among species. Among years, red knots avoided roosts that had high average boat activity within 1000 m, but disturbance did not appear to be a factor for other species. 5. Daily roost use was influenced primarily by wind speed and the ability of roosts to

  16. Composition of glycosaminoglycans in elasmobranchs including several deep-sea sharks: identification of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate from the dried fins of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kyohei; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Mukuno, Ann; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Miya, Masaki; Linhardt, Robert J; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shark fin, used as a food, is a rich source of glycosaminoglyans (GAGs), acidic polysaccharides having important biological activities, suggesting their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. A comprehensive survey of GAGs derived from the fin was performed on 11 elasmobranchs, including several deep sea sharks. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found in Isurus oxyrinchus, Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus torazame, Deania calcea, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Mitsukurina owatoni, Mustelus griseus and Dasyatis akajei, respectively. CS was only found from Chimaera phantasma, Dalatias licha, and Odontaspis ferox, respectively. Characteristic disaccharide units of most of the CS were comprised of C- and D-type units. Interestingly, substantial amount of CS/dermatan sulfate (DS) was found in the dried fin (without skin and cartilage) of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca. 1H-NMR analysis showed that the composition of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and iduronic acid (IdoA) in shark CS/DS was 41.2% and 58.8% (Isurus oxyrinchus), 36.1% and 63.9% (Prionace glauca), respectively. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of this CS/DS consisted of E-, B- and D-type units. Shark CS/DS stimulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons at a similar level as DS derived from invertebrate species. Midkine and pleiotrophin interact strongly with CS/DS from Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca, affording Kd values of 1.07 nM, 6.25 nM and 1.70 nM, 1.88 nM, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the IdoA-rich domain of CS/DS is required for neurite outgrowth activity. A detailed examination of oligosaccharide residues, produced by chondroitinase ACII digestion, suggested that the IdoA and B-type units as well as A- and C-type units were found in clusters in shark CS/DS. In addition, it was discovered that the contents of B-type units in these IdoA-rich domain increased in a length dependent manner, while C- and D-type units were located particularly in the

  17. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the

  18. Composition of Glycosaminoglycans in Elasmobranchs including Several Deep-Sea Sharks: Identification of Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulfate from the Dried Fins of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Kyohei; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Mukuno, Ann; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Miya, Masaki; Linhardt, Robert J.; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shark fin, used as a food, is a rich source of glycosaminoglyans (GAGs), acidic polysaccharides having important biological activities, suggesting their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. A comprehensive survey of GAGs derived from the fin was performed on 11 elasmobranchs, including several deep sea sharks. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found in Isurus oxyrinchus, Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus torazame, Deania calcea, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Mitsukurina owatoni, Mustelus griseus and Dasyatis akajei, respectively. CS was only found from Chimaera phantasma, Dalatias licha, and Odontaspis ferox, respectively. Characteristic disaccharide units of most of the CS were comprised of C- and D-type units. Interestingly, substantial amount of CS/dermatan sulfate (DS) was found in the dried fin (without skin and cartilage) of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca. 1H-NMR analysis showed that the composition of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and iduronic acid (IdoA) in shark CS/DS was 41.2% and 58.8% (Isurus oxyrinchus), 36.1% and 63.9% (Prionace glauca), respectively. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of this CS/DS consisted of E-, B- and D-type units. Shark CS/DS stimulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons at a similar level as DS derived from invertebrate species. Midkine and pleiotrophin interact strongly with CS/DS from Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca, affording Kd values of 1.07 nM, 6.25 nM and 1.70 nM, 1.88 nM, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the IdoA-rich domain of CS/DS is required for neurite outgrowth activity. A detailed examination of oligosaccharide residues, produced by chondroitinase ACII digestion, suggested that the IdoA and B-type units as well as A- and C-type units were found in clusters in shark CS/DS. In addition, it was discovered that the contents of B-type units in these IdoA-rich domain increased in a length dependent manner, while C- and D-type units were located particularly in the

  19. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  20. Composition of glycosaminoglycans in elasmobranchs including several deep-sea sharks: identification of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate from the dried fins of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kyohei; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Mukuno, Ann; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Miya, Masaki; Linhardt, Robert J; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shark fin, used as a food, is a rich source of glycosaminoglyans (GAGs), acidic polysaccharides having important biological activities, suggesting their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. A comprehensive survey of GAGs derived from the fin was performed on 11 elasmobranchs, including several deep sea sharks. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found in Isurus oxyrinchus, Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus torazame, Deania calcea, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Mitsukurina owatoni, Mustelus griseus and Dasyatis akajei, respectively. CS was only found from Chimaera phantasma, Dalatias licha, and Odontaspis ferox, respectively. Characteristic disaccharide units of most of the CS were comprised of C- and D-type units. Interestingly, substantial amount of CS/dermatan sulfate (DS) was found in the dried fin (without skin and cartilage) of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca. 1H-NMR analysis showed that the composition of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and iduronic acid (IdoA) in shark CS/DS was 41.2% and 58.8% (Isurus oxyrinchus), 36.1% and 63.9% (Prionace glauca), respectively. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of this CS/DS consisted of E-, B- and D-type units. Shark CS/DS stimulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons at a similar level as DS derived from invertebrate species. Midkine and pleiotrophin interact strongly with CS/DS from Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca, affording Kd values of 1.07 nM, 6.25 nM and 1.70 nM, 1.88 nM, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the IdoA-rich domain of CS/DS is required for neurite outgrowth activity. A detailed examination of oligosaccharide residues, produced by chondroitinase ACII digestion, suggested that the IdoA and B-type units as well as A- and C-type units were found in clusters in shark CS/DS. In addition, it was discovered that the contents of B-type units in these IdoA-rich domain increased in a length dependent manner, while C- and D-type units were located particularly in the

  1. Novel marine actinobacteria from emerald Andaman & Nicobar Islands: a prospective source for industrial and pharmaceutical byproducts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Andaman and Nicobar Islands situated in the eastern part of Bay of Bengal are one of the distinguished biodiversity hotspot. Even though number of studies carried out on the marine flora and fauna, the studies on actinobacteria from Andaman and Nicobar Islands are meager. The aim of the present study was to screen the actinobacteria for their characterization and identify the potential sources for industrial and pharmaceutical byproducts. Results A total of 26 actinobacterial strains were isolated from the marine sediments collected from various sites of Port Blair Bay where no collection has been characterized previously. Isolates were categorized under the genera: Saccharopolyspora, Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Streptoverticillium, Microtetraspora, Actinopolyspora, Actinokineospora and Dactylosporangium. Majority of the isolates were found to produce industrially important enzymes such as amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, DNase, cellulase, urease and phosphatase, and also exhibited substantial antibacterial activity against human pathogens. 77% of isolates exhibited significant hemolytic activity. Among 26 isolates, three strains (NIOT-VKKMA02, NIOT-VKKMA22 and NIOT-VKKMA26) were found to generate appreciable extent of surfactant, amylase, cellulase and protease enzyme. NIOT-VKKMA02 produced surfactant using kerosene as carbon source and emulsified upto E24–63.6%. Moreover, NIOT-VKKMA02, NIOT-VKKMA22 and NIOT-VKKMA26 synthesized 13.27 U/ml, 9.85 U/ml and 8.03 U/ml amylase; 7.75 U/ml, 5.01 U/ml and 2.08 U/ml of cellulase and 11.34 U/ml, 6.89 U/ml and 3.51 U/ml of protease enzyme, respectively. Conclusions High diversity of marine actinobacteria was isolated and characterized in this work including undescribed species and species not previously reported from emerald Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces venezuelae and Saccharopolyspora salina. The enhanced salt, pH and temperature tolerance of the actinobacterial

  2. Marine bird and cetacean associations with bathymetric habitats and shallow-water topographies: implications for trophic transfer and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Peggy P. W.; Sydeman, William J.; Hyrenbach, K. David

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the aggregative response of marine birds and cetaceans to bathymetric features in central California over 4 years, 1996-1997 and 2001-2002. A total of 1700 km 2 of ocean habitat was surveyed over six cruises. We considered the distribution of the most abundant marine birds and mammals in relation to bathymetry. We focused our analyses on eight focal taxa: Cassin's auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), common murre ( Uria aalge), sooty shearwater ( Puffinus grieus), phalarope species (red, and red-necked: Phalaropus fulicaria, Phalaropus lobatus), Dall's porpoise ( Phocoenoides dalli), Pacific white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae), and Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus). We evaluated associations of top predators with seven bathymetric indices and three distance measurements to shallow-water topographies. The bathymetric descriptors included (1) median depth, (2) depth coefficient of variation, (3) contour index, and shortest distance to (4) the mainland, (5) the continental shelf-break (200-m isobath), (6) the continental slope (1000-m isobath), and (7) pelagic waters (3000-m isobath). The measurements of shallow water topographies included the shortest distance to: (8) the Cordell Bank seamount, (9) the Farallon Island Archipelago (a breeding colony for auklets and murres), and (10) Monterey Canyon. We documented two instances of spatial autocorrelation (for Cassin's auklet and common murre) at lags (distances) of 0-3 and 3-9 km, respectively, and accounted for this spatial pattern in analyses of habitat associations. We found similar relationships between cetaceans and bathymetric features at both interannual and weekly time scales. Seabirds revealed both persistent and variable relationships through time. For the resident breeding murres, we detected an interannual trend in habitat use, with these birds shifting their distribution offshore over time. Our study demonstrates that resident and

  3. Regional characterisation of hydraulic properties of rock using air-lift data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wladis, David; Gustafson, Gunnar

    les données disponibles présentent une certaine imprécision. Au départ, il faut cependant examiner l'utilité potentielle, c'est-à-dire la précision attendue, de données imprécises dans chaque cas spécifique. Cette étude analyse les possibilités d'obtenir des estimations de transmissivitéà partir de données d'air-lift dans des roches de socle en Suède, au mieux à un facteur 10 près par rapport aux données d'excellente qualité fournies par des essais d'injection. La précision attendue des résultats a été examinée analytiquement et grâce à des méthodes statistiques. Les résultats ont aussi été comparés aux données d'essais d'injection. Les résultats indiquent que les données obtenues par air-lift fournissent des estimations de transmissivitéà un facteur 10 près par comparaison avec celles des essais d'injection des exemples étudiés. L'étude montre aussi que la pénétration partielle et la fracturation hydraulique peuvent affecter les estimations seulement d'environ un facteur 5. Ainsi, le recours à des données existantes peut être économiquement plus intéressant que le recueil de nouvelles données dans les premières étapes des études hydrogéologiques. Resumen Los estudios hidrogeológicos, en general, y las estimaciones de propiedades hidráulicas en rocas, en particular, requieren gran cantidad de datos. En muchos países se han creado grandes bases de datos hidrogeológicos, recogidos y almacenados a lo largo de los años. Por tanto, el uso de los datos ya existentes, aunque imprecisos, puede suponer una alternativa barata a la recopilación de nuevos datos, particularmente en las primeras fases de un estudio hidrogeológico. Sin embargo la precisión y utilidad del método deben analizarse para cada caso específico. En este estudio se contempla la posibilidad de, a partir de datos de ensayos de inyección de aire realizados en Suecia, obtener valores estimativos de transmisividad dentro del orden de magnitud de los

  4. [NORMATIVE VALUES OF SF-6D QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILEAN DIABETES PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la diabetes mellitus es una de las enfermedades crónicas de mayor prevalencia e impacto económico a nivel mundial. La diabetes produce un impacto sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de las personas que la padecen. El cuestionario SF-6D permite evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Es uno de los cuestionarios más usados a nivel mundial, ya que permite conocer las preferencias sociales de los distintos estados de salud. Sin embargo, según nuestro conocimiento no se dispone de los valores normativos de este cuestionario en la población diabética chilena. Objetivo: reportar los datos normativos del cuestionario SF-6D en la población diabética chilena. Métodos: los datos fueron extraídos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS 2009-2010) de Chile. En este estudio se incluyen 424 personas que presentan diabetes (143 hombres y 281 mujeres). Los datos se han presentado segregados por sexo y grupo de edad, así como por región, estado civil, hábito tabáquico, nivel de ingresos y estudios. Resultados: el índice de utilidad del SF-6D en mujeres chilenas con diabetes fue de 0,65 (± 0,15), mientras que en hombres fue 0,70 (± 0,15). Menos del 5% de la población declara una utilidad con valor 1. El índice de utilidad del SF-6D en pacientes con diabetes disminuye con la edad, en las situaciones de bajos ingresos y con niveles de educación bajos. Conclusiones: este estudio presenta los valores normativos chilenos del SF-6D derivado del SF-12 en pacientes con diabetes.

  5. Actitudes de los candidatos y maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca del uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuelo, Ezequiel

    Este estudio examino y comparo las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros de ciencias y los maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca de la utilizacion de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Tambien identifico y diferencio el uso que ellos dan a estas herramientas en las clases de ciencias. Este estudio presenta un diseno descriptivo exploratorio. Constituyeron la muestra trescientos diez sujetos que fueron candidatos a maestros de ciencias o maestros de ciencias en servicio. Para recoger los datos se construyo y valido un cuestionario de treinta y un itemes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadisticas no parametricas Kruskal Wallis y Chi-cuadrado (test de homogeneidad) para establecer las diferencias entre las actitudes de los sujetos con relacion al uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Los hallazgos evidenciaron que son positivas y muy parecidas las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros y maestros en servicio hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas. No hubo diferencias entre los candidatos y maestros en servicio en terminos de las actitudes de confianza y empatia hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. En aspectos como el uso del banco de datos bibliografico Eric y el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en actividades educativas como explorar conceptos, conceptuar, aplicar lo aprendido y hacer asignaciones hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los candidatos y los maestros en servicio. Al comparar las frecuencias observadas con las esperadas hubo mas maestros en servicio y menos candidatos que indicaron usar el anterior banco de datos y las herramientas computadorizadas en las mencionadas actividades educativas.

  6. [Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability].

    PubMed

    Gaspar Carreño, M; Torrico Martín, F; Novajarque Sala, L; Batista Cruz, M; Ribeiro Gonçalves, P; Porta Oltra, B; Sánchez Santos, J C

    2014-11-03

    Objetivo: Elaborar unas recomendaciones de preparacion de medicamentos de administracion parenteral (MAP) para valorar la posibilidad de transferir su preparacion, desde las unidades de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion al servicio de farmacia (SF). Método: Se procede a elaborar una tabla de estabilidades de los medicamentos incluidos en la guia farmacoterapeutica del Hospital, aplicando la Guia USP (Pharmaceutical compounding Sterile Preparations) y la Guia de de buenas practicas de preparacion de medicamentos en los servicios de farmacia hospitalaria. Se recopilo informacion sobre las MAP: metodo de preparacion, compatibilidad, conservacion, periodo de validez, modo de administracion y tipo de envase. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante consulta de las fichas tecnicas, laboratorios, revision bibliografica y otras bases de datos. Resultados: Tras revisar 209 farmacos se elaboro un listado de recomendaciones. Segun los datos obtenidos, las MAP se prepararan de la siguiente forma: 89 seran preparadas desde el SF, 62 en unidad de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion pues son medicamentos que requieren administracion inmediata y 58 ya van acondicionados para su administracion por la industria. De los 62 farmacos que se prepararan por enfermeria, en 14 de ellos las dosis siguientes se prepararan desde el SF. Por lo tanto de los 209 farmacos solo 48 se prepararan exclusivamente en la unidad de enfermeria. Conclusiones: Desde el SF se ha establecido un metodo normalizado de preparacion, conservacion, administracion y periodo de validez de MAP. La preparacion de MAP en SF ampliaria su tiempo de conservacion, al tener en cuenta la estabilidad fisicoquimica, el nivel de riesgo y la vulnerabilidad del preparado a la contaminacion microbiologica. La informacion aportada contribuira a una disminucion de errores asociados al proceso de preparacion y administracion de MAP.

  7. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Menal-Puey, Susana; Morán Del Ruste, Manuel; Marques-Lopes, Iva

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes.

  8. [Bibliometric analysis of Revista Médica del IMSS in the Scopus database for the period between 2005-2013].

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Francisco; Ramírez-Méndez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar la visibilidad de la Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc) en la base de datos Scopus y describir los principales indicadores bibliométricos cuantitativos de la producción científica publicados durante el periodo 2005-2013. Métodos: para el análisis se utilizó la base de datos Scopus y se limitó el periodo de búsqueda a los años 2005-2013. La estrategia de búsqueda se ejecutó en los campos específicos de Título de la Publicación (Source Title) con el término Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social y sus posibles variantes, asícomo el número ISSN de la revista. Para el análisis de los datos obtenidos se utilizaron las herramientas de Scopus y los programas Excel y Access. Resultados: se encontraron 864 trabajos publicados durante el periodo 2005-2013 que fueron incluidos en Scopus. Se identificaron los autores con mayor producción científica y mayor número de citas acumuladas a sus trabajos, asícomo las principales revistas que citan a la Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. Se describen las principales áreas temáticas, tipos de documentos y otros indicadores bibliométricos que caracterizan a la publicación. Conclusiones: el uso de Scopus brinda la posibilidad de analizar con una herramienta externa al IMSS la visibilidad de la producción científica publicada en la Revista Médica del IMSS, además de que contribuye a identificar el estado de la ciencia en México y de los países en vías desarrollo.

  9. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Menal-Puey, Susana; Morán Del Ruste, Manuel; Marques-Lopes, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes. PMID:27238802

  10. Software application for the calculation of dietary intake of individual carotenoids and of its contribution to vitamin A intake.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Cuadrado-Vives, Carmen; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las aplicaciones informáticas utilizadas para valorar la ingesta dietética suelen centrarse en macro y micronutrientes, pero no en otros componentes de la dieta con potenciales efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud, entre los que están los carotenoides. El grado en que cada carotenoide ejerce diversas actividades biológicas es diferente y por tanto, interesa utilizar datos de su composición en alimentos de forma individualizada. Objetivo: Elaborar una aplicación informática con datos individualizados de carotenoides que permita el cálculo de su ingesta dietética y la consulta del contenido de estos compuestos en los alimentos. Material y métodos: Aplicación informática desarrollada con Java 7, que incluye una base de datos de carotenoides (luteína, zeaxantina, licopeno, ?-criptoxantina, ?- caroteno y ?-caroteno) en alimentos (incluyendo aquellos que son principales contribuyentes a la ingesta de carotenoides en Europa), generados por HPLC. Se incluyen las variables relativas a los alimentos, sujetos y dietas, que son necesarias para una correcta información del contenido de carotenoides en alimentos y para el cálculo de su ingesta. Resultados: La aplicación informática permite calcular la ingesta dietética individualizada de carotenoides, a partir de 128 alimentos (crudos y cocinados) y su contribución a la ingesta de vitamina A, en las dos formas utilizadas actualmente, equivalentes de retinol y equivalentes de actividad de retinol. Conclusiones: Con esta aplicación informática se facilita la consulta de concentraciones de carotenoides en alimentos y el cálculo de su ingesta de forma ágil, específica y precisa, aspectos imprescindibles en los estudios de investigación sobre dieta y salud.

  11. [Peripheral nerve stimulation effectiveness in the upper limb function recovery of patients with a stroke sequel: systematic review and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Obiglio, M; Mendelevich, A; Jeffrey, S; Drault, E; Garcete, A; Kramer, M; Maiaru, M; Modica, M; Ostolaza, M; Peralta, F

    2016-06-16

    Introduccion. Un 30-66% de las personas que sobreviven a un ictus queda con un miembro superior afectado. La estimulacion nerviosa periferica (ENP) influiria positivamente en la actividad muscular de pacientes con deficits motores secundarios a un ictus. Objetivo. Realizar una revision sistematica y un metaanalisis acerca de la efectividad de la aplicacion de la ENP en la recuperacion de la funcion del miembro superior plejico/paretico en sujetos con secuela de ictus. Sujetos y metodos. Se incluyeron ensayos clinicos controlados aleatorizados y no aleatorizados, y estudios cruzados, publicados hasta noviembre de 2014 en Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, SciELO y Open Grey. Se excluyeron articulos con alto riesgo de sesgo. Dos investigadores independientes evaluaron la elegibilidad de los estudios, y realizaron la extraccion y analisis de los datos. Resultados. Se encontraron 1.967 articulos, de los cuales se incluyeron cinco para la extraccion de datos y analisis, con una moda de riesgo de sesgo de 6/10 en la escala PEDro. Se incluyeron en total 224 sujetos, de los cuales 95 recibieron ENP en diversas modalidades y 129 recibieron otras intervenciones como grupo control. Conclusion. Los datos analizados sugieren que la funcion del miembro superior plejico/paretico mejora tras la aplicacion de ENP en conjunto o no con entrenamiento funcional. Sin embargo, el resultado del metaanalisis indica que aun no se dispone de evidencia suficiente para avalar la efectividad del uso de ENP para la recuperacion de la funcion del miembro superior plejico/paretico en sujetos con secuela de ictus.

  12. Drug abuse relapse rates linked to level of education: can we repair hypodopaminergic-induced cognitive decline with nutrient therapy?

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Madigan, Margaret A; Braverman, Eric R; Han, David

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that athletes and other individuals who have suffered painful injuries are at increased risk for all reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) behaviors, including substance use disorder (SUD). Comparing patient demographics and relapse rates in chemical dependence programs is pertinent because demographics may affect outcomes. Increased risk for relapse and lower academic achievement were found to have a significant association in recent outcome data from a holistic treatment center (HTC) located in North Miami Beach, FL. Relapse outcomes from the Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS; n = 1738) and HTC (n = 224) were compared for a 12-month period. Post-discharge relapse was reported by 26% of HTC patients and 58% of patients in DATOS. When broken out by education level-less than high school, high school diploma, college degree, and graduate degree-HTC patient relapse was 50%, 36%, 33%, and 16%, respectively, and demonstrated an inverse linear association (F = 5.702; P = 0.017). Looking at DATOS patient relapse rates broken down by educational grades/years completed, patients who attended school between 7th grade and 4 years of college also demonstrated an inverse linear association (F = 5.563; P = 0.018). Additionally, the lowest performers, patients who reported their academic performance as "not so good," had the highest relapse (F = 4.226; P = 0.04). Albeit certain limitations, compared with DATOS patients, HTC patients produced significantly larger net differences in relapse rates (X 2 = 84.09; P = 0.0001), suggesting that other variables, such as the treatment model may also affect patient relapse. Our results implicate the use of vitamin and mineral supplements coupled with a well-researched natural dopamine agonist nutrient therapy; both have been shown to improve cognition and behavior, and thus academic achievement. That relapse is highest among addicts who have less education and who report lower grades is a factor that can be useful

  13. WEIGHT LOSS AND METABOLIC OUTCOMES 12 MONTHS AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS IN A POPULATION OF SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Pinhel, Marcela A S; Nicoletti, Carolina F; de Oliveira, Bruno A P; Chaves, Raoana Cássia Paixão; Parreiras, Luciana Tabajara; Sivieri, Thiago; Vulcano, Vinicius M C; Luz, Gabriela R L; Annunciato, Danielle R; Morgado, Luiza M A; Marcatto, Gustavo; Salgado Junior, Wilson; Souza, Dorotéia R S; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la investigación de los resultados previa en cirugía bariátrica tiene que documentar los cambios positivos en las comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue informar de una descripción de los efectos de la cirugía bariátrica sobre la pérdida de peso y en la resolución de enfermedades asociadas con la obesidad en pacientes seguidos durante 12 meses en el servicio de salud pública de São Paulo/Brasil. Métodos: el estudio se realizó con los datos de 598 pacientes seleccionados con obesidad grado III sometidos a bypass gástrico en Y de Roux evaluados antes y 6 y 12 meses después de la cirugía. En cada momento se determinaron la antropometría, los datos demográficos y bioquímicos y la historia personal. La glucosa sérica, el colesterol total, el colesterol LDL, el colesterol HDL y los triglicéridos fueron determinados en la evaluación bioquímica. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente por el test de Chi-cuadrado, por ANOVA seguido por el post-test de Bonferroni y por la prueba t de Student para datos independientes; significación fijada en p < 0,05. Resultados: se observó pérdida de peso de 45,5 ± 13,7 kg (33,5%) durante el primer año después de la cirugía. Glucosa sérica, colesterol total y colesterol LDL se redujeron durante los primeros seis meses después de la cirugía y los valores se mantuvieron hasta los 12 meses, mientras que el peso y los triglicéridos se redujeron en todo el período de estudio. Se observó una prevalencia reducida de diabetes mellitus y dislipidemia después de la cirugía (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: el bypass gástrico en Y de Roux es un procedimiento importante para la pérdida de peso y el control de las comorbilidades como la diabetes y la dislipidemia, al menos durante el primer año postoperatorio.

  14. [Intragenic deletions of NRXN1: three new case reports and a review of the phenotype].

    PubMed

    Galán-Sánchez, Francisco; Esteban-Cantó, Vanessa; Blaya-Fernández, Pedro; Jadraque-Rodríguez, Rocío; Manchón-Trives, Irene; Alcaraz-Más, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo. Aportar datos sobre el fenotipo determinado por las microdeleciones de los exones alfa del gen NRXN1. Casos clinicos. Se estudian tres casos neuropediatricos con microdeleciones intragenicas NRXN1 alfa. El fenotipo en estos tres casos es inespecifico, con retraso mental leve-moderado, trastornos de comportamiento y escasos rasgos dismorficos o malformaciones. Conclusion. El fenotipo encontrado en las microdeleciones de los exones alfa del gen NRXN1 es claramente distinguible del fenotipo encontrado en las microdeleciones de los exones beta, con macrocefalia, epilepsia y retraso mental.

  15. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  16. [Procalcitonin as a marker of intra-abdominal infection].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Comesaña, Elías; Ballinas-Miranda, Julio Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la procalcitonina es un marcador bastante específico de infección y en los últimos años se ha demostrado su superioridad, con respecto a otros marcadores de inflamación como la proteína C reactiva, para el diagnóstico y vigilancia de una gran variedad de infecciones. Objetivo: resumir los datos actualmente existentes y discutir la utilidad de la procalcitonina en diversas infecciones intrabdominales, incluidas las postoperatorias. Conclusiones: los resultados de estudios hasta ahora publicados son variables, lo que genera controversia en relación con su utilidad.

  17. El medio interestelar alrededor de estrellas Of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, N.; Cappa, C.

    Se analiza la distribución del hidrógeno neutro interestelar en la vecindad de algunas estrellas Of con el fin de investigar la presencia de burbujas de H I vinculadas a las estrellas. Se determinan los parámetros físicos de las burbujas de H I encontradas y se comparan con estructuras similares vinculadas a estrellas Wolf-Rayet. El estudio se lleva a cabo en base a datos pertenecientes al relevamiento de Weaver y Willians (1973).

  18. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  19. [Fever of unknown origin, comparing two series with 26 years of difference].

    PubMed

    Casarrubias-Ramírez, Moisés; Alfaro-Mejía, José Alfredo; De Santiago-Leaños, Juan; Mendoza-Álvarez, Sergio Alberto; Pineda-Galindo, Luis Francisco; Vera-Lastra, Olga Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la fiebre de origen oscuro (FOO) es un síndrome de abordaje difícil y espectro cambiante. El objetivo fue comparar dos series de FOO estudiadas en el departamento de Medicina Interna del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico La Raza.Métodos: fue un estudio comparativo de datos secundarios: los datos de la serie 1979-87, que fueron publicados por Frati et al. y los de la serie 2004-14, registrados en la base de datos de FOO del departamento de Medicina Interna. Se compararon datos demográficos, diagnósticos finales y pruebas diagnósticas utilizadas. Se describen mediana y amplitud para las variables numéricas y distribución de frecuencias para las variables nominales. El análisis bivariado se hizo con chi cuadrada o prueba de Fisher con los programas SPSS versión 17.0 para MAC y open epi versión 3.7.Resultados: se incluyeron 127 pacientes en la serie 1979-87, y 118 en la 2004-14. La serie más reciente tuvo menos casos ocasionados por infecciones, (p = 0.024), y más enfermedades inflamatorias no infecciosas (p = 0.0004). Se mantuvieron constantes las enfermedades neoplásicas y los casos con diagnóstico desconocido. Variaron poco las pruebas de laboratorio realizadas y su utilidad diagnóstica; en cambio los estudios de imagen fueron menos útiles en la serie 2004-14 (p = 0.00003). Las biopsias y la laparotomía fueron frecuentemente realizadas y útiles en ambas series.Conclusiones: En la última serie hubo más enfermedades inflamatorias no infecciosas a expensas de un menor número de infecciones. Los estudios invasivos siguen siendo necesarios.

  20. [Clinical experience with omalizumab in patients with severe asthma. Real-world data].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Correa, Jorge Bernardo; Bracamonte-Peraza, Raúl; Espinosa-Morales, Sylvia Marcela; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: El omalizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal que se prescribe en esquema de adición por pasos para el tratamiento del asma severa. Objetivos: Informar la experiencia en pacientes con asma severa a quienes se aplicó omalizumab conforme a las guías internaciones, en un contexto de datos de mundo real. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, clínico, observacional, abierto, analítico y transversal a partir de datos de la vida real. Se utilizó el esquema de Control del Asma de GINA 2006 para evaluar a los pacientes y con un cuestionario se calificaron las características del paciente, efectividad, seguridad y tolerancia al omalizumab. Resultados: Se estudiaron 48 pacientes, 34 mujeres y 14 hombres, con edad promedio de 39 años. La duración promedio de la enfermedad fue de 26 años. La concentración sérica promedio de la IgE fue de 522 UI. Al inicio del tratamiento, todos los pacientes estaban sin control del asma; al final, en 69% se obtuvo control del asma, 19% estaba parcialmente controlado y 12% sin modificaciones. Los cambios se observaron en promedio a los siete meses. Conclusión: El omalizumab es efectivo y seguro para tratar el asma severa cuando se aplica conforme las guías internacionales para el manejo del asma bronquial.

  1. The crystal structure of spermidine synthase with a multisubstrate adduct inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Korolev, Sergey; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Skarina, Tatiana; Beasley, Steven; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Pegg, Anthony E.; Savchenko, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Polyamines are essential in all branches of life. Spermidine synthase (putrescine aminopropyltransferase, PAPT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of spermidine, a ubiquitous polyamine. The crystal structure of the PAPT from Thermotoga maritima (TmPAPT) has been solved to 1.5 Å resolution in the presence and absence of AdoDATO (S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane), a compound containing both substrate and product moieties. This, the first structure of an aminopropyltransferase, reveals deep cavities for binding substrate and cofactor, and a loop that envelops the active site. The AdoDATO binding site is lined with residues conserved in PAPT enzymes from bacteria to humans, suggesting a universal catalytic mechanism. Other conserved residues act sterically to provide a structural basis for polyamine specificity. The enzyme is tetrameric; each monomer consists of a C-terminal domain with a Rossmann-like fold and an N-terminal β-stranded domain. The tetramer is assembled using a novel barrel-type oligomerization motif. PMID:11731804

  2. [Serum vitamin D and metabolic risk factors in a group of Spanish schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    De Piero Belmonte, Alexia; Rodríguez-Rodriguez, Elena; González-Rodríguez, Liliana Guadalupe; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; López-Sobaler, Ana María

    2014-12-17

    Objetivo: Analizar la situacion nutricional en vitamina D y su relacion con diferentes factores de riesgo asociados al sindrome metabolico (SM) en un grupo de escolares espanoles. Materiales y métodos: Se ha estudiado un colectivo de 314 escolares con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 13 anos, residentes en A Coruna, Barcelona, Madrid, Sevilla y Valencia. Se recogieron datos antropometricos de peso, talla, circunferencias de cintura, cadera y pliegue tricipital, datos de tension arterial y en suero se valoraron los niveles de glucosa, trigliceridos, HDL-c y 25-hidroxicolecalciferol (25(OH)D). Teniendo en cuenta el criterio de Cook se ha establecido la presencia de los siguientes factores de riesgo de SM: glucosa ≥100 mg/dL; perimetro de cintura ≥P90; trigliceridos >P90, HDL ≤P10; y presion arterial sistolica o diastolica >P90. Resultados: Los niveles sericos de 25(OH)D medios fueron de 23.0}8.6 ng/mL. Un 47,1% tuvo niveles indicadores de hipovitaminosis (20-30 ng/mL) y el 35% tuvo deficiencia de la vitamina (

  3. [Aetiology and treatment of epilepsy in a series of 1,557 patients].

    PubMed

    Torres-Ferrús, Marta; Toledo, Manuel; González-Cuevas, Montserrat; Seró-Ballesteros, Laia; Santamarina, Esteban; Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Sueiras-Gil, María; Cambrodí-Masip, Roser; Sarria, Silvana; Álvarez-Sabín, José; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Introduccion. La etiologia de la epilepsia es un determinante importante del tratamiento y el pronostico. Los avances diagnosticos y terapeuticos hacen pensar que la distribucion causal, el tratamiento y el pronostico de la poblacion con epilepsia se hayan podido ver modificados. Objetivo. Describir la distribucion sindromica, etiologica y el tratamiento farmacologico en los pacientes con epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal de pacientes con epilepsia atendidos de manera consecutiva en la consulta de nuestra unidad de epilepsia. Se recogieron datos demograficos, de sindrome, etiologia y tratamiento farmacologico en el momento de la inclusion. Se analizaron los datos de modo conjunto y por grupos de edad. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1.557 pacientes, el 54% varones. El 73% de la muestra tenia una epilepsia focal, que era secundaria a una lesion estructural en el 56%. Las epilepsias generalizadas representaron el 20%. El 5% fue inclasificable. Por edad, la etiologia vascular predominaba en practicamente todos los grupos y su prevalencia aumentaba en relacion con la edad. Los farmacos antiepilepticos mas utilizados fueron acido valproico (29%), levetiracetam (27%) y carbamacepina (20%). El 70% de las epilepsias generalizadas y el 57% de las focales seguian tratamiento en monoterapia. Conclusiones. La prevalencia por grupos de edad fue similar a la descrita en paises desarrollados aunque se observo una menor prevalencia de epilepsias criptogenicas. Mas del 60% de los pacientes seguia monoterapia y el acido valproico fue el mas utilizado.

  4. [Effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation in stroke patients: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Romera-De Francisco, L; Jimenez-Del Barrio, S

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. La electroestimulacion funcional es una de las tecnicas fisioterapicas empleadas en la actualidad para el abordaje de los pacientes que han sufrido un ictus. Objetivo. Conocer la efectividad de la electroestimulacion funcional en las capacidades generales, la marcha y la calidad de vida de los pacientes con ictus mediante una revision sistematica. Como objetivo secundario se planteo conocer el mejor metodo de aplicacion de esta tecnica. Pacientes y metodos. Se ha realizado una busqueda bibliografica en las bases de datos Medline, PEDro y Biblioteca Cochrane. Se han incluido ensayos clinicos y revisiones sistematicas de los ultimos cinco años que valorasen la efectividad de la electroestimulacion funcional en pacientes tras sufrir un ictus. Resultados. Se incluyeron 10 ensayos clinicos y una revision sistematica con metaanalisis, de los cuales se extrajeron los datos mas relevantes, se analizaron y se compararon. Conclusiones. La electroestimulacion funcional puede ayudar en la mejora de la calidad de vida, las capacidades motoras y la funcionalidad de la marcha en pacientes que han sufrido un ictus. No se puede afirmar que por si sola aporte mejores resultados que otras tecnicas convencionales de fisioterapia, y se observa una mayor efectividad con la aplicacion de electroestimulacion funcional asociada a otras tecnicas de fisioterapia. El mejor abordaje de la aplicacion con electroestimulacion funcional es el realizado en mas de un grupo muscular, desencadenando los impulsos mediante movimientos activos y en combinacion con otras intervenciones fisioterapicas.

  5. Relevamiento de HI en el Hemisferio Austral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Un nuevo relevamiento de HI de todo el Hemisferio Austral, comprendido entre -90o <= δ <= -25o, está siendo observado con la antena I del IAR. El mismo es realizado con alta sensibilidad (r.m.s.<= 0.07 K) y alta resolución espectral (1 Km/s). Un total de ~50000 posiciones en el cielo serán observadas, espaciadas en una grilla (lxb) de (0.5o x 0.5o). El intervalo de velocidades cubierto en este relevamiento abarca el rango -450 km/s a +450 km/s en el sistema LSR. Esta base de datos será corregida por efectos de ``stray radiation''. Al presente se ha observado ~70% del total del relevamiento. El mismo es complementario de uno similar realizado en el Hemisferio Norte por Hartman y Burton (1996), con cubrimiento espacial, sensibilidad, resoluciones espaciales y en velocidad, similares a los del IAR. El objetivo final de ambos relevamientos es disponer de una base de datos uniforme en todo el cielo.

  6. Is N-acetylcysteine effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Jeldres Pulgar, Alejandro; Labarca, Gonzalo

    2016-09-29

    La fibrosis pulmonar idiopática es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica y progresiva, que en etapas finales conlleva una alta mortalidad. Se han planteado múltiples opciones terapéuticas, entre ellas la N-acetilcisteína, pero su rol no está claramente establecido. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos ocho revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 16 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que N-acetilcisteína probablemente aumenta el riesgo de hospitalización y exacerbaciones. Si bien no está claro si esto conlleva un aumento de mortalidad porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja, en general existe consenso en que no debiera utilizarse, a no ser que sea en el contexto de un nuevo estudio clínico.

  7. Cabergoline or bromocriptine for prolactinoma?

    PubMed

    Triantafilo, Nicolás; Castro-Gutiérrez, Victoria; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-09-15

    Cabergolina y bromocriptina son los fármacos más utilizados en el manejo del prolactinoma. Si bien cabergolina, un agonista dopaminérgico de vida media larga, tendría algunas ventajas desde el punto de vista fisiopatológico, no está claro si esto se traduce en un real beneficio. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto comprenden 12 estudios relevantes para la pregunta, incluyendo cinco estudios controlados aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que la cabergolina es superior a la bromocriptina en la mejoría de la oligomenorrea/amenorrea y la galactorrea, probablemente aumenta la probabilidad de embarazo, y se asocia a menos efectos adversos. No está claro si cabergolina también es más efectiva sobre el crecimiento del tumor porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja.

  8. Cinética Química: el laboratorio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabañas Galán, B.

    La interpretación de las transformaciones químicas que se producen en la atmósfera requiere un profundo conocimiento de la cinética, productos y mecanismos de reacción de las posibles interacciones que pueden ocurrir entre las distintas especies presentes en ella. Información cuantitativa de este tipo es un prerrequisito para la construcción de modelos numéricos adecuados que expliquen el comportamiento químico-físico de la atmósfera. Esta información se obtiene a partir de experimentos realizados en laboratorios y por tanto independiente de medidas atmosféricas, por lo que los modelos atmosféricos derivados de ellos, pueden usarse para diagnosticar y predecir adecuadamente el comportamiento atmosférico. En esta exposición se recogen las técnicas experimentales más extendidas para la obtención de datos cinéticos así como los métodos de análisis de datos más utilizados en el estudio de las distintas reacciones de interés atmosférico. Se analizan sus características generales así como su adecuación a los distintos tipos de reacciones.

  9. [The influence of physical exercise in the prevention of cognitive deterioration in the elderly: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Franco-Martín, Manuel; Parra-Vidales, Esther; González-Palau, Fátima; Bernate-Navarro, Mara; Solis, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La poblacion espanola mayor de 65 anos continua creciendo, por lo que la atencion a adultos mayores se convierte en un objetivo de salud publica cada vez mas relevante. La actividad fisica esta siendo reconocida como un factor altamente protector de las funciones cognitivas en el envejecimiento, y se establece, en la actualidad, como una estrategia psicosocial prometedora para la proteccion de las facultades cognitivas. Pacientes y metodos. Mediante una busqueda bibliografica en las bases de datos PubMed, PsycINFO, Psicodoc, Scopus y SciELO, se revisaron sistematicamente los estudios relativos a la influencia del ejercicio fisico en la prevencion del deterioro cognitivo en adultos mayores sanos y en la reversion o en el mantenimiento del declive cognitivo una vez ya iniciado. Se seleccionaron y utilizaron 31 articulos como unidades de analisis. Resultados. En conjunto, estos estudios indicaron que un mayor indice de actividad fisica se relacionaria con un menor deterioro de las funciones cognitivas en adultos mayores sanos y con deterioro cognitivo ya manifiesto. Conclusiones. El ejercicio fisico constituye una estrategia psicosocial prometedora para la intervencion de adultos mayores con y sin signos de deterioro cognitivo. Serian convenientes mayores estudios que empleen una metodologia experimental, mayor homogeneidad en cuanto a los instrumentos de recogida de datos de funciones cognitivas y una profundizacion en la frecuencia e intensidad necesaria en las intervenciones.

  10. [Semantic verbal fluency of animals in amnesia-type mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Higes, Ramón; Prados, José M; del Rio, David; Galindo-Fuentes, Marta; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; Lozano-Ibanez, Montserrat

    2014-06-01

    Introduccion y objetivo. El analisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la tarea de fluidez verbal semantica ha permitido observar que las personas con demencia producen menos palabras y en grupos mas pequeños que las personas sin demencia. Sin embargo, en personas con deterioro cognitivo leve de tipo amnesico (DCLa) la investigacion ha mostrado resultados contradictorios respecto a la cantidad y el numero de los agrupamientos semanticos que se realizan. El objetivo de este estudio consistio en aportar nuevos datos para intentar solventar dicha controversia. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron en el estudio 22 personas mayores con diagnostico de DCLa (8 varones y 14 mujeres) y 43 adultos mayores (7 varones y 36 mujeres) con funcionamiento cognitivo normal que sirvieron de grupo control. Todos fueron evaluados en el Centro de Prevencion del Deterioro Cognitivo del Ayuntamiento de Madrid, tras completar la prueba de fluidez verbal de animales ademas de otras pruebas neuropsicologicas. Resultados. Como se esperaba, la produccion de animales fue menor en el grupo DCLa que en el grupo control, pero no se observaron diferencias ni en el tamaño medio de las agrupaciones semanticas ni en el numero de cambios entre dichas agrupaciones. Conclusiones. Los resultados son coherentes con investigaciones previas que sugieren que en el DCLa no solo concurren deficits en la memoria episodica y la memoria operativa, sino tambien en la memoria semantica. Sin embargo, los datos no aclaran el papel de los procesos ejecutivos estrategicos, como parece suceder en la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

  11. Design of VLBI Array in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, E. A.; Abraham, Z.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Estudiamos la localizaci6n 6ptima de estaciones de \\ ras' en territorlo brasileno. Con una red VLBI de estaciones reales y ficti- cias simulamos observaciones. Se usan los datos generados de estps ex- perimentos para obtener Ia distribuci6n de brillo de radiofuentes fic- ticias por medlo de tecaicas de mapeo bIbrido. Se concluye que l mejor localizaci6n de estacionee'VLBI futuras, tomando en cuenta las estacio- nes de EUA y de Europa, se encuentra en el Norte-Noreste de razll. El analisis de los datos se hizo con los programas de CALTECH, los cuales estan instalados en una computadora VAX del Departamento de Astronomla del Instituto Astron6mico y Geoflsico de la Universidad de Sa"'o Paulo. ABSTRACT: In this work we study the optimum localization for future VLBI stations in the Brazilian territory. With a VLBI network of real and fictitious stations we make simulations of observations. The data generated in these experiments are used to obtain brightness distribution of a fictitious radio source by the hybrid mapping techniques. We conclude that the best localization of a future VLBI station taking into account the addition of US and European Stations, is roughly in North-Northeast sites in Brazil. The analysis of the data is made with the software of CALTECH, which is installed in the VAX computer of the Astronomy Department of Instituto e Geofisico - USP. Key `{` : INSTRUMENTS - INTERFEROMETRY

  12. Seasonal relationships between birds and arthropods in bottomland forest canopy gaps.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, Liessa, Thomas

    2004-12-31

    Bowen, Liessa, Thomas. 2004. Seasonal relationships between birds and arthropods in bottomland forest canopy gaps. PhD Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 98pp. I investigated the influence of arthropod availability and vegetation structure on avian habitat use at the center, edge, and adjacent to forest canopy gaps in 2001 and 2002. I used mist-netting and plot counts to estimate abundance of birds using three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.5 ha) of 7-8 year old group-selection timber harvest openings during four seasons (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration) in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. I used foliage clipping, Malaise trapping, and pitfall trapping to determine arthropod abundance within each habitat, and I used a warm water crop-flush on captured birds to gather information about arthropods eaten. I observed more birds, including forest interior species, forest-edge spedge species, and several individual species, in early-successional canopy gap and gap-edge habitats than in surrounding mature forest during all seasons. I found a significant interaction between season and habitat type for several groups and individual species, suggesting a seasonal shift in habitat use. Captures of all birds, insectivorous birds, foliage- gleaners, ground-gleaners, aerial salliers, Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), and Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens) were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during two or more seasons. I found relationships between insectivorous birds and leaf-dwelling Lepidoptera, insectivorous birds and ground-dwelling arthropods, foliage-gleaning birds and foliage-dwelling arthropods, and aerial salliers and flying arthropods, as well as between individual bird species and arthropods. Relationships were inconsistent, however, with many

  13. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876

  14. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P

    2013-01-01

    The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories - Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta - Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan - Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba - Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876; Scolytus schevyrewi

  15. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  16. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876

  17. The Spanish diet: an update.

    PubMed

    Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ruiz, Emma; Valero, Teresa; Avila, José Manuel; del Pozo, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Antecedentes/objetivos: La Encuesta de Consumo de Alimentos, realizada durante 20 años por el Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente (MAGRAMA), es la fuente más fiable de datos para evaluar el consumo de alimentos y patrones dietéticos en España. El objetivo de este artículo fue revisar las tendencias dietéticas en España y su evolución. Se describe la evaluación de la disponibilidad de alimentos per cápita y día, que permite el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes y su comparación con el Consumo Recomendado de Nutrientes para la población española. Además, se han evaluado diferentes marcadores de la calidad de la dieta. Métodos: La muestra consistió en los datos de consumo y distribución, obtenidos de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Alimentos para el período 2000-2012. Se aplicó un método de muestreo en dos etapas en el que, en la primera etapa, las unidades que se muestreaban fueron ciudades y entidades locales y, en la segunda, se seleccionaron los hogares que conformaron la muestra final a partir de las entidades locales. Las unidades consistieron en ciudades o entidades locales del territorio nacional. Los datos permitieron el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes utilizando las tablas de Consumo de Alimentos (Moreiras et al., 2013). También se evaluó la calidad de la dieta: la adecuación de la dieta para alcanzar los consumos de energía y nutrientes recomendados; perfil de energía; calidad de la grasa de la dieta; calidad de la proteína de la dieta; densidad de nutrientes; índices de adecuación de la dieta mediterránea. Los datos actuales se compararon con los datos previos obtenidos por nuestro grupo de investigación en 1964, 1981 y 1991. Resultados: Utilizando los datos más recientes, el consumo promedio comprendía: leche y derivados (356 g/persona/día), frutas (323 g/persona/día), verduras y hortalizas (339 g/persona/día), cereales y derivados (197 g/persona/día), carne y productos c

  18. The efficacy and safety of natalizumab for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in Portugal: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, L; de Sa, J; Sa, M J; Cerqueira, J J; Martins-Silva, A

    2014-11-01

    Introduccion. Los estudios han demostrado que el natalizumab constituye un tratamiento eficaz contra la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente (EMRR). Hasta la fecha, no habia datos de pacientes portugueses. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia y la seguridad del natalizumab en pacientes con EMRR atendidos en la practica clinica ordinaria en Portugal. Pacientes y metodos. Los datos clinicos de adultos con EMRR tratados con natalizumab en centros especializados de neurologia en Portugal se introdujeron de forma retrospectiva en una base de datos para llevar a cabo un analisis entre octubre de 2010 y febrero de 2012. Se analizo el cambio en la tasa anualizada de brotes (TAB), en las puntuaciones de la escala ampliada de discapacidad (EDSS) y en el estado de discapacidad. Resultados. Se admitio un total de 383 pacientes atendidos en 20 centros. Antes de iniciar el tratamiento con natalizumab, la mediana inicial de la EDSS era de 4,0 y la TAB media, de 1,64. La mayor parte de los pacientes ya habia recibido tratamiento contra la esclerosis multiple (93,0%). La duracion media del tratamiento con natalizumab era de 12 meses. El tratamiento propicio reducciones significativas (p < 0,001) de los valores iniciales de la TAB media y de las puntuaciones EDSS en los tratados con el anticuerpo durante >= 12 meses (n = 288) y durante >= 24 meses (n = 160). El natalizumab resulto mas eficaz en los pacientes que presentaban un menor grado de discapacidad (EDSS < 3,0) y en los que no habian recibido ningun tratamiento modificador de la enfermedad. Se notificaron dos casos de leucoencefalopatia multifocal progresiva. No hubo efectos adversos inesperados. Conclusion. El natalizumab presenta una tolerabilidad satisfactoria y se muestra eficaz en la reduccion de las recidivas y la estabilizacion de la EMRR en el marco de la practica clinica ordinaria en Portugal. Conserva su eficacia con el tratamiento continuado y podria ser eficaz especialmente en los pacientes con menos discapacidad y

  19. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Izaga, Marta; Andía Muñoz, Virginia; Demon, Geert

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la población saharaui residente en los campamentos de Tinduf (Argelia) se considera vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional.Objetivos: evaluar los hábitos dietéticos de un grupo de mujeres emigrantes saharauis con el fin de obtener datos para diseñar un programa de educación nutricional (EN) destinado a mujeres residentes en los campamentos.Métodos: la información sobre hábitos dietéticos se registró a través de historias dietéticas. Los resultados de ingesta de macro y micronutrientes se compararon con los rangos aceptables de distribución y los requerimientos medios estimados. También se recogieron datos demográficos, socioeconómicos y sobre salud. Análisis estadístico: SPSS vs 22.0. A partir de los datos obtenidos y de la revisión de los programas de salud llevados a cabo en campamentos y de otros programas de EN se diseñó un programa específico.Resultados: la alimentación en campamentos se caracterizó por ser deficitaria en energía y por un bajo consumo de fibra (6,1 [2,8] g/día), de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (6,9 [2,9]% del valor calórico total) y de la mayoría de los micronutrientes. El aumento en la disponibilidad de alimentos tras emigrar a España incrementó la ingesta calórica, pero la dieta siguió siendo inadecuada. El programa de EN diseñado se basó en la formación de formadoras. En este manuscrito se proporciona información detallada sobre la organización y el material a emplear en esta intervención educativa.Discusión y conclusión: la alimentación de las mujeres saharauis en campamentos y tras emigrar a España fue inadecuada, lo que corrobora que la aculturación puede estar asociada a cambios no saludables. Cabe esperar que el programa de EN diseñado contribuya a mejorar su bienestar nutricional.

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Izaga, Marta; Andía Muñoz, Virginia; Demon, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la población saharaui residente en los campamentos de Tinduf (Argelia) se considera vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional.Objetivos: evaluar los hábitos dietéticos de un grupo de mujeres emigrantes saharauis con el fin de obtener datos para diseñar un programa de educación nutricional (EN) destinado a mujeres residentes en los campamentos.Métodos: la información sobre hábitos dietéticos se registró a través de historias dietéticas. Los resultados de ingesta de macro y micronutrientes se compararon con los rangos aceptables de distribución y los requerimientos medios estimados. También se recogieron datos demográficos, socioeconómicos y sobre salud. Análisis estadístico: SPSS vs 22.0. A partir de los datos obtenidos y de la revisión de los programas de salud llevados a cabo en campamentos y de otros programas de EN se diseñó un programa específico.Resultados: la alimentación en campamentos se caracterizó por ser deficitaria en energía y por un bajo consumo de fibra (6,1 [2,8] g/día), de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (6,9 [2,9]% del valor calórico total) y de la mayoría de los micronutrientes. El aumento en la disponibilidad de alimentos tras emigrar a España incrementó la ingesta calórica, pero la dieta siguió siendo inadecuada. El programa de EN diseñado se basó en la formación de formadoras. En este manuscrito se proporciona información detallada sobre la organización y el material a emplear en esta intervención educativa.Discusión y conclusión: la alimentación de las mujeres saharauis en campamentos y tras emigrar a España fue inadecuada, lo que corrobora que la aculturación puede estar asociada a cambios no saludables. Cabe esperar que el programa de EN diseñado contribuya a mejorar su bienestar nutricional. PMID:27019252

  1. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    PubMed Central

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE FOOD PATTERNS OF IMMIGRANT ECUADORIAN POPULATION IN SOUTHERN SPAIN BASED ON A 24-H FOOD RECALL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Sanchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: ecuador es un país con limitada información nutricional con la excepción de algunos estudios de carácter general realizados por FAO (Food Agriculture Organization). Objetivos: realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta de la población inmigrante ecuatoriana en el sur de España para determinar diferencias en los patrones alimentarios y posibles deficiencias nutricionales. Métodos: la evaluación nutricional se basa en un estudio de recordatorio de alimentos de 24 horas llevado acabo sobre la población ecuatoriana residente en Sevilla y Córdoba (España) en combinación con la aplicación de bases de datos nacionales e internacionales de composición de alimentos. Se estimaron los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes y el cumplimiento de las ingestas dietéticas de referencia (IDR) que se analizaron estadísticamente para los factores, genero, edad, profesión y ciudad. Resultados: según las IDR utilizadas, la distribución de macronutrientes y los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes fueron, en la mayoría de los casos, adecuadas. De manera destacada, se constató que los hábitos alimentarios ecuatorianos permanecieron en la población inmigrante, con el arroz como fuente principal de energía. Los niveles de ingesta fueron significativamente diferentes para diferentes nutrientes dependiendo del grupo de edad, sexo, lugar de residencia y ocupación profesional. Comparando estos datos con un estudio previo en Ecuador reveló que la población inmigrante en España presenta un mejor estado nutricional, si bien en ambas poblaciones se detectaron deficiencias en fibra, vitamina E, I y Se. En cuanto a estas deficiencias, los resultados no pueden considerarse concluyentes debido a limitaciones propias de las bases de datos (por ej. Se) y a la carencia de estudios adecuados que permitan una evaluación más precisa (por ej. estudios de larga duración para vitamina E). Conclusiones: estos resultados evidencian que la población inmigrante

  3. Executive functions in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que explican el desarrollo y la persistencia de la anorexia nerviosa (AN) siguen sin estar claros. Con respecto al funcionamiento neuropsicológico, se han señalado alteraciones en las funciones ejecutivas, especialmente en la flexibilidad cognitiva y en los procesos de toma de decisiones. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar el estado actual de los estudios neuropsicológicos sobre anorexia nerviosa, especialmente los centrados en las funciones ejecutivas. Métodos: Se realizó un proceso de búsqueda con tres relevantes bases de datos electrónicas, así como una búsqueda adicional con las referencias incluidas en los documentos analizados. Finalmente hay que mencionar otras revisiones ya publicadas y una búsqueda manual de otras fuentes. Resultados y discusión: Los datos de comparación de pacientes y controles sanos siguen siendo controvertidos, así como la comparación entre los diferentes trastornos de la alimentación con respecto a la disfunción neuropsicológica. El papel de variables como depresión, ansiedad y obsesividad necesita ser aclarado. Parece que hay alguna base para afirmar que existen algunos puntos en común entre los llamados trastornos de peso extremo (anorexia, obesidad). El vínculo entre la disfunción neuropsicológica en AN y biomarcadores aún no está claro. El papel de los déficits neuropsicológicos en la AN, como factores iniciales o simplemente como meras consecuencias, tampoco está aclarado. La relación entre los trastornos de imagen corporal y la disfunción neuropsicológica debe asimismo aclararse. Los datos sobre las similitudes, en cuanto a la disfunción neuropsicológica, entre AN y otros trastornos mentales pueden ser considerados, hasta la fecha, como una mera aproximación. Lo mismo ocurre con la relación entre el rendimiento neuropsicológico de los pacientes con AN y la personalidad o el género.

  4. A SOUTHERN ATLAS OF GALACTIC HYDROGEN (THE REGION 0 degrees \\< Q \\< 12 degrees, -3 degrees >/ B -17 degrees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, M. L.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Vieira, E. R.

    1987-05-01

    RESUMEN Se presentan datos observacionales en la lfnea de 21-cm del hidr6geno neutro obtenidos con el radiotelescopio de 30-rn del lAR. Las observaciones cubren la regi6n 00 < Q 120, 30 > b - 170 en intervalos dell0 tanto en Q como en b. El intervalo de velocidades radiales se extiende desde -100 km 1 hasta + 100 km 1 con una resolucj6n cinematica de 2km 1 ABSTRACT We present observational data in the 21-rn line of neutral hydrogen, which have been obtained with the 30-rn dish of the lAR. The observations cover 00 < Q 120, 30 > b > 170 at intervals of 10 in both Qand b. The radial velocity interval extends from -100 to + 100km 1 with a kinematical resolution of 2 km s- . Key words: GALAXY-STRUCTURE - RADIO LINES-21-cm

  5. VII Workshop Italiano sulla fisica pp a LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCpp2016 è la settima edizione dell'incontro nazionale sulla fisica p-p a LHC. Questa serie di incontri è nata a Pisa nel 2003 con lo scopo di stimolare lo scambio di idee tra le comunità sperimentali di ATLAS, CMS e LHCB e la comunità teorica. Caratteristica fondamentale di questi incontri è la preparazione di larga parte dei talk in collaborazione tra i vari esperimenti e la comunità teorica. Largo spazio nella preparazione e presentazione dei talk viene dato ai giovani ricercatori. In questa settima edizione, che si tiene di nuovo a Pisa, vogliamo concentrare l'attenzione sulle potenzialità di scoperta offerte dai dati raccolti durante il runII di LHC.

  6. [Validation of cut points of skeletal muscle mass index for identifying sarcopenia in Chilean older people].

    PubMed

    Lera, Lydia; Ángel, Bárbara; Sánchez, Hugo; Picrin, Yaisy; Hormazabal, María José; Quiero, Andrea; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-09-28

    Objetivos: Estimar y validar puntos de corte de índice de masa muscular esquelética (IMMAE) en adultos mayores chilenos, para el diagnóstico de sarcopenia Métodos: Estimación de puntos de corte para IMMAE determinados por DEXA y por ecuación antropométrica en un análisis secundario de datos transversales de 440 Adultos Mayores (AM) chilenos, y posterior validación transversal en una muestra de 164 AM. Se realizaron pruebas de rendimiento físico, auto-reporte de salud, antropometría y DEXA. Se definió la fuerza muscular disminuida por dinamometría de mano.

  7. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation.

    PubMed

    Bolognini Pereira, Kallyne; de Azeredo, Vilma Blondet; Barros da Sileira, Camila; Pedruzzi, Liliana Magnago

    2013-11-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la composición de la leche materna de lactantes adolescentes en función del tiempo de la lactancia. Métodos: Se siguieron 51 adolescentes lactantes, entre la semana 6 y 14 después del parto (WPP). Se llevaron a cabo la determinación de grasa, proteína y lactosa de la leche, respectivamente, por los métodos de Lucas, Lowry y Perry & Doan. Los micronutrientes se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Los datos fueron presentados por la media y el error estándar. ANOVA con medidas repetidas se utilizó Tukey como prueba post. Se aceptó un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: Se observó una reducción significativa (P.

  8. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.  PMID:25661231

  9. [Phenotypes of bone and adipose tissue metabolism. A systematic review of their relationship].

    PubMed

    Nava-González, Edna J; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: existe una regulación central de la remodelación ósea en el hipotálamo, vía que al parecer también regula el metabolismo del tejido adiposo. El objetivo de la revisión que se presenta fue explorar la evidencia bibliográfica sobre las relaciones entre la densidad ósea mineral y los fenotipos de la composición corporal, leptina, tejido adiposo y del eje insulina-glucosa. MÉTODOS: se efectuó una búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos electrónicas, para examinar los documentos que abordan discusiones sobre la vinculación del metabolismo óseo mineral y la biología integrativa del tejido adiposo, publicados entre enero de 2005 y noviembre de 2011.

  10. [Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis. A case report].

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, Ignacio; Sánchez-Ruvalcaba, Itzel; Sánchez-Martinez, Luis Carlos; Hernández-Ordoñez, Octavio; Gómez-Lara, Miguel; Flores-Carrillo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: el linfedema penoescrotal (también conocido como elefantiasis penoescrotal) es una condición que históricamente se ha descrito en áreas en las que la filariasis es endémica. Caso clínico: presentamos el caso de un hombre de 45 años de edad con linfedema escrotal. Después de descartar las causas adquiridas de linfedema, el paciente fue sometido a escrotectomía, prepuciectomía y reconstrucción escrotal y peneana. Actualmente el paciente se encuentra en seguimiento, sin datos de recidiva. Conclusión: el linfedema penoescrotal puede causar síntomas de debilidad e inmovilidad, así como problemas psicológicos. La cirugía otorga resultados cosméticos y funcionales aceptables.

  11. Critical periods in the variation in body composition in school children.

    PubMed

    Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Bresciani, Guilherme; Alvarez, Ana; Arriagada, Valentina; Beneventi, Angelo; Canepa, Valentina; Espinoza, Paula; Parraguez, Melisa; Toledo, Carlos; Valencia, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Identificar periodos críticos en la variación de la composición corporal durante un año escolar y determinar causas posibles. Métodos: Un total de 363 niños y niñas entre 10 y 14 años participaron en el estudio. Antes y después de las Vacaciones de invierno (VI) y Vacaciones nacionales (VN) (julio y septiembre, respectivamente), se tomaron mediciones de peso corporal, porcentaje de grasa corporal, perímetro en la cintura, tiempo dedicado a actividad física y horas de sueño para determinar las variaciones. La normalidad de los datos fue confirmada y las medias fueron comparadas con un nivel de significancia alfa de p.

  12. [Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and insuffiency and associated factors in pregnant women of northern Spain].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Dehli, Ana Cristina; Riaño Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Espada, Mercedes; Vioque, Jesús; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-04-01

    Introducción y objetivos: El déficit de vitamina D durante el embarazo se ha relacionado con sucesos adversos durante la gestación y con el desarrollo infantil postnatal. En este estudio examinamos los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina D [25(OH)D3] y los factores asociados a su deficiencia e insuficiencia plasmática en embarazadas del norte de España. Material y método: Se han analizado los datos de 453 gestantes participantes en la cohorte INMA-Asturias a las que se determinó la 25(OH)D3 mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Se ha estimado la ingesta dietética de vitamina D mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia alimentaria validado. Se han estimado las prevalencias de deficiencia [25(OH)D3.

  13. Manual del espectrógrafo multifunción de Bosque Alegre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Paolantonio, S.; Carranza, G.; Goldes, G.

    Este manual consta de 120 páginas y resume las características del Espectrógrafo Multifunción instalado en el telescopio de 1.54 m de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre. En este trabajo se describen, además, las técnicas a emplear para su puesta a punto y la secuencia de operaciones para la obtención de datos en cada uno de los modos que ya se encuentran en funcionamiento. Parte de este trabajo se realizó con el apoyo de la Asociación Argentina de Astronomía, a través de becas otorgadas a R.D. y S.P..

  14. Espectro de radiación derivado de un modelo de colapso protoestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca, S.; Rohrmann, R.

    El exceso de emisión infrarroja en objetos protoestelares es atribuido usualmente a un disco de material en torno al cuerpo central. A pesar del avance alcanzado en la elaboración de modelos, aún existen dificultades para explicar la ley de temperatura del disco necesaria para reproducir las luminosidades y perfiles de energía observados. Nuestra propuesta consiste en determinar la distribución espectral de la radiación derivada de un particular modelo de colapso protoestelar, y estudiar la evolución del espectro desde estadíos tempranos de la contracción gravitatoria. Este plan es orientado a evaluar las propiedades del modelo (distribuciones de masa y temperatura del material circunestelar) por comparación con datos observacionales, a fin de inferir de ello los posibles ajustes requeridos en la teoría actualmente empleada.

  15. Estrellas Wolf-Rayet y el medio interestelar: huellas de una fuerte interacción

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichowolski, S.; Arnal, E. M.

    Se presentan resultados observacionales de un estudio de la distribución de hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR) galácticas. Los datos de la línea de 21 cm provienen de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. La muestra está compuesta por cuatro WR de la serie del nitrógeno (WN): WR130, WR131, WR155, WR156 y tres WR de la serie del carbono (WC): WR154, WR117 y WR126. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de HI en expansión presumiblemente vinculadas a dichas estrellas.

  16. Determinación de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial de estrellas B y A de secuencia principal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S.; Rayle, K. E.; Sanders, S. E., Jr.

    Las temperaturas efectivas (Teff) y gravedades superficiales (log g) de un grupo de estrellas de tipo B y A de Secuencia Principal se determinaron en varias etapas. En una primera aproximación se usaron los índices fotométricos de Strömgren para realizar el cálculo con el programa de Napiwotski et al.(1993). Luego se hizo un ajuste comparando datos espectrofotométricos con flujos obtenidos con el modelo ATLAS9 en la región visible. Y a continuación se hizo un mejor ajuste comparando los perfiles de la línea Hγ con espectros sintéticos calculados con SYNTHE. Además, se analizó el efecto de usar el modelo de Canuto y Mazzitelli (1991), donde se considera The Mixing Length Theory, en modelos de atmósferas de estrellas.

  17. [Nosocomial infections. Trends over a 12 year-period in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Lugo, Irma; Espinosa-Vital, Guadalupe Judith; Rodríguez-Sing, Roberta; Gómez-González, Claudia Josefina; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones nosocomiales constituyen uno de los principales problemas de salud en los hospitales, por ello, los programas de prevención y control deben ser evaluados con el impacto en las tasas de incidencia. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar la tendencia de las infecciones nosocomiales durante un periodo de 12 años en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes hospitalizados que presentaron infecciones nosocomiales. El análisis estadístico de los datos incluyó frecuencias simples, proporciones y densidad de incidencia por año, sitio de infección y letalidad.

  18. Nuevos fenómenos en erupciones cometarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.

    Se discuten aquí tres procesos físicos novedosos encontrados en la actividad de cometas: 1) El rol de una distribución de granos de hielo como fuente extendida de H2O en la coma, 2) El efecto de una discontinuidad en el plasma cometario, llamada Cometopausa, sobre la excitación del radical OH , y 3) La actividad por erupciones a grandes distancias heliocéntricas (r > 5 AU). Con respecto a 1) y 2), se presentan modelos que ajustan bien con las observaciones. En cuanto a 3), se presentan explicaciones posibles al fenómeno, y se trata el interesante caso de Chirón 2060, basándose en observaciones propias tomadas desde el CASLEO y datos anteriores.

  19. Resonancias en la región trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansión de la órbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernández e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinámicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolución estable, en contraste con el comportamiento caótico del resto de la región trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todavía muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicación presentamos un estudio analítico y numérico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  20. Are you afraid of the dark? Notes on the psychology of belief in histories of science and the occult.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Infolge der neuesten Fortschritte innerhalb der Wissenschaftsgeschichte gilt der bis dato gängige Blick auf den inhärenten Konflikt zwischen Wissenschaft und dem Okkulten als hinfällig. Diese Neuerungen innerhalb der Wissenschaft wurden jedoch von der Öffentlichkeit nicht wahrgenommen. Insbesondere die Rekonstruktion der Genese der modernen Psychologie und ihren Verbindungen zu parapsychologischen Forschungen zeigen, dass sich letztere nicht einfach als Ausdruck von metaphysischer Voreingenommenheit verstehen lassen. Um nun einen Ausgleich zu schaffen, werde ich Fälle eines ,‘Willens zum Unglauben‘ diskutieren und davon ausgehend den Vorschlag machen, dass allgemeine psychologische Erklärungen nur dann hilfreich für ein Geschichtsverständnis sind, wenn wir sie in einer symmetrischen Art und Weise anwenden.

  1. SDI-based business processes: A territorial analysis web information system in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjar, Rubén; Latre, Miguel Á.; Lopez-Pellicer, Francisco J.; Nogueras-Iso, Javier; Zarazaga-Soria, F. J.; Muro-Medrano, Pedro R.

    2012-09-01

    Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provide access to geospatial data and operations through interoperable Web services. These data and operations can be chained to set up specialized geospatial business processes, and these processes can give support to different applications. End users can benefit from these applications, while experts can integrate the Web services in their own business processes and developments. This paper presents an SDI-based territorial analysis Web information system for Spain, which gives access to land cover, topography and elevation data, as well as to a number of interoperable geospatial operations by means of a Web Processing Service (WPS). Several examples illustrate how different territorial analysis business processes are supported. The system has been established by the Spanish National SDI (Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de España, IDEE) both as an experimental platform for geoscientists and geoinformation system developers, and as a mechanism to contribute to the Spanish citizens knowledge about their territory.

  2. Informe trata el descenso del cáncer y los tumores cerebrales

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad en los Estados Unidos de todos los cánceres en hombres y mujeres siguieron bajando entre 2003 y 2007, que es el período más reciente del que se disponen datos, según el último Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer. El informe encuentra también que el índice general combinado de nuevos diagnósticos de cáncer en hombres y mujeres decreció un promedio un poco menos de 1% por año en el mismo período.

  3. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  4. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  5. [Characteristics of pediatric patients with biliary lithiasis. Immediate post-operative evolution].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Saavedra, David; Flores-Calderón, Judith; González-Ortiz, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Perla

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la litiasis biliar es una enfermedad poco diagnosticada en los niños; en México, la prevalencia es inferior a 1 %. Dada la escasez de investigaciones que aborden la epidemiologia y resultados de la cirugía en los pacientes pediátricos, nuestro objetivo fue conocer la epidemiologia y evolución posoperatoria de los pacientes pediátricos con litiasis biliar. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo trasversal. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de litiasis biliar atendidos durante un periodo de seis años, cuyos datos estuvieran completos en los expedientes clínicos.

  6. [Clinical characteristics of pediatric patients treated for influenza A (H1N1). The 2009 pandemic in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Pacheco, Yazmín Carmen; Flores-Ruiz, Eric Moisés; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Meza-Chávez, Abigail; Zamudio-Lugo, Irma; Vázquez-Rosales, José Guillermo; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en abril de 2009 se informó por primera vez del virus pandémico de la influenza A H1N1. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir el curso clínico de los pacientes atendidos con enfermedad tipo influenza en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: estudio transversal analítico que comprendió el periodo de abril de 2009 a marzo de 2010. La información clínica y demográfica se obtuvo de los expedientes clínicos. El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial, para lo cual se aplicó análisis univariado mediante chi cuadrada, prueba exacta de Fisher y U de Mann-Whitney para las variables cuantitativas.

  7. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  8. Quality of life of diabetic patients with medical or surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Weiner, S; Neugehauer, E A M

    2013-03-01

    Introducción: En general, la mayoría de los estudios coinciden en que la calidad de vida de las personas con diabetes es peor que la calidad de vida de la población general (QoL). Además, estos mismos estudios también han descrito efectos muy positivos sobre la calidad de vida tras cirugía bariátrica. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar si el impacto sobre la calidad de vida de los pacientes diabéticos después de ser sometidos a cirugía bariátrica según el test (QoL) es el que se supone debería ser. Métodos: Analizamos nuestra colección de datos prospectivos de 524 pacientes diabéticos que se sometieron a cirugía bariátrica entre 2001 y 2005. Todos los pacientes realizaron 3 cuestionarios de calidad de vida antes de la cirugía y después de 1, 3, 6 y 12 meses. Las respuestas se recogieron en una base de datos anual. Todos los pacientes se sometieron a una intervención de banda gástrica ajustable, Bypass Gástrico en-Y-Roux o BPD-Scopinaro. Resultados: En total se obtuvieron los datos completos de 89 pacientes que fueron incluidos en el estudio. 1 año después de la cirugía, la calidad de vida mejoró de manera significativa e independientemente de la remisión de la enfermedad y de la pérdida de peso. La diabetes mejoró en todos los casos. La mejora en la calidad de vida fue superior en los pacientes con remisión de la enfermedad que en los que únicamente mejoraron su estado, pero inferior que en los pacientes que no tenían diabetes antes de la operación. Conclusiones: Tras el análisis de la literatura y de nuestros propios datos prospectivos, podemos concluir que los beneficios que obtienen los pacientes diabéticos tras la cirugía bariátrica son debidos principalmente a la mejora de su diabetes, independientemente del IMC inicial y de la disminución del IMC tras la intervención. Se necesitan más estudios para investigar los resultados del test QoL en diabéticos con bajo índice de masa corporal tras la cirugía bari

  9. Endo-parasite fauna of rodents caught in five wet markets in Kuala Lumpur and its potential zoonotic implications.

    PubMed

    Paramasvaran, S; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Hanjeet, K; Krishnasamy, M; John, J; Santhana, R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H

    2009-04-01

    Rodents were collected from five wet markets (Chow Kit, Dato Keramat, Setapak, Jinjang and Kepong) in Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory between March to April 2006. Ninety seven rats were trapped using wire traps measuring 29 x 22 x 50 cm baited with fruits, coconuts, dried fish or sweet potatoes. A total of 17 different species of parasites were identified from three species of rats out of which 11 (65%) were identified to be zoonotic. The helminths identified from the urban rats were nematodes- Capillaria hepatica, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Heterakis spumosa, Heterakis sp., Masterphorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Physolaptera sp., Pterogodermatis sp., Rictularia tani and Syphacia muris; cestodes- Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis sabnema, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and acanthocephalan- Moniliformis moniliformis. The following parasites are of potential medical importance: C. hepatica, G. neoplasticum, R. tani, S. muris, H. diminuta, H. nana, Raillietina sp. and T. taeniaeformis.

  10. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia J].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Medina, Julio César; Cárdenas-Lara, Armando; Guerrero-Rascón, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Bautista, Heber

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la disfagia con afección neurológica constituye un dato clínico significativo en el diagnóstico de lesiones que justifiquen la compresión del tronco cerebral y los nervios craneales bajos. Objetivo: destacar la importancia del estudio de la disfagia en una paciente con malformación de Chiari tipo I y siringomielia, sin síntomas gastroenterológicos primarios. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una mujer de 62 años de edad con disfagia orofaríngea de seis años de evolución, cervicobraquialgia, ptosis palpebral y diplejía facial. Conclusiones: el estudio por resonancia magnética constituye un elemento fundamental para establecer el diagnóstico causal de la disfagia neurogénica.

  11. [Antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens isolated in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Araceli; Peregrino-Bejarano, Leoncio; Camacho-Velázquez, Martha; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la infección urinaria es una de las más comunes en todas las edades. Recientemente se ha incrementado la resistencia antimicrobiana. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los agentes etiológicos más frecuentes de infección urinaria y sus perfiles de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo una encuesta transversal descriptiva. Se incluyeron los pacientes con infección urinaria identificados durante un año. Se registró tipo de infección, condición de riesgo, tratamientos antimicrobianos, microorganismos y resistencia antimicrobiana. El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante estadística descriptiva.

  12. [Study of death with secondary diagnosis of malnutrition in a third level hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Martínez Cirre, Ma Carmen; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Peña Taveras, Manuel del Carmen; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Martínez Tapias, Jesús; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición constituye uno de los principales problemas de Salud Pública, según datos de la OMS, es la primera causa de mortalidad, cuando la misma afecta al colectivo de los sujetos hospitalizados, toma entidad propia denominándose “desnutrición hospitalaria”. Objetivos: El objetivo general es cuantificar los diagnósticos principales de alta más frecuentes, que causan exitus, con el diagnóstico secundario de desnutrición. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal y descriptivo, en el que se han incluido todas las altas hospitalarias del año 2011 y primer semestre de 2012, que han sido exitus y que tienen como diagnóstico secundario la desnutrición, siendo el total de 33. Se ha realizado un análisis estadístico descriptivo, efectuándose el test de Mann-Whitney para pruebas no paramétricas (p < 0,05). Resultados: Los diagnósticos principales más frecuentes entre las 33 altas analizadas son la sepsis (12,1%), metástasis hepáticas (9,1%), neumonía (6,1%), insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (6,1%) e insuficiencia renal aguda (6,1%). Conclusiones: Aunque el diagnóstico principal más frecuente es la sepsis, al agrupar los diagnósticos, el GRD más frecuente es de patología respiratoria, por lo que se ha de hacer codificación exhaustiva y de calidad para ajustar el peso relativo de los mismos a la realidad. Es fundamental especificar en la fuente de información clínica utilizada para la codificación, el grado de desnutrición, para obtener mayor especificidad en los datos.

  13. [Multisite study for norming and standardizing neuropsychological instruments in healthy people for Spanish population: methods and characteristics of Normacog project].

    PubMed

    del Pino, Rocío; Peña, Javier; Schretlen, David J; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa; Ojeda, Natalia

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. Muchos de los instrumentos neuropsicologicos utilizados en España se han normalizado en poblacion hispanohablante procedente de Estados Unidos y Sudamerica, con grupos de edad y caracteristicas restrictivas. Utilizar este tipo de normas disminuye potencialmente su representatividad, la interpretacion de los resultados y las decisiones clinicas. Este estudio se enmarca dentro del proyecto Normacog, con el fin de estandarizar instrumentos neuropsicologicos en una muestra representativa de la sociedad española. Objetivo. Presentar la metodologia de normalizacion llevada a cabo en el proyecto Normacog y las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la poblacion española y de los participantes incluidos en el estudio. Sujetos y metodos. Se reclutaron 711 participantes (rango: 18-90 años) de diferentes areas geograficas de España, incluyendo los datos sociodemograficos, medicos, habitos habituales, lengua materna, bilinguismo y dominancia manual. Cada participante completo 19 instrumentos que evaluaban un amplio rango de dominios cognitivos, como memoria verbal y visual, atencion, funciones ejecutivas, velocidad de procesamiento o fluidez y denominacion verbal. Resultados. La muestra final normativa refleja las caracteristicas sociodemograficas y la representatividad de la poblacion española de acuerdo con los rangos de edad, educacion y sexo. Conclusiones. Se describe la metodologia de normalizacion y las caracteristicas de la muestra incluida en el estudio multicentrico Normacog, mediante el cual se llevara a cabo la estandarizacion y normalizacion de instrumentos neuropsicologicos, teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas sociodemograficas propias de la poblacion española. El proyecto Normacog proporciona datos normativos adecuados a nuestro medio cultural, y es esencial para poder realizar un diagnostico clinico y neuropsicologico fiable.

  14. [Current status of alternative therapies renal function at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Durán, Antonio; Ignorosa-Luna, Manuel Humberto; Pérez-Aguilar, Gilberto; Rivera-Rodríguez, Francisco Jesús; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Dávila-Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el IMSS realiza de manera sistemática la actualización de datos de los pacientes en terapias sustitutivas de la función renal (TSFR) mediante un registro electrónico denominado: Censo de administración de pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica (CIRC), cuyo objetivo es conocer la prevalencia de pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica y el comportamiento de las TSFR en el IMSS. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo, incluye 212 hospitales de segundo nivel con programas de diálisis, pacientes pediátricos y adultos. Datos obtenidos del CIRC de enero a diciembre de 2014, cédulas numeral y nominal de diálisis peritoneal (DP) y hemodiálisis (HD). Se identifica prevalencia de pacientes y terapias por delegación, distribución por género y edad, causa de la enfermedad renal, la morbilidad y mortalidad. Resultados: 55 101 pacientes, de los cuales fueron 29 924 masculinos (54 %) y 25 177 femeninos (46 %); edad promedio 62.1 años (rng: 4 a 90); pensionados 20 387 (36.9 %). Las causas de la insuficiencia renal fueron: diabetes 29 054 (52.7 %), hipertensión arterial 18 975 (34.4%), glomerulopatías crónicas 3951 (7.2 %), riñones poliquísticos 1142 (2.1 %), congénitos 875 (1.6 %), y otras 1104 (2 %). La HD se otorgó en 41 % de los pacientes y la DP al 59 % restante; el costo anual fue de 5 608 290 622 pesos. Conclusiones: la prevalencia incrementada de diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial repercuten en el inicio de una TSFR, las cuales muestran un panorama financiero catastrófico para el Instituto.

  15. [Home parenteral nutrition in Spain 2011 and 2012; a report of the home and ambulatory artificial nutrition group NADYA].

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Moreno Villarés, J M; Cuerda Compés, C; Carrero, C; Burgos, R; Gómez Candela, C; Virgili Casas, N; Martínez Faedo, C; Alvarez, J; Sánchez Martos, E A; Matía Martín, P; Zugasti, A; Olveira, G; Luengo, L M; Campos Martín, C; Martín Folgueras, T; Penacho Lázaro, M A; Pereira, J L; Garde Orbaiz, C; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Apezetxea, A; Sánchez-Vilar, O; Gil Martínez, M C; Martínez Costa, C; De Luis, D; Laborda, L; Joaquin Ortiz, C; Suárez Llanos, J P; Leyes García, P; Ponce González, M A

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE de los años 2011 y 2012. Material y métodos: Recopilación de los datos del registro “on-line” introducidos por los colaboradores del grupo NADYA responsables del seguimiento de la NPD desde el 1 de enero de 2011 al 31 de diciembre de 2012 dividido por años naturales. Resultados: Año 2010: Se registraron 184 pacientes, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que representa una tasa de 3,98 pacientes/millón habitantes/año 2011, con 186 episodios de NPD. Durante el año 2012 se registraron 203 pacientes, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que representa una tasa de 4,39 pacientes/millón habitantes/año 2012, con un total de 211 episodios de NPD. Conclusiones: Se observa un aumento progresivo de los pacientes registrados respecto a años anteriores. El principal grupo patológico sigue siendo oncológico ocupando el primer lugar desde 2003. Aunque el registro NADYA es un registro consolidado y ha sido y es fuente imprescindible de información relevante para el conocimiento de los avances de la Nutrición Artificial Domiciliaria en nuestro país, queda un amplio margen para la mejora. En especial lo que hace referencia al registro de pacientes pediátricos y al registro de las complicaciones.

  16. [Generation and functions of dreams].

    PubMed

    Medrano-Martínez, Pablo; Ramos-Platón, M José

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. En la ultima decada han aumentado considerablemente las publicaciones sobre los ensueños, lo que refleja el interes de varios campos de la neurociencia por el tema. En este trabajo se revisan las principales teorias cientificas que han contribuido al conocimiento de como se producen y cual es su funcion. Desarrollo. Se expone la evolucion de su estudio cientifico, siguiendo el enfoque neurofisiologico y el neurocognitivo. El primero busca determinar los mecanismos neurobiologicos que los generan y las estructuras cerebrales implicadas; el segundo considera los ensueños un tipo de cognicion en interaccion con el de vigilia. Se examinan diversas hipotesis sobre la funcion de los ensueños, en particular las que les atribuyen un papel en la consolidacion de la memoria y la regulacion del estado emocional. Conclusiones. Aunque no se ha determinado con exactitud como se generan los ensueños, los datos neurobiologicos resaltan la importancia de los nucleos pontinos del tronco cerebral, diversos sistemas de memoria, el sistema limbico y el sistema de recompensa cerebral y diversas areas neocorticales. Los datos neurocognitivos subrayan la relacion entre el procesamiento cognitivo y emocional que ocurre durante la vigilia y durante el sueño, asi como la influencia del entorno en el contenido de los ensueños. Respecto a su funcion, cabe destacar su valor adaptativo, al contribuir al reprocesamiento de la informacion adquirida en vigilia y al control de las emociones. Esto sugiere que los ensueños participan en el desarrollo de las capacidades cognitivas.

  17. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts.

  18. [Frailty syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Barile-Fabris, Leonor A; Pérez-Cristobal, Mario; Merlos-López, Rosa Julia; Xibillé-Friedman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la artritis reumatoide (AR) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que causa daño articular progresivo, y afecta la calidad y la esperanza de vida. El síndrome de fragilidad (SF) es un precursor de limitaciones y discapacidad. La comorbilidad es un indicador de gravedad. Se buscó evaluar la frecuencia de fragilidad y comorbilidad en pacientes con AR. Métodos: se evaluaron pacientes consecutivos con AR atendidos en el departamento de Reumatología de un hospital de tercer nivel en los que fue posible aplicar los criterios para definir fragilidad según el Estudio de Salud Cardiovascular. Se registraron datos demográficos, el número de comorbilidades y la presencia de polifarmacia con un diseño observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Resultados: se analizaron 500 pacientes con AR. Fueron 453 mujeres (90.6 %). La edad promedio fue de 51.3 años y el tiempo promedio de evolución de la AR de 13.2 años. El 23.4 % cumplió con criterios para SF. El promedio de comorbilidades fue de 1.59 y las más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial sistémica (25.2 %) y la obesidad (18.2 %). Los pacientes tomaban en promedio 5.81 fármacos; el 99.6 % incurría en polifarmacia y el 69.6 %, en polifarmacia mayor. Conclusiones: hubo una prevalencia muy alta de SF, mayor que la esperada en población general; asimismo, el número de comorbilidades y la presencia de polifarmacia fueron muy frecuentes. Se debe vigilar la aparición de datos clínicos de SF y comorbilidad en AR aun en sujetos jóvenes con enfermedad de corta evolución.

  19. Aplicación de la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) al cálculo de intensidades vibrónicas y vidas medias de niveles vibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Velasco Sanz, Ana

    Desde que se formuló, en 1996, la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [1], se han obtenido datos de calidad relativos a intensidades de bandas electrónicas que implican estados Rydberg para una gran variedad de sistemas moleculares [2]. Animados por los buenos resultados obtenidos, recientemente hemos abordado el estudio de transiciones vibrónicas, es decir aquellas que ocurren entre estados vibracionales que pertenecen a distintos estados Rydberg electrónicos. Como prototipo adecuado para nuestros propósitos hemos elegido la molécula de NO, importante en la química de la atmósfera, y para la cual existen en la bibliografía datos experimentales de calidad suficiente para contrastar la validez de nuestros resultados. En concreto, hemos calculado las fuerzas de oscilador y coeficientes de Einstein para transiciones electrónicas y vibrónicas de las principales bandas del NO, al igual que vidas medias radiativas de niveles vibracionales de dicha molécula. Las propiedades estudiadas son esenciales para la comprensión de los aspectos teóricos de los procesos físicos básicos relativos a la dispersión electrónica en moléculas heteronucleares con capas abiertas. Además, valores fiables de probabilidades de transición moleculares tienen importantes aplicaciones en Astrofísica, en la modelización de procesos fotodinámicos moleculares, etc., al igual que para evaluar más profundamente la validez de nuestra metodología teórica.

  20. [Obesity and components of metabolic syndrome in Mexican women survivors of cancer].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel; de la Fuente-Vera, Tania Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: algunos estudios sugieren que la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico son frecuentes en supervivientes al cáncer. En nuestro medio no hay datos al respecto en relación con las mujeres. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de obesidad y componentes del síndrome metabólico en mujeres supervivientes al cáncer. Métodos: elegimos a mujeres que recibieron tratamiento para cáncer con supervivencia = 24 meses. Se evaluaron datos demográficos y de antropometría clínica, tensión arterial, tipo de neoplasia, tiempo de supervivencia, comorbilidades y niveles séricos de glucosa, colesterol total y triglicéridos. Resultados: estudiamos a 107 individuos, edad promedio de 60 ± 10 años, supervivencia de 77 ± 43 meses e índice de masa corporal de 31 ± 6 kg/m2. La glucosa promedio fue de 120 ± 58 mg/dL, el colesterol de 228 ± 43 mg/dL y los triglicéridos de 207 ± 120 mg/dL. Hubo 55 (51 %) con glucosa > 99 mg/dL, 85 (79 %) con colesterol > 199 mg/dL y 67 (63 %) con triglicéridos > 149 mg/dL. Tuvieron obesidad (índice de masa corporal = 30 kg/m2) 49 (46 %) y síndrome metabólico 27 (26 %). Conclusión: debido a la prevalencia de obesidad, los componentes del síndrome metabólico fueron frecuentes.

  1. [Prognosis of non-symptomatic epilepsy in relation to their age of onset, monitored at a neuropediatric section of regional reference over a period of three years].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Gómez, Laura; López-Pisón, Javier; Fuertes-Rodrigo, Cristina; Fernando-Martínez, Ruth; Samper-Villagrasa, Pilar; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis

    2016-02-16

    Objetivo. Analizar los factores implicados en el pronostico de las epilepsias no sintomaticas (idiopaticas y criptogenicas) en relacion con su edad de inicio, controladas en una unidad de neuropediatria de referencia regional durante un periodo de tres años. Pacientes y metodos. Analisis de los pacientes con diagnostico de epilepsia no sintomatica, controlados desde el 1 de enero de 2008 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2010, recogiendo datos epidemiologicos, clinicos, examenes complementarios y datos evolutivos. Resultados. Del total de 4.595 niños atendidos en el periodo, se establecio el diagnostico de epilepsia en 605 (13,17%), de las cuales 156 (25,79%) fueron epilepsias idiopaticas, y 172 (28,43%), criptogenicas. El 15,7% de las epilepsias criptogenicas y el 14,1% de las idiopaticas son refractarias al tratamiento. Algunos sindromes epilepticos, como las epilepsias reflejas, el sindrome de Dravet, el sindrome de Ohtahara o el sindrome de Lennox-Gastaut, tienen mayores tasas de farmacorresistencia. No presentan otra alteracion neurologica asociada el 84,62% de las epilepsias idiopaticas y el 79,77% de las epilepsias criptogenicas. Conclusiones. Una clasificacion util de la epilepsia es la etiologica, con dos grupos: un gran grupo con las etiologias establecidas o sindromes geneticos muy probables y otro de casos sin causa establecida. La edad de inicio de la epilepsia en cada grupo etiologico añade orientacion pronostica. El pronostico lo ensombrecen la refractariedad y las alteraciones asociadas del neurodesarrollo, y es peor, en general, cuanto mas precoz sea el inicio y en etiologias concretas.

  2. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of Belimumab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Spain].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; García-Aparicio, Ángel María; Parrondo, Javier; Vallejo-Aparicio, Laura Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Estimar el coste-efectividad (CE) de belimumab en aquellos pacientes con biomarcadores positivos y enfermedad activa a pesar del tratamiento estandar (TE) desde la perspectiva social espanola. Métodos: A partir de un modelo de microsimulacion, que permite simular la evolucion natural de la enfermedad, se estimo el CE de belimumab + TE vs. TE. Se considero una duracion del tratamiento de dos anos y un horizonte temporal de toda la vida. La extrapolacion de eficacia a largo plazo se baso en los ensayos clinicos de belimumab y en la cohorte de pacientes John Hopkins de Estados Unidos; los datos de utilidades se obtuvieron de la literatura. Se calcularon costes directos e indirectos en base a datos espanoles publicados (€, 2014), aplicando una tasa de descuento (TD) del 3% tanto a costes como a efectos. Los resultados se expresaron como ratio coste- efectividad incremental (ICER) en terminos de anos de vida ganados (AVG) y anos de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC). Se realizaron analisis de sensibilidad deterministicos (TD al 0% y 5%, duracion de tratamiento 5 anos y exclusion de costes indirectos) asi como probabilisticos (PSA). Resultados: El ICER de belimumab + TE vs. TE fue de 16.647€/ AVG y 23.158€/AVAC respectivamente. La variacion de la TD supuso la mayor variacion de los resultados respecto al escenario base. En el 68% de los escenarios simulados en el PSA, belimumab fue una alternativa coste-efectiva considerando como umbral 30.000€/AVAC. Conclusiones: Belimumab puede considerarse una alternativa coste-efectiva desde la perspectiva social espanola.

  3. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    Introducción: En los últimos años los suplementos antioxidantes han cobrado popularidad para contrarrestar los efectos de los radicales libres y los síntomas del daño muscular, entre los que se encuentra el dolor muscular tardío (DMT). Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática en diferentes bases de datos para conocer los efectos de los suplementos antioxidantes sobre el DMT. Método: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos; Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Scopus y SportDiscus y la Web Of Science (WOS). Las palabras y acrónimos usados fueron; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant y oxidative stress. Resultados: Se identificaron 54 artículos de los cuales se recuperaron 48, todos ellos en inglés, 17 relacionados con la vitamina C y E, catorce corresponden a suplementos polifenòlicos, once a otros suplementos antioxidantes y seis a suplementos comerciales todos ellos usados para combatir, entre otras variables, el DMT. Conclusiones: Tanto las vitaminas como los suplementos comerciales presentan baja efectividad en la disminución del DMT, mientras que los polifenoles y otros suplementos antioxidantes muestran entre moderada y buena efectividad en el combate al DMT. Sin embargo, gran parte de los estudios presentan efectividad en la disminución de otros síntomas del daño muscular además de ayudar en la recuperación postejercicio.

  4. Obstáculos a la adherencia y retención en los sistemas de salud público y privado según pacientes y personal de salud

    PubMed Central

    Arístegui, Inés; Dorigo, Analía; Bofill, Lina; Bordatto, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernández; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones., Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción el Programa Nacional de Sida garantiza el acceso universal a los antirretrovirales, aun así las personas que reciben medicamentos a través del sistema público no logran obtener una carga viral indetectable en la misma proporción que los pacientes del sistema privado. Este estudio cualitativo tiene como objeto identificar los factores asociados a la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención de VIH de los sistemas de salud público y privado de Buenos Aires, según las percepciones de pacientes y del personal de salud. Métodos se registraron datos cualitativos de 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y 4 grupos focales de pacientes y personal de salud tanto del sistema público como privado. Se codificaron y analizaron temas predeterminados sobre adherencia, utilizando el software QRS Nvivo9® de análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados pacientes y personal de salud de ambos sistemas coinciden en la importancia del estigma asociado al VIH, la relación médicopaciente, la comunicación entre ambos y la división de responsabilidades en relación al tratamiento como aspectos fundamentales para la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención. Se observan diferencias entre los sistemas en la forma en que algunos de estos aspectos actúan. Las barreras estructurales se presentan como principales obstáculos del sistema público. Discusión se resalta la necesidad de intervenciones focalizadas en la díada médico-paciente que considere las particularidades de cada sistema de atención para facilitar el compromiso del paciente en la adherencia. PMID:26878024

  5. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  6. Hospital medication errors in a pharmacovigilance system in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Machado Alba, Jorge Enrique; Moreno Gutiérrez, Paula Andrea; Moncada Escobar, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Objetivos: analizar los errores de medicacion reportados en un sistema de farmacovigilancia en 26 hospitales para pacientes del sistema de salud de Colombia. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que evaluo las bases de datos sistematizadas de reportes de errores de medicacion entre el 1 de enero de 2008 y el 12 de septiembre de 2013 de los medicamentos dispensados por la empresa Audifarma S.A a hospitales de Colombia. Se utilizo la clasificacion taxonomica del National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP). El analisis de los datos se realizo mediante SPSS 22.0 para Windows Se determino como nivel de significacion estadistica una p < 0,05. Resultados: se reportaron 9.062 EM en 45 servicios farmaceuticos hospitalarios. El 51,9% (n = 4.707) de los errores realmente se produjeron, de los cuales el 12,0% (n = 567) afectaron al paciente (categorias C a I) y causaron dano (categorias E a I) a 17 (0,36%). El proceso implicado en los EM ocurridos (categorias B a I) con mayor frecuencia fue la prescripcion (n = 1.758, 37,3%), seguido por la dispensacion (n = 1.737, 36,9%), la transcripcion (n = 970, 20,6%) y, por ultimo, la administracion (n = 242, 5,1%). Los errores relacionados con los procesos de administracion aumentaban 45,2 veces el riesgo de que el medicamento erroneo afectara al paciente (IC 95% 20,2-100,9). Conclusiones: es necesario aumentar la cobertura de los sistemas de reporte de errores de medicacion, y crear estrategias para su prevencion, especialmente en la etapa de administracion del medicamento.

  7. [β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as a dietary supplement (II): cell and molecular mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Manjarrez-Montes-de-Oca, Rafael; Torres-Vaca, Mateo; González-Gallego, Javier; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso

    2014-11-27

    Introducción: En los últimos años el -hidroxi--metilbutirato (HMB) ha sido foco de diversas investigaciones que le atribuyen un efecto sobre la disminución de la proteólisis muscular y un incremento de la masa muscular. Por tanto, se han realizado estudios centrados en los mecanismos celulares y moleculares responsables de dichos efectos. Objetivos: Los objetivos de la presente revisión son: conocer el metabolismo del HMB, así como su absorción y excreción; estudiar la posible toxicidad del HMB; e identificar los mecanismos celulares y moleculares de acción del HMB cuando se utiliza como suplemento nutricional. Métodos: Se utilizaron las bases de datos Web of Science, Pubmed y SportDiscus para realizar la búsqueda de artículos. Los resultados se dividieron en dos partes; en este artículo se presentan los resultados referentes a los mecanismos de acción del HMB. Resultados: No existen suficientes datos que apoyen que la ingesta de HMB incremente la síntesis de colesterol en el músculo. Es posible que existan efectos positivos en el metabolismo muscular a través de la vía mTOR y del sistema ubiquitin-proteasoma, aunque no se conoce su mecanismo de acción. Probablemente, el HMB eleva los niveles sanguíneos de hidroxibutirato y esto podría explicar sus principales efectos sobre la disminución de la proteólisis muscular. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a nuestros resultados, la posibilidad de justificar la acción del HMB a través de la vía del beta-hidroxibutirato abre una interesante línea de investigación para futuros estudios.

  8. The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity in adolescents; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Guerra, Paulo Henrique; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de los estudios transversales sobre la prevalencia de actividad física insuficiente (IPA) sobre la de base a un punto de corte definido por la OMS (< 60 min/d de actividad física moderada y vigorosa). Métodos: La búsqueda se llevó a cabo utilizando bases de datos en línea (BioMed Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline PubMed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus), e incluyó artículos publicados desde el inicio de las bases de datos hasta 18 de febrero de 2012, así como las referencias citadas por los artículos recuperados y la información proporcionada por los autores. Sólo artículos originales que evaluaban el nivel de actividad física mediante cuestionarios fueron considerados. Resultados: De los 2.384 artículos recuperados inicialmente, quince estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, de los cuales siete fueron llevados a cabo en Brasil. La prevalencia de la IPA varió de 18,7% a 90,6%, con una mediana de 79,7%. En todas las encuestas, la prevalencia fue mayor en las niñas que en los niños y y los países en desarrollo presentaron una mayor prevalencia. Conclusiones: Se concluye que la prevalencia de la IPA es alta entre los adolescentes y que la definición adoptada en este estudio se utiliza raramente en la literatura. Estos resultados sugieren que es necesario el desarrollo de intervenciones para aumentar los niveles de actividad física entre los adolescentes.

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Bueno, Gloria

    2016-07-12

    Introducción: la elevada prevalencia de obesidad en niños es un problema de salud global y conlleva el desarrollo de comorbilidades asociadas, como hipertensión, dislipemia, inflamación crónica e hiperinsulinemia, que a su vez son reconocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Algunos estudios han observado que el consumo de productos lácteos podría ejercer un papel protector sobre el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares; sin embargo, la evidencia científica es bastante limitada en niños y adolescentes.Objetivos: investigar la relación entre el consumo de productos lácteos y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en poblaciones jóvenes.Material y métodos: se ha revisado la literatura reciente, incluyendo adicionalmente datos procedentes del estudio HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence). Se incluyó una muestra de adolescentes (12,5-17,5 años) provenientes de 8 ciudades europeas.Resultados: datos estadounidenses muestran una disminución en la frecuencia de consumo de leche, así como en el tamaño de la porción consumida. En el estudio HELENA los productos lácteos fueron el grupo de alimentos que mejor identificó a los adolescentes con bajo riesgo cardiovascular. Además, un consumo elevado de leche y yogur, así como de bebidas a base de leche y yogur, se asoció con niveles más bajos de grasa corporal, menor riesgo cardiovascular y mayor condición física cardiorrespiratoria.Conclusiones: son necesarios más estudios para proporcionar evidencia y comprender mejor los mecanismos subyacentes de la asociación entre la ingesta de lácteos, especialmente el yogur, y la obesidad, la diabetes, y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular.

  10. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  11. [Clinico-radiological profile of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in the childhood population. A retrospective analysis of a series of 20 patients in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Tomás-Vila, Miguel; Menor, Francisco; Otero-Reigada, M Carmen; Pérez-Tamarit, Amparo; Téllez de Meneses, Montserrat; Pitarch-Castellanos, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. La encefalomielitis aguda diseminada (EAD) es un trastorno inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central mediado inmunologicamente y de patogenia desconocida. Puede presentarse en cualquier edad, pero es mucho mas frecuente en niños. La EAD no tiene marcador biologico especifico y el diagnostico se basa en hallazgos clinicos y neurorradiologicos. Objetivo. Mejorar el conocimiento del perfil clinicorradiologico de esta enfermedad. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo con inclusion de pacientes menores de 14 años ingresados en un hospital terciario en los ultimos 15 años con el diagnostico de EAD. Se revisaron antecedentes, signos clinicos de presentacion, datos analiticos en sangre/liquido cefalorraquideo y la semiologia radiologica. En 16 casos se realizo un seguimiento medio de 25 meses. Resultados. Se revisaron 20 pacientes, un 70% niños, con una edad media de 4,4 años. El 40% tuvo un episodio febril previo. El 85% presento fiebre o vomitos, y el 70%, afectacion del estado de consciencia. Predominaron los deficits motores (45%), las convulsiones (35%) y la afectacion de pares craneales (30%). Tres niños presentaron una evolucion recidivante, y otros tres, secuelas motoras. Los estudios de resonancia magnetica mostraron lesiones hiperintensas en secuencias T2, con patron de realce escaso o nulo, que predominaron en los talamos (70%), la medula (67%) y la sustancia blanca subcortical (50%). En dos pacientes se diagnostico EAD hemorragica. Conclusiones. La EAD representa una entidad con importante afectacion general y repercusion neurologica, que muestra un potencial secuelar considerable. Los datos clinicoanaliticos y la resonancia magnetica cerebral y medular son relevantes para el diagnostico inicial y seguimiento de pacientes con EAD.

  12. Programmed home visits by nursing professionals to older adults: prevention or treatment?1

    PubMed Central

    Dios-Guerra, Caridad; Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Ruíz-Gándara, África; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2015-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: conocer la repercusión de la visita domiciliaria de los profesionales en enfermería a personas de 65 años o más, pluripatológicas, en morbimortalidad. MÉTODO: estudio retrospectivo caso-control por auditoria de historias clínicas. Muestreo aleatorio. Variables principales morbilidad, mortalidad; descriptivas: visitas de la enfermera, filiación, datos clínicos y socio sanitarios. Análisis por medidas de tendencia central, dispersión, posición, tabulación, frecuencias relativas, absolutas; no paramétricas, contrastes χ2; Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: se estudiaron a 1743 pacientes, de ellos 199 recibieron visita domiciliaria; la edad media de quien recibe visita es de 81,99 años; estos presentan mayor número de patologías de media 3,76; habitan en domicilio particular, si bien en conjunto presentan más institucionalización que los controles; el 50% no tiene identificado el Cuidador Principal; es mayor el número de visitas de las enfermeras a los pacientes que viven en residencias (p < 0,001). El 50% de casos no tiene plan de cuidados, con relación significativa (p < 0,001). No existen diferencias significativas en tiempo de vida entre los casos y los controles. CONCLUSIÓN: la visita domiciliaria del profesional en enfermería no repercute en la morbimortalidad; visita a los pacientes cuando ya ha aparecido el problema de salud, no hay datos de prevención. PMID:26312638

  13. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  14. NORMATIVE VALUES OF EQ-5D-5L FOR DIABETES PATIENTS FROM SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Collado Mateo, Daniel; García Gordillo, Miguel A; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica que puede conllevar una reducción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. El EQ-5D es un cuestionario genérico de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud basado en preferencias sociales. Este cuestionario ha sido muy utilizado en pacientes con diabetes. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente artículo es informar sobre los valores normativos del cuestionario EQ-5D-5L en personas españolas con diabetes. Métodos: se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta Española de Salud (2011/2012). Un total de 1.857 personas con diabetes participaron en la encuesta. La puntuación del EQ-5D-5L se ha reflejado en función del sexo, región (incluyendo las 17 comunidades autónomas y las 2 ciudades autónomas de España), y 8 grupos de edad. Resultados: la media del índice de utilidad para toda la muestra fue de 0,742. Esta fue mejor para hombres (0,826) que para mujeres (0,673). Resultados similares se observaron en la Escala Visual Analógica. El efecto techo fue mucho mayor en hombres (44,83%) que en mujeres (24,41%). Conclusiones: el presente estudio recoge datos normativos representativos del EQ-5D-5L en España de personas con diabetes.

  15. [Systematic review about dental caries in children and adolescents with obesity and/or overweight].

    PubMed

    González Muñoz, María; Adobes Martín, Milagros; González de Dios, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Obesidad y el sobrepeso (O/SP) infantil han alcanzado caracteres de epidemia y son un factor de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas graves para la salud. El objetivo es realizar una revisión sistemática (RS) sobre la relación de O/SP con caries en pediatría. Material y métodos: RS de la literatura 2007-2011 en fuentes de información terciaria (Trip, Cochrane y NGC), secundaria (PubMed, IME, IBECS y MEDES) y primarias (revisión de referencias). Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes (niños de 0-18 años), factor de riesgo (O/SP) y variable de interés (primaria: caries; secundarias: resto patología bucodental). Datos recogidos: Autor, año, país, tipo de estudio, edad pacientes, casos (con O/SP) y controles (con índice de masa corporal -IMC- normal o bajo), estado socioeconómico, prevalencia de caries y otros resultados en salud bucodental. Resultados: Se localizaron un total de 48 documentos, de los que 37 cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda de la RS, distribuidos temporalmente: 6 artículos del año 2007, 6 del 2008, 5 del 2009, 11 del 2010 y 9 del 2011. Presentaron un grado de heterogeneidad muy amplio (en pacientes, intervención, variable principal de interés y tipo de diseño), lo que no permite aplicar síntesis cuantitativa (metanálisis) de los datos, pero si cualitativa. Los estudios son discordantes respecto a la relación entre IMC y frecuencia de caries (CAOD, caod). Conclusiones: La RS permite al odontólogo y pediatra conocer la potencial relación entre O/SP y caries dental.

  16. [DEMOCOPHES SPAIN AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE HARMONIZATION OF EUROPEAN HUMAN BIOMONITORING].

    PubMed

    Esteban López, Marta; López Martín, Estrella; Rodríguez García, Carolina; Posada De la Paz, Manuel; Castaño Calvo, Argelia

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: contribuir a la armonización europea de la biovigilancia en humanos (proyecto DEMOCOPHES) demostrando la utilidad de los estudios de biovigilancia para valorar la influencia de la dieta y los estilos de vida como vía de exposición a contaminantes ambientales. Métodos: se adaptó el protocolo europeo a las necesidades nacionales, siguiendo los controles de calidad definidos en él y sin comprometer la obtención de datos comparables entre los países participantes. Resultados: la adaptación nacional del protocolo europeo no presentó grandes dificultades y, salvo mínimas modificaciones, se respetó el diseño original del estudio. Participaron 134 parejas madre-hijo, seleccionados en un colegio de Añover de Tajo (Toledo) y tres colegios de Madrid. Los voluntarios donaron una muestra de pelo y de orina y contestaron a las preguntas del cuestionario epidemiológico. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la participación de los voluntarios en las dos localizaciones de muestreo. Discusión: la estandarización de todas las etapas de un estudio de biovigilancia en humanos es esencial para su desarrollo armonizado a escala internacional. Los resultados obtenidos han contribuido a la obtención de datos sobre exposición ambiental, por primera vez comparables en 17 países europeos, y han permitido observar diferencias relacionadas con la dieta y los hábitos de vida. Las experiencias y el material de trabajo desarrollado para el estudio piloto serán aplicables al diseño e implementación de futuros estudios de HBM.

  17. Brain abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya; Alegría, Analucía A; Brinson, Helen

    2014-02-24

    Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los estudios con resonancia magnetica en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) infantil y adulto. Desarrollo. Dichos estudios han demostrado que el TDAH se caracteriza por la presencia de multiples anomalias de caracter estructural y funcional, primordialmente en los circuitos frontoestriatales, pero tambien en los circuitos frontoparietotemporales, frontocerebelares e, incluso, frontolimbicos. Los datos aportados por los estudios longitudinales de resonancia magnetica estructural demuestran que el TDAH se caracteriza por un retraso en la maduracion estructural del cerebro. Esta conclusion se ve reforzada por los indicios indirectos ofrecidos por los estudios de cortes transversales, que indican la existencia de una inmadurez sustancial tanto en la funcion cerebral como en los patrones de conectividad estructural y funcional, indicios que, sin embargo, estan pendientes de confirmar en estudios longitudinales. La alteracion funcional de la corteza prefrontal ventrolateral parece estar mas afectada en el TDAH que en otros trastornos pediatricos, y existen algunos indicios de anomalias distintivas en los ganglios basales. Un metaanalisis sobre los efectos de los estimulantes en la funcion cerebral demuestra que el mecanismo de accion agudo mas congruente de los farmacos psicoestimulantes consiste en el aumento de la activacion de la corteza prefrontal inferior y los ganglios basales. Los primeros intentos por utilizar los datos de los estudios de neuroimagen para elaborar clasificaciones diagnosticas individuales de los niños con TDAH a partir de tecnicas de reconocimiento de patrones han cosechado resultados alentadores, pero todavia deben ser replicados por mas centros y aparatos de resonancia magnetica. Conclusiones. Durante los ultimos 20 años, las tecnicas de neuroimagen han perfilado los biomarcadores del TDAH, pero es necesario que nuevos estudios descubran la utilidad clinica de esa informacion, como el

  18. [HOME AND AMBULATORY ARTIFICIAL NUTRITION (NADYA) GROUP REPORT, HOME PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN SPAIN, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Cuerda Compes, Cristina; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Virgili Casas, Nuria; Penacho Lázaro, M Angeles; Martinez Faedo, Ceferino; Garde Orbaiz, Carmen; Gonzalo Marín, Montserrat; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Álvarez, Julia; Sánchez Martos, Eva Angeles; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Campos Martín, Cristina; Matía Martín, Pilar; Zugasti, Ana; Carabaña Pérez, Fátima; García Zafra, Maria Victoria; Ponce Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Martínez Costa, Cecilia; De Luis, Daniel; Apezetxea Celaya, Antxón; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Díaz Guardiola, Patricia; Gil Martinez, M Carmen; Del Olmo García, M Dolores; Leyes García, Pere; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Joaquin Ortiz, Clara; Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Olga; Laborda González, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    Objetivo: comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE del año 2014. Material y métodos: recopilación de los datos de NPD del registro “on-line” del grupo de Nutrición Artificial Domiciliaria y Ambulatoria (NADYA) desde el 1 de enero de 2014 al 31 de diciembre de 2014. Resultados: se registraron 220 pacientes, con 229 episodios de NPD, procedentes de 37 hospitales; lo que representa una tasa de 4,73 pacientes/millón de habitantes/ año 2014. Las patologías más frecuentes en los adultos fueron: ‘otros diagnósticos’ (22,3%), la neoplasia paliativa (20,4%), seguida por la neoplasia activa radical (11,8%) y la isquemia mesentérica (10,9%). En los niños las patologías más frecuentes fueron: ‘alteraciones congénitas intestinales’ (33,3%), seguidas por ‘intestino corto traumático’ y ‘otro diagnóstico’. Conclusiones: se observa un aumento del número de pacientes que reciben nutrición parenteral domiciliaria y de los centros colaboradores. Consideramos que la NPD debería ser regulada por la Administración Sanitaria en el marco del Consejo Interterritorial del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y que su inclusión en la Cartera de Servicios de los diferentes Servicios de Salud de las diferentes comunidades autónomas redundaría en un beneficio para el paciente y los profesionales.

  19. [Protocol for peripheral parenteral nutrition management ready to use in surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Varón Vega, Martha Liliana

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: Los pacientes sometidos a cirugía electiva, requieren de un tratamiento clínico integral que propenda por mantener o evitar el deterioro del estado nutricional y favorecer los resultados clínicos, y a su vez mejorar la seguridad de la terapia nutricional parenteral mediante la optimización de la tecnología, como una opción enfocada a la minimización de riesgo y la disminución de los costos operativos en las instituciones de prestación de servicios de salud. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión de la literatura con el fin de estudiar las indicaciones y recomendaciones del soporte nutricional parenteral periférico y/o complementario listo para usar en personas sometidas a una intervención quirúrgica. Métodos: Síntesis de datos tras la revisión de la bibliografía pertinente, que permitiera el diseño del protocolo. Se realizó la búsqueda en las siguientes bases de datos: PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect y Embase. Conclusiones: La nutrición parenteral periférica lista para usar es una alternativa de soporte nutricional, que permite mejorar el aporte Proteico-Energético así como demostrar mejoras en la seguridad del paciente, disminución de los costos y aumentar la satisfacción del paciente.

  20. [Use of the Six Sigma methodology for the preparation of parenteral nutrition mixtures].

    PubMed

    Silgado Bernal, M F; Basto Benítez, I; Ramírez García, G

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo: Usar las herramientas de la metodología Seis Sigma para el control estadístico de elaboración de mezclas de nutrición parenteral en el punto crítico de control gravimétrico. Métodos: Entre agosto de 2010 y septiembre de 2013 se realizó análisis gravimétrico al 100% de las mezclas dividiendo los datos en dos grupos adultos y neonatos. Se determina el porcentaje de aceptación, las gráficas de tendencia y el nivel de sigma. Se realizo análisis de normalidad con el test Shapiro Wilk y se calcula el porcentaje total de mezclas dentro de límites de especificación. Resultados: Los datos de gravimetría entre agosto de 2010 y septiembre de 2013 cumplen con el test de normalidad (W = 0,94) y presentan mejoramiento en el nivel de sigma a través del tiempo llegando a 6/6 en adultos y 3.8/6 para neonatos. Se logra que el 100% de las mezclas para adultos y neonatos cumplan con límites de especificación, estando siempre dentro de los límites de control del proceso. Conclusión: Los planes de mejoramiento junto a las herramientas de la metodología Seis Sigma permiten controlar el proceso, garantizando la concordancia entre la orden médica y el contenido de la mezcla.

  1. Herbarium of the university of malaga (Spain): vascular plants collection.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    ón principal del herbario. La base de datos MGC-Cormof tiene como objetivo la digitalización y publicación de los datos asociados con los más de 76.000 ejemplares depositados en la colección, de los cuales el 97,2% de las muestras se encuentran identificadas a nivel de especie. Desde 2011, los Servicios Centrales de Investigación (SCAI) de la Universidad de Málaga son responsables de mantener el herbario y sus respectivas bases de datos. Esta colección está en continuo crecimiento, con una incorporación anual de unos 1.500 ejemplares. Casi el 96% de la colección está digitalizada, a través del programa Herbar v3.7.1 (F. Pando et al. 1996-2011) por lo que más de 73.000 especímenes son accesibles a través de la red de GBIF (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/8105/). Actualmente, la colección MGC-Cormof está constituida por 247 familias y 8.110 taxones, distribuidos en angiospermas (93,97%), helechos y plantas afines (4,89%) y gimnospermas (1,14%). Las familias y géneros mejor representados en la colección son Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Labiatae, Caryophyllaceae, Teucrium, Silene, Asplenium, Linaria y Quercus. La mayoría de los especímenes provienen de la región del Mediterráneo Occidental, fundamentalmente del sur de España (Andalucía: 82% de las muestras) y del norte de Marruecos (2,17%). Aproximadamente, el 63% de las muestras se encuentran georreferenciadas. La identificación de los ejemplares de la colección ha sido realizada por personal del departamento de biología vegetal de la Universidad de Málaga y además un 40% de los ejemplares ha sido revisado por especialistas. La base de datos MGC-Cormof ha sido revisada mediante la herramienta DarwinTest v3.2 (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008) antes de ser publicada en GBIF. Los datos incluidos en esta base de datos son importantes para trabajos de conservación, taxonomía, flora, cartografía, fenología, palinología, entre otros.

  2. GIS-based hydrogeological databases and groundwater modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, Radu Constantin; Carabin, Guy; Hallet, Vincent; Peters, Valerie; Dassargues, Alain

    2001-12-01

    'applications qui ont été développées permet dès maintenant de prochaines avancées. L'intérêt grandit pour le potentiel d'intégration de la technologie des SIG et les modèles de simulation des nappes. Un outil de couplage a été créé entre le schéma de base de données spatiales et l'interface GMS (GroundWater Modelling System, système de modélisation de nappe) du modèle numérique de nappe. Suivant les requêtes en fonction du temps et de l'espace, les données hydrogéologiques stockées dans la base de données peuvent être aisément utilisées dans différents modèles numériques de nappes. Resumen. La fiabilidad y validez de los análisis de aguas subterráneas dependen enormemente de la disponibilidad de muchos datos de alta calidad. Integrarlos en una estructura consistente y lógica mediante un entorno informático sirve para asegurar su validez y disponibilidad, y rrepresenta una herramienta muy potente para ulteriores estudios hidrogeológicos. Se ha diseñado en la región de Valonia (Bélgica) una base de datos hidrogeológica basada en un sistema de información geográfica (GIS), con el que se dispone de útiles para elaborar análisis de vulnerabilidad y modelos hidregeológicos. Se ha utilizado datos de cinco cuencas fluviales, elegidas por sus características hidrogeológicas contrastadas, así como un conjunto de aplicaciones desarrolladas con vistas al futuro. El interés por el potencial que ofrece la integración de la tecnología GIS y los modelos de simulación de aguas subterráneas está en auge. Se ha desarrollado un "emulador" que integra el esquema espacial de la base de datos y la interfaz GMS (GroundWater Modelling System) de modelación numérica de aguas subterráneas. A partir de búsquedas temporales y espaciales, los datos hidrogeológicos almacenados en la base de datos pueden ser utilizados fácilmente en modelos numéricos diferentes de aguas subterráneas.

  3. Herbarium of the University of Malaga (Spain): Vascular Plants Collection

    PubMed Central

    García-Sánchez, José; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    la colección principal del herbario. La base de datos MGC-Cormof tiene como objetivo la digitalización y publicación de los datos asociados con los más de 76.000 ejemplares depositados en la colección, de los cuales el 97,2% de las muestras se encuentran identificadas a nivel de especie. Desde 2011, los Servicios Centrales de Investigación (SCAI) de la Universidad de Málaga son responsables de mantener el herbario y sus respectivas bases de datos. Esta colección está en continuo crecimiento, con una incorporación anual de unos 1.500 ejemplares. Casi el 96% de la colección está digitalizada, a través del programa Herbar v3.7.1 (F. Pando et al. 1996–2011) por lo que más de 73.000 especímenes son accesibles a través de la red de GBIF (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/8105/). Actualmente, la colección MGC-Cormof está constituida por 247 familias y 8.110 taxones, distribuidos en angiospermas (93,97%), helechos y plantas afines (4,89%) y gimnospermas (1,14%). Las familias y géneros mejor representados en la colección son Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Labiatae, Caryophyllaceae, Teucrium, Silene, Asplenium, Linaria y Quercus. La mayoría de los especímenes provienen de la región del Mediterráneo Occidental, fundamentalmente del sur de España (Andalucía: 82% de las muestras) y del norte de Marruecos (2,17%). Aproximadamente, el 63% de las muestras se encuentran georreferenciadas. La identificación de los ejemplares de la colección ha sido realizada por personal del departamento de biología vegetal de la Universidad de Málaga y además un 40% de los ejemplares ha sido revisado por especialistas. La base de datos MGC-Cormof ha sido revisada mediante la herramienta DarwinTest v3.2 (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008) antes de ser publicada en GBIF. Los datos incluidos en esta base de datos son importantes para trabajos de conservación, taxonomía, flora, cartografía, fenología, palinología, entre otros. PMID:24194668

  4. Herbarium of the university of malaga (Spain): vascular plants collection.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, José; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    ón principal del herbario. La base de datos MGC-Cormof tiene como objetivo la digitalización y publicación de los datos asociados con los más de 76.000 ejemplares depositados en la colección, de los cuales el 97,2% de las muestras se encuentran identificadas a nivel de especie. Desde 2011, los Servicios Centrales de Investigación (SCAI) de la Universidad de Málaga son responsables de mantener el herbario y sus respectivas bases de datos. Esta colección está en continuo crecimiento, con una incorporación anual de unos 1.500 ejemplares. Casi el 96% de la colección está digitalizada, a través del programa Herbar v3.7.1 (F. Pando et al. 1996-2011) por lo que más de 73.000 especímenes son accesibles a través de la red de GBIF (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/8105/). Actualmente, la colección MGC-Cormof está constituida por 247 familias y 8.110 taxones, distribuidos en angiospermas (93,97%), helechos y plantas afines (4,89%) y gimnospermas (1,14%). Las familias y géneros mejor representados en la colección son Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Labiatae, Caryophyllaceae, Teucrium, Silene, Asplenium, Linaria y Quercus. La mayoría de los especímenes provienen de la región del Mediterráneo Occidental, fundamentalmente del sur de España (Andalucía: 82% de las muestras) y del norte de Marruecos (2,17%). Aproximadamente, el 63% de las muestras se encuentran georreferenciadas. La identificación de los ejemplares de la colección ha sido realizada por personal del departamento de biología vegetal de la Universidad de Málaga y además un 40% de los ejemplares ha sido revisado por especialistas. La base de datos MGC-Cormof ha sido revisada mediante la herramienta DarwinTest v3.2 (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008) antes de ser publicada en GBIF. Los datos incluidos en esta base de datos son importantes para trabajos de conservación, taxonomía, flora, cartografía, fenología, palinología, entre otros. PMID:24194668

  5. Herbarium of the University of Malaga (Spain): Vascular Plants Collection

    PubMed Central

    García-Sánchez, José; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    la colección principal del herbario. La base de datos MGC-Cormof tiene como objetivo la digitalización y publicación de los datos asociados con los más de 76.000 ejemplares depositados en la colección, de los cuales el 97,2% de las muestras se encuentran identificadas a nivel de especie. Desde 2011, los Servicios Centrales de Investigación (SCAI) de la Universidad de Málaga son responsables de mantener el herbario y sus respectivas bases de datos. Esta colección está en continuo crecimiento, con una incorporación anual de unos 1.500 ejemplares. Casi el 96% de la colección está digitalizada, a través del programa Herbar v3.7.1 (F. Pando et al. 1996–2011) por lo que más de 73.000 especímenes son accesibles a través de la red de GBIF (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/8105/). Actualmente, la colección MGC-Cormof está constituida por 247 familias y 8.110 taxones, distribuidos en angiospermas (93,97%), helechos y plantas afines (4,89%) y gimnospermas (1,14%). Las familias y géneros mejor representados en la colección son Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Labiatae, Caryophyllaceae, Teucrium, Silene, Asplenium, Linaria y Quercus. La mayoría de los especímenes provienen de la región del Mediterráneo Occidental, fundamentalmente del sur de España (Andalucía: 82% de las muestras) y del norte de Marruecos (2,17%). Aproximadamente, el 63% de las muestras se encuentran georreferenciadas. La identificación de los ejemplares de la colección ha sido realizada por personal del departamento de biología vegetal de la Universidad de Málaga y además un 40% de los ejemplares ha sido revisado por especialistas. La base de datos MGC-Cormof ha sido revisada mediante la herramienta DarwinTest v3.2 (Ortega-Maqueda and Pando 2008) antes de ser publicada en GBIF. Los datos incluidos en esta base de datos son importantes para trabajos de conservación, taxonomía, flora, cartografí

  6. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-01-01

    èmes tels que l'amalgame d'options de réponses, les données sur les prestataires du public par rapport à ceux du privé, l'incohérence dans le codage et l'obtention de métadonnées. Plus de collecte systématique et standardisée des données aiderait les comparaisons internationales des progrès vers une meilleure protection financière et nous permettra de mieux caractériser les incitations et la nature commerciale des différents prestataires. Objetivo Las Encuestas Demográficas y de Salud (EDS) son una fuente de datos vitales para el análisis comparativo entre países. Este artículo es parte de un grupo de análisis que evalúan los tipos de proveedores de atención a la salud reproductiva y materna que están siendo utilizados en 57 países. Examinamos algunos de los retos encontrados al utilizar datos de EDS con este propósito, presentamos la clasificación de proveedores que hemos usado, y proveemos recomendaciones para permitir una comparación más detallada y más precisa de la prestación de servicios sanitarios en diferentes países. Métodos Hemos utilizado datos de las EDS más recientes, entre el 2000 y 2012; 57 países tenían datos sobre planeación familiar y proveedores de servicios durante el parto y 47 países tenían datos sobre cuidados prenatales. Cada opción posible de respuesta en los 57 países fue listada y categorizada. Después se desarrolló una clasificación para agrupar las opciones de respuesta según proveedor, siguiendo dos dimensiones clave: naturaleza clínica y afán de lucro. Resultados Hemos clasificado los diferentes tipos de proveedores de cuidados sanitarios en salud materna y reproductiva, y a los individuos que ofrecían los servicios. Los retos documentados durante este proceso fueron las limitaciones inherentes a los datos en las encuestas realizadas en los hogares basados en las auto-respuestas de los encuestados; fusión de las opciones de respuesta en el cuestionario o durante la etapa de procesamiento de datos

  7. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 2. Calibration of a groundwater-flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Plummer, L. Niel; McAda, Douglas P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    té construit avec les logiciels MODFLOW, MODPATH et UCODE, et calibré en utilisant les concentrations en 14C et la position de certaines zones définies par les données hydrochimiques. L'estimation de certains paramètres a été réalisée en utilisant une combinaison de techniques de régression non linéaire et une méthode de recherche exhaustive (Brute Force Search) de l'erreur minimum entre les résultats des observations et les simulations. Les valeurs de la recharge calibrée sont substantiellement plus basses que celles estimées dans les modèles antérieurs. Les résultats d'une simulation en régime transitoire sur 30.000 ans suggèrent que la recharge au maximum de la dernière glaciation (last glacial maximum, LGM) était 10 fois supérieure au taux actuel, mais que la recharge qui a suivit la LGM était plus bas que la recharge actuelle. La calibración de un modelo de aguas subterráneas con el apoyo de datos hidroquímicos ha demostrado que la recarga relativamente baja en la cuenca media del Río Grande es probablemente responsable de una depresión de aguas subterráneas en el centro de la cuenca y de la presencia de una cantidad considerable de agua del Río Grande en el acuífero del Grupo Santa Fe. Los modelos propuestos con anterioridad para la cuenca tenían dificultades para reproducir estas características ya que no tenían datos hidroquímicos que permitieran delimitar los ritmos y distribución de recarga. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en utilizar una gran cantidad de datos hidroquímicos disponibles para ayudar a calibrar los parámetros del modelo, incluyendo los ritmos de recarga. El modelo se construyó utilizando los modelos MODFLOW, MODPATH, y UCODE del USGS, mientras que la calibración se realizó en base a concentraciones de 14C y a la posición de ciertas zonas definidas con los datos hidroquímicos. La estimación de parámetros se realizó en base a una combinación de técnicas de regresiones no lineares y a una b

  8. Regional characterisation of hydraulic properties of rock using air-lift data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wladis, David; Gustafson, Gunnar

    les données disponibles présentent une certaine imprécision. Au départ, il faut cependant examiner l'utilité potentielle, c'est-à-dire la précision attendue, de données imprécises dans chaque cas spécifique. Cette étude analyse les possibilités d'obtenir des estimations de transmissivitéà partir de données d'air-lift dans des roches de socle en Suède, au mieux à un facteur 10 près par rapport aux données d'excellente qualité fournies par des essais d'injection. La précision attendue des résultats a été examinée analytiquement et grâce à des méthodes statistiques. Les résultats ont aussi été comparés aux données d'essais d'injection. Les résultats indiquent que les données obtenues par air-lift fournissent des estimations de transmissivitéà un facteur 10 près par comparaison avec celles des essais d'injection des exemples étudiés. L'étude montre aussi que la pénétration partielle et la fracturation hydraulique peuvent affecter les estimations seulement d'environ un facteur 5. Ainsi, le recours à des données existantes peut être économiquement plus intéressant que le recueil de nouvelles données dans les premières étapes des études hydrogéologiques. Resumen Los estudios hidrogeológicos, en general, y las estimaciones de propiedades hidráulicas en rocas, en particular, requieren gran cantidad de datos. En muchos países se han creado grandes bases de datos hidrogeológicos, recogidos y almacenados a lo largo de los años. Por tanto, el uso de los datos ya existentes, aunque imprecisos, puede suponer una alternativa barata a la recopilación de nuevos datos, particularmente en las primeras fases de un estudio hidrogeológico. Sin embargo la precisión y utilidad del método deben analizarse para cada caso específico. En este estudio se contempla la posibilidad de, a partir de datos de ensayos de inyección de aire realizados en Suecia, obtener valores estimativos de transmisividad dentro del orden de magnitud de los

  9. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 2. Calibration of a groundwater-flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Plummer, L. Niel; McAda, Douglas P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    té construit avec les logiciels MODFLOW, MODPATH et UCODE, et calibré en utilisant les concentrations en 14C et la position de certaines zones définies par les données hydrochimiques. L'estimation de certains paramètres a été réalisée en utilisant une combinaison de techniques de régression non linéaire et une méthode de recherche exhaustive (Brute Force Search) de l'erreur minimum entre les résultats des observations et les simulations. Les valeurs de la recharge calibrée sont substantiellement plus basses que celles estimées dans les modèles antérieurs. Les résultats d'une simulation en régime transitoire sur 30.000 ans suggèrent que la recharge au maximum de la dernière glaciation (last glacial maximum, LGM) était 10 fois supérieure au taux actuel, mais que la recharge qui a suivit la LGM était plus bas que la recharge actuelle. La calibración de un modelo de aguas subterráneas con el apoyo de datos hidroquímicos ha demostrado que la recarga relativamente baja en la cuenca media del Río Grande es probablemente responsable de una depresión de aguas subterráneas en el centro de la cuenca y de la presencia de una cantidad considerable de agua del Río Grande en el acuífero del Grupo Santa Fe. Los modelos propuestos con anterioridad para la cuenca tenían dificultades para reproducir estas características ya que no tenían datos hidroquímicos que permitieran delimitar los ritmos y distribución de recarga. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en utilizar una gran cantidad de datos hidroquímicos disponibles para ayudar a calibrar los parámetros del modelo, incluyendo los ritmos de recarga. El modelo se construyó utilizando los modelos MODFLOW, MODPATH, y UCODE del USGS, mientras que la calibración se realizó en base a concentraciones de 14C y a la posición de ciertas zonas definidas con los datos hidroquímicos. La estimación de parámetros se realizó en base a una combinación de técnicas de regresiones no lineares y a una b

  10. Operational tools and applications of EO satellite data to retrieve surface fluxes in semi-arid countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, Maliko

    ítulo 4), se evalúa la fiabilidad de una nueva parametrización para estimar el flujo de calor en el suelo (G) con el fin de ser utilizado en métodos de estimación de la evapotranspiración (ET) usando datos de teledetección. La parametrización de G se optimiza usando datos de flujo de energía obtenido durante las campañas del proyecto AMMA, y muestra buenos resultados y una mejora de las estimaciones del flujo de calor sensible (H) y de ET cuando se utiliza conjuntamente con el método del triángulo (Jiang & Islam, 2001). En una segunda parte (Capítulo 5), el método del triángulo se compara con valores de ET estimado por un modelo de superficie terrestre (JULES). Se intenta calibrar JULES usando el método del triángulo mediante simulaciones de Monte Carlo, pero los dos métodos muestran resultados muy diferentes, indicando que se necesita tareas de comparación profundizadas para poder evaluar la eficacia de estos modelos (de superficie terrestre y basados en la teledetección) para estimar los flujos de energía a la superficie. El capítulo 6 presenta un conjunto de ejemplos de aplicaciones operacionales para estimar los flujos de superficie usando datos de teledetección. El primer ejemplo consiste en el estudio de la evolución temporal de mapas de ET en África occidental bajo la influencia del monzón africano. En el segundo ejemplo, se aplica la nueva parametrización de G descrita en el capítulo 4 para calcular y analizar la evolución a largo plazo (2000-2009) de los componentes del balance de energía a la superficie, G, H y ET, en diferentes puntos de la cuenca del río Segura (Sureste español) utilizando datos del sensor MODIS-Terra (temperatura superficial y NDVI). La distribución temporal y espacial de ET revela diferentes controles sobre ET. En el último ejemplo, datos de temperatura superficial del mar del sensor MODIS-Aqua se utilizaron para validar un modelo matemático para calcular los flujos superficiales de una laguna costera del

  11. Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): aerial seabird and marine mammal surveys off northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Mason, John W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    counted (19,033) with Common Murres (Uria aalge) representing the majority of individuals counted (70.4% of total). The remaining six most abundant taxa included: Surf/White-winged Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata/M. fusca; 4.8% of total), Herring/Thayer’s Gulls (Larus argentatus/L. thayeri; 3.8% of total), Cassin’s Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus; 3.8% of total), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens; 3.7% of total), Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla; 2.0% of total), and Western Gulls (Larus occidentalis; 1.9% of total). During summer, five species comprised >95% of the total number of birds counted (17,063) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (54.1% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus; 34.4% of total). The remaining most abundant three taxa included: Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 3.3% of total), Western Gulls (2.1% of total), and Leach’s Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa; 1.1% of total). During fall, nine species comprised >85% of the total number of birds counted (23,376) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (50.0% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (10.5% of total). The remaining seven taxa included Cassin’s Auklets (5.2% of total), Surf/White-winged Scoters (5.1% of total), Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (3.8% of total), Red/Red-necked Phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius/P. lobatus; 3.2% of total), California Gulls (Larus californicus; 3.1% of total), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; 2.7% of total), and Sabine’s Gulls (Xema sabini; 2.2% of total). Throughout the entire PaCSEA survey area, average densities (± SE) at sea for all marine birds combined were similar between fall (23.7 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and winter (24.0 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and least during summer (16.3 ± 2.2 birds km-2). Marine bird densities at sea varied according to bathymetric domain and season. Throughout the entire PaCSEA study area average densities (± SE) for all marine birds combined were greatest over the inner-shelf domain

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Moreno Ortega, Alicia; Medina Canalejo, Luis M; Vioque Amor, Montserrat; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el salmorejo cordobés está tomando fama a nivel nacional y reconocimiento internacional. Sin embargo, son muy diversas las formas de elaborarlo y, por tanto, las propiedades organolépticas y nutricionales del plato.Material y métodos: con la intención de realizar una estandarización del salmorejo y forma de elaboración que permita una posterior protección de su identidad, así como su caracterización nutricional, se ha realizado una encuesta sobre el 83% de los establecimientos de restauración de Córdoba (excluidos barrios periféricos y zona industrial) para indagar su forma de elaborarlo, en cuanto a denominación, ingredientes, preparación, precio, etc., mediante una encuesta administrada personalmente con 55 preguntas en 6 apartados.Resultado: el resultado ha sido que sólo un 21% de los establecimientos utiliza la denominación "salmorejo cordobés". Los ingredientes usados de forma sistemática se ajustan estadísticamente a una propuesta previa de sistematización y valoración nutricional, basada en datos bibliográficos y difundida en más de 50 idiomas, que corresponde a: 1.000 g de tomate, 200 g de pan de telera, 100 g de aceite de oliva virgen extra, 5 g de ajo de Montalbán y 10 g de sal. Esto corresponde por 100 g de producto a 117,4 kcal, 1,8 g de proteínas, 8,1 g de lípidos, 9,9 g de carbohidratos, 1,2 g de fibra y 380,7 mg de sodio. Como ingredientes extra minoritariamente se usa el vinagre (18% de las encuestas) y como guarnición de forma mayoritaria, taquitos de jamón y huevo duro, en tanto que algo más de un 25% añade un chorro de aceite sobre el producto terminado. Se elabora principalmente mediante vaso batidor o Termomix, siendo la receta usada de forma mayoritaria de origen familiar. Si bien se ha considerado tradicionalmente un plato estival, un 78% de establecimientos lo tienen todo el año. El 94% de los establecimientos lo consideran entre los diez platos más consumidos, y para el 18% es el m

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Moreno Ortega, Alicia; Medina Canalejo, Luis M; Vioque Amor, Montserrat; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: el salmorejo cordobés está tomando fama a nivel nacional y reconocimiento internacional. Sin embargo, son muy diversas las formas de elaborarlo y, por tanto, las propiedades organolépticas y nutricionales del plato.Material y métodos: con la intención de realizar una estandarización del salmorejo y forma de elaboración que permita una posterior protección de su identidad, así como su caracterización nutricional, se ha realizado una encuesta sobre el 83% de los establecimientos de restauración de Córdoba (excluidos barrios periféricos y zona industrial) para indagar su forma de elaborarlo, en cuanto a denominación, ingredientes, preparación, precio, etc., mediante una encuesta administrada personalmente con 55 preguntas en 6 apartados.Resultado: el resultado ha sido que sólo un 21% de los establecimientos utiliza la denominación "salmorejo cordobés". Los ingredientes usados de forma sistemática se ajustan estadísticamente a una propuesta previa de sistematización y valoración nutricional, basada en datos bibliográficos y difundida en más de 50 idiomas, que corresponde a: 1.000 g de tomate, 200 g de pan de telera, 100 g de aceite de oliva virgen extra, 5 g de ajo de Montalbán y 10 g de sal. Esto corresponde por 100 g de producto a 117,4 kcal, 1,8 g de proteínas, 8,1 g de lípidos, 9,9 g de carbohidratos, 1,2 g de fibra y 380,7 mg de sodio. Como ingredientes extra minoritariamente se usa el vinagre (18% de las encuestas) y como guarnición de forma mayoritaria, taquitos de jamón y huevo duro, en tanto que algo más de un 25% añade un chorro de aceite sobre el producto terminado. Se elabora principalmente mediante vaso batidor o Termomix, siendo la receta usada de forma mayoritaria de origen familiar. Si bien se ha considerado tradicionalmente un plato estival, un 78% de establecimientos lo tienen todo el año. El 94% de los establecimientos lo consideran entre los diez platos más consumidos, y para el 18% es el m

  14. [Probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: to NEC or not to NEC?, this is the question].

    PubMed

    González de Dios, Javier; González Muñoz, María

    2013-11-01

    Introducción. La enterocolitis necrotizante (NEC) es la urgencia abdominal adquirida más frecuente en el recién nacido y ocasiona importante morbi-mortalidad. Una estrategia preventiva es la administración de probióticos orales para la prevención de NEC en prematuros. . El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la eficacia y seguridad de los probióticos orales en prematuros para intentar responder a la pregunta: probióticos orales en Neonatología, ¿sí o no?. Material y métodos. Se planteó un esquema de trabajo en base a los cinco pasos característicos de la Medicina basada en la evidencia o en pruebas científicas (MBE): 1) pregunta, 2) búsqueda, 3) valoración, 4) aplicabilidad y 5) adecuación. Las búsquedas electrónicas se realizaron en bases de datos internacionales (Tripdatabase, Cochrane Collaboration, National Guideline Clearinghouse, GuiaSalud, INHATA, Medline, SciELO) y nacionales (Índice Médico Español, Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud y MEDES). Resultados. Se seleccionaron 8 revisiones sistemáticas (RS) que respondían a la pregunta clínica, publicadas entre los años 2007 y 2012, y que incluyen la mejor información disponible (como ensayos clínicos). El riesgo de muerte disminuía significativamente en los grupos de administración de probióticos en todas las RS, con un riesgo relativo (RR) entre 0,40 y 0,56. El riesgo de NEC disminuía significativamente en los grupos de administración de probióticos en todas las RS, con un RR entre 0,32 y 0,36. El riesgo de sepsis no difería significativamente entre grupos. Conclusión. Los hallazgos de las 8 RS muestran, de forma consistente, que los probióticos orales ofrecen una prevención potencial en la morbi-mortalidad secundaria a NEC. Sin embargo, estos datos deben interpretarse con cautela dado que los efectos beneficiosos de los probióticos son específicos de cepa, por lo que, agrupar datos de diferentes cepas puede conllevar a conclusiones err

  15. [Nutritional content of foods offered and consumed in a Spanish university canteen].

    PubMed

    Fernández Torres, Ángela; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2014-09-12

    Objetivo: El primer objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue estudiar los hábitos alimentarios durante el almuerzo en la Universidad de Córdoba. En segundo término se trató de reducir el consumo energetico de colesterol y grasa en la dieta de dicho colectivo. Marco: El estudio se realiza entre los años 2010 al 2012 sobre la principal cantina en la que se sirve comida en esta Universidad, centrándonos en la toma de alimento del almuerzo, que es la principal toma alimentaria a lo largo del día, suponiendo entre el 35 y 40% del total de calorías ingeridas a lo largo del día. Muestras: Se han abordado un total de 9530 observaciones que corresponden cada una de ellas a la valoración nutricional de una toma de alimento (almuerzo completo) por estudiantes, profesorado y personal de servicios. Diseño: El estudio se desarrolló en 5 fases de intervención y una previa en la que no se intervino, esta última se utilizó para establecer las ingestas habituales alimentarias del colectivo. En cada fase se incremento la información nutricional suministrada a los usuarios de la cantina, para en la fase final, desarrollar también una modificación del precio de los menús servidos. Análisis: Las elecciones alimentarias que realizaban los universitarios de forma libre fueron transformadas en cantidad de nutrientes mediante la valoración nutricional previa de los platos, desarrollada por cálculo mediante la base de datos Nutriplato®. Esto permitió evaluar 29 nutrientes que a partir de los datos observados de los usuarios se transformaron en % de aporte a la RDA (de cada grupo de población) lo que produce una estandarización de los datos que permitió un estudio estadístico posterior, mediante el procedimiento GLM (SPSS v15) para evaluar el efecto de los diferentes factores contemplados. Principales medidas tomadas: Se tuvieron en cuenta como factores de clasificación (variables independientes): sexo, grupo de edad y nivel de grasa corporal, así como la fase de

  16. Linking Indices for Biodiversity Monitoring to Extinction Risk Theory

    PubMed Central

    Mccarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009. Conectando Índices para el Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad con la Teoría de Riesgo de Extinción Resumen Los índices de biodiversidad combinan frecuentemente los datos de diferentes especies cuando se usan en los programas de monitoreo. Las propiedades heurísticas pueden sugerir índices preferidos, pero carecemos de medios objetivos para discriminar a los índices con propiedades heurísticas similares. Los índices de biodiversidad pueden evaluarse al determinar qué tan bien reflejan los objetivos de manejo que un programa de monitoreo busca apoyar. Por ejemplo, la Convención sobre la Diversidad Biológica requiere reportar las tasas de extinción, así que los

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    De Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; López Úbeda, Marta; Rueda Caballero, Carmen; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Ferrández Longás, Ángel

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: saber diagnosticar y tratar la obesidad se ha convertido en el mayor reto del siglo XXI, debido al aumento de su prevalencia.Objetivos: determinar los valores de normalidad de perímetro abdominal (PA) e índice de masa corporal (IMC) según edad y sexo en población española sana.Métodos: estudio longitudinal observacional realizado entre 1980 y 2014. Se incluyeron 165 niños y 169 niñas recién nacidas, recogiendo datos de forma anual hasta los 18 años (74 varones y 92 mujeres), y posteriormente a los 28 años (42 varones y 45 mujeres). Se realizó medición de peso, longitud/talla y perímetro abdominal. Se calcularon los percentiles (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97) de IMC y PA según edad y sexo.Resultados: se presentan datos evolutivos de IMC y PA durante la infancia, destacando cómo aumentan los valores entre los 18 y 28 años de los percentiles superiores al p50, sobre todo en mujeres. Existe una correlación positiva en relación al PA entre el valor obtenido a los 3 años con el valor de los 18 años y de los 28 años tanto en varones (r = 0,722 y r = 0,605, p = 0,000, respectivamente) como en mujeres(r = 0,922, r = 0,857, p = 0,000, respectivamente). Y entre los 18 y 28 años (r = 0,731, p = 0,000 para varones y r = 0,961, p = 0,000 para mujeres).Conclusión: se presentan valores de normalidad de PA e IMC según edad y sexo, que podrán utilizarse como herramienta de referencia para identificar a personas con riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares o diabetes.

  18. Home enteral nutrition in Spain; NADYA registry 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Matía Martín, P; Luengo Pérez, L M; Cuerda Compes, C; Burgos Peláez, R; Alvarez Hernández, J; Calleja Fernández, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Gómez Candela, C; Leyes García, P; Laborda González, L; Martínez Olmos, M A; Campos Martín, C; Suárez Llanos, J P; Penacho Lázaro, M A; Gonzalo Marín, M; Salas Salvadó, J; Irles Rocamora, J A; Cánovas Gaillemin, B; Carrero Caballero, M C; Moreno Villares, J M; Garde Orbaiz, C; Miserachs Aranda, N; Del Olmo García, M D; Apezetxea Celaya, A; Mauri, S

    2014-06-01

    Objetivos: Describir los resultados del registro de nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) del grupo NADYASENPE de los años 2011 y 12. Material y métodos: Se recopilaron los datos introducidos en el registro desde el 1 de enero de 2011 al 31 de diciembre de 2012. Resultados: Hubo 3021 pacientes en el registro durante el periodo, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que da una prevalencia de 65,39 casos por millón de habitantes. 97.95% fueron adultos, 51,4% varones. La edad media fue 67,64 ± 19,1 años y la mediana 72 años para los adultos y 7 meses para los niños. La duración media de la NED fue 351 días y para el 97,5% fue el primer episodio con NED. La mayoría de pacientes tenían NED por una enfermedad neurológica (57,8%). La vía de acceso fue sonda nasogástrica para el 43,5% y gastrostomía para el 33,5%. La mayoría de pacientes tuvieron un nivel de actividad física limitado y, respecto a la autonomía, 54,8% necesitaba ayuda total. La fórmula de nutrición se suministró desde las oficinas de farmacia para el 73,8% y los fungibles, cuando fueron necesarios, desde los hospitales para el 53,8%. La NED se suspendió en 1.031 pacientes (34,1%) durante el periodo de estudio, 56,6% debido a fallecimiento y 22,2% debido a recuperación de la vía oral. Conclusiones: Los datos del registro NADYA-SENPE deben ser interpretados con precaución ya que se trata de un registro voluntario. A pesar del cambio de metodología del registro en 2010, las tendencias en NED se han mantenido, salvo la importancia cuantitativa de la vía oral.

  19. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  20. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuv