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Sample records for dato stenocereus griseus

  1. [Cardon dato (Stenocereus griseus, Cactaceae) fruit pulp as raw material for marmalade production].

    PubMed

    Emaldi, Unai; Nassar, Jafet M; Semprum, Carla

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the possibility of producing marmalades from the fruit pulp of the red and white varieties of card6n dato (Stenocereus griseus). We developed the formulations of the marmalades and evaluated their stability during three months of storage at room temperature. As first step, we characterized the fruits of the two color varieties, observing that despite the considerable difference between both color varieties, there were no significant differences in average weight, dimensions and proportion of pulp, skin and seeds. The pulp of the two color types had high pH (5.2) values and low contents of reductor sugars (3.59 g/ 100 g white variety 2.23 g/ 100 g red variety), non reductor sugars (0.75 g/ 100 g white variety and 2.03 g/ 100 g red variety), pectin (0.14 g/ 100 g white variety and 0.23 g/ 100 g red variety) and acids (7.67 g/ 100 g white variety and 0.15 g/ 100 g red variety). It is needed to include sugar, pectin, and citric acid in the marmalade formula. The first marmalades produced were gummy, a problem that we solved adding the acid from the beginning of the making process. During the three months of storage, the marmalades had good acceptance by the evaluators, this despite slight fluctuations observed in pH, solid contents, and acidity.

  2. Transmission beam characteristics of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam B; Kloepper, Laura N; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Wan-Hsiu; Jen, I-Fan; Rideout, Brendan P; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    The echolocation system of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) remains poorly studied compared to other odontocete species. In this study, echolocation signals were recorded from a stationary Risso's dolphin with an array of 16 hydrophones and the two-dimensional beam shape was explored using frequency-dependent amplitude plots. Click source parameters were similar to those already described for this species. Centroid frequency of click signals increased with increasing sound pressure level, while the beamwidth decreased with increasing center frequency. Analysis revealed primarily single-lobed, and occasionally vertically dual-lobed, beam shapes. Overall beam directivity was found to be greater than that of the harbor porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, and a false killer whale. The relationship between frequency content, beam directivity, and head size for this Risso's dolphin deviated from the trend described for other species. These are the first reported measurements of echolocation beam shape and directivity in G. griseus.

  3. Griseochelin, a novel carboxylic acid antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, U; Schade, W; Roth, M; Radics, L; Incze, M; Ujszászy, K

    1984-08-01

    Griseochelin, C33H60O7, isolated from an asporogenous strain of Streptomyces griseus represents a novel carboxylic acid antibiotic. The metabolite, which is active against Gram-positive bacteria, forms water-insoluble salts with mono- and divalent cations and binds alkaline-earth metal ions specifically in 2:1 (X2M) stoichiometry. Detailed spectral (IR, MS and NMR) studies provide full characterization of its constitution featuring a carboxylic acid function, a substituted tetrahydropyran ring, an allylic OH group which are accommodated within a tetrahydroxylated-octamethyl-C25 diene backbone.

  4. STREPTOMYCIN FORMATION BY INTACT MYCELIUM OF STREPTOMYCES GRISEUS

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Ryosaku

    1963-01-01

    Nomi, Ryosaku (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.). Streptomycin formation by intact mycelium of Streptomyces griseus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1220–1230. 1963.—A study was made of streptomycin formation by intact mycelium of Streptomyces griseus 107 grown in glucose-yeast extract medium. When mycelium harvested after 24, 48, and 72 hr was compared, the earliest growth showed the highest activity in producing streptomycin from glucose. The concentration of streptomycin in the mycelium was higher in the older growth. Calcium chloride had a remarkable effect in increasing streptomycin production from the precursors in the mycelium, especially when the mycelium was grown for 48 hr or longer. The effect of calcium chloride cannot be attributed to the precipitation of an excess of inorganic phosphate in the medium. Glucose, fructose, glycerol, lactic acid, glucosamine, streptidine, and inositol stimulated streptomycin formation, whereas gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, streptamine, and strepturea did not. When 24-hr-old mycelium was suspended and shaken in 0.5% glucose solution, the antibiotic precursors necessary to produce streptomycin were found mainly in the supernatant of the culture rather than in the mycelium. The supernatant included some substance which had a weak antibiotic activity. This substance was less basic than streptomycin and was transformed to streptomycin with a remarkable increase in antibiotic activity. PMID:14086093

  5. Deoxysugar transfer during chromomycin A3 biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus: new derivatives with antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Nuria; Nur-e-Alam, Mohammad; Fischer, Carsten; Braña, Alfredo F; Salas, José A; Rohr, Jürgen; Méndez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Chromomycin A3 is an antitumor drug produced by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus. It consists of a tricyclic aglycone with two aliphatic side chains and two O-glycosidically linked saccharide chains, a disaccharide of 4-O-acetyl-D-oliose (sugar A) and 4-O-methyl-D-oliose (sugar B), and a trisaccharide of D-olivose (sugar C), D-olivose (sugar D), and 4-O-acetyl-L-chromose B (sugar E). The chromomycin gene cluster contains four glycosyltransferase genes (cmmGI, cmmGII, cmmGIII, and cmmGIV), which were independently inactivated through gene replacement, generating mutants C60GI, C10GII, C10GIII, and C10GIV. Mutants C10GIV and C10GIII produced the known compounds premithramycinone and premithramycin A1, respectively, indicating the involvement of CmmGIV and CmmGIII in the sequential transfer of sugars C and D and possibly also of sugar E of the trisaccharide chain, to the 12a position of the tetracyclic intermediate premithramycinone. Mutant C10GII produced two new tetracyclic compounds lacking the disaccharide chain at the 8 position, named prechromomycin A3 and prechromomycin A2. All three compounds accumulated by mutant C60GI were tricyclic and lacked sugar B of the disaccharide chain, and they were named prechromomycin A4, 4A-O-deacetyl-3A-O-acetyl-prechromomycin A4, and 3A-O-acetyl-prechromomycin A4. CmmGII and CmmGI are therefore responsible for the formation of the disaccharide chain by incorporating, in a sequential manner, two D-oliosyl residues to the 8 position of the biosynthetic intermediate prechromomycin A3. A biosynthetic pathway is proposed for the glycosylation events in chromomycin A3 biosynthesis.

  6. Morphological variation and the process of domestication of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Casas, A; Caballero, J; Valiente-Banuet, A; Soriano, J A; Dávila, P

    1999-04-01

    Morphological variation was analyzed in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in central Mexico. The purpose was to evaluate whether morphological divergence between manipulated and wild populations has resulted from domestication processes. Variation of 23 morphological characters was analyzed among 324 individuals from 19 populations of the Tehuacán Valley and La Mixteca Baja. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to group individuals and populations according to their morphological similarity. Individuals grouped according to the way of management and fruit characteristics were the most relevant for grouping. Within each region, sweet fruits with pulp colors other than red were more frequent in cultivated populations, where fruits were also larger, contained more and bigger seeds, and had thinner peel and fewer spines than fruits from wild individuals. Phenotypes common in managed in situ and cultivated populations generally occur in the wild but in lower frequencies. Artificial selection has thus operated by enhancing and maintaining desirable rare phenotypes in managed in situ and cultivated populations, causing divergent patterns of morphological variation from wild populations. Cultivation has caused the strongest level of divergence, but divergence has also been significant with management of wild populations in situ.

  7. Managing diversity: Domestication and gene flow in Stenocereus stellatus Riccob. (Cactaceae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Parker, Kathleen C; Friar, Elizabeth A; Huang, Daisie I; Mashayekhi, Saeideh; Prince, Linda M; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Casas, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite markers (N = 5) were developed for analysis of genetic variation in 15 populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus, managed under traditional agriculture practices in central Mexico. Microsatellite diversity was analyzed within and among populations, between geographic regions, and among population management types to provide detailed insight into historical gene flow rates and population dynamics associated with domestication. Our results corroborate a greater diversity in populations managed by farmers compared with wild ones (HE = 0.64 vs. 0.55), but with regional variation between populations among regions. Although farmers propagated S. stellatus vegetatively in home gardens to diversify their stock, asexual recruitment also occurred naturally in populations where more marginal conditions have limited sexual recruitment, resulting in lower genetic diversity. Therefore, a clear-cut relationship between the occurrence of asexual recruitment and genetic diversity was not evident. Two managed populations adjacent to towns were identified as major sources of gene movement in each sampled region, with significant migration to distant as well as nearby populations. Coupled with the absence of significant bottlenecks, this suggests a mechanism for promoting genetic diversity in managed populations through long distance gene exchange. Cultivation of S. stellatus in close proximity to wild populations has led to complex patterns of genetic variation across the landscape that reflects the interaction of natural and cultural processes. As molecular markers become available for nontraditional crops and novel analysis techniques allow us to detect and evaluate patterns of genetic diversity, genetic studies provide valuable insights into managing crop genetic resources into the future against a backdrop of global change. Traditional agriculture systems play an important role in maintaining genetic diversity for plant species. PMID:23762520

  8. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  9. Diet, dietary selectivity and density of South American Grey Fox, Lycalopex griseus, in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Pedreros, Andrés; Yáñez, José; Norambuena, Heraldo V; Zúñiga, Alfredo

    2017-03-06

    The South American Grey Fox (Lycalopex griseus) is a canid widely distributed in southern South America, however some aspects of its biology are still poorly known. We studied the diet and density of L. griseus in the Lago Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, in Central Chile. The trophic niche breadth was B = 6.16 (Bsta = 0.47) and prey diversity was H ' = 2.46 (Hmax' = 3.17, J' = 0.78). The highest proportions of prey consumed in the diet were Oryctolagus cuniculus (52.21%) and other mammals (32.78%). We compared these results with a latitudinal gradient of diet results for this species in Chile. L. griseus eats mostly mammals (> 90% of total prey), consuming the rodent Phyllotis darwini and reptiles in the Northern zone; O. cuniculus, Octodon degus and Abrocoma bennetti in the Central zone; Abrothrix spp. and lagomorphs in the Southern zone; and Lepus capensis and Ovis aries in the Austral zone. The estimated density of L. griseus in Lago Peñuelas NR was 1.3 foxes /km(2) . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The Mitochondrial Toxin Produced by Streptomyces griseus Strains Isolated from an Indoor Environment Is Valinomycin

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M. A.; Mikkola, R.; Kroppenstedt, R. M.; Rainey, F. A.; Peltola, J.; Helin, J.; Sivonen, K.; Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Actinomycete isolates from indoor air and dust in water-damaged schools and children’s day care centers were tested for toxicity by using boar spermatozoa as an indicator. Toxicity was detected in extracts of four strains which caused a loss of sperm motility, and the 50% effective concentrations (EC50) were 10 to 63 ng (dry weight) ml of extended boar semen−1. The four strains were identified as Streptomyces griseus strains by 16S ribosomal DNA and chemotaxonomic methods. The four S. griseus strains had similar effects on sperm cells, including loss of motility and swelling of mitochondria, but we observed no loss of plasma membrane integrity or depletion of cellular ATP. None of the effects was observed with sperm cells exposed to extracts of other indoor actinomycete isolates at concentrations of ≥5,000 to 72,000 ng ml−1. The toxin was purified from all four strains and was identified as a dodecadepsipeptide, and the fragmentation pattern obtained by tandem mass spectrometry was identical to that of valinomycin. Commercial valinomycin had effects in sperm cells that were identical to the effects of the four indoor isolates of S. griseus. The EC50 of purified toxin from the S. griseus strains were 1 to 3 ng ml of extended boar semen−1, and the EC50 of commercial valinomycin was 2 ng ml of extended boar semen−1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of ionophoric toxin producers in an indoor environment and the first report of valinomycin-producing strains identified as S. griseus. PMID:9835560

  11. Growth and development of the arborescent cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis in a subtropical semiarid environment, including effects of gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Eulogio; Hernandez, Gerardo; Domingues, Alejandro; Nobel, Park S.

    1998-01-01

    In Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum, an arborescent cactus cultivated in Jalisco, Mexico, for its fruits but studied here in wild populations, stem extension occurred in the autumn at the beginning of the dry season, flowering and fruiting occurred in the spring at the end of the dry season, and new roots grew in the summer during the wet season. The asynchrony of vegetative and reproductive growth reduces competitive sink effects, which may be advantageous for wild populations growing in infertile rocky soils. Seasonal patterns of sugars in the roots and especially the stems of S. queretaroensis were closely related to the main phenological stages, becoming lower in concentration during periods of major stem extension. Cessation of stem extension occurred in 100-year-old plants for which injection of GA(3) reinitiated such growth. Isolated chlorenchyma cylinders had maximum extension in a bathing solution containing 0.1 &mgr;M gibberellic acid.

  12. Chromate reduction by PVA-alginate immobilized Streptomyces griseus in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Poopal, Ashwini C; Laxman, R Seeta

    2009-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic Cr6+ to the less toxic Cr3+ is potentially a useful bioremediation process. Among the matrices tested for whole cell immobilization of an efficient chromate-reducing Streptomyces griseus strain, PVA-alginate was the most effective and was used for reduction of Cr(VI) in a bioreactor. Cr6+ reduction efficiency decreased as Cr6+ was increased from 2 to 12 mg l(-1) but increased with an increase in biomass concentration. However, increasing the flow rate from 2 to 8 ml h(-1) did not significantly affect Cr(6+) reduction. The reduction was faster in simulated effluent than in synthetic medium and complete removal of 8 mg Cr6+ l(-1) from effluent and synthetic medium occurred in 2 and 12 h, respectively. Our results indicate that immobilized S. griseus cells could be applied for the large-scale bioremediation of chromate-containing effluents and wastewaters.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a gene involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, N; Kimura, M; Beppu, T; Horinouchi, S

    1995-01-01

    A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) is essentially required for aerial mycelium formation and streptomycin production in Streptomyces griseus. A DNA fragment which induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain, S. griseus HH1, was cloned from this strain on a high-copy-number plasmid. Subcloning and nucleotide sequencing revealed that one open reading frame with 218 amino acids, named AmfC, served as a multicopy suppressor of the aerial mycelium-defective phenotype of the A-factor-deficient strain. The amfC gene did not restore A-factor or streptomycin production, indicating that amfC is involved in aerial mycelium formation independently of secondary metabolic function. Disruption of the chromosomal amfC gene in the wild-type S. griseus strain caused a severe reduction in the abundance of spores but no effect on the shape or size of the spores. The infrequent sporulation of the amfC disruptant was reversed by introduction of amfC on a plasmid. The amfC-defective phenotype was also restored by the orf1590 gene but not by the amfR-amfA-amfB gene cluster. Nucleotide sequences homologous to the amfC gene were distributed in all of 12 Streptomyces species tested, including Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The amfC homolog of S. coelicolor A3(2) was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The AmfC products of S. griseus and S. coelicolor A3(2) showed a 60% identity in their amino acid sequences. Introduction of the amfC gene of S. coelicolor A3(2) into strain HH1 induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation, which suggests that both play the same functional role in morphogenesis in the strains. PMID:7592414

  14. Salinity selection and preference of the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus: field and laboratory observations.

    PubMed

    Serrano, X; Grosell, M; Serafy, J E

    2010-05-01

    Field observations were supplemented with laboratory experiments to reveal patterns of salinity selection and preference for grey snapper Lutjanus griseus (c. 21 cm total length, L(T)), an ecologically and economically important species in the south-eastern U.S.A. Fish abundance data were examined from a long-term field survey conducted in the mangrove habitats of Biscayne Bay, Florida, where salinities ranged from <1 to 40. First, regression analyses indicated significant, positive linear relationships with salinity for both L. griseus frequency of occurrence and concentration (density when present). These patterns are inconsistent with physiological expectations of minimizing energetic osmoregulatory costs. Next, the salinity preference and swimming activity of 11 L. griseus (ranging from 18 to 23 cm L(T)) were investigated using a newly developed electronic shuttlebox system. In the laboratory, fish preferred intermediate salinities in the range of 9-23. Swimming activity (measured in terms of spontaneous swimming speed) followed a parabolic relationship with salinity, with reduced activity at salinity extremes perhaps reflecting compensation for higher osmoregulatory costs. It is suspected that the basis of the discrepancy between laboratory and field observations for size classes at or near maturity ultimately relates to the reproductive imperative to move towards offshore (high-salinity) coral-reef habitats, a necessity that probably overrides the strategy of minimizing osmoregulatory energetic costs.

  15. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Stenocereus Eichlamii (Cactaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Bor, Silvia; Monroy, M Carlota

    2004-12-01

    A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae, Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease) in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections, 24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T. ryckmani. In comparison with other areas of Guatemala, T ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5, density = 2.3 and crowding index 4.3). The insects were mainly found (52.4%) in the dead portions of S. eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X2 = 26.0, P < 0.00001), followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%). They were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground. A considerable proportion (75.7%) had no aparent blood in their digestive systems. To determine the presence of flagellates, 43 of the bugs were dissected, but none were found. This is the first report on T. ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat.

  16. The genetic structure of a columnar cactus with a disjunct distribution: Stenocereus gummosus in the Sonoran desert.

    PubMed

    Clark-Tapia, R; Molina-Freaner, F

    2003-06-01

    Stenocereus gummosus is a columnar cactus endemic to the Sonoran desert that exhibits a disjunct distribution: it is widely distributed in Baja California and restricted to a small coastal area in mainland Sonora. In this paper, we examine the genetic structure and the mating system of this species in order to explore the origin of the disjunction and describe aspects of the pollination biology. Flowers are nocturnal, pollinated mainly by sphingids and self-incompatible. Polymorphism for allozymes (11 loci) was relatively high (P=75%) but moderate levels of heterozygosity were detected (H(o)=0.103 and H(e)=0.261). Sonoran populations exhibited higher levels of genetic variation than peninsular populations. H(e) declined with latitude when just peninsular and two island populations are included. Substantial levels of inbreeding within populations (f=0.60), moderate differentiation among populations (theta=0.10), and no evidence of isolation by distance were detected. The neighbor-joining phenogram showed Sonoran and island populations nested within peninsular populations. Mainland populations showed greater genetic similarity to island populations, supporting a dispersal hypothesis for the origin of the disjunction. Future studies using DNA markers are suggested in order to better understand the forces that have shaped the genetic structure of this species.

  17. Diet variation of a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, across an estuarine gradient: trade-offs of quantity for quality?

    PubMed

    Yeager, L A; Layman, C A; Hammerschlag-Peyer, C M

    2014-08-01

    This study examined diet, prey quality and growth for a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, at five sites across an estuarine gradient in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida, U.S.A. Lutjanus griseus diets shifted from dominance by low quality, intertidal crabs upstream to an increased reliance on higher quality shrimp, fishes and benthic crabs downstream. Frequency of L. griseus with empty stomachs was higher at downstream sites. Lutjanus griseus growth rates did not vary among sites. Results indicate that L. griseus may be able to compensate for lower quality prey upstream by consuming more, and thus individuals are able to maintain similar levels of energy balance and growth rates across the estuarine gradient. Elucidating mechanisms, such as compensatory feeding, that enable generalist species to remain successful across habitat conditions are critical to understanding their organismal ecology and may facilitate predictions about the response of generalists to landscape alteration.

  18. Pulmonary fungal infection caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Elad, Daniel; Morick, Danny; David, Dan; Scheinin, Aviad; Yamin, Gilad; Blum, Shlomo; Goffman, Oz

    2011-05-01

    Neoscytalidium dimidiatum was isolated from two 12-18 cm abscesses in the lung and the mediastinal lymph nodes of a stranded Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). Histopathologic examination of samples of these organs revealed the presence of hyphae and sclerotic body-like fungal elements. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was recovered from the dolphin's organs which also were found to contain numerous Monorygma grimaldii cysts. No histopathological signs of morbillivirus infection were seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of N. dimidiatum infection in a sea mammal.

  19. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

    2013-05-01

    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15 h and predominantly nocturnal (9 h), pollen was released at 23:00 h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success.

  20. Effects of Plant Size and Weather on the Flowering Phenology of the Organ Pipe Cactus (Stenocereus thurberi)

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Flowering phenology is a critical life-history trait that influences reproductive success. It has been shown that genetic, climatic and other factors such as plant size affect the timing of flowering and its duration. The spatial and temporal variation in the reproductive phenology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus thurberi and its association with plant size and environmental cues was studied. Methods Flowering was monitored during 3 years in three populations of S. thurberi along a latitudinal gradient. Plant size was related to phenological parameters. The actual and past weather were used for each site and year to investigate the environmental correlates of flowering. Key Results There was significant variation in the timing of flowering within and among populations. Flowering lasted 4 months in the southern population and only 2 months in the northern population. A single flowering peak was evident in each population, but ocurred at different times. Large plants produced more flowers, and bloomed earlier and for a longer period than small plants. Population synchrony increased as the mean duration of flowering per individual decreased. The onset of flowering is primarily related to the variance in winter minimum temperatures and the duration to the autumn–winter mean maximum temperature, whereas spring mean maximum temperature is best correlated with synchrony. Conclusions Plant size affects individual plant fecundity as well as flowering time. Thus the population structure strongly affects flowering phenology. Indications of clinal variation in the timing of flowering and reproductive effort suggest selection pressures related to the arrival of migrating pollinators, climate and resource economy in a desert environment. These pressures are likely to be relaxed in populations where individual plants can attain large sizes. PMID:18854374

  1. Purification of histidase from Streptomyces griseus and nucleotide sequence of the hutH structural gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, P C; Kroening, T A; White, P J; Kendrick, K E

    1992-01-01

    Histidine ammonia-lyase (histidase) was purified to homogeneity from vegetative mycelia of Streptomyces griseus. The enzyme was specific for L-histidine and showed no activity against the substrate analog, D-histidine. Histidinol phosphate was a potent competitive inhibitor. Histidase displayed saturation kinetics with no detectable sigmoidal response. Neither thiol reagents nor a variety of divalent cations had any effect on the activity of the purified enzyme. High concentrations of potassium cyanide inactivated histidase in the absence of its substrate or histidinol phosphate, suggesting that, as in other histidases, dehydroalanine plays an important role in catalysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of histidase was used to construct a mixed oligonucleotide probe to identify and clone the histidase structural gene, hutH, from genomic DNA of the wild-type strain of S. griseus. The cloned DNA restored the ability of a histidase structural gene mutant to grow on L-histidine as the sole nitrogen source. The deduced amino acid sequence of hutH shows significant relatedness with histidase from bacteria and a mammal as well as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from plants and fungi. Images PMID:1537807

  2. Identification of transformation products arising from bacterial oxidation of codeine by Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, D A; Reddy, G S; Vatvars, A

    1985-01-01

    14-Hydroxycodeine and norcodeine were rigorously identified as products arising from codeine oxidation by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 10137. Both products were routinely detected in extracted culture filtrates after growth of cells in the presence of codeine for 1 week. Under these conditions, about 4 mol% of the codeine starting material was consumed, with norcodeine and 14-hydroxycodeine representing the only identifiable transformation products (molar ratio, 4:1, respectively). Extraction of a series of culture filtrates and purification of the pooled metabolites by thin-layer and high-pressure liquid chromatography led to the isolation of both biological products, the structures of which were verified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The identities of both biological products were further confirmed by comparison of their spectral properties with those of authentic standards. This is the first report providing structural evidence for the biological formation of 14-hydroxycodeine from codeine and of codeine oxidation by S. griseus. PMID:3936418

  3. Differential Regulation of ftsZ Transcription during Septation of Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jangyul; Dharmatilake, Amitha J.; Jiang, Hao; Kendrick, Kathleen E.

    2001-01-01

    Streptomyces has been known to form two types of septa. The data in this research demonstrated that Streptomyces griseus forms another type of septum near the base of sporogenic hyphae (basal septum). To understand the regulation of the septation machinery in S. griseus, we investigated the expression of the ftsZ gene. S1 nuclease protection assays revealed that four ftsZ transcripts were differentially expressed during morphological differentiation. The vegetative transcript (emanating from Pveg) is present at a moderate level during vegetative growth, but is switched off within the first 2 h of sporulation. Two sporulation-specific transcripts predominantly accumulated, and the levels increased by approximately fivefold together shortly before sporulation septa begin to form. Consistently, the sporulation-specific transcripts were expressed much earlier and more abundantly in a group of nonsporulating mutants that form their sporulation septa prematurely. Promoter-probe studies with two different reporter systems confirmed the activities of the putative promoters identified from the 5′ end point of the transcripts. The levels and expression timing of promoter activities were consistent with the results of nuclease protection assays. The aseptate phenotype of the Pspo mutant indicated that the increased transcription from Pspo is required for sporulation septation, but not for vegetative or basal septum formation. PMID:11489862

  4. Iminimycin A, the new iminium metabolite produced by Streptomyces griseus OS-3601.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuji; Miyano, Rei; Iwatsuki, Masato; Shirahata, Tatsuya; Kimura, Toru; Asami, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Shiomi, Kazuro; Petersson, George A; Takahashi, Yōko; Ōmura, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    A new natural product, designated iminimycin A, was isolated from the cultured broth of a streptomycin-producing microbial strain, Streptomyces griseus OS-3601, via a physicochemical screening method using HP-20, silica gel and ODS column chromatographies and subsequent preparative HPLC. Iminimycin A is an indolizidine alkaloid, containing of an unusual iminium group and a cyclopropane ring with a triene side chain. The absolute configuration of iminimycin A was elucidated by NMR studies and electronic circular dichroism analysis. Iminimycin A shows anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Kocuria rhizophila and Xanthomonas campestris pv. orizae, and cytotoxic activity against HeLa S3 and Jurkat cells with IC50 values of 43 and 36 μM, respectively.

  5. Aeromonas dhakensis pneumonia and sepsis in a neonate Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lola; Abarca, M Lourdes; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Figueras, M José; Domingo, Mariano

    2015-09-17

    A neonate Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus was found stranded alive on a beach in Catalonia, Spain. Rehabilitation attempts were unsuccessful and it died 2 d later, showing pneumonia and sepsis. A pure bacterial culture was obtained from all tissues and blood and identified as Aeromonas hydrophila using the API 20NE. However, sequencing the rpoD gene showed that the strain in fact belongs to A. dhakensis, making this the first report of fatal haemorrhagic-necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis due to this species in a marine mammal. The A. dhakensis strain GMV-704 produced β-haemolysis, possessed several virulence genes and showed sensitivity to several antimicrobials. This study provides a new potential host for A. dhakensis, and its potential virulence in dolphins and its presence in the marine environment may warrant considering this species a potential threat to marine mammals.

  6. The purification and properties of two staphylolytic enzymes from Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. B.; Perkins, H. R.

    1968-01-01

    1. Two staphylolytic enzymes have been purified from cultures of a soil isolate of Streptomyces griseus. 2. The purified enzymes were shown to be basic proteins of low molecular weight. Each enzyme released N-acetylmuramic acid reducing groups from the cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus. 3. The enzymes lysed whole staphylococci best at higher pH values and lower ionic strengths than when the substrate was isolated cell walls or purified mucopeptide. 4. Added teichoic acid did not inhibit the enzymes, but it formed an ethanol-precipitable complex with them. 5. The possibility that teichoic acid on the surface of whole cells prevents the access of the enzymes to their mucopeptide substrate is discussed. PMID:4976493

  7. A modular family 19 chitinase found in the prokaryotic organism Streptomyces griseus HUT 6037.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, T; Armand, S; Hata, T; Nikaidou, N; Henrissat, B; Mitsutomi, M; Watanabe, T

    1996-01-01

    The specificity of chitinase C-1 of Streptomyces griseus HUT 6037 for the hydrolysis of the beta-1,4-glycosidic linkages in partially acetylated chitosan is different from that of other microbial chitinases. In order to study the primary structure of this unique chitinase, the chiC gene specifying chitinase C-1 was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 294 amino acids with a calculated size of 31.4 kDa. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the deduced polypeptide with that of other proteins revealed a C-terminal catalytic domain displaying considerable sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of plant class I, II, and IV chitinases which form glycosyl hydrolase family 19. The N-terminal domain of the deduced polypeptide exhibits sequence similarity to substrate-binding domains of several microbial chitinases and cellulases but not to the chitin-binding domains of plant chitinases. The previously purified chitinase C-1 from S. griseus is suggested to be generated by proteolytic removal of the N-terminal chitin-binding domain and corresponds to the catalytic domain of the chitinase encoded by the chiC gene. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the hydrolysis products from N-acetyl chitotetraose revealed that chitinase C-1 catalyzes hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond with inversion of the anomeric configuration, in agreement with the previously reported inverting mechanism of plant class I chitinases. This is the first report of a family 19 chitinase found in an organism other than higher plants. PMID:8752320

  8. Characterization of a novel sesquiterpene cyclase involved in (+)-caryolan-1-ol biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chiaki; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2011-08-12

    Most terpenoids have been isolated from plants and fungi and only a few from bacteria. However, an increasing number of genome sequences indicate that bacteria possess a variety of terpenoid cyclase genes. We characterized a sesquiterpene cyclase gene (SGR2079, named gcoA) found in Streptomyces griseus. When expressed in Streptomyces lividans, gcoA directed production of a sesquiterpene, isolated and determined to be (+)-caryolan-1-ol using spectroscopic analyses. (+)-Caryolan-1-ol was also detected in the crude cell lysate of wild-type S. griseus but not in a gcoA knockout mutant, indicating that GcoA is a genuine (+)-caryolan-1-ol synthase. Enzymatic properties were characterized using N-terminally histidine-tagged GcoA, produced in Escherichia coli. As expected, incubation of the recombinant GcoA protein with farnesyl diphosphate yielded (+)-caryolan-1-ol. However, a small amount of another sesquiterpene was also detected. This was identified as the bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (+)-β-caryophyllene by comparison with an authentic sample using GC-MS. Incorporation of a deuterium atom into the C-9 methylene of (+)-caryolan-1-ol in an in vitro GcoA reaction in deuterium oxide indicated that (+)-caryolan-1-ol was synthesized by a proton attack on the C-8/C-9 double bond of (+)-β-caryophyllene. Several β-caryophyllene synthases have been identified from plants, but these cannot synthesize caryolan-1-ol. Although caryolan-1-ol has been isolated previously from several plants, the enzyme responsible for its biosynthesis has not been identified previously. GcoA is thus the first known caryolan-1-ol synthase. Isolation of caryolan-1-ol from microorganisms is unprecedented.

  9. Cloning and characterization of the A-factor receptor gene from Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Onaka, H; Ando, N; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y; Beppu, T; Horinouchi, S

    1995-01-01

    A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) and its specific receptor protein control streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. The A-factor receptor protein (ArpA) was purified from a cell lysate of S. griseus IFO 13350. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of ArpA and lysyl endopeptidase-generated fragments were determined for the purpose of preparing oligonucleotide primers for cloning arpA by the PCR method. The arpA gene cloned in this way directed the synthesis of a protein having A-factor-specific binding activity when expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the T7 promoter. The arpA gene was thus concluded to encode a 276-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 29.1 kDa, as determined by nucleotide sequencing. The A-factor-binding activity was observed with a homodimer of ArpA. The NH2-terminal portion of ArpA contained an alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA-binding motif that showed great similarity to those of many DNA-binding proteins, which suggests that it exerts its regulatory function for the various phenotypes by directly binding to a certain key gene(s). Although a mutant strain deficient in both the ArpA protein and A-factor production overproduces streptomycin and forms aerial mycelium and spores earlier than the wild-type strain because of repressor-like behavior of ArpA, introduction of arpA into this mutant abolished simultaneously its streptomycin production and aerial mycelium formation. All of these data are consistent with the idea that ArpA acts as a repressor-type regulator for secondary metabolite formation and morphogenesis during the early growth phase and A-factor at a certain critical intracellular concentration releases the derepression, thus leading to the onset of secondary metabolism and aerial mycelium formation. The presence of ArpA-like proteins among Streptomyces spp., as revealed by PCR, together with the presence of A

  10. Improved Production of Active Streptomyces griseus Trypsin with a Novel Auto-Catalyzed Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Ling, Zhenmin; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    N-terminal sequences play crucial roles in regulating expression, translation, activation and enzymatic properties of proteins. To reduce cell toxicity of intracellular trypsin and increase secretory expression, we developed a novel auto-catalyzed strategy to produce recombinant trypsin by engineering the N-terminus of mature Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT). The engineered N-terminal peptide of SGT was composed of the thioredoxin, glycine-serine linker, His6-tag and the partial bovine trypsinogen pro-peptide (DDDDK). Furthermore, we constructed a variant TLEI with insertion of the artificial peptide at N-terminus and site-directed mutagenesis of the autolysis residue R145. In fed-batch fermentation, the production of extracellular trypsin activity was significantly improved to 47.4 ± 1.2 U·ml−1 (amidase activity, 8532 ± 142.2 U·ml−1 BAEE activity) with a productivity of 0.49 U·ml−1·h−1, which was 329% greater than that of parent strain Pichia pastoris GS115-SGT. This work has significant potential to be scaled-up for microbial production of SGT. In addition, the N-terminal peptide engineering strategy can be extended to improve heterologous expression of other toxic enzymes. PMID:26983398

  11. Organization and characterization of a biosynthetic gene cluster for bafilomycin from Streptomyces griseus DSM 2608

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces griseus DSM 2608 produces bafilomycin, an antifungal plecomacrolide antibiotic. We cloned and sequenced an 87.4-kb region, including a polyketide synthase (PKS) region, methoxymalonate genes, flavensomycinate genes, and other putative regulatory genes. The 58.5kb of PKS region consisting 12 PKS modules arranged in five different PKS genes, was assumed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of plecomacrolide backbone including 16-membered macrocyclic lactone. All the modules showed high similarities with typical type I PKS genes. However, the starting module of PKS gene was confirmed to be specific for isobutyrate by sequence comparison of an acyltransferase domain. In downstream of PKS region, the genes for methoxymalonate biosynthesis were located, among which a gene for FkbH-like protein was assumed to play an important role in the production of methoxymalonyl-CoA from glyceryl-CoA. Further the genes encoding flavensomycinyl-ACP biosynthesis for the post-PKS tailoring were also found in the upstream of PKS region. By gene disruption experiments of a dehydratase domain of module 12 and an FkbH-like protein, this gene cluster was confirmed to be involved in the biosynthesis of bafilomycin. PMID:23663353

  12. Characterization of an 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin:NADPH oxidoreductase from Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Eker, A P; Hessels, J K; Meerwaldt, R

    1989-01-27

    An 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin-dependent oxidoreductase was isolated from the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus and purified 590-fold with 72% overall yield. The enzyme catalyzes electron transfer between 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavins and NADPH. It seems to be more specific than methanogenic oxidoreductase as it has an absolute requirement for both the 5-deazaflavin structure and the presence of an 8-hydroxy group in the substrate. A molecular weight of 42,000 was found with gel permeation chromatography, while SDS gel electrophoresis indicated the presence of two identical subunits. Maximal enzymatic activity was found at 0.32 M NaCl and pH 5.9 for reduction of 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin and pH 7.9 for the reverse reaction. From the kinetic constants it was estimated that the main function of this oxidoreductase is probably to provide cells with reduced 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin to be used in specific reduction reactions. These results indicate the occurrence of 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin-dependent electron transfer in microorganisms not belonging to the archaebacteria.

  13. Hearing abilities and sound reception of broadband sounds in an adult Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan

    2015-08-01

    While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.

  14. A small lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Streptomyces griseus targeting α- and β-chitin.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuko S; Kudo, Madoka; Loose, Jennifer S M; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Totani, Kazuhide; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2015-03-01

    The lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have received considerable attention subsequent to their discovery because of their ability to boost the enzymatic conversion of recalcitrant polysaccharides. In the present study, we describe the enzymatic properties of SgLPMO10F, a small (15 kDa) auxilliary activity (AA) family 10 LPMO from Streptomyces griseus belonging to a clade of the phylogenetic tree without any characterized representative. The protein was expressed using a Brevibacillus-based expression system that had not been used previously for LPMO expression and that also ensures correct processing of the N-terminus crucial for LPMO activity. The enzyme was active towards both α- and β-chitin and showed stronger binding and a greater release of soluble oxidized products for the latter allomorph. In chitinase synergy assays, however, SgLPMO10F worked slightly better for α-chitin, increasing chitin solubilization yields by up to 30-fold and 20-fold for α- and β-chitin, respectively. Synergy experiments with various chitinases showed that the addition of SgLPMO10F leads to a substantial increase in the (GlcNAc)2 :GlcNAc product ratio, in reactions with α-chitin only. This underpins the structural differences between the substrates and also shows that, on α-chitin, SgLPMO10F affects the binding mode and/or degree of processivity of the chitinases tested. Variation in the only exposed aromatic residue in the substrate-binding surface of LPMO10s has previously been linked to preferential binding for α-chitin (exposed Trp) or β-chitin (exposed Tyr). Mutation of this residue, Tyr56, in SgLPMO10F to Trp had no detectable effect on substrate-binding preferences but, in synergy experiments, the mutant appeared to be more efficient on α-chitin.

  15. Gender, Season and Management Affect Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Concentrations in Captive Goral (Naemorhedus griseus) in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Khonmee, Jaruwan; Brown, Janine L.; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Aunsusin, Anurut; Thumasanukul, Dissakul; Kongphoemphun, Adisorn; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2014-01-01

    Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) are a threatened species in Thailand and the focus of captive breeding for possible reintroduction. However, little is known of their biology or what factors in the captive environment affect welfare. Our objective was to determine the impact of gender, season, and management on goral adrenal activity. We hypothesized that differences in fecal glucocorticoid concentrations would be related to animal density. Fecal samples were collected 3 days/week for 1 year from 63 individuals (n = 32 males, 31 females) at two facilities that house the majority of goral in Thailand: Omkoi Wildlife Sanctuary (Omkoi), an off-exhibit breeding center that houses goral in individual pens (16 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females) and in small family groups (8 pens; n = 8 males, 8 females); and the Chiang Mai Night Safari (NS), a zoo that maintains 31 goral (n = 17 males, 14 females) in one large pen. Glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations were higher in male than female goral at Omkoi throughout the year, and there was a seasonal effect on adrenal activity (p<0.05). Goral at Omkoi and NS were used to test the effect of animal density on fecal glucocorticoid excretion of goral housed in similar-sized enclosures. Overall, the highest levels were found at NS (n = 31 adults/pen; 27 m2 per animal) compared to Omkoi (n = 2 adults/pen; 400 m2 per animal) (p<0.05). Overall findings support our hypothesis that animal density and aspects of the captive environment impact adrenal steroid activity in captive goral. In addition, gender and season also had significant effects on glucocorticoid metabolite production. Potential stressors pertaining to the welfare of this species were identified, which will guide future efforts to improve management and create self-sustaining and healthy populations of this threatened species. PMID:24637886

  16. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.

  17. Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G.; Sato, Katsufumi

    2015-01-01

    We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200–300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200–300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats. PMID:26061525

  18. Analysis of a gene that suppresses the morphological defect of bald mutants of Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    McCue, L A; Kwak, J; Wang, J; Kendrick, K E

    1996-01-01

    When present in multiple copies, orf1590 restored sporulation to class IIIA bald mutants of Streptomyces griseus, which form sporulation septa and thick spore walls prematurely. The orf1590 alleles from class IIIA bald mutants restored sporulation upon introduction at a high copy number into those same mutants, and the nucleotide sequence of one of these alleles was identical to that of the wild-type strain. We conclude that overexpression of orf1590 suppresses the defect in class IIIA bald mutants. Previous nucleotide sequence and transcript analyses suggested that orf1590 could encode two related proteins, P56 and P49.5, from nested coding sequences. A mutation that prevented the synthesis of P56 without altering the coding sequence for P49.5 eliminated the function of orf1590, as did amino acid substitutions in the putative helix-turn-helix domain located at the N terminus of P56 and absent from P49.5. To determine the coding capacity of orf1590, we analyzed translational fusions between orf1590 and the neo gene from Tn5. Measurement of the expression of fusions to the wild-type and mutant alleles of orf1590 indicated that P56 was the sole product of orf1590 during vegetative growth. Attempts to generate a nonfunctional frameshift mutation in orf1590 were unsuccessful in the absence of a second-site bald mutation, suggesting that orf1590 may be required during vegetative growth by preventing early sporulation. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that P56 at a high level delays the premature synthesis of sporulation septa and spore walls in class IIIA mutants. PMID:8631675

  19. Cucullanus pargi sp. n. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus off the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Tuz-Paredes, Vielka M; Quintal-Loria, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    A new nematode species, Cucullanus pargi sp. n., is described from the intestine and pyloric caeca of the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), off the southern Quintana Roo coast, Mexico. This species shows similar morphological features as cucullanids occurring in marine and brackish-water fishes; however, it differs from all other species in the length of spicules, arrangement and number of caudal papillae, position of the excretory pore and deirids. Cucullanus pargi is the third species of this genus described from fishes in Mexico and the second one from Mexican marine fishes.

  20. Growth and reproductive characteristics of the columnar cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis and their relationships with environmental factors and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae.

    PubMed

    Pimienta-Barrios, Eulogio; Pimienta-Barrios, Enrique; Salas-Galván, Mariá Eugenia; Zañudo-Hernandez, Julia; Nobel, Park S

    2002-06-01

    Three natural populations of pitayo (Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum), a columnar arborescent cactus, were studied in their subtropical environments in western Mexico. All of the sites were characterized by shallow, nutrient-poor soils. Percentage of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi, stem growth, fruit mass, and percentage germination were greater in S. queretaroensis at Autlan, Jalisco (AJ) than at Zacoalco de Torres, Jalisco (ZTJ) or Santa Rosa, Zacatecas (SRZ). The onset of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae during the middle of the summer wet period preceded increases in stem extension rate and stem phosphorus concentration. Based on previous studies of effects of environmental factors on photosynthesis, climatic conditions were more favorable for photosynthesis at AJ than at SRZ and ZTJ, as indicated by the amount of summer rainfall, the amount of light, and the moderate air temperatures that prevailed during the fall and winter seasons. There was a significant positive correlation between stem growth and percentage of total root length colonized by arbuscules of AM fungi for S. queretaroensis at SRZ and AJ, but not at ZTJ. A negative significant correlation was observed between stem growth and maximal and minimal air temperatures at the three study sites. Stem growth was positively related to rainfall only at SRZ, and light was statistically related to stem growth only at ZTJ. Among sites, S. queretaroensis at AJ had the highest carbon gain and greatest AM colonization, creating physiological conditions that led to the highest stem growth, fruit mass and percentage of seed germination.

  1. Using high hydrostatic pressures to retain the antioxidant compounds and to reduce the enzymatic activity of a pitaya-pineapple (Stenocereus sp.-Fragaria ananassa) beverage.

    PubMed

    Sandate-Flores, Luisaldo; Rostro-Alanis, Magdalena de J; Mancera-Andrade, Elena Ivonne; Esquivel-Hernandez, Diego A; Brambila-Paz, Carlos; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Zamantha; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José

    2017-03-01

    Pitaya (Stenocereus sp.) is a fruit native to arid and semiarid areas of Mexico. It has high antioxidant activity mainly due to its contents of betalains and phenolics, but its consumption is limited due to very short shelf-life and not very recognized flavor. A beverage of pitaya and pineapple was formulated to improve sensory properties. A high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) study at 400-600 MPa and 25 °C for 2-10 min was applied in the beverage and the effect on the contents of vitamin C, total phenolics and betalains, and the pectin methylesterase (PME) activity of pitaya-pineapple beverages, was evaluated. The effect of the come up time (CUT) was also studied. Vitamin C contents increased from 5% at 600 MPa-CUT to 64% at 400 MPa/CUT. Total phenolic concentrations decreased (20-48%) at all processing conditions tested at 400 MPa/CUT, total betacyanins were retained. At 500 MPa/10 min losses of betaxanthins of up to 6% occurred. The maximum PME activity decrease was 23% at 600 MPa 5 min, but an increase of PME activity 7% was observed at 400 MPa/10 min. HHP seem to be a good option to retain most of the antioxidant compounds in pitaya-pineapple beverage, but more studies are necessary to inactivate PME.

  2. Seed removal in a tropical North American desert: an evaluation of pre- and post-dispersal seed removal in Stenocereus stellatus.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Espino, R; Ríos-Casanova, L; Godínez-Álvarez, H

    2017-05-01

    To determine seed removal influence on seed populations, we need to quantify pre- and post-dispersal seed removal. Several studies have quantified seed removal in temperate American deserts, but few studies have been performed in tropical deserts. These studies have only quantified pre- or post-dispersal seed removal, thus underestimating the influence of seed removal. We evaluated pre- and post-dispersal seed removal in the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in a Mexican tropical desert. We performed selective exclosure experiments to estimate percentage of seeds removed by ants, birds and rodents during the pre- and post-dispersal phases. We also conducted field samplings to estimate abundance of the most common seed removers. Birds (10-28%) removed a higher percentage of seeds than ants (2%) and rodents (1-4%) during pre-dispersal seed removal. Melanerpes hypopolius was probably the main bird removing seeds from fruits. Ants (62-64%) removed a higher percentage of seeds than birds (34-38%) and rodents (16-30%) during post-dispersal seed removal. Pogonomyrmex barbatus was probably the main ant removing seeds from soil. Birds and ants are the main pre- and post-dispersal seed removers in S. stellatus, respectively. Further studies in other S. stellatus populations and plants with different life forms and fruit types will contribute to evaluate seed removal in tropical American deserts.

  3. Characterization of ssfR and ssgA, Two Genes Involved in Sporulation of Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao; Kendrick, Kathleen E.

    2000-01-01

    In the presence of cefoxitin, which inhibits septum formation during sporulation, Streptomyces griseus is unable to sporulate, retaining the sonication sensitivity of nonsporulating hyphae. Cefoxitin- and sonication-resistant mutant SKK2600 was isolated and showed many morphological differences from its parental strain. A 3.6-kb DNA fragment that complemented the mutations of SKK2600 contained two open reading frames (ORFs), either of which could complement SKK2600. One ORF, designated ssfR, encoded a protein containing a potential DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif close to its N terminus. SsfR is similar to members of a large family of transcriptional regulators, particularly IclR of Escherichia coli. The second ORF was identified as ssgA, a previously described sporulation gene from S. griseus (S. Kawamoto and J. C. Ensign, Actinomycetology 9:136–151, 1995). A point mutation of C to T seven nucleotides upstream of the UGA stop codon of ssfR was responsible for the phenotype of isolated mutant strain SKK2600. Surprisingly, this mutation should not change the primary structure of SsfR. The ssfR and ssgA disruption mutants were constructed and showed the “white” mutant phenotype, with some growth medium dependence. In addition, the ssfR null mutant sporulated ectopically in phosphate starvation medium. PMID:10986257

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of the obg gene of Streptomyces griseus in relation to the onset of morphological differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, S; Itoh, M; Ochi, K

    1997-01-01

    Morphological differentiation in microorganisms is usually accompanied by a decrease in intracellular GTP pool size, as has been demonstrated in bacillaceae, streptomycetaceae, and yeasts. The obg gene, which codes for a GTP-binding protein belonging to the GTPase superfamily of proteins, was cloned from Streptomyces griseus IFO13189. The gene is located just downstream of the genes for ribosomal proteins L21 and L27, encoded a protein of 478 amino acids (51 kDa), and possessed three consensus motifs which confer GTP-binding ability; Obg protein expressed in Escherichia coli bound GTP, as demonstrated using a UV cross-linking method. Introduction of multiple copies of obg into wild-type S. griseus suppressed aerial mycelium development in cells on solid media. However, no effect on streptomycin production was detected, indicating that Obg is involved in the regulation of the onset of morphological but not physiological differentiation. Multiple copies of obg also suppressed submerged spore formation in liquid culture. Southern hybridization studies indicated that genes homologous to obg exist widely in streptomycetes, and an obg homolog was successfully cloned from S. coelicolor A3(2). We propose that by monitoring the intracellular GTP pool size, the Obg protein is involved in sensing changes in the nutritional environment leading ultimately to morphological differentiation. PMID:8981995

  5. Multilocus sequence analysis of Streptomyces griseus isolates delineating intraspecific diversity in terms of both taxonomy and biosynthetic potential.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiaoying; Liu, Ning; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2010-08-01

    Systematics can provide a fundamental framework for understanding the relationships and diversification of organisms. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has shown great promise for an elaborate taxonomic grouping of streptomycete diversity. To evaluate the practical significance of MLSA as a valuable systematic tool for streptomycetes, we examined six endophytic Streptomyces griseus isolates and two S. griseus reference strains possessing obvious antagonistic activities and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, using both housekeeping genes and secondary metabolic genes. All the eight strains contained PKS-I and NRPS genes, but not PKS-II genes, and showed similar diversity in both the MLSA phylogeny based on five housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB) and fingerprinting of KS-AT genes. We also inferred a phylogeny based on concatenated amino acid sequences of representative KS-AT genes from the strains, which displayed a topology correlated well with those of housekeeping-gene MLSA and KS-AT fingerprinting. The good congruence observed between phylogenies based on the different datasets verified that the MLSA scheme provided robust resolution at intraspecific level and could predict the overall diversity of secondary metabolic potential within a Streptomyces species, despite somewhat of a discrepancy with antimicrobial data. It is therefore feasible to apply MLSA to dissecting natural diversity of streptomycetes for a better understanding of their evolution and ecology, as well as for facilitating their bioprospecting.

  6. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  7. Evolution under domestication: ongoing artificial selection and divergence of wild and managed Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) populations in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Fabiola; Casas, Alejandro; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C.; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; González-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Tehuacán Valley in Mexico is a principal area of plant domestication in Mesoamerica. There, artificial selection is currently practised on nearly 120 native plant species with coexisting wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations, providing an excellent setting for studying ongoing mechanisms of evolution under domestication. One of these species is the columnar cactus Stenocereus pruinosus, in which we studied how artificial selection is operating through traditional management and whether it has determined morphological and genetic divergence between wild and managed populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 households of three villages to investigate motives and mechanisms of artificial selection. Management effects were studied by comparing variation patterns of 14 morphological characters and population genetics (four microsatellite loci) of 264 plants from nine wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations. Key Results Variation in fruit characters was recognized by most people, and was the principal target of artificial selection directed to favour larger and sweeter fruits with thinner or thicker peel, fewer spines and pulp colours others than red. Artificial selection operates in agroforestry systems favouring abundance (through not felling plants and planting branches) of the preferred phenotypes, and acts more intensely in household gardens. Significant morphological divergence between wild and managed populations was observed in fruit characters and plant vigour. On average, genetic diversity in silvicultural populations (HE = 0·743) was higher than in wild (HE = 0·726) and cultivated (HE = 0·700) populations. Most of the genetic variation (90·58 %) occurred within populations. High gene flow (NmFST > 2) was identified among almost all populations studied, but was slightly limited by mountains among wild populations, and by artificial selection among wild and managed populations. Conclusions

  8. Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) stranding on the coast of Israel (eastern Mediterranean). Autopsy results and trace metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Amiel, Shlomi; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Kress, Nurit

    2002-08-05

    The stranding of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is reported in this study. High concentrations of trace metals (Hg, Cd, Zn, Fe and Se) were found in the various tissues analyzed, while Cu and Mn concentrations were naturally low. The specimen was found alive, but died a day later. The cause of death was attributed to bacterial bronchopneumonia in combination with endotoxemia, resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation. Plastic bags found in its stomach contributed to the dolphin's poor physical condition. No connection was found between the high concentrations of trace metals in the internal organs and the cause of death. It is assumed that the high concentrations were a result of the high trophic level of this species, its diet and its advanced age. Anthropogenic influence could not be assessed due to the sparse database of trace metals for this species, in particular knowledge of the natural levels.

  9. Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Laferrara, Miguel; Bitsch, Matías; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, Maria Celina

    2006-03-31

    The present work was performed to study the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) and to obtain information about its possible role in the sylvatic life cycle of Echinococcu granulosus in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina. Eighty-one foxes were captured and subject to post-mortem analysis. Thirty-one foxes (38.3%) harboured helminths. A total of six helminth species were recovered. Only one adult of E. granulosus was found in the studied samples. The current study is the first report of the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina and showed that this specie is probably not an important reservoir host for E. granulosus.

  10. Genetic Localization and Molecular Characterization of the nonS Gene Required for Macrotetrolide Biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus DSM40695

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wyatt C.; Xiang, Longkuan; Shen, Ben

    2000-01-01

    The macrotetrolides are a family of cyclic polyethers derived from tetramerization, in a stereospecific fashion, of the enantiomeric nonactic acid (NA) and its homologs. Isotope labeling experiments established that NA is of polyketide origin, and biochemical investigations demonstrated that 2-methyl-6,8-dihydroxynon-2E-enoic acid can be converted into NA by a cell-free preparation from Streptomyces lividans that expresses nonS. These results lead to the hypothesis that macrotetrolide biosynthesis involves a pair of enantiospecific polyketide pathways. In this work, a 55-kb contiguous DNA region was cloned from Streptomyces griseus DSM40695, a 6.3-kb fragment of which was sequenced to reveal five open reading frames, including the previously reported nonR and nonS genes. Inactivation of nonS in vivo completely abolished macrotetrolide production. Complementation of the nonS mutant by the expression of nonS in trans fully restored its macrotetrolide production ability, with a distribution of individual macrotetrolides similar to that for the wild-type producer. In contrast, fermentation of the nonS mutant in the presence of exogenous (±)-NA resulted in the production of nonactin, monactin, and dinactin but not in the production of trinactin and tetranactin. These results prove the direct involvement of nonS in macrotetrolide biosynthesis. The difference in macrotetrolide production between in vivo complementation of the nonS mutant by the plasmid-borne nonS gene and fermentation of the nonS mutant in the presence of exogenously added (±)-NA suggests that NonS catalyzes the formation of (−)-NA and its homologs, supporting the existence of a pair of enantiospecific polyketide pathways for macrotetrolide biosynthesis in S. griseus. The latter should provide a model that can be used to study the mechanism by which polyketide synthase controls stereochemistry during polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:10858335

  11. Landscape management and domestication of Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) in the Tehuacán Valley: human guided selection and gene flow

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of plant resources and ecosystems practiced by indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica commonly involves domestication of plant populations and landscapes. Our study analyzed interactions of coexisting wild and managed populations of the pitaya Stenocereus pruinosus, a columnar cactus used for its edible fruit occurring in natural forests, silviculturally managed in milpa agroforestry systems, and agriculturally managed in homegardens of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico. We aimed at analyzing criteria of artificial selection and their consequences on phenotypic diversity and differentiation, as well as documenting management of propagules at landscape level and their possible contribution to gene flow among populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to 83 households of the region to document perception of variation, criteria of artificial selection, and patterns of moving propagules among wild and managed populations. Morphological variation of trees from nine wild, silviculturally and agriculturally managed populations was analyzed for 37 characters through univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, indexes of morphological diversity (MD) per population and phenotypic differentiation (PD) among populations were calculated using character states and frequencies. Results People recognized 15 pitaya varieties based on their pulp color, fruit size, form, flavor, and thorniness. On average, in wild populations we recorded one variety per population, in silviculturally managed populations 1.58 ± 0.77 varieties per parcel, and in agriculturally managed populations 2.19 ± 1.12 varieties per homegarden. Farmers select in favor of sweet flavor (71% of households interviewed) and pulp color (46%) mainly red, orange and yellow. Artificial selection is practiced in homegardens and 65% of people interviewed also do it in agroforestry systems. People obtain fruit and branches from different population types and move

  12. [Feeding habits and trophic ecology of the fish Lutjanus griseus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) associated with submerged vegetation in Laguna de Términos, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Emma; Alvarez, Hernán; Mascaró, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Sánchez, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In Campeche, Mexico, the Laguna de Términos has Thalassia testudinum beds inhabited by the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus 1758). Along one year, we collected 994 individuals and 672 had food in their stomachs; we recorded number, weight, and frequency oftrophic groups, and the index of relative importance. Dominant food components were Farfantepenaeus duorarum and Palemonetes octaviae, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier 1830) and Libinia dubia. Salinity and temperature were related to the number of individuals collected and with greater fish consumption by large L. griseus. The trophic niche breadth index was calculated for six size-classes of fish. The smallest and the largest fish had the lowest index values, whereas medium-size snappers had higher values. This snapper has a preference for habitats with submerged vegetation. The percentage of fish with food in their stomachs was higher during dark hours, providing evidence of the nocturnal habits of this fish.

  13. A large inversion in the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus caused by replicative transposition of a new Tn3 family transposon.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Uchida, T; Yang, Y; Lezhava, A; Kinashi, H

    2011-04-01

    We have comprehensively analyzed the linear chromosomes of Streptomyces griseus mutants constructed and kept in our laboratory. During this study, macrorestriction analysis of AseI and DraI fragments of mutant 402-2 suggested a large chromosomal inversion. The junctions of chromosomal inversion were cloned and sequenced and compared with the corresponding target sequences in the parent strain 2247. Consequently, a transposon-involved mechanism was revealed. Namely, a transposon originally located at the left target site was replicatively transposed to the right target site in an inverted direction, which generated a second copy and at the same time caused a 2.5-Mb chromosomal inversion. The involved transposon named TnSGR was grouped into a new subfamily of the resolvase-encoding Tn3 family transposons based on its gene organization. At the end, terminal diversity of S. griseus chromosomes is discussed by comparing the sequences of strains 2247 and IFO13350.

  14. Identification and Utility of FdmR1 as a Streptomyces Antibiotic Regulatory Protein Activator for Fredericamycin Production in Streptomyces griseus ATCC 49344 and Heterologous Hosts▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yihua; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Shen, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The fredericamycin (FDM) A biosynthetic gene cluster, cloned previously from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 49344, contains three putative regulatory genes, fdmR, fdmR1, and fdmR2. Their deduced gene products show high similarity to members of the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family (FdmR1) or to MarR-like regulators (FdmR and FdmR2). Here we provide experimental data supporting FdmR1 as a SARP-type activator. Inactivation of fdmR1 abolished FDM biosynthesis, and FDM production could be restored to the fdmR1::aac(3)IV mutant by expressing fdmR1 in trans. Reverse transcription-PCR transcriptional analyses revealed that up to 26 of the 28 genes within the fdm gene cluster, with the exception of fdmR and fdmT2, were under the positive control of FdmR1, directly or indirectly. Overexpression of fdmR1 in S. griseus improved the FDM titer 5.6-fold (to about 1.36 g/liter) relative to that of wild-type S. griseus. Cloning of the complete fdm cluster into an integrative plasmid and subsequent expression in heterologous hosts revealed that considerable amounts of FDMs could be produced in Streptomyces albus but not in Streptomyces lividans. However, the S. lividans host could be engineered to produce FDMs via constitutive expression of fdmR1; FDM production in S. lividans could be enhanced further by overexpressing fdmC, encoding a putative ketoreductase, concomitantly with fdmR1. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the viability of engineering FDM biosynthesis and improving FDM titers in both the native producer S. griseus and heterologous hosts, such as S. albus and S. lividans. The approach taken capitalizes on FdmR1, a key activator of the FDM biosynthetic machinery. PMID:18556785

  15. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  16. Observations on Abundance of Bluntnose Sixgill Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, in an Urban Waterway in Puget Sound, 2003-2005

    PubMed Central

    Griffing, Denise; Larson, Shawn; Hollander, Joel; Carpenter, Tim; Christiansen, Jeff; Doss, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, is a widely distributed but poorly understood large, apex predator. Anecdotal reports of diver-shark encounters in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s in the Pacific Northwest stimulated interest in the normally deep-dwelling shark and its presence in the shallow waters of Puget Sound. Analysis of underwater video documenting sharks at the Seattle Aquarium’s sixgill research site in Elliott Bay and mark-resight techniques were used to answer research questions about abundance and seasonality. Seasonal changes in relative abundance in Puget Sound from 2003–2005 are reported here. At the Seattle Aquarium study site, 45 sixgills were tagged with modified Floy visual marker tags, along with an estimated 197 observations of untagged sharks plus 31 returning tagged sharks, for a total of 273 sixgill observations recorded. A mark-resight statistical model based on analysis of underwater video estimated a range of abundance from a high of 98 sharks seen in July of 2004 to a low of 32 sharks seen in March of 2004. Both analyses found sixgills significantly more abundant in the summer months at the Seattle Aquarium’s research station. PMID:24475229

  17. Observations on abundance of bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, in an urban waterway in Puget Sound, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Griffing, Denise; Larson, Shawn; Hollander, Joel; Carpenter, Tim; Christiansen, Jeff; Doss, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, is a widely distributed but poorly understood large, apex predator. Anecdotal reports of diver-shark encounters in the late 1990's and early 2000's in the Pacific Northwest stimulated interest in the normally deep-dwelling shark and its presence in the shallow waters of Puget Sound. Analysis of underwater video documenting sharks at the Seattle Aquarium's sixgill research site in Elliott Bay and mark-resight techniques were used to answer research questions about abundance and seasonality. Seasonal changes in relative abundance in Puget Sound from 2003-2005 are reported here. At the Seattle Aquarium study site, 45 sixgills were tagged with modified Floy visual marker tags, along with an estimated 197 observations of untagged sharks plus 31 returning tagged sharks, for a total of 273 sixgill observations recorded. A mark-resight statistical model based on analysis of underwater video estimated a range of abundance from a high of 98 sharks seen in July of 2004 to a low of 32 sharks seen in March of 2004. Both analyses found sixgills significantly more abundant in the summer months at the Seattle Aquarium's research station.

  18. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    PubMed

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae.

  19. Intracellular distribution of estradiol and estrogen binding sites in the uterus and oviducts of the green monkey (cercopithecus griseus)

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseeva, M.L.; Fanchenko, N.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Shchedrina, R.N.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes a comparative investigation of changes in estradoil (E/sub 2/) and progesterone (P) concentrations in the blood plasma and concentrations of E/sub 2/ and estrogen binding sites (EBS) in the uterus and oviducts of C. griseus in the course of the menstrual cycle. A 0.25 aqueous solution of sucrose, 10mM Tris-HC1 buffer containing 1.5 mM EDTA, a 0.1M phosphate buffer containing 0.01% and 0.1% gelatin, antisera against E/sub 2/-17beta and P, labeled 3 /SUB H/ -E/sub 2/-17beta and /sup 3/H-P (specific radioactivity 104 and 96 Ci/nmole respectively), and their unlabeled analogs, 0.5, 1, and 5% suspensions of activated charcoal in buffer with the addition of 0.1% gelatin, and scintillation fluid consisting of 0.5% PPO and 0.05% POPOP in toluene were used. Indirect evidence shows the absence of any additional intracellular mechanisms affecting translocation of activated cytoplasmic estrogenreceptor complexes into the nucleus.

  20. tmRNA of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus during the growth and in the presence of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Palecková, Petra; Bobek, Jan; Mikulík, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Streptomycetes are soil microorganisms with the potential to produce a broad spectrum of secondary metabolities. The production of antibiotics is accompanied by a decrease in protein synthesis, which raises the question of how these bacteria survived the transition from the primary to the secondary metabolism. Translating ribosomes incapable to properly elongate or terminate polypeptide chain activate bacterial trans-translation system. Abundance and stability of the tmRNA during growth of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus producing kirromycin and streptomycin, respectively, was analysed. The level of tmRNA is mostly proportional to the activity of the translational system. We demonstrate that the addition of sub-inhibitory concentrations of produced antibiotics to the cultures from the beginning of the exponential phase of growth leads to an increase in tmRNA levels and to an incorporation of amino acids into the tag-peptides at trans-translation of stalled ribosomes. These findings suggest that produced antibiotics induce tmRNA that facilitate reactivation of stalled complex of ribosomes and maintain viability. The effect of antibiotics that inhibit the cell-wall turnover, DNA, RNA or protein synthesis on the level of tmRNA was examined. Antibiotics interfering with ribosomal target sites are more effective at stimulation of the tmRNA level in streptomycetes examined than those affecting the synthesis of DNA, RNA or the cell wall.

  1. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Astrid S; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L

    2013-12-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf.

  2. Severe glomerular disease in juvenile grey snapper Lutjanus griseus L. in the Gulf of Mexico caused by the myxozoan Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hanka; Patra, Sneha; Brennan, Nathan P.; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Main, Kevan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the eastern Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus was found to be infected with the myxozoan parasite Sphaerospora motemarini n. sp., with high prevalence (83%) and intensity of infection occuring in age-0 fish, and with parasite levels decreasing with age (age-1 snapper 40%; age-2 snapper 0%). The morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterisation of the myxozoan showed that it is a member of the typically marine, polysporoplasmid Sphaerospora spp. which form a subclade within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade of myxozoans, which is characterised by large expansion segments in their SSU rDNA sequences. Presporogonic stages of S. motemarini n. sp. were detected in the blood, using PCR. Pseudoplasmodia and spores were found to develop in the renal corpuscles of the host, causing their massive expansion. Macroscopic and histopathological changes were observed in age-0 fish and show that S. motemarini n. sp. causes severe glomerulonephritis in L. griseus leading to a compromised host condition, which makes it more susceptible to stress (catch-and-release, predators, water quality) and can result in mortalities. These results are discussed in relation to the exploitation of grey snapper populations by commercial and recreational fisheries and with the observed increased mortalities with temperature along the coast of Florida. In the future, we would like to determine prevalence and intensity of infection with S. motemarini n. sp. in juvenile L. griseus in different areas of the Gulf of Mexico in order to be able to estimate the temperature dependence of S. motemarini n. sp. proliferation and to be able to predict its distribution and severity during climatic changes in the Gulf. PMID:24533325

  3. Characterization of the S1 binding site of the glutamic acid-specific protease from Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Stennicke, H. R.; Birktoft, J. J.; Breddam, K.

    1996-01-01

    The glutamic acid-specific protease from Streptomyces griseus (SGPE) is an 18.4-kDa serine protease with a distinct preference for Glu in the P1 position. Other enzymes characterized by a strong preference for negatively charged residues in the P1 position, e.g., interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), use Arg or Lys residues as counterions within the S1 binding site. However, in SGPE, this function is contributed by a His residue (His 213) and two Ser residues (Ser 192 and S216). It is demonstrated that proSGPE is activated autocatalytically and dependent on the presence of a Glu residue in the -1 position. Based on this observation, the importance of the individual S1 residues is evaluated considering that enzymes unable to recognize a Glu in the P1 position will not be activated. Among the residues constituting the S1 binding site, it is demonstrated that His 213 and Ser 192 are essential for recognition of Glu in the P1 position, whereas Ser 216 is less important for catalysis out has an influence on stabilization of the ground state. From the three-dimensional structure, it appears that His 213 is linked to two other His residues (His 199 and His 228), forming a His triad extending from the S1 binding site to the back of the enzyme. This hypothesis has been tested by substitution of His 199 and His 228 with other amino acid residues. The catalytic parameters obtained with the mutant enzymes, as well as the pH dependence, do not support this theory; rather, it appears that His 199 is responsible for orienting His 213 and that His 228 has no function associated with the recognition of Glu in P1. PMID:8931145

  4. Seasonal Sexual Segregation by Monomorphic Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus griseus Reflects Different Reproductive Roles during the Pre-Laying Period

    PubMed Central

    Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A.; Phillips, Richard A.; Fifield, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tracking technology has revolutionized knowledge of seabird movements; yet, few studies have examined sex differences in distribution and behavior of small to medium-sized, sexually-monomorphic seabirds. Application of bird-borne geolocation-immersion loggers revealed seasonal segregation in the sexually-monomorphic Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, mainly in the pre-laying period, when there were clear differences in reproductive roles. Shearwaters first returned to the Falkland Islands on 27 Sept±8 d; males, on average, 8 d earlier than females. Prior to egg-laying, distribution at sea, colony attendance and behaviour depended on sex. Males foraged locally over the southern Patagonian Shelf and Burdwood Bank, spending mainly single days at sea and intervening nights in the burrow. Females, who flew for more of the day during this time, foraged in more distant areas of the northern Patagonian Shelf and Argentine Basin that were deeper, warmer and relatively more productive. Attendance of females at the colony was also more variable than that of males and, overall, males were present for significantly more of the pre-laying period (38 vs. 19% of time). Sex differences were reduced following egg-laying, with males and females using similar foraging areas and making trips of similar mean duration in incubation (7.6±2.7 d) and chick-rearing (1.4±1.3 d). Congruence continued into the non-breeding period, with both sexes showing similar patterns of activity and areas of occupancy in the NW Atlantic. Thus, seasonal changes in reproductive roles influenced patterns of sexual segregation; this occurred only early in the season, when male Sooty Shearwaters foraged locally, returning regularly to the colony to defend (or maintain) the burrow or the mate, while females concentrated on building resources for egg development in distant and relatively more productive waters. PMID:24416429

  5. Pathologic findings in Western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) from a notoedric mange epidemic in the San Bernardino Mountains, California☆

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T.; Clifford, Deana L.; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345

  6. l-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of l-asparaginase gene

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Vijaya Raghavan, Rangamaran; Dharani, Gopal; Valsalan Vinithkumar, Nambali; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL−1. A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL−1) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein. PMID:26206135

  7. A mutation at proline-115 in the A-factor receptor protein of Streptomyces griseus abolishes DNA-binding ability but not ligand-binding ability.

    PubMed Central

    Onaka, H; Sugiyama, M; Horinouchi, S

    1997-01-01

    A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) and its specific receptor protein (ArpA) are required for streptomycin production and aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. A mutant strain HO1 that produced streptomycin and formed aerial mycelium and spores was derived from an A-factor-deficient mutant, S. griseus HH1. The phenotypes of mutant HO1 were found to result from a single amino acid replacement of ArpA; the proline residue at position 115 in the wild-type ArpA was replaced by serine, yielding mutant ArpA (P115S). The mutant ArpA (P115S) was still able to form a homodimer and possessed A-factor-binding ability but lost the ability to bind DNA. The properties of P115S suggest that ArpA consists of two independently functional domains, one for A-factor binding and one for DNA binding, and that proline-115 plays an important role in DNA binding. This is in agreement with the idea that A-factor binding to the COOH-terminal domain of ArpA causes a subtle conformational change of the distal NH2-terminal DNA-binding domain, resulting in dissociation of ArpA from DNA. PMID:9098075

  8. L-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of L-asparaginase gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Vijaya Raghavan, Rangamaran; Dharani, Gopal; Valsalan Vinithkumar, Nambali; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-07-01

    Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL-1. A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL-1) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein.

  9. L-Asparaginase from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29: optimization of process variables using factorial designs and molecular characterization of L-asparaginase gene.

    PubMed

    Meena, Balakrishnan; Anburajan, Lawrance; Sathish, Thadikamala; Vijaya Raghavan, Rangamaran; Dharani, Gopal; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-07-24

    Marine actinobacteria are known to be a rich source for novel metabolites with diverse biological activities. In this study, a potential extracellular L-asparaginase was characterised from the Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29. Box-Behnken based optimization was used to determine the culture medium components to enhance the L-asparaginase production. pH, starch, yeast extract and L-asparagine has a direct correlation for enzyme production with a maximum yield of 56.78 IU mL(-1). A verification experiment was performed to validate the experiment and more than 99% validity was established. L-Asparaginase biosynthesis gene (ansA) from Streptomyces griseus NIOT-VKMA29 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 and the enzyme production was increased threefold (123 IU mL(-1)) over the native strain. The ansA gene sequences reported in this study encloses several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in altered amino acid sequences of the translated protein.

  10. DaTo: an atlas of biological databases and tools.

    PubMed

    Li, Qilin; Zhou, Yincong; Jiao, Yingmin; Zhang, Zhao; Bai, Lin; Tong, Li; Yang, Xiong; Sommer, Björn; Hofestädt, Ralf; Chen, Ming

    2016-12-18

    This work presents DaTo, a semi-automatically generated world atlas of biological databases and tools. It extracts raw information from all PubMed articles which contain exact URLs in their abstract section, followed by a manual curation of the abstract and the URL accessibility. DaTo features a user-friendly query interface, providing extensible URL-related annotations, such as the status, the location and the country of the URL. A graphical interaction network browser has also been integrated into the DaTo web interface to facilitate exploration of the relationship between different tools and databases with respect to their ontology-based semantic similarity. Using DaTo, the geographical locations, the health statuses, as well as the journal associations were evaluated with respect to the historical development of bioinformatics tools and databases over the last 20 years. We hope it will inspire the biological community to gain a systematic insight into bioinformatics resources. DaTo is accessible via http://bis.zju.edu.cn/DaTo/.

  11. Isolation and characterization of tryptophan transaminase and indolepyruvate C-methyltransferase. Enzymes involved in indolmycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed

    Speedie, M K; Hornemann, U; Floss, H G

    1975-10-10

    Two enzymes, tryptophan transaminase and indolepyruvate C-methyltransferase, which are active in the initial steps of the biosynthetic pathway of the antibiotic indolmycin, have been detected and partially purified from cell-free extracts of Streptomyces griseus. The transaminase has been purified 3-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation. At this stage of purification, it catalyzes the alpha-ketoglutarate and pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transamination of L-tryptophan, 3-methyltryptophan, L-pphenylalanine, and L-tyrosine. The C-methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to position 3 of the aliphatic side chain of indolepyruvate. No cofactors are required. The C-methyltransferase has been purified 110-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, DEAE-Sephadex column chromotography, and Bio-Gel A-5m gel filtration. The enzyme has a broad pH optimum of 7.5 to 8.5. A molecular weight of 55,000 +/- 5,000 has been determined by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration with reference proteins and a molecular weight of 58,000 +/- 8,000 has been determined by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The enzyme is relatively stable at temperatures of 0-5 degrees but is destroyed by freezing or by heating. The C-methyltransferase is inhibited strongly by the thiol reagents p-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. The Zn2+ and Fe2+ chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2'-bipyridine also inhibit the enzyme activity but EDTA does not. Michaelis-Menten constants have been determined for the 110-fold purified enzyme as 1.2 X 10(-5) M for S-adenosylmethionine and 4.8 X 10(-6) M for indolepyruvate. The enzyme activity in the crude extract is inhibited competitively by indolmycin (Ki equals 2.3 mM) and L-tryptophan (Ki equals 0.17 mM), but these effects are not observed after the enzyme has been passed through the Sephades G-150 column during purification. The crude extract is capable of methylating phenylpyruvate and p

  12. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  13. A gene cluster involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus encodes proteins similar to the response regulators of two-component regulatory systems and membrane translocators.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, K; Miyake, K; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

    1993-01-01

    Mutants of Streptomyces griseus deficient in A-factor production are sporulation negative, since A-factor is an essential hormonal regulator for the induction of morphological and physiological differentiation in this bacterium. A DNA fragment which induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain, S. griseus HH1, was cloned from this mutant strain. Subcloning experiments and nucleotide sequencing showed that two open reading frames, ORF1 with 656 amino acids and ORF2 with 201 amino acids, were required in order to induce sporulation. The amino acid sequence of ORF1 significantly resembled that of the Escherichia coli HlyB protein, a member of a family of bacterial membrane proteins engaged in ATP-dependent secretion mechanisms. Conserved features of this surface translocator family, such as the transmembrane structure predicted by their hydropathy profiles and the amino acid sequence forming an ATP-binding fold, were also conserved in ORF1. The ORF1 gene appeared to constitute a transcriptional unit with an additional upstream gene encoding ORF3, which was greatly similar to ORF1 in size and amino acid sequence. The other protein, ORF2, showed significant end-to-end homology with the E. coli uhpA product, a regulatory protein for the uptake of sugar phosphates. Like UhpA as a response regulator of a bacterial two-component regulatory system, ORF2 contained a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain at its COOH-terminal portion and an Asp residue (Asp-54) probably to be phosphorylated at its NH2-terminal portion. An amino acid replacement from Asp-54 to Asn resulted in the loss of the ability of ORF2 to induce sporulation in strain HH1. Images PMID:8458843

  14. Characterization of volatiles of necrotic Stenocereus thurberi and Opuntia littoralis and toxicity and olfactory preference of Drosophila melanogster, D. mojavensis wrigleyi, and D. mojavensis sonorensis to necrotic cactus volatiles.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila mojavensis wrigleyi and D. mojavensis sonorensis are geographically separated races of cactophilic fruit flies. D. mojavensis sonorensis inhabits the Sonoran Desert and utilizes necrotic rots of Stenocereus thurberi Engelm. as a food source and to oviposit while D. mojavensis wrigleyi inhabits Santa Catalina Island, California and utilizes the necrotic rots of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell. The objectives of this study were to determine the volatile compositions of the necrotic cacti and to determine if the volatile components show either selective toxicity or attraction toward the fruit flies. The volatile chemical compositions of field-rot specimens of both necrotic cacti were obtained by dynamic headspace (purge-and-trap) and hydrodistillation techniques and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The volatile fraction of necrotic S. thurberi early rot was dominated by carboxylic acids (84.8%) and the late rot by p-cresol (32.6% in the dynamic headspace sample and 55.9% in the hydrodistilled sample). O. littoralis volatiles were dominated by carboxylic acids (86% in the dynamic headspace sample and 89.1% in the hydrodistilled sample). Fifteen compounds that were identified in the necrotic rot volatiles were used to test insecticidal activity and olfactory preference on the cactophilic Drosophila species, as well as D. melanogaster. Differences in toxicity and olfactory preference were observed between the different taxa. Both races of D. mojavensis exhibited toxicity to benzaldehyde and 2-nonanone, while butanoic acid and palmitic acid were tolerated at high concentrations. D. m. wrigleyi demonstrated a greater olfactory preference for anisole, butanoic acid, 2-heptanone, and palmitic acid than did D. m. sonorensis, while D. m. sonorensis demonstrated a greater preference for hexadecane, octanoic acid, and oleic acid than did D. m. wrigleyi.

  15. Metabolic initiation of differentiation and secondary metabolism by Streptomyces griseus: significance of the stringent response (ppGpp) and GTP content in relation to A factor.

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, K

    1987-01-01

    I investigated the significance of the intracellular accumulation of guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and of the coordinated decrease in the GTP pool for initiating morphological and physiological differentiation of Streptomyces griseus, a streptomycin-producing strain. In solid cultures, aerial mycelium formation was severely suppressed by the presence of excess nutrients. However, decoyinine, a specific inhibitor of GMP synthetase, enabled the cells to develop aerial mycelia in the suppressed cultures at concentrations which only partially inhibited growth. A factor (2S-isocapryloyl-3S-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) added exogenously had no such effect. Decoyinine was also effective in initiating the formation of submerged spores in liquid culture. The ability to produce streptomycin did not increase but decreased drastically on the addition of decoyinine. This sharp decrease in streptomycin production was accompanied by a decrease in intracellular accumulation of ppGpp. A relaxed (rel) mutant was found among 25 thiopeptin-resistant isolates which developed spontaneously. The rel mutant had a severely reduced ability to accumulate ppGpp during a nutritional shift-down and also during postexponential growth and showed a less extensive decrease in the GTP pool than that in the rel+ parental strain. The rel mutant failed to induce the enzymes amidinotransferase and streptomycin kinase, which are essential for the biosynthesis of streptomycin. The abilities to form aerial mycelia and submerged spores were still retained, but the amounts were less, and for both the onset of development was markedly delayed. The decreased ability to produced submerged spores was largely restored by the addition of decoyinine. This was accompanied by an extensive GTP pool decrease. The rel mutant produced A factor normally, indicating that synthesis of A factor is controlled neither by ppGpp nor by GTP. Conversely, a mutant defective in A-factor synthesis accumulated

  16. [Susceptibility of the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) to parasitic infection (3). Experimental infection with Hymenolepis nana or Trichuris muris to the cortisone treated Chinese hamster].

    PubMed

    Kutsumi, H; Miyamoto, K; Inaoka, T

    1989-07-01

    Susceptibility of Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) of Asahikawa Colony (CHA) to Hymenolepis nana or Trichuris muris infection was compared in the feces-egg examination with that of mice as the control animals. Though CHA were resistant to the infection of H. nana, they were found to become susceptible to H. nana by the treatment with cortisone. A half number of CHA was infected with H. nana and the eggs were detected from each animal only in 4 or 6 days in the periods of examination more than 40 days. Mice with or without cortisone treatment were equally susceptible to H. nana infection. In another experiment, CHA with or without cortisone treatment were completely resistant to Trichuris muris infection. Mice, as the control animals, were found to be infected with T. muris in both of cortisone-treated and non-treated groups. Results from the fecal examination, it was confirmed that T. muris were expelled naturally from the animals on the weeks of 11 to 33 after infection.

  17. Toxic element concentrations in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus), striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's (Grampus griseus) dolphins stranded in eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Ðokić, Maja; Ðuras Gomerčić, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Zadravec, Manuela; Benić, Miroslav; Prevendar Crnić, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) were measured in muscle, liver and kidney of three cetacean species, the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus), striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's (Grampus griseus) dolphins from the Croatian waters of the Adriatic Sea. In all three dolphin species Cd levels decreased in tissues in the order: kidney > liver > muscle, while As and Pb decreased in the order: liver > kidney > muscle for striped and Risso's dolphins, but with the order reversed for liver and kidney in the bottlenose dolphin for Pb. Levels of Hg consistently followed the order: liver > muscle > kidney, with mean concentrations in the liver being 11-34 times higher than in the other tissues. The highest mean concentrations of trace elements were measured in Risso's dolphins at 14.9 μg/g wet weight, for Cd in the kidney, and concentrations in the liver of 2.41, 1,115 and 0.63 μg/g for As, Hg and Pb, respectively. Statistically significant differences between the three dolphin species were determined for Cd, Hg and Pb in liver tissues, for As in muscle and for Cd in kidney. Significant correlations of metals between tissues were determined in all three species. The results presented give an indication of the environmental condition with regard to the content of toxic metals along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea.

  18. Fecal inoculum can be used to determine the rate and extent of in vitro fermentation of dietary fiber sources across three lemur species that differ in dietary profile: Varecia variegata, Eulemur fulvus and Hapalemur griseus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J L; Williams, C V; Eisemann, J H

    2002-10-01

    To estimate fermentative capacity among lemur species, four fiber substrates were tested across three species, Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus and Varecia variegata. The substrates, cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp and citrus pectin, ranged in composition from completely insoluble fiber (IF) to completely soluble fiber (SF), respectively. The lemurs consumed a nutritionally complete biscuit formulated for primates [85 g/100 g diet dry matter (DM)] and locally available produce (15 g/100 g diet DM). Feces were then collected and used to inoculate fermentation tubes prefilled with fiber substrates and an anaerobic growth medium. Dry matter disappearance (DMD), and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were measured in tubes subjected to 6, 12, 24 or 48 h of fermentation. Results were fitted to a logistic growth model. The maximal production (MP) time at which production or disappearance is at one-half maximum (t(50)) and the fermentation rate at 3 h were calculated. The maximal disappearance of DM differed among substrates (citrus pectin > citrus pulp > beet pulp; P < 0.0001) and species (E. fulvus > H. griseus > V. variegata; P < 0.001). V. variegata reached t(50) for acetate and total SCFA production faster than H. griseus or E. fulvus (P < 0.02). Three-hour production rates of acetate and total SCFA were also greater for V. variegata for citrus pulp and citrus pectin (P < 0.01). Few species differences were observed for beet pulp. Results provide evidence for differences in fermentative capacity and suggest that fiber solubility and fermentability should be considered when assessing the nutritional management of lemurs.

  19. Echolocation clicks of two free-ranging, oceanic delphinids with different food preferences: false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens and Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P T; Kerr, I; Payne, R

    2004-05-01

    Toothed whales (Odontoceti, Cetacea) navigate and locate prey by means of active echolocation. Studies on captive animals have accumulated a large body of knowledge concerning the production, reception and processing of sound in odontocete biosonars, but there is little information about the properties and use of biosonar clicks of free-ranging animals in offshore habitats. This study presents the first source parameter estimates of biosonar clicks from two free-ranging oceanic delphinids, the opportunistically foraging Pseudorca crassidens and the cephalopod eating Grampus griseus. Pseudorca produces short duration (30 micro s), broadband (Q=2-3) signals with peak frequencies around 40 kHz, centroid frequencies of 30-70 kHz, and source levels between 201-225 dB re. 1 micro Pa (peak to peak, pp). Grampus also produces short (40 micro s), broadband (Q=2-3) signals with peak frequencies around 50 kHz, centroid frequencies of 60-90 kHz, and source levels between 202 and 222 dB re. 1 micro Pa (pp). On-axis clicks from both species had centroid frequencies in the frequency range of most sensitive hearing, and lower peak frequencies and higher source levels than reported from captive animals. It is demonstrated that sound production in these two free-ranging echolocators is dynamic, and that free-ranging animals may not always employ biosonar signals comparable to the extreme signal properties reported from captive animals in long-range detection tasks. Similarities in source parameters suggest that evolutionary factors other than prey type determine the properties of biosonar signals of the two species. Modelling shows that interspecific detection ranges of prey types differ from 80 to 300 m for Grampus and Pseudorca, respectively.

  20. Costs and benefits of treatment for cocaine addiction in DATOS.

    PubMed

    Flynn, P M; Kristiansen, P L; Porto, J V; Hubbard, R L

    1999-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the cost of long-term residential (LTR) and outpatient drug-free (ODF) treatments for cocaine-dependent patients participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS), calculate the tangible cost of crime to society, and determine treatment benefits. Subjects were 502 cocaine-dependent patients selected from a national and naturalistic nonexperimental evaluation of community-based treatment. Financial data were available for programs from 10 US cities where the subjects received treatment between 1991 and 1993. Treatment costs were estimated from the 1992 National Drug Abuse Treatment Unit Survey (NDATUS), and tangible costs of crime were estimated from reports of illegal acts committed before, during, and after treatment. Sensitivity analyses examined results for three methods of estimating the costs of crime and cost-benefit ratios. Results showed that cocaine-dependent patients treated in both LTR and ODF programs had reductions in costs of crime from before to after treatment. LTR patients had the highest levels and costs of crime before treatment, had the greatest amount of crime cost reductions in the year after treatment, and yielded the greatest net benefits. Cost-benefit ratios for both treatment modalities provided evidence of significant returns on treatment investments for cocaine addiction.

  1. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…

  2. Water molecules participate in proteinase-inhibitor interactions: crystal structures of Leu18, Ala18, and Gly18 variants of turkey ovomucoid inhibitor third domain complexed with Streptomyces griseus proteinase B.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K.; Lu, W.; Anderson, S.; Laskowski, M.; James, M. N.

    1995-01-01

    Crystal structures of the complexes of Streptomyces griseus proteinase B (SGPB) with three P1 variants of turkey ovomucoid inhibitor third domain (OMTKY3), Leu18, Ala18, and Gly18, have been determined and refined to high resolution. Comparisons among these structures and of each with native, uncomplexed SGPB reveal that each complex features a unique solvent structure in the S1 binding pocket. The number and relative positions of water molecules bound in the S1 binding pocket vary according to the size of the side chain of the P1 residue. Water molecules in the S1 binding pocket of SGPB are redistributed in response to the complex formation, probably to optimize hydrogen bonds between the enzyme and the inhibitor. There are extensive water-mediated hydrogen bonds in the interfaces of the complexes. In all complexes, Asn 36 of OMTKY3 participates in forming hydrogen bonds, via water molecules, with residues lining the S1 binding pocket of SGPB. For a homologous series of aliphatic straight side chains, Gly18, Ala18, Abu18, Ape18, and Ahp18 variants, the binding free energy is a linear function of the hydrophobic surface area buried in the interface of the corresponding complexes. The resulting constant of proportionality is 34.1 cal mol-1 A-2. These structures confirm that the binding of OMTKY3 to the preformed S1 pocket in SGPB involves no substantial structural disturbances that commonly occur in the site-directed mutagenesis studies of interior residues in other proteins, thus providing one of the most reliable assessments of the contribution of the hydrophobic effect to protein-complex stability. PMID:8535235

  3. Comparative pollination biology of Venezuelan columnar cacti and the role of nectar-feeding bats in their sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Nassar, J; Ramirez, N; Linares, O

    1997-07-01

    The floral biology, reproductive system, and visitation behavior of pollinators of four species of columnar cacti, Stenocereus griseus, Pilosocereus moritzianus, Subpilocereus repandus, and Subpilocereus horrispinus, were studied in two arid zones in the north of Venezuela. Our results support the hypothesis that Venezuelan species of columnar cacti have evolved toward specialization on bat pollination. Additional information on the floral biology of a fifth species, Pilosocereus lanuginosus, was also included. All species showed the typical traits that characterize the pollination syndrome of chiropterophily. All species but Pilosocereus moritzianus were obligate outcrossers. Nectar and pollen were restricted to nocturnal floral visitors. Two species of nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris curasoae Miller and Glossophaga longirostris Miller, were responsible for practically all the fruit set in these cacti. Frequency of bat visitation per flower per night was highly variable within and between species of cactus, with average frequencies varying between 27 and 78 visits/flower/night. In general terms, the pattern of floral visitation through the night was significantly correlated with the pattern of nectar production and nectar sugar concentration for all species of cactus. Under natural pollination, fruit:flower ratios varied from 0.46 in Subpilocereus repandus to 0.76 in Stenocereus griseus. The efficiency of bat pollination in terms of seed:ovule ratio was high in all species, varying between 0.70 and 0.94.

  4. Cycloheximide Production by Streptomyces griseus: Control Mechanisms of Cycloheximide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kominek, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    Cycloheximide accumulation in a fermentation medium has been shown to be the product of the balance between synthesis and degradation of this antibiotic. Glucose has been shown to prevent cycloheximide degradation. Cycloheximide has been shown to interfere with its own synthesis probably due to feedback inhibition. Approaches for increasing cycloheximide titers in the light of these findings are discussed. PMID:808159

  5. [Digestibility of columnar cacti pollen grains in the glosophagine bats Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Romo, Mariana; Sosa, Maricela; Quintero, Yveth Casart

    2005-01-01

    We examined the protoplasmic assimilation of columnar cacti pollen grains in two species of Venezuelan desert glosophagine bats, Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae, by determining the amount of empty (digested) pollen grains found in their fecal samples. To determine the amount of empty pollen grains, the fecal samples were stained to differ between empty and full (non-digested) pollen grains. The number of empty and full pollen grains observed in the fecal samples were corrected using the amount of aborted pollens present (before anthesis) in flowers of the columnar cacti species (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus and Pilosocereus tillianus) used by bats as food in the study site; G. longirostris and L. curasoae digested 64.2% and 71.3% of all the pollens fed, respectively. These high values confirm the importance of pollen in the diet of these bats, given its high nitrogen level.

  6. Recovery from opioid addiction in DATOS.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Patrick M; Joe, George W; Broome, Kirk M; Simpson, D Dwayne; Brown, Barry S

    2003-10-01

    Patient attributions for their own long-term recovery were obtained in a 5-year followup of 432 admissions to 18 outpatient methadone treatment programs. Subjects were classified into two groups - recovering and non-recovering-strictly defined and based on both biological and self-report measures of no opioid or cocaine use, less than daily use of alcohol, and no arrests or illegal activity during the year prior to interview. The 28% who were in recovery at Year 5 reported that they had relied primarily upon personal motivation, treatment experiences, religion/spirituality, family, and their job/career. Particular value was placed on the support from family and close friends, indicating the importance of stronger efforts to develop social networks for support of drug-free functioning, especially among patients who lack these resources or need them strengthened. More information is available on the Internet at www.ibr.tcu.edu.

  7. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus) at a Bait Station

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Bryan; Lowry, Dayv; Larson, Shawn; Griffing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species’ worldwide distribution and evolutionary success. PMID:27243237

  8. Molecular analysis and pathogenicity of the Cladophialophora carrionii complex, with the description of a novel species

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G.S.; Nishikaku, A.S.; Fernandez-Zeppenfeldt, G.; Padín-González, C.; Burger, E.; Badali, H.; Richard-Yegres, N.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits

    2007-01-01

    Cladophialophora carrionii is one of the four major etiologic agents of human chromoblastomycosis in semi-arid climates. This species was studied using sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA, the partial β-tubulin gene and an intron in the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene, in addition to morphology. With all genes a clear bipartition was observed, which corresponded with minute differences in conidiophore morphology. A new species, C. yegresii, was introduced, which appeared to be, in contrast to C. carrionii, associated with living cactus plants. All strains from humans, and a few isolates from dead cactus debris, belonged to C. carrionii, for which a lectotype was designated. Artificial inoculation of cactus plants grown from seeds in the greenhouse showed that both fungi are able to persist in cactus tissue. When reaching the spines they produce cells that morphologically resemble the muriform cells known as the “invasive form” in chromoblastomycosis. The tested clinical strain of C. carrionii proved to be more virulent in cactus than the environmental strain of C. yegresii that originated from the same species of cactus, Stenocereus griseus. The muriform cell expressed in cactus spines can be regarded as the extremotolerant survival phase, and is likely to play an essential role in the natural life cycle of these organisms. PMID:18491001

  9. Candida caseinolytica sp. nov., a new species of yeast occurring in necrotic tissue of Opuntia and Stenocereus species in the southwestern United States and Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Phaff, H J; Starmer, W T; Lachance, M A; Ganter, P F

    1994-10-01

    We describe Candida caseinolytica, a new yeast species which occurs in rotting tissues of opuntias and other cacti in the North American Sonoran Desert and a few other localities. This small-celled, slowly growing yeast does not ferment any sugar and assimilates a limited number of carbon compounds, including 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids. It exhibits strong extracellular proteolytic activity on casein at pH 6.5, but gelatin is not hydrolyzed or is only weakly hydrolyzed by a few strains. The type strain of C. caseinolytica is strain UCD-FST 83-438.3 (= ATCC 90546 = CBS 7781).

  10. Synaptonemal complex karyotyping in spermatocytes of the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus). I. Morphology of the autosomal complement in spread preparations.

    PubMed

    Moses, M J

    1977-03-16

    Using the Counce-Meyer spreading technique, in over 70 spermatocytes it was possible consistently to obtain whole, flattened nuclei containing complete sets of pachytene SCs. The SCs are visible in both the phase and electron microscopes. Each SC is morphologically intact, preferentially stained, and attached to the nuclear envelope by a dense, terminal plaque. It is thus possible to trace each SC for its entire length. Also, a structure representing the kinetochore is clearly visible in each autosomal SC. Karyotypes comparable to the somatic karyotype can be constructed by arranging SCs according to length and kinetochore position. The observed regularity of SC morphology implies structural stability sufficient to withstand the stresses imposed by the procedure.--A coarse network of closely packed nuclear annuli connecting SC attachment plaques often provides end-to-end associations and may tend to immobilize SCs during processing.--Three kinds of perturbation of SC structure are encountered. Twists in the SC frequently occur, but no regular pattern or correspondence with chiasma distribution is observed. SCs occasionally hook around each other without disruption, but in two instances the unpaired axis of the X apparently was interlocked within an autosomal SC. Streching of the SC is infrequent; it is conspicous when it occurs and is usaully associated with other obvious distortions of the nucleus.--Distinctive morphologies of the X and Y chromosomes facilitate their identification inall preparations.--During zygotene, autosomal synapsis, i.e., the formation of SCs from the pairing of single axial elements, initiates at distal ends and terminates at the kinetochore region; neither initiation nor termination is synchronous among all autosomes.

  11. Population genetic structure of Venezuelan chiropterophilous columnar cacti (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Nassar, Jafet M; Hamrick, J L; Fleming, Theodore H

    2003-11-01

    We conducted allozyme surveys of three Venezuelan self-incompatible chiropterophilous columnar cacti: two diploid species, Stenocereus griseus and Cereus repandus, and one tetraploid, Pilosocereus lanuginosus. The three cacti are pollinated by bats, and both bats and birds disperse seeds. Population sampling comprised two spatial scales: all Venezuelan arid zones (macrogeographic) and two arid regions in northwestern Venezuela (regional). Ten to 15 populations and 17-23 loci were analyzed per species. Estimates of genetic diversity were compared with those of other allozyme surveys in the Cactaceae to examine how bat-mediated gene dispersal affects the population genetic attributes of the three cacti. Genetic diversity was high for both diploid (P(s) = 94.1-100, P(p) = 56.7-72.3, H(s) = 0.182-0.242, H(p) = 0.161-0.205) and tetraploid (P(s) = 93.1, P(p) = 76.1, H(s) = 0.274, H(p) = 0.253) species. Within-population heterozygote deficit was detected in the three cacti at macrogeographic (F(IS) = 0.145-0.182) and regional (F(IS) = 0.057-0.174) levels. Low genetic differentiation was detected at both macrogeographic (G(ST) = 0.043-0.126) and regional (G(ST) = 0.009-0.061) levels for the three species, suggesting substantial gene flow among populations. Gene exchange among populations seems to be regulated by distance among populations. Our results support the hypothesis that bat-mediated gene dispersal confers high levels of genetic exchange among populations of the three columnar cacti, a process that enhances levels of genetic diversity within their populations.

  12. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. [Lutjanus griseus; Lutjanus synagris; Lutjanus analis; Ocyurus chrysurus

    SciTech Connect

    Bortone, S.A.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    These four snapper species have similar morphologies as well as life history and environmental requirements. With some exceptions they are restricted to tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the western Atlantic. Adults often associate with coral reef and other hard-bottom communities. Juveniles and pre-adults usually inhabit shallow, inshore areas and are often found in seagrass beds. Reproduction usually takes place offshore in the warmer months of the year. Fecundity is positively related to female body size, but there is substantial variation both within and among the species. Juveniles obtain adult body proportions at about 50 mm SL. Approximate total maximum lengths of adults are 900 mm for gray snapper, 446 mm for lane snapper, and 750 mm for mutton and yellowtail snappers. Otoliths are the most preferred body part used to determine age. Most snappers attain sexual maturity after 3 to 5 years at a size range of 180 to 350 mm FL. Males mature at a smaller size than females. Recent commercial catches of gray and lane snappers have been increasing, whereas mutton and yellowtail snappers show no clear trends. Sport fishing probably has a substantial impact on the stocks of all four species. All four snappers feed predominantly on small benthic fishes and crustaceans, but yellowtail snapper feed on more pelagic animals. Upper water temperature tolerance limits are 27.2 to 32.5/sup 0/C and lower limits are 11 to 14/sup 0/C.

  13. Treatment Service Patterns and Organizational Structures: An Analysis of Programs in DATOS-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, Peter J.; Broome, Kirk M.; Flynn, Patrick M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.

    2001-01-01

    Examined availability of various treatment services within a national sample of programs treating adolescent drug abuse patients. Created treatment service delivery profiles and examined them in context of organizational variables. Found that distinct profiles of services existed within residential and outpatient modalities and that these service…

  14. Funciones de partición atómicas: Fuentes confiables de datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D. C.; Milone, L. A.

    Se llevó a cabo una revisión minuciosa del cálculo de funciones de partición atómicas de átomos livianos, en estados neutro y una vez ionizados, partiendo del Hidrógeno y llegando al Sodio, incluyendo también al K I y el Ca II. Al respecto, se realizó una investigación exhaustiva de referencias bibliográficas existentes hasta el presente, las cuales fueron cotejadas con cálculos propios llevados a cabo mediante el procedimiento de depresión del contínuo (0.001 a 0.5 eV). Nuestros resultados muestran un muy buen acuerdo con las expresiones interpolatorias de Traving et al (1966), al presente, la referencia más completa en cuanto a especies atómicas consideradas. Puntualizamos, además, ciertas deficiencias de estas relaciones de ajuste para decrementos del potencial de ionización altos (Δ χ >= 0.5) eV).

  15. Búsqueda de Sitios para CTA: Análisis de Datos Satelitales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, A. E.; Medina, M. C.; Romero, G. E.

    The CTA Consortium has decided to implement a systematic search for sites for the Observatory. This search will be made in two different steps. The first one consists of a general determination of the possible sites on the basis of some very basic selection criteria, such as geographic latitude, altitude and extension of the flat area needed. For those sites passing these criteria, a more intensive characterization should be made, using available satellite data, together with existing ground or air-based measurements. In this work we compare the behavior of different sites analyzing the aerosol content and the total precipitable water vapor, measured by MODIS instrument. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. Clasificación de asterismos utilizando datos astrométricos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Orellana, R. B.

    Based on accurate positions and proper motion data up to faint magnitudes, we have studied the regions of twenty three objects known in the literature as asterisms. A parametric method was applied to confirm the nature of these objects. The following objects have been classified: Alessi 11, Alessi 17, Brosch 1, Collinder 21, Dol-Dzim 1, Dolidze 31, Dolidze 43, Dolidze 50, Dolidze 51, NGC 272, NGC2063, NGC 2413, NGC 2664, NGC 5155, NGC 5284, NGC 6222, NGC 6360, NGC 6447, NGC 6476, NGC 6480, NGC 6605, NGC 6659, NGC 6728. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Diseno y desarrollo de una base de datos bibliograficos (Design and Development of a Bibliographic Database).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattenella, L. E.; Velazco, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This article briefly describes the development of bibliographic retrieval systems in the Instituto de Beneficio di Minerales (IN BE MI) in Salta, Argentina, using the Mini-micro CDS/ISIS software developed by Unesco. (LRW)

  18. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  19. Sex-Related HIV Risk Reduction Behavior among Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Vandana; Hser, Yih-Ing; Grella, Christine E.; Houlton, Roberta

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of drug treatment on reducing HIV-related risky sex behavior among 796 adolescents entering drug treatment programs in four U.S. cities. Found that 54 percent reported reductions in risky sex behavior after treatment. Lack of improvement was associated with conduct-disorder diagnosis, abuse history, unmet physical and emotional…

  20. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J.; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Madigan, Margaret A.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L.; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. Methods The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Results Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005); frequency of reading religious books (x2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005); frequency of watching religious programs (x2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns); and frequency of meditation/prayer (x2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002). Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission and spirituality involves attending religious services weekly, the one marker of the five that involves the highest social interaction/social bonding consistent with Durkheim’s social bond theory. Conclusions Stronger spiritual/religious beliefs and practices are directly associated with remission from abused drugs except crack. Much like the value of having a sponsor, for clients who abuse drugs, regular spiritual practice, particularly weekly attendance at the religious services of their choice is associated with significantly higher remission. These results demonstrate the clinically significant role of spirituality and the social bonds it creates in drug treatment programs. PMID:26052556

  1. 76 FR 37065 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14502

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... from Risso's (Grampus griseus), spinner (Stenella longirostris), and spotted (S. frontalis) dolphins... muscle, blubber, and teeth samples from Risso's, spinner, and spotted dolphins and short-finned...

  2. Catálogo de mapas de HI en Galaxias y análisis de los datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. C.

    Se presenta un catálogo de observaciones de HI en extenso en galaxias, publicadas en las principales revistas hasta 1993. Algunos de los mapas catalogados fueron analizados según simples modelos de distribución gausiana, con el objeto de conseguir un valor aproximado de la extensión real del gas. Así se ha encontrado que dicha extensión se relaciona con el tamaño óptico de la galaxia, y se ha obtenido una expresión numérica que permite estimar ``a priori" la dimensión de la componente gaseosa dentro de una galaxia, conociendo la emisión global del gas obtenida en una observación simple, y su dimensión óptica.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fausser, Jean-Luc; Prosper, Prosper; Donati, Giuseppe; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Rumpler, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Hapalemur remains controversial, particularly within the Hapalemur griseus species group. In order to obtain more information on the taxonomic status within this genus, and particularly in the cytogenetic distinct subspecies group of Hapalemur griseus, 357 bp sequence of cytochrome b and 438 bp of 12S mitochondrial DNAs were analyzed on a sample of animals captured in areas extending from the north to the south-east of Madagascar. This sample covers all cytogenetically defined types recognized of the genus Hapalemur. Results Phylogenetic trees and distances analyses demonstrate a first emergence of Hapalemur simus followed by H. aureus which is the sister clade of the H. griseus subspecies. Hapalemur griseus is composed of 4 subspecies separated into two clades. The first contains H. g. griseus, H. g. alaotrensis and H. g. occidentalis. The second consists of H. g. meridionalis. A new chromosomal polymorphic variant from the region of Ranomafana, H. griseus ssp, has been analysed and was found in both clades. Conclusions Our results support the raising of H. g. meridionalis to the specific rank H. meridionalis, while neither cytogenetic nor molecular evidences support the raising of H. g. alaotrensis to a species rank despite its morphological characteristics. The new cytotype H. g. ssp which has been previously characterized by cytogenetic studies contains animals clustering either with the group of Hapalemur griseus griseus or with that of Hapalemur meridionalis. This suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism or an introgression of mitochondrial DNA between subspecies. PMID:11914128

  4. Astrophysics in Schools: Playing with Observational Data. (Spanish Title: Astrofísica Escolar: Jugando con Datos Observacionales.) Astrofísica Escolar: Brincando com Dados Observacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navone, Hugo D.; Scancich, Miriam; Vázquez, Rubén A.

    2011-07-01

    The use of observational records in the design of teaching sequences in Astrophysics in High Schools is quite uncommon. It is also uncommon the thematic approach within the context provided by Nature of Science. Besides these shortcomings, we should also consider the lack of proposals to use the computer as a laboratory from which nature is studied. These aspects expose the existence of a disconnection between school science and scientist's science, establishing the need for simple educational projects that promote interdisciplinary dialogue between the two fields of knowledge. Based on these assumptions, this paper presents the school reformulation of the redshift-distance problem as addressed by Hubble in his diagram, and explores the main educational dimensions emerging from it. The proposal is directed not only for senior students of high school and/or early 1st year students at University level, but also for students and teachers from teacher training colleges. Practical evidence shows that this proposal is viable, mobilizes interests about issues of Astrophysics and promotes a ludic and cooperative character among students. La utilización de registros observacionales en el diseño de secuencias didácticas en Astrofísica Escolar no es algo usual en el ámbito de la escuela media. Tampoco lo es el abordaje de temáticas desde el contexto que provee Naturaleza de la Ciencia. A estas carencias se le suma la falta de propuestas que hagan intervenir a la computadora como un laboratorio desde el cual se interpela a la naturaleza. Los aspectos mencionados exponen la existencia de un desajuste entre ciencia escolar y ciencia experta estableciendo la necesidad de elaborar proyectos educativos sencillos que promuevan el diálogo interdisciplinar entre ambos campos del conocimiento. Partiendo de estos presupuestos, en este trabajo se presenta la reformulación escolar del problema abordado por Hubble -que diera lugar al diagrama que lleva su nombre- y se exploran las principales dimensiones educativas que emergen del mismo. La propuesta está destinada a alumnos del último año de nivel medio y primeros años de la universidad, y a estudiantes y profesores de Institutos de Formación Docente. Las puestas en práctica realizadas muestran que la propuesta es viable, que moviliza inquietudes en torno a temáticas de Astrofísica y que se fortalece al adquirir un carácter lúdico y cooperativo. A utilização de registros observacionais na construção de seqüências didáticas em Astrofísica Escolar não é algo usual no ensino médio. Tampouco o é uma abordagem de temáticas dentro do contexto da Natureza da Ciência. Agrega-se a estas carências a falta de propostas que estimulem a utilização do computador como um laboratório para estudar a natureza. Os aspectos mencionados expõem a existência de um desajuste entre ciência escolar e ciência avançada, estabelecendo a necessidade de elaborar projetos educativos simples que promovam o diálogo interdisciplinar entre ambos campos do conhecimento. Partindo destes pressupostos, este trabalho apresenta a reformulação escolar do problema abordado por Hubble -a relação entre redshift e distância das galáxias- e se exploram as principais dimensões educativas que emergem do mesmo. A proposta está destinada a alunos do último ano do nível médio, primeiros anos do curso superior e a estudantes e professores de Institutos de Formação Docente. As atividades práticas realizadas mostram que a proposta é viável, que mobiliza inquietudes em torno da temática e da Astrofísica e que se fortalece ao adquirir um caráter lúdico e cooperativo.

  5. Extracción de conocimiento en bases de datos astronómicas mediante redes de neuronas artificiales: aplicaciones en la misión Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustes Villadóniga, Diego

    2014-02-01

    In the so-called IT era, the capabilities of data acquisition systems have increased to such an extent that it has become difficult to store all the information they produce, and analyse it. This explosion of data has recently appeared in the field of Astronomy, where an increasing number of objects are being observed on a regular basis. An example of this is the upcoming Gaia mission, which will pick up multiple properties of a billion stars, whose information will have a volume of approximately a petabyte. The analysis of a similar amount of information inevitably requires the development of new data analysis methods to extract all the knowledge it contains. This thesis is devoted to the development of data analysis methods to be integrated in the Gaia pipeline, such that knowledge can be extracted from the data collected by the mission. In order to analyze the data from the Gaia mission, the European Space Agency organized the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) which is composed of hundreds of scientists and engineers. DPAC is divided into eight Coordination Units (CUs). This thesis is dedicated to algorithm development in CU8, which is responsible for source classification and astrophysical parameters (AP) estimation. Methods based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are developed to perform the tasks related to two different work packages in CU8: the GSP-Spec package (GWP-823), and the OA package (GWP-836). The GSP-Spec package is responsible for estimating stellar APs by means of the Radial Velocity Spectrograph (RVS) spectrum. This work presents the development of one of the GSP-Spec modules, which is based on the application of feed-forward ANNs. A methodology is described, based on the optimization of genetic algorithms and aimed at obtaining an optimal set of configuration parameters for the ANN in each case, depending on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the RVS spectrum and on the type of star to parameterize. Furthermore, in order to improve the AP estimates, wavelet signal processing techniques, applied to the RVS spectrum, are studied. Despite the effectiveness shown by ANNs in estimating APs, in principle they lack the ability to provide an uncertainty value on these estimates, making it impossible to determine their reliability. Because of this, a new architecture for the ANN is presented in which the inputs and outputs are reversed, so that the ANN estimates the RVS spectrum from the APs. Such an architecture is called Generative ANN (GANN) and is applied to the AP estimation of a set of simulated RVS spectra for the Gaia mission, where it is more effective than the conventional ANN model, in the case of faint stars with low SNR. Finally, the GANN can be applied for obtaining the posterior probability of each of the APs according to the RVS spectrum, allowing for their more complete analysis. Given the nature of the Gaia mission, which is the first astronomical mission that will observe, in an unbiased way, the entire sky up to magnitude 20, a large number of outliers are expected. The OA package in CU8 handles the processing of this type of objects, which are defined as those that could not be reliably classified by the methods in the upstream classification packages. OA methods are based on the unsupervised learning of all outliers. Such learning has two parts: clustering and dimensionality reduction. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm is selected as a basis for this learning. Its effectiveness is demonstrated when it is applied, with an optimal configuration, to the Gaia simulations. Furthermore, the algorithm is applied to real outliers from the SDSS catalog. Since a subsequent identification of the clusters obtained by the SOM is necessary, two different methods of identification are applied. The first method is based on the similarity between the SOM prototypes and the Gaia simulations, and the second method is based on the recovery of stored classifications in the SIMBAD catalog by cross-matching celestial coordinates. Thanks to the visualization of the SOM planes, and to both methods of identification, it is possible to distinguish between valid observations and observational artifacts. Furthermore, the method allows for the selection of objects of interest for follow-up observations, in order to determine their nature.

  6. Consideraciones acerca del método de los arcos de reducción de datos VLBI astrométricos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Arias, E. F.

    Con el propósito de construir un marco de referencia cuasi-inercial, desarrollamos un sistema de coordenadas inercial introduciendo un nuevo observable: el arco entre un par de radiofuentes. Este método proveerá una mejor herramienta para el análisis y reducción de observaciones VLBI. También conducirá a una solución en donde se determinarán independientemente los parámetros astrométricos y geodésicos. En este trabajo analizamos el caso ideal de observaciones simultáneas de un par de radiofuentes y el caso más realista de observaciones cuasisimultáneas.

  7. La Aplicacion de las Bases de Datos al Estudio Historico del Espanol (The Application of Databases to the Historical Study of Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Gloria Claveria; Lancis, Carlos Sanchez

    1997-01-01

    Notes that the employment of databases to the study of the history of a language is a method that allows for substantial improvement in investigative quality. Illustrates this with the example of the application of this method to two studies of the history of Spanish developed in the Language and Information Seminary of the Independent University…

  8. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  9. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  10. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  11. 50 CFR 216.161 - Specified activity and incidental take levels by species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... breviceps); pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis); spinner dolphin (S. longirostris); bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer...

  12. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  13. Investigation of trophic level and niche partitioning of 7 cetacean species by stable isotopes, and cadmium and arsenic tissue concentrations in the western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-Y; Chou, L-S; Chen, M-H

    2015-04-15

    A total of 24 stranded or bycatch cetaceans, including Balaenoptera omurai, Lagenodelphis hosei, Kogia sima, Stenella attenuata, Grampus griseus, Neophocaena phocaenoides, and Sousa chinensis, were collected from 2001 to 2011 in Taiwan. Using the muscular δ(13)C and δ(15)N data, three ecological groups were identified as the oceanic baleen whale, the neritic, and the coastal toothed whale groups, coinciding with their taxonomy, feeding habits and geographical distribution. A horizontal inshore to offshore distribution was found for the sympatric neritic toothed dolphins, G. griseus, K. sima, S. attenuata, and L. hosei in the outermost offshore waters, accompanying their growth. For the first time we identify Taiwan's Chinese white dolphin, S. chinensis, as an exclusive fish eater. Cd and As bioaccumulated in the G. griseus, L. hosei and S. attenuata increase as they grow. Prey-derived As- and Cd-induced health threats were found in L. hosei, and G. griseus.

  14. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Sandbar, Carcharhinus plumbeus Silky, Carcharhinus falciformis Tiger, Galeocerdo cuvier 2. Non-ridgeback..., Squatina dumerili Basking, Cetorhinus maximus Bigeye sand tiger, Odontaspis noronhai Bigeye sixgill... signatus Sand tiger, Carcharias taurus Sevengill, Heptranchias perlo Sixgill, Hexanchus griseus...

  15. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  16. [Regulators of differentiation in Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus].

    PubMed

    Anisova, L N; Blinova, I N; Efremenkova, O V; Smirnova, G M; Khokhlov, A S

    1984-01-01

    Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus PRL 1642 producing valinomycin was shown to synthesize bioregulators of differentiation similar to A factor. The regulators stimulate spore formation and streptomycin synthesis in a Streptomyces griseus 1439 mutant deficient in A factor. Some S. cyaneofuscatus mutants respond to A factor addition into the medium by an increase in valinomycin synthesis and a change in morphological properties. The regulators from S. cyaneofuscatus are more effective toward mutants of this species than toward S. griseus mutants.

  17. n-Butyldichlorido{4-cyclo­hexyl-1-[1-(pyridin-2-yl-κN)ethyl­idene]thio­semi­carb­azi­dato-κ2 N 1,S}tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Affan, Md. Abu; Salam, Md. Abdus; Asaruddin, Mohd Razip; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Two independent mol­ecules comprise the asymmetric unit in the title compound, [Sn(C4H9)(C14H19N4S)Cl2]. In each mol­ecule, the SnIV atom exists within a distorted octa­hedral geometry defined by the N,N′,S-tridentate mono-deprotonated Schiff base ligand, two mutually trans Cl atoms, and the α-C atom of the n-butyl group; the latter is trans to the azo-N atom. The greatest distortion from the ideal geometry is found in the nominally trans angle formed by the S and pyridyl-N atoms at Sn [151.72 (7) and 152.04 (7)°, respectively]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are consolidated into a three-dimensional architecture by a combination of N—H⋯Cl, C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions [inter-centroid distances = 3.6718 (19) and 3.675 (2) Å]. PMID:22807748

  18. Caracterización del entorno del los blazares PG1553+113 y 3C66A con datos GEMINI-GMOS en las bandas g' e i'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Zafra, J.; Cellone, S. A.; Andruchow, I.

    The blazars PG1553+113 and 3C66A have been recently detected at TeV energies -rays; however; an accurate modelling of their electromagnetic emission as well as -ray absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL) are prevented by their lack of firm redshift determinations. This is due to the fact that; being objects of the BLLac subclass; their optical spectral have by definition very faint emission lines. In this paper the environment of both objects is photometrically analyzed; looking for overdensities that may trace galaxy clusters. Comparing magnitudes and colors of detected object to those of model galaxies allows us to provide a new constraint to the redshifts of both blazars. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Ten Facts Every Parent Should Know about the No Child Left Behind Act = Diez datos que cada padre debe saber sobre La Ley. Que Ningun Nino Se Quede Atras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is President George W. Bush's education reform law passed by Republicans and Democrats in Congress. This flier, in both English and Spanish, details 10 facts concerning NCLB to inform parents as to the goals of the Act and how they will affect their child's school. The flier highlights how the Act: (1) gives…

  20. Observations of Currents, Temperature, Pressure, and Sea Level in the Gulf of California 1982-1986. A Data Report (Observationes de Corrientes, Temperatura, Presion y Nivel Mar en el Golfo de California 1982-1986. Informe de Datos,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    comprendido dentro de [a fase principal del experimento, para fines de comparaci6n. Excepto donde queda indicado, las estadisticas para cada serie...deben a M. Clark. the Office of Naval Research (contract numbers N00014-80-C-0440, N00014-85-C-0104) and by Este proyecto fue apoyado econ6micamente the

  1. Una novedosa herramienta estadística para desentrañar las características intrínsecas de una distribución de datos astrofísicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, I.; Piatti, A. E.

    The statistical analysis of a sample of data includes the collection; the analysis and the interpretation of them. For example; the construction of histograms has proven to be a powerful tool in statistics; from which it is possible to obtain an overview of the distribution of the data sample considered. In some circumstances; however; the results often depend on the way they are constructed (e.g. size of the bins used; etc.) leading to a variety of possible interpretations. Specifically; this paper presents a statistical method that allows to unravel the intrinsic distribution of a n-dimensional data distribution from "adaptive bins" and the consideration of the errors of the data used. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Comparación de las predicciones de cosmologías alternativas al modelo estándar con datos del fondo cósmico de radiación

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccirilli, M. P.; Landau, S. J.; León, G.

    2016-08-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is one of the most powerful tools to study the early Universe and its evolution, providing also a method to test different cosmological scenarios. We consider alternative inflationary models where the emergence of the seeds of cosmic structure from a perfect isotropic and homogeneous universe can be explained by the self-induced collapse of the inflaton wave function. Some of these alternative models may result indistinguishable from the standard model, while others require to be compared with observational data through statistical analysis. In this article we show results concerning the first Planck release, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope, the WMAP and Sloan Digital Sky Survey datasets, reaching good agreement between data and theoretical predictions. For future works, we aim to achieve better limits in the cosmological parameters using the last Planck release.

  3. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  4. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  5. 50 CFR 218.181 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (an average of 2 annually), (ii) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—10 (an average of 2 annually); (iii) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)—3,070 (an average of 614 annually); (iv) Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis)—2,355 (an average of 471 annually); (v) Pantropical spotted dolphin (S....

  6. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  7. 50 CFR 218.181 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (an average of 2 annually), (ii) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—10 (an average of 2 annually); (iii) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)—3,070 (an average of 614 annually); (iv) Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis)—2,355 (an average of 471 annually); (v) Pantropical spotted dolphin (S....

  8. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  9. 50 CFR 218.181 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (an average of 2 annually), (ii) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—10 (an average of 2 annually); (iii) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)—3,070 (an average of 614 annually); (iv) Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis)—2,355 (an average of 471 annually); (v) Pantropical spotted dolphin (S....

  10. 50 CFR 218.102 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (an average of 1,289 annually); (L) Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)—44,290 (an average of 8,858 annually); (M) Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)—4,715 (an average of 943 annually); (N) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—33,865 (an average of 6,773 annually); (O) Bottlenose...

  11. 50 CFR 218.181 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (an average of 2 annually), (ii) Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)—10 (an average of 2 annually); (iii) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)—3,070 (an average of 614 annually); (iv) Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis)—2,355 (an average of 471 annually); (v) Pantropical spotted dolphin (S....

  12. 77 FR 13562 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14241

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... following species in waters off the west coast of North America: Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), killer whale (Orcinus orca) and Mesoplodont beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp); (4) a new procedure for marking cetaceans...

  13. Genotoxicity Assessment of Mixed Oligomers of Chlorotrifluoroethylene using a Battery of In Vitro and In Vivo/In Vitro Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    locus in Chinese hamster ovary ( CHO ) cells under...is functional in the female Chinese hamster ovary ( CHO ) cells , a single-step forward mutation from HGPRT + to HGPRT- in the functional X chromosome...this study were CHO cells . The hypodiploid CHO -K1 cell line was originally derived from the ovary of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus)

  14. Inexpensive treatment of frozen dairy products for membrane filtration.

    PubMed Central

    Peterkin, P I; Sharpe, A N; Warburton, D W

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of frozen dairy products with trypsin and Tween 80 before membrane filtration for microbiological analysis was faster and cost less than treatment with Streptomyces griseus protease-Tween 80. Viable cell counts so Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecium, and Salmonella typhimurium were not reduced. PMID:7036901

  15. Coevolution of antibiotic production and counter-resistance in soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, Paris; Tolba, Sahar; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Wellington, Elizabeth M; Wellington, Liz

    2010-03-01

    We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources.

  16. Marine Mammal Acoustic Monitoring and Habitat Investigation, Southern California Offshore Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    1990. Vocalisations of the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus, off the Galapagos Islands as related to behavioural and circumstantial variables...represented. Inset shows cluster of recordings from San Clemente Island . Symbols are: ● Delphinus delphis, ■ Delphinus capensis, ♦ Grampus griseus...surveys, San Clemente Island (SCI) small boat operations, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) instrumentation servicing cruises on the R/V

  17. Seed morphology and variation in the genus Pachycereus (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa

    2004-08-01

    Seeds of 13 Pachycereus species and two Stenocereus species that have been suggested as closely related were examined with the scanning electron microscope. Quantitative features were evaluated using multivariate analysis in order to identify characters that distinguish them. Several species groups were recognized on the basis of 16 qualitative characters. All species studied are keeled. Stenocereus aragonii and S. eichlamii share with most Pachycereus species large size, glossy appearance, and a flat relief on periclinal cells in the lateral region. Pachycereus gatesii and P. schottii are unique in having the smallest seeds and a deeply impressed hilum-micropylar region. P. hollianus does not exhibit micro-relief on periclinal walls in the lateral region, and P. fulviceps has no expanded testa border. Multivariate analysis showed that four characters, length, breadth, hilum-micropylar region length, and angle, made the greatest contribution to distinguishing among species groups. More than 80% of P. fulviceps, P. hollianus, P. tepamo, P. weberi, and S. eichlamii seeds could be classified correctly using four seed features and the percentage was even higher using just two or three features for P. gatesii, P. grandis, P. militaris, P. pringlei, and P. schottii. Testa appearance, testa cell-pattern, and position relative to the rim of the hilum-micropylar region were found to be potentially informative and should be combined with other sources of data in future phylogenetic analyses.

  18. Functional genomics of cactus host shifts in Drosophila mojavensis.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Luciano M; Watts, Thomas D; Bitler, Benjamin G; Machado, Carlos A; Markow, Therese A

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to novel environments remains one of the major challenges confronting evolutionary biologists. While newly developed genomic approaches hold considerable promise for addressing this overall question, the relevant tools have not often been available in the most ecologically interesting organisms. Our study organism, Drosophila mojavensis, is a cactophilic Sonoran Desert endemic utilizing four different cactus hosts across its geographical range. Its well-known ecology makes it an attractive system in which to study the evolution of gene expression during adaptation. As a cactophile, D. mojavensis oviposits in the necrotic tissues of cacti, therefore exposing larvae and even adults to the varied and toxic compounds of rotting cacti. We have developed a cDNA microarray of D. mojavensis to examine gene expression associated with cactus host use. Using a population from the Baja California population we examined gene expression differences of third instar larvae when reared in two chemically distinct cactus hosts, agria (Stenocereus gummosus, native host) vs. organpipe (Stenocereus thurberi, alternative host). We have observed differential gene expression associated with cactus host use in genes involved in metabolism and detoxification.

  19. A Branch Point of Streptomyces Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism Controls the Production of Albomycin

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Aditya; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Van Lanen, Steven; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Albomycin (ABM), also known as grisein, is a sulfur-containing metabolite produced by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 700974. Genes predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of ABM and ABM-like molecules are found in the genomes of other actinomycetes. ABM has potent antibacterial activity, and as a result, many attempts have been made to develop ABM into a drug since the last century. Although the productivity of S. griseus can be increased with random mutagenesis methods, understanding of Streptomyces sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism, which supplies a precursor for ABM biosynthesis, could lead to improved and stable production. We previously characterized the gene cluster (abm) in the genome-sequenced S. griseus strain and proposed that the sulfur atom of ABM is derived from either cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine (Hcy). The gene product, AbmD, appears to be an important link between primary and secondary sulfur metabolic pathways. Here, we show that propargylglycine or iron supplementation in growth media increased ABM production by significantly changing the relative concentrations of intracellular Cys and Hcy. An SAA metabolic network of S. griseus was constructed. Pathways toward increasing Hcy were shown to positively impact ABM production. The abmD gene and five genes that increased the Hcy/Cys ratio were assembled downstream of hrdBp promoter sequences and integrated into the chromosome for overexpression. The ABM titer of one engineered strain, SCAK3, in a chemically defined medium was consistently improved to levels ∼400% of the wild type. Finally, we analyzed the production and growth of SCAK3 in shake flasks for further process development. PMID:26519385

  20. NATO Undersea Research Centre Marine Mammal Risk Mitigation Rules and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Provide MMRM Project Leader with a list of lessons learned . NURC-SP-2009-002 8 Annex A Risk Criteria to Mitigate Auditory Impact The...Mediterranean Monk seal Foca monaca Monachus monachus CR Fin whale Balenottera comune Balaenoptera physalus EN Sperm whale Capodoglio Physeter...Tursiope Tursiops truncatus LR lc Risso’s dolphin Grampo Grampus griseus LR lc Common dolphin Delfino comune Delphinus delphis LR lc Harbour

  1. Ecology and Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Transmission in the Republic of Senegal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Passer griseus) 1/128 Golden Sparrows (Passer luteus ). The majority of ticks removed from these birds were immature H. marginatum rufipes. In addition... luteus were parasitized by 17 immature A. arboreus. As before, the temporal pattern of these observations makes statements about the importance of...I Tockus erythrorhynchus parasitized by Argus sp. (1 L), 4 Passer luteus parasitized by A. arboreus (17). - 41- Table 4. Roatkly observation of

  2. A Branch Point of Streptomyces Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism Controls the Production of Albomycin.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Aditya; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Van Lanen, Steven; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Shawn

    2015-10-30

    Albomycin (ABM), also known as grisein, is a sulfur-containing metabolite produced by Streptomyces griseus ATCC 700974. Genes predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of ABM and ABM-like molecules are found in the genomes of other actinomycetes. ABM has potent antibacterial activity, and as a result, many attempts have been made to develop ABM into a drug since the last century. Although the productivity of S. griseus can be increased with random mutagenesis methods, understanding of Streptomyces sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism, which supplies a precursor for ABM biosynthesis, could lead to improved and stable production. We previously characterized the gene cluster (abm) in the genome-sequenced S. griseus strain and proposed that the sulfur atom of ABM is derived from either cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine (Hcy). The gene product, AbmD, appears to be an important link between primary and secondary sulfur metabolic pathways. Here, we show that propargylglycine or iron supplementation in growth media increased ABM production by significantly changing the relative concentrations of intracellular Cys and Hcy. An SAA metabolic network of S. griseus was constructed. Pathways toward increasing Hcy were shown to positively impact ABM production. The abmD gene and five genes that increased the Hcy/Cys ratio were assembled downstream of hrdBp promoter sequences and integrated into the chromosome for overexpression. The ABM titer of one engineered strain, SCAK3, in a chemically defined medium was consistently improved to levels ∼400% of the wild type. Finally, we analyzed the production and growth of SCAK3 in shake flasks for further process development.

  3. Novel Nonporous Fouling-Resistant Enzymatic Composite Membranes for Waste Water Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    aromatic residues, and pronase from. Streptomyces griseus is unusually non-specific. Lipase PS from Burkholderia cepacia was reported to exhibit the...Waste Water N00014-02-1-0445 Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-02-1-0445 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Benny D. Freeman...oxide) was prepared. These membrane materials showed high water uptake and excellent resistance to bovine serum albumin (BSA) fouling. By controlling

  4. Growth and secondary production of an eventual reef fish during mangrove residency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunce, Craig H.; Serafy, Joseph E.

    2008-08-01

    Hierarchical data frameworks have been proposed to determine the relative value of fish habitats. Although conceptually accurate, judgments as to which habitat is more "essential" are limited by a lack of available information. This work provides much needed growth and production rates for gray snapper ( Lutjanus griseus), an ontogenetic habitat shifting reef fish, during mangrove residency. Ages were estimated using modal progression analysis of length-frequency distributions coupled with a biologically-realistic spawning date. Growth estimates place age-1 L. griseus at 155 mm (TL), age-2 at 243, and age-3 at 302 mm. These size-at-age estimates are consistent with otolith-based studies and are a natural extension of linear growth models for early juveniles. Lutjanus griseus primarily use southeastern Florida mangrove shoreline habitats for approximately 2 years between 0.86 and 2.84 years of age. Corresponding production:biomass ratios for these cohorts were 1.51 and 0.90. While these values are similar to other estimates for fishes inhabiting vegetated coastal wetlands in North America, they are much less than new estimates from a Bahamian mangrove creek system. These new data highlight important differences between the habitat value of mangrove shorelines of continental (low-relief) and island (high-relief) systems.

  5. Lemur responses to edge effects in the Vohibola III classified forest, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Shawn M; Rajaonson, Andry; Day, Sabine

    2006-03-01

    Forest edges are dynamic zones characterized by the penetration (to varying depths and intensities) of conditions from the surrounding environment (matrix) into the forest interior. Although edge effects influence many tropical organisms, they have not been studied directly in primates. Edge effects are particularly relevant to lemurs because of the highly fragmented forest landscapes found in Madagascar. In this study, data are presented regarding how the densities of six lemur species (Avahi laniger, Cheirogaleus major, Eulemur rubriventer, Hapalemur griseus griseus, Microcebus rufus, and Propithecus diadema edwardsi) varied between six 500-m interior transects and six 500-m edge transects in the Vohibola III Classified Forest in SE Madagascar. Diurnal (n = 433) and nocturnal (n = 128) lemur surveys were conducted during June-October 2003 and May-November 2004. A. laniger, E. rubriventer, and H. g. griseus exhibited a neutral edge response (no differences in densities between habitats). M. rufus and P. d. edwardsi had a positive edge response (higher densities in edge habitats), which may be related to edge-related variations in food abundance and quality. Positive edge responses by M. rufus and P. d. edwardsi may ultimately be detrimental due to edge-related anthropogenic factors (e.g., hunting by local people). The negative edge response exhibited by C. major (lower densities in edge habitats) may result from heightened ambient temperatures that inhibit torpor in edge habitats.

  6. A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from triakid sharks.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Akira; Shimizu, Toshiya; Mano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm are described from triakid sharks. We found Platybothrium xiamenensis Wang & Yang, 2001 and Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) from Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle). Based on the morphology of the hooks P. xiamenensis is transferred to the genus Erudituncus Healy, Scholz & Caira, 2001. The specimens studied by us differ from the original description in the number of proglottids and testes and in the size of the cirrus-sac. However, we consider them conspecific with E. xiamenensis due to the consistent hook morphology and laciniations in both descriptions and believe the differences reflect intraspecific variation. The type-host of E. xiamenensis was reported as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann. However, in the present study, this parasite was found only in H. japanica and never in M. griseus although many specimens of the latter host were examined. This suggests that the type-host in the original description has probably been misidentified. We found another undescribed species in M. griseus, Calliobothrium shirozame n. sp., which is distinguished from the congeners by having a unique combination of the number of laciniations: four in the cephalic peduncle, six in the immature proglottids and four in the mature proglottids.

  7. Implications of Aggregated DoD Information Systems for Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    designated accrediting authority based on an assessment of the implementation status of the assigned IA controls. Medium- low DATO The DoD IS is... based on interdependencies Step 1: Make accredita- tion determination for each aggregate DoD IS Nav DATO Weapons DATO Comm DATO ISR IATO Nav DATO ...pedigree to be applied effec- tively to IA C&A aggregation efforts, a precise definition is needed. Based on our analysis of existing policies, we make the

  8. Development of a process for the production of the anticancer lead compound pleurotin by fermentation of Hohenbuehelia atrocaerulea.

    PubMed

    Shipley, S M; Barr, A L; Graf, S J; Collins, R P; McCloud, T G; Newman, D J

    2006-06-01

    Pleurotin is a naphthoquinone antibiotic originally isolated from Pleurotus griseus. Two pleurotin producing strains of Hohenbuehelia atrocaerulea have been identified, which, on solid substrate fermentation for 2 months yield 1-2 mg/l of the antibiotic. Described here is the lengthy developmental process which resulted in a production protocol being developed which reliably yields pleurotin from liquid fermentation at >300 mg/l. Critical to obtaining this increase in titer was inclusion in the media of an aqueous extract of alder wood.

  9. Geosmin, an Earthy-Smelling Substance Isolated from Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, N. N.; Lechevalier, H. A.

    1965-01-01

    Geosmin, an earthy-smelling substance, has been isolated from several actinomycetes. Production of 1 mg per liter of whole broth was obtained from Streptomyces griseus LP-16. After preliminary separations, pure geosmin was isolated in milligram amounts by gas chromatography. Geosmin is a neutral oil, with an approximate boiling point of 270 C, which contains carbon and hydrogen, but no nitrogen. It undergoes a reaction with acid to give odorless argosmin, a neutral oil, with an approximate boiling point of 230 C, which contains only carbon and hydrogen. Specific rotation and ultraviolet- and infrared-absorbtion spectra were determined for both. PMID:5866039

  10. Agnonistic behavior in short-billed dowitchers feeding on a patchy resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, E.P.; Schneider, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we describe an instance of unusual, agonistic behavior in a flock of migrant Short-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus) . We compare this behavior to that of other flocks feeding at the same time at other locations in the same estuary and then present evidence suggesting that this behavior resulted from the patchy distribution of the probable foraging resource of this flock, eggs of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus). We propose that an extremely patchy resource has increased the agonistic behavior within the flock by increasing the variation in foraging success among individuals.

  11. Phylogenetic revision of Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. Jansen & Franz, 2015 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using taxonomic concept annotations and alignments

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, M. Andrew; Franz, Nico M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This contribution adopts the taxonomic concept annotation and alignment approach. Accordingly, and where indicated, previous and newly inferred meanings of taxonomic names are individuated according to one specific source. Articulations among these concepts and pairwise, logically consistent alignments of original and revisionary classifications are also provided, in addition to conventional nomenclatural provenance information. A phylogenetic revision of the broad-nosed weevil genera Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982), and Piscatopus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) (Curculionidae [non-focal]: Entiminae [non-focal]: Tanymecini [non-focal]) is presented. Prior to this study, Minyomerus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) contained seven species, whereas the monotypic Piscatopus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) was comprised solely of Piscatopus griseus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982). We thoroughly redescribe these recognized species-level entities and furthermore describe ten species as new to science: Minyomerus bulbifrons sec. Jansen & Franz (2015) (henceforth: [JF2015]), sp. n., Minyomerus aeriballux [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus cracens [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus gravivultus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus imberbus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus reburrus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus politus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus puticulatus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015], sp. n., and Minyomerus trisetosus [JF2015], sp. n. A cladistic analysis using 46 morphological characters of 22 terminal taxa (5/17 outgroup/ingroup) yielded a single most-parsimonious cladogram (L = 82, CI = 65, RI = 82). The analysis strongly supports the monophyly of Minyomerus [JF2015] with eight unreversed synapomorphies, and places Piscatopus griseus sec. O’Brien & Wibmer (1982) within the genus as sister to Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015]. Accordingly, Piscatopus sec. Sleeper (1960), syn. n. is changed to junior synonymy of

  12. The use of marine reserves in evaluating the dive fishery for the warty sea cucumber, Parastichopus parvimensis in California, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, S.C.; Reed, D.C.; Kushner, D.J.; Estes, J.A.; Ono, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe an instance of unusual, agonistic behavior in a flock of migrant Short-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus) . We compare this behavior to that of other flocks feeding at the same time at other locations in the same estuary and then present evidence suggesting that this behavior resulted from the patchy distribution of the probable foraging resource of this flock, eggs of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus). We propose that an extremely patchy resource has increased the agonistic behavior within the flock by increasing the variation in foraging success among individuals.

  13. Phylogenetic revision of Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. Jansen & Franz, 2015 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using taxonomic concept annotations and alignments.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M Andrew; Franz, Nico M

    2015-01-01

    This contribution adopts the taxonomic concept annotation and alignment approach. Accordingly, and where indicated, previous and newly inferred meanings of taxonomic names are individuated according to one specific source. Articulations among these concepts and pairwise, logically consistent alignments of original and revisionary classifications are also provided, in addition to conventional nomenclatural provenance information. A phylogenetic revision of the broad-nosed weevil genera Minyomerus Horn, 1876 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982), and Piscatopus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) (Curculionidae [non-focal]: Entiminae [non-focal]: Tanymecini [non-focal]) is presented. Prior to this study, Minyomerus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) contained seven species, whereas the monotypic Piscatopus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) was comprised solely of Piscatopus griseus Sleeper, 1960 sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982). We thoroughly redescribe these recognized species-level entities and furthermore describe ten species as new to science: Minyomerus bulbifrons sec. Jansen & Franz (2015) (henceforth: [JF2015]), sp. n., Minyomerus aeriballux [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus cracens [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus gravivultus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus imberbus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus reburrus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus politus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus puticulatus [JF2015], sp. n., Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015], sp. n., and Minyomerus trisetosus [JF2015], sp. n. A cladistic analysis using 46 morphological characters of 22 terminal taxa (5/17 outgroup/ingroup) yielded a single most-parsimonious cladogram (L = 82, CI = 65, RI = 82). The analysis strongly supports the monophyly of Minyomerus [JF2015] with eight unreversed synapomorphies, and places Piscatopus griseus sec. O'Brien & Wibmer (1982) within the genus as sister to Minyomerus rutellirostris [JF2015]. Accordingly, Piscatopus sec. Sleeper (1960), syn. n. is changed to junior synonymy of Minyomerus [JF2015], and

  14. Microbial transformation of N-methylcolchiceinamide.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, P J

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-seven microorganisms were examined for their ability to metabolize the antineoplastic agent N-methylcolchiceinamide, an analog of colchicine. Five streptomycetes exhibited significant metabolism, and Streptomyces griseus NRRL B-599 completely converted the substrate to three metabolites. In preparative-scale studies, N-dealkylation resulted in the production of colchiceinamide, the major metabolite (65%), which was characterized by chemical, spectroscopic, and chromatographic comparisons with the standard compound. Two phenolic metabolites resulting from )-dealkylation were also isolated and identified as 2 and 3-O-demethyl-N-methylcolchiceinamide. PMID:6787979

  15. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  16. Mineral element levels in wild edible mushrooms from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Shi, Yundong; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2012-06-01

    Ten species of wild edible mushrooms (Boletus griseus, Boletus speciosus, Lactarius hygrophoroides, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Macrocybe gigantea, Melanoleuca arcuata, Morchella deliciosa, Mycena haematopus, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, and Tricholoma matsutake) collected from Yunnan province of China, were analyzed for ten mineral elements (calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc) contents using ICP-AES. The minimum and maximum element contents of mushrooms were determined as milligrams per kilograms dry weight for Ca (38-470), Cr (0.45-6.3), Co (0.29-2.3), Cu (13-58), Fe (22-510), Mg (84-550), Mn (1.4-70), K (1,300-4,600), Na (190-670), and Zn (16-160). The mushrooms species with the highest levels of mineral elements were B. griseus for K and Na, P. ravenelii for Cu, M. deliciosa for Mn, L. giganteus for Cr and Fe, M. gigantea for Ca, Mg and Zn, T. matsutake for Co. These results demonstrate that the mineral element contents in mushrooms are considerably species dependent and affected by environmental factors.

  17. Sylvatic echinococcosis in Argentina. II. Susceptibility of wild carnivores to Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) and host-induced morphological variation.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P M; Colli, C; Cruz-Reyes, A; Prezioso, U

    1976-03-01

    Domestic dogs and cats, 3 fox species, Dusicyon culpaeus (Molina,1782), D, griseus (Gray, 1837) and D. gymnocercus (Thomas, 1914), Geoffroy's cats, Felis geoffroyi (D'Orbigny and Gervais, 1843), and grisons, Galictus cuja (Molina, 1782) were fed larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) from domestic sheep in Argentina. Dogs and the 3 species of foxes became infected. The susceptibility of D. culpaeus compared favorably to that of dogs. Most D. griseus and D. gymnocercus were less susceptible than dogs but gravid strobilae were recovered from some animals of both species. Eggs from strobilae in dogs and Dusicyon spp. were infective to CF1 mice. The mean strobilar length and the diameters of the rostellar pad and suckers of worms in foxes were significantly reduced when compared with previously reported data for strobilae from dogs. The potential significance of Dusicyon spp. as reservoir hosts of E. granulosus in Argentina is discussed as is the confusion surrounding the taxonomic identification of cestode infections previously reported from these wild carnivores. It is suggested that Echinococcus spp. reported from Argentine foxes are E. granulosus and that foxes become infected by killing and scavenging on sheep in localities where E. granulosus is endemic.

  18. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tchaicka, Ligia; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E.; Wayne, Robert K.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  19. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae).

    PubMed

    Tchaicka, Ligia; Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena de; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E; Wayne, Robert K; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus.

  20. Molecular and Functional Analyses of the Gene (eshA) Encoding the 52-Kilodalton Protein of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Required for Antibiotic Production

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Shinichi; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Saito, Natsumi; Hesketh, Andrew; Vachalova, Katerina; Matsubara, Keiko; Ochi, Kozo

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of proteins recovered in the S100 precipitate fraction of Streptomyces griseus after ultracentrifugation led to the identification of a 52-kDa protein which is produced during the late growth phase. The gene (eshA) which codes for this protein was cloned from S. griseus, and then its homologue was cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The protein was deduced to be 471 amino acids in length. The protein EshA is characterized by a central region that shows homology to the eukaryotic-type cyclic nucleotide-binding domains. Significant homology was also found to MMPI in Mycobacterium leprae, a major antigenic protein to humans. The eshA gene mapped near the chromosome end and was not essential for viability, as demonstrated by gene disruption experiments, but its disruption resulted in the abolishment of an antibiotic (actinorhodin but not undecylprodigiosin) production. Aerial mycelium was produced as abundantly as by the parent strain. Expression analysis of the EshA protein by Western blotting revealed that EshA is present only in late-growth-phase cells. The eshA gene was transcribed just preceding intracellular accumulation of the EshA protein, as determined by S1 nuclease protection, indicating that EshA expression is regulated at the transcription level. The expression of EshA was unaffected by introduction of the relA mutation, which blocks ppGpp synthesis. PMID:11567001

  1. Cloning of an avilamycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü57.

    PubMed Central

    Gaisser, S; Trefzer, A; Stockert, S; Kirschning, A; Bechthold, A

    1997-01-01

    A 65-kb region of DNA from Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü57, containing genes encoding proteins involved in the biosynthesis of avilamycins, was isolated. The DNA sequence of a 6.4-kb fragment from this region revealed four open reading frames (ORF1 to ORF4), three of which are fully contained within the sequenced fragment. The deduced amino acid sequence of AviM, encoded by ORF2, shows 37% identity to a 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from Penicillium patulum. Cultures of S. lividans TK24 and S. coelicolor CH999 containing plasmids with ORF2 on a 5.5-kb PstI fragment were able to produce orsellinic acid, an unreduced version of 6-methylsalicylic acid. The amino acid sequence encoded by ORF3 (AviD) is 62% identical to that of StrD, a dTDP-glucose synthase from S. griseus. The deduced amino acid sequence of AviE, encoded by ORF4, shows 55% identity to a dTDP-glucose dehydratase (StrE) from S. griseus. Gene insertional inactivation experiments of aviE abolished avilamycin production, indicating the involvement of aviE in the biosynthesis of avilamycins. PMID:9335272

  2. Cloning and characterization of the gene (farA) encoding the receptor for an extracellular regulatory factor (IM-2) from Streptomyces sp. strain FRI-5.

    PubMed Central

    Waki, M; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y

    1997-01-01

    IM-2 is a butyrolactone autoregulator that controls production of blue pigment and nucleoside antibiotics in Streptomyces sp. strain FRI-5. An IM-2-specific receptor gene, farA, was cloned from strain FRI-5, and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the farA gene consists of 666 bp encoding a 221-amino-acid protein of 24.3 kDa with an NH2-terminal amino acid sequence identical to that of purified native receptor. Another gene, farX, encoding a homolog of AfsA of Streptomyces griseus, was present upstream of farA. The monocistronic nature of the farA transcript was shown by Northern blot hybridization, and the transcript level increased upon addition of IM-2. Recombinant FarA expressed in and purified from E. coli showed clear ligand specificity toward IM-2, with a dissociation constant (Kd) for [3H]IM-2-C5 of 18.2 nM. FarA showed high overall homology to BarA (virginiae butanolide receptor from S. virginiae) and ArpA (A-factor receptor from S. griseus). Sequence alignment of the three receptor proteins revealed that the NH2-terminal region containing a helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif was highly conserved. The DNA binding motif is common in procaryotic repressors of the TetR family, suggesting that all the Streptomyces autoregulator receptors may act as transcriptional repressors. PMID:9260956

  3. A new aminopeptidase from the keratin-degrading strain Streptomyces fradiae var. k11.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Shi, Pengjun; Li, Jiang; Wang, Yaru; Meng, Kun; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Yang, Peilong; Zhou, Zhigang; Yao, Bin

    2010-03-01

    An aminopeptidase gene fragment was isolated from a keratin-degrading strain, Streptomyces fradiae var. k11, by PCR amplification using a degenerate primer set designed based on the partial amino acid sequence of the native enzyme. The gene, designated sfap, encoded a polypeptide of 461 amino acids comprised of three domains: a signal peptide, a mature region, and a C-terminal propeptide. The aminopeptidase, SFAP, had highest amino acid sequence identity (79%) with a putative aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus NBRC 13350. The gene with and without C-terminal propeptide was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the gene without C-terminal propeptide encoded a functional enzyme. Purified recombinant SFAP exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, and retained >60% peak activity over a broad range of temperature. The enzyme was thermal and pH stable, and showed metalloprotease characteristics, which was inhibited by EDTA but activated by Ca(2+) and Co(2+). This is the first study to report the gene cloning and expression of a leucine aminopeptidase from S. fradiae.

  4. Estimation of intestinal protein digestibility of protein supplements for ruminants using a three-step enzymatic in vitro procedure.

    PubMed

    Hippenstiel, Friederike; Kivitz, Andre; Benninghoff, Jens; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This study included 33 samples with main focus on unprotected or rumen-protected rapeseed and soybean feedstuffs, which were analysed using an enzymatic in vitro procedure (EIVP) in order to determine intestinal crude protein (CP) digestibility (IPD) of ruminally undegraded CP. The EIVP involved the sequential digestion of samples with a protease from Streptomyces griseus, pepsin-HCl and pancreatin. Briefly, the EIVP started with determination of true protein. Feeds were incubated for 18 h in a buffer solution at a constant ratio (41 U/g) of S. griseus protease activity to feed true protein. The dried residues were incubated in pepsin-HCl solution for 1 h, and residues from this step were incubated in pancreatin solution for 24 h. Results appeared to have lower IPD dimensions than literature data of previous studies. In addition, a negative correlation became apparent between acid detergent fibre and IPD, as well as a positive correlation between CP, true protein and IPD. The EIVP in its current, strictly standardised form can be applied to develop a database that can be used for protein evaluation systems for establishing tabular values of IPD. Nevertheless, future studies may be hindered since sufficient reference values, i.e. in vivo data, are completely missing.

  5. New triterpenoid saponins from cacti and anti-type I allergy activity of saponins from cactus.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Kazutaka; Baba, Masaki; Ito, Satoru; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-07-15

    The research in our laboratory focuses on the isolation of saponins from cactus. In this study, we report five new triterpenoid saponins, dumortierinoside A methyl ester (1), pachanoside I1 (2), pachanoside D1 (3), gummososide A (4), and gummososide A methyl ester (5). Compounds 1-3 isolated from Isolatocereus dumortieri Backbg., and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from Stenocereus alamosensis A. C. Gibson & K. E. Horak. Compound 2 possessed a new pachanane-type triterpene skeleton, pachanol I, in its aglycon. The aglycon of 3 was pachanol D, while those of 4 and 5 were both gummosogenin, which we have previously reported, but this is the first report of pachanol D and gummosogenin in their aglycon forms. Additionally, we evaluated the anti-type I allergy activity of the saponins with RBL-2H3 (Rat basophilic leukemia) cells by measuring the β-hexosaminidase release inhibitory activity. As a result of these studies, gummososide A methyl ester (5) was found to show activity (IC(50)=99.5 μM) and thurberoside A exhibited mild activity (IC(50)=166.9 μM).

  6. Vivipary in coastal cacti: a potential reproductive strategy in halophytic environments.

    PubMed

    Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo; Reyes-Olivas, Alvaro; Sánchez-Soto, Bardo

    2007-09-01

    Vivipary, the germination of seeds within the fruit prior to abscission from the maternal plant, is an important event in plants. Two main types of vivipary are known in vascular plants: true vivipary and pseudovivipary. In crop grasses, pseudovivipary is an undesirable character as it results in lower yields. To date, vivipary in the Cactaceae has been reported for less than 20 species, most of which are cultivated. Here, we report viviparous (cryptoviviparous-a subcategory of true vivipary) cacti in nature in members of the tribes Cacteae and Pachycereeae (subfamily Cactoideae). We present four species inhabiting coastal plains in areas subject to periodic flooding, namely, Ferocactus herrerae, Stenocereus alamosensis, S. thurberi, and Pachycereus schottii. These species from localities in northwestern Mexico had viviparous fruits and offspring in different stages of development. A potential trend in the data indicates that the overall proportion of viviparous plants is higher in coastal flooding areas relative to halophytic, nonflooding areas. In our view, vivipary is a reproductive strategy that has evolved to provide a more efficient mechanism favoring germination and new avenues for survival by contributing to population maintenance and short-distance dispersal on halophytic substrates.

  7. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  8. Phylogenetic origins of Lophocereus (Cactaceae) and the senita cactus-senita moth pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Nason, John D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2002-07-01

    Recent ecological research has revealed that the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus Lophocereus and the pyralid moth Upiga virescens form an obligate pollination mutualism, a rare but important case of coevolution. To investigate the phylogenetic origins of this unusual pollination system, we used molecular sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four taxa within the genus Lophocereus and to determine the phylogenetic position of Lophocereus within the North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae). Our analysis included Lophocereus, six Pachycereus species, Carnegiea gigantea, and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo within the subtribe Pachycereinae, and Stenocereus thurberi as an outgroup within the Stenocereinae. Extensive screening of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes failed to reveal sequence variation within Lophocereus. At a deeper phylogenetic level, however, we found strong support for the placement of Lophocereus within Pachycereus as sister group to the hummingbird-pollinated P. marginatus. We discuss possible hypotheses that may explain the transition from bat pollination (ancestral) to moth and hummingbird pollination in Lophocereus and P. marginatus, respectively. Additional phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Pachycereus should be expanded to include Lophocereus, Carnegiea, Neobuxbaumia, and perhaps other species, whereas P. hollianus may need to be excluded from this clade. Future study will be needed to test taxonomic distinctions within Lophocereus, to test for parallel cladogenesis between phylogroups within Lophocereus and Upiga, and to fully delineate the genus Pachycereus and relationships among genera in the Pachycereinae.

  9. Apical meristem organization and lack of establishment of the quiescent center in Cactaceae roots with determinate growth.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Fernando; Shishkova, Svetlana; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2003-10-01

    Some species of Cactaceae from the Sonoran Desert are characterized by a determinate growth pattern of the primary root, which is important for rapid lateral-root formation and seedling establishment. An analysis of the determinate root growth can be helpful for understanding the mechanism of meristem maintenance in plants in general. Stenocereus gummosus (Engelm.) Gibson & Horak and Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson) Britton & Rose are characterized by an open type of root apical meristem. Immunohistochemical analysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into S. gummosus showed that the percentage of cells passing through the S-phase in a 24-h period is the same within the zone where a population of relatively slowly proliferating cells could be established and above this zone in the meristem. This indicated the absence of the quiescent center (QC) in S. gummosus. During the second and the third days of growth, in the distal meristem portion of P. pringlei roots, a compact group of cells that had a cell cycle longer than in the proximal meristem was found, indicating the presence of the QC. However, later in development, the QC could not be detected in this species. These data suggest that during post-germination the absence of the establishment of the QC within the apical meristem and limited proliferative activity of initial cells are the main components of a determinate developmental program and that establishment of the QC is required for maintenance of the meristem and indeterminate root growth in plants.

  10. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  11. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. I. Root colonization and weathering of igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Bashan, Y; Li, C Y; Lebsky, V K

    2004-09-01

    Dense layers of bacteria and fungi in the rhizoplane of three species of cactus (Pachycereus pringlei, Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia cholla) and a wild fig tree (Ficus palmeri) growing in rocks devoid of soil were revealed by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. These desert plants are responsible for rock weathering in an ancient lava flow at La Purisima-San Isidro and in sedimentary rock in the Sierra de La Paz, both in Baja California Sur, Mexico. The dominant bacterial groups colonizing the rhizoplane were fluorescent pseudomonads and bacilli. Seven of these bacterial species were identified by the 16S rRNA molecular method. Unidentified fungal and actimomycete species were also present. Some of the root-colonizing microorganisms fixed in vitro N(2), produced volatile and non-volatile organic acids that subsequently reduced the pH of the rock medium in which the bacteria grew, and significantly dissolved insoluble phosphates, extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone. The bacteria were able to release significant amounts of useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn from the rocks and were thermo-tolerant, halo-tolerant, and drought-tolerant. The microbial community survived in the rhizoplane of cacti during the annual 10-month dry season. This study indicates that rhizoplane bacteria on cacti roots in rock may be involved in chemical weathering in hot, subtropical deserts.

  12. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  13. Bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of three cactus species from semi-arid highlands in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Garrido, J Félix; Montiel-Lugo, Daniel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Torres-Cortes, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C

    2012-05-01

    The nature reserve of Tehuacan-Cuicatlan in central Mexico is known for its diversity and endemism mainly in cactus plants. Although the xerophytic flora is reasonably documented, the bacterial communities associated with these species have been largely neglected. We assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in bulk (non-rhizospheric) soil and the rhizosphere of three cactus plant species: Mammillaria carnea, Opuntia pilifera and Stenocereus stellatus, approached using cultivation and molecular techniques, considering the possible effect of dry and rainy seasons. Cultivation-dependent methods were focused on putative N(2)-fixers and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, in the two media tested the values obtained for dry season samples grouped together regardless of the sample type (rhizospheric or non-rhizospheric), these groups also included the non-rhizospheric sample for rainy season, on each medium. These CFU values were smaller and significantly different from those obtained on rhizospheric samples from rainy season. Genera composition among isolates of the rhizospheric samples was very similar for each season, the most abundant taxa being α-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Interestingly, the genus Ochrobactrum was highly represented among rhizospheric samples, when cultured in N-free medium. The structure of the bacterial communities was approached with molecular techniques targeting partial 16S rRNA sequences such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags. Under these approaches, the most represented bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The first two were also highly represented when using isolation techniques.

  14. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics.

  15. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  16. Kinetics of leaping primates: influence of substrate orientation and compliance.

    PubMed

    Demes, B; Jungers, W L; Gross, T S; Fleagle, J G

    1995-04-01

    Our current knowledge about the forces leapers generate and absorb is very limited and based exclusively on rigid force platform measurements. In their natural environments, however, leapers take off and land on branches and tree trunks, and these may be compliant. We evaluated the influence of substrate properties on leaping kinetics in prosimian leapers by using a combined field and laboratory approach. Tree sway and the timing of takeoffs relative to the movements of trees were documented for animals under natural conditions in Madagascar. Field data collected on three species (Indri indri, Propithecus diadema, Propithecus verreauxi) indicate that in the majority of takeoffs, the substrate sways and the animals takeoff before the elastic rebound of the substrate. This implies that force is "wasted" to deform supports. Takeoff and landing forces were measured in an experimental setting with a compliant force pole at the Duke University Primate Center. Forces were recorded for 2 Propithecus verreauxi and 3 Hapalemur griseus. Peak takeoff forces were 9.6 (P. verreauxi) and 10.3 (H. griseus) times body weight, whereas peak landing forces were 6.7 (P. verreauxi) and 8.4 (H. griseus) times body weight. As part of the impulse generated does not translate into leaping distance but is used to deform the pole, greater effort is required to reach a given target substrate, and, consequently, takeoff forces are high. The landing forces, on the other hand, are damped by the pole/substrate yield that increases the time available for deceleration. Our results contrast with previous studies of leaping forces recorded with rigid platform measuring systems that usually report higher landing than takeoff forces. We conclude that 1) Leapers generate and are exposed to exceptionally high locomotory forces. The takeoff forces are higher than the landing forces when using compliant supports, indicating that the takeoff rather than the landing may be critical in interpreting leaping

  17. Molecular characterization of a gene encoding extracellular serine protease isolated from a subtilisin inhibitor-deficient mutant of Streptomyces albogriseolus S-3253.

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, S; Odaka, A; Watanabe, Y; Momose, H

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine protease produced by a mutant, M1, derived from Streptomyces albogriseolus S-3253 that no longer produces a protease inhibitor (Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor [SSI]) was isolated. A 20-kDa protein was purified by its affinity for SSI and designated SAM-P20. The amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal region of SAM-P20 revealed high homology with the sequences of Streptomyces griseus proteases A and B, and the gene sequence confirmed the relationships. The sequence also revealed a putative amino acid signal sequence for SAM-P20 that apparently functioned to allow secretion of SAM-P20 from Escherichia coli carrying the recombinant gene. SAM-P20 produced by E. coli cells was shown to be sensitive to SSI inhibition. PMID:7887600

  18. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving.

  19. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test.

  20. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region.

  1. Winter status of White-eyed Vireos in northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2004, February 2005, and June 2005, we recaptured a White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) that was banded on 19 May 2004 at the same location on the Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, Madison Parish, LA. This is the first documented permanent resident White-eyed Vireo outside of resident populations known from Florida and southern Texas. This individual appears to be resident near the northern limit of the winter range for the species. Although White-eyed Vireos are uncommon in northeastern Louisiana during winter, we detected other White-eyed Vireos during line transect surveys and banding during winters 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. The lack of research and observation of winter birds in northern Louisiana and the secretive and inconspicuous behavior of White-eyed Vireos in winter may have led to an underestimation of abundance at the northern limits of their winter range.

  2. Redescription of Hexanchus nakamurai Teng 1962, (Chondrichthyes: Hexanchiformes: Hexanchidae), with designation of a neotype.

    PubMed

    Ebert, David A; White, William T; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Hexanchus nakamurai Teng, 1962 is one of two valid nominal species in the genus Hexanchus; the other being H. griseus. The taxonomic history of H. nakamurai is somewhat convoluted due to questions about the validity of whether it constituted a publication or an unpublished dissertation. The issue appeared to have been resolved once it was determined that the Teng's original description met the criteria under the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature code (Article 8a) of a publication. However, recent molecular studies have indicated that the western North Atlantic H. nakamurai (= ? H. vitulus) may be distinct from western Indian Ocean H. nakamurai. Compounding the issue is the loss of the holotype of H. nakamurai from Taiwan. A neotype is herein designated and the species redescribed based on the neotype and eight additional Taiwanese specimens.

  3. Challenges in the Synthesis of a Unique Mono-Carboxylic Acid Antibiotic (+)-Zincophorin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenlei; Lohse, Andrew G.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    (+)-Zincophorin, also referred to as M144255 or griseochellin, is a polyoxygenated ionophoric antibiotic that was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in 1984. It possesses strong in vivo activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Clostridium coelchii. Its methyl ester was reported in a patent as having strong inhibitory properties against influenza WSN/virus with reduced toxicity for the host cell. Its ability to strongly bind with Zn2+, which is also present in its X-ray structure, is the basis for its name. Over the last two decades, (+)-zincophorin h as attracted an impressive array of synthetic efforts including Danishefsky's first total synthesis along with two recent elegant total syntheses reported by Cossy and Miyashita as well as our own formal total synthesis. This Account provides a comparison of the different synthetic efforts on this novel mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic and documents its interesting isolation, structure determination, and biological activities. PMID:19642422

  4. Challenges in the synthesis of a unique mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic, (+)-zincophorin.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenlei; Lohse, Andrew G; Hsung, Richard P

    2009-04-01

    (+)-Zincophorin, also referred to as M144255 or griseocholin, is a polyoxygenated ionophoric antibiotic that was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in 1984. It possesses strong in vivo activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Clostridium coelchii. Its methyl ester was reported in a patent as having strong inhibitory properties against influenza WSN/virus with reduced toxicity for the host cell. Its ability to strongly bind with Zn2+, which is also present in its X-ray structure, is the basis for its name. Over the last two decades, (+)-zincophorin has attracted an impressive array of synthetic efforts including Danishefsky's first total synthesis, along with two recent elegant total syntheses reported by Cossy and Miyashita as well as our own formal total synthesis. This review provides a comparison of the different synthetic efforts on this novel mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic and documents its interesting isolation, structure determination, and biological activities.

  5. Purification and Characterization of a Keratinolytic Serine Proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus

    PubMed Central

    Bressollier, Philippe; Letourneau, François; Urdaci, Maria; Verneuil, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthetic substrates, and its remarkably high level of NH2-terminal sequence homology with Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) showed that the new enzyme, designated SAKase, was homologous to SGPB. We tested the activity of SAKase with soluble and fibrous substrates (elastin, keratin, and type I collagen) and found that it was very specific for keratinous substrates compared to SGPB and proteinase K. PMID:10347045

  6. Purification and characterization of a keratinolytic serine proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus.

    PubMed

    Bressollier, P; Letourneau, F; Urdaci, M; Verneuil, B

    1999-06-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 degrees C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthetic substrates, and its remarkably high level of NH2-terminal sequence homology with Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) showed that the new enzyme, designated SAKase, was homologous to SGPB. We tested the activity of SAKase with soluble and fibrous substrates (elastin, keratin, and type I collagen) and found that it was very specific for keratinous substrates compared to SGPB and proteinase K.

  7. Flotation of cadmium-loaded biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Matis, K.A.; Zouboulis, A.I. . Chemical Technology Div.)

    1994-07-01

    Biosorption of heavy metal ions such as Cd[sup 2+] by dead biomass has been recognized as a potential alternative to existing removal technologies applied to wastewater treatment. Two bacterial strains were studied in the laboratory, Streptomyces griseus and S. clavuligerus, an industrial by-product. Both washed and unwashed samples were examined. Foam flotation is proposed in this work as the separation stage following biosorption. Effective biomass separation was conducted in the presence of a frother, ethanol. The pH of the solution was a crucial parameter for flotation and also for metal binding. Other basic parameters of flotation examined were the initial cadmium concentration in the dilute aqueous solution and the quantity of biomass used. A study of [zeta]-potential measurements of the actinomycetes was carried out under the conditions used in the separation; surface tension was also measured. These provided useful information on the process.

  8. Kinetics of Methyl t-Butyl Ether Cometabolism at Low Concentrations by Pure Cultures of Butane-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Catherine Y.; Speitel, Gerald E.; Georgiou, George

    2001-01-01

    Butane-oxidizing Arthrobacter (ATCC 27778) bacteria were shown to degrade low concentrations of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE; range, 100 to 800 μg/liter) with an apparent half-saturation concentration (Ks) of 2.14 mg/liter and a maximum substrate utilization rate (kc) of 0.43 mg/mg of total suspended solids per day. Arthrobacter bacteria demonstrated MTBE degradation activity when grown on butane but not when grown on glucose, butanol, or tryptose phosphate broth. The presence of butane, tert-butyl alcohol, or acetylene had a negative impact on the MTBE degradation rate. Neither Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b nor Streptomyces griseus was able to cometabolize MTBE. PMID:11319100

  9. First record of interspecific breeding of Least Bell's Vireo and White-eyed Vireo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blundell, Melissa A.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    We provide the first known documentation of a male Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) breeding with a female White-eyed Vireo (V. griseus) and the first report of a White-eyed Vireo breeding in California at the San Luis Rey River, Oceanside, San Diego County. We discovered the pair building a nest on 12 May 2010. The female laid four eggs, and the pair successfully raised and fledged four nestlings. We collected DNA samples from each nestling and the female during the nestling stage and banded them with a numbered federal leg band for future identification. We obtained detailed nest measurements after fledging and monitored the territory for further nesting attempts. No additional nesting attempts were detected.

  10. Common procedures in hedgehogs, prairie dogs, exotic rodents, and companion marsupials.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2006-05-01

    Nondomesticated species are commonly being kept as companion animals. These include the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albi-ventris), the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys lu-dovicianus), and exotic rodents such as the degu (Octodon degus)and duprasi or fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). Common companion marsupials include the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps),Bennett's or Tammar (Dama) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufo-griseus and Macropus eugenii, respectively), the Brazilian or South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and the North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although many of these animals are now bred domestically and are fairly docile when human-raised, they are essentially wild animals and hence have strong instincts to hide illness and pain.

  11. The genus Alaolacon Candèze, a senior synonym of the genus Eumoeus Candèze (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Agrypninae)

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto, Kôichi; Arimoto, Hisayuki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alaolacon Candèze, 1865 is found to be a senior synonym of Eumoeus Candèze, 1874, Luzonicus Fleutiaux, 1916 and Tharopsides Fleutiaux, 1918. Alaolacon is represented by Alaolacon bakeri (Fleutiaux, 1916), comb. n., Alaolacon candezei Fleutiaux, 1928, Alaolacon cyanipennis Candèze, 1865, Alaolacon fujiokai sp. n., Alaolacon griseus Candèze, 1874, Alaolacon megalopus sp. n., Alaolacon murrayi (Candèze, 1874), comb. n., and Alaolacon philippinensis nom. n. This genus is redescribed based on the descriptions of three species, Alaolacon candezei, Alaolacon fujiokai, and Alaolacon megalopus as well as the examination of the holotypes of Alaolacon cyanipennis and Alaolacon murrayi comb. n. Males of the genus Alaolacon exhibit 12-segmented and biflabellate antennae, and the females exhibit 11-segmented and subpectinate antennae. A key to species is provided. PMID:28331403

  12. Modelling tooth–prey interactions in sharks: the importance of dynamic testing

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Stacy C.; Brash, Jeffrey; Summers, Adam P.

    2016-01-01

    The shape of shark teeth varies among species, but traditional testing protocols have revealed no predictive relationship between shark tooth morphology and performance. We developed a dynamic testing device to quantify cutting performance of teeth. We mimicked head-shaking behaviour in feeding large sharks by attaching teeth to the blade of a reciprocating power saw fixed in a custom-built frame. We tested three tooth types at biologically relevant speeds and found differences in tooth cutting ability and wear. Teeth from the bluntnose sixgill (Hexanchus griseus) showed poor cutting ability compared with tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), sandbar (Carcharhinus plumbeus) and silky (C. falciformis) sharks, but they also showed no wear with repeated use. Some shark teeth are very sharp at the expense of quickly dulling, while others are less sharp but dull more slowly. This demonstrates that dynamic testing is vital to understanding the performance of shark teeth. PMID:27853592

  13. The life history of Pleurogenoides orientalis (Srivastava, 1934) (Trematoda: Lecithodendriidae).

    PubMed

    Madhavi, R; Dhanumkumari, C; Ratnakumari, T B

    1987-01-01

    The life history of Pleurogenoides orientalis (Srivastava 1934), a lecithodendriid trematode of frogs in India is reported and stages in the life history are described. Natural infections with cercariae, which are virgulate xiphidiocercous type, were found in the prosobranch snail Alocinma travancorica. Metacercarial cysts were found in dragon-fly naiads (Tholymis tillarga and Tramea limbata) and aquatic bugs (Laccotrephes griseus and Ranatra elongata) collected from a stream. Adults occurred in the intestine of the pong frog, Rana cyanophlyctis. Laboratory reared A. travancorica fed with eggs of P. orientalis started shedding cercariae from 30 days post feeding. Development of cercariae into infective metacercariae in dragon-fly naiads took 18 days. Mature flukes were recovered from the intestine of experimentally infected R. cyanophlyctis. The entire life cycle from egg to egg producing adult takes 2 1/2 to 3 months.

  14. Engineering Protein Allostery: 1.05 Å Resolution Structure and Enzymatic Properties of a Na[superscript +]-activated Trypsin

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Michael J.; Carrell, Christopher J.; Di Cera, Enrico

    2008-05-28

    Some trypsin-like proteases are endowed with Na{sup +}-dependent allosteric enhancement of catalytic activity, but this important mechanism has been difficult to engineer in other members of the family. Replacement of 19 amino acids in Streptomyces griseus trypsin targeting the active site and the Na{sup +}-binding site were found necessary to generate efficient Na{sup +} activation. Remarkably, this property was linked to the acquisition of a new substrate selectivity profile similar to that of factor Xa, a Na{sup -} activated protease involved in blood coagulation. The X-ray crystal structure of the mutant trypsin solved to 1.05 {angstrom} resolution defines the engineered Na{sup +} site and active site loops in unprecedented detail. The results demonstrate that trypsin can be engineered into an efficient allosteric protease, and that Na+ activation is interwoven with substrate selectivity in the trypsin scaffold.

  15. Chitinase activity on amorphous chitin thin films: a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Kittle, Joshua D; Qian, Chen; Roman, Maren; Esker, Alan R

    2013-08-12

    Chitinases are widely distributed in nature and have wide-ranging pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. This work highlights a real-time and label-free method to assay Chitinase activity via a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The chitin substrate was prepared by spincoating a trimethylsilyl chitin solution onto a silica substrate, followed by regeneration to amorphous chitin (RChi). The QCM-D and AFM results clearly showed that the hydrolysis rate of RChi films increased as Chitinase (from Streptomyces griseus) concentrations increased, and the optimal temperature and pH for Chitinase activity were around 37 °C and 6-8, respectively. The Chitinase showed greater activity on chitin substrates, having a high degree of acetylation, than on chitosan substrates, having a low degree of acetylation.

  16. Gene probes for the detection of 6-deoxyhexose metabolism in secondary metabolite-producing streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, M; Piepersberg, W

    1992-01-01

    DNA probes were designed from the streptomycin production genes strDELM of Streptomyces griseus involved in the biosynthesis of the 6-deoxyhexose (6DOH) dihydrostreptose which could detect the genomic fragments coding for 6DOH formation in other actinomycetes strains. In about 70% of the 43 strains tested at least one signal could be detected with strD-, strE- or strLM-specific probes. Evidence is presented that the hybridizing genes are mostly clustered and probably engaged in the formation of secondary metabolites. Because of the wide-spread use of 6DOH constituents in natural products these probes should allow to detect a vast array of different secondary metabolic gene clusters in actinomycetes.

  17. Activation and Characterization of a Cryptic Polycyclic Tetramate Macrolactam Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunzi; Huang, Hua; Liang, Jing; Wang, Meng; Lu, Lu; Shao, Zengyi; Cobb, Ryan E.; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) are a widely distributed class of natural products with important biological activities. However, many of them have not been characterized. Here we apply a plug and play synthetic biology strategy to activate a cryptic PTM biosynthetic gene cluster SGR810-815 from Streptomyces griseus and discover three potential PTMs. This gene cluster is highly conserved in phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains and contains an unusual hybrid polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) which resembles iterative PKSs known in fungi. To further characterize this gene cluster, we use the same synthetic biology approach to create a series of gene deletion constructs and elucidate the biosynthetic steps for the formation of the polycyclic system. The strategy we employ bypasses the traditional laborious processes to elicit gene cluster expression and should be generally applicable to many other silent or cryptic gene clusters for discovery and characterization of new natural products. PMID:24305602

  18. Intraguild Predation in Heteroptera: Effects of Density and Predator Identity on Dipteran Prey.

    PubMed

    Brahma, S; Sharma, D; Kundu, M; Saha, N; Saha, G K; Aditya, G

    2015-08-01

    In tropical freshwaters, different species of water bugs (Heteroptera) constitute a guild sharing similar prey resources including chironomid and mosquito larvae. Assuming possibilities of intraguild predation (IGP) among the constituent members, an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of prey and predator density on the mortality of mosquito and chironomid larvae (shared prey), using Laccotrephes griseus Guérin-Méneville (Hemiptera: Nepidae) and Ranatra filiformis Fabricius (Hemiptera: Nepidae) as IG predators and Anisops bouvieri Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) as IG prey. The predation on mosquito and chironomid larvae varied with the density and combinations of the predators. When present as conspecific IG predators, L. griseus exhibited greater effect on the prey mortality than R. filiformis. The effects on shared prey suggest that the two predators are not substitutable in terms of the effect on the shared prey mortality. The mortality of A. bouvieri (IG prey) at low shared prey density was significantly different (p < 0.05) from high shared prey density. In view of predatory effect of the heteropteran predators on the dipteran larvae, the results suggest possible interference by the presence of A. bouvieri as an intermediate predator. It seems that the presence of heteropteran predators including A. bouvieri as IG prey may benefit the dipteran prey under situations when the density is low in tropical waters. The intensity of the predatory effect may differ based on the species composition at IG predator level. For mosquito biological control, the interactions between the predators may not be substitutable and are independent in their effects.

  19. Naturally Occurring Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase without tRNA-dependent Pre-transfer Editing*

    PubMed Central

    Cvetesic, Nevena; Dulic, Morana; Bilus, Mirna; Sostaric, Nikolina; Lenhard, Boris; Gruic-Sovulj, Ita

    2016-01-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in having a tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing activity. Alongside the typical bacterial IleRS (such as Escherichia coli IleRS), some bacteria also have the enzymes (eukaryote-like) that cluster with eukaryotic IleRSs and exhibit low sensitivity to the antibiotic mupirocin. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ileS1 and ileS2 genes of contemporary bacteria are the descendants of genes that might have arisen by an ancient duplication event before the separation of bacteria and archaea. We present the analysis of evolutionary constraints of the synthetic and editing reactions in eukaryotic/eukaryote-like IleRSs, which share a common origin but diverged through adaptation to different cell environments. The enzyme from the yeast cytosol exhibits tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing analogous to E. coli IleRS. This argues for the presence of this proofreading in the common ancestor of both IleRS types and an ancient origin of the synthetic site-based quality control step. Yet surprisingly, the eukaryote-like enzyme from Streptomyces griseus IleRS lacks this capacity; at the same time, its synthetic site displays the 103-fold drop in sensitivity to antibiotic mupirocin relative to the yeast enzyme. The discovery that pre-transfer editing is optional in IleRSs lends support to the notion that the conserved post-transfer editing domain is the main checkpoint in these enzymes. We substantiated this by showing that under error-prone conditions S. griseus IleRS is able to rescue the growth of an E. coli lacking functional IleRS, providing the first evidence that tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing in IleRS is not essential for cell viability. PMID:26921320

  20. Induction of actinorhodin production by rpsL (encoding ribosomal protein S12) mutations that confer streptomycin resistance in Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed Central

    Shima, J; Hesketh, A; Okamoto, S; Kawamoto, S; Ochi, K

    1996-01-01

    A strain of Streptomyces lividans, TK24, was found to produce a pigmented antibiotic, actinorhodin, although S. lividans normally does not produce this antibiotic. Genetic analyses revealed that a streptomycin-resistant mutation str-6 in strain TK24 is responsible for induction of antibiotic synthesis. DNA sequencing showed that str-6 is a point mutation in the rpsL gene encoding ribosomal protein S12, changing Lys-88 to Glu. Gene replacement experiments with the Lys88-->Glu str allele demonstrated unambiguously that the str mutation is alone responsible for the activation of actinorhodin production observed. In contrast, the strA1 mutation, a genetic marker frequently used for crosses, did not restore actinorhodin production and was found to result in an amino acid alteration of Lys-43 to Asn. Induction of actinorhodin production was also detected in strain TK21, which does not harbor the str-6 mutation, when cells were incubated with sufficient streptomycin or tetracycline to reduce the cell's growth rate, and 40 and 3% of streptomycin- or tetracycline-resistant mutants, respectively, derived from strain TK21 produced actinorhodin. Streptomycin-resistant mutations also blocked the inhibitory effects of relA and brgA mutations on antibiotic production, aerial mycelium formation or both. These str mutations changed Lys-88 to Glu or Arg and Arg-86 to His in ribosomal protein S12. The decrease in streptomycin production in relC mutants in Streptomyces griseus could also be abolished completely by introducing streptomycin-resistant mutations, although the impairment in antibiotic production due to bldA (in Streptomyces coelicolor) or afs mutations (in S. griseus) was not eliminated. These results indicate that the onset and extent of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces spp. is significantly controlled by the translational machinery. PMID:8955413

  1. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  2. Involvement of two A-factor receptor homologues in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in the regulation of secondary metabolism and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onaka, H; Nakagawa, T; Horinouchi, S

    1998-05-01

    Nucleotide sequences homologous to arpA encoding the A-factor receptor protein (ArpA) of Streptomyces griseus are distributed in a wide variety of streptomycetes. Two genes, cprA and cprB, each encoding an ArpA-like protein were found and cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). CprA and CprB shared 90.7% identity in amino acid sequence and both showed about 35% identity to ArpA. Disruption of cprA by use of an M13 phage-derived single-stranded vector resulted in severe reduction of actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin production. In addition, the timing of sporulation in the cprA disruptants was delayed by 1 day. The cprA gene thus appeared to act as a positive regulator or an accelerator for secondary metabolite formation and sporulation. Consistent with this idea, introduction of cprA on a low-copy-number plasmid into the parental strain led to overproduction of these secondary metabolites and accelerated the timing of sporulation. On the other hand, cprB disruption resulted in precocious and overproduction of actinorhodin. However, almost no effect on undecylprodigiosin was detected in the cprB disruptants. Sporulation of the cprB disruptant began 1 day earlier than the parental strain. The cprB gene thus behaved as a negative regulator on actinorhodin production and sporulation. Consistent with this, extra copies of cprB in the parental strain caused reduced production of actinorhodin and delay in sporulation. It is thus concluded that both cprA and cprB play regulatory roles in both secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in S. coelicolor A3(2), just as the arpA/A-factor system in Streptomyces griseus.

  3. Effects of natural and artificial selection on survival of columnar cacti seedlings: the role of adaptation to xeric and mesic environments.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Susana; Terrazas, Teresa; Casas, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe, and Stenocereus pruinosus are species of Mexican columnar cacti that are economically important because of their edible fruits. These species are managed by gathering fruits from the wild, silvicultural management in agroforestry systems, and cultivation in home gardens. Previous studies reported that artificial selection favored individuals that produced larger fruits, which indirectly led to the production of larger seeds and seedlings, with possible effects on survival. We hypothesized that seedlings from managed populations would be larger but more susceptible to xeric conditions than those from wild populations. We evaluated the effects of artificial and natural selection on seedling survival of the three species in wild and managed populations, which were managed with low and high intensity, respectively. We tested seedling performance in gradients of shade (0, 40, and 80%) and humidity (low and high). A GLM of seedling survival showed significant differences among species, shade, and humidity treatments, with each species having environmental requirements associated with their particular adaptations. High humidity decreased seedling survival of all species, and high solar radiation decreased survival of S. pruinosus and P. chichipe. The effect of management type was significant only in S. pruinosus. Significant differences in the initial growth of seedlings among species were detected with ANOVA. In optimal conditions, the hypocotyl and the cotyledons decreased in size and the epicotyl grew, whereas under stress, these structures remained unchanged. The optimum conditions of shade and humidity varied among species and management types. The seedlings of S. pruinosus were the largest and the most susceptible, but in all species, seedlings from managed populations were more susceptible to environmental conditions. Thus, artificial selection influenced the susceptibility of these cacti to xeric environments.

  4. Genomics of Ecological Adaptation in Cactophilic Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Yolanda; Rius, Núria; Delprat, Alejandra; Williford, Anna; Muyas, Francesc; Puig, Marta; Casillas, Sònia; Ràmia, Miquel; Egea, Raquel; Negre, Barbara; Mir, Gisela; Camps, Jordi; Moncunill, Valentí; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Cabrero, Josefa; de Lima, Leonardo G.; Dias, Guilherme B.; Ruiz, Jeronimo C.; Kapusta, Aurélie; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo G.; Torrents, David; Camacho, Juan P.; Kuhn, Gustavo C.S.; Feschotte, Cédric; Clark, Andrew G.; Betrán, Esther; Barbadilla, Antonio; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Cactophilic Drosophila species provide a valuable model to study gene–environment interactions and ecological adaptation. Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mojavensis are two cactophilic species that belong to the repleta group, but have very different geographical distributions and primary host plants. To investigate the genomic basis of ecological adaptation, we sequenced the genome and developmental transcriptome of D. buzzatii and compared its gene content with that of D. mojavensis and two other noncactophilic Drosophila species in the same subgenus. The newly sequenced D. buzzatii genome (161.5 Mb) comprises 826 scaffolds (>3 kb) and contains 13,657 annotated protein-coding genes. Using RNA sequencing data of five life-stages we found expression of 15,026 genes, 80% protein-coding genes, and 20% noncoding RNA genes. In total, we detected 1,294 genes putatively under positive selection. Interestingly, among genes under positive selection in the D. mojavensis lineage, there is an excess of genes involved in metabolism of heterocyclic compounds that are abundant in Stenocereus cacti and toxic to nonresident Drosophila species. We found 117 orphan genes in the shared D. buzzatii–D. mojavensis lineage. In addition, gene duplication analysis identified lineage-specific expanded families with functional annotations associated with proteolysis, zinc ion binding, chitin binding, sensory perception, ethanol tolerance, immunity, physiology, and reproduction. In summary, we identified genetic signatures of adaptation in the shared D. buzzatii–D. mojavensis lineage, and in the two separate D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis lineages. Many of the novel lineage-specific genomic features are promising candidates for explaining the adaptation of these species to their distinct ecological niches. PMID:25552534

  5. Effects of natural and artificial selection on survival of columnar cacti seedlings: the role of adaptation to xeric and mesic environments

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Susana; Terrazas, Teresa; Casas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe, and Stenocereus pruinosus are species of Mexican columnar cacti that are economically important because of their edible fruits. These species are managed by gathering fruits from the wild, silvicultural management in agroforestry systems, and cultivation in home gardens. Previous studies reported that artificial selection favored individuals that produced larger fruits, which indirectly led to the production of larger seeds and seedlings, with possible effects on survival. We hypothesized that seedlings from managed populations would be larger but more susceptible to xeric conditions than those from wild populations. We evaluated the effects of artificial and natural selection on seedling survival of the three species in wild and managed populations, which were managed with low and high intensity, respectively. We tested seedling performance in gradients of shade (0, 40, and 80%) and humidity (low and high). A GLM of seedling survival showed significant differences among species, shade, and humidity treatments, with each species having environmental requirements associated with their particular adaptations. High humidity decreased seedling survival of all species, and high solar radiation decreased survival of S. pruinosus and P. chichipe. The effect of management type was significant only in S. pruinosus. Significant differences in the initial growth of seedlings among species were detected with ANOVA. In optimal conditions, the hypocotyl and the cotyledons decreased in size and the epicotyl grew, whereas under stress, these structures remained unchanged. The optimum conditions of shade and humidity varied among species and management types. The seedlings of S. pruinosus were the largest and the most susceptible, but in all species, seedlings from managed populations were more susceptible to environmental conditions. Thus, artificial selection influenced the susceptibility of these cacti to xeric environments. PMID

  6. Determinate primary root growth as an adaptation to aridity in Cactaceae: towards an understanding of the evolution and genetic control of the trait

    PubMed Central

    Shishkova, Svetlana; Las Peñas, María Laura; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alex; Montiel, Jesús; Patiño, Anallely; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Species of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified. Methods Primary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library. Key Results All species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase. Conclusions Primary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of

  7. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele.

  8. Low temperature tolerance and cold hardening of cacti

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S.

    1982-12-01

    Reduced uptake by the chlorenchyma cells of cacti of a stain (neutral red) was used as an indicator of low-temperature damage resulting from cooling stems in the laboratory. Necrosis set in a few degrees below the temperature at which the fraction of cells accumulating stain was reduced by 50%. Coryphantha vivipara, Opuntia polyacantha, and Pediocactus simpsonii, which range to over 3000 m altitude in southern Wyoming, were quite cold tolerant (50% inhibition of staining occurred from -17/sup 0/ to -20/sup 0/C), while O. bigelovii and O. ramosissima, which are restricted to much warmer habitats, were not very cold tolerant (50% inhibition from -4/sup 0/ to -7/sup 0/). Relationships among tissue cold sensitivity, morphological features which protect the stems from low temperatures, and the occurrence of species in progressively colder regions were investigated. Differences in tissue cold sensitivity accounted for the =600 m higher elevational limit of Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea compared to the morphologically similar var. deserti in southern Nevada. In contrast, morphological differences alone could adequately explain the relative northern limits of the columnar cacti Carnegiea gigantea vs. Stenocereus gummosus and the barrel cacti Ferocactus acanthodes vs. F. wislizenii in the southwestern United States, as previously indicated using a computer model. Differences in both morphology and tissue cold sensitivity apparently influenced the relative northern ranges of Lophocereus schottii with respect to the other columnar cacti and F. covillei with respect to the other barrel cacti, as well as the relative elevational range of Denmoza rhodacantha with respect to Trichocereus candicans in northcentral Argentina. Cold hardening in response to decreasing day/night air temperatures was observed for 10 species.

  9. Low-temperature tolerance and cold hardening of cacti

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S.

    1982-12-01

    Reduced uptake by the chlorenchyma cells of cacti of a stain (neutral red) was used as an indicator of low-temperature damage resulting from cooling stems in the laboratory. Necrosis set in a few degrees below the temperature at which the fraction of cells accumulating stain was reduced by 50%. Coryphantha vivipara, Opuntia polyacantha, and Pediocactus simpsonii, which range to over 300 m altitude in southern Wyoming, were quite cold tolerant. Relationships among tissue cold sensitivity, morphological features which protect the stems from low temperatures, and the occurrence of species in progressively colder regions were investigated. Differences in tissue cold sensitivity accounted for the approx. = 600 m higher elevational limit of Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea compared to the morphologically similar var. deserti in southern Nevada. In contrast, morphological differences alone could adequately explain the relative northern limits of the columnar cacti Carnegiea gigantea vs Stenocereus gummosus and the barrel cacti Ferocactus acanthodes vs. F. wislizenii in the southwestern United States, as previously indicated using a computer model. Cold hardening in response to decreasing day/night air temperatures was observed for 10 species. A decrease from 50/sup 0//40/sup 0/ to 10/sup 0//0/sup 0/ lowered by 4/sup 0/ the temperature at which the fraction of the chlorenchyma cells taking up stain was reduced 50% for both D. rhodacantha and T. candicans, with a half-time for the shift of approx. = 3 d. The tolerance of subzero temperatures and the ability to cold harden allow cacti to range into regions with considerable wintertime freezing.

  10. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  11. Electronic State Decomposition of Energetic Materials and Model Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-17

    tetrazine1,4-dioxde ( DATO ), is investigated. Although these molecules are based on N -oxides of a tetrazine aromatic heterocyclic ring, their...nitramines, furazan, tetrazines, tetrazine-N oxides, terazoles, PETN, RDX,HMX,CL-20,DAATO,ACTO, DATO ,conical intersections Elliot R Bernstein Colorado State...Tetrazine-N-Oxide Based High Nitrogen Content Energetic Materials from Excited Electronic States," J. Chem. Phys. 131, 194304 (2009). A

  12. Binding of amino acid side chains to preformed cavities: interaction of serine proteinases with turkey ovomucoid third domains with coded and noncoded P1 residues.

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, T. L.; Lu, W.; Park, S. J.; Tashiro, M.; Wieczorek, M.; Wynn, R.; Laskowski, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the association of serine proteinases with their cognate substrates and inhibitors an important interaction is the fitting of the P1 side chain of the substrate or inhibitor into a preformed cavity of the enzyme called the S1 pocket. In turkey ovomucoid third domain, which is a canonical protein proteinase inhibitor, the P1 residue is Leu18. Here we report the values of equilibrium constants, Ka, for turkey ovomucoid third domain and 13 additional Leu18X variants with six serine proteinases: bovine alpha chymotrypsin A, porcine pancreatic elastase, subtilisin Carlsberg, Streptomyces griseus proteinases A and B, and human leukocyte elastase. Eight of the Xs are coded amino acids: Ala, Ser, Val, Met, Gln, Glu, Lys, and Phe, and five are noncoded: Abu, Ape, Ahx, Ahp, and Hse. They were chosen to simplify the interamino acid comparisons. In the homologous series of straight-chain side chains Ala, Abu, Ape, Ahx, Ahp, free energy of binding decreases monotonically with the side-chain length for chymotrypsin with large binding pocket, but even for this enzyme shows curvature. For the two S. griseus enzymes a minimum appears to be reached at Ahp. A minimum is clearly evident for the two elastases, where increasing the side-chain length from Ahx to Ahp greatly weakens binding, but much more so for the apparently more rigid pancreatic enzyme than for the more flexible leukocyte enzyme. beta-Branching (Ape/Val) is very deleterious for five of the six enzymes; it is only slightly deleterious for the more flexible human leukocyte elastase. The effect of gamma-branching (Ahx/Leu), of introduction of heteroatoms (Abu/Ser), (Ape/Hse), and (Ahx/Met), and of introduction of charge (Gln/Glu) and (Ahp/Lys) are tabulated and discussed. An important component of the free energy of interaction is the distortion of the binding pocket by bulky or branched side chains. Most of the variants studied were obtained by enzymatic semisynthesis. X18 variants of the 6-18 peptide GlyNH2 were

  13. [Oleksandr Solomonovych Tsyperovych--gifted enzymologist, scientist and practician].

    PubMed

    Vynohradova, R P; Kolodzeĭs'ka, M V

    2007-01-01

    Professor O. S. Tsyperovich (15.12.1910-20.12.1976), Doctor of biology, was born in the city of Odessa, graduated from the Faculty of Chemistry of Shevchenko Kyiv State University as a specialist in organic chemistry (1930-1935). In 1935-1941 he worked at the Institute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukr.SSR (Kyiv) as a junior research worker, and then as a senior research worker at the Department of Enzymology. In 1941 O. S. Tsyperovich defended the thesis for the Candidate's degree dedicated to the investigation of synthetic effect of proteolytic enzymes, and he was awarded the title of the senior research worker. In 1941-1945 O. S. Tsyperovich struggled in the ranks of the Soviet Army, was awarded the Red Star Order, medals For Defense of Caucasus, For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. In 1946-1976 O. S. Tsyperovich worked at the Institute of Biochemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. When investigating the mechanism of proteins denaturation he discovered the phenomenon of their "denaturational stabilization". New technological schemes of production of pepsin preparations were elaborated on the basis of the method of autholysis proposed by him. In 1954 O. S. Tsyperovich defended the thesis for the Doctor's Degree and was awarded the order The Badge of Honor. Beginning from 1963 he headed the laboratory, and from 1966 -- the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Enzymes, in 1969 the title of professor was conferred on him. In the 60-70's O. S. Tsyperovich investigated hydrolytic enzymes of microorganisms with the purpose of their use in industry. Thus, the method of production of the preparation "pronasa" from Streptomyces griseus was developed, aminopeptidases, dipeptidases, a-amylase, cellulases, were investigated. Investigations in the field of preparative enzymology resulted in the development of technological scheme for creation of the following drugs for the purposes of medicine: medical

  14. Stem biomechanics of three columnar cacti from the Sonoran Desert.

    PubMed

    Molina-Freaner, F; Tinoco-Ojanguren, C; Niklas, K

    1998-08-01

    The allometric relationship of stem length L with respect to mean stem diameter D was determined for 80 shoots of each of three columnar cactus species (Stenocereus thurberi, Lophocereus schottii, and S. gummosus) to determine whether this relationship accords with that predicted by each of three contending models purporting to describe the mechanical architecture of vertical shoots (i.e., geometric, stress, and elastic similitude, which predict L proportional to D(alpha), with alpha = 1/1, 1/2, and 2/3, respectively). In addition, anatomical, physical, and biomechanical stem properties were measured to determine how the stems of these three species maintain their elastic stability as they increase in size. Reduced major axis regression of L with respect to D showed that alpha = 2.82 ± 0.14 for S. thurberi, 2.32 ± 0.19 for L. schottii, and 4.21 ± 0.31 for S. gummosus. Thus, the scaling exponents for the allometry of L differed significantly from that predicted by each of the three biomechanical models. In contrast, these exponents were similar to that for the allometry previously reported for saguaro. Analyses of biomechanical data derived from bending tests performed on 30 stems selected from each of the three species indicated that the bulk stem tissue stiffness was roughly proportional to L2, while stem flexural rigidity (i.e., the ability to resist a bending force) scaled roughly as L3. Stem length was significantly and positively correlated with the volume fraction of wood, while regression analysis of the pooled data from the three species (i.e., 90 stems) indicated that bulk tissue stiffness scaled roughly as the 5/3-power of the volume fraction of wood in stems. These data were interpreted to indicate that wood served as the major stiffening agent in stems and that this tissue accumulates at a sufficient rate to afford unusually high scaling exponents tot stem length with respect to stem diameter (i.e., disproportionately large increments of stem length

  15. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial

  16. Differences in foraging activity of deep sea diving odontocetes in the Ligurian Sea as determined by passive acoustic recorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Neuheimer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the trophic roles of deep-diving odontocete species and how they vary in space and time is challenged by our ability to observe foraging behavior. Though sampling methods are limited, foraging activity of deep-diving odontocetes can be monitored by recording their biosonar emissions. Daily occurrence of echolocation clicks was monitored acoustically for five months (July-December 2011) in the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) using five passive acoustic recorders. Detected odontocetes included Cuvier's beaked whales (Zipuhius cavirostris), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). The results indicated that the foraging strategies varied significantly over time, with sperm whales switching to nocturnal foraging in late September whereas Risso's dolphins and pilot whales foraged mainly at night throughout the sampling period. In the study area, winter nights are about five hours longer than summer nights and an analysis showed that pilot whales and Risso's dolphins adjusted their foraging activity with the length of the night, foraging longer during the longer winter nights. This is the first study to show that marine mammals exhibit diurnal foraging patterns closely correlated to sunrise and sunset.

  17. Spatial variation of deep diving odontocetes' occurrence around a canyon region in the Ligurian Sea as measured with acoustic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Neuheimer, Anna; Au, Whitlow

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the distribution of animals is of paramount importance for management and conservation, especially for species that are impacted by anthropogenic threats. In the case of marine mammals there has been a growing concern about the impact of human-made noise, in particular for beaked whales and other deep diving odontocetes. Foraging (measured via echolocation clicks at depth) was studied for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) using three passive acoustics recorders moored to the bottom of the ocean in a canyon area in the Ligurian Sea between July and December 2011. A Generalized Linear Model was used to test whether foraging was influenced by location and day of the year, including the possibility of interactions between predictors. Contrary to previous studies conducted by visual surveys in this area, all species were detected at all locations, suggesting habitat overlapping. However, significant differences were found in the occurrence of each species at different locations. Beaked and sperm whales foraged significantly more in the northern and western locations, while long-finned pilot whales and Risso's dolphins hunted more in the northern and eastern location.

  18. Impact of forest type and management strategy on avian densities in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Avian territory densities were determined from 20 Breeding Bird Censuses in mature (>30 years) bottomland hardwood stand: and 18 Breeding Bird Censuses in young (6-9 years old) cottonwood (Populas deltoides) plantations in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Avian species richness, diversity, and territory density were greater (p 0.05). Even so, detrended correspondence analysis based on avian territory densities readily segregated forest types and silvicultural treatments. Timber harvest within bottomland hardwood stands resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in cottonwood stands by increasing the densities of early-successional species such as Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens), and Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). Conversely, regenerating cottonwood stands from root sprouts, rather than planting stem cuttings, resulted in a shift in bird communities toward those found in bottomland hardwood stands by increasing densities of species such as White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) and Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). Tree species diversity, angular canopy cover, and midstory density were positively associated with bird species assemblages in bottomland hardwood stands, whereas vegetation density at ground level was positively associated with bird communities in cottonwood plantations. Conversion of agricultural fields to short-rotation cottonwood plantations results in increased breeding bird populations by adding up to 140 additional territories 40 ha-1. Even so, relative conservation values, derive, from indicator species analysis and Partners in Flight concern scores, suggest that mature bottomland hardwood forests are twice as 'valuable' for bird conservation as are cottonwood plantations.

  19. 3-Amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Uematsu, Kouji; Tsuge, Yota; Teramura, Hiroshi; Okai, Naoko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Katsuyama, Yohei; Sugai, Yoshinori; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Hirano, Ko; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    The production of the bioplastic precursor 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-AHBA) from sweet sorghum juice, which contains amino acids and the fermentable sugars sucrose, glucose and fructose, was assessed to address the limitations of producing bio-based chemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain KT01 expressing griH and griI derived from Streptomyces griseus produced 3,4-AHBA from the sweet sorghum juice of cultivar SIL-05 at a final concentration (1.0 g l(-1)) that was 5-fold higher than that from pure sucrose. Fractionation of sweet sorghum juice by nanofiltration (NF) membrane separation (molecular weight cut-off 150) revealed that the NF-concentrated fraction, which contained the highest concentrations of amino acids, increased 3,4-AHBA production, whereas the NF-filtrated fraction inhibited 3,4-AHBA biosynthesis. Amino acid supplementation experiments revealed that leucine specifically enhanced 3,4-AHBA production by strain KT01. Taken together, these results suggest that sweet sorghum juice is a potentially suitable feedstock for 3,4-AHBA production by recombinant C. glutamicum.

  20. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClelland, P.J; Coote,; Trow,; Hutchins,; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  1. Cetaceans of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, C. R.; Pollock, C.; Cronin, C.; Taylor, S.

    2001-05-01

    Surveys carried out to the north and west of Scotland have recorded 15 species of cetacean between 1979 and 1998. These were fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus) , sei whale ( B. borealis) , minke whale ( B. acutorostrata) , humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae) , sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus) , northern bottlenose whale ( Hyperoodon ampullatus) , Sowerby's beaked whale ( Mesoplodon bidens) , killer whale ( Orcinus orca) , long-finned pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) , Atlantic white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) , white-beaked dolphin ( L. albirostris) , Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus) , bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) , common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) . Atlantic white-sided dolphin was the most abundant species in the region with a total of 6317 animals recorded. Harbour porpoise was the most frequently sighted cetacean species. The geographical distribution of sightings indicate that cetacean species have varying ecological requirements, with species such as sperm whale, pilot whale and white-sided dolphin favouring deep water off the continental shelf edge, while minke whale, white-beaked dolphin and harbour porpoise were apparently limited to the continental shelf. The diversity of species recorded in the region suggests that the Atlantic Frontier is an important habitat for cetaceans.

  2. Fleas and Ticks in Carnivores From a Domestic-Wildlife Interface: Implications for Public Health and Wildlife.

    PubMed

    Poo-Muñoz, Daniela A; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Escobar, Luis E; Astorga, Francisca; Bermúdez, Sergio E; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Abarca, Katia; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2016-11-01

    Fleas and ticks are parasites of wild and domestic mammals, and can be vectors of several pathogens. In rural areas, domestic carnivores such as the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris L.), may act as a "bridge" between natural areas and human settlements where ectoparasites can be used as a metric of such link. The aim of this study was to identify fleas, ticks, and Rickettsia spp., collected from domestic and wild carnivores in a natural reserve and surrounding human settlements in Central Chile, using morphological keys and molecular analysis. We surveyed 170 households from which 107 dogs and eight cats were sampled. From the natural reserve, we sampled two chilla foxes (Pseudalopex griseus Gray), two lesser grison (Galictis cuja Molina), three kodkods (Leopardus guigna Molina), and four dogs. From dogs, we collected Ctenocephalides felis Bouché, Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans L., and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. Latreille; C. felis was the most frequent ectoparasite. Cats were infested only by C. felis and Rh. sanguineus s.l. From wild carnivores, we obtained C. canis and P. irritans, the latter being most frequent. Molecular analysis of P. irritans detected 10 haplotypes and two main clades, which tended to separate fleas from wild and domestic hosts. Molecular analysis of ompA and ompB genes confirmed the presence of Rickettsia felis in fleas collected from owned dogs and cats, which could represent a potential risk factor of R. felis transmission in the area.

  3. A preliminary report on the distribution of lizards in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Cogălniceanu, Dan; Castilla, Aurora M; Valdeón, Aitor; Gosá, Alberto; Al-Jaidah, Noora; Alkuwary, Ali; Saifelnasr, Essam O. H.; Mas-Peinado, Paloma; Richer, Renee; Al-Hemaidi, Ahmad Amer Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have updated the list of the lizard species present in Qatar and produced the first distribution maps based on two field surveys in 2012 and 2013. We used the QND95/Qatar National Grid with a grid of 10 × 10 km squares for mapping. Our results show the occurrence of 21 lizard species in Qatar, from the 15 species indicated in the last biodiversity report conducted in 2004. The most abundant family found in Qatar is Gekkonidae with nine species (Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Hemidactylus robustus, H. flaviviridis, H. persicus, Stenodactylus arabicus, S. slevini, S. doriae, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis), followed by Lacertidae with four species (Acanthodactylus schmidti, A. opheodurus, Mesalina brevirostris, M. adramitana), Agamidae with three species (Trapelus flavimaculatus, Uromastyx aegyptia, Phrynocephalus arabicus), Scincidae with two species (Scincus mitranus, Trachylepis septemtaeniata), and Varanidae (Varanus griseus), Sphaerodactylidae (Pristurus rupestris) and Trogonophiidae (Diplometopon zarudnyi) with one species each. The species richness fluctuated largely across Qatar between one and eleven species per grid square. We believe that the lizard fauna records in Qatar are still incomplete and that additional studies are required. However, our study here fills a gap concerning lizard biodiversity knowledge in the Gulf Region. PMID:24493961

  4. Preliminary Observations of Population Genetics and Relatedness of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, in Two Northeast Pacific Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Larson, Shawn; Farrer, Debbie; Lowry, Dayv; Ebert, David A

    2015-01-01

    The broadnose sevengill shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, a common coastal species in the eastern North Pacific, was sampled during routine capture and tagging operations conducted from 2005-2012. One hundred and thirty three biopsy samples were taken during these research operations in Willapa Bay, Washington and in San Francisco Bay, California. Genotypic data from seven polymorphic microsatellites (derived from the related sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus) were used to describe N. cepedianus genetic diversity, population structure and relatedness. Diversity within N. cepedianus was found to be low to moderate with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.41, expected heterozygosity of 0.53, and an average of 5.1 alleles per microsatellite locus. There was no evidence of a recent population bottleneck based on genetic data. Analyses of genetic differences between the two sampled estuaries suggest two distinct populations with some genetic mixing of sharks sampled during 2005-2006. Relatedness within sampled populations was high, with percent relatedness among sharks caught in the same area indicating 42.30% first-order relative relationships (full or half siblings). Estuary-specific familial relationships suggest that management of N. cepedianus on the U.S. West Coast should incorporate stock-specific management goals to conserve this ecologically important predator.

  5. Post mortem investigations on cetaceans found stranded on the coasts of Italy between 1990 and 1993.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Agrimi, U; Morelli, L; Cardeti, G; Terracciano, G; Kennedy, S

    1995-04-29

    Detailed pathological and virological examinations were carried out on 25 cetaceans found stranded between 1990 and 1993 on the coasts of six Italian regions (Latium, Tuscany, Apulia, Abruzzo, Veneto and Sicily). There were 16 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), three bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), three Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), one fin whale pup (Balaenoptera physalus), and one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Apart from parasitic diseases (44 per cent), the most frequently detected lesions were pneumonia (68 per cent), enteritis (44 per cent), non-purulent hepatitis (40 per cent), interstitial nephritis (32 per cent) and encephalitis (32 per cent). Morbilivirus infection was diagnosed by immunocytochemistry in four striped dolphins, two stranded on the coasts of Latium in 1991 and two on the coasts of Tuscany in 1993. Despite the presence of lesions consistent with morbilliviral pneumonia in two other striped dolphins stranded on the coast of Apulia in 1991, no morbillivirus antigen was demonstrated in the tissues of these animals. Anticanine distemper virus antibodies were detected in the serum of the adult minke whale found stranded on the coast of Tuscany in 1993. However, no viruses were isolated from the tissues of any of the 25 cetaceans.

  6. Community ecology and disease risk: lizards, squirrels, and the Lyme disease spirochete in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Lane, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne zoonotic diseases are often maintained in complex transmission cycles involving multiple vertebrate hosts and their arthropod vectors. In the state of California, U.S.A., the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease, is transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. Several mammalian species serve as reservoir hosts of the spirochete, but levels of tick infestation, reservoir competence, and Borrelia-infection prevalence vary widely among such hosts. Here, we model the host (lizards, Peromyscus mice, Californian meadow voles, dusky-footed wood rats, and western gray squirrels), vector, and pathogen community of oak woodlands in northwestern California to determine the relative importance of different tick hosts. Observed infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in host-seeking I. pacificus nymphs was 1.8-5.3%, and our host-community model estimated an infection prevalence of 1.6-2.2%. The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) was the only source of infected nymphs. Lizards, which are refractory to Borrelia infection, are important in feeding subadult ticks but reduce disease risk (nymphal infection prevalence). Species identity is therefore critical in understanding and determining the local disease ecology.

  7. Statistical power to detect change in a mangrove shoreline fish community adjacent to a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T E; Lynch, P D; Karazsia, J L; Serafy, J E

    2016-03-01

    An expansion is underway of a nuclear power plant on the shoreline of Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA. While the precise effects of its construction and operation are unknown, impacts on surrounding marine habitats and biota are considered by experts to be likely. The objective of the present study was to determine the adequacy of an ongoing monitoring survey of fish communities associated with mangrove habitats directly adjacent to the power plant to detect fish community changes, should they occur, at three spatial scales. Using seasonally resolved data recorded during 532 fish surveys over an 8-year period, power analyses were performed for four mangrove fish metrics (fish diversity, fish density, and the occurrence of two ecologically important fish species: gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) and goldspotted killifish (Floridichthys carpio). Results indicated that the monitoring program at current sampling intensity allows for detection of <33% changes in fish density and diversity metrics in both the wet and the dry season in the two larger study areas. Sampling effort was found to be insufficient in either season to detect changes at this level (<33%) in species-specific occurrence metrics for the two fish species examined. The option of supplementing ongoing, biological monitoring programs for improved, focused change detection deserves consideration from both ecological and cost-benefit perspectives.

  8. A Simple and Efficient Method of Slow Freezing for Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Iha, Momoe; Nishishita, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Nishikawa, Shinichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Protocols available for the cryopreservation of human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are very inefficient and laborious compared to those for the cryopreservation of murine ES/iPS cells or other general cell lines. While the vitrification method may be adequate when working with small numbers of human ES/iPS cells, it requires special skills and is unsuitable when working with large cell numbers. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method for the cryopreservation of hES/hiPS cells that is based on a conventional slow freezing method that uses a combination of Pronase/EDTA for Stem™ and CP-5E™ [final concentrations: 6 % hydroxyethyl starch, 5 % DMSO, and 5 % ethylene glycol in saline]. CP-5E™ is highly effective for the cryopreservation of small cell clumps produced by hES/hiPS colony detachment in the presence of Pronase and EDTA (Pronase/EDTA for Stem™, a formulation containing multiple digestive enzymes from Streptomyces griseus). This novel method would be quite useful for large-scale hES/iPS cell banking for use in clinical applications.

  9. Structure of an MmyB-Like Regulator from C. aurantiacus, Member of a New Transcription Factor Family Linked to Antibiotic Metabolism in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Lesley, Scott A.; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are important bacterial sources of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Many antibiotic gene clusters are controlled by pathway-specific activators that act in response to growth conditions. Here we present the crystal structure of an MmyB-like transcription regulator MltR (PDB code 3pxp) (Caur_2278) from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, in complex with a fatty acid (myristic acid). MltR is a distant homolog of the methylenomycin activator MmyB and consists of an Xre-type N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding module that is related to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain. This structure has enabled identification of a new family of bacterial transcription factors that are distributed predominantly in actinomycetes. Bioinformatics analysis of MltR and other characterized family members suggest that they are likely associated with antibiotic and fatty acid metabolism in actinomycetes. Streptomyces coelicolor SCO4944 is a candidate as an ancestral member of the family. Its ortholog in S. griseus, SGR_6891, is induced by A-factor, a γ-butyrolactone that controls antibiotic production and development, and is adjacent to the A-factor synthase gen, afsA. The location of mltR/mmyB homologs, in particular those adjacent to less well-studied antibiotic-related genes, makes them interesting genetic markers for identifying new antibiotic genes. A model for signal-triggered DNA-binding by MltR is proposed. PMID:22844465

  10. Biosynthetic potential-based strain prioritization for natural product discovery: a showcase for diterpenoid-producing actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pengfei; Ma, Ming; Rateb, Mostafa E; Shaaban, Khaled A; Yu, Zhiguo; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Yan, Yijun; Peterson, Ryan M; Lohman, Jeremy R; Yang, Dong; Yin, Min; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Jiang, Yi; Duan, Yanwen; Shen, Ben

    2014-02-28

    Natural products remain the best sources of drugs and drug leads and serve as outstanding small-molecule probes to dissect fundamental biological processes. A great challenge for the natural product community is to discover novel natural products efficiently and cost effectively. Here we report the development of a practical method to survey biosynthetic potential in microorganisms, thereby identifying the most promising strains and prioritizing them for natural product discovery. Central to our approach is the innovative preparation, by a two-tiered PCR method, of a pool of pathway-specific probes, thereby allowing the survey of all variants of the biosynthetic machineries for the targeted class of natural products. The utility of the method was demonstrated by surveying 100 strains, randomly selected from our actinomycete collection, for their biosynthetic potential of four classes of natural products, aromatic polyketides, reduced polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and diterpenoids, identifying 16 talented strains. One of the talented strains, Streptomyces griseus CB00830, was finally chosen to showcase the discovery of the targeted classes of natural products, resulting in the isolation of three diterpenoids, six nonribosomal peptides and related metabolites, and three polyketides. Variations of this method should be applicable to the discovery of other classes of natural products.

  11. Production of N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine from Mycelial Waste by a Combination of Bacterial Chitinases and an Insect N-Acetyl-d-glucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weixing; Wang, Di; Liu, Tian; Yang, Qing

    2016-09-07

    N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) has great potential to be used as a food additive and medicine. The enzymatic degradation of chitin-containing biomass for producing GlcNAc is an eco-friendly approach but suffers from a high cost. The economical efficiency can be improved by both optimizing the member and ratio of the chitinolytic enzymes and using new inexpensive substrates. To address this, a novel combination of bacterial and insect chitinolytic enzymes was developed in this study to efficiently produce GlcNAc from the mycelia of Asperillus niger, a fermentation waste. This enzyme combination contained three bacterial chitinases (chitinase A from Serratia marcescens (SmChiA), SmChiB, SmChiC) and one insect N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase from Ostrinia furnacalis (OfHex1) in a ratio of 39.1% of SmChiA, 26.7% of SmChiB, 32.9% of SmChiC, and 1.3% of OfHex1. A yield of 6.3 mM (1.4 mg/mL) GlcNAc with a purity of 95% can be obtained from 10 mg/mL mycelial powder in 24 h. The enzyme combination reported here exhibited 5.8-fold higher hydrolytic activity over the commercial chitinase preparation derived from Streptomyces griseus.

  12. Fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay for anti-Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antibody detection in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Melero, Mar; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Crespo-Picazo, José Luis; Sierra, Eva; García-Párraga, Daniel; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Arbelo, Manuel; Álvaro, Teresa; Valls, Mónica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2016-01-13

    A fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) for detection of anti-Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antibodies in pigs was adapted for use in cetaceans. The FMIA was validated and adjusted using serum samples from 10 vaccinated captive bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus collected between 1 and 13 mo after immunization. The technique was then used to analyze specimens from 15 free-ranging cetaceans stranded alive on the Valencian Mediterranean coast between 2006 and 2014: 11 striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, 3 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus and 1 bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. One of these wild animals was confirmed to have died from E. rhusiopathiae septicemia, but no anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibodies were detected in its serum, pericardial fluid or milk samples. Another free-ranging individual, which lacked any signs or lesions that might be indicative of E. rhusiopathiae infection, showed high fluorescence intensity similar to that measured in captive dolphins at 6-13 mo after vaccination. These results suggest that this animal underwent an E. rhusiopathiae infection several months before stranding. The findings in the present study suggest that FMIA can be useful for detecting anti-E. rhusiopathiae antibodies in cetaceans, and its application to free-ranging animals is particularly interesting because of the great value of these specimens. Furthermore, the FMIA can be multiplexed to allow the determination of up to 100 analytes per sample in a single well, thereby reducing the cost, time and sample volume needed.

  13. Brief communication: Effect of size biases in the coefficient of variation on assessing intraspecific variability in the prosimian skeleton.

    PubMed

    Fulwood, Ethan L; Kramer, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the effect of a measurement size bias in coefficients of variation on the evaluation of intraspecific skeletal variability in a sample of eight prosimian species (Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus, Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, Galago senegalensis, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Nycticebus coucang, and Tarsius syrichta). Measurements with smaller means were expected to have higher coefficients of variation (CVs) due to the impact of instrumental precision on the ability to assess variability. This was evaluated by testing for a negative correlation between CVs and means in the total sample, within each species, and within each measurement, and by testing for the leveraging impact of small measurements on the significance of comparisons of variability between regions of the prosimian skeleton. Three comparisons were made: cranial versus postcranial variability, epiphysis versus diaphysis variability, and forelimb versus hindlimb variability. CVs were significantly negatively correlated with means within the total sample (r(2) = 0.208, P < 0.0001) and within each species. CVs and means were significantly correlated within only three of the measurements, which may reflect the relatively low body size range of the species studied. As predicted by the higher variability of smaller measurements, removing the smallest measurements from comparisons of variable classes containing measurements of different mean magnitudes pushed the comparisons below significance. These results indicate caution should be exercised when using CVs to assess variability across sets of measurements with different means.

  14. Ecogeographical Variation in Skull Shape of South-American Canids: Abiotic or Biotic Processes?

    PubMed

    de Moura Bubadué, Jamile; Cáceres, Nilton; Dos Santos Carvalho, Renan; Meloro, Carlo

    Species morphological changes can be mutually influenced by environmental or biotic factors, such as competition. South American canids represent a quite recent radiation of taxa that evolved forms very disparate in phenotype, ecology and behaviour. Today, in the central part of South America there is one dominant large species (the maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus) that directly influence sympatric smaller taxa via interspecific killing. Further south, three species of similar sized foxes (Lycalopex spp.) share the same habitats. Such unique combination of taxa and geographic distribution makes South American dogs an ideal group to test for the simultaneous impact of climate and competition on phenotypic variation. Using geometric morphometrics, we quantified skull size and shape of 431 specimens belonging to the eight extant South American canid species: Atelocynus microtis, Cerdocyon thous, Ch. brachyurus, Lycalopex culpaeus, L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, L. vetulus and Speothos venaticus. South American canids are significantly different in both skull size and shape. The hypercarnivorous bush dog is mostly distinct in shape from all the other taxa while a degree of overlap in shape-but not size-occurs between species of the genus Lycalopex. Both climate and competition impacts interspecific morphological variation. We identified climatic adaptations as the main driving force of diversification for the South American canids. Competition has a lower degree of impact on their skull morphology although it might have played a role in the past, when canid community was richer in morphotypes.

  15. Enrichment of chitinolytic microorganisms: isolation and characterization of a chitinase exhibiting antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi from a novel Streptomyces strain.

    PubMed

    Hoster, Frank; Schmitz, Jessica E; Daniel, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Thirteen different chitin-degrading bacteria were isolated from soil and sediment samples. Five of these strains (SGE2, SGE4, SSL3, MG1, and MG3) exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. Analyses of the 16S rRNA genes and the substrate spectra revealed that the isolates belong to the genera Bacillus or Streptomyces. The closest relatives were Bacillus chitinolyticus (SGE2, SGE4, and SSL3), B. ehimensis (MG1), and Streptomyces griseus (MG3). The chitinases present in the culture supernatants of the five isolates revealed optimal activity between 45 degrees C and 50 degrees C and at pH values of 4 (SSL3), 5 (SGE2 and MG1), 6 (SGE4), and 5-7 (MG3). The crude chitinase preparations of all five strains possessed antifungal activity. The chitinase of MG3 (ChiIS) was studied further, since the crude enzyme conferred strong growth suppression of all fungi tested and was very active over the entire pH range tested. The chiIS gene was cloned and the gene product was purified. The deduced protein consisted of 303 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 31,836 Da. Sequence analysis revealed that ChiIS of MG3 is similar to chitinases of Streptomyces species, which belong to family 19 of glycosyl hydrolases. Purified ChiIS showed remarkable antifungal activity and stability.

  16. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales.

    PubMed

    Au, W W; Nachtigall, P E; Pawloski, J L

    1997-05-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-Hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. One of the major concerns is the possible effect of the ATOC signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. In order to address this issue, the hearing sensitivity of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) and a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to the ATOC sound was measured behaviorally. A staircase procedure with the signal levels being changed in 1-dB steps was used to measure the animals' threshold to the actual ATOC coded signal. The results indicate that small odontocetes such as the Pseudorca and Grampus swimming directly above the ATOC source will not hear the signal unless they dive to a depth of approximately 400 m. A sound propagation analysis suggests that the sound-pressure level at ranges greater than 0.5 km will be less than 130 dB for depths down to about 500 m. Several species of baleen whales produce sounds much greater than 170-180 dB. With the ATOC source on the axis of the deep sound channel (greater than 800 m), the ATOC signal will probably have minimal physical and physiological effects on cetaceans.

  17. Marine fisheries declines viewed upside down: human impacts on consumer-driven nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Layman, Craig A; Allgeier, Jacob E; Rosemond, Amy D; Dahlgren, Craig P; Yeager, Lauren A

    2011-03-01

    We quantified how two human impacts (overfishing and habitat fragmentation) in nearshore marine ecosystems may affect ecosystem function by altering the role of fish as nutrient vectors. We empirically quantified size-specific excretion rates of one of the most abundant fishes (gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus) in The Bahamas and combined these with surveys of fish abundance to estimate population-level excretion rates. The study was conducted across gradients of two human disturbances: overfishing and ecosystem fragmentation (estuaries bisected by roads), to evaluate how each could result in reduced population-level nutrient cycling by consumers. Mean estimated N and P excretion rates for gray snapper populations were on average 456% and 541% higher, respectively, in unfished sites. Ecosystem fragmentation resulted in significant reductions of recycling rates by snapper, with degree of creek fragmentation explaining 86% and 72% of the variance in estimated excretion for dissolved N and P, respectively. Additionally, we used nutrient limitation assays and primary producer nutrient content to provide a simple example of how marine fishery declines may affect primary production. This study provides an initial step toward integrating marine fishery declines and consumer-driven nutrient recycling to more fully understand the implications of human impacts in marine ecosystems.

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of Risso's dolphin echolocation in the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Soldevilla, Melissa S; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2010-01-01

    Geographical and temporal trends in echolocation clicking activity can lead to insights into the foraging and migratory behaviors of pelagic dolphins. Using autonomous acoustic recording packages, the geographical, diel, and seasonal patterns of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) echolocation click activity are described for six locations in the Southern California Bight between 2005 and 2007. Risso's dolphin echolocation click bouts are identified based on their unique spectral characteristics. Click bouts were identified on 739 of 1959 recording days at all 6 sites, with the majority occurring at nearshore sites. A significant diel pattern is evident in which both hourly occurrences of click bouts and click rates are higher at night than during the day. At all nearshore sites, Risso's dolphin clicks were identified year-round, with the highest daily occurrence at the southern end of Santa Catalina Island. Seasonal and interannual variabilities in occurrence were high across sites with peak occurrence in autumn of most years at most sites. These results suggest that Risso's dolphins forage at night and that the southern end of Santa Catalina Island represents an important habitat for Risso's dolphins throughout the year.

  19. Boar spermatozoa as a biosensor for detecting toxic substances in indoor dust and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M A; Mikkola, R; Rasimus, S; Hoornstra, D; Salin, P; Rahkila, R; Heikkinen, M; Mattila, S; Peltola, J; Kalso, S; Salkinoja-Salonen, M

    2010-10-01

    The presence, quantity and origins of potentially toxic airborne substances were searched in moisture damaged indoor environments, where building related ill health symptoms were suspected and reference sites with no health complaints. Boar spermatozoa were used as the toxicity sensor. Indoor aerosols and dusts were collected from kindergartens, schools, offices and residences (n=25) by electrostatic filtering, vacuuming, wiping from elevated surfaces and from the interior of personal computers. Toxicity was measured from the ethanol or methanol extracts of the dusts and aerosols. EC(50) was expressed as the lowest concentration of the airborne substance that inhibited motility of >50% of the exposed sperm cells compared to vehicle control, within 30 min, 1 day or 3-4 days of exposure. Remarkably toxic aerosols (EC(50) griseus cultures was evaluated using a flow-through chamber. Significant amounts of valinomycin (LC-MS assay) and toxicity (boar sperm motility assay) were carried by air and were after 14 days mainly recovered from the interior surfaces of the flow chamber.

  20. Trace metals, stable isotope ratios, and trophic relations in seabirds from the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E

    2005-12-01

    Trace elements including mercury, cadmium, selenium, and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (sigma15N) were measured in tissues of Pacific seabirds. Two species of albatross (Diomedea immutabilis, Diomedea nigripes), four species of shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri, Puffinus carneipes, Puffinus griseus, Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) were collected opportunistically by an experimental fishery in the North Pacific Ocean. Two species each of petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Oceanodroma furcata) and auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cerorhinca monocerata) were collected at breeding colonies on the north coast of British Columbia, Canada. Concentrations of toxic trace metals varied considerably among the pelagic nonbreeders; highest concentrations consistently were in D. nigripes (e.g., Hg), 70-fold greater than F. corniculata (e.g., Cd), eightfold greater than P. tenuirostris (e.g., Se), and fourfold greater than F. corniculata. Most essential trace elements varied little among species, consistent with physiological regulation. Values for sigma15N correlated positively with hepatic Se (r = 0.771, p = 0.025) and negatively with Co (r = 0.817, p = 0.013). Among the four breeding species, there were significant positive associations for sigma15N in muscle and hepatic Se (r = 0.822, p = 0.002), Hg (r = 0.744, p = 0.0001), and Cd (r = 0.589, p = 0.003). Differences in time scales integrated by sigma15N versus trace metals in tissues probably reduced the apparent associations between trace-metal exposure and diet.

  1. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    PubMed

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats.

  2. [Griseochelin methyl ester, a new polyether derivative with antiviral activity].

    PubMed

    Tonew, E; Tonew, M; Graefe, U; Zöpel, P

    1988-10-01

    The methylester of griseochelin (1) is a new chemically-made antiviral derivate of the antibiotic griseochelin isolated from fermentations of Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the polyether group and possesses antiviral activity against enveloped RNA and DNA viruses cultivated in chicken embryo cells (CEC), namely influenzavirus A/WSN, vesicularstomatitis virus (Indiana), vaccinia virus (Lister) and herpes simplex hominis virus type 1 (Kupka). The methylester of griseochelin failed to show virucidal effects on extracellular influenza vacciniavirus particles or to influence virus adsorption and penetration processes. The antibiotic in concentrations of 125-15 micrograms/ml inhibited the virus-induced cytopathic effect of the above mentioned viruses and caused over 90 per cent plaque reduction. Addition of 1 during a one-step growth cycle of influenzavirus A at 4 and 6 h p.i. resulted in complete suppression of virus multiplication at the control niveau of the virus yield accumulated to the same time point. A partial reversibility of the antiviral action against influenzavirus A could be achieved. Coxsackie A9 virus growth in human fibroblast cells was not affected by the inhibitor. Electron-optical observations showed a failure of the formation of the viral capside proteins of HSV type 1 at the second halftime of the replication cycle in CEC-infected and 1-treated cultures.

  3. Codominant autosomal inheritance of polymorphic red cell acid phosphates of lemurs and some properties of the enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mason, G A; Buettner-Janusch, J

    1977-06-01

    Red cell acid phosphatase phenotypes of 207 captive animals of the genera Lemur, Hapalemur, and Prophithecus were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and phosphatase-specific staining. In Lemur fulvus, three phenotypes, designated A, B, and AB, were observed. In each of the species L. catta, L. macaco, L. mongoz, and L. variegatus, a single phenotype was observed, In Hapalemur griseus, three phenotypes were found: A,B, and AB. In Propithecus verreauxi, a single phenotype was found. Examination of breeding records in conjunction with the results of the electrophoretic analyses supports the conclusion that the erythrocytic acid phosphatases in this group of nonhuman primates are the products of at least two codominant autosomal alleles. There is a wide range of specific activities of the acid phosphatases as determined by colorimetric assays. The values range from 60.6 micronmoles of p-nitrophenol released per gram of hemoglobin per 30 min in Lemur catta to 429.1 micronmoles in Propithecus verreauxi. The enzymes of L. fulvus and P. vereauxi were purified approximately 400-fold, and Michaelis-Menten constants were determined on the purified preparations. For L. fulvus phenotype A, Km = 0.8 mM; for L. fulvus phenotype B, Km = 0.8 mM; and for P. verreauxi, Km = 0.6 mM; the substrate in each case was p-nitrophenylphosphate.

  4. Isolation and characterization of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil of iran (2006 - 2007).

    PubMed

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are a large group of soil-inhabiting bacteria that occur worldwide. Some of them are the main cause of two important diseases, nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. To identify the prevalence and geographic distribution of aerobic actinomycetes in soil of Qazvin province, a study was carried out during 2006-2007. In this study, the incidence and diversity of medically important aerobic actinomycetes was determined in 300 soil samples of different parts of Qazvin. The suspensions of superficial soil samples were prepared by adding of normal saline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and the supernatants were cultured on brain-heart infusion agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar contain cycloheximide. The isolated microorganisms were examined by Gram and acid-fast stains and were identified biochemically and morphologically. Of 96 aerobic actinomycetes isolates identified, Actinomadura madurae and Streptomyces somaliensis were the most frequently isolated species each representing 19.8% of isolates, followed by Nocardia asteroides (15.6%), N. otitidiscaviarum (9.4%), N. brasiliensis (7.3%), A. peletieri, S. griseus, and Nocardia spp. (each 5.2%), and N. transvalensis, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura spp. and Streptomyces spp. (each 3.1%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epidemiological investigation of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil samples from Iran. In recent years, mycetoma and nocardiosis have been increasingly reported in Iran. The results showed that medically important actinomycetes occur in the environment of Iran and soil could be potential source of actinomycotic infections.

  5. Shearwaters as ecosystem indicators: Towards fishery-independent metrics of fish abundance in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyday, Shannon E.; Ballance, Lisa T.; Field, David B.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2015-06-01

    Shearwaters are ideal for monitoring ocean conditions in the California Current because these predators are abundant, conspicuous, and responsive to oceanographic variability. Herein we evaluated black-vented (Puffinus opisthomelas), Buller's (P. bulleri), flesh-footed (P. carneipes), pink-footed (P. creatopus), short-tailed (P. tenuirostris), and sooty (P. griseus) shearwaters as fishery-independent indicators of predatory or prey fish availability. We analyzed four years (1996, 2001, 2005, 2008) of monthly (August-November) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seabird surveys, and United States Geological Survey Pacific Coast Fisheries Database catch, from the California coast to 200 nm offshore. An ordination of shearwater abundance and fish catch revealed that the shearwaters and 11 fish/squid species were significantly correlated with one or more of three principal components, which explained 86% of the variation and revealed distinct species assemblages. We evaluated multiple linear regression models for 19 fisheries using five shearwater metrics: density, aggregation, and behavior (traveling, stationary, feeding), three oceanographic indices, and latitude. Eight of these models had a shearwater metric as the primary predictor. In particular, feeding black-vented shearwater abundance explained 75% of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) longline catch. This research illustrates the utility of shearwaters as ecosystem indicators, with direct application for predicting fishery catch of commercial importance.

  6. Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic.

    PubMed Central

    Naganawa, R; Iwata, N; Ishikawa, K; Fukuda, H; Fujino, T; Suzuki, A

    1996-01-01

    Ajoene, a garlic-derived sulfur-containing compound that prevents platelet aggregation, exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Growth of gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Streptomyces griseus, was inhibited at 5 micrograms of ajoene per ml. Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus plantarum also were inhibited below 20 micrograms of ajoene per ml. For gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Xanthomonas maltophilia, MICs were between 100 and 160 micrograms/ml. Ajoene also inhibited yeast growth at concentrations below 20 micrograms/ml. The microbicidal effect of ajoene on growing cells was observed at slightly higher concentrations than the corresponding MICs. B. cereus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were killed at 30 micrograms of ajoene per ml after 24 h of cultivation when cultivation was started at 10(5) cells per ml. However, the minimal microbicidal concentrations for resting cells were at 10 to 100 times higher concentrations than the corresponding MICs. The disulfide bond in ajoene appears to be necessary for the antimicrobial activity of ajoene, since reduction by cysteine, which reacts with disulfide bonds, abolished its antimicrobial activity. PMID:8900018

  7. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Teuten, Emma L; Pedler, Byron E; Hangsterfer, Alexandra N; Reddy, Christopher M

    2006-11-01

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl, C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(7), and C(9)H(4)N(2)Br(5)Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 microg/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl may be significant in the formation of C(9)H(4)N(2)Br(5)Cl.

  8. Historical and current records of aquarium cetaceans in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peijun; Sun, Ni; Yao, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2012-01-01

    The number of cetaceans housed in aquariums in China is increasing. Detailed information on the historical and current population status has not been reported, despite its importance for successful breeding and population management. Questionnaires were conducted between December 2006 and May 2009, and the information was used to construct studbooks. Our survey showed that 10 species had been introduced to aquariums since 1978, including 26 (with 15 in the current population) finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), 5 (5) false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), 94 (80) common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 48 (30) Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), 36 (32) beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), 10 (10) pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 8 (8) Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), 2 (2) short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), 2 (2) Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and 5 (0) baiji dolphins (Lipotes vexillifer). The number of cetaceans has increased markedly in the past 32 years, especially since 1995. Currently, 184 individuals are under human care throughout China, a number larger than any other country with an International Species Information System membership. In addition, the Annual Survival Rates of bottlenose dolphins (0.959) and beluga whales (0.968) were found higher than those reported previously (0.93-0.951 and 0.94-0.954, respectively).

  9. [Risk factors of ciguatera in the French West Indies in Saint-Barthélémy, Saint-Martin and Anguilla].

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, P; Bagnis, R

    1989-01-01

    An epidemiological study on ciguatera fish poisoning in the French West Indies (St-Barthelemy, St-Martin and Anguilla) was conducted during the years 1985-1986. The investigation on intoxications shows a non seasonal significant prevalence. Though it was difficult to list the cases, the morbidity seems to vary between 7 and 30 per thousand. A study of fish toxicity was realised; 46 different species were tested (individually or by pools) by the mosquito bio-test. Observations of intoxications give the following results: High risk species: Caranx bartholomaei, C. lugubris, Seriola dumerili, Lutjanus apodus, L. jocu, Pristipomoides macrophtalmus, Gymnothorax funebris, G. moringa, Scomberomorus cavalla, S. regalis, Mycteroperca venenosa, M. tigris, Epinephelus morio, Sphyraena barracuda. Intermediate species: Caranx latus, C. ruber, Lachnolaimus maximus, Lutjanus analis, L. buccanella, L. griseus, Malacanthus plumieri, Scomberomorus maculatus. Low risk species: Balistes vetula, Alectis ciliaris, Haemulon album, Bodianus rufus, Halichoeres radiatus, Priacanthus arenatus, Alphestes afer. Many species are involved in the toxic food chain. New ones have been identified, but it is difficult to determine the toxic level range. A cartography is presented but no place is free of risk. A research of Gambierdiscus toxicus, the causal agent, on algal surface from dead corals was conducted around St-Barthelemy and St-Martin. The dinoflagellate is found in low or medium populations all around the islands with no difference between North and South. There is a maximal activity during the spring. A model of the epidemiology of the ciguatera in the area is proposed.

  10. Cloning and analysis of a gene cluster from Streptomyces coelicolor that causes accelerated aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H; Kendall, K

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning and analysis of two overlapping DNA fragments from Streptomyces coelicolor that cause aerial mycelium to appear more rapidly than usual when introduced into Streptomyces lividans on a low-copy-number plasmid vector. Colonies of S. lividans TK64 harboring either clone produce visible aerial mycelia after only 48 h of growth, rather than the usual 72 to 96 h. From deletion and sequence analysis, this rapid aerial mycelium (Ram) phenotype appears to be due to a cluster of three genes that we have designated ramA, ramB, and ramR. Both ramA and ramB potentially encode 65-kDa proteins with homology to ATP-dependent membrane-translocating proteins. A chromosomal ramB disruption mutant of S. lividans was found to be severely defective in aerial mycelium formation. ramR could encode a 21-kDa protein with significant homology to the UhpA subset of bacterial two-component response regulator proteins. The overall organization and potential proteins encoded by the cloned DNA suggest that this is the S. coelicolor homolog of the amf gene cluster that has been shown to be important for aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. However, despite the fact that the two regions probably have identical functions, there is relatively poor homology between the two gene clusters at the DNA sequence level. Images PMID:8206859

  11. Introduced and native congeners use different resource allocation strategies to maintain performance during infection.

    PubMed

    Coon, Courtney A C; Brace, Amber J; McWilliams, Scott R; McCue, Marshall D; Martin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hosts can manage parasitic infections using an array of tactics, which are likely to vary contingent on coevolutionary history between the host and the parasite. Here we asked whether coping ability of congeners that differ in host-parasite coevolutionary history differed in response to experimental infections with a coccidian parasite. House sparrows (Passer domesticus) and gray-headed sparrows (Passer griseus) are sympatric and ecologically similar, but house sparrows are recent colonizers of Kenya, the site of our comparison, whereas gray-headed sparrows are native. We evaluated three variables as barometers of infection coping ability: vertical flight, pectoral muscle size, and fat score. We also measured routing of a dose of (13)C-labeled leucine, an essential amino acid, among tissues to compare resource allocation strategies in response to infection. We found that burden effects on performance were minimal in both species, but house sparrows maintained considerably higher burdens than gray-headed sparrows regardless of exposure. House sparrows also had more exogeneous leucine tracer in all tissues after 24 h, demonstrating a difference in the way the two species allocate or distribute resources. We argue that house sparrows may be maintaining larger resource reserves to mitigate costs associated with exposure and infection. Additionally, in response to increased parasite exposure, gray-headed sparrows had less leucine tracer in their spleens and more in their gonads, whereas house sparrows did not change allocation, perhaps indicating a trade-off that is not experienced by the introduced species.

  12. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  13. Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.E.; Peterson, J.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

  14. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts.

  15. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  16. Evolutionary Relations of Hexanchiformes Deep-Sea Sharks Elucidated by Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Keiko; Tomita, Taketeru; Suzuki, Shingo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Sano, Kazumi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kono, Azumi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K.; Tanaka, Sho

    2013-01-01

    Hexanchiformes is regarded as a monophyletic taxon, but the morphological and genetic relationships between the five extant species within the order are still uncertain. In this study, we determined the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of seven sharks including representatives of the five Hexanchiformes, one squaliform, and one carcharhiniform and inferred the phylogenetic relationships among those species and 12 other Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) species for which the complete mitogenome is available. The monophyly of Hexanchiformes and its close relation with all other Squaliformes sharks were strongly supported by likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 13,749 aligned nucleotides of 13 protein coding genes and two rRNA genes that were derived from the whole mDNA sequences of the 19 species. The phylogeny suggested that Hexanchiformes is in the superorder Squalomorphi, Chlamydoselachus anguineus (frilled shark) is the sister species to all other Hexanchiformes, and the relations within Hexanchiformes are well resolved as Chlamydoselachus, (Notorynchus, (Heptranchias, (Hexanchus griseus, H. nakamurai))). Based on our phylogeny, we discussed evolutionary scenarios of the jaw suspension mechanism and gill slit numbers that are significant features in the sharks. PMID:24089661

  17. Prey preferences among the community of deep-diving odontocetes from the Bay of Biscay, Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitz, Jérôme; Cherel, Yves; Bertin, Stéphane; Kiszka, Jeremy; Dewez, Alexandre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Long-finned pilot whales ( Globicephala melas), Risso's dolphins ( Grampus griseus), melon-headed whales ( Peponocephala electra), Cuvier's beaked whales ( Ziphius cavirostris), Sowerby's beaked whales ( Mesoplodon bidens), northern bottlenose whales ( Hyperoodon ampullatus), sperm whales ( Physeter macrocephalus), dwarf sperm whales ( Kogia sima) and pygmy sperm whales ( Kogia breviceps) make up the large community of deep-diving odontocetes occurring off the Bay of Biscay, northeast Atlantic. The ecology of these toothed cetaceans is poorly documented worldwide. The present study described their prey preferences from stomach content analysis and showed resource partitioning within the assemblage. The majority of the species appeared to be mostly teutophageous. Fish was an important food source only for the Sowerby's beaked whale and, to a lesser extent, for the long-finned pilot whale. In terms of foraging habitats inferred from prey composition, either pelagic oceanic or demersal neritic habitats were exploited by toothed whales in the Bay of Biscay, with only the long-finned pilot whale foraging in the two habitats. Finally, with more than 14,000 identified cephalopods from 39 species, the present study highlighted also the poorly known deep-sea cephalopod community off the Bay of Biscay using top predators as biological samplers.

  18. Amy as a reporter gene for promoter activity in Nocardia lactamdurans: comparison of promoters of the cephamycin cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Chary, V K; de la Fuente, J L; Liras, P; Martin, J F

    1997-01-01

    Promoter probe vectors containing the pA origin of replication and the Streptomyces griseus promoterless amy gene (encoding alpha-amylase) as reporter have been constructed to study transcription initiation regions in Nocardia lactamdurans. In some of the promoter probe vectors the phage fd terminator has been introduced to avoid readthrough expression from upstream sequences. By using these vectors, four different transcription initiation regions of the cephamycin gene cluster have been studied in N. lactamdurans. The bla gene encoding a beta-lactamase has a relatively strong promoter. Two other separate promoters corresponding to the lat and cefD genes (encoding, respectively, lysine-6-aminotransferase and isopenicillin N-epimerase) showed weak transcription initiation ability. These two promoters are arranged in a bidirectional transcription initiation region located in the center of the cephamycin gene cluster. The cmcH gene (encoding 3-hydroxymethylcephem carbamoyltransferase) upstream region did not contain a functional promoter, suggesting that cmcH is transcribed as a part of a polycistronic mRNA. The native amy promoter is used very efficiently in N. lactamdurans, resulting in secretion of high levels of extracellular alpha-amylase. PMID:9251185

  19. Butyrolactone autoregulator receptor protein (BarA) as a transcriptional regulator in Streptomyces virginiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, H; Ipposhi, H; Okamoto, S; Nakano, H; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y

    1997-01-01

    BarA of Streptomyces virginiae is a specific receptor protein for virginiae butanolides (VBs), a member of the butyrolactone autoregulators of Streptomyces species. Sequencing around the barA gene revealed two novel open reading frames: one upstream, barX, encoding a homolog of AfsA of Streptomyces griseus and another downstream, barB. Northern (RNA) blot analysis for S. virginiae demonstrated that the addition of VB during cultivation switched on the expression of barB. An in vivo expression system in Streptomyces lividans with the use of the xylE reporter gene indicated that BarA in conjunction with VB controlled the barB promoter. Furthermore, the DNA binding ability of BarA was demonstrated in vitro for the first time by means of surface plasmon resonance and a gel-shift assay. Complex formation with VB in vitro resulted in the dissociation of BarA from DNA, thus suggesting that the VB receptor, BarA, is a transcriptional regulator and that the VB signal is transduced to the next step in the signal transduction pathway by modification of the DNA binding ability of BarA. PMID:9371444

  20. Molecular detection of streptomycin-producing streptomycetes in Brazilian soils.

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, A S; Cresswell, N; Neves, M C; Beringer, J E; Baumberg, S; Thomas, D I; Wellington, E M

    1997-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from soybean rhizosphere soil collected as two field sites in Brazil. All the isolates were identified as Streptomyces species and were screened for streptomycin production and the presence of two genes, strA and strB1, known to be involved in streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined for 53 isolates from cultivated and uncultivated sites, and approximately half the strains were streptomycin resistance. Clustering by the unweighted pair group method with averages indicated the presence of two major clusters, with the majority of resistant strains from cultivated sites being placed in cluster 1. Only representatives from this cluster contained strA. Streptomycetes containing strA and strB1 were phenotypically diverse, and only half could be assigned to known species. Sequence comparison of 16S rRNA and trpBA (tryptophan synthetase) genes revealed that streptomycin- producing streptomycetes were phylogenetically diverse. It appeared that a population of streptomycetes had colonized the rhizosphere and that a proportion of these were capable of streptomycin production. PMID:9097426

  1. Sylvatic echinococcosis in Argentina. I. On the morphology and biology of strobilar Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) from domestic and sylvatic animal hosts.

    PubMed

    Schantz, P M; Cruz-Reyes, A; Colli, C; Lord, R D

    1975-09-01

    Dogs were fed larvae of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786) recovered from sheep in Argentina. The morphological characteristics of strobilae recovered from dogs at 28, 60 and 76 days postexposure were compared with those of Echinococcus spp. recovered from naturally infected foxes, Dusicyon clupaeus (Molina) and D. griseus (Gray), and those of worms reared in dogs from larvae in European hares, Lepus europaeus (L.). Only slight differences were observed in characters of taxonomic importance and it was concluded that all cestodes represented a single species, E. granulosus. The results are discussed as they bear on the speciation controversy and the potential epidemiology importance of Dusicyon spp. as hosts of E. granulosus. It was suggested that E. patagonicus Szidat, 1960 previously described from D. culpaeus is conspecific with E. granulosus. E. cepanzoi Szidat, 1971 is probably also a synonym of E. granulosus and the subspecies E. g. dusicyontis Blood and Lelijveld, 1969, is rejected on the grounds that there is no evidence for host specificity and ecological or other segregation from the nominate form. Foxes appear to become infected from scavenging on dead sheep in localities where E. granulosus is endemic in domestic animals. There is still no evidence that E. granulosus is maintained in Argentina in sylvatic cycles.

  2. The geographic selection mosaic for ponderosa pine and crossbills: a tale of two squirrels.

    PubMed

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W

    2008-02-01

    Recent research demonstrates how the occurrence of a preemptive competitor (Tamiasciurus) gives rise to a geographic mosaic of coevolution for crossbills (Loxia) and conifers. We extend these studies by examining ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), which produces more variable annual seed crops than the conifers in previous studies and often cooccurs with tree squirrels in the genus Sciurus that are less specialized than Tamiasciurus on conifer seed. We found no evidence of seed defenses evolving in response to selection exerted by S. aberti, which was apparently overwhelmed by selection resulting from inner bark feeding that caused many developing cones to be destroyed. In the absence of S. aberti, defenses directed at crossbills increased, favoring larger-billed crossbills and causing stronger reciprocal selection between crossbills and ponderosa pine. However, crossbill nomadism in response to cone crop fluctuations prevents localized reciprocal adaptation by crossbills. In contrast, evolution in response to S. griseus has incidentally defended cones against crossbills, limiting the geographic range of the interaction between crossbills and ponderosa pine. Our results suggest that annual resource variation does not prevent competitors from shaping selection mosaics, although such fluctuations likely prevent fine-scale geographic differentiation in predators that are nomadic in response to resource variability.

  3. The utility of diversity profiling using Illumina 18S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate Toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming coccidia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Madalyn K; Phalen, David N; Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-01-30

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity to screen a single DNA sample and detect pathogen DNA from thousands of host DNA sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. The technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. In this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity profiling NGS approach using Illumina small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect Toxoplasma gondii in previously confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis. We then tested the diagnostic approach with species-specific PCR genotyping, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of toxoplasmosis in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) to systematically characterise the disease and associate causality. We show that the Euk7A/Euk570R primer set targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene can be used as a species-specific assay for cyst-forming coccidia and discriminate T. gondii. Overall, the approach is cost-effective and improves diagnostic decision support by narrowing the differential diagnosis list with more certainty than was previously possible. Furthermore, it supplements the limitations of cryptic protozoan morphology and surpasses the need for species-specific PCR primer combinations.

  4. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  5. Prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Cocumelli, C; Meoli, R; Barbaro, K; Terracciano, G; Di Francesco, C E; Mazzariol, S; Eleni, C

    2012-01-01

    The recent description of a prion disease (PD) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 Risso s dolphins (Grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the Italian coastline. Three striped dolphins and one bottlenose dolphin showed microscopic lesions of encephalitis, with no evidence of spongiform brain lesions being detected in any of the 30 free-ranging cetaceans investigated herein. Nevertheless, we could still observe a prominent PrPC immunoreactivity in the brain as well as in lymphoid tissues from these dolphins. Although immunohistochemical and Western blot investigations yielded negative results for PrPSc deposition in all tissues from the dolphins under study, the reported occurrence of a spontaneous PD case in a wild dolphin is an intriguing issue and a matter of concern for both prion biology and intra/inter-species transmissibility, as well as for cetacean conservation medicine.

  6. Population identification of western hemisphere shorebirds throughout the annual cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Gratto-Trevor, C. L.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Colwell, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Identification of relationships among geographically distinct populations of migratory species can provide an understanding of breeding and natal philopatry, migration pathways, and population mixing during winter. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses to search for markers specific to difficult-to-differentiate shorebird species (e.g. long-billed dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus and short-billed dowitcher L. griseus) as well as geographically distinct breeding populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica, red-necked phalaropes Phalaropus lobatus, semipalmated plovers Charadrius semipalmatus, dunlin Calidris alpina, pectoral sandpipers C. melanotos, semipalmated sandpipers C. pusilla and western sandpipers C. mauri. Markers clearly differentiated all shorebird species. Estimates of population differentiation varied greatly among species (FST= 0.095a??0.685) and correlated with interspecific variation in philopatry and geographical separation of breeding populations. We assigned individuals to putative breeding locales with greater certainty in well-differentiated species than in poorly differentiated species. Our findings indicate specific phylogeographical structure varies among species, which has strong implications for conservation of habitats within migratory corridors. We suggest that RAPDs are useful in identifying geographical populations of migratory species and that molecular markers should be considered for tracking migratory birds throughout the annual cycle.

  7. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    PubMed

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication.

  8. Preliminary Observations of Population Genetics and Relatedness of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, in Two Northeast Pacific Estuaries

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Shawn; Farrer, Debbie; Lowry, Dayv; Ebert, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The broadnose sevengill shark, Notorynchus cepedianus, a common coastal species in the eastern North Pacific, was sampled during routine capture and tagging operations conducted from 2005–2012. One hundred and thirty three biopsy samples were taken during these research operations in Willapa Bay, Washington and in San Francisco Bay, California. Genotypic data from seven polymorphic microsatellites (derived from the related sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus) were used to describe N. cepedianus genetic diversity, population structure and relatedness. Diversity within N. cepedianus was found to be low to moderate with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.41, expected heterozygosity of 0.53, and an average of 5.1 alleles per microsatellite locus. There was no evidence of a recent population bottleneck based on genetic data. Analyses of genetic differences between the two sampled estuaries suggest two distinct populations with some genetic mixing of sharks sampled during 2005–2006. Relatedness within sampled populations was high, with percent relatedness among sharks caught in the same area indicating 42.30% first-order relative relationships (full or half siblings). Estuary-specific familial relationships suggest that management of N. cepedianus on the U.S. West Coast should incorporate stock-specific management goals to conserve this ecologically important predator. PMID:26052706

  9. A novel detergent-stable solvent-tolerant serine thiol alkaline protease from Streptomyces koyangensis TN650.

    PubMed

    Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bejar, Wacim; Boulkour Touioui, Souraya; Hmidi, Maher; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    An alkaline proteinase (STAP) was produced from strain TN650 isolated from a Tunisian off-shore oil field and assigned as Streptomyces koyangensis strain TN650 based on physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 45125.17-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of TQSNPPSWGLDRIDQTTAFTKACSIKY, thus sharing high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. The results showed that this protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and partially inhibited by 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) (DTNB), which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine thiol protease family. Using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for protease activity were pH 10 and 70 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at pH 7-10 and 30-60 °C for 24 h. STAP exhibited high catalytic efficiency, significant detergent stability, and elevated organic solvent resistance compared to the SG-XIV proteases from S. griseus and KERAB from Streptomyces sp. AB1. The stap gene encoding STAP was isolated, and its DNA sequence was determined. These properties make STAP a potential candidate for future application in detergent formulations and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis.

  10. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti), rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    PubMed Central

    Sweitzer, Rick A.; Furnas, Brett J.

    2016-01-01

    These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]). Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus]) ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii]), gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat. PMID:26937448

  11. The cranium of Parapithecus grangeri, an Egyptian Oligocene anthropoidean primate

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Elwyn L.

    2001-01-01

    A nearly complete skull of Parapithecus grangeri from the early Oligocene of Egypt is described. The specimen is relatively undistorted and is undoubtedly the most complete higher primate skull yet found in the African Oligocene, which also makes it the most complete Oligocene primate cranium worldwide. Belonging in superfamily Parapithecoidea, a group regarded by some as the sister group to all other Anthropoidea, this skull reveals important information about the radiation of stem anthropoideans. This cranium is about 15% larger than size estimates based on a fragmentary cranium of its contemporary and close relative Apidium phiomense. It is about the same size as that of the gray gentle lemur, Hapalemur griseus, or of platyrrhines such as the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus, or the titi monkey, Callicebus torquatus. Comparatively small orbits and size differences in jaws and teeth show it was both diurnal and dimorphic. This is the only specimen of the species that shows (from sockets) that there were four small upper incisors. Several mandibular specimens of the species establish that there were no permanent lower incisors and that the symphysis was fused. Like other early anthropoideans this species possessed a lower encephalization quotient and less-developed orbital frontality than later anthropoideans. There is full postorbital closure and fusion of the metopic suture, and the ectotympanic forms a rim to the auditory aperture. A probable frontal/alisphenoid contact is a potentially derived resemblance to Catarrhini. A proposed separate genus for the species P. grangeri is not sustained. PMID:11438736

  12. Mortality of seabirds in the Japanese land-based gillnet fishery for salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Day, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Mortality rates of seabirds in the Japanese land-based drift gillnet fishery for salmon were assessed from 413 gillnet sets made by Japanese research vessels in offshore areas used by the commercial fleet. Sixteen species of seabirds were recorded in nets. Shearwaters, primarily Short-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris), and to a lesser extent Sooty Shearwaters (P. griseus), predominated in the catches, followed by lesser numbers of Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia). Catch-rates of seabirds varied by oceanographic zone, with most being caught in oceanic waters north of the Subarctic Front. Approximately 151,000 seabirds were killed in the offshore component of the land-based fishery in 1977. Mortality was reduced to about 57,000 seabirds in 1987 because of a reduction in fishing effort. No estimates are available of seabird mortality in the nearshore component of the fishery. Mortality of seabirds in the land-based fishery is discussed with respect to other major drift gillnet fisheries in the North Pacific.

  13. Phosphate control of pabS gene transcription during candicidin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Asturias, J A; Liras, P; Martín, J F

    1990-09-01

    The pabS gene of Streptomyces griseus IMRU3570 encodes the enzyme p-aminobenzoic acid synthase, which synthesizes p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a precursor of the antibiotic candicidin (Cd). The pabS transcript reached a peak at 12 h of incubation in batch cultures, preceding the formation of PABA synthase and the antibiotic itself. A decay of the pabS transcript was observed with an apparent half-life of 35 min. Inorganic phosphate (Pi; 7.5 mM) reduced the synthesis of the pabS transcript by 90-95%, and consequently the formation of PABA synthase and Cd. Thirty min after addition of 7.5 mM Pi, the cells synthesized only about 15% as much pabS transcript compared to control cultures. However, Pi stimulated two- to threefold total RNA synthesis. The 1.7-kb pabS transcript shown by Northern hybridization was greatly reduced in amount in cells grown in 7.5 mM phosphate. Pi-deregulated mutants, described previously, were impaired in the transcriptional control exerted by Pi. It is concluded that Pi control of PABA synthase and Cd biosynthesis is exerted by repression of formation of the pabS mRNA.

  14. A highly efficient modified human serum albumin signal peptide to secrete proteins in cells derived from different mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Attallah, Carolina; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Kratje, Ricardo; Oggero, Marcos

    2017-01-10

    Signal peptides (SPs) are key elements in the production of recombinant proteins; however, little information is available concerning different SP in mammalian cells other than CHO. In order to study the efficiency of different SPs to direct the traffic along the secretory pathway of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) and a scFv-Fc fusion protein; CHO-K1, HEK293 and NS0 cell lines were transfected in a transient and stable way. SP of human azurocidin (AZ), modified human albumin (mSA), modified Cricetulus griseus Ig kappa chain V III region MOPC 63 like (mIgκ C) and modified human Ig kappa chain V III region VG (mIgκ H) were evaluated. The efficiency of SPs to translocate a propeptide across the ER membrane was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for the GFP inside the secretory pathway, and by antigen-specific indirect ELISA for the scFv-Fc outside the cell. The mSA SP was successful in directing the secretion of the active proteins in these different types of mammalian cells, regardless of the transgene copy number. The goal of this work was to demonstrate that a modified version of SA SP might be used in different mammalian cells employing the same expression vector.

  15. Fredericamycin A affects mitochondrial inheritance and morphology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yuko; Yukawa, Masashi; Kimura, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Ojika, Makoto; Sakagami, Youji; Tsuchiya, Eiko

    2005-11-01

    Fredericamycin A (FMA) is an antibiotic product of Streptomyces griseus that exhibits modest antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro, but, its functions in vivo are poorly understood. We identified this compound as an inducer of G1 arrest in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FMA exhibits an IC50 of 24 nM towards the growth of a disruptant of multi-drug resistance genes, W303-MLC30, and its cytotoxicity is a function of the time of exposure as well as drug dose. Addition of 0.8 microM of FMA caused aggregation of mitochondria within 10 min of incubation and the drug induced petites at high frequency after 4 h of incubation. Rho(-) cells were about 20 times more resistant to FMA than isogenic rho(+) cells. Overexpression of topoisomerase I, a previously suggested target of the drug, did not alleviate the sensitivity of the cells to FMA or the aggregation of mitochondria. Our results suggest that mitochondria are the primary target site of FMA.

  16. WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN TREE SQUIRRELS (RODENTIA: SCIURIDAE) IN CALIFORNIA, 2004–2005

    PubMed Central

    PADGETT, KERRY A.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.; KAHL-PURCELL, NICOLE; FANG, YING; CAHOON-YOUNG, BARBARA; CARNEY, RYAN; ANDERSON, NANCY; ZUCCA, LYNDA; WOODS, LESLIE; HUSTED, STAN; KRAMER, VICKI L.

    2007-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) transmission generally involves a mosquito vector and an avian reservoir host, with mammals as incidental hosts. Although most mammalian WNV infections cause low or no morbidity or mortality, tree squirrels are susceptible to WNV-associated neurologic disease with infection prevalence comparable to that in dead birds. Positive species included fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), western gray squirrel (S. griseus), and eastern gray squirrel (S. carolinensis). Kidney tissue (dissected and swabbed), and oropharyngeal (oral) swab samples from tree squirrels submitted by California vector control and rehabilitation agencies were tested by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction; cycle threshold values were similar for all three samples, ranging from 21.9 to 26.5. Kidney tissue was more sensitive than oral swabs for detecting WNV in squirrels. Three of 36 live neurologic tree squirrels had viremia approximately 5 log10 plaque-forming units/mL or greater, similar to WNV-infected birds. Tree squirrels are useful in WNV surveillance and provide localized evidence of WNV transmission to mammals. PMID:17488896

  17. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  18. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia.

  19. Are probiotics effective to prevent traveler’s diarrhea?

    PubMed

    Pinos, Yazmín; Castro-Gutiérrez, Victoria; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-12-23

    La diarrea aguda es la enfermedad más común que afecta a los viajeros, principalmente aquellos que se dirigen a regiones de alto riesgo. El uso de probióticos podría prevenir su aparición, sin embargo, los datos que apoyan su uso no son consistentes y no se recomiendan en las guías clínicas actuales. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples bases de datos, identificamos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen siete estudios aleatorizados pertinentes a esta pregunta. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que los probióticos podrían prevenir la diarrea del viajero, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja.

  20. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  1. [Life style, dietary habits and nutritional evaluation of Hospital de Mérida health professionals].

    PubMed

    Márquez Moreno, Raúl; Beato Víbora, Pilar Isabel; Tormo García, M Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Se estudiaron hábitos de vida y diversos aspectos nutricionales y la relación entre ellos en personal sanitario del Hospital de Mérida del Servicio Extremeño de Salud (SES). MÉTODO: Se contó con la participación voluntaria de 43 trabajadores en activo los cuales autorrealizaron un cuestionario de datos personales, estilos de vida y un registro alimentario de siete días. Además se les midieron una serie de datos antropométricos.

  2. The use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    M Cristina Fossi And Letizia Marsili

    1997-01-01

    Marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. Most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. The development of a series of non destructive techniques to evaluate biomarker responses and residue levels is recommended for the hazard assessment and conservation of endangered species of marine mammals. Here we review the current status of the non destructive biomarker approach in marine mammals, describing the biological materials available for non destructive tests in stranded brain, liver, blood, skin, subcutaneous blubber, muscle and fur and free ranging animals blood, skin biopsy, fur and faeces and the respective biomarker techniques mixed function oxidase activity and DNA damage in skin biopsy samples; porphyrins in faeces and fur; esterases, porphyrins, clinical biochemical parameter, vitamin A and micronuclei in blood samples. Residue analysis can be carried out in the various biological materials. We also report the results of applying this methodological approach to cetaceans minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, fin whale-- Balaenoptera physalus, beluga whale-- Delphinapterus leucas, short finned pilot whale-- Globicephala macrorhynchus, harbour porpoise -- Phocoena phocoena, Rissos dolphin-- Risso s Grampus griseus, Dall s porpoise-- Phocoenoides dalli dalli, melon headed whale-- Peponocephala electra, bottlenose dolphin -- Tursiops truncatus, striped dolphin-- Stenella coeruleoalba, spinner dolphin-- Stenella longirostris, killer whale-- Orcinus orca and pinnipeds northern fur seal- Callorhinus ursinus, hooded seal-- Cystophora cristata, grey seal-- Halichoerus grypus, harbour seal-- Phoca vitulina

  3. [Micirobial diversity and screening of antitumor activity of actinomycete strains from saline and alkaline environments in the Qinghai Province, P. R. China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Jiang, Yi; Li, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Long; Xu, Li-Hua

    2007-10-01

    Soil and sediment samples were collected from saline and alkaline soils or lakes in the Qinghai Province, northwestern China. 145 actinomycete strains were isolated using Glucose-Peptone-Yeast extract agar (GPY) and ISP medium 2 agar supplemented with 1.0 - 3.0 mol/L NaCl at pH 7.5 - 10. The antitumor activities in vitro of the fermentation broth extracts from the 145 test strains were detected in 6 human tumor cell lines (gastric cancer GXF251L, lung cancer LXFL529L, mammary cancer MAXF401NL, melanoma cancer MEXF462NL, renal cancer RXF486L and uterus cancer UXF1138L). Out of 145 test strains, 26 strains were positive in antitumor activities (17.9%), among them 19 strains belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, 7 strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Then 8 antitumor-positive strains were submitted for 16S rRNA gene amplification and phylogenetic analysis after a comparison of antitumor activities, morphological, physiological characteristics and whole cell amino acids analysis. The results suggested that strain YIM 80139 is a member of a known Streptomyces species S. griseus, while strain YIM 80038 may represent a potential new Streptomyce species, and that the other 6 strains may represent 4 potential new species of the genus Nocardiopsis. The results presented above showed that actinomycetes isolated from saline and alkaline samples are important resources for bioactive compounds, and the abundant microbial diversity in the saline and alkaline environments in the Qinghai Province, Northwestern China is attractive for further investigation.

  4. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  5. Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic substrates for enhanced delignification and enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Saritha, M; Arora, Anju; Lata

    2012-06-01

    Sheer enormity of lignocellulosics makes them potential feedstock for biofuel production but, their conversion into fermentable sugars is a major hurdle. They have to be pretreated physically, chemically, or biologically to be used by fermenting organisms for production of ethanol. Each lignocellulosic substrate is a complex mix of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, bound in a matrix. While cellulose and hemicellulose yield fermentable sugars, lignin is the most recalcitrant polymer, consisting of phenyl-propanoid units. Many microorganisms in nature are able to attack and degrade lignin, thus making access to cellulose easy. Such organisms are abundantly found in forest leaf litter/composts and especially include the wood rotting fungi, actinomycetes and bacteria. These microorganisms possess enzyme systems to attack, depolymerize and degrade the polymers in lignocellulosic substrates. Current pretreatment research is targeted towards developing processes which are mild, economical and environment friendly facilitating subsequent saccharification of cellulose and its fermentation to ethanol. Besides being the critical step, pretreatment is also cost intensive. Biological treatments with white rot fungi and Streptomyces have been studied for delignification of pulp, increasing digestibility of lignocellulosics for animal feed and for bioremediation of paper mill effluents. Such lignocellulolytic organisms can prove extremely useful in production of bioethanol when used for removal of lignin from lignocellulosic substrate and also for cellulase production. Our studies on treatment of hardwood and softwood residues with Streptomyces griseus isolated from leaf litter showed that it enhanced the mild alkaline solubilisation of lignins and also produced high levels of the cellulase complex when growing on wood substrates. Lignin loss (Klason lignin) observed was 10.5 and 23.5% in case of soft wood and hard wood, respectively. Thus, biological pretreatment process for

  6. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    PubMed Central

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  7. Mercury bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in sympatric snapper species from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Chesney, Edward; Shine, James P; Maage, Amund; Senn, David B

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of marine fish is a major route of toxic methyl mercury (MeHg) exposure to ocean apex predators and human populations. Here we explore the influence of trophic structure on total mercury (Hg) accumulation in red snapper (RS, Lutjanus campechanus) and gray snapper (GS, Lutjanus griseus) from the coastal Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi River. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the effectiveness of the use of offshore recreational fishing charter boats and marinas as sources of fish samples and (2) compare species differences in Hg bioaccumulation, trophic position, and carbon sources. Our data show that length-normalized Hg concentrations (> or = 97% as MeHg in tissue of both species) were 230% greater in GS in comparison to RS collected from the same general area. Stable C and N isotope signatures (delta15N and delta13C) indicate that GS occupy a slightly higher trophic position (approximately 30% of one trophic position higher) on the Gulf food web in comparison to RS and that GS appear to incorporate higher trophic positioned prey, continually and at smaller sizes. Mercury was strongly correlated with combined delta15N and delta13C in pooled species data, arguing that most of the substantial difference in Hg bioaccumulation between RS and GS can be explained by modest differences in their trophic position and, to a lesser degree, carbon sources, which had low variation and high overlap among species. These observations demonstrate that even minor to moderate differences in trophic position and food habits in sympatric species can create relatively large differences in bioaccumulation regimes and underscores the importance of quantitative characterization of trophic structure in marine MeHg bioaccumulation studies.

  8. Cleavage of peptide bonds bearing ionizable amino acids at P{sub 1} by serine proteases with hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Qasim, Mohammad A.; Song, Jikui; Markley, John L.; Laskowski, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Large pK shifts in ionizable groups when buried in the protein interior. {yields} Substrate dependent shifts in pH optimum for serine proteases. {yields} Lys side chain is a stronger acid in serine protease S{sub 1} pocket than Asp side chain. -- Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Xxx-pNA (where Xxx = Leu, Asp or Lys) catalyzed by bovine chymotrypsin (CHYM) or Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) has been studied at different pH values in the pH range 3-11. The pH optima for substrates having Leu, Asp, and Lys have been found to be 7.5-8.0, 5.5-6.0, and {approx}10, respectively. At the normally reported pH optimum (pH 7-8) of CHYM and SGPB, the substrate with Leu at the reactive site is more than 25,000-fold more reactive than that with Asp. However, when fully protonated, Asp is nearly as good a substrate as Leu. The pK values of the side chains of Asp and Lys in the hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket of CHYM and SGPB have been calculated from pH-dependent hydrolysis data and have been found to be about 9 for Asp and 7.4 and 9.7 for Lys for CHYM and SGPB, respectively. The results presented in this communication suggest a possible application of CHYM like enzymes in cleaving peptide bonds contributed by acidic amino acids between pH 5 and 6.

  9. Synthesis and uptake of the compatible solutes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in response to salt and heat stresses.

    PubMed

    Bursy, Jan; Kuhlmann, Anne U; Pittelkow, Marco; Hartmann, Holger; Jebbar, Mohamed; Pierik, Antonio J; Bremer, Erhard

    2008-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) synthesizes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine upon the imposition of either salt (0.5 M NaCl) or heat stress (39 degrees C). The cells produced the highest cellular levels of these compatible solutes when both stress conditions were simultaneously imposed. Protection against either severe salt (1.2 M NaCl) or heat stress (39 degrees C) or a combination of both environmental cues could be accomplished by adding low concentrations (1 mM) of either ectoine or 5-hydroxyectoine to S. coelicolor A3(2) cultures. The best salt and heat stress protection was observed when a mixture of ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine (0.5 mM each) was provided to the growth medium. Transport assays with radiolabeled ectoine demonstrated that uptake was triggered by either salt or heat stress. The most effective transport and accumulation of [(14)C]ectoine by S. coelicolor A3(2) were achieved when both environmental cues were simultaneously applied. Our results demonstrate that the accumulation of the compatible solutes ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine allows S. coelicolor A3(2) to fend off the detrimental effects of both high salinity and high temperature on cell physiology. We also characterized the enzyme (EctD) required for the synthesis of 5-hydroxyectoine from ectoine, a hydroxylase of the superfamily of the non-heme-containing iron(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (EC 1.14.11). The gene cluster (ectABCD) encoding the enzymes for ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine biosynthesis can be found in the genome of S. coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces scabiei, and Streptomyces chrysomallus, suggesting that these compatible solutes play an important role as stress protectants in the genus Streptomyces.

  10. No energetic cost of anthropogenic disturbance in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Butler, Luke K.; Hayden, Tim J.; Romero, L. Michael; Wikelski, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic or natural disturbances can have a significant impact on wild animals. Therefore, understanding when, how and what type of human and natural events disturb animals is a central problem in wildlife conservation. However, it can be difficult to identify which particular environmental stressor affects an individual most. We use heart rate telemetry to quantify the energy expenditure associated with different types of human-mediated and natural disturbances in a breeding passerine, the white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus). We fitted 0.5 g heart rate transmitters to 14 male vireos and continuously recorded heart rate and activity for two days and three nights on a military installation. We calibrated heart rate to energy expenditure for five additional males using an open-flow, push-through respirometry system showing that heart rate predicted 74 per cent of energy expenditure. We conducted standardized disturbance trials in the field to experimentally simulate a natural stressor (predator presence) and two anthropogenic stressors. Although birds initially showed behavioural and heart rate reactions to some disturbances, we could not detect an overall increase in energy expenditure during 1- or 4-hours disturbances. Similarly, overall activity rates were unaltered between control and experimental periods, and birds continued to perform parental duties despite the experimental disturbances. We suggest that vireos quickly determined that disturbances were non-threatening and thus showed no (costly) physiological response. We hypothesize that the lack of a significant response to disturbance in vireos is adaptive and may be representative of animals with fast life histories (e.g. short lifespan, high reproductive output) so as to maximize energy allocation to reproduction. Conversely, we predict that energetic cost of human-mediated disturbances will be significant in slow-living animals. PMID:19129135

  11. Species Delimitation in Taxonomically Difficult Fungi: The Case of Hymenogaster

    PubMed Central

    Stielow, Benjamin; Bratek, Zoltan; Orczán, Akos Kund I.; Rudnoy, Szabolcs; Hensel, Gunnar; Hoffmann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background False truffles are ecologically important as mycorrhizal partners of trees and evolutionarily highly interesting as the result of a shift from epigeous mushroom-like to underground fruiting bodies. Since its first description by Vittadini in 1831, inappropriate species concepts in the highly diverse false truffle genus Hymenogaster has led to continued confusion, caused by a large variety of prevailing taxonomical opinions. Methodology In this study, we reconsidered the species delimitations in Hymenogaster based on a comprehensive collection of Central European taxa comprising more than 140 fruiting bodies from 20 years of field work. The ITS rDNA sequence dataset was subjected to phylogenetic analysis as well as clustering optimization using OPTSIL software. Conclusions Among distinct species concepts from the literature used to create reference partitions for clustering optimization, the broadest concept resulted in the highest agreement with the ITS data. Our results indicate a highly variable morphology of H. citrinus and H. griseus, most likely linked to environmental influences on the phenology (maturity, habitat, soil type and growing season). In particular, taxa described in the 19th century frequently appear as conspecific. Conversely, H. niveus appears as species complex comprising seven cryptic species with almost identical macro- and micromorphology. H. intermedius and H. huthii are described as novel species, each of which with a distinct morphology intermediate between two species complexes. A revised taxonomy for one of the most taxonomically difficult genera of Basidiomycetes is proposed, including an updated identification key. The (semi-)automated selection among species concepts used here is of importance for the revision of taxonomically problematic organism groups in general. PMID:21311589

  12. Comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the hearts of cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Alastair A; Carr, Peter A; Currie, Richard J W

    2007-07-01

    The structure of the cardiac foramen ovale from 17 species representing six cetacean families, the Monodontidae, Phocoenidae, Delphinidae, Ziphiidae, Balaenidae and the Balaenopteridae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. Eight white whale fetuses (Delphinapterus leucas) and a narwhal fetus (Monodon monoceros) represented the Monodontidae; one fetal and nine neonatal harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and a finless porpoise fetus (Neophocoena phocoenoides) represented the Phocoenidae; two white-beaked dolphin fetuses (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), four fetal and one neonatal Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus), a Risso's dolphin fetus (Grampus griseus), two common bottle-nosed dolphin neonates (Tursiops truncatus), a female short-beaked common dolphin fetus (Delphinus delphis), four killer whale fetuses (Orcinus orca) and two long-finned pilot whale fetuses (Globicephala melas) represented the Delphinidae; two northern bottlenose whale fetuses (Hyperoodon ampullatus) represented the Ziphiidae; one bowhead whale fetus (Balaena mysticetus) represented the Balaenidae and five Common minke whale fetuses (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), one blue whale fetus (Balaenoptera musculus), nine fin whale fetuses (Balaenoptera physalus) and four humpback whale fetuses (Megaptera novaeangliae) represented the Balaenopteridae. The hearts of an additional two incompletely identified toothed and four baleen whale fetuses were also studied. In each species the fold of tissue derived from the cardiac septum primum and subtended by the foramen ovale had the appearance of a short tunnel or sleeve which was fenestrated at its distal end. In the toothed whales the tissue fold was tunnel-shaped with the interatrial septum as the floor whereas in baleen whales it was more sleeve-like. In toothed whales thin threads extended from the fold to insert into the interatrial septum whereas a network of threads covered the distal end of the sleeve in the baleen

  13. Foods, trophic relationships, and migration of Sooty and Short-tailed Shearwaters associated with squid and large-mesh driftnet fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, Patrick J.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Walker, William

    2000-01-01

    We salvaged dead birds from high seas driftnets in the Central North Pacific Ocean during a study of the impact of high seas driftnet fishing on marine ecosystems. Digestive tract contents and stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in breast muscles of these birds were analyzed to assess the effect of driftnets on the trophic relationships of marine birds. The diets of Sooty (Puffinus griseus) and Short-tailed (P. tenuirostris) Shearwaters associated with high seas driftnets in the transitional region of the North Pacific Ocean overlap broadly. The principal differences between them include 1) Sooties prey more heavily on immature stages of invertebrates, especially the barnacle Lepas fascicularis than do Short-tails, 2) Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) are the primary fish taken by Sooties while lanternfish (Myctophidae) are the primary fish taken by Short-tails, and 3) Sooties take a wider variety of prey than do Short-tails. During the last years of extensive high seas driftnet fishing (early 1990's), both shearwaters augmented their diets with about 15% offal and discards from fishing vessels. Values for stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in breast muscle tissues (δ15N and δ15C) indicate the extent and timing of movements of Sooty Shearwaters: including arrival of migrants from the south Pacific (April-May), east to west movement from the eastern Pacific (May-June), and west to east movement from Japan (August-September). Fall migrant Sooties were not detected. The only movements of Short-tails that we detected were a few south-bound migrants in September-November.

  14. Seasonal and Ontogenetic Changes in Movement Patterns of Sixgill Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kelly S.; Williams, Greg D.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding movement patterns is fundamental to population and conservation biology. The way an animal moves through its environment influences the dynamics of local populations and will determine how susceptible it is to natural or anthropogenic perturbations. It is of particular interest to understand the patterns of movement for species which are susceptible to human activities (e.g. fishing), or that exert a large influence on community structure, such as sharks. Methodology/Principal Findings We monitored the patterns of movement of 34 sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus using two large-scale acoustic arrays inside and outside Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Sixgill sharks were residents in Puget Sound for up to at least four years before making large movements out of the estuary. Within Puget Sound, sixgills inhabited sites for several weeks at a time and returned to the same sites annually. Across four years, sixgills had consistent seasonal movements in which they moved to the north from winter to spring and moved to the south from summer to fall. Just prior to leaving Puget Sound, sixgills altered their behavior and moved twice as fast among sites. Nineteen of the thirty-four sixgills were detected leaving Puget Sound for the outer coast. Three of these sharks returned to Puget Sound. Conclusions/Significance For most large marine predators, we have a limited understanding of how they move through their environment, and this clouds our ability to successfully manage their populations and their communities. With detailed movement information, such as that being uncovered with acoustic monitoring, we can begin to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of large predators within the framework of their ecosystems. PMID:20838617

  15. Evaluation of neophobia and its potential impact upon predator control techniques: a study on two sympatric foxes in southern Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Travaini, Alejandro; Vassallo, Aldo Iván; García, Germán Oscar; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Zapata, Sonia Cristina; Nielsen, Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    An alternative approach to increase the efficiency of predator control and selectivity is to consider the natural behavioural repertoire of the target species and how such behaviours may increase their vulnerability. Neophobia, or the hesitancy to approach a novel food item, object, or place, is an important factor influencing the investigative behaviour of animals, and its incorporation to predator control techniques may help to reduce losses of livestock to predators. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated the existence and intensity of neophobic responses in two sympatric fox species, the Culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus) and the Grey (P. griseus) foxes in southern Patagonia, Argentina. For this purpose, we used bait stations to compare fox behavioural responses in the absence (pre-treatment), presence (treatment) and removal (post-treatment) of a novel stimulus, which consisted of an orange PVC-traffic cone. Both fox species showed a neophobic response: bait-station visitation rates decreased (P=0.005 and P=0.048, for Culpeo and Grey foxes, respectively) in the presence of the novel object. The intensity of the response differed between species being higher for Culpeo foxes (approximately 80% of reduction in visitation rate during treatment for Culpeo foxes vs. 10% for Grey foxes). However, the bait-station visitation pattern after novel object removal indicated that animals probably increased exploration of the station. The high level of neophobia achieved by the Culpeo fox, together with an increase in post-treatment site exploration, suggests that behavioural manipulations (reduction of neophobia and its consequent increase in risk taking) could improve selective and efficient fox control in rural areas where livestock production is a major economic activity.

  16. A 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of lemurs kept in two zoos in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites may be a major threat to lemurs kept in captivity, as they are a common cause of diarrhea. In this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in 40 lemurs kept under different husbandry and climatic conditions at two sites in Madagascar. Involved species were black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), eastern grey bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus), greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus), red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer), common brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus), crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus), and Sclater's black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). At site 1 (Tsimbazaza Zoological Park), lemurs were kept in small enclosures with daily cleaning of the cement soiling and without routine anthelmintic program, whereas at site 2 (Ivoloina Zoological Park), lemurs received routine anthelmintic prophylaxis and were housed in small enclosure with daily cleaning of sandy soil enclosures. A total of five genera of nematode eggs from the orders Strongylida, Oxyurida, and Enoplida were recovered and identified from 198 out of 240 samples (83%) at site 1 and 79% (189 out of 240) at site 2 with the use of a modified McMaster technique. Significant differences were found for parasites from the order Strongylida between the two sites. The differences may be due to climate conditions and the presumed life cycle of these parasites. No significant differences were found for parasites from the other orders. No significant differences were noted between sexes or between seasons. No clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in either lemur collection.

  17. The use of DNA barcoding to monitor the marine mammal biodiversity along the French Atlantic coast

    PubMed Central

    Alfonsi, Eric; Méheust, Eleonore; Fuchs, Sandra; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Quillivic, Yann; Viricel, Amélia; Hassani, Sami; Jung, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the last ten years, 14 species of cetaceans and five species of pinnipeds stranded along the Atlantic coast of Brittany in the North West of France. All species included, an average of 150 animals strand each year in this area. Based on reports from the stranding network operating along this coast, the most common stranding events comprise six cetacean species (Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Phocoena phocoena)and one pinniped species (Halichoerus grypus). Rare stranding events include deep-diving or exotic species, such as arctic seals. In this study, our aim was to determine the potential contribution of DNA barcoding to the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity as performed by the stranding network. We sequenced more than 500 bp of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial COI gene of 89 animals of 15 different species (12 cetaceans, and three pinnipeds). Except for members of the Delphininae, all species were unambiguously discriminated on the basis of their COI sequences. We then applied DNA barcoding to identify some “undetermined” samples. With again the exception of the Delphininae, this was successful using the BOLD identification engine. For samples of the Delphininae, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial control region (MCR), and using a non-metric multidimentional scaling plot and posterior probability calculations we were able to determine putatively each species. We then showed, in the case of the harbour porpoise, that COI polymorphisms, although being lower than MCR ones, could also be used to assess intraspecific variability. All these results show that the use of DNA barcoding in conjunction with a stranding network could clearly increase the accuracy of the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity. PMID:24453548

  18. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  19. Production of marker-free disease-resistant potato using isopentenyl transferase gene as a positive selection marker.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    The use of antibiotic or herbicide resistant genes as selection markers for production of transgenic plants and their continuous presence in the final transgenics has been a serious problem for their public acceptance and commercialization. MAT (multi-auto-transformation) vector system has been one of the different strategies to excise the selection marker gene and produce marker-free transgenic plants. In the present study, ipt (isopentenyl transferase) gene was used as a selection marker gene. A chitinase gene, ChiC (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) was used as a gene of interest. ChiC gene was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH1 to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21 by gateway cloning and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. The infected tuber discs of potato were cultured on hormone- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Seven of the 35 explants infected with the pMAT21/ChiC produced shoots. The same antibiotic- and hormones-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the shoots (ipt like and normal shoots). Molecular analyses of genomic DNA from transgenic plants confirmed the integration of gene of interest and excision of the selection marker in 3 of the 7 clones. Expression of ChiC gene was confirmed by Northern blot and western blot analyses. Disease-resistant assay of the marker-free transgenic, in vitro and greenhouse-grown plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Alternaria solani (early blight), Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt). From these results it could be concluded that ipt gene can be used as a selection marker to produce marker-free disease-resistant transgenic potato plants on PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium.

  20. Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Iafrate, Joseph D.; Watwood, Stephanie L.; Reyier, Eric A.; Scheidt, Douglas M.; Dossot, Georges A.; Crocker, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of pile driving occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. Behavioral impacts of sound generated from these activities on fish typically have a greater area of influence than physical injury, and may therefore adversely affect a greater portion of the local population. This study used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement, residency, and survival of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus) in Port Canaveral, Florida, USA, in response to 35 days of pile driving at a wharf complex. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. Received sound pressure levels from pile strikes on the interior of the wharf, where reef fish primarily occur, were on average 152–157 dB re 1 μPa (peak). No significant decrease in sheepshead daytime residency was observed during pile driving within the central portion of the wharf and area of highest sound exposure, and no major indicators of displacement from the exposure wharf with the onset of pile driving were observed. There was evidence of potential displacement from the exposure wharf that coincided with the start of pile driving observed for 2 out of 4 grey snapper, along with a decrease in daytime residency for a subset of this species with high site fidelity prior to the event. Results indicate that snapper may be more likely to depart an area of pile driving disturbance more readily than sheepshead, but were less at risk for behavioral impact given the lower site fidelity of this species. PMID:27880786

  1. Nesting success of birds in different silvicultural treatments in southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, D.R.; Martin, T.E.; Melchiors, M.A.; Thill, R.E.; Wigley, T.B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined nesting success and levels of nest predation and cowbird parasitism among five different silvicultural treatments: regenerating (3-6 years old), mid-rotation (12-15 years old), and thinned (17-23 years old) pine plantations, single-tree selection, and late-rotation pine-hardwood stands in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas from 1993 to 1995. We monitored 1674 nests. Differences in daily mortality and daily predation rate among two or more treatments were found for 4 and 3 of 12 species, respectively. These differences were lost following Bonferroni adjustments, but thinned stands had higher levels of predation than single-tree selection stands when predation levels were averaged across species. Daily predation rates were positively correlated with the relative abundance of birds, suggesting that nest predators respond to prey availability (i.e., nests) in a density-dependent manner. The relative abundance of cowbirds differed among treatments, with the highest densities in regenerating, thinned, and single-tree selection stands. Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) experienced higher levels of parasitism in thinned than regenerating plantations, whereas White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus) experienced higher parasitism in regenerating plantations than in mid-rotation or thinned plantations. Several shrub-nesting and 1 ground-nesting species had lower nesting success in thinned and regenerating plantations than has been reported in previously published studies. Thus, some seral stages of even-aged management may provide low-quality nesting habitat for several early-successional bird species. In contrast, many species nesting in mid-rotation and single-tree selection stands had nesting success similar to or greater than that found in previous studies, suggesting that some silvicultural treatments, when embedded in a largely forested landscape, may provide suitable habitat for forest land birds without affecting their

  2. Gene expression pattern of KIFC3 during spermatogenesis of the skink Eumeces chinensis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Rao; Liu, Mei; Hou, Cong-Cong; She, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Da-Hui; Hao, Shuang-Li; Zhang, Yong-Pu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2015-02-10

    Kinesin superfamily is a class of microtubule-dependent motors that play crucial roles in acrosome biogenesis, nuclear reshaping and flagellum formation during spermiogenesis. We have cloned kinesin-like gene kifc3 (termed ec-kifc3) from the total RNA of the testis of the skink Eumeces chinensis. The cDNA sequence of ec-kifc3 had a full-length of 3033bp, including a 260bp 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR), a 445bp 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) and an open reading frame that encoded a 775-amino-acid protein. Additionally, the calculated molecular weight of the putative ec-KIFC3 was 87kDa and its estimated isoelectric point was 6.18. Structurally, the putative ec-KIFC3 had three domains: head domain, neck domain and tail domain. Protein alignment demonstrated that ec-KIFC3 had 47.2%, 67.8%, 68.8%, 69.3% and 76.8% identity with its homologues in Xenopus laevis, Mus musculus, Cricetulus griseus, Homo sapiens, and Gallus gallus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that ec-KIFC3 was more related to KIFC3 in vertebrates than invertebrates. Tissue expression results showed the presence of ec-KIFC3 in various tissues with its highest expression in the testis. In situ hybridization demonstrated that ec-KIFC3 mRNA was distributed around the nucleus in early and middle stage spermatids and expressed in the nucleus in the elongating spermatids during spermiogenesis. Besides, the ec-KIFC3 mRNA was expressed in the acrosome of the developmental spermatids. From the results of in situ hybridization and previous researches, we speculated that ec-KIFC3 may play a role in nuclear morphogenesis and acrosome formation during spermiogenesis of E. chinensis.

  3. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales

    SciTech Connect

    Au, W.W.; Nachtigall, P.E.; Pawloski, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-Hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. One of the major concerns is the possible effect of the ATOC signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. In order to address this issue, the hearing sensitivity of a false killer whale ({ital Pseudorca crassidens}) and a Risso{close_quote}s dolphin ({ital Grampus griseus}) to the ATOC sound was measured behaviorally. A staircase procedure with the signal levels being changed in 1-dB steps was used to measure the animals{close_quote} threshold to the actual ATOC coded signal. The results indicate that small odontocetes such as the {ital Pseudorca} and {ital Grampus} swimming directly above the ATOC source will not hear the signal unless they dive to a depth of approximately 400 m. A sound propagation analysis suggests that the sound-pressure level at ranges greater than 0.5 km will be less than 130 dB for depths down to about 500 m. Several species of baleen whales produce sounds much greater than 170{endash}180 dB. With the ATOC source on the axis of the deep sound channel (greater than 800 m), the ATOC signal will probably have minimal physical and physiological effects on cetaceans. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  4. First description of deep-water elasmobranch assemblages in the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Edward J.; Brooks, Annabelle M. L.; Williams, Sean; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Abercrombie, Debra; Chapman, Demian D.; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A.; Grubbs, R. Dean

    2015-05-01

    Deep-sea chondrichthyans, like many deep-water fishes, are very poorly understood at the most fundamental biological, ecological and taxonomic levels. Our study represents the first ecological investigation of deep-water elasmobranch assemblages in The Bahamas, and the first assessment of species-specific resilience to capture for all of the species captured. Standardised deep-water longline surveys (n=69) were conducted September to December 2010 and 2011 between 472 m and 1024 m deep, resulting in the capture of 144 sharks from 8 different species. These included the Cuban dogfish, Squalus cubensis, the bigeye sixgill shark, Hexanchus nakamurai, the bluntnose sixgill shark, Hexanchus griseus, the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis insularis, the roughskin dogfish, Centroscymnus owstoni, Springer's sawtail catshark, Galeus springeri and the false catshark, Pseudotriakis microdon. Preliminary genetic analysis indicated two or more species of gulper sharks, Centrophorus spp.; however, for the present study they were treated as a single species complex. Water depth and distance from the rocky structure of the Exuma Sound wall were inversely correlated with species richness, whereas seabed temperature was directly correlated with species richness. These variables also had a significant influence on the abundance and distribution of many species. Expanded depth ranges were established for S. cubensis and H. nakamurai, which, in the case of S. cubensis, is thought to be driven by thermal preferences. At-vessel mortality rates increased significantly with depth, and post-release mortality was thought to be high for some species, in part due to high post-release predation. This study highlights the importance of utilising strategic geographic locations that provide easy access to deep water, in combination with traditional expedition-based deep-ocean science, to accelerate the acquisition of fundamental ecological and biological insights into deep-sea elasmobranchs.

  5. The Influence of Topographic and Dynamic Cyclic Variables on the Distribution of Small Cetaceans in a Shallow Coastal System

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Marijke N.; Simmonds, Mark P.; Reijnders, Peter J. H.; Aarts, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. To study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and the poorly known Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from Bardsey Island (Wales, UK) in summer (2001–2007). Using Kernel analysis and Generalized Additive Models it was shown that porpoises and Risso’s appeared to be linked to topographic and dynamic cyclic variables with both species using different core areas (dolphins to the West and porpoises to the East off Bardsey). Depth, slope and aspect and a low variation in current speed (for Risso’s) were important in explaining the patchy distributions for both species. The prime temporal conditions in these shallow coastal systems were related to the tidal cycle (Low Water Slack and the flood phase), lunar cycle (a few days following the neap tidal phase), diel cycle (afternoons) and seasonal cycle (peaking in August) but differed between species on a temporary but predictable basis. The measure of tidal stratification was shown to be important. Coastal waters generally show a stronger stratification particularly during neap tides upon which the phytoplankton biomass at the surface rises reaching its maximum about 2–3 days after neap tide. It appeared that porpoises occurred in those areas where stratification is maximised and Risso’s preferred more mixed waters. This fine-scale study provided a temporal insight into spatial distribution of two species that single studies conducted over broader scales (tens or hundreds of kilometers) do not achieve. Understanding which topographic and cyclic variables drive the patchy distribution of porpoises and Risso’s in a Headland/Island system may form the initial basis for identifying potentially critical habitats for these species. PMID:24466031

  6. Host specificity of Oschmarinella rochebruni and Brachycladium atlanticum (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) in five cetacean species from western Mediterranean waters.

    PubMed

    Mateu, P; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2011-03-01

    We investigated patterns of specificity of liver flukes (fam. Brachycladiidae) in a community of cetaceans from the western Mediterranean. The liver and pancreas of 103 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, 18 Risso's dolphins, Grampus griseus, 14 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, 8 common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, and 5 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas, were analysed for brachycladiid species. Two species were found: Oschmarinella rochebruni in striped dolphins (prevalence (P): 61.2%; mean intensity (MI) (95% CI): 34.2 (25.7-45.6)), and Brachycladium atlanticum in striped dolphins (P: 39.8%; MI: 7.1 (4.8-13.1)) and a single individual of common dolphin (P: 12.5%; intensity: 19), which represents a new host record. A molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the rDNA gene confirmed that specimens of B. atlanticum were conspecific regardless of host species. Available dietary data suggest that Risso's dolphins, bottlenose dolphins and long-finned pilot whales would contact rarely, if at all, the infective stages of O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum. Neither the prevalence nor the mean abundance of B. atlanticum differed significantly between striped and common dolphins, but a principal component analysis using seven morphometric variables indicated that specimens collected from the common dolphin were stunted. These worms also had fewer eggs compared with specimens typically found in striped dolphins, although the size of the eggs was similar in both host species. Dwarfism and low fecundity have typically been found in helminths infecting unusual host species, and might reflect the lower compatibility of B. atlanticum for common dolphins. In summary, both O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum appear to exhibit a narrow specificity for striped dolphins in the western Mediterranean.

  7. The role of the white-eyed vireo in the dispersal of bersera fruit on the Yucatan Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenberg, R.; Foster, M.S.; Marquez-Valdelamar, L.

    1995-01-01

    White-eyed vireos (Vireo griseus) winter in the forests and secondary growth of the Yucatan Peninsula where Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is an abundant tree Twenty-five per cent of all white-eyed vireos observed foraging visited Bursera trees In addition, presence and abundance of territorial white-eyed vireos in small forest patches were correlated with the size of the Bursera crop Vireos were the most reliable dispersers of Bursera seeds These birds visited 32 of 35 trees observed for at least three hours. They accounted for approximately half of all bird visits, and two-thirds of the seeds dispersed. Most of the other species rarely visited (<5% of visits) or failed to remove seeds from the tree. Peculiarities of phenology and fruit structure may contribute to the tendency of Bursera to be dispersed by relatively few species The capsules of Bursera fruits do not open when the fruit ripens; birds apparently locate ripe fruit using visual cues, although these are few In addition, only a small portion of the crop ripens daily over a 7- or 8-month period. The vireo-Bursera simaruba relationship, found regionally on the Yucatan Peninsula, may result from the prolonged fruit ripening period (October-March), the relatively depauperate frugivore community and the relatively high density of small Bursera trees in the hurricane-disturbed dry forests. Small trees at all times, and all trees from October to February, depend upon territorial vireos for continuous, highly efficient local dispersal of a small number of fruits In March and April residual fruits ripen rapidly and synchronously, attracting a greater variety of visitors for broad spectrum dispersal during a period of food scarcity. Thus, Bursera has an unusual two-phase phenological pattern, perhaps alternately to take advantage of both specialized and opportunistic dispersers.

  8. Modeling Nonresident Seabird Foraging Distributions to Inform Ocean Zoning in Central California

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith L.; Howar, Julie; Holzman, Barbara; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seabird aggregations at sea have been shown to be associated with concentrations of prey. Previous research identified Central California as a highly used foraging area for seabirds, with locally breeding seabirds foraging close to their colonies on Southeast Farallon Island. Herein, we focus on nonresident (i.e. non-locally breeding) seabird species off of Central California. We hypothesized that high-use foraging areas for nonresident seabirds would be influenced by oceanographic and bathymetric factors and that spatial and temporal distributions would be similar within planktivorous and generalist foraging guilds but would differ between them. With data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies (ACCESS) partnership during cruises between April and October from 2004–2013, we developed generalized linear models to identify high-use foraging areas for each of six nonresident seabird species. The four generalist species are Phoebastria nigripes (black-footed albatross), Ardenna griseus (sooty shearwater), Ardenna creatopus (pink-footed shearwater), and Fulmarus glacialis (northern fulmar). The two planktivorous species are Phalaropus lobatus (red-necked phalarope) and Phalaropus fulicarius (red phalarope). Sea surface temperature was significant for generalist species and sea surface salinity was important for planktivorous species. The distance to the 200-m isobath was significant in five of six models, Pacific Decadal Oscillation with a 3-month lag in four models, and sea surface fluorescence, the distance to Cordell Bank, and depth in three models. We did not find statistically significant differences between distributions of individual seabird species within a foraging guild or between guilds, with the exception of the sooty shearwater. Model results for a multi-use seabird foraging area highlighted the continental shelf break, particularly within the vicinity of Cordell Bank, as the highest use areas as did Marxan prioritization. Our

  9. Ordination of breeding birds in relation to environmental gradients in three southeastern United States floodplain forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wakeley, J.S.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Antrobus, T.J.; Fischer, R.A.; Barrow, W.C.; Hamel, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    We used an ordination approach to identify factors important to the organization of breeding bird communities in three floodplains: Cache River, Arkansas (AR), Iatt Creek, Louisiana (LA), and the Coosawhatchie River, South Carolina (SC), USA. We used 5-min point counts to sample birds in each study area each spring from 1995 to 1998, and measured ground-surface elevations and a suite of other habitat variables to investigate bird distributions and community characteristics in relation to important environmental gradients. In both AR and SC, the average number of Neotropical migrant species detected was lowest in semipermanently flooded Nyssa aquatica Linnaeus habitats and greatest in the highest elevation floodplain zone. Melanerpes carolinus Linnaeus, Protonotaria citrea Boddaert, Quiscalus quiscula Linnaeus, and other species were more abundant in N. aquatica habitats, whereas Wilsonia citrina Boddaert, Oporornis formosus Wilson, Vireo griseus Boddaert, and others were more abundant in drier floodplain zones. In LA, there were no significant differences in community metrics or bird species abundances among forest types. Canonical correspondence analyses revealed that structural development of understory vegetation was the most important factor affecting bird distributions in all three study areas; however, potential causes of these structural gradients differed. In AR and SC, differences in habitat structure were related to the hydrologic gradient, as indexed by ground-surface elevation. In LA, structural variations were related mainly to the frequency of canopy gaps. Thus, bird communities in all three areas appeared to be organized primarily in response to repeated localized disturbance. Our results suggest that regular disturbance due to flooding plays an important role in structuring breeding bird communities in floodplains subject to prolonged inundation, whereas other agents of disturbance (e.g., canopy gaps) may be more important in headwater systems

  10. Detection of proteases using an immunochemical method with haptenylated-gelatin as a solid-phase substrate.

    PubMed

    Abuknesha, Ramadan A; Jeganathan, Fiona; DeGroot, Rens; Wildeboer, Dirk; Price, Robert G

    2010-04-01

    A simplified method for the measurement of proteases utilising solid-phase substrates incorporating an ELISA end-point detection step is described. Gelatin-hapten conjugates adsorbed onto polystyrene surfaces were found to be efficient substrates for proteases. Digestion of the solid-phase protein-hapten complexes resulted in proportional desorption of the attached conjugates and decrease in the detectable hapten species. Gelatin-cholic acid conjugates, affinity-purified sheep anti-cholic acid antibody-HRP and a chromogenic substrate were incorporated into a convenient and highly sensitive solid-phase immunochemical method. The detectable signal is inversely proportional to enzyme activity. Bacterial proteases (alpha-chymotrypsin Type II, Type IX from Bacillus polymyxa, Type XIV from Streptomyces griseus, Type XXIV from Bacillus licheniformens) were assayed. Dose-response curves for enzyme activities were measured within ranges of 0-550 microunits mL(-1) for chymotrypsin, 0-12 microunits mL(-1) for type IX, 0-35 microunits mL(-1) for type XIV and 0-100 microunits mL(-1) for type XXIV. The detection limits of the proteases studied were 89 microunits mL(-1) for chymotrypsin, 0.26 microunits mL(-1) for type IX, 5.8 microunits mL(-1) for type XIV and 6.5 microunits mL(-1) for type XXIV. It was demonstrated that the two-step immunochemical method combines the simplicity and sensitivity of solid-phase enzyme immunoassays, the broad specificity of gelatin as a protease substrate and the flexibility of the solid-phase format.

  11. Optimisation of the detection of bacterial proteases using adsorbed immunoglobulins as universal substrates.

    PubMed

    Abuknesha, Ram A; Jeganathan, Fiona; Wildeboer, Dirk; Price, Robert G

    2010-06-15

    Bacterial proteases, Type XXIV from Bacillus licheniformens and Type XIV from Streptomyces griseus, were used to investigate the utility and optimisation of a solid phase assay for proteases, using immunoglobulin proteins as substrates. Immunoglobulins IgA and IgG were adsorbed on to surfaces of ELISA plates and exposed to various levels of the bacterial proteases which led to digestion and desorption of proportional amounts of the immunoglobulins. The assay signal was developed by measuring the remaining proteins on the polystyrene surface with appropriate enzyme-labelled anti-immunoglobulin reagents. The assay was fully optimised in terms of substrate levels employing ELISA techniques to titrate levels of adsorbed substrates and protease analytes. The critical factor which influences assay sensitivity was found to be the substrate concentration, the levels of adsorbed immunoglobulins. The estimated detection limits for protease XXIV and XIV were 10micro units/test and 9micro units/test using IgA as a substrate. EC(50) values were calculated as 213 and 48micro units/test for each protease respectively. Using IgG as a substrate, the estimated detection limits were 104micro units/test for protease XXIV and 9micro units/test for protease XIV. EC(50) values were calculated at 529micro units/test and 28micro units/test for protease XXIV and XIV respectively. The solid phase protease assay required no modification of the substrates and the adsorption step is merely simple addition of immunoglobulins to ELISA plates. Adsorption of the immunoglobulins to polystyrene enabled straightforward separation of reaction mixtures prior to development of assay signal. The assay exploits the advantages of the technical facilities of ELISA technology and commercially available reagents enabling the detection and measurement of a wide range of proteases. However, the key issue was found to be that in order to achieve the potential performance of the simple assay, optimisation of the

  12. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  13. Mechanistic role of each metal ion in Streptomyces dinuclear aminopeptidase: PEPTIDE hydrolysis and 7x10(10)-fold rate enhancement of phosphodiester hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Altan; Tay, William M; Grossman, Steven H; Ming, Li-June

    2010-01-01

    The dinuclear aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus (SgAP) and its metal derivatives catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphoester bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) and the phosphonate ester p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonate with extraordinary rate enhancements at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C [A. Ercan, H. I. Park, L.-J. Ming, Biochemistry 45, (2006) 13779-13793.], reaching 6.7 billion-fold in terms of the first-order rate constant of the di-Co(II) derivative with respect to the autohydrolytic rates. Since phosphoesters are transition state-like inhibitors in peptide hydrolysis, their hydrolysis by SgAP is quite novel. Herein, we report the investigation of this proficient alternative catalysis of SgAP and the role of each metal ion in the dinuclear site toward peptide and BNPP hydrolysis. Mn(II) selectively binds to one of the dinuclear metal sites (M1), affording MnE-SgAP with an empty (E) second site for the binding of another metal (M2), including Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II). Peptide hydrolysis is controlled by M2, wherein the k(cat) values for the derivatives MnM2-SgAP are different yet similar between MnCo- and CoCo-SgAP and pairs of other metal derivatives. On the other hand, BNPP hydrolysis is affected by metals in both sites. Thus, the two hydrolytic catalyses must follow different mechanisms. Based on crystal structures, docking, and the results presented herein, the M1 site is close to the hydrophobic specific site and the M2 site is next to Tyr246 that is H-bonded to a coordinated nucleophilic water molecule in peptide hydrolysis; whereas a coordinated water molecule on M1 becomes available as the nucleophile in phosphodiester hydrolysis.

  14. Efficient Transformation of the Cephamycin C Producer Nocardia lactamdurans and Development of Shuttle and Promoter-Probe Cloning Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Vasant; Coque, Juan-Jose R.; Martín, Juan F.

    1994-01-01

    A high transformation efficiency (1 × 105 to 7 × 105 transformants per μg of DNA) of Nocardia lactamdurans LC411 was obtained by direct treatment of mycelium with polyethylene glycol 1000 and cesium chloride. A variety of vectors from Streptomyces lividans, Brevibacterium lactofermentum, Rhodococcus fascians, and a Nocardia (Amycolatopsis) sp. were tested; transformants could be obtained only with vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain DSM 43387. Vectors carrying the kanamycin resistance gene (kan) as a selective marker were constructed. The transformation procedure has been optimized by using one of these vectors (pULVK1) and studying the influence of the age of the culture, concentrations of cesium chloride and polyethylene glycol, amount of plasmid DNA, and nutrient supplementations of the growth medium. Versatile shuttle cloning vectors (pULVK2 and pULVK3) have been developed by subcloning the pBluescript KS(+) multiple cloning site or a synthetic polylinker containing several unique restriction sites (EcoRV, DraI, BamHI, SstI, EcoRI, and HindIII). A second marker, the apramycin resistance gene (amr) has been added to the vectors (pULVK2A), allowing insertional inactivation of one of the markers while using the second one for selection. An alternative marker, the amy gene of Streptomyces griseus (pULAM2), which is easily detected by the release of extracellular amylase in transformants of N. lactamdurans carrying this vector, has been added. Two promoter-probe plasmids, pULVK4 and pULVK5, have been constructed, with the promoterless xylE gene as a reporter, for utilization in N. lactamdurans. Images PMID:16349436

  15. Responses of algae, corals and fish to the reduction of macroalgae in fished and unfished patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T.; McField, M.; Huitric, M.; Bergman, K.; Sala, E.; Nyström, M.; Nordemar, I.; Elfwing, T.; Muthiga, N.

    2001-05-01

    Macroalgae were experimentally reduced by approximately 2.5 kg/m2 on eight similar-sized patch reefs of Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize, in September 1998. Four of these reefs were in a protected "no-take" zone and four were in a "general use" fishing zone. Eight adjacent reefs (four in each management zone) were also studied as unmanipulated controls to determine the interactive effect of algal reduction and fisheries management on algae, coral, fish, and rates of herbivory. The 16 reefs were sampled five times for 1 year after the manipulation. We found that the no-fishing zone had greater population densities for 13 of 30 species of fish, including four herbivorous species, but lower herbivory levels by sea urchins. However, there was lower stony coral cover and higher macroalgal cover in the "no-take" zone, both prior to and after the experiment. There were no significant effects of management on the percent cover of fleshy macroalgae. The algal reduction resulted in an increase in six fish species, including four herbivores and two which feed on invertebrates. One species, Lutjanus griseus, declined in experimental reefs. Macroalgal biomass quickly recovered from the reduction in both management areas within a few months, and by species-level community measures within 1 year, while stony coral was reduced in all treatments. Coral bleaching and Hurricane Mitch disturbed the site at the beginning of the study period and may explain the loss of stony coral and rapid increase in erect algae. We suggest that reducing macroalgae, as a technique to restore turf and encrusting coralline algae and stony corals, may work best after reefs have been fully protected from fishing for a period long enough to allow herbivorous fish to recover (i.e. >5 years). Further ecological studies on Glovers Reef are required to understand the shift from coral to algal dominance that has occurred on this reef in the last 25 years.

  16. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

    PubMed Central

    Takaesu, Azusa; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Takai, Shinji; Sasaki, Yukako; Orino, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit). Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas). The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98) ; L: 98–100%). The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed. PMID:18954429

  17. Mercury in Hazel Bolete Leccinum griseum and soil substratum: Distribution, bioconcentration and dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Krasińska, Grażyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the accumulation and distribution of total mercury (Hg) in fruiting bodies of edible wild-grown mushroom Hazel Bolete Leccinum griseum (Quél.) Singer, collected from six spatially distantly distributed places across Poland and to assess the probable dietary intake of the element by consumers. Mercury content of fungal and soil samples were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) with a direct sample thermal decomposition coupled with gold wool trap of Hg and its further desorption and quantitative measurement at the wavelength of 296 nm. The median values of Hg content in caps of L. griseum collected from less-contaminated places (< 0.10 mg Hg kg(-1) dry matter in upper 0-10 cm layer of soil substratum) were from 0.23 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.43 mg kg(-1) dm. And for more contaminated topsoil (0.15 mg Hg kg(-1) dry matter), the median in caps was about 1.5 mg kg(-1) dry matter. The mushroom L. griseum has potential to accumulate Hg in fruiting bodies, while quantities of this element noted in consignments of this species originating from the forests with typical background values of Hg in topsoil are low. In the light of the published value of PTWI for Hg consumption of fruiting bodies of L. griseus emerged in forests of Poland is without health risk for consumers. Information on total mercury and methylmercury in Fungi of the genus Leccinum is also described briefly.

  18. In vitro study of the proteolytic degradation of Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Paola; Arai, Takayuki; Boschi, Alessandra; Monti, Patrizia; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Freddi, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    In this study, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (Ap-SF) films were incubated with Protease Type XXI from Streptomyces griseus, at 37 degrees C, to investigate the degradation behavior in an in vitro model system. The enzyme-resistant fractions of Ap-SF films and the soluble peptides formed by proteolytic degradation were collected at specified times, from 1 to 17 days, and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, FT-Raman, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Proteolysis resulted in extensive weight loss and progressive fragmentation of films, especially at long degradation times. A range of soluble peptides was formed by proteolysis. By high performance-size exclusion chromatography it was found that their average molecular weight changed with the time of incubation. The chemical analysis of the enzyme-resistant fraction of Ap-SF films at different times of degradation indicated that the proteolytic attack preferentially occurred in the less ordered Gly rich sequences and that the contribution of the Ala rich crystalline regions to the composition of biodegraded films became progressively larger. Accordingly, DSC and spectroscopic results showed an enhancement of the crystalline character of the biodegraded films. From the behavior of the most important thermal transitions, it was deduced that the alpha-helix domains probably represent the most enzyme-resistant fraction. The in vitro approach used in the present study seems to be a valid tool for studying the rate and mechanism of degradation of Ap-SF films and of other biopolymers of potential biomedical utility.

  19. No energetic cost of anthropogenic disturbance in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Butler, Luke K; Hayden, Tim J; Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin C

    2009-03-07

    Anthropogenic or natural disturbances can have a significant impact on wild animals. Therefore, understanding when, how and what type of human and natural events disturb animals is a central problem in wildlife conservation. However, it can be difficult to identify which particular environmental stressor affects an individual most. We use heart rate telemetry to quantify the energy expenditure associated with different types of human-mediated and natural disturbances in a breeding passerine, the white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus). We fitted 0.5g heart rate transmitters to 14 male vireos and continuously recorded heart rate and activity for two days and three nights on a military installation. We calibrated heart rate to energy expenditure for five additional males using an open-flow, push-through respirometry system showing that heart rate predicted 74 per cent of energy expenditure. We conducted standardized disturbance trials in the field to experimentally simulate a natural stressor (predator presence) and two anthropogenic stressors. Although birds initially showed behavioural and heart rate reactions to some disturbances, we could not detect an overall increase in energy expenditure during 1- or 4-hours disturbances. Similarly, overall activity rates were unaltered between control and experimental periods, and birds continued to perform parental duties despite the experimental disturbances. We suggest that vireos quickly determined that disturbances were non-threatening and thus showed no (costly) physiological response. We hypothesize that the lack of a significant response to disturbance in vireos is adaptive and may be representative of animals with fast life histories (e.g. short lifespan, high reproductive output) so as to maximize energy allocation to reproduction. Conversely, we predict that energetic cost of human-mediated disturbances will be significant in slow-living animals.

  20. A secreted aminopeptidase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Identification, primary structure, and relationship to other aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Cahan, R; Axelrad, I; Safrin, M; Ohman, D E; Kessler, E

    2001-11-23

    Using leucine-p-nitroanilide (Leu-pNA) as a substrate, we demonstrated aminopeptidase activity in the culture filtrates of several Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The aminopeptidase was partially purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and found to be heat stable. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was approximately 56 kDa; hence, it was designated AP(56). Heating (70 degrees C) of the partially purified aminopeptidase preparations led to the conversion of AP(56) to a approximately 28-kDa protein (AP(28)) that retained enzyme activity, a reaction that depended on elastase (LasB). The pH optimum for Leu-pNA hydrolysis by AP(28) was 8.5. This activity was inhibited by Zn chelators but not by inhibitors of serine- or thiol-proteases, suggesting that AP(28) is a Zn-dependent enzyme. Of several amino acid p-nitroanilide derivatives examined, Leu-pNA was the preferred substrate. The sequences of the first 20 residues of AP(56) and AP(28) were determined. A search of the P. aeruginosa genomic data base revealed a perfect match of these sequences with positions 39-58 and 273-291, respectively, in a 536-amino acid residue open reading frame predicted to encode an aminopeptidase. A search for sequence similarities with other proteins revealed 52% identity with Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase, approximately 35% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae aminopeptidase Y and a hypothetical aminopeptidase from Bacillus subtilis, and 29-32% with Aeromonas caviae, Vibrio proteolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae aminopeptidases. The residues potentially involved in zinc coordination were conserved in all these proteins. Thus, P. aeruginosa aminopeptidase may belong to the same family (M28) of metalloproteases.

  1. A Functional myo-Inositol Dehydrogenase Gene Is Required for Efficient Nitrogen Fixation and Competitiveness of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191 To Nodulate Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqiao; Krishnan, Ammulu Hari; Kim, Yong-Woong; Wacek, Thomas J.; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2001-01-01

    Inositol derivative compounds provide a nutrient source for soil bacteria that possess the ability to degrade such compounds. Rhizobium strains that are capable of utilizing certain inositol derivatives are better colonizers of their host plants. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the myo-inositol dehydrogenase gene (idhA) of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191, the first enzyme responsible for inositol catabolism. The deduced IdhA protein has a molecular mass of 34,648 Da and shows significant sequence similarity with protein sequences of Sinorhizobium meliloti IdhA and MocA; Bacillus subtilis IolG, YrbE, and YucG; and Streptomyces griseus StrI. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutants revealed no detectable myo-inositol dehydrogenase activity and failed to grow on myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Northern blot analysis and idhA-lacZ fusion expression studies indicate that idhA is inducible by myo-inositol. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutant was drastically affected in its ability to reduce nitrogen and revealed deteriorating bacteroids inside the nodules. The number of bacteria recovered from such nodules was about threefold lower than the number of bacteria isolated from nodules initiated by S. fredii USDA191. In addition, the idhA mutant was also severely affected in its ability to compete with the wild-type strain in nodulating soybean. Under competitive conditions, nodules induced on soybean roots were predominantly occupied by the parent strain, even when the idhA mutant was applied at a 10-fold numerical advantage. Thus, we conclude that a functional idhA gene is required for efficient nitrogen fixation and for competitive nodulation of soybeans by S. fredii USDA191. PMID:11274120

  2. Enamel microstructure in Lemuridae (Mammalia, Primates): assessment of variability.

    PubMed

    Maas, M C

    1994-10-01

    This study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: Hapalemur griseus, Varecia variegata, Lemur catta, Lemur macaco, Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur fulvus fulvus, and Lemur fulvus albifrons. Contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both Lemur and Varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (Hunter-Schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surface layer. In contrast, Hapalemur enamel consists entirely of radial and, near the surface, nonprismatic enamel. In addition, for all species, prism packing patterns differ according to depth from the tooth surface, and for all species but Varecia (which also has the thinnest enamel of any lemurid), average prism area increases from the enamel-dentine junction to the surface; this may be a developmental solution to the problem of accommodating a larger outer surface area with enamel deposited from a fixed number of cells. Finally, contradicting some previous reports, Pattern 1 prisms predominate only in the most superficial prismatic enamel. In the deeper enamel, prism cross-sections include both closed (Pattern 1) and arc-shaped (Pattern 2 or, most commonly, Pattern 3). This sequence of depth-related pattern change is repeated in all taxa. It should also be emphasized that all taxa can exhibit all three prism patterns in their mature enamel. The high degree of quantitative and qualitative variation in prism size, shape, and packing suggests that these features should be used cautiously in phylogenetic studies. Hapalemur is distinguished from the other lemurids by unique, medially constricted or rectangular prism cross-sections at an intermediate depth and the absence of prism decussation, but, without further assessment of character polarity, these differences do not clarify lemurid phylogenetic relations. Some characters of enamel microstructure may represent synapomorphies

  3. Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Bearzi, G; Bonizzoni, S; Santostasi, N L; Furey, N B; Eddy, L; Valavanis, V D; Gimenez, O

    The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km(2) semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158-1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16-31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36-83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33-47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection.

  4. The use of DNA barcoding to monitor the marine mammal biodiversity along the French Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Eric; Méheust, Eleonore; Fuchs, Sandra; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Quillivic, Yann; Viricel, Amélia; Hassani, Sami; Jung, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-30

    In the last ten years, 14 species of cetaceans and five species of pinnipeds stranded along the Atlantic coast of Brittany in the North West of France. All species included, an average of 150 animals strand each year in this area. Based on reports from the stranding network operating along this coast, the most common stranding events comprise six cetacean species (Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Phocoena phocoena)and one pinniped species (Halichoerus grypus). Rare stranding events include deep-diving or exotic species, such as arctic seals. In this study, our aim was to determine the potential contribution of DNA barcoding to the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity as performed by the stranding network. We sequenced more than 500 bp of the 5' end of the mitochondrial COI gene of 89 animals of 15 different species (12 cetaceans, and three pinnipeds). Except for members of the Delphininae, all species were unambiguously discriminated on the basis of their COI sequences. We then applied DNA barcoding to identify some "undetermined" samples. With again the exception of the Delphininae, this was successful using the BOLD identification engine. For samples of the Delphininae, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial control region (MCR), and using a non-metric multidimentional scaling plot and posterior probability calculations we were able to determine putatively each species. We then showed, in the case of the harbour porpoise, that COI polymorphisms, although being lower than MCR ones, could also be used to assess intraspecific variability. All these results show that the use of DNA barcoding in conjunction with a stranding network could clearly increase the accuracy of the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity.

  5. Marine Mammals in the Mediterranean Sea: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Notarbartolo di Sciara, G

    Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean-the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic. All the regular species are represented in the Mediterranean by populations genetically distinct from their North Atlantic relatives. Seventeen other species (three pinnipeds and 14 cetaceans) occur or have occurred in the Mediterranean as vagrants from adjacent regions. Impacts on the conservation status of marine mammals in the region deriving from a variety of threats include: (a) mortality caused by deliberate killing (to a large extent resulting from fisheries interactions), naval sonar, ship strikes, epizootics, fisheries bycatch, chemical pollution and ingestion of solid debris; (b) short-term redistribution caused by naval sonar, seismic surveys, vessel disturbance and vessel noise; and (c) long-term redistribution caused by fishery-induced food depletion, coastal development and possibly climate change. Accordingly, seven of the 12 marine mammals regular in the Mediterranean region are listed as Threatened on IUCN's Red List; regrettably, three are Data Deficient and two remain unassessed.

  6. Identified members of the Streptomyces lividans AdpA regulon involved in differentiation and secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AdpA is a key transcriptional regulator involved in the complex growth cycle of Streptomyces. Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria well-known for their production of secondary metabolites and antibiotics. Most work on AdpA has been in S. griseus, and little is known about the pathways it controls in other Streptomyces spp. We recently discovered interplay between ClpP peptidases and AdpA in S. lividans. Here, we report the identification of genes directly regulated by AdpA in S. lividans. Results Microarray experiments revealed that the expression of hundreds of genes was affected in a S. lividans adpA mutant during early stationary phase cultures in YEME liquid medium. We studied the expression of the S. lividans AdpA-regulated genes by quantitative real-time PCR analysis after various times of growth. In silico analysis revealed the presence of potential AdpA-binding sites upstream from these genes; electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that AdpA binds directly to their promoter regions. This work identifies new pathways directly controlled by AdpA and that are involved in S. lividans development (ramR, SLI7885 also known as hyaS and SLI6586), and primary (SLI0755-SLI0754 encoding CYP105D5 and Fdx4) or secondary (cchA, cchB, and hyaS) metabolism. Conclusions We characterised six S. lividans AdpA-dependent genes whose expression is directly activated by this pleiotropic regulator. Several of these genes are orthologous to bldA-dependent genes in S. coelicolor. Furthermore, in silico analysis suggests that over hundred genes may be directly activated or repressed by S. lividans AdpA, although few have been described as being part of any Streptomyces AdpA regulons. This study increases the number of known AdpA-regulated pathways in Streptomyces spp. PMID:24694298

  7. Genome mining of Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Aigle, Bertrand; Lautru, Sylvie; Spiteller, Dieter; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Challis, Gregory L; Leblond, Pierre; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of the streptomycin produced by Streptomyces griseus in the middle of the last century, members of this bacterial genus have been largely exploited for the production of secondary metabolites with wide uses in medicine and in agriculture. They have even been recognized as one of the most prolific producers of natural products among microorganisms. With the onset of the genomic era, it became evident that these microorganisms still represent a major source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites. This was highlighted with the complete genome sequencing of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) which revealed an unexpected potential of this organism to synthesize natural products undetected until then by classical screening methods. Since then, analysis of sequenced genomes from numerous Streptomyces species has shown that a single species can carry more than 30 secondary metabolite gene clusters, reinforcing the idea that the biosynthetic potential of this bacterial genus is far from being fully exploited. This review highlights our knowledge on the potential of Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 23877 to synthesize natural products. This industrial strain was known for decades to only produce the drug spiramycin and another antibacterial compound, congocidine. Mining of its genome allowed the identification of 23 clusters potentially involved in the production of other secondary metabolites. Studies of some of these clusters resulted in the characterization of novel compounds and of previously known compounds but never characterized in this Streptomyces species. In addition, genome mining revealed that secondary metabolite gene clusters of phylogenetically closely related Streptomyces are mainly species-specific.

  8. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B R; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  9. Survey for evidence of Colorado tick fever virus outside of the known endemic area in California.

    PubMed

    Lane, R S; Emmons, R W; Devlin, V; Dondero, D V; Nelson, B C

    1982-07-01

    A virus very similar or identical to Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus was recovered from the blood clot of one of 104 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) examined during a survey for various zoonotic agents in mammals and ticks from the University of California, Hopland Field Station, Mendocino County, California, 1974--79. This is the first reported isolation of a CTF-like virus from L. californicus, and only the second time such a virus has been found in northwestern California. Mendocino County is located far outside the known distributional ranges of the most common mammalian hosts of CTF virus and of Dermacentor andersoni, the only proven tick vector for man. The viral isolate is very similar to a CTF-like virus previously recovered from the blood and spleen of a western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) from San Luis Obispo County, an area also outside of the previously-known CTF area. Virus was not isolated from 14 additional species of mammals (354 specimens) or from eight species of ticks (4,487 individuals), but CTF-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 28 of 771 (3.6%) sera from seven of 15 mammalian species including significant titers (greater than or equal to 1:8) in two species and one subspecies not previously reported as natural hosts, i.e., brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), pinyon mouse (P. truei), and Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). CTF indirect immunofluorescent antibodies also were detected in 26 of 129 (20.2%) sera belonging to four of five mammalian species tested. Neutralizing antibodies were found in sera of deer from other localities in Mendocino County, from a deer mouse from Napa County, and from a brush rabbit from Monterey County as well. These findings suggest that a virus identical or similar to CTF virus is widespread in northwestern-westcentral California, and that surveillance for human cases of CTF or a similar disease should be extended to cover this region.

  10. Management of Protected Areas and Its Effect on an Ecosystem Function: Removal of Prosopis flexuosa Seeds by Mammals in Argentinian Drylands.

    PubMed

    Campos, Claudia M; Campos, Valeria E; Miguel, Florencia; Cona, Mónica I

    The ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. This study was conducted in two protected areas in the Monte Desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the Man and Biosphere Ñacuñán Reserve; FR) and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (Ischigualasto Park; UFR). The study focuses on Prosopis flexuosa seed removal by different functional mammal groups: "seed predators", "scatter-hoarders", and "opportunistic frugivores". Under both interventions, the relative contribution to seed removal by different functional mammal groups was assessed, as well as how these groups respond to habitat heterogeneity (i.e. vegetation structure) at different spatial scales. Camera traps were used to identify mammal species removing P. flexuosa seeds and to quantify seed removal; remote sensing data helped analyze habitat heterogeneity. In the FR, the major fruit removers were a seed predator (Graomys griseoflavus) and a scatter-hoarder (Microcavia asutralis). In the UFR, the main seed removers were the opportunistic frugivores (Lycalopex griseus and Dolichotis patagonum), who removed more seeds than the seed predator in the FR. The FR shows higher habitat homogeneity than the UFR, and functional groups respond differently to habitat heterogeneity at different spatial scales. In the FR, because large herbivores are locally extinct (e.g. Lama guanicoe) and domestic herbivores are excluded, important functions of large herbivores are missing, such as the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity, which provides habitats for medium-sized opportunistic frugivores with consequent improvement of quality and quantity of seed dispersal services. In the UFR, with low densities of large herbivores, probably one important ecosystem function this group performs is to increase habitat

  11. Organochlorine contamination in bird's eggs from the Danube Delta.

    PubMed

    Aurigi, S; Focardi, S; Hulea, D; Renzoni, A

    2000-07-01

    In this study we report the levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of aquatic birds from the Danube Delta, a major European wetland. The eggs were collected in 1997 and belonged to the following species: the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the greylag goose (Anser anser), the mute swan (Cygnus olor), the coot (Fulica atra), the glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), the spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), the little egret (Egretta garzetta), the night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), the grey heron (Ardea cinerea), the great white egret (Egretta alba), the red-necked grebe (Podiceps griseus), the Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), the Pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus) and the common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels were higher in eggs of the little egret, the great white egret, the cormorant and the Pygmy cormorant with respect to the other species (48,399, 13,613, 12,400 and 10,417 ng/g dry wt., respectively). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) levels were lower than 1393 ng/g dry wt. in all species while polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the Pygmy cormorant (2565 ng/g dry wt.) were higher than in the other species. The toxicity evaluation was based on 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent factors (TEF) and non-ortho PCB congeners contributed much more than mono-ortho PCBs in most of species. A further aim of this study was to evaluate the possible differences of organochlorine levels in bird eggs collected in the same area in 1982 and in 1997; generally speaking the levels detected in the latter period were lower than those detected in the earlier one.

  12. Management of Protected Areas and Its Effect on an Ecosystem Function: Removal of Prosopis flexuosa Seeds by Mammals in Argentinian Drylands

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Valeria E.; Miguel, Florencia; Cona, Mónica I.

    2016-01-01

    The ecological function of animal seed dispersal depends on species interactions and can be affected by drivers such as the management interventions applied to protected areas. This study was conducted in two protected areas in the Monte Desert: a fenced reserve with grazing exclusion and absence of large native mammals (the Man and Biosphere Ñacuñán Reserve; FR) and an unfenced reserve with low densities of large native and domestic animals (Ischigualasto Park; UFR). The study focuses on Prosopis flexuosa seed removal by different functional mammal groups: “seed predators”, “scatter-hoarders”, and “opportunistic frugivores”. Under both interventions, the relative contribution to seed removal by different functional mammal groups was assessed, as well as how these groups respond to habitat heterogeneity (i.e. vegetation structure) at different spatial scales. Camera traps were used to identify mammal species removing P. flexuosa seeds and to quantify seed removal; remote sensing data helped analyze habitat heterogeneity. In the FR, the major fruit removers were a seed predator (Graomys griseoflavus) and a scatter-hoarder (Microcavia asutralis). In the UFR, the main seed removers were the opportunistic frugivores (Lycalopex griseus and Dolichotis patagonum), who removed more seeds than the seed predator in the FR. The FR shows higher habitat homogeneity than the UFR, and functional groups respond differently to habitat heterogeneity at different spatial scales. In the FR, because large herbivores are locally extinct (e.g. Lama guanicoe) and domestic herbivores are excluded, important functions of large herbivores are missing, such as the maintenance of habitat heterogeneity, which provides habitats for medium-sized opportunistic frugivores with consequent improvement of quality and quantity of seed dispersal services. In the UFR, with low densities of large herbivores, probably one important ecosystem function this group performs is to increase

  13. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, S; Taghizadeh, A

    2013-08-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by-products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three-step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP), lime pulp (LP), lemon pulp (LEP), grapefruit pulp (GP), sweet lemon pulp (SLP), bitter lemon pulp (BLP), bergamot orange pulp (BP) and tangerine pulp (TP). The rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fractions of the feedstuffs were obtained by ruminal incubation in three cannulated wethers and incubation in protease solution (protease type xiv, Streptomyces griseus). The data were analysed using completely randomized design. There were significant differences between the tested feeds in protein fractions and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; C fraction) was highest in GP (14.56%) (p<0.001). For carbohydrate fraction, the highest C fraction was also observed in GP (2.67%) and in relation to the other citrus pulps (p<0.001). Ruminal CP disappearance was highest in OP (71.89%) (p<0.001). The level of post-ruminal CP disappearance, measured by MTSP, was highest for BP (34.94%) (p<0.001). The highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was found for TP (80.44%) followed by that estimated for BP (78.38%) (p<0.001). The estimated metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) varied from 9.77 for LP to 12.91 for BP. Tangerine pulp had the highest true rumen digestibility (TRD) (p<0.001). According to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by-products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by-products.

  14. Modeling Nonresident Seabird Foraging Distributions to Inform Ocean Zoning in Central California.

    PubMed

    Studwell, Anna J; Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith L; Howar, Julie; Holzman, Barbara; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seabird aggregations at sea have been shown to be associated with concentrations of prey. Previous research identified Central California as a highly used foraging area for seabirds, with locally breeding seabirds foraging close to their colonies on Southeast Farallon Island. Herein, we focus on nonresident (i.e. non-locally breeding) seabird species off of Central California. We hypothesized that high-use foraging areas for nonresident seabirds would be influenced by oceanographic and bathymetric factors and that spatial and temporal distributions would be similar within planktivorous and generalist foraging guilds but would differ between them. With data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies (ACCESS) partnership during cruises between April and October from 2004-2013, we developed generalized linear models to identify high-use foraging areas for each of six nonresident seabird species. The four generalist species are Phoebastria nigripes (black-footed albatross), Ardenna griseus (sooty shearwater), Ardenna creatopus (pink-footed shearwater), and Fulmarus glacialis (northern fulmar). The two planktivorous species are Phalaropus lobatus (red-necked phalarope) and Phalaropus fulicarius (red phalarope). Sea surface temperature was significant for generalist species and sea surface salinity was important for planktivorous species. The distance to the 200-m isobath was significant in five of six models, Pacific Decadal Oscillation with a 3-month lag in four models, and sea surface fluorescence, the distance to Cordell Bank, and depth in three models. We did not find statistically significant differences between distributions of individual seabird species within a foraging guild or between guilds, with the exception of the sooty shearwater. Model results for a multi-use seabird foraging area highlighted the continental shelf break, particularly within the vicinity of Cordell Bank, as the highest use areas as did Marxan prioritization. Our

  15. Identification of stsC, the gene encoding the L-glutamine:scyllo-inosose aminotransferase from streptomycin-producing Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ahlert, J; Distler, J; Mansouri, K; Piepersberg, W

    1997-08-01

    Eight new genes, strO-stsABCDEFG, were identified by sequencing DNA in the gene cluster that encodes proteins for streptomycin production of Streptomyces griseus N2-3-11. The StsA (calculated molecular mass 43.5 kDa) and StsC (45.5 kDa) proteins - together with another gene product, StrS (39.8 kDa), encoded in another operon of the same gene cluster - show significant sequence identity and are members of a new class of pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases that have been observed mainly in the biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites. The aminotransferase activity was demonstrated for the first time by identification of the overproduced and purified StsC protein as the L-glutamine:scyllo-inosose aminotransferase, which catalyzes the first amino transfer in the biosynthesis of the streptidine subunit of streptomycin. The stsC and stsA genes each hybridized specifically to distinct fragments in the genomic DNA of most actinomycetes tested that produce diaminocyclitolaminoglycosides. In contrast, only stsC, but not stsA, hybridized to the DNA of Streptomyces hygroscopicus ssp. glebosus, which produces the monoaminocyclitol antibiotic bluensomycin; this suggests that both genes are specifically used in the first and second steps of the cyclitol transamination reactions. Sequence comparison studies performed with the deduced polypeptides of the genes adjacent to stsC suggest that the enzymes encoded by some of these genes [strO (putative phosphatase gene), stsB (putative oxidoreductase gene), and stsE (putative phosphotransferase gene)] also could be involved in (di-)aminocyclitol synthesis.

  16. Hidrógeno neutro en el Hemisferio Austral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.

    Se muestran los resultados de la distribución del HI en el cielo austral, obtenidos a partir de los datos de un relevamiento en la línea de 21 cm recientemente concluido en el IAR. Se discuten algunos de los principales problemas que pueden confrontarse con las observaciones de HI de nuestra Galaxia.

  17. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  18. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among elite Spanish athletes the importance of outdoor training adaptation.

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Jara; Dominguez, D; Til, L; González-Gross, M; Drobnic, F

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: En los últimos años, el descubrimiento de receptores musculares para la vitamina D sugiere un papel significativo de esta vitamina en el tejido muscular, adquiriendo una relevancia especial en deportistas. No existen apenas datos disponibles acerca de las concentraciones de vitamina D en deportistas de élite Españoles.

  19. Homogeneity and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  20. Pichicuco 7: Gulf of California CTD Data Report: U.S. Research Vessel, R/V New Horizon,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    digitales . Los datos incoming data, as well as for input buffer over- digitales son entonces, leiios por una computa- flows. A listing of the acquisition...significant data gaps were encountered, and roseta, aparentemente debido a que el sistema very few errors were found away from the sur- esta cercano a un

  1. Image Processing of Digital Cartographic Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-05

    lasibases de datas digitales par media de una Estaci6n de Manja de Im~genes. Taznbign trata de la canfiguracio’n de las sistemas , sus cam- ponentes, la...DE IMAGENES DE DATOS CARTOGRAFICOS DIGITALES Desde hace tiempa el cart~graffa ha querido representar las caracteristicas de la superficie terrestre

  2. The Vocational Guidance Research Database: A Scientometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Buils, Raquel; Gil-Beltran, Jose Manuel; Caballer-Miedes, Antonio; Martinez-Martinez, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the…

  3. Modeling Treatment Motivation in Substance-Abusing Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Kamata, Akihito; Cash, Scottye J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Children are often considered a primary motivator for women seeking substance abuse treatment. This study tested a model predicting treatment motivation in substance-abusing mothers. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). It used structural equation modeling to describe factors…

  4. Wielding the Military Shield and the Civilian Sword: Norwegian Civil-Military Interagency Cooperation in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    and Mads A. Andersen, “SV: Vi boer sette dato for uttrekning fra Afghanistan” [SV: We should set a date for pulling out of Afghanistan], Verdens Gang......Norwegian context, the research had to be based on other sources. The obvious solution to the problem was to interview professionals with practical

  5. Monitoring bird population trends in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Bystrak, D.; Geissler, P.H.; Purroy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Se ofrece un nuevo metodo para computar las oscilaciones demograficas de las aves a lo largo de los anos. Con los datos suministrados por el proyecto 'Aves nidificantes en Norteamerica' , se indican en la Tabla 1 las pautas de cambio numerico de una serie seleccionada de aves holarticas.

  6. [Orality and writing: argumentation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Paúls, Beatriz; Moreno-Campos, Verónica

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. Este trabajo profundiza en las diferencias de competencia linguistica de niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) en oralidad y escritura. Objetivos. Verificar si estos niños presentan en las tareas orales los mismos problemas de control inhibitorio y de autorregulacion que se han señalado en investigaciones basadas en datos escritos, y describir tales problemas (falta de adecuacion, produccion inadecuada) segun aparecen en nuestros datos orales. Pacientes y metodos. Se analiza una argumentacion escrita y otra oral de 25 participantes entre 9 y 11 años. En la tarea escrita los niños redactaron sus argumentaciones y en la tarea oral se filmo su interaccion argumentativa con una colaboradora; se analizo en cada caso el tipo de argumentaciones utilizadas (logicas, falaces, de sancion o moralistas). Resultados. Se comprueba la diferencia evidente entre los resultados de las dos pruebas, lo que indica la necesidad de revisar los mecanismos de evaluacion verbal y de completar los resultados escritos con pruebas de destreza oral. Los problemas normalmente asociados a las tareas escritas no aparecen en lenguaje oral; los participantes son capaces de seguir el hilo discursivo y aportar nuevas argumentaciones relacionadas con el tema. Conclusiones. Los datos analizados ponen de manifiesto la dificultad adicional que supone la tarea escrita para los niños con TDAH, la fiabilidad de los resultados orales respecto a las habilidades linguisticas y la necesidad de usar ambos tipos de datos en la evaluacion.

  7. A Look at Psychometrics in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Swaminathan, H.

    Comments are made on the review papers presented by six Dutch psychometricians: Ivo Molenaar, Wim van der Linden, Ed Roskam, Arnold Van den Wollenberg, Gideon Mellenbergh, and Dato de Gruijter. Molenaar has embraced a pragmatic viewpoint on Bayesian methods, using both empirical and pure approaches to solve educational research problems. Molenaar…

  8. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  9. PubMed

    Jiménez-Talamantes, Raquel; Rizk Hernández, Jennifer; Quiles Izquierdo, Joan

    2017-02-01

    Introducción:la evaluación de la obesidad en las encuestas de salud contempla el estudio de las características corporales por medición o por declaración. Según el método utilizado puede producirse una estimación diferente de la frecuencia de este problema.Objetivos: medir las discrepancias en las estimaciones de prevalencia de obesidad y exceso de peso realizadas con datos declarados con respecto a los medidos en una encuesta poblacional.Métodos: estudio transversal de una muestra de 1.153 sujetos adultos donde se compararon los datos de peso y talla declarados y medidos mediante la correlación de Pearson (r). Se calcularon las prevalencias de obesidad y exceso de peso según ambos métodos y se obtuvo el índice kappa, la sensibilidad y la especificidad para estimar la capacidad predictiva de los datos declarados.Resultados: los valores de peso, talla e IMC declarados y medidos presentaron una correlación de 0,96, 0,93 y 0,91, respectivamente. La prevalencia de obesidad declarada fue 16,4% y la medida 23,3% (kappa = 0,68), sensibilidad 63,2% y especificidad 97,9%. La prevalencia de exceso de peso declarada fue 51,4% y por medición 61,1% (kappa = 0,73), sensibilidad 81,3% y especificidad 95,3%. Las diferencias observadas fueron estadísticamente significativas.Conclusiones: existe una subestimación de las prevalencias de obesidad y de exceso de peso en poblaciones cuando se usan datos antropométricos declarados, pero una buena concordancia y especificidad con las estimaciones realizadas con datos medidos.

  10. Combinación de Valores de Longitud del Día (LOD) según ventanas de frecuencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, L. I.; Arias, E. F.; Gambis, D.

    El concepto de solución combinada se sustenta en el hecho de que las diferentes series temporales de datos derivadas a partir de distintas técnicas de la Geodesia Espacial son muy disimiles entre si. Las principales diferencias, fácilmente detectables, entre las distintas series son: diferente intervalo de muestreo, extensión temporal y calidad. Los datos cubren un período reciente de 27 meses (julio 96-oct. 98). Se utilizaron estimaciones de la longitud del día (LOD) originadas en 10 centros operativos del IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) a partir de las técnicas GPS (Global Positioning System) y SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging). La serie temporal combinada así obtenida se comparó con la solución EOP (Parámetros de la Orientación Terrestre) combinada multi-técnica derivada por el IERS (C04). El comportamiento del ruido en LOD para todas las técnicas mostró ser dependiente de la frecuencia (Vondrak, 1998). Por esto, las series dato se dividieron en ventanas de frecuencia, luego de haberles removido bies y tendencias. Luego, se asignaron diferentes factores de peso a cada ventana discriminando por técnicas. Finalmente estas soluciones parcialmente combinadas se mezclaron para obtener la solución combinada final. Sabemos que la mejor solución combinada tendrá una precisión menor que la precisión de las series temporales de datos que la originaron. Aun así, la importancia de una serie combinada confiable de EOP, esto es, de una precisión aceptable y libre de sistematismos evidentes, radica en la necesidad de una base de datos EOP de referencia para el estudio de fenómenos geofísicos que motivan variaciones en la rotación terrestre.

  11. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  12. Fotometría de grupos compactos de galaxias: Shakhbazian 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, J. M.; Calderón, J. H.; Gimeno, N. G.; Díaz, R. J.

    Continuando con la fotometría CCD de Grupos de Galaxias Compactos de Shakhbazyan (SCGG) en este trabajo se presentan nuevos resultados preliminares sobre los grupos Shakbazyan 37, 45, 166, 331 y 362. EL objeto del proyecto es contribuir al estudio de las propiedades físicas de tales grupos y contribuir a las bases de datos para mejora de las estadísticas. Los datos fueron adquiridos con el Telescopio JKT del Observatorio Norte Europeo. El análisis de las imágenes en las bandas I y B como del índice de color B-I permitió reidentificar las galaxias catalogadas, resultando las mismas muy enrojecidas y verificando que predominan las galaxias tempranas, resultados consistentes con los obtenidos para otros grupos y por otros autores.

  13. Physical and Chemical Processes Opacity Project: an Overview and Some Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. El Proyecto de la Opacidad es un esfuerzo internacional dedicado a calcular con precisi6n la gran cantidad de datos at6micos que se necesitan para estimar opacidades en los envolventes estelares. Describimos el panorama general del proyecto incluyendo aspectos astrofisicos, flsico-at6micos y computacionales. El volumen y calidad de los datos que se estan generando se puede apreciar en los resultados preliminares que se presentan. ABSTRACT The Opacity Project is an international effort dedicated to the calculation of the vast, accurate, atomic data required to estimate stellar envelope opacities. We give an overview of the project including astrophysical, atomic-physical and computational aspects. The volume and quality of the data which are being generated can be appreciated in the preliminary results that are presented. }% words: ATOMIC PROCESSES - OPACITIES - STARS-INThRIORS

  14. HI en la dirección de la denominada ``Ventana de Puppis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.; Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.

    Analizando los datos combinados de los relevamientos de HI de Hartmann & Burton (1997) y Arnal et.al (2000), hemos detectado la presencia de una estructura en forma de ``shell" en la denominada ``ventana de Puppis". Esta estructura, cuyo centro se encuentra en la dirección (l = 245 deg, b = -5 deg) tiene un diámetro angular de ˜ 18 deg y es detectada en el rango de velocidades (LSR) entre -9 y +6 km/seg. El análisis de los datos sugiere que esta estructura puede haberse originado en una perturbación en el denominado ``Feature A" de Lindblad (1973), a una distancia de 150-200 pc del Sol. Se determinaron parámetros tales como Masa y Energía Cinética del Shell y se analiza un posible origen del mismo.

  15. Astronomía y Física: un matrimonio Sartriano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Desde el siglo XVII, Física y Astronomía han formado un matrimonio similar al de Sartre y Beauvoir: lleno de amores contingentes, pero firme y duradero. En la charla examino tres de los frutos más recientes de este matrimonio: - La confirmación de la Relatividad General con datos astronómicos. - Astrofísica y Física de neutrinos. - Teorías de supercuerdas y astronomía.

  16. [Thermolabile drugs stability faced with an accidental interruption in the cold chain].

    PubMed

    Ricote-Lobera, I; Ortiz-Martín, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Santos-Mena, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una guía actualizada sobre la estabilidad delos medicamentos termolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticaque, según ficha técnica, deben conservarse bajorefrigeración o congelación, expuestos accidentalmente a temperaturasde conservación fuera del rango recomendado por elfabricante.Métodos: Se revisó la información sobre las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles a distintas temperaturas de los medicamentostermolábiles incluidos en la Guía Farmacoterapéuticade un hospital de 400 camas que, según el fabricante, debenconservarse bajo refrigeración o congelación. Se excluyeron losmedicamentos incluidos en ensayos clínicos. Los datos de estabilidadse obtuvieron a partir de la ficha técnica, la informacióncontenida en las dos últimas guías de conservación de medicamentostermolábiles publicadas en España y a través de las consultasrealizadas a los laboratorios (vía telefónica o por e-mail).Resultados: Se confeccionó una tabla con las temperaturas deconservación recomendadas en ficha técnica y los datos deestabilidad disponibles actualmente a distintas temperaturas de209 presentaciones de distintas especialidades farmacéuticas.Se solicitaron datos de estabilidad actualizados de 172 de ellasa los laboratorios.Conclusiones: La guía elaborada constituye una herramientaque facilita la toma de decisiones del farmacéutico ante unarotura accidental de la cadena de frío, cuando sea necesarioconocer si el fármaco puede ser utilizado y no sea posible contactarcon el laboratorio fabricante.

  17. Ponte en onda: prende la energía limpia, (Spanish) Get Current

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    Cambiar a tecnologías de energía limpia significa que fortalecemos la economía y protegemos al medio ambiente. Este libreto de actividades educativas para todas las edades promueve el uso consciente de la energía, con datos de distintas formas de energía aplicables y una variedad de rompecabezas y crucigramas en temas energéticos.

  18. A Concept for Continuous Monitoring that Reduces Redundancy in Information Assurance Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Defense DAA Designated Accrediting Authority DATO Denial of Authorization to Operate DIACAP DoD Information Assurance Certification and...SFS) Program. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant DUE-0414102. To Professor Cynthia Irvine, the...organization-specific registration tasks are performed. The baseline IA controls are generated from the DoDI 8500.2 based on the type and category

  19. DoD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (DIACAP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-28

    services- based software systems and applications. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...accreditation decisions, including denial of authorization to operate ( DATO ), and enforce authorization termination dates (ATD). 5 DoDI 8510.01...and of individual ISs. DIACAP implementation is supported by the DIACAP KS, a Web- based DoD resource that provides the most current requirements

  20. El medio interestelar alrededor de estrellas Of: HD 108

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    Hemos analizado la distribución del hidrógeno neutro interestelar en la vecindad de la estrella Of HD 108 en base a perfiles de la línea de 21 cm. Estos datos nos han permitido encontrar una probable burbuja interestelar asociada a la estrella. Comparamos estos resultados con la emisión en otros rangos espectrales y estimamos los principales parámetros físicos de la estructura.

  1. Applying Business Process Reengineering to the Marine Corps Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Database Management System DATO : Denial of Authority To Operate DIACAP: DoD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Program DII...level of risk, based on the implementation of an approved set of technical, managerial, and procedural safeguards. (CNSSI, 2006, p. 2) IA...concerned with risk elimination but rather risk minimization. The need for IA C&A in USMC Information Technology (IT) systems is based on the need to

  2. DoD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (DIACAP) Survey and Decision Tree

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    CVC Compliance and Validation Certification DAA designated accrediting authority DATO denial of authorization to operate DIACAP DoD Information...standard based on implementation of the best practices listed in paragraph 2.3. c. Direct the DSG to rename the Data Protection Committee to the...Information Grid (GIG)- based environment. Figure A-1. DoD IA program management. 1.1.1 DIACAP Background. a. Interim DIACAP signed 6 July 2006

  3. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Introductory Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    effects based on how severe they are, how often they might occur, and how easily we can find them. 3. Effects: the consequences of failure. The...Actions ! 0 l!1 .. requirE-ments ~ l=ailure 1-’rP.vP.ntion .., llP.tP.c::tion Completion Dato Action• Taken P. il "’ ; · .. "’ = 0 i;r= ~ ~ " S pnrg

  4. Using EPIC to Find Conflicts, Inconsistencies, and Gaps in Department of Defense Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    new tool that automates one step of the methodology. We describe the framework, methodol- ogy, and new software- based tool and demonstrate with case...analysts showed that 113 of the extractions were related to standards. Analy- 1 The EPIC tool is a Microsoft (MS) Office– based program written in...designated approving authority DARS DoD Architecture Registry System DAS Defense Acquisition System DATO Denial of Authorization to Operate DBSMC Defense

  5. Simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas con formación estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. G.; Merchan, M.; García Lambas, D.

    Se realizan simulaciones numéricas cosmológicas utilizando el código HYDRA modificado para incluir formación estelar. A partir de éstas, se estiman diferentes parámetros observacionales como la relación Tully- Fisher, función de luminosidad y la tasa de formación estelar en función del redshift. Estos resultados son comparados con datos observacionales de diferentes autores.

  6. Rheological Properties of Thickened Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-12-07

    Seriul Ho. UU3 Copy No. y/ Dato : December 7» 19^1-2 * Copies No. 1 through 28 - Dr. Irvin Stewart Copy Ho. 29 - Chief, Chemical Wurfure...Little Is known of’the variables controlling this. It sppeers certain that the following reaulreraents must be matt 1. It must be soft enough so that...in diameter, so that movmrnt of the inner cylinder even with thr most viscous materlels is clmost negligible. The necessary rccurrcy In reding the

  7. The Scaling of Bird Impact Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    LABORATORIES AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND WRIGHT-PATTMRSON AIR FORCE BASE , OHIO 45433 .... a.-•.. .. . . ..- .... -.. . nr- . • - - : . . ._ .. . :• NOTICE When... patented invention that may in any way be related thereto. This report has been reviewed by the Information Office (10) and is releasable to the...PM Universityna ofhnca Dato Rsarh ntiut Dayton,16 Ohio7-1 4546907 ig___Wik nt2001 XIE COSANLING OFrt IRD _IMPAC LOAD WINE!’ EAF Wrios/ht eoaulticlLb, S

  8. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and leading seaman and honor student. The brothers Giya and Guliver Nikolaishvili of Sukhumi, Dato Metreveli of Kutaisi, who is at the Kiev higher...policy is closely related to its domestic and foreign policy and the strategy of accelerating social and economic development based on scientific...and special informational publications and become acquainted with patent materials. There is yet one more important concept in our military lexicon

  9. Observación solar desde el espacio, resultados recientes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    Presentaremos un resumen de los resultados más recientes sobre la física del sol, obtenidos por medio del análisis de datos de satélites artificiales como el Yohkoh, SOHO y COMPTON/GRO. En particular, nos referiremos a la acción y dinámica de los campos magnéticos en la generación de fenómenos activos y el calentamiento coronal.

  10. Habitat use and preferences of cetaceans along the continental slope and the adjacent pelagic waters in the western Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzellino, A.; Gaspari, S.; Airoldi, S.; Nani, B.

    2008-03-01

    The physical habitat of cetaceans occurring along the continental slope in the western Ligurian Sea was investigated. Data were collected from two different sighting platforms, one of the two being a whale-watching boat. Surveys, conducted from May to October and from 1996 to 2000, covered an area of approximately 3000 km 2 with a mean effort of about 10,000 km year -1. A total of 814 sightings was reported, including all the species occurring in the area: Stenella coeruleoalba, Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Ziphius cavirostris, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis. A Geographic Information System was used to integrate sighting data to a set of environmental characteristics, which included bottom gradient, area between different isobaths, and length and linearity of the isobaths within a cell unit. Habitat use was analysed by means of a multi-dimensional scaling, MDS, analysis. Significant differences were found in the habitat preference of most of the species regularly occurring in the area. Bottlenose dolphin, Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale were found strongly associated to well-defined depth and slope gradient characteristics of the shelf-edge and the upper and lower slope. The hypothesis of habitat segregation was considered for Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale. Canonical discriminant functions using depth and slope as predictors outlined clear and not overlapping habitat preferences for Risso's dolphin and Cuvier's beaked whale, whereas a partial overlapping of the habitat of the other two species was observed for sperm whale. Such a partitioning of the upper and lower slope area may be the result of the common feeding habits and suggests a possible competition of these three species. A temporal segregation in the use of the slope area was also observed for sperm whales and Risso's dolphins. Fin whales, and the occasionally encountered common dolphin and long

  11. Marine bird aggregations associated with the tidally-driven plume and plume fronts of the Columbia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamon, Jeannette E.; Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Guy, Troy J.

    2014-09-01

    Freshwater discharge from large rivers into the coastal ocean creates tidally-driven frontal systems known to enhance mixing, primary production, and secondary production. Many authors suggest that tidal plume fronts increase energy flow to fish-eating predators by attracting planktivorous fishes to feed on plankton aggregated by the fronts. However, few studies of plume fronts directly examine piscivorous predator response to plume fronts. Our work examined densities of piscivorous seabirds relative to the plume region and plume fronts of the Columbia River, USA. Common murres (Uria aalge) and sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) composed 83% of all birds detected on mesoscale surveys of the Washington and Oregon coasts (June 2003-2006), and 91.3% of all birds detected on fine scale surveys of the plume region less than 40 km from the river mouth (May 2003 and 2006). Mesoscale comparisons showed consistently more predators in the central plume area compared to the surrounding marine area (murres: 10.1-21.5 vs. 3.4-8.2 birds km-2; shearwaters: 24.2-75.1 vs. 11.8-25.9 birds km-2). Fine scale comparisons showed that murre density in 2003 and shearwater density in both 2003 and 2006 were significantly elevated in the tidal plume region composed of the most recently discharged river water. Murres tended to be more abundant on the north face of the plume. In May 2003, more murres and shearwaters were found within 3 km of the front on any given transect, although maximum bird density was not necessarily found in the same location as the front itself. Predator density on a given transect was not correlated with frontal strength in either year. The high bird densities we observed associated with the tidal plume demonstrate that the turbid Columbia River plume does not necessarily provide fish with refuge from visual predators. Bird predation in the plume region may therefore impact early marine survival of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), which must migrate through the

  12. Composition of Glycosaminoglycans in Elasmobranchs including Several Deep-Sea Sharks: Identification of Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulfate from the Dried Fins of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Kyohei; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Mukuno, Ann; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Miya, Masaki; Linhardt, Robert J.; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shark fin, used as a food, is a rich source of glycosaminoglyans (GAGs), acidic polysaccharides having important biological activities, suggesting their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. A comprehensive survey of GAGs derived from the fin was performed on 11 elasmobranchs, including several deep sea sharks. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found in Isurus oxyrinchus, Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus torazame, Deania calcea, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Mitsukurina owatoni, Mustelus griseus and Dasyatis akajei, respectively. CS was only found from Chimaera phantasma, Dalatias licha, and Odontaspis ferox, respectively. Characteristic disaccharide units of most of the CS were comprised of C- and D-type units. Interestingly, substantial amount of CS/dermatan sulfate (DS) was found in the dried fin (without skin and cartilage) of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca. 1H-NMR analysis showed that the composition of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and iduronic acid (IdoA) in shark CS/DS was 41.2% and 58.8% (Isurus oxyrinchus), 36.1% and 63.9% (Prionace glauca), respectively. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of this CS/DS consisted of E-, B- and D-type units. Shark CS/DS stimulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons at a similar level as DS derived from invertebrate species. Midkine and pleiotrophin interact strongly with CS/DS from Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca, affording Kd values of 1.07 nM, 6.25 nM and 1.70 nM, 1.88 nM, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the IdoA-rich domain of CS/DS is required for neurite outgrowth activity. A detailed examination of oligosaccharide residues, produced by chondroitinase ACII digestion, suggested that the IdoA and B-type units as well as A- and C-type units were found in clusters in shark CS/DS. In addition, it was discovered that the contents of B-type units in these IdoA-rich domain increased in a length dependent manner, while C- and D-type units were located particularly in the

  13. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-07-14

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the

  14. Novel marine actinobacteria from emerald Andaman & Nicobar Islands: a prospective source for industrial and pharmaceutical byproducts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Andaman and Nicobar Islands situated in the eastern part of Bay of Bengal are one of the distinguished biodiversity hotspot. Even though number of studies carried out on the marine flora and fauna, the studies on actinobacteria from Andaman and Nicobar Islands are meager. The aim of the present study was to screen the actinobacteria for their characterization and identify the potential sources for industrial and pharmaceutical byproducts. Results A total of 26 actinobacterial strains were isolated from the marine sediments collected from various sites of Port Blair Bay where no collection has been characterized previously. Isolates were categorized under the genera: Saccharopolyspora, Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Streptoverticillium, Microtetraspora, Actinopolyspora, Actinokineospora and Dactylosporangium. Majority of the isolates were found to produce industrially important enzymes such as amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, DNase, cellulase, urease and phosphatase, and also exhibited substantial antibacterial activity against human pathogens. 77% of isolates exhibited significant hemolytic activity. Among 26 isolates, three strains (NIOT-VKKMA02, NIOT-VKKMA22 and NIOT-VKKMA26) were found to generate appreciable extent of surfactant, amylase, cellulase and protease enzyme. NIOT-VKKMA02 produced surfactant using kerosene as carbon source and emulsified upto E24–63.6%. Moreover, NIOT-VKKMA02, NIOT-VKKMA22 and NIOT-VKKMA26 synthesized 13.27 U/ml, 9.85 U/ml and 8.03 U/ml amylase; 7.75 U/ml, 5.01 U/ml and 2.08 U/ml of cellulase and 11.34 U/ml, 6.89 U/ml and 3.51 U/ml of protease enzyme, respectively. Conclusions High diversity of marine actinobacteria was isolated and characterized in this work including undescribed species and species not previously reported from emerald Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces venezuelae and Saccharopolyspora salina. The enhanced salt, pH and temperature tolerance of the actinobacterial

  15. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the California current system (1985-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin’s auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly

  16. Increasing the hydrolysis constant of the reactive site upon introduction of an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Hikaru; Kumazaki, Takashi; Kojima, Shuichi; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Miura, Kin-Ichiro; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2011-08-01

    P14C/N39C is the disulfide variant of the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant (OMSVP3) introducing an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond near the reactive site on the basis of the sequence homology between OMSVP3 and ascidian trypsin inhibitor. This variant exhibits a narrower inhibitory specificity. We have examined the effects of introducing a Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the flexible N-terminal loop of OMSVP3 on the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis, as well as the thermal stability of reactive site intact inhibitors. P14C/N39C can be selectively cleaved by Streptomyces griseus protease B at the reactive site of OMSVP3 to form a reactive site modified inhibitor. The conversion rate of intact to modified P14C/N39C is much faster than that for wild type under any pH condition. The pH-independent hydrolysis constant (K(hyd) °) is estimated to be approximately 5.5 for P14C/N39C, which is higher than the value of 1.6 for natural OMSVP3. The reactive site modified form of P14C/N39C is thermodynamically more stable than the intact one. Thermal denaturation experiments using intact inhibitors show that the temperature at the midpoint of unfolding at pH 2.0 is 59 °C for P14C/N39C and 58 °C for wild type. There have been no examples, except P14C/N39C, where introducing an engineered disulfide causes a significant increase in K(hyd) °, but has no effect on the thermal stability. The site-specific disulfide introduction into the flexible N-terminal loop of natural Kazal-type inhibitors would be useful to further characterize the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis.

  17. Composition of glycosaminoglycans in elasmobranchs including several deep-sea sharks: identification of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate from the dried fins of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kyohei; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Mukuno, Ann; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Miya, Masaki; Linhardt, Robert J; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shark fin, used as a food, is a rich source of glycosaminoglyans (GAGs), acidic polysaccharides having important biological activities, suggesting their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. A comprehensive survey of GAGs derived from the fin was performed on 11 elasmobranchs, including several deep sea sharks. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found in Isurus oxyrinchus, Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus torazame, Deania calcea, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Mitsukurina owatoni, Mustelus griseus and Dasyatis akajei, respectively. CS was only found from Chimaera phantasma, Dalatias licha, and Odontaspis ferox, respectively. Characteristic disaccharide units of most of the CS were comprised of C- and D-type units. Interestingly, substantial amount of CS/dermatan sulfate (DS) was found in the dried fin (without skin and cartilage) of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca. 1H-NMR analysis showed that the composition of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and iduronic acid (IdoA) in shark CS/DS was 41.2% and 58.8% (Isurus oxyrinchus), 36.1% and 63.9% (Prionace glauca), respectively. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of this CS/DS consisted of E-, B- and D-type units. Shark CS/DS stimulated neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons at a similar level as DS derived from invertebrate species. Midkine and pleiotrophin interact strongly with CS/DS from Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca, affording Kd values of 1.07 nM, 6.25 nM and 1.70 nM, 1.88 nM, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the IdoA-rich domain of CS/DS is required for neurite outgrowth activity. A detailed examination of oligosaccharide residues, produced by chondroitinase ACII digestion, suggested that the IdoA and B-type units as well as A- and C-type units were found in clusters in shark CS/DS. In addition, it was discovered that the contents of B-type units in these IdoA-rich domain increased in a length dependent manner, while C- and D-type units were located particularly in the

  18. Ocean warming and seabird communities of the southern California Current System (1987-98): response at multiple temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyrenbach, K. David; Veit, Richard R.

    2003-08-01

    Declines in ocean productivity and shifts in species assemblages along the West Coast of North America during the second half of the XXth century have been attributed to the concurrent warming of the California Current. This paper addresses changes in the avifauna off southern California between May 1987 and September 1998, in response to shifting water mass distributions over short (<1 year) and long (interannual) temporal scales. More specifically, our research focuses on the relative importance of distinct foraging guilds and species assemblages with an affinity for warm and cold water. Over the long term, the avifauna off southern California shifted from a 'high-productivity' community typical of eastern boundary upwelling systems, to a 'low-productivity' assemblage similar to those inhabiting the subtropical gyres. Overall seabird abundance decreased; the relative importance of cold-water seabirds that dive in pursuit of prey declined; and warm-water species that feed at the surface and plunge to capture prey became more numerous. These community-level changes are consistent with the northward shifts in species ranges and the declining ocean productivity anticipated as a result of global warming. However, the response of individual taxa with an affinity for warm-water and cold-water conditions has been more difficult to predict, due to differences in species-specific responses to ocean warming. The three cold-water species investigated (Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, and Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) decreased in abundance during this study. On the other hand, only one of the six warm-water species considered (Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus) increased significantly over the long term. Yet, the warm-water Leach's Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa) increased between 1987 and 1993, and then declined between 1994 and 1998. Moreover, cross-correlations between seasonally adjusted anomalies of

  19. Shorebird roost-site selection at two temporal scales: Is human disturbance a factor?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.A.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    1. Roost-site selection in shorebirds is governed by ambient factors, including environmental conditions and human disturbance. Determination of the extent to which these factors affect roost use and the associated implications for shorebird habitat protection is important for conservation strategies and informed management of human recreational use of these habitats. Shorebird conservation as a whole is a high priority world-wide because a large proportion of shorebird species is in decline. However, little is understood about the consistency of roost use by different species, what conditions affect species-specific roost-site selection, and at what spatial and temporal scales conditions influence selection. 2. We studied high-tide roost-site selection by eight species of non-breeding shorebirds on a critically important stopover and wintering refuge. We calculated spatial and temporal variability in roost use for each species based on counts and consistency of incidence. We then examined roost-site selection in relation to structural, environmental and human disturbance factors, and how this varied across spatial and temporal scales. 3. Most roosts were used less than 50% of the time, although larger roosts were used more consistently. This varied among species, with red knot Calidris canutus tending to concentrate at a few roosts and American oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, dowitcher Limnodromus griseus and Limnodromus scolopaceus and ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres more diffusely distributed among roosts. 4. At an annual scale, the principal factors affecting shorebird presence at roosts were roost length (size), local region, substrate and aspect. The extent and direction of these effects varied among species. Among years, red knots avoided roosts that had high average boat activity within 1000 m, but disturbance did not appear to be a factor for other species. 5. Daily roost use was influenced primarily by wind speed and the ability of roosts to

  20. Marine bird and cetacean associations with bathymetric habitats and shallow-water topographies: implications for trophic transfer and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Peggy P. W.; Sydeman, William J.; Hyrenbach, K. David

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the aggregative response of marine birds and cetaceans to bathymetric features in central California over 4 years, 1996-1997 and 2001-2002. A total of 1700 km 2 of ocean habitat was surveyed over six cruises. We considered the distribution of the most abundant marine birds and mammals in relation to bathymetry. We focused our analyses on eight focal taxa: Cassin's auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), common murre ( Uria aalge), sooty shearwater ( Puffinus grieus), phalarope species (red, and red-necked: Phalaropus fulicaria, Phalaropus lobatus), Dall's porpoise ( Phocoenoides dalli), Pacific white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae), and Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus). We evaluated associations of top predators with seven bathymetric indices and three distance measurements to shallow-water topographies. The bathymetric descriptors included (1) median depth, (2) depth coefficient of variation, (3) contour index, and shortest distance to (4) the mainland, (5) the continental shelf-break (200-m isobath), (6) the continental slope (1000-m isobath), and (7) pelagic waters (3000-m isobath). The measurements of shallow water topographies included the shortest distance to: (8) the Cordell Bank seamount, (9) the Farallon Island Archipelago (a breeding colony for auklets and murres), and (10) Monterey Canyon. We documented two instances of spatial autocorrelation (for Cassin's auklet and common murre) at lags (distances) of 0-3 and 3-9 km, respectively, and accounted for this spatial pattern in analyses of habitat associations. We found similar relationships between cetaceans and bathymetric features at both interannual and weekly time scales. Seabirds revealed both persistent and variable relationships through time. For the resident breeding murres, we detected an interannual trend in habitat use, with these birds shifting their distribution offshore over time. Our study demonstrates that resident and

  1. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  2. At-sea distribution and abundance of seabirds off southern California: A 20-year comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.W.; McChesney, G.J.; McIver, W.R.; Carter, H.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Golightly, R.T.; Ackerman, J.T.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Perry, W.M.; Yee, J.L.; Pierson, M.O.; McCrary, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted aerial at-sea and coastal surveys to examine the distribution and abundance of seabirds off southern California, from Cambria, California, to the Mexican border. From May 1999-January 2002, we flew 102 d, covered >54,640 km of transect lines, and conducted nine complete surveys of southern California in January, May, and September. We identified 54 species comprising 12 families and counted >135,000 individuals. Seabird densities were greater along island and mainland coastlines than at sea and were usually greatest in January surveys. Densities were greatest at sea near the northern Channel Islands in January and north of Point Conception in May, and lowest in the southwestern portion of the Southern California Bight in all survey months. On coastal transects, seabird densities were greatest along central and southern portions of the mainland coastline from Point Arguello to Mexico. We estimated that 981,000 ?? 144,000 (x?? ?? SE) seabirds occurred in the study area in January, 862,000 ?? 95,000 in May, and 762,000 ?? 72,000 in September. California Gulls (Larus californicus), Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis), and Cassin's Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) were most abundant in January surveys at sea, whereas Sooty and Short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus griseus and P. tenuirostris), phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.), and Western Gulls (Larus. occidentalis) were most abundant in May and September surveys. On coastal transects, California Gulls, Western Grebes, Western Gulls, and Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) were most abundant in January; Western Grebes, Western Gulls, Surf Scoters, and Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) were most abundant in May; and Sooty Shearwaters, Short-tailed Shearwaters, Western Gulls, Western Grebes, Brown Pelicans, and Heermann's Gulls (Larus heermanni) were most abundant in September. Compared to historical seabird densities collected in the same area two decades ago (1975-1978 and 1980-1983), abundance

  3. Regulation of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces spp. and overproduction of daunorubicin in Streptomyces peucetius.

    PubMed Central

    Stutzman-Engwall, K J; Otten, S L; Hutchinson, C R

    1992-01-01

    Two DNA segments, dnrR1 and dnrR2, from the Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050 genome were identified by their ability to stimulate secondary metabolite production and resistance. When introduced into the wild-type ATCC 29050 strain, the 2.0-kb dnrR1 segment caused a 10-fold overproduction of epsilon-rhodomycinone, a key intermediate of daunorubicin biosynthesis, whereas the 1.9-kb dnrR2 segment increased production of both epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin 10- and 2-fold, respectively. In addition, the dnrR2 segment restored high-level daunorubicin resistance to strain H6101, a daunorubicin-sensitive mutant of S. peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952. Analysis of the sequence of the dnrR1 fragment revealed the presence of two closely situated open reading frames, dnrI and dnrJ, whose deduced products exhibit high similarity to the products of several other Streptomyces genes that have been implicated in the regulation of secondary metabolism. Insertional inactivation of dnrI in the ATCC 29050 strain with the Tn5 kanamycin resistance gene abolished epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin production and markedly decreased resistance to daunorubicin. Sequence comparison between the products of dnrIJ and the products of the Streptomyces coelicolor actII-orf4, afsR, and redD-orf1 genes and of the Streptomyces griseus strS, the Saccharopolyspora erythraea eryC1, and the Bacillus stearothermophilus degT genes reveals two families of putative regulatory genes. The members of the DegT, DnrJ, EryC1, and StrS family exhibit some of the features characteristic of the protein kinase (sensor) component of two-component regulatory systems from other bacteria (even though none of the sequences of these four proteins show a significant overall or regional similarity to such protein kinases) and have a consensus helix-turn-helix motif typical of DNA binding proteins. A helix-turn-helix motif is also present in two of the proteins of the other family, AfsR and RedD-Orf1. Both sets

  4. [Brief Neuropsychological Battery for multiple sclerosis. Normative data stratified by age and educational level].

    PubMed

    Duque, P; Oltra-Cucarella, J; Fernandez, O; Sepulcre, J; Grupo de Estudio de la Bateria Neuropsicologica Breve En la Esclerosis Multiple, Grupo de Estudio de la Bateria Neuropsicologica Breve En la Esclerosis Multiple

    2017-02-01

    Introduccion. La interpretacion del rendimiento en los tests cognitivos utilizados en la evaluacion neuropsicologica de pacientes con esclerosis multiple difiere en funcion del nivel educativo del evaluado. Objetivos. Aportar datos normativos de la bateria neuropsicologica breve (BNB) en la esclerosis multiple, estratificados por edad y nivel educativo, y demostrar la utilidad de la bateria para discriminar entre sujetos sanos y pacientes con esclerosis multiple. Sujetos y metodos. Se utilizaron los datos de 701 controles sanos de la muestra de baremacion original de la BNB en la esclerosis multiple, y se estratificaron por edad y nivel educativo mediante analisis de regresion de puntuaciones escalares. Se comparo el rendimiento del grupo control con un grupo de 112 pacientes con esclerosis multiple. Resultados. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en las variables de la BNB, en especial en tareas de velocidad de procesamiento, memoria de trabajo y memoria verbal. La edad y el sexo no mostraron efectos relevantes. Conclusiones. Los datos indican que la BNB en la esclerosis multiple es una herramienta sensible para identificar alteraciones cognitivas en la esclerosis multiple, con especial enfasis en las tareas de memoria de trabajo.

  5. Cerebral networks of sustained attention and working memory: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study based on the Continuous Performance Test.

    PubMed

    Bartés-Serrallonga, M; Adan, A; Solé-Casals, J; Caldú, X; Falcón, C; Pérez-Pàmies, M; Bargalló, N; Serra-Grabulosa, J M

    2014-04-01

    Introduccion. Uno de los paradigmas mas utilizados en el estudio de la atencion es el Continuous Performance Test (CPT). La version de pares identicos (CPT-IP) se ha utilizado ampliamente para evaluar los deficits de atencion en los trastornos del neurodesarrollo, neurologicos y psiquiatricos. Sin embargo, la localizacion de la activacion cerebral de las redes atencionales varia significativamente segun el diseño de resonancia magnetica funcional (RMf) usado. Objetivo. Diseñar una tarea para evaluar la atencion sostenida y la memoria de trabajo mediante RMf para proporcionar datos de investigacion relacionados con la localizacion y el papel de estas funciones. Sujetos y metodos. El estudio conto con la participacion de 40 estudiantes, todos ellos diestros (50%, mujeres; rango: 18-25 años). La tarea de CPT-IP se diseño como una tarea de bloques, en la que se combinaban los periodos CPT-IP con los de reposo. Resultados. La tarea de CPT-IP utilizada activa una red formada por regiones frontales, parietales y occipitales, y estas se relacionan con funciones ejecutivas y atencionales. Conclusiones. La tarea de CPT-IP utilizada en nuestro trabajo proporciona datos normativos en adultos sanos para el estudio del sustrato neural de la atencion sostenida y la memoria de trabajo. Estos datos podrian ser utiles para evaluar trastornos que cursan con deficits en memoria de trabajo y en atencion sostenida.

  6. [Calibration tools menu and calculation of the composition nutritional food; validity and variability].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Hernández Rodríguez, B

    2014-04-01

    Introducción: Las tablas de composición de alimentos (TCA) constituyen una herramienta básica para conocer el aporte de energía y la composición nutricional de los mismos. Objetivos: Demostrar mediante un menú modelo la variabilidad existente entre las distintas TCAs y bases de datos de los programas informáticos empleados. Métodos: Se calibró un menú con el programa Alimentador, y fue valorado posteriormente con los programas DIAL, EasyDiet, y con las TCAs de la RedBEDCA, CESNID, Mataix, 2003 y Moreiras O., 2013. Resultados: Muchos de los nutrientes no se pudieron comparar por la falta de datos. El rango de los datos comparables obtenidos para cada nutriente, difiere entre un 8% y un 84%, siendo mayor en micronutrientes que en macronutrientes o energía. Conclusión: Hemos demostrado la variabilidad entre las TCA y algunos programas informáticos, lo que resulta en cuestionarse la validez científica del uso de estas herramientas, tan habituales para profesionales de la nutrición.

  7. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  8. Relevamiento total del hemisferio sur celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, J. A.; Colomb, F. R.; Hurrel, E.; Larrarte, J. J.; Sanz, A. J.; Testori, J. C.; Reich, P.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    En el presente artículo se describe el relevamiento del cielo en el Hemisferio Sur Celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz para declinaciones δ<= -19o realizado con la Antena II de 30 metros de diámetro del IAR. Este relevamiento posee igual sensibilidad (3xr.m.s=50 mK) que el realizado en el Hemisferio Norte con el radiotelescopio de 25 metros de Stockert de la Universidad de Bonn, operado por el Max-Planck Institute für Radioastronomie ( Reich W., 1982, A&ASS 48, 219; Reich P. and Reich W., 1986, A&ASS 63, 205). Con los datos obtenidos por ambos radiotelescopios se posee una base de datos de todo el cielo en esta frecuencia. En esta publicación presentamos los detalles del sistema receptor, técnicas de observación y reducción de datos, calibración y discusión de los errores en los resultados.

  9. [Prevalence of antiparkinsonian treatment complications: a systematic review and estimation of projections].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanchis, Daniel; Frutos Pérez-Surio, Alberto Frutos; López del Val, Luis J

    2015-08-01

    Introduccion. El desarrollo de la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) presenta diferentes complicaciones derivadas de la propia enfermedad, pero tambien de su tratamiento. La aparicion de efectos adversos con el uso de antiparkinsonianos es comun y su manejo es complicado, por lo que se hace necesario determinar el impacto epidemiologico de estos problemas relacionados con los medicamentos antiparkinsonianos. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de los efectos adversos del tratamiento de los sintomas motores de la EP y su posible impacto a largo plazo. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo una revision sistematica en bases de datos biomedicas desde el año 2004; se seleccionaron los estudios mas relevantes y se identificaron las frecuencias de los efectos adversos mas comunes. Se proyectaron los datos obtenidos para estimar su impacto a largo plazo. Resultados. Se identificaron 218 estudios, de los cuales 24 fueron seleccionados para la revision. Se obtuvieron datos para 20 tipos de complicaciones del tratamiento antiparkinsoniano, entre las que se encuentran problemas cardiacos, edemas y sintomas neuropsiquiatricos. Conclusion. Las estimaciones realizadas indican que el numero de pacientes de EP y, consecuentemente, la prevalencia de los efectos adversos de los tratamientos antiparkinsonianos pueden duplicarse en el año 2050.

  10. Ajuste de parámetros libres en teorías de campos camaleones a partir de espectros de nubes moleculares galácticas y experimentos terrestres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teppa Pannia, F. A.; Landau, S. J.

    Resultados recientes, basados en el análisis de espectros moleculares de nubes galácticas a través del método del amoníaco, han arrojado nuevos límites sobre la variación del parámetro adimensional μ=m_e /m_p. Los resultados indican Δ μ/μ = (μ_{obs}-μ_{lab})/μ_{lab}= (2.2± 0.4_{est} ±0.3_{sist}) times 10 ^{-8}, en acuerdo con una variación no nula de dicha cantidad (Levshakov et al. 2010). En este trabajo, motivado por los datos astronómicos, estudiamos la solución lineal del modelo teórico fenomenológico de campo escalar camaleón, presentado por Mota y Shaw (2007), que predice variaciones en μ. Con el fin de cotejar estas predicciones con los resultados observacionales, utilizamos datos de experimentos terrestres que testean violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia para analizar el valor de los parámetros libres presentes en el modelo. El trabajo realizado muestra que la solución estudiada no se puede ajustar a los datos experimentales, sugiriendo que el modelo lineal debe ser descartado para explicar las observaciones astronómicas. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  12. [Validation of self-reported weight and height university population and factors associated with differences between self reported and measured antropometrics].

    PubMed

    Savane, Fatoumauta Rosita; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Ma; García de la Hera, Manuela; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Sempere-Orts, María; Vioque, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es un problema de salud pública importante que se asocia a un mayor riesgo muerte por enfermedades crónico-degenerativas como diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios cánceres. En estudios epidemiológicos de amplio tamaño donde a veces solo es posible obtener datos auto-referido de peso y talla, pueden surgir dudas sobre las estimaciones del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Objetivo: En este estudio se comparan datos auto-referido de peso, talla e IMC frente a datos obtenidos por medición directa en población adulta joven, y se analizan los factores asociados a la discrepancia entre datos referidos y medidos. Metodología: Entre 2006-2012 un total de 628 universitarios de ciencias de la salud (476 mujeres) aceptaron cumplimentar un cuestionario con preguntas sobre peso y talla y realizar posteriormente un examen físico con la toma del peso y talla siguiendo protocolos estandarizados en ropa ligera. El peso de la ropa ligera se sustrajo del peso medido en 1 kg para los hombres y 0,9 kg para las mujeres. Se analizó la validez de las estimaciones antropométricas auto-referidas frente a las medidas para peso, talla y obesidad mediante índices de sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos y índice kappa y se usó regresión lineal múltiple para analizar los factores asociados a las discrepancias entre datos referidos y medidos. Resultado: La media del peso, talla e IMC auto-referido fueron 62,5 kg, 167,6 cm y 22,1 kg/m2, y de los medidos, 62,6 kg, 167,4 cm y 22,2 kg/m2 respectivamente. Las correlaciones entre datos declararos y medidos fueron de r = 0,97, 0,96 y 0,95 respectivamente. La sensibilidad para detectar exceso de peso (IMC ≥?25 kg/m2) mediante datos declarados fue del 81,0%, la especificidad del 98,5%, el valor predictivo positivo 90,6% y el índice kappa de 0,75. La discrepancia entre peso, talla e IMC medido y declarado se asoció significativamente con una mayor edad, y para la talla también con un

  13. Regional characterisation of hydraulic properties of rock using air-lift data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wladis, David; Gustafson, Gunnar

    les données disponibles présentent une certaine imprécision. Au départ, il faut cependant examiner l'utilité potentielle, c'est-à-dire la précision attendue, de données imprécises dans chaque cas spécifique. Cette étude analyse les possibilités d'obtenir des estimations de transmissivitéà partir de données d'air-lift dans des roches de socle en Suède, au mieux à un facteur 10 près par rapport aux données d'excellente qualité fournies par des essais d'injection. La précision attendue des résultats a été examinée analytiquement et grâce à des méthodes statistiques. Les résultats ont aussi été comparés aux données d'essais d'injection. Les résultats indiquent que les données obtenues par air-lift fournissent des estimations de transmissivitéà un facteur 10 près par comparaison avec celles des essais d'injection des exemples étudiés. L'étude montre aussi que la pénétration partielle et la fracturation hydraulique peuvent affecter les estimations seulement d'environ un facteur 5. Ainsi, le recours à des données existantes peut être économiquement plus intéressant que le recueil de nouvelles données dans les premières étapes des études hydrogéologiques. Resumen Los estudios hidrogeológicos, en general, y las estimaciones de propiedades hidráulicas en rocas, en particular, requieren gran cantidad de datos. En muchos países se han creado grandes bases de datos hidrogeológicos, recogidos y almacenados a lo largo de los años. Por tanto, el uso de los datos ya existentes, aunque imprecisos, puede suponer una alternativa barata a la recopilación de nuevos datos, particularmente en las primeras fases de un estudio hidrogeológico. Sin embargo la precisión y utilidad del método deben analizarse para cada caso específico. En este estudio se contempla la posibilidad de, a partir de datos de ensayos de inyección de aire realizados en Suecia, obtener valores estimativos de transmisividad dentro del orden de magnitud de los

  14. Cost effectiveness of a protocol using palivizumab in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gago, Yolanda; Lombardero-Pin, Marina; Ortega de la Cruz, Casilda; Maciuniak, Pablo A; Díez Del Pino, Alicia

    2017-03-01

    Objetivo: El objetivo principal fue evaluar el coste-efectividad del protocolo de uso de palivizumab en prematuros instaurado por consenso en nuestro hospital comparándolo con el basado en las recomendaciones de diferentes sociedades científicas. Como objetivo secundario se analizaron los factores de riesgo y gravedad de los pacientes hospitalizados atendiendo al protocolo establecido en nuestro centro.Material y métodos: El periodo de estudio fue de cuatro temporadas con el protocolo ampliado (datos retrospectivos) frente a dos con el protocolo restringido o consensuado (datos prospectivos). La perspectiva del estudio fue la del sistema sanitario, incluyendo los costes de hospitalización y del palivizumab en nuestro centro. El cálculo de la efectividad se determinó con la tasa de ingresos de pacientes prematuros estratificados por semanas de edad gestacional: < de 29, <32 y <35. Para el análisis de los factores de riesgo y gravedad en pacientes ingresados en las temporadas con el nuevo protocolo se recogen, de forma prospectiva, datos clínicos y factores ambientales y sociales. Resultados: En los estratos de edad gestacional <29 y <32 no se demostró una mayor efectividad del protocolo ampliado frente al consensuado. Solamente se objetivó una mayor efectividad para EG<35 en los datos acumulados y al comparar las temporadas 08/09 con la 12/13 y 13/14 para datos individuales. Este estrato lleva asociado un cociente coste eficacia incremental de 53.250,07 € (rango: 14.793,39 € a 90.446,47 € para los datos individuales y 50.525,53 € (28.688,22 € a 211.575,65 €) para los acumulados. La instauración de este protocolo en nuestro centro supuso un ahorro medio por temporada de 169.911,51 €. Se constata una relación coste-efectividad adecuada del protocolo ampliado si el coste del palivizumab por paciente fuese menor de 1.206,67 € (calculados para el máximo aprovechamiento del vial) y para una tasa de hospitalizaci

  15. Unraveling the deformational history of faults from AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvín, Pablo; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Oliva-Urcía, Belén; García-Lasanta, Cristina; Pocoví, Andrés; Gil-Imaz, Andrés; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Osácar, Cinta; José Villalaín, Juan; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Antolín-Tomás, Borja

    2014-05-01

    The faults chosen for this study belong to the Iberian Chain (Northeastern Iberian Plate) and include two kinematically different kinds of structures (thrusts and strike-slip), with well-developed fault gouges several tens or hundreds of meters thick (Datos Fault System and Daroca Fault) and thinner clayey layers linked to thrust surfaces (Cameros-Demanda Thrust). The Cameros-Demanda Thrust has a relatively simple history of Mesozoic extension and Tertiary inversion. Along the thrust several areas with fault rocks include weakly oriented breccias, deformed conglomerates and clayey fault gouge with S/C structures. The Datos and Daroca faults show a more complex history of movement and are of key importance in the Variscan and Alpine evolution of the Iberian microplate. They show fault rocks with thickness of up to hundreds of meters, consisting of fault gouges, microbreccias and fault breccias with large blocks of stratified Paleozoic and Mesozoic blocks. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) can be an useful tool in order to discriminate the tectonic evolution of such faults, remembering the different behaviors as part of different stages in northern Gondwana (Variscan cycle) and the Iberian microplate (Alpine cycle). Samples for the AMS study were collected from 56 sites, 29 (434 specimens) belonging to three areas of the Cameros-Demanda Thrust, 17 (196 specimens) in the Datos Fault System, and 10 (114 specimens) at the Daroca Fault. AMS results at the Cameros-Demanda Thrust show a main NW-SE magnetic lineation (Matute and Prejano areas), a secondary NE-SW magnetic lineation (Matute area) and a girdle distribution from NE to SW in the Panzares area. These results suggest a main NW movement for the Cameros-Demanda Thrust, consistent with kinematic indicators, but also evidence a NE-directed minor contribution, especially in the easternmost outcrops. Daroca and Datos Faults show a grater variability, both in plunge and azimuth, and magnetic lineation can be

  16. Actitudes de los candidatos y maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca del uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuelo, Ezequiel

    Este estudio examino y comparo las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros de ciencias y los maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca de la utilizacion de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Tambien identifico y diferencio el uso que ellos dan a estas herramientas en las clases de ciencias. Este estudio presenta un diseno descriptivo exploratorio. Constituyeron la muestra trescientos diez sujetos que fueron candidatos a maestros de ciencias o maestros de ciencias en servicio. Para recoger los datos se construyo y valido un cuestionario de treinta y un itemes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadisticas no parametricas Kruskal Wallis y Chi-cuadrado (test de homogeneidad) para establecer las diferencias entre las actitudes de los sujetos con relacion al uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Los hallazgos evidenciaron que son positivas y muy parecidas las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros y maestros en servicio hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas. No hubo diferencias entre los candidatos y maestros en servicio en terminos de las actitudes de confianza y empatia hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. En aspectos como el uso del banco de datos bibliografico Eric y el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en actividades educativas como explorar conceptos, conceptuar, aplicar lo aprendido y hacer asignaciones hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los candidatos y los maestros en servicio. Al comparar las frecuencias observadas con las esperadas hubo mas maestros en servicio y menos candidatos que indicaron usar el anterior banco de datos y las herramientas computadorizadas en las mencionadas actividades educativas.

  17. Software application for the calculation of dietary intake of individual carotenoids and of its contribution to vitamin A intake.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Cuadrado-Vives, Carmen; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las aplicaciones informáticas utilizadas para valorar la ingesta dietética suelen centrarse en macro y micronutrientes, pero no en otros componentes de la dieta con potenciales efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud, entre los que están los carotenoides. El grado en que cada carotenoide ejerce diversas actividades biológicas es diferente y por tanto, interesa utilizar datos de su composición en alimentos de forma individualizada. Objetivo: Elaborar una aplicación informática con datos individualizados de carotenoides que permita el cálculo de su ingesta dietética y la consulta del contenido de estos compuestos en los alimentos. Material y métodos: Aplicación informática desarrollada con Java 7, que incluye una base de datos de carotenoides (luteína, zeaxantina, licopeno, ?-criptoxantina, ?- caroteno y ?-caroteno) en alimentos (incluyendo aquellos que son principales contribuyentes a la ingesta de carotenoides en Europa), generados por HPLC. Se incluyen las variables relativas a los alimentos, sujetos y dietas, que son necesarias para una correcta información del contenido de carotenoides en alimentos y para el cálculo de su ingesta. Resultados: La aplicación informática permite calcular la ingesta dietética individualizada de carotenoides, a partir de 128 alimentos (crudos y cocinados) y su contribución a la ingesta de vitamina A, en las dos formas utilizadas actualmente, equivalentes de retinol y equivalentes de actividad de retinol. Conclusiones: Con esta aplicación informática se facilita la consulta de concentraciones de carotenoides en alimentos y el cálculo de su ingesta de forma ágil, específica y precisa, aspectos imprescindibles en los estudios de investigación sobre dieta y salud.

  18. [Bibliometric analysis of Revista Médica del IMSS in the Scopus database for the period between 2005-2013].

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Francisco; Ramírez-Méndez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar la visibilidad de la Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc) en la base de datos Scopus y describir los principales indicadores bibliométricos cuantitativos de la producción científica publicados durante el periodo 2005-2013. Métodos: para el análisis se utilizó la base de datos Scopus y se limitó el periodo de búsqueda a los años 2005-2013. La estrategia de búsqueda se ejecutó en los campos específicos de Título de la Publicación (Source Title) con el término Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social y sus posibles variantes, asícomo el número ISSN de la revista. Para el análisis de los datos obtenidos se utilizaron las herramientas de Scopus y los programas Excel y Access. Resultados: se encontraron 864 trabajos publicados durante el periodo 2005-2013 que fueron incluidos en Scopus. Se identificaron los autores con mayor producción científica y mayor número de citas acumuladas a sus trabajos, asícomo las principales revistas que citan a la Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. Se describen las principales áreas temáticas, tipos de documentos y otros indicadores bibliométricos que caracterizan a la publicación. Conclusiones: el uso de Scopus brinda la posibilidad de analizar con una herramienta externa al IMSS la visibilidad de la producción científica publicada en la Revista Médica del IMSS, además de que contribuye a identificar el estado de la ciencia en México y de los países en vías desarrollo.

  19. [NORMATIVE VALUES OF SF-6D QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILEAN DIABETES PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la diabetes mellitus es una de las enfermedades crónicas de mayor prevalencia e impacto económico a nivel mundial. La diabetes produce un impacto sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de las personas que la padecen. El cuestionario SF-6D permite evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Es uno de los cuestionarios más usados a nivel mundial, ya que permite conocer las preferencias sociales de los distintos estados de salud. Sin embargo, según nuestro conocimiento no se dispone de los valores normativos de este cuestionario en la población diabética chilena. Objetivo: reportar los datos normativos del cuestionario SF-6D en la población diabética chilena. Métodos: los datos fueron extraídos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS 2009-2010) de Chile. En este estudio se incluyen 424 personas que presentan diabetes (143 hombres y 281 mujeres). Los datos se han presentado segregados por sexo y grupo de edad, así como por región, estado civil, hábito tabáquico, nivel de ingresos y estudios. Resultados: el índice de utilidad del SF-6D en mujeres chilenas con diabetes fue de 0,65 (± 0,15), mientras que en hombres fue 0,70 (± 0,15). Menos del 5% de la población declara una utilidad con valor 1. El índice de utilidad del SF-6D en pacientes con diabetes disminuye con la edad, en las situaciones de bajos ingresos y con niveles de educación bajos. Conclusiones: este estudio presenta los valores normativos chilenos del SF-6D derivado del SF-12 en pacientes con diabetes.

  20. [Peripheral nerve stimulation effectiveness in the upper limb function recovery of patients with a stroke sequel: systematic review and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Obiglio, M; Mendelevich, A; Jeffrey, S; Drault, E; Garcete, A; Kramer, M; Maiaru, M; Modica, M; Ostolaza, M; Peralta, F

    2016-06-16

    Introduccion. Un 30-66% de las personas que sobreviven a un ictus queda con un miembro superior afectado. La estimulacion nerviosa periferica (ENP) influiria positivamente en la actividad muscular de pacientes con deficits motores secundarios a un ictus. Objetivo. Realizar una revision sistematica y un metaanalisis acerca de la efectividad de la aplicacion de la ENP en la recuperacion de la funcion del miembro superior plejico/paretico en sujetos con secuela de ictus. Sujetos y metodos. Se incluyeron ensayos clinicos controlados aleatorizados y no aleatorizados, y estudios cruzados, publicados hasta noviembre de 2014 en Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, SciELO y Open Grey. Se excluyeron articulos con alto riesgo de sesgo. Dos investigadores independientes evaluaron la elegibilidad de los estudios, y realizaron la extraccion y analisis de los datos. Resultados. Se encontraron 1.967 articulos, de los cuales se incluyeron cinco para la extraccion de datos y analisis, con una moda de riesgo de sesgo de 6/10 en la escala PEDro. Se incluyeron en total 224 sujetos, de los cuales 95 recibieron ENP en diversas modalidades y 129 recibieron otras intervenciones como grupo control. Conclusion. Los datos analizados sugieren que la funcion del miembro superior plejico/paretico mejora tras la aplicacion de ENP en conjunto o no con entrenamiento funcional. Sin embargo, el resultado del metaanalisis indica que aun no se dispone de evidencia suficiente para avalar la efectividad del uso de ENP para la recuperacion de la funcion del miembro superior plejico/paretico en sujetos con secuela de ictus.

  1. [Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability].

    PubMed

    Gaspar Carreño, M; Torrico Martín, F; Novajarque Sala, L; Batista Cruz, M; Ribeiro Gonçalves, P; Porta Oltra, B; Sánchez Santos, J C

    2014-11-03

    Objetivo: Elaborar unas recomendaciones de preparacion de medicamentos de administracion parenteral (MAP) para valorar la posibilidad de transferir su preparacion, desde las unidades de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion al servicio de farmacia (SF). Método: Se procede a elaborar una tabla de estabilidades de los medicamentos incluidos en la guia farmacoterapeutica del Hospital, aplicando la Guia USP (Pharmaceutical compounding Sterile Preparations) y la Guia de de buenas practicas de preparacion de medicamentos en los servicios de farmacia hospitalaria. Se recopilo informacion sobre las MAP: metodo de preparacion, compatibilidad, conservacion, periodo de validez, modo de administracion y tipo de envase. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante consulta de las fichas tecnicas, laboratorios, revision bibliografica y otras bases de datos. Resultados: Tras revisar 209 farmacos se elaboro un listado de recomendaciones. Segun los datos obtenidos, las MAP se prepararan de la siguiente forma: 89 seran preparadas desde el SF, 62 en unidad de enfermeria en planta de hospitalizacion pues son medicamentos que requieren administracion inmediata y 58 ya van acondicionados para su administracion por la industria. De los 62 farmacos que se prepararan por enfermeria, en 14 de ellos las dosis siguientes se prepararan desde el SF. Por lo tanto de los 209 farmacos solo 48 se prepararan exclusivamente en la unidad de enfermeria. Conclusiones: Desde el SF se ha establecido un metodo normalizado de preparacion, conservacion, administracion y periodo de validez de MAP. La preparacion de MAP en SF ampliaria su tiempo de conservacion, al tener en cuenta la estabilidad fisicoquimica, el nivel de riesgo y la vulnerabilidad del preparado a la contaminacion microbiologica. La informacion aportada contribuira a una disminucion de errores asociados al proceso de preparacion y administracion de MAP.

  2. [Burden of hospitalization for pneumonia in a Spanish tertiary hospital. Period 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    López-Gobernado, Miguel; Pérez-Rubio, Alberto; López-García, Eva; Mayo-Iscar, Agustín; Eiros, José María

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo es estimar la carga de hospitalización por neumonía adquirida en la comunidad y neumonía neumocócica en un hospital de nivel terciario del Sistema Nacional de Salud Español. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo en el que se recogen los datos del Conjunto Mínimo de Datos Básicos que usa códigos clínicos del Código Internacional de Enfermedades, asi como el índice de hospitalización por mil habitantes, la tasa de hospitalización por mil habitantes, el índice de mortalidad y la tasa de letalidad, usando como denominador los datos demográficos de la población del Área de Salud. Resultados: la descarga de 5758 episodios codificados con los códigos CIE 480 a 486 relativos a neumonía, señalan un índice de hospitalización de 3.54 personas hospitalizadas por cada 1000 habitantes, 65.34% del total de ingresos hospitalarios se produce en los Servicios de Medicina Interna y de Neumología. La estancia media hospitalaria por año es de 16.63 días. La tasa bruta de mortalidad es de 69.15 cada 100 000 y la tasa de letalidad de 19.56%, siendo más elevadas en adultos mayores de 65 años. Conclusiones: a pesar de las medidas terapéuticas y preventivas actuales, la incidencia y la mortalidad por neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en adultos se mantienen elevadas, lo que justifica fortalecer y abordar nuevas estrategias de concienciación y prevención.

  3. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Menal-Puey, Susana; Morán Del Ruste, Manuel; Marques-Lopes, Iva

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: una dieta vegetariana puede satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales si está bien planificada. En este sentido, los vegetarianos deben ser aconsejados para elegir alimentos alternativos a los productos de origen animal seleccionando el tamaño de porción adecuada de cada uno de ellos. El valor nutricional de las porciones de los alimentos vegetales tradicionales es bien conocido, sin embargo, el mercado vegetariano ofrece otros productos cuya composición química es menos conocida, ya que no son alimentos ampliamente consumidos por la población. Es necesario conocer tanto el contenido de nutrientes de las porciones de estos alimentos como la biodisponibilidad de estos nutrientes en la dieta vegetariana. Objetivos: este trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la información disponible sobre el aporte nutricional a la dieta de un adulto sano de las porciones de alimentos utilizados por la población vegetariana. Además, se discuten algunos puntos sobre la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más relevantes, y se proponen alternativas para mejorar su utilización. Métodos: los datos de composición de los alimentos veganos, por 100 g, se buscaron en bases de datos de composición de alimentos, y a partir de ellos se calculó la composición química de las porciones. Después, estos datos nutricionales se compararon con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia europeas para la población adulta, y se discutió la biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes más importantes.

  4. Un nuevo estudio del cúmulo abierto Tr 14 en la región de Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.; Malaroda, S.; Levato, H.; Morrell, N.

    Presentamos nuevos datos espectroscópicos de 9 objetos entre los miembros más brillantes de Tr 14. Hemos medido un total de 80 nuevos espectrogramas para contribuir a la determinación de la real naturaleza de estos objetos desde el punto de vista de la duplicidad. Del nuevo material debemos concluir que la mayoría de las estrellas en la muestra son simples. Sin embargo existen algunos objetos cuyo seguimiento debe continuar ya que no nos es posible efectuar conclusiones definitivas con el presente material.

  5. [Health expenditure for prevention in Italy (2006-2013): descriptive analysis, regional trends and international comparisons].

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Carlo; Odone, Anna; Bianco, Daniela; Di Vivo, Natalia; Bevere, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Il dato dell'Organizzazione per la cooperazione e lo sviluppo economico (OCSE) del 2012, che indicava l'Italia come il Paese con la più bassa spesa in prevenzione sanitaria, ha dato lo spunto per una raccolta sistematica e un'analisi critica dei flussi disponibili sulla spesa per le attività di prevenzione in Italia. Le statistiche correnti di spesa sanitaria sono raccolte centralmente dall'Agenzia nazionale per i servizi sanitari regionali (Agenas) attraverso i modelli di rilevazione dei costi dei livelli essenziali di assistenza (LEA) delle aziende USL. Le tre macroaree dei LEA sono: assistenza distrettuale, assistenza ospedaliera e assistenza sanitaria collettiva in ambiente di vita e di lavoro. Le spese per la prevenzione rientrano in quest'ultima e sono ripartite nelle seguenti voci: attività di prevenzione rivolte alle persone, igiene degli alimenti e della nutrizione, igiene e sanità pubblica, prevenzione e sicurezza negli ambienti di lavoro, sanità pubblica veterinaria, attività medico-legale per finalità pubblica. Tra il 2006 e il 2013, ultimo dato disponibile, la spesa per le attività di prevenzione del Servizio sanitario nazionale (SSN) è rimasta costante in rapporto alla spesa sanitaria totale (4,2%), pari a 4,9 miliardi nel 2013. Nel periodo di studio considerato (2006-2013) appaiono in aumento le spese per le attività rivolte alle persone (+8,7%), attribuibili soprattutto a vaccinazioni e screening, e in diminuzione le attività di igiene pubblica (-5,7%) e quelle della sanità pubblica veterinaria (-3,8%). I confronti internazionali indicano una spesa per la prevenzione del 2,9% rispetto alla spesa sanitaria totale, costante negli anni e nella media dei Paesi OCSE. Per la prevenzione, l'Italia spende tanto quanto i Paesi che non possiedono un servizio sanitario pubblico; il dato risulta inferiore del 5% rispetto alla programmazione nazionale, con poche eccezioni e molta variabilità regionale all'interno delle componenti delle voci di spesa

  6. La teoria economica y el enfoque Box-Jenkins en la modelizacion de la demanda de productos energeticos: el fuel-oil y la energia electrica en Espana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Pardo, Maria Jimena

    Esta tesis trata de integrar la teoria economica el enfoque box-jenkins del analisis de series temporales y un conjunto de datos de la economia espanola en un intento de elaborar modelos empiricos de demanda de productos energeticos con especial atencion a la deteccion y medicion de los efectos precio. Se analizan para ello las demandas de tres productos: la energia electrica el fuel - oil utilizado en las centrales termicas para la generacion de electricidad y el fuel - oil no termico. El periodo muestral es el comprendido entre enero de 1970 y diciembre de 1977.

  7. Will Japan Become a Military Superpower?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    Assistance, is ranked first in the world, supplying an impressive 22 percent of all funds flowing to developing countries in 1989.37 As evidence of...involved in a territorial dispute with China over the Senkaku Islands. This tiny chain , 120 miles northeast of Taiwan, is in an area thought to be rich in...October 1992, 10-11, 14, 16-18. Dato, Haji Mohammad Ali, BG. "The Conflicting Claims in the South China Sea." Asian Defence, June 1992, 7-19. Dian, Zara

  8. Drug abuse relapse rates linked to level of education: can we repair hypodopaminergic-induced cognitive decline with nutrient therapy?

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Madigan, Margaret A; Braverman, Eric R; Han, David

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that athletes and other individuals who have suffered painful injuries are at increased risk for all reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) behaviors, including substance use disorder (SUD). Comparing patient demographics and relapse rates in chemical dependence programs is pertinent because demographics may affect outcomes. Increased risk for relapse and lower academic achievement were found to have a significant association in recent outcome data from a holistic treatment center (HTC) located in North Miami Beach, FL. Relapse outcomes from the Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS; n = 1738) and HTC (n = 224) were compared for a 12-month period. Post-discharge relapse was reported by 26% of HTC patients and 58% of patients in DATOS. When broken out by education level-less than high school, high school diploma, college degree, and graduate degree-HTC patient relapse was 50%, 36%, 33%, and 16%, respectively, and demonstrated an inverse linear association (F = 5.702; P = 0.017). Looking at DATOS patient relapse rates broken down by educational grades/years completed, patients who attended school between 7th grade and 4 years of college also demonstrated an inverse linear association (F = 5.563; P = 0.018). Additionally, the lowest performers, patients who reported their academic performance as "not so good," had the highest relapse (F = 4.226; P = 0.04). Albeit certain limitations, compared with DATOS patients, HTC patients produced significantly larger net differences in relapse rates (X 2 = 84.09; P = 0.0001), suggesting that other variables, such as the treatment model may also affect patient relapse. Our results implicate the use of vitamin and mineral supplements coupled with a well-researched natural dopamine agonist nutrient therapy; both have been shown to improve cognition and behavior, and thus academic achievement. That relapse is highest among addicts who have less education and who report lower grades is a factor that can be useful

  9. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  10. WEIGHT LOSS AND METABOLIC OUTCOMES 12 MONTHS AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS IN A POPULATION OF SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Pinhel, Marcela A S; Nicoletti, Carolina F; de Oliveira, Bruno A P; Chaves, Raoana Cássia Paixão; Parreiras, Luciana Tabajara; Sivieri, Thiago; Vulcano, Vinicius M C; Luz, Gabriela R L; Annunciato, Danielle R; Morgado, Luiza M A; Marcatto, Gustavo; Salgado Junior, Wilson; Souza, Dorotéia R S; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la investigación de los resultados previa en cirugía bariátrica tiene que documentar los cambios positivos en las comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue informar de una descripción de los efectos de la cirugía bariátrica sobre la pérdida de peso y en la resolución de enfermedades asociadas con la obesidad en pacientes seguidos durante 12 meses en el servicio de salud pública de São Paulo/Brasil. Métodos: el estudio se realizó con los datos de 598 pacientes seleccionados con obesidad grado III sometidos a bypass gástrico en Y de Roux evaluados antes y 6 y 12 meses después de la cirugía. En cada momento se determinaron la antropometría, los datos demográficos y bioquímicos y la historia personal. La glucosa sérica, el colesterol total, el colesterol LDL, el colesterol HDL y los triglicéridos fueron determinados en la evaluación bioquímica. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente por el test de Chi-cuadrado, por ANOVA seguido por el post-test de Bonferroni y por la prueba t de Student para datos independientes; significación fijada en p < 0,05. Resultados: se observó pérdida de peso de 45,5 ± 13,7 kg (33,5%) durante el primer año después de la cirugía. Glucosa sérica, colesterol total y colesterol LDL se redujeron durante los primeros seis meses después de la cirugía y los valores se mantuvieron hasta los 12 meses, mientras que el peso y los triglicéridos se redujeron en todo el período de estudio. Se observó una prevalencia reducida de diabetes mellitus y dislipidemia después de la cirugía (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: el bypass gástrico en Y de Roux es un procedimiento importante para la pérdida de peso y el control de las comorbilidades como la diabetes y la dislipidemia, al menos durante el primer año postoperatorio.

  11. Lg and Other Regional Phases in South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    L-StLdi’: del sistema crtoza -- mantc’ super io:r; entre eil’:’s s!:, puioden men’: ir-nar lo:s sig~uientest Mt:dc’s Sismi’:os, ciravime-tr icc’s...izadc’ la infc’rmac in digiital ;al prc:es. de convui- tir ic’s dato:’ anal6gicc’s rn digitales tic le 11lla digitiza:i6n. La funci6n sismica

  12. Air versus He-O2 Recompression Treatment of Decompression Sickness in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    le traitement do la MDC chez los cobayes apr~s des plong~es A IPair. Lila RS, MacCallum ME, Pitkin RB. Tratamiento do recompresioa con aire vs. He-C...2 pars enfermeded por desconipresioa en conejillos do indiss. Undersea Biomed Res 1988; 15(4):283- 300-So *studio el tratamiento do roconapresion con...del tratamiento mejoro con profundidades mayores con airs, pewo no con He-C),. Es"o datos indica las difereacias potenciales en Is respuesta alan

  13. Pharmacotherapy follow-up of patients under treatment with biologic agents for chronic inflammatory systemic conditions: an agreement among hospital pharmacists for the standardized collection of a minimum set of data.

    PubMed

    Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Herrero Ambrosio, Alicia; Lamas Díaz, María Jesús; Martínez Cutillas, Julio; Poveda Andrés, Jose Luis; Aragón, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue consensuar un conjunto mínimo de datos cuya recopilación sistemática y estandarizada, mediante una herramienta electrónica en la farmacia hospitalaria, permitiera optimizar el seguimiento farmacoterapéutico de los pacientes tratados con agentes biológicos por enfermedades sistémicas inflamatorias crónicas. Material y método: Se constituyó un comité científico (n = 5 farmacéuticos hospitalarios). Se empleó la técnica Delphi, 2 rondas de consulta, por correo electrónico entre farmacéuticos hospitalarios. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado basado en una revisión bibliográfica y en recomendaciones del comité científico, valorándose 37 afirmaciones en una escala Likert de 5 puntos (1 = “En total desacuerdo”; 5 = “Totalmente de acuerdo”). Se alcanzó consenso cuando el 75% o más de los panelistas puntuaron 1-2 (consenso-rechazo) o 4-5 (consenso- acuerdo) la cuestión planteada. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos. Resultados: Participaron 21 farmacéuticos hospitalarios (70 invitados, 70% respuesta). Se logró consenso en el 100% de las afirmaciones. Se acordó el conjunto mínimo de datos y de recomendaciones que el farmacéutico debe recoger y hacer en las visitas; documentar el estado de salud, la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, los cambios en la adherencia al tratamiento y en la autonomía de los pacientes, así como las condiciones para hacer factible la recopilación sistemática del conjunto mínimo de datos. Conclusiones: Existe consenso entre los farmacéuticos hospitalarios en un conjunto mínimo de datos cuya recopilación, mediante una herramienta electrónica, ordenará, estandarizará y sistematizará el seguimiento farmacoterapéutico de los pacientes con enfermedades inflamatorias crónicas en tratamiento con agentes biológicos en el entorno sanitario público español.

  14. El medio interestelar alrededor de estrellas Of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, N.; Cappa, C.

    Se analiza la distribución del hidrógeno neutro interestelar en la vecindad de algunas estrellas Of con el fin de investigar la presencia de burbujas de H I vinculadas a las estrellas. Se determinan los parámetros físicos de las burbujas de H I encontradas y se comparan con estructuras similares vinculadas a estrellas Wolf-Rayet. El estudio se lleva a cabo en base a datos pertenecientes al relevamiento de Weaver y Willians (1973).

  15. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  16. [Procalcitonin as a marker of intra-abdominal infection].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Comesaña, Elías; Ballinas-Miranda, Julio Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la procalcitonina es un marcador bastante específico de infección y en los últimos años se ha demostrado su superioridad, con respecto a otros marcadores de inflamación como la proteína C reactiva, para el diagnóstico y vigilancia de una gran variedad de infecciones. Objetivo: resumir los datos actualmente existentes y discutir la utilidad de la procalcitonina en diversas infecciones intrabdominales, incluidas las postoperatorias. Conclusiones: los resultados de estudios hasta ahora publicados son variables, lo que genera controversia en relación con su utilidad.

  17. Curvas de rotación - Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, C.

    Se está elaborando un atlas con imágenes y datos publicados en las revistas principales por diversos autores, de las curvas de rotación en galaxias observadas en diferentes frecuencias. Las curvas de rotación constituyen uno de los medios más apropiados para el estudio de las diferencias cinemáticas entre los diversos componentes y quizá la mejor prueba observacional de la existencia de materia oscura en el universo. Este atlas tiene el propósito de servir como una guía cualitativa y cuantitativa para estos estudios.

  18. Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  19. Organic Compounds in the Exhaust of a J85-5 Turbine Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AFSC) -b22Q2F -- ’-- Brooks Air Force Base , Texas 78235 7930 1 /-35 II CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADOAESS JSAF School of Aerospace Medicine (VNL...Sepmlr 1980- Aerospace Medical Division (AFSC) ’• N 31MSEO•WT• • Brooks Air Force Base , Texas 78235 31 _T4 NONTORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(If...0- 4 I SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAG•Of•hý Da01 En’t.rd) SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAOE(Wh. Dato BnPoerd) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE

  20. Study of Aerospace Materials, Coatings, Adhesions and Processes. Aircraft Icing Processes. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-14

    PELICULA CALIENTE RECTA A 900 CON RESPECTO AL EJE DE LA SONDA TSI MODELO 1210- 20/43092/121014 I I DATOS TECNICOS -Fecha de calibracion: 17 de...ZI H-Ii T.:1 ’o fn ITL71 IN T Ade Informe 1-231/510/84.076 I - SECCION IV CALIBRACION DEL SENSOR DE PELICULA CALIENTE RECTA A 900 CON RESPECTO AL... PELICULA CALIENTE RECTA A 900 CON RESPECTO AL EJE DE LA SONDA T.S.I MODELO $210-20/43099/121014 4 I NT A j N. de Informe 1-231/510/84&.076 Pig. 16

  1. [Intragenic deletions of NRXN1: three new case reports and a review of the phenotype].

    PubMed

    Galán-Sánchez, Francisco; Esteban-Cantó, Vanessa; Blaya-Fernández, Pedro; Jadraque-Rodríguez, Rocío; Manchón-Trives, Irene; Alcaraz-Más, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo. Aportar datos sobre el fenotipo determinado por las microdeleciones de los exones alfa del gen NRXN1. Casos clinicos. Se estudian tres casos neuropediatricos con microdeleciones intragenicas NRXN1 alfa. El fenotipo en estos tres casos es inespecifico, con retraso mental leve-moderado, trastornos de comportamiento y escasos rasgos dismorficos o malformaciones. Conclusion. El fenotipo encontrado en las microdeleciones de los exones alfa del gen NRXN1 es claramente distinguible del fenotipo encontrado en las microdeleciones de los exones beta, con macrocefalia, epilepsia y retraso mental.

  2. [Fever of unknown origin, comparing two series with 26 years of difference].

    PubMed

    Casarrubias-Ramírez, Moisés; Alfaro-Mejía, José Alfredo; De Santiago-Leaños, Juan; Mendoza-Álvarez, Sergio Alberto; Pineda-Galindo, Luis Francisco; Vera-Lastra, Olga Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la fiebre de origen oscuro (FOO) es un síndrome de abordaje difícil y espectro cambiante. El objetivo fue comparar dos series de FOO estudiadas en el departamento de Medicina Interna del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico La Raza.Métodos: fue un estudio comparativo de datos secundarios: los datos de la serie 1979-87, que fueron publicados por Frati et al. y los de la serie 2004-14, registrados en la base de datos de FOO del departamento de Medicina Interna. Se compararon datos demográficos, diagnósticos finales y pruebas diagnósticas utilizadas. Se describen mediana y amplitud para las variables numéricas y distribución de frecuencias para las variables nominales. El análisis bivariado se hizo con chi cuadrada o prueba de Fisher con los programas SPSS versión 17.0 para MAC y open epi versión 3.7.Resultados: se incluyeron 127 pacientes en la serie 1979-87, y 118 en la 2004-14. La serie más reciente tuvo menos casos ocasionados por infecciones, (p = 0.024), y más enfermedades inflamatorias no infecciosas (p = 0.0004). Se mantuvieron constantes las enfermedades neoplásicas y los casos con diagnóstico desconocido. Variaron poco las pruebas de laboratorio realizadas y su utilidad diagnóstica; en cambio los estudios de imagen fueron menos útiles en la serie 2004-14 (p = 0.00003). Las biopsias y la laparotomía fueron frecuentemente realizadas y útiles en ambas series.Conclusiones: En la última serie hubo más enfermedades inflamatorias no infecciosas a expensas de un menor número de infecciones. Los estudios invasivos siguen siendo necesarios.

  3. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S.; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories – Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut – Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta – Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan – Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba – Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876

  4. Seasonal relationships between birds and arthropods in bottomland forest canopy gaps.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, Liessa, Thomas

    2004-12-31

    Bowen, Liessa, Thomas. 2004. Seasonal relationships between birds and arthropods in bottomland forest canopy gaps. PhD Dissertation. North Carolina State University. Raleigh, North Carolina. 98pp. I investigated the influence of arthropod availability and vegetation structure on avian habitat use at the center, edge, and adjacent to forest canopy gaps in 2001 and 2002. I used mist-netting and plot counts to estimate abundance of birds using three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.5 ha) of 7-8 year old group-selection timber harvest openings during four seasons (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration) in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. I used foliage clipping, Malaise trapping, and pitfall trapping to determine arthropod abundance within each habitat, and I used a warm water crop-flush on captured birds to gather information about arthropods eaten. I observed more birds, including forest interior species, forest-edge spedge species, and several individual species, in early-successional canopy gap and gap-edge habitats than in surrounding mature forest during all seasons. I found a significant interaction between season and habitat type for several groups and individual species, suggesting a seasonal shift in habitat use. Captures of all birds, insectivorous birds, foliage- gleaners, ground-gleaners, aerial salliers, Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), and Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens) were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during two or more seasons. I found relationships between insectivorous birds and leaf-dwelling Lepidoptera, insectivorous birds and ground-dwelling arthropods, foliage-gleaning birds and foliage-dwelling arthropods, and aerial salliers and flying arthropods, as well as between individual bird species and arthropods. Relationships were inconsistent, however, with many

  5. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  6. Cinética Química: el laboratorio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabañas Galán, B.

    La interpretación de las transformaciones químicas que se producen en la atmósfera requiere un profundo conocimiento de la cinética, productos y mecanismos de reacción de las posibles interacciones que pueden ocurrir entre las distintas especies presentes en ella. Información cuantitativa de este tipo es un prerrequisito para la construcción de modelos numéricos adecuados que expliquen el comportamiento químico-físico de la atmósfera. Esta información se obtiene a partir de experimentos realizados en laboratorios y por tanto independiente de medidas atmosféricas, por lo que los modelos atmosféricos derivados de ellos, pueden usarse para diagnosticar y predecir adecuadamente el comportamiento atmosférico. En esta exposición se recogen las técnicas experimentales más extendidas para la obtención de datos cinéticos así como los métodos de análisis de datos más utilizados en el estudio de las distintas reacciones de interés atmosférico. Se analizan sus características generales así como su adecuación a los distintos tipos de reacciones.

  7. PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe Lozano, Carmina; Campos Martín, Cristina; Cuerda Compes, Cristina; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Virgili Casas, Nuria; Martinez Faedo, Ceferino; Álvarez Hernández, Julia; Garde Orbaiz, Carmen; Penacho Lázaro, Mª Ángeles; Sánchez Martos, Eva Ángeles; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Gonzalo Marín, Montserrat; Zugasti Murillo, Ana; Matía Martín, Pilar; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Carabaña Pérez, Fátima; Díaz Guardiola, Patricia; Tejera Pérez, Cristina; De Luis Román, Daniel; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Santacruz Carmona, Nieves; Apezetxea Celaya, Antxón; Ponce González, Miguel Ángel; Urgeles Planella, Juan Ramón; Laborda González, Lucía; Martinez Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Olga; Joaquín Ortiz, Clara; Martínez Costa, Cecilia; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Leyes García, Pere; Gil Martinez, Mª Carmen; Mauri Roca, Silvia; García Zafra, Maria Victoria; Carrera Santaliestra, María José; Nadya-Senpe, Grupo

    2016-11-29

    Objetivo: Comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE del años 2015.Material y métodos: Recopilación de los datos de NPD del registro "on-line" del grupo de Nutrición Artificial Domiciliaria y Ambulatoria (NADYA) desde el 1 de enero de 2015 al 31 de diciembre de 2015.Resultados: Se registraron 236 pacientes, con 243 episodios de NPD procedentes de 40 hospitales. Lo que representa una tasa de 5,08 pacientes/millón de habitantes/ año 2015. La patología más frecuente en los adultos fue "otros" (26,3%) seguido por "oncológico paliativo" (21,6%).  La complicación más frecuente fue la séptica relacionada con el catéter que presentó una tasa de 0,53 infecciones/1000 días de NPD. Finalizaron 64 episodios, la principal causa fue el fallecimiento (43,7%) y el 'paso a la vía oral' (32,8%).Conclusiones: constatamos el aumento de los centros y profesionales colaboradores, dando respuesta a la cantidad progresivamente mayor de pacientes con soporte nutricional parenteral en domicilio. Se mantienen estables las principales indicaciones para el establecimiento de NPD y las causas de finalización del tratamiento.

  8. [Aetiology and treatment of epilepsy in a series of 1,557 patients].

    PubMed

    Torres-Ferrús, Marta; Toledo, Manuel; González-Cuevas, Montserrat; Seró-Ballesteros, Laia; Santamarina, Esteban; Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Sueiras-Gil, María; Cambrodí-Masip, Roser; Sarria, Silvana; Álvarez-Sabín, José; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Introduccion. La etiologia de la epilepsia es un determinante importante del tratamiento y el pronostico. Los avances diagnosticos y terapeuticos hacen pensar que la distribucion causal, el tratamiento y el pronostico de la poblacion con epilepsia se hayan podido ver modificados. Objetivo. Describir la distribucion sindromica, etiologica y el tratamiento farmacologico en los pacientes con epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal de pacientes con epilepsia atendidos de manera consecutiva en la consulta de nuestra unidad de epilepsia. Se recogieron datos demograficos, de sindrome, etiologia y tratamiento farmacologico en el momento de la inclusion. Se analizaron los datos de modo conjunto y por grupos de edad. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1.557 pacientes, el 54% varones. El 73% de la muestra tenia una epilepsia focal, que era secundaria a una lesion estructural en el 56%. Las epilepsias generalizadas representaron el 20%. El 5% fue inclasificable. Por edad, la etiologia vascular predominaba en practicamente todos los grupos y su prevalencia aumentaba en relacion con la edad. Los farmacos antiepilepticos mas utilizados fueron acido valproico (29%), levetiracetam (27%) y carbamacepina (20%). El 70% de las epilepsias generalizadas y el 57% de las focales seguian tratamiento en monoterapia. Conclusiones. La prevalencia por grupos de edad fue similar a la descrita en paises desarrollados aunque se observo una menor prevalencia de epilepsias criptogenicas. Mas del 60% de los pacientes seguia monoterapia y el acido valproico fue el mas utilizado.

  9. [Serum vitamin D and metabolic risk factors in a group of Spanish schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    De Piero Belmonte, Alexia; Rodríguez-Rodriguez, Elena; González-Rodríguez, Liliana Guadalupe; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; López-Sobaler, Ana María

    2014-12-17

    Objetivo: Analizar la situacion nutricional en vitamina D y su relacion con diferentes factores de riesgo asociados al sindrome metabolico (SM) en un grupo de escolares espanoles. Materiales y métodos: Se ha estudiado un colectivo de 314 escolares con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 13 anos, residentes en A Coruna, Barcelona, Madrid, Sevilla y Valencia. Se recogieron datos antropometricos de peso, talla, circunferencias de cintura, cadera y pliegue tricipital, datos de tension arterial y en suero se valoraron los niveles de glucosa, trigliceridos, HDL-c y 25-hidroxicolecalciferol (25(OH)D). Teniendo en cuenta el criterio de Cook se ha establecido la presencia de los siguientes factores de riesgo de SM: glucosa ≥100 mg/dL; perimetro de cintura ≥P90; trigliceridos >P90, HDL ≤P10; y presion arterial sistolica o diastolica >P90. Resultados: Los niveles sericos de 25(OH)D medios fueron de 23.0}8.6 ng/mL. Un 47,1% tuvo niveles indicadores de hipovitaminosis (20-30 ng/mL) y el 35% tuvo deficiencia de la vitamina (

  10. [Effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation in stroke patients: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Romera-De Francisco, L; Jimenez-Del Barrio, S

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. La electroestimulacion funcional es una de las tecnicas fisioterapicas empleadas en la actualidad para el abordaje de los pacientes que han sufrido un ictus. Objetivo. Conocer la efectividad de la electroestimulacion funcional en las capacidades generales, la marcha y la calidad de vida de los pacientes con ictus mediante una revision sistematica. Como objetivo secundario se planteo conocer el mejor metodo de aplicacion de esta tecnica. Pacientes y metodos. Se ha realizado una busqueda bibliografica en las bases de datos Medline, PEDro y Biblioteca Cochrane. Se han incluido ensayos clinicos y revisiones sistematicas de los ultimos cinco años que valorasen la efectividad de la electroestimulacion funcional en pacientes tras sufrir un ictus. Resultados. Se incluyeron 10 ensayos clinicos y una revision sistematica con metaanalisis, de los cuales se extrajeron los datos mas relevantes, se analizaron y se compararon. Conclusiones. La electroestimulacion funcional puede ayudar en la mejora de la calidad de vida, las capacidades motoras y la funcionalidad de la marcha en pacientes que han sufrido un ictus. No se puede afirmar que por si sola aporte mejores resultados que otras tecnicas convencionales de fisioterapia, y se observa una mayor efectividad con la aplicacion de electroestimulacion funcional asociada a otras tecnicas de fisioterapia. El mejor abordaje de la aplicacion con electroestimulacion funcional es el realizado en mas de un grupo muscular, desencadenando los impulsos mediante movimientos activos y en combinacion con otras intervenciones fisioterapicas.

  11. Relevamiento de HI en el Hemisferio Austral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Un nuevo relevamiento de HI de todo el Hemisferio Austral, comprendido entre -90o <= δ <= -25o, está siendo observado con la antena I del IAR. El mismo es realizado con alta sensibilidad (r.m.s.<= 0.07 K) y alta resolución espectral (1 Km/s). Un total de ~50000 posiciones en el cielo serán observadas, espaciadas en una grilla (lxb) de (0.5o x 0.5o). El intervalo de velocidades cubierto en este relevamiento abarca el rango -450 km/s a +450 km/s en el sistema LSR. Esta base de datos será corregida por efectos de ``stray radiation''. Al presente se ha observado ~70% del total del relevamiento. El mismo es complementario de uno similar realizado en el Hemisferio Norte por Hartman y Burton (1996), con cubrimiento espacial, sensibilidad, resoluciones espaciales y en velocidad, similares a los del IAR. El objetivo final de ambos relevamientos es disponer de una base de datos uniforme en todo el cielo.

  12. [The influence of physical exercise in the prevention of cognitive deterioration in the elderly: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Franco-Martín, Manuel; Parra-Vidales, Esther; González-Palau, Fátima; Bernate-Navarro, Mara; Solis, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La poblacion espanola mayor de 65 anos continua creciendo, por lo que la atencion a adultos mayores se convierte en un objetivo de salud publica cada vez mas relevante. La actividad fisica esta siendo reconocida como un factor altamente protector de las funciones cognitivas en el envejecimiento, y se establece, en la actualidad, como una estrategia psicosocial prometedora para la proteccion de las facultades cognitivas. Pacientes y metodos. Mediante una busqueda bibliografica en las bases de datos PubMed, PsycINFO, Psicodoc, Scopus y SciELO, se revisaron sistematicamente los estudios relativos a la influencia del ejercicio fisico en la prevencion del deterioro cognitivo en adultos mayores sanos y en la reversion o en el mantenimiento del declive cognitivo una vez ya iniciado. Se seleccionaron y utilizaron 31 articulos como unidades de analisis. Resultados. En conjunto, estos estudios indicaron que un mayor indice de actividad fisica se relacionaria con un menor deterioro de las funciones cognitivas en adultos mayores sanos y con deterioro cognitivo ya manifiesto. Conclusiones. El ejercicio fisico constituye una estrategia psicosocial prometedora para la intervencion de adultos mayores con y sin signos de deterioro cognitivo. Serian convenientes mayores estudios que empleen una metodologia experimental, mayor homogeneidad en cuanto a los instrumentos de recogida de datos de funciones cognitivas y una profundizacion en la frecuencia e intensidad necesaria en las intervenciones.

  13. [Semantic verbal fluency of animals in amnesia-type mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Higes, Ramón; Prados, José M; del Rio, David; Galindo-Fuentes, Marta; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; Lozano-Ibanez, Montserrat

    2014-06-01

    Introduccion y objetivo. El analisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la tarea de fluidez verbal semantica ha permitido observar que las personas con demencia producen menos palabras y en grupos mas pequeños que las personas sin demencia. Sin embargo, en personas con deterioro cognitivo leve de tipo amnesico (DCLa) la investigacion ha mostrado resultados contradictorios respecto a la cantidad y el numero de los agrupamientos semanticos que se realizan. El objetivo de este estudio consistio en aportar nuevos datos para intentar solventar dicha controversia. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron en el estudio 22 personas mayores con diagnostico de DCLa (8 varones y 14 mujeres) y 43 adultos mayores (7 varones y 36 mujeres) con funcionamiento cognitivo normal que sirvieron de grupo control. Todos fueron evaluados en el Centro de Prevencion del Deterioro Cognitivo del Ayuntamiento de Madrid, tras completar la prueba de fluidez verbal de animales ademas de otras pruebas neuropsicologicas. Resultados. Como se esperaba, la produccion de animales fue menor en el grupo DCLa que en el grupo control, pero no se observaron diferencias ni en el tamaño medio de las agrupaciones semanticas ni en el numero de cambios entre dichas agrupaciones. Conclusiones. Los resultados son coherentes con investigaciones previas que sugieren que en el DCLa no solo concurren deficits en la memoria episodica y la memoria operativa, sino tambien en la memoria semantica. Sin embargo, los datos no aclaran el papel de los procesos ejecutivos estrategicos, como parece suceder en la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

  14. [Cognitive Reserve Scale: testing the theoretical model and norms].

    PubMed

    Leon-Estrada, I; Garcia-Garcia, J; Roldan-Tapia, L

    2017-01-01

    Introduccion. La teoria de la reserva cognitiva contribuiria a explicar las diferencias en el rendimiento intelectual en sujetos con deterioro cognitivo similar y en sujetos sanos. Sin embargo, son necesarios mas datos psicometricos que garanticen el uso de los instrumentos de medicion de reserva cognitiva. Objetivo. Aportar evidencias de validez respecto a la estructura interna de la escala de reserva cognitiva (ERC) y establecer un baremo de referencia para la interpretacion de sus puntuaciones. Sujetos y metodos. Un total de 172 sujetos completaron la ERC y fueron distribuidos en dos grupos en funcion de la edad: 36-64 años (n = 110) y 65-88 años (n = 62). Resultados. El analisis factorial mediante modelos de ecuaciones estructurales exploratorios indico un moderado ajuste de los datos al modelo propuesto. En general, los indices de discriminacion fueron correctos (entre 0,21 y 0,50), y se registro congruencia entre los items a lo largo de los periodos de juventud, adultez y madurez para ambos grupos de edad. Se observaron valores adecuados del indice de fiabilidad (alfa de Cronbach: 0,80) y de los errores tipicos de medida (media: 51,40 ± 11,11). Conclusiones. La ERC se enmarcaria dentro del modelo teorico hipotetizado y las puntuaciones podrian interpretarse mediante el baremo ofrecido, lo que avalaria su empleo en la investigacion en este campo.

  15. [Clinical experience with omalizumab in patients with severe asthma. Real-world data].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Correa, Jorge Bernardo; Bracamonte-Peraza, Raúl; Espinosa-Morales, Sylvia Marcela; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: El omalizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal que se prescribe en esquema de adición por pasos para el tratamiento del asma severa. Objetivos: Informar la experiencia en pacientes con asma severa a quienes se aplicó omalizumab conforme a las guías internaciones, en un contexto de datos de mundo real. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, clínico, observacional, abierto, analítico y transversal a partir de datos de la vida real. Se utilizó el esquema de Control del Asma de GINA 2006 para evaluar a los pacientes y con un cuestionario se calificaron las características del paciente, efectividad, seguridad y tolerancia al omalizumab. Resultados: Se estudiaron 48 pacientes, 34 mujeres y 14 hombres, con edad promedio de 39 años. La duración promedio de la enfermedad fue de 26 años. La concentración sérica promedio de la IgE fue de 522 UI. Al inicio del tratamiento, todos los pacientes estaban sin control del asma; al final, en 69% se obtuvo control del asma, 19% estaba parcialmente controlado y 12% sin modificaciones. Los cambios se observaron en promedio a los siete meses. Conclusión: El omalizumab es efectivo y seguro para tratar el asma severa cuando se aplica conforme las guías internacionales para el manejo del asma bronquial.

  16. Design of VLBI Array in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, E. A.; Abraham, Z.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Estudiamos la localizaci6n 6ptima de estaciones de \\ ras' en territorlo brasileno. Con una red VLBI de estaciones reales y ficti- cias simulamos observaciones. Se usan los datos generados de estps ex- perimentos para obtener Ia distribuci6n de brillo de radiofuentes fic- ticias por medlo de tecaicas de mapeo bIbrido. Se concluye que l mejor localizaci6n de estacionee'VLBI futuras, tomando en cuenta las estacio- nes de EUA y de Europa, se encuentra en el Norte-Noreste de razll. El analisis de los datos se hizo con los programas de CALTECH, los cuales estan instalados en una computadora VAX del Departamento de Astronomla del Instituto Astron6mico y Geoflsico de la Universidad de Sa"'o Paulo. ABSTRACT: In this work we study the optimum localization for future VLBI stations in the Brazilian territory. With a VLBI network of real and fictitious stations we make simulations of observations. The data generated in these experiments are used to obtain brightness distribution of a fictitious radio source by the hybrid mapping techniques. We conclude that the best localization of a future VLBI station taking into account the addition of US and European Stations, is roughly in North-Northeast sites in Brazil. The analysis of the data is made with the software of CALTECH, which is installed in the VAX computer of the Astronomy Department of Instituto e Geofisico - USP. Key `{` : INSTRUMENTS - INTERFEROMETRY

  17. The Spanish diet: an update.

    PubMed

    Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ruiz, Emma; Valero, Teresa; Avila, José Manuel; del Pozo, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Antecedentes/objetivos: La Encuesta de Consumo de Alimentos, realizada durante 20 años por el Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente (MAGRAMA), es la fuente más fiable de datos para evaluar el consumo de alimentos y patrones dietéticos en España. El objetivo de este artículo fue revisar las tendencias dietéticas en España y su evolución. Se describe la evaluación de la disponibilidad de alimentos per cápita y día, que permite el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes y su comparación con el Consumo Recomendado de Nutrientes para la población española. Además, se han evaluado diferentes marcadores de la calidad de la dieta. Métodos: La muestra consistió en los datos de consumo y distribución, obtenidos de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Alimentos para el período 2000-2012. Se aplicó un método de muestreo en dos etapas en el que, en la primera etapa, las unidades que se muestreaban fueron ciudades y entidades locales y, en la segunda, se seleccionaron los hogares que conformaron la muestra final a partir de las entidades locales. Las unidades consistieron en ciudades o entidades locales del territorio nacional. Los datos permitieron el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes utilizando las tablas de Consumo de Alimentos (Moreiras et al., 2013). También se evaluó la calidad de la dieta: la adecuación de la dieta para alcanzar los consumos de energía y nutrientes recomendados; perfil de energía; calidad de la grasa de la dieta; calidad de la proteína de la dieta; densidad de nutrientes; índices de adecuación de la dieta mediterránea. Los datos actuales se compararon con los datos previos obtenidos por nuestro grupo de investigación en 1964, 1981 y 1991. Resultados: Utilizando los datos más recientes, el consumo promedio comprendía: leche y derivados (356 g/persona/día), frutas (323 g/persona/día), verduras y hortalizas (339 g/persona/día), cereales y derivados (197 g/persona/día), carne y productos c

  18. Executive functions in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que explican el desarrollo y la persistencia de la anorexia nerviosa (AN) siguen sin estar claros. Con respecto al funcionamiento neuropsicológico, se han señalado alteraciones en las funciones ejecutivas, especialmente en la flexibilidad cognitiva y en los procesos de toma de decisiones. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar el estado actual de los estudios neuropsicológicos sobre anorexia nerviosa, especialmente los centrados en las funciones ejecutivas. Métodos: Se realizó un proceso de búsqueda con tres relevantes bases de datos electrónicas, así como una búsqueda adicional con las referencias incluidas en los documentos analizados. Finalmente hay que mencionar otras revisiones ya publicadas y una búsqueda manual de otras fuentes. Resultados y discusión: Los datos de comparación de pacientes y controles sanos siguen siendo controvertidos, así como la comparación entre los diferentes trastornos de la alimentación con respecto a la disfunción neuropsicológica. El papel de variables como depresión, ansiedad y obsesividad necesita ser aclarado. Parece que hay alguna base para afirmar que existen algunos puntos en común entre los llamados trastornos de peso extremo (anorexia, obesidad). El vínculo entre la disfunción neuropsicológica en AN y biomarcadores aún no está claro. El papel de los déficits neuropsicológicos en la AN, como factores iniciales o simplemente como meras consecuencias, tampoco está aclarado. La relación entre los trastornos de imagen corporal y la disfunción neuropsicológica debe asimismo aclararse. Los datos sobre las similitudes, en cuanto a la disfunción neuropsicológica, entre AN y otros trastornos mentales pueden ser considerados, hasta la fecha, como una mera aproximación. Lo mismo ocurre con la relación entre el rendimiento neuropsicológico de los pacientes con AN y la personalidad o el género.

  19. The efficacy and safety of natalizumab for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in Portugal: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, L; de Sa, J; Sa, M J; Cerqueira, J J; Martins-Silva, A

    2014-11-01

    Introduccion. Los estudios han demostrado que el natalizumab constituye un tratamiento eficaz contra la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente (EMRR). Hasta la fecha, no habia datos de pacientes portugueses. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia y la seguridad del natalizumab en pacientes con EMRR atendidos en la practica clinica ordinaria en Portugal. Pacientes y metodos. Los datos clinicos de adultos con EMRR tratados con natalizumab en centros especializados de neurologia en Portugal se introdujeron de forma retrospectiva en una base de datos para llevar a cabo un analisis entre octubre de 2010 y febrero de 2012. Se analizo el cambio en la tasa anualizada de brotes (TAB), en las puntuaciones de la escala ampliada de discapacidad (EDSS) y en el estado de discapacidad. Resultados. Se admitio un total de 383 pacientes atendidos en 20 centros. Antes de iniciar el tratamiento con natalizumab, la mediana inicial de la EDSS era de 4,0 y la TAB media, de 1,64. La mayor parte de los pacientes ya habia recibido tratamiento contra la esclerosis multiple (93,0%). La duracion media del tratamiento con natalizumab era de 12 meses. El tratamiento propicio reducciones significativas (p < 0,001) de los valores iniciales de la TAB media y de las puntuaciones EDSS en los tratados con el anticuerpo durante >= 12 meses (n = 288) y durante >= 24 meses (n = 160). El natalizumab resulto mas eficaz en los pacientes que presentaban un menor grado de discapacidad (EDSS < 3,0) y en los que no habian recibido ningun tratamiento modificador de la enfermedad. Se notificaron dos casos de leucoencefalopatia multifocal progresiva. No hubo efectos adversos inesperados. Conclusion. El natalizumab presenta una tolerabilidad satisfactoria y se muestra eficaz en la reduccion de las recidivas y la estabilizacion de la EMRR en el marco de la practica clinica ordinaria en Portugal. Conserva su eficacia con el tratamiento continuado y podria ser eficaz especialmente en los pacientes con menos discapacidad y

  20. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    PubMed Central

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  1. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international.

    PubMed

    McCAA, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70(th) anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world's population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE FOOD PATTERNS OF IMMIGRANT ECUADORIAN POPULATION IN SOUTHERN SPAIN BASED ON A 24-H FOOD RECALL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Sanchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: ecuador es un país con limitada información nutricional con la excepción de algunos estudios de carácter general realizados por FAO (Food Agriculture Organization). Objetivos: realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta de la población inmigrante ecuatoriana en el sur de España para determinar diferencias en los patrones alimentarios y posibles deficiencias nutricionales. Métodos: la evaluación nutricional se basa en un estudio de recordatorio de alimentos de 24 horas llevado acabo sobre la población ecuatoriana residente en Sevilla y Córdoba (España) en combinación con la aplicación de bases de datos nacionales e internacionales de composición de alimentos. Se estimaron los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes y el cumplimiento de las ingestas dietéticas de referencia (IDR) que se analizaron estadísticamente para los factores, genero, edad, profesión y ciudad. Resultados: según las IDR utilizadas, la distribución de macronutrientes y los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes fueron, en la mayoría de los casos, adecuadas. De manera destacada, se constató que los hábitos alimentarios ecuatorianos permanecieron en la población inmigrante, con el arroz como fuente principal de energía. Los niveles de ingesta fueron significativamente diferentes para diferentes nutrientes dependiendo del grupo de edad, sexo, lugar de residencia y ocupación profesional. Comparando estos datos con un estudio previo en Ecuador reveló que la población inmigrante en España presenta un mejor estado nutricional, si bien en ambas poblaciones se detectaron deficiencias en fibra, vitamina E, I y Se. En cuanto a estas deficiencias, los resultados no pueden considerarse concluyentes debido a limitaciones propias de las bases de datos (por ej. Se) y a la carencia de estudios adecuados que permitan una evaluación más precisa (por ej. estudios de larga duración para vitamina E). Conclusiones: estos resultados evidencian que la población inmigrante

  3. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Izaga, Marta; Andía Muñoz, Virginia; Demon, Geert

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la población saharaui residente en los campamentos de Tinduf (Argelia) se considera vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional.Objetivos: evaluar los hábitos dietéticos de un grupo de mujeres emigrantes saharauis con el fin de obtener datos para diseñar un programa de educación nutricional (EN) destinado a mujeres residentes en los campamentos.Métodos: la información sobre hábitos dietéticos se registró a través de historias dietéticas. Los resultados de ingesta de macro y micronutrientes se compararon con los rangos aceptables de distribución y los requerimientos medios estimados. También se recogieron datos demográficos, socioeconómicos y sobre salud. Análisis estadístico: SPSS vs 22.0. A partir de los datos obtenidos y de la revisión de los programas de salud llevados a cabo en campamentos y de otros programas de EN se diseñó un programa específico.Resultados: la alimentación en campamentos se caracterizó por ser deficitaria en energía y por un bajo consumo de fibra (6,1 [2,8] g/día), de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (6,9 [2,9]% del valor calórico total) y de la mayoría de los micronutrientes. El aumento en la disponibilidad de alimentos tras emigrar a España incrementó la ingesta calórica, pero la dieta siguió siendo inadecuada. El programa de EN diseñado se basó en la formación de formadoras. En este manuscrito se proporciona información detallada sobre la organización y el material a emplear en esta intervención educativa.Discusión y conclusión: la alimentación de las mujeres saharauis en campamentos y tras emigrar a España fue inadecuada, lo que corrobora que la aculturación puede estar asociada a cambios no saludables. Cabe esperar que el programa de EN diseñado contribuya a mejorar su bienestar nutricional.

  4. [Phenotypes of bone and adipose tissue metabolism. A systematic review of their relationship].

    PubMed

    Nava-González, Edna J; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: existe una regulación central de la remodelación ósea en el hipotálamo, vía que al parecer también regula el metabolismo del tejido adiposo. El objetivo de la revisión que se presenta fue explorar la evidencia bibliográfica sobre las relaciones entre la densidad ósea mineral y los fenotipos de la composición corporal, leptina, tejido adiposo y del eje insulina-glucosa. MÉTODOS: se efectuó una búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos electrónicas, para examinar los documentos que abordan discusiones sobre la vinculación del metabolismo óseo mineral y la biología integrativa del tejido adiposo, publicados entre enero de 2005 y noviembre de 2011.

  5. Quality of life of diabetic patients with medical or surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Weiner, S; Neugehauer, E A M

    2013-03-01

    Introducción: En general, la mayoría de los estudios coinciden en que la calidad de vida de las personas con diabetes es peor que la calidad de vida de la población general (QoL). Además, estos mismos estudios también han descrito efectos muy positivos sobre la calidad de vida tras cirugía bariátrica. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar si el impacto sobre la calidad de vida de los pacientes diabéticos después de ser sometidos a cirugía bariátrica según el test (QoL) es el que se supone debería ser. Métodos: Analizamos nuestra colección de datos prospectivos de 524 pacientes diabéticos que se sometieron a cirugía bariátrica entre 2001 y 2005. Todos los pacientes realizaron 3 cuestionarios de calidad de vida antes de la cirugía y después de 1, 3, 6 y 12 meses. Las respuestas se recogieron en una base de datos anual. Todos los pacientes se sometieron a una intervención de banda gástrica ajustable, Bypass Gástrico en-Y-Roux o BPD-Scopinaro. Resultados: En total se obtuvieron los datos completos de 89 pacientes que fueron incluidos en el estudio. 1 año después de la cirugía, la calidad de vida mejoró de manera significativa e independientemente de la remisión de la enfermedad y de la pérdida de peso. La diabetes mejoró en todos los casos. La mejora en la calidad de vida fue superior en los pacientes con remisión de la enfermedad que en los que únicamente mejoraron su estado, pero inferior que en los pacientes que no tenían diabetes antes de la operación. Conclusiones: Tras el análisis de la literatura y de nuestros propios datos prospectivos, podemos concluir que los beneficios que obtienen los pacientes diabéticos tras la cirugía bariátrica son debidos principalmente a la mejora de su diabetes, independientemente del IMC inicial y de la disminución del IMC tras la intervención. Se necesitan más estudios para investigar los resultados del test QoL en diabéticos con bajo índice de masa corporal tras la cirugía bari

  6. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  7. Manual del espectrógrafo multifunción de Bosque Alegre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Paolantonio, S.; Carranza, G.; Goldes, G.

    Este manual consta de 120 páginas y resume las características del Espectrógrafo Multifunción instalado en el telescopio de 1.54 m de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre. En este trabajo se describen, además, las técnicas a emplear para su puesta a punto y la secuencia de operaciones para la obtención de datos en cada uno de los modos que ya se encuentran en funcionamiento. Parte de este trabajo se realizó con el apoyo de la Asociación Argentina de Astronomía, a través de becas otorgadas a R.D. y S.P..

  8. Espectro de radiación derivado de un modelo de colapso protoestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca, S.; Rohrmann, R.

    El exceso de emisión infrarroja en objetos protoestelares es atribuido usualmente a un disco de material en torno al cuerpo central. A pesar del avance alcanzado en la elaboración de modelos, aún existen dificultades para explicar la ley de temperatura del disco necesaria para reproducir las luminosidades y perfiles de energía observados. Nuestra propuesta consiste en determinar la distribución espectral de la radiación derivada de un particular modelo de colapso protoestelar, y estudiar la evolución del espectro desde estadíos tempranos de la contracción gravitatoria. Este plan es orientado a evaluar las propiedades del modelo (distribuciones de masa y temperatura del material circunestelar) por comparación con datos observacionales, a fin de inferir de ello los posibles ajustes requeridos en la teoría actualmente empleada.

  9. Estrellas Wolf-Rayet y el medio interestelar: huellas de una fuerte interacción

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichowolski, S.; Arnal, E. M.

    Se presentan resultados observacionales de un estudio de la distribución de hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR) galácticas. Los datos de la línea de 21 cm provienen de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. La muestra está compuesta por cuatro WR de la serie del nitrógeno (WN): WR130, WR131, WR155, WR156 y tres WR de la serie del carbono (WC): WR154, WR117 y WR126. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de HI en expansión presumiblemente vinculadas a dichas estrellas.

  10. Nuevos fenómenos en erupciones cometarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.

    Se discuten aquí tres procesos físicos novedosos encontrados en la actividad de cometas: 1) El rol de una distribución de granos de hielo como fuente extendida de H2O en la coma, 2) El efecto de una discontinuidad en el plasma cometario, llamada Cometopausa, sobre la excitación del radical OH , y 3) La actividad por erupciones a grandes distancias heliocéntricas (r > 5 AU). Con respecto a 1) y 2), se presentan modelos que ajustan bien con las observaciones. En cuanto a 3), se presentan explicaciones posibles al fenómeno, y se trata el interesante caso de Chirón 2060, basándose en observaciones propias tomadas desde el CASLEO y datos anteriores.

  11. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  12. La variación temporal de las constantes fundamentales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersten, M.; Landau, S.; Vucetich, H.

    Las diferentes teorías que unifican las cuatro interacciones fundamentales coinciden en predecir variaciones temporales y espaciales de las constantes fundamentales pero difieren en la forma de esta variación. Las observaciones astronómicas y geofísicas permiten establecer cotas sobre la variación de dichas constantes. ésto nos proporciona una herramienta importante para testear las diferentes teorías. En particular, se utilizó el modelo de supercuerdas propuesto por Damour y Polyakov. Se obtuvieron límites sobre los parámetros libres de dicho modelo consistentes con un conjunto de datos astronómicos y geofísicos.

  13. SDI-based business processes: A territorial analysis web information system in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjar, Rubén; Latre, Miguel Á.; Lopez-Pellicer, Francisco J.; Nogueras-Iso, Javier; Zarazaga-Soria, F. J.; Muro-Medrano, Pedro R.

    2012-09-01

    Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provide access to geospatial data and operations through interoperable Web services. These data and operations can be chained to set up specialized geospatial business processes, and these processes can give support to different applications. End users can benefit from these applications, while experts can integrate the Web services in their own business processes and developments. This paper presents an SDI-based territorial analysis Web information system for Spain, which gives access to land cover, topography and elevation data, as well as to a number of interoperable geospatial operations by means of a Web Processing Service (WPS). Several examples illustrate how different territorial analysis business processes are supported. The system has been established by the Spanish National SDI (Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de España, IDEE) both as an experimental platform for geoscientists and geoinformation system developers, and as a mechanism to contribute to the Spanish citizens knowledge about their territory.

  14. [Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency and insuffiency and associated factors in pregnant women of northern Spain].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Dehli, Ana Cristina; Riaño Galán, Isolina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Espada, Mercedes; Vioque, Jesús; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-04-01

    Introducción y objetivos: El déficit de vitamina D durante el embarazo se ha relacionado con sucesos adversos durante la gestación y con el desarrollo infantil postnatal. En este estudio examinamos los niveles plasmáticos de vitamina D [25(OH)D3] y los factores asociados a su deficiencia e insuficiencia plasmática en embarazadas del norte de España. Material y método: Se han analizado los datos de 453 gestantes participantes en la cohorte INMA-Asturias a las que se determinó la 25(OH)D3 mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Se ha estimado la ingesta dietética de vitamina D mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia alimentaria validado. Se han estimado las prevalencias de deficiencia [25(OH)D3.

  15. Observaciones CCD de los cúmulos abiertos Melotte 105, Ruprecht~75 y Pismis 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, J.; Lapasset, E.

    Se presentan los resultados preliminares de observaciones CCD en cinco colores (UBVRI) de campos de ~2,5' de radio centrados en los cúmulos abiertos Melotte 105, Ruprecht 75 y Pismis 7. Los datos fueron adquiridos en abril de 1996 con el telescopio de 60 cm de la Universidad de Toronto en Las Campanas (Chile), y el detector PM512 en su modo directo. Se muestran los diagramas color-magnitud y color-color preliminares de los cúmulos. Mediante criterios fotométricos se hace una selección de los posibles miembros. También se determinan enrojecimientos, distancias y edades de los cúmulos.

  16. Determinación de temperatura efectiva y gravedad superficial de estrellas B y A de secuencia principal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S.; Rayle, K. E.; Sanders, S. E., Jr.

    Las temperaturas efectivas (Teff) y gravedades superficiales (log g) de un grupo de estrellas de tipo B y A de Secuencia Principal se determinaron en varias etapas. En una primera aproximación se usaron los índices fotométricos de Strömgren para realizar el cálculo con el programa de Napiwotski et al.(1993). Luego se hizo un ajuste comparando datos espectrofotométricos con flujos obtenidos con el modelo ATLAS9 en la región visible. Y a continuación se hizo un mejor ajuste comparando los perfiles de la línea Hγ con espectros sintéticos calculados con SYNTHE. Además, se analizó el efecto de usar el modelo de Canuto y Mazzitelli (1991), donde se considera The Mixing Length Theory, en modelos de atmósferas de estrellas.

  17. [Validation of cut points of skeletal muscle mass index for identifying sarcopenia in Chilean older people].

    PubMed

    Lera, Lydia; Ángel, Bárbara; Sánchez, Hugo; Picrin, Yaisy; Hormazabal, María José; Quiero, Andrea; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-09-28

    Objetivos: Estimar y validar puntos de corte de índice de masa muscular esquelética (IMMAE) en adultos mayores chilenos, para el diagnóstico de sarcopenia Métodos: Estimación de puntos de corte para IMMAE determinados por DEXA y por ecuación antropométrica en un análisis secundario de datos transversales de 440 Adultos Mayores (AM) chilenos, y posterior validación transversal en una muestra de 164 AM. Se realizaron pruebas de rendimiento físico, auto-reporte de salud, antropometría y DEXA. Se definió la fuerza muscular disminuida por dinamometría de mano.

  18. Vorhersage des Krankheitsverlaufes von leichten kognitiven Beeinträchtigungen durch automatisierte MRT Morphometrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die leichte kognitive Beeinträchtigung (LKB) gilt als Anzeichen für ein erhöhtes Risiko der Entwicklung einer Alzheimerdemenz. Eine fundierte klinische Prognose für den Krankheitsverlauf kann aber bis dato nicht gegeben werden. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit besteht darin, eine möglichst präzise Vorhersage mittels automatisierter Morphometrie des Hippokampus im MRT-Bild zu treffen. In einer Studie mit 18 Probanden mit LKB wurde eine Prädiktionsgenauigkeit für die Entwicklung einer späteren Demenz von 83.3% erzielt. Eine manuelle Vergleichsmethode erreichte mit 55.6% Trefferquote keine signifikante Vorhersagegenauigkeit. Das automatische Verfahren erfüllt viele wichtige Voraussetzungen für den routinemäßigen klinischen Einsatz mit dem Potential, die klinische Vorhersage des Krankheitsverlaufes bei der LKB zu verbessern.

  19. Resonancias en la región trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansión de la órbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernández e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinámicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolución estable, en contraste con el comportamiento caótico del resto de la región trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todavía muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicación presentamos un estudio analítico y numérico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  20. Critical periods in the variation in body composition in school children.

    PubMed

    Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Bresciani, Guilherme; Alvarez, Ana; Arriagada, Valentina; Beneventi, Angelo; Canepa, Valentina; Espinoza, Paula; Parraguez, Melisa; Toledo, Carlos; Valencia, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Identificar periodos críticos en la variación de la composición corporal durante un año escolar y determinar causas posibles. Métodos: Un total de 363 niños y niñas entre 10 y 14 años participaron en el estudio. Antes y después de las Vacaciones de invierno (VI) y Vacaciones nacionales (VN) (julio y septiembre, respectivamente), se tomaron mediciones de peso corporal, porcentaje de grasa corporal, perímetro en la cintura, tiempo dedicado a actividad física y horas de sueño para determinar las variaciones. La normalidad de los datos fue confirmada y las medias fueron comparadas con un nivel de significancia alfa de p.

  1. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  2. Case report: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of pancreatic origin in a patient with down syndrome: The role of diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, M; Di Renzo, D; Persico, A; Chiesa, P Lelli

    2011-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Il tumore miofibroblastico infiammatorio (TIM) è un tumore solido benigno, di incerta eziologia. MATERIALI E METODI: Riportiamo un case-report di un bambino (4 anni, sindrome di Down), con massa pancreatica identificata all’ultrasonografia (US) e confermata da TC. RISULTATI: Il monitoraggio del TIM è stato effettuato con US seriate. Il follow-up a 4 anni dalla diagnosi è senza recidive. DISCUSSIONE: Il paziente, data l’impossibilità dell’exeresi chirurgica radicale, è stato trattato con successo con terapia medica (FANS). Abbiamo deciso di monitorizzare la lesione con ultrasonografie seriate, riducendo il numero di esami TC ai quali il paziente avrebbe dovuto sottoporsi, evitando così l’esposizione a radiazioni ionizzanti. La letteratura, infatti, riporta ampiamente come l’esecuzione di ripetuti esami TC si accompagni ad una importante radioesposizione con conseguente rischio cancerogeno, dato assolutamente non trascurabile in età pediatrica.

  3. [Nosocomial infections. Trends over a 12 year-period in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Lugo, Irma; Espinosa-Vital, Guadalupe Judith; Rodríguez-Sing, Roberta; Gómez-González, Claudia Josefina; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones nosocomiales constituyen uno de los principales problemas de salud en los hospitales, por ello, los programas de prevención y control deben ser evaluados con el impacto en las tasas de incidencia. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar la tendencia de las infecciones nosocomiales durante un periodo de 12 años en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes hospitalizados que presentaron infecciones nosocomiales. El análisis estadístico de los datos incluyó frecuencias simples, proporciones y densidad de incidencia por año, sitio de infección y letalidad.

  4. [Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis. A case report].

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, Ignacio; Sánchez-Ruvalcaba, Itzel; Sánchez-Martinez, Luis Carlos; Hernández-Ordoñez, Octavio; Gómez-Lara, Miguel; Flores-Carrillo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: el linfedema penoescrotal (también conocido como elefantiasis penoescrotal) es una condición que históricamente se ha descrito en áreas en las que la filariasis es endémica. Caso clínico: presentamos el caso de un hombre de 45 años de edad con linfedema escrotal. Después de descartar las causas adquiridas de linfedema, el paciente fue sometido a escrotectomía, prepuciectomía y reconstrucción escrotal y peneana. Actualmente el paciente se encuentra en seguimiento, sin datos de recidiva. Conclusión: el linfedema penoescrotal puede causar síntomas de debilidad e inmovilidad, así como problemas psicológicos. La cirugía otorga resultados cosméticos y funcionales aceptables.

  5. [Difficult for intubation in a simulator with laryngoscope with and without mirror].

    PubMed

    Almaraz-Ibarra, Manuel; López-Garcés, Víctor Manuel; Amador-Licona, Norma; Pérez-Aguilar, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el laringoscopio con espejo es usado frecuentemente en pacientes con variaciones anatómicas porque mejora la visibilidad de la epiglotis y acorta el tiempo de intubación. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar el grado de dificultad de la intubación con laringoscopio dotado de hoja curva sin espejo (Macintosh) adversus laringoscopio con espejo (Siker) en un simulador, en anestesiólogos de diferentes categorías. MÉTODOS: estudio transversal comparativo de 29 residentes y 21 médicos de base, quienes tuvieron tres intentos de 30 segundos cada uno para intubar con cada laringoscopio en dos escenarios distintos. Se registró el tiempo y el número de intento en el que se logró la intubación exitosa. Los datos se procesaron en el programa Statistica versión 6.

  6. [Antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens isolated in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Araceli; Peregrino-Bejarano, Leoncio; Camacho-Velázquez, Martha; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la infección urinaria es una de las más comunes en todas las edades. Recientemente se ha incrementado la resistencia antimicrobiana. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los agentes etiológicos más frecuentes de infección urinaria y sus perfiles de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo una encuesta transversal descriptiva. Se incluyeron los pacientes con infección urinaria identificados durante un año. Se registró tipo de infección, condición de riesgo, tratamientos antimicrobianos, microorganismos y resistencia antimicrobiana. El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante estadística descriptiva.

  7. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia J].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Medina, Julio César; Cárdenas-Lara, Armando; Guerrero-Rascón, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Bautista, Heber

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la disfagia con afección neurológica constituye un dato clínico significativo en el diagnóstico de lesiones que justifiquen la compresión del tronco cerebral y los nervios craneales bajos. Objetivo: destacar la importancia del estudio de la disfagia en una paciente con malformación de Chiari tipo I y siringomielia, sin síntomas gastroenterológicos primarios. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una mujer de 62 años de edad con disfagia orofaríngea de seis años de evolución, cervicobraquialgia, ptosis palpebral y diplejía facial. Conclusiones: el estudio por resonancia magnética constituye un elemento fundamental para establecer el diagnóstico causal de la disfagia neurogénica.

  8. VII Workshop Italiano sulla fisica pp a LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LHCpp2016 è la settima edizione dell'incontro nazionale sulla fisica p-p a LHC. Questa serie di incontri è nata a Pisa nel 2003 con lo scopo di stimolare lo scambio di idee tra le comunità sperimentali di ATLAS, CMS e LHCB e la comunità teorica. Caratteristica fondamentale di questi incontri è la preparazione di larga parte dei talk in collaborazione tra i vari esperimenti e la comunità teorica. Largo spazio nella preparazione e presentazione dei talk viene dato ai giovani ricercatori. In questa settima edizione, che si tiene di nuovo a Pisa, vogliamo concentrare l'attenzione sulle potenzialità di scoperta offerte dai dati raccolti durante il runII di LHC.

  9. A SOUTHERN ATLAS OF GALACTIC HYDROGEN (THE REGION 0 degrees \\< Q \\< 12 degrees, -3 degrees >/ B -17 degrees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, M. L.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Vieira, E. R.

    1987-05-01

    RESUMEN Se presentan datos observacionales en la lfnea de 21-cm del hidr6geno neutro obtenidos con el radiotelescopio de 30-rn del lAR. Las observaciones cubren la regi6n 00 < Q 120, 30 > b - 170 en intervalos dell0 tanto en Q como en b. El intervalo de velocidades radiales se extiende desde -100 km 1 hasta + 100 km 1 con una resolucj6n cinematica de 2km 1 ABSTRACT We present observational data in the 21-rn line of neutral hydrogen, which have been obtained with the 30-rn dish of the lAR. The observations cover 00 < Q 120, 30 > b > 170 at intervals of 10 in both Qand b. The radial velocity interval extends from -100 to + 100km 1 with a kinematical resolution of 2 km s- . Key words: GALAXY-STRUCTURE - RADIO LINES-21-cm

  10. [Characteristics of pediatric patients with biliary lithiasis. Immediate post-operative evolution].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Saavedra, David; Flores-Calderón, Judith; González-Ortiz, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Perla

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la litiasis biliar es una enfermedad poco diagnosticada en los niños; en México, la prevalencia es inferior a 1 %. Dada la escasez de investigaciones que aborden la epidemiologia y resultados de la cirugía en los pacientes pediátricos, nuestro objetivo fue conocer la epidemiologia y evolución posoperatoria de los pacientes pediátricos con litiasis biliar. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo trasversal. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de litiasis biliar atendidos durante un periodo de seis años, cuyos datos estuvieran completos en los expedientes clínicos.

  11. [Clinical characteristics of pediatric patients treated for influenza A (H1N1). The 2009 pandemic in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Pacheco, Yazmín Carmen; Flores-Ruiz, Eric Moisés; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Meza-Chávez, Abigail; Zamudio-Lugo, Irma; Vázquez-Rosales, José Guillermo; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: en abril de 2009 se informó por primera vez del virus pandémico de la influenza A H1N1. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir el curso clínico de los pacientes atendidos con enfermedad tipo influenza en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: estudio transversal analítico que comprendió el periodo de abril de 2009 a marzo de 2010. La información clínica y demográfica se obtuvo de los expedientes clínicos. El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial, para lo cual se aplicó análisis univariado mediante chi cuadrada, prueba exacta de Fisher y U de Mann-Whitney para las variables cuantitativas.

  12. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation.

    PubMed

    Bolognini Pereira, Kallyne; de Azeredo, Vilma Blondet; Barros da Sileira, Camila; Pedruzzi, Liliana Magnago

    2013-11-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la composición de la leche materna de lactantes adolescentes en función del tiempo de la lactancia. Métodos: Se siguieron 51 adolescentes lactantes, entre la semana 6 y 14 después del parto (WPP). Se llevaron a cabo la determinación de grasa, proteína y lactosa de la leche, respectivamente, por los métodos de Lucas, Lowry y Perry & Doan. Los micronutrientes se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Los datos fueron presentados por la media y el error estándar. ANOVA con medidas repetidas se utilizó Tukey como prueba post. Se aceptó un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: Se observó una reducción significativa (P.

  13. [β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as a dietary supplement (II): cell and molecular mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Manjarrez-Montes-de-Oca, Rafael; Torres-Vaca, Mateo; González-Gallego, Javier; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso

    2014-11-27

    Introducción: En los últimos años el -hidroxi--metilbutirato (HMB) ha sido foco de diversas investigaciones que le atribuyen un efecto sobre la disminución de la proteólisis muscular y un incremento de la masa muscular. Por tanto, se han realizado estudios centrados en los mecanismos celulares y moleculares responsables de dichos efectos. Objetivos: Los objetivos de la presente revisión son: conocer el metabolismo del HMB, así como su absorción y excreción; estudiar la posible toxicidad del HMB; e identificar los mecanismos celulares y moleculares de acción del HMB cuando se utiliza como suplemento nutricional. Métodos: Se utilizaron las bases de datos Web of Science, Pubmed y SportDiscus para realizar la búsqueda de artículos. Los resultados se dividieron en dos partes; en este artículo se presentan los resultados referentes a los mecanismos de acción del HMB. Resultados: No existen suficientes datos que apoyen que la ingesta de HMB incremente la síntesis de colesterol en el músculo. Es posible que existan efectos positivos en el metabolismo muscular a través de la vía mTOR y del sistema ubiquitin-proteasoma, aunque no se conoce su mecanismo de acción. Probablemente, el HMB eleva los niveles sanguíneos de hidroxibutirato y esto podría explicar sus principales efectos sobre la disminución de la proteólisis muscular. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a nuestros resultados, la posibilidad de justificar la acción del HMB a través de la vía del beta-hidroxibutirato abre una interesante línea de investigación para futuros estudios.

  14. [Home parenteral nutrition in Spain 2011 and 2012; a report of the home and ambulatory artificial nutrition group NADYA].

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Moreno Villarés, J M; Cuerda Compés, C; Carrero, C; Burgos, R; Gómez Candela, C; Virgili Casas, N; Martínez Faedo, C; Alvarez, J; Sánchez Martos, E A; Matía Martín, P; Zugasti, A; Olveira, G; Luengo, L M; Campos Martín, C; Martín Folgueras, T; Penacho Lázaro, M A; Pereira, J L; Garde Orbaiz, C; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Apezetxea, A; Sánchez-Vilar, O; Gil Martínez, M C; Martínez Costa, C; De Luis, D; Laborda, L; Joaquin Ortiz, C; Suárez Llanos, J P; Leyes García, P; Ponce González, M A

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE de los años 2011 y 2012. Material y métodos: Recopilación de los datos del registro “on-line” introducidos por los colaboradores del grupo NADYA responsables del seguimiento de la NPD desde el 1 de enero de 2011 al 31 de diciembre de 2012 dividido por años naturales. Resultados: Año 2010: Se registraron 184 pacientes, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que representa una tasa de 3,98 pacientes/millón habitantes/año 2011, con 186 episodios de NPD. Durante el año 2012 se registraron 203 pacientes, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que representa una tasa de 4,39 pacientes/millón habitantes/año 2012, con un total de 211 episodios de NPD. Conclusiones: Se observa un aumento progresivo de los pacientes registrados respecto a años anteriores. El principal grupo patológico sigue siendo oncológico ocupando el primer lugar desde 2003. Aunque el registro NADYA es un registro consolidado y ha sido y es fuente imprescindible de información relevante para el conocimiento de los avances de la Nutrición Artificial Domiciliaria en nuestro país, queda un amplio margen para la mejora. En especial lo que hace referencia al registro de pacientes pediátricos y al registro de las complicaciones.

  15. [Obesity and components of metabolic syndrome in Mexican women survivors of cancer].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel; de la Fuente-Vera, Tania Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: algunos estudios sugieren que la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico son frecuentes en supervivientes al cáncer. En nuestro medio no hay datos al respecto en relación con las mujeres. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de obesidad y componentes del síndrome metabólico en mujeres supervivientes al cáncer. Métodos: elegimos a mujeres que recibieron tratamiento para cáncer con supervivencia = 24 meses. Se evaluaron datos demográficos y de antropometría clínica, tensión arterial, tipo de neoplasia, tiempo de supervivencia, comorbilidades y niveles séricos de glucosa, colesterol total y triglicéridos. Resultados: estudiamos a 107 individuos, edad promedio de 60 ± 10 años, supervivencia de 77 ± 43 meses e índice de masa corporal de 31 ± 6 kg/m2. La glucosa promedio fue de 120 ± 58 mg/dL, el colesterol de 228 ± 43 mg/dL y los triglicéridos de 207 ± 120 mg/dL. Hubo 55 (51 %) con glucosa > 99 mg/dL, 85 (79 %) con colesterol > 199 mg/dL y 67 (63 %) con triglicéridos > 149 mg/dL. Tuvieron obesidad (índice de masa corporal = 30 kg/m2) 49 (46 %) y síndrome metabólico 27 (26 %). Conclusión: debido a la prevalencia de obesidad, los componentes del síndrome metabólico fueron frecuentes.

  16. [Systematic review about dental caries in children and adolescents with obesity and/or overweight].

    PubMed

    González Muñoz, María; Adobes Martín, Milagros; González de Dios, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Obesidad y el sobrepeso (O/SP) infantil han alcanzado caracteres de epidemia y son un factor de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas graves para la salud. El objetivo es realizar una revisión sistemática (RS) sobre la relación de O/SP con caries en pediatría. Material y métodos: RS de la literatura 2007-2011 en fuentes de información terciaria (Trip, Cochrane y NGC), secundaria (PubMed, IME, IBECS y MEDES) y primarias (revisión de referencias). Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes (niños de 0-18 años), factor de riesgo (O/SP) y variable de interés (primaria: caries; secundarias: resto patología bucodental). Datos recogidos: Autor, año, país, tipo de estudio, edad pacientes, casos (con O/SP) y controles (con índice de masa corporal -IMC- normal o bajo), estado socioeconómico, prevalencia de caries y otros resultados en salud bucodental. Resultados: Se localizaron un total de 48 documentos, de los que 37 cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda de la RS, distribuidos temporalmente: 6 artículos del año 2007, 6 del 2008, 5 del 2009, 11 del 2010 y 9 del 2011. Presentaron un grado de heterogeneidad muy amplio (en pacientes, intervención, variable principal de interés y tipo de diseño), lo que no permite aplicar síntesis cuantitativa (metanálisis) de los datos, pero si cualitativa. Los estudios son discordantes respecto a la relación entre IMC y frecuencia de caries (CAOD, caod). Conclusiones: La RS permite al odontólogo y pediatra conocer la potencial relación entre O/SP y caries dental.

  17. Brain abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya; Alegría, Analucía A; Brinson, Helen

    2014-02-24

    Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los estudios con resonancia magnetica en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) infantil y adulto. Desarrollo. Dichos estudios han demostrado que el TDAH se caracteriza por la presencia de multiples anomalias de caracter estructural y funcional, primordialmente en los circuitos frontoestriatales, pero tambien en los circuitos frontoparietotemporales, frontocerebelares e, incluso, frontolimbicos. Los datos aportados por los estudios longitudinales de resonancia magnetica estructural demuestran que el TDAH se caracteriza por un retraso en la maduracion estructural del cerebro. Esta conclusion se ve reforzada por los indicios indirectos ofrecidos por los estudios de cortes transversales, que indican la existencia de una inmadurez sustancial tanto en la funcion cerebral como en los patrones de conectividad estructural y funcional, indicios que, sin embargo, estan pendientes de confirmar en estudios longitudinales. La alteracion funcional de la corteza prefrontal ventrolateral parece estar mas afectada en el TDAH que en otros trastornos pediatricos, y existen algunos indicios de anomalias distintivas en los ganglios basales. Un metaanalisis sobre los efectos de los estimulantes en la funcion cerebral demuestra que el mecanismo de accion agudo mas congruente de los farmacos psicoestimulantes consiste en el aumento de la activacion de la corteza prefrontal inferior y los ganglios basales. Los primeros intentos por utilizar los datos de los estudios de neuroimagen para elaborar clasificaciones diagnosticas individuales de los niños con TDAH a partir de tecnicas de reconocimiento de patrones han cosechado resultados alentadores, pero todavia deben ser replicados por mas centros y aparatos de resonancia magnetica. Conclusiones. Durante los ultimos 20 años, las tecnicas de neuroimagen han perfilado los biomarcadores del TDAH, pero es necesario que nuevos estudios descubran la utilidad clinica de esa informacion, como el

  18. [Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test: normalization and standardization for Spanish population].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, N; Del Pino, R; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N; Schretlen, D J; Pena, J

    2016-12-01

    Introduccion. La evaluacion cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA) es un test de cribado breve que evalua el estado cognitivo general, y resulta un recurso alternativo, muy util, al tradicional test minimental. Objetivo. Normalizar y estandarizar el test MoCA, teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la poblacion española (datos INE, 2012). Sujetos y metodos. El estudio se enmarca dentro del proyecto Normacog, en el que se evaluo a 700 participantes (18-86 años). Se analizaron el efecto de la edad, el nivel educativo y el sexo sobre el rendimiento del test MoCA, y se crearon los percentiles, las puntuaciones escalares para nueve rangos de edad y la puntuacion escalar normalizada ajustada por edad y nivel educativo. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo de la edad, el nivel educativo y el sexo sobre el rendimiento cognitivo en el test MoCA. Sin embargo, el sexo solo presento un efecto significativo sobre dos dominios cognitivos: atencion y recuerdo diferido. La edad, la educacion y el sexo explicaron entre el 1% y el 32,3% de la varianza en las variables analizadas del test. Los participantes mas mayores con menor nivel de educacion formal obtuvieron peor rendimiento cognitivo. Se obtuvieron los percentiles y las puntuaciones escalares para cada rango de edad y la puntuacion escalar normalizada individual. Conclusion. Se presentan los datos normativos del test MoCA adecuados a las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la sociedad española y los puntos de corte propuestos para discriminar entre rendimiento cognitivo normal y deterioro cognitivo leve segun los diferentes rangos de edad.

  19. [Protocol for peripheral parenteral nutrition management ready to use in surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Varón Vega, Martha Liliana

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: Los pacientes sometidos a cirugía electiva, requieren de un tratamiento clínico integral que propenda por mantener o evitar el deterioro del estado nutricional y favorecer los resultados clínicos, y a su vez mejorar la seguridad de la terapia nutricional parenteral mediante la optimización de la tecnología, como una opción enfocada a la minimización de riesgo y la disminución de los costos operativos en las instituciones de prestación de servicios de salud. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión de la literatura con el fin de estudiar las indicaciones y recomendaciones del soporte nutricional parenteral periférico y/o complementario listo para usar en personas sometidas a una intervención quirúrgica. Métodos: Síntesis de datos tras la revisión de la bibliografía pertinente, que permitiera el diseño del protocolo. Se realizó la búsqueda en las siguientes bases de datos: PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect y Embase. Conclusiones: La nutrición parenteral periférica lista para usar es una alternativa de soporte nutricional, que permite mejorar el aporte Proteico-Energético así como demostrar mejoras en la seguridad del paciente, disminución de los costos y aumentar la satisfacción del paciente.

  20. [DEMOCOPHES SPAIN AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE HARMONIZATION OF EUROPEAN HUMAN BIOMONITORING].

    PubMed

    Esteban López, Marta; López Martín, Estrella; Rodríguez García, Carolina; Posada De la Paz, Manuel; Castaño Calvo, Argelia

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: contribuir a la armonización europea de la biovigilancia en humanos (proyecto DEMOCOPHES) demostrando la utilidad de los estudios de biovigilancia para valorar la influencia de la dieta y los estilos de vida como vía de exposición a contaminantes ambientales. Métodos: se adaptó el protocolo europeo a las necesidades nacionales, siguiendo los controles de calidad definidos en él y sin comprometer la obtención de datos comparables entre los países participantes. Resultados: la adaptación nacional del protocolo europeo no presentó grandes dificultades y, salvo mínimas modificaciones, se respetó el diseño original del estudio. Participaron 134 parejas madre-hijo, seleccionados en un colegio de Añover de Tajo (Toledo) y tres colegios de Madrid. Los voluntarios donaron una muestra de pelo y de orina y contestaron a las preguntas del cuestionario epidemiológico. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la participación de los voluntarios en las dos localizaciones de muestreo. Discusión: la estandarización de todas las etapas de un estudio de biovigilancia en humanos es esencial para su desarrollo armonizado a escala internacional. Los resultados obtenidos han contribuido a la obtención de datos sobre exposición ambiental, por primera vez comparables en 17 países europeos, y han permitido observar diferencias relacionadas con la dieta y los hábitos de vida. Las experiencias y el material de trabajo desarrollado para el estudio piloto serán aplicables al diseño e implementación de futuros estudios de HBM.

  1. [Prognostic category of corneal transplantation in a referal center].

    PubMed

    Verdiguel-Sotelo, Karla; Carrasco-Quiroz, Arturo; Rangel-Servín, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la queratoplastía penetrante (QP) es considerada como el trasplante orgánico más frecuentemente realizado y con mayor éxito. Las indicaciones de trasplante de córnea han cambiado con el tiempo y varían en función del país. Se han identificado factores de riesgo de rechazo corneal, como edad, vascularización corneal, cirugías oculares, etcétera. El objetivo fue identificar la categoría pronóstica, el grupo de riesgo y los factores asociados de pacientes con trasplante de córnea del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza. Métodos: se hizo un estudio transversal, analítico, observacional y ambispectivo, con fines ópticos y terapéuticos, de pacientes de la base de datos de trasplante corneal registrados entre 2011 y 2013 en el centro médico mencionado. Resultados: se obtuvieron 539 registros. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el queratocono (29.1 %), en segundo lugar el leucoma (27.8 %) y la queratopatía bulosa pseudofáquica (25.6 %) en tercero. El 57.5 % de los pacientes correspondieron a la categoría pronóstica 2, con pronóstico de transparencia corneal muy bueno. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico más frecuente en la base de datos de trasplante de córnea fue el queratocono. Es necesaria una actualización de la clasificación pronóstica con base en todos los factores asociados conocidos, a fin de ser más acertados en el pronóstico del TC.

  2. [Prognosis of non-symptomatic epilepsy in relation to their age of onset, monitored at a neuropediatric section of regional reference over a period of three years].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Gómez, Laura; López-Pisón, Javier; Fuertes-Rodrigo, Cristina; Fernando-Martínez, Ruth; Samper-Villagrasa, Pilar; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis

    2016-02-16

    Objetivo. Analizar los factores implicados en el pronostico de las epilepsias no sintomaticas (idiopaticas y criptogenicas) en relacion con su edad de inicio, controladas en una unidad de neuropediatria de referencia regional durante un periodo de tres años. Pacientes y metodos. Analisis de los pacientes con diagnostico de epilepsia no sintomatica, controlados desde el 1 de enero de 2008 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2010, recogiendo datos epidemiologicos, clinicos, examenes complementarios y datos evolutivos. Resultados. Del total de 4.595 niños atendidos en el periodo, se establecio el diagnostico de epilepsia en 605 (13,17%), de las cuales 156 (25,79%) fueron epilepsias idiopaticas, y 172 (28,43%), criptogenicas. El 15,7% de las epilepsias criptogenicas y el 14,1% de las idiopaticas son refractarias al tratamiento. Algunos sindromes epilepticos, como las epilepsias reflejas, el sindrome de Dravet, el sindrome de Ohtahara o el sindrome de Lennox-Gastaut, tienen mayores tasas de farmacorresistencia. No presentan otra alteracion neurologica asociada el 84,62% de las epilepsias idiopaticas y el 79,77% de las epilepsias criptogenicas. Conclusiones. Una clasificacion util de la epilepsia es la etiologica, con dos grupos: un gran grupo con las etiologias establecidas o sindromes geneticos muy probables y otro de casos sin causa establecida. La edad de inicio de la epilepsia en cada grupo etiologico añade orientacion pronostica. El pronostico lo ensombrecen la refractariedad y las alteraciones asociadas del neurodesarrollo, y es peor, en general, cuanto mas precoz sea el inicio y en etiologias concretas.

  3. [HOME AND AMBULATORY ARTIFICIAL NUTRITION (NADYA) GROUP REPORT, HOME PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN SPAIN, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Cuerda Compes, Cristina; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Virgili Casas, Nuria; Penacho Lázaro, M Angeles; Martinez Faedo, Ceferino; Garde Orbaiz, Carmen; Gonzalo Marín, Montserrat; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Álvarez, Julia; Sánchez Martos, Eva Angeles; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Campos Martín, Cristina; Matía Martín, Pilar; Zugasti, Ana; Carabaña Pérez, Fátima; García Zafra, Maria Victoria; Ponce Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Martínez Costa, Cecilia; De Luis, Daniel; Apezetxea Celaya, Antxón; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Díaz Guardiola, Patricia; Gil Martinez, M Carmen; Del Olmo García, M Dolores; Leyes García, Pere; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Joaquin Ortiz, Clara; Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Olga; Laborda González, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    Objetivo: comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD) del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE del año 2014. Material y métodos: recopilación de los datos de NPD del registro “on-line” del grupo de Nutrición Artificial Domiciliaria y Ambulatoria (NADYA) desde el 1 de enero de 2014 al 31 de diciembre de 2014. Resultados: se registraron 220 pacientes, con 229 episodios de NPD, procedentes de 37 hospitales; lo que representa una tasa de 4,73 pacientes/millón de habitantes/ año 2014. Las patologías más frecuentes en los adultos fueron: ‘otros diagnósticos’ (22,3%), la neoplasia paliativa (20,4%), seguida por la neoplasia activa radical (11,8%) y la isquemia mesentérica (10,9%). En los niños las patologías más frecuentes fueron: ‘alteraciones congénitas intestinales’ (33,3%), seguidas por ‘intestino corto traumático’ y ‘otro diagnóstico’. Conclusiones: se observa un aumento del número de pacientes que reciben nutrición parenteral domiciliaria y de los centros colaboradores. Consideramos que la NPD debería ser regulada por la Administración Sanitaria en el marco del Consejo Interterritorial del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y que su inclusión en la Cartera de Servicios de los diferentes Servicios de Salud de las diferentes comunidades autónomas redundaría en un beneficio para el paciente y los profesionales.

  4. [Use of the Six Sigma methodology for the preparation of parenteral nutrition mixtures].

    PubMed

    Silgado Bernal, M F; Basto Benítez, I; Ramírez García, G

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo: Usar las herramientas de la metodología Seis Sigma para el control estadístico de elaboración de mezclas de nutrición parenteral en el punto crítico de control gravimétrico. Métodos: Entre agosto de 2010 y septiembre de 2013 se realizó análisis gravimétrico al 100% de las mezclas dividiendo los datos en dos grupos adultos y neonatos. Se determina el porcentaje de aceptación, las gráficas de tendencia y el nivel de sigma. Se realizo análisis de normalidad con el test Shapiro Wilk y se calcula el porcentaje total de mezclas dentro de límites de especificación. Resultados: Los datos de gravimetría entre agosto de 2010 y septiembre de 2013 cumplen con el test de normalidad (W = 0,94) y presentan mejoramiento en el nivel de sigma a través del tiempo llegando a 6/6 en adultos y 3.8/6 para neonatos. Se logra que el 100% de las mezclas para adultos y neonatos cumplan con límites de especificación, estando siempre dentro de los límites de control del proceso. Conclusión: Los planes de mejoramiento junto a las herramientas de la metodología Seis Sigma permiten controlar el proceso, garantizando la concordancia entre la orden médica y el contenido de la mezcla.

  5. [Study of death with secondary diagnosis of malnutrition in a third level hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valdivia, Antonia; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Martínez Cirre, Ma Carmen; Valero Aguilera, Beatriz; Peña Taveras, Manuel del Carmen; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José María; Martínez Tapias, Jesús; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La desnutrición constituye uno de los principales problemas de Salud Pública, según datos de la OMS, es la primera causa de mortalidad, cuando la misma afecta al colectivo de los sujetos hospitalizados, toma entidad propia denominándose “desnutrición hospitalaria”. Objetivos: El objetivo general es cuantificar los diagnósticos principales de alta más frecuentes, que causan exitus, con el diagnóstico secundario de desnutrición. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal y descriptivo, en el que se han incluido todas las altas hospitalarias del año 2011 y primer semestre de 2012, que han sido exitus y que tienen como diagnóstico secundario la desnutrición, siendo el total de 33. Se ha realizado un análisis estadístico descriptivo, efectuándose el test de Mann-Whitney para pruebas no paramétricas (p < 0,05). Resultados: Los diagnósticos principales más frecuentes entre las 33 altas analizadas son la sepsis (12,1%), metástasis hepáticas (9,1%), neumonía (6,1%), insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (6,1%) e insuficiencia renal aguda (6,1%). Conclusiones: Aunque el diagnóstico principal más frecuente es la sepsis, al agrupar los diagnósticos, el GRD más frecuente es de patología respiratoria, por lo que se ha de hacer codificación exhaustiva y de calidad para ajustar el peso relativo de los mismos a la realidad. Es fundamental especificar en la fuente de información clínica utilizada para la codificación, el grado de desnutrición, para obtener mayor especificidad en los datos.

  6. [Multisite study for norming and standardizing neuropsychological instruments in healthy people for Spanish population: methods and characteristics of Normacog project].

    PubMed

    del Pino, Rocío; Peña, Javier; Schretlen, David J; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa; Ojeda, Natalia

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. Muchos de los instrumentos neuropsicologicos utilizados en España se han normalizado en poblacion hispanohablante procedente de Estados Unidos y Sudamerica, con grupos de edad y caracteristicas restrictivas. Utilizar este tipo de normas disminuye potencialmente su representatividad, la interpretacion de los resultados y las decisiones clinicas. Este estudio se enmarca dentro del proyecto Normacog, con el fin de estandarizar instrumentos neuropsicologicos en una muestra representativa de la sociedad española. Objetivo. Presentar la metodologia de normalizacion llevada a cabo en el proyecto Normacog y las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la poblacion española y de los participantes incluidos en el estudio. Sujetos y metodos. Se reclutaron 711 participantes (rango: 18-90 años) de diferentes areas geograficas de España, incluyendo los datos sociodemograficos, medicos, habitos habituales, lengua materna, bilinguismo y dominancia manual. Cada participante completo 19 instrumentos que evaluaban un amplio rango de dominios cognitivos, como memoria verbal y visual, atencion, funciones ejecutivas, velocidad de procesamiento o fluidez y denominacion verbal. Resultados. La muestra final normativa refleja las caracteristicas sociodemograficas y la representatividad de la poblacion española de acuerdo con los rangos de edad, educacion y sexo. Conclusiones. Se describe la metodologia de normalizacion y las caracteristicas de la muestra incluida en el estudio multicentrico Normacog, mediante el cual se llevara a cabo la estandarizacion y normalizacion de instrumentos neuropsicologicos, teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas sociodemograficas propias de la poblacion española. El proyecto Normacog proporciona datos normativos adecuados a nuestro medio cultural, y es esencial para poder realizar un diagnostico clinico y neuropsicologico fiable.

  7. [Frailty syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Barile-Fabris, Leonor A; Pérez-Cristobal, Mario; Merlos-López, Rosa Julia; Xibillé-Friedman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la artritis reumatoide (AR) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que causa daño articular progresivo, y afecta la calidad y la esperanza de vida. El síndrome de fragilidad (SF) es un precursor de limitaciones y discapacidad. La comorbilidad es un indicador de gravedad. Se buscó evaluar la frecuencia de fragilidad y comorbilidad en pacientes con AR. Métodos: se evaluaron pacientes consecutivos con AR atendidos en el departamento de Reumatología de un hospital de tercer nivel en los que fue posible aplicar los criterios para definir fragilidad según el Estudio de Salud Cardiovascular. Se registraron datos demográficos, el número de comorbilidades y la presencia de polifarmacia con un diseño observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Resultados: se analizaron 500 pacientes con AR. Fueron 453 mujeres (90.6 %). La edad promedio fue de 51.3 años y el tiempo promedio de evolución de la AR de 13.2 años. El 23.4 % cumplió con criterios para SF. El promedio de comorbilidades fue de 1.59 y las más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial sistémica (25.2 %) y la obesidad (18.2 %). Los pacientes tomaban en promedio 5.81 fármacos; el 99.6 % incurría en polifarmacia y el 69.6 %, en polifarmacia mayor. Conclusiones: hubo una prevalencia muy alta de SF, mayor que la esperada en población general; asimismo, el número de comorbilidades y la presencia de polifarmacia fueron muy frecuentes. Se debe vigilar la aparición de datos clínicos de SF y comorbilidad en AR aun en sujetos jóvenes con enfermedad de corta evolución.

  8. NORMATIVE VALUES OF EQ-5D-5L FOR DIABETES PATIENTS FROM SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Collado Mateo, Daniel; García Gordillo, Miguel A; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica que puede conllevar una reducción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. El EQ-5D es un cuestionario genérico de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud basado en preferencias sociales. Este cuestionario ha sido muy utilizado en pacientes con diabetes. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente artículo es informar sobre los valores normativos del cuestionario EQ-5D-5L en personas españolas con diabetes. Métodos: se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta Española de Salud (2011/2012). Un total de 1.857 personas con diabetes participaron en la encuesta. La puntuación del EQ-5D-5L se ha reflejado en función del sexo, región (incluyendo las 17 comunidades autónomas y las 2 ciudades autónomas de España), y 8 grupos de edad. Resultados: la media del índice de utilidad para toda la muestra fue de 0,742. Esta fue mejor para hombres (0,826) que para mujeres (0,673). Resultados similares se observaron en la Escala Visual Analógica. El efecto techo fue mucho mayor en hombres (44,83%) que en mujeres (24,41%). Conclusiones: el presente estudio recoge datos normativos representativos del EQ-5D-5L en España de personas con diabetes.

  9. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  10. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Bueno, Gloria

    2016-07-12

    Introducción: la elevada prevalencia de obesidad en niños es un problema de salud global y conlleva el desarrollo de comorbilidades asociadas, como hipertensión, dislipemia, inflamación crónica e hiperinsulinemia, que a su vez son reconocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Algunos estudios han observado que el consumo de productos lácteos podría ejercer un papel protector sobre el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares; sin embargo, la evidencia científica es bastante limitada en niños y adolescentes.Objetivos: investigar la relación entre el consumo de productos lácteos y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en poblaciones jóvenes.Material y métodos: se ha revisado la literatura reciente, incluyendo adicionalmente datos procedentes del estudio HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence). Se incluyó una muestra de adolescentes (12,5-17,5 años) provenientes de 8 ciudades europeas.Resultados: datos estadounidenses muestran una disminución en la frecuencia de consumo de leche, así como en el tamaño de la porción consumida. En el estudio HELENA los productos lácteos fueron el grupo de alimentos que mejor identificó a los adolescentes con bajo riesgo cardiovascular. Además, un consumo elevado de leche y yogur, así como de bebidas a base de leche y yogur, se asoció con niveles más bajos de grasa corporal, menor riesgo cardiovascular y mayor condición física cardiorrespiratoria.Conclusiones: son necesarios más estudios para proporcionar evidencia y comprender mejor los mecanismos subyacentes de la asociación entre la ingesta de lácteos, especialmente el yogur, y la obesidad, la diabetes, y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular.

  12. [Pharmacoeconomic study of the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vivancos-Matellano, F; Garcia-Ruiz, A J; Garcia-Agua Soler, N

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. Cuando el tratamiento farmacologico oral o transdermico de la enfermedad de Parkinson pierde eficacia, se dispone de tres terapias mediante dispositivos asistidos que pueden reducir las complicaciones motoras y no motoras: la apomorfina en infusion subcutanea (ASBI), la bomba de infusion duodenal continua de levodopa/carbidopa (IDL) y la estimulacion cerebral profunda (ECP). Objetivo. Efectuar un analisis farmacoeconomico comparativo del uso de ASBI con IDL y ECP; como objetivo secundario, discutir el perfil del candidato ideal para cada una de las tecnicas. Pacientes y metodos. Se extrajo informacion sobre datos de años de vida ganados y años de vida ganados ajustados por calidad (AVAC) segun la escala de Hoehn y Yahr, e informacion sobre costes y consumo de recursos para cada alternativa. La perspectiva del analisis fue la del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y el horizonte temporal fue de cinco años para los costes y toda la vida del paciente para las utilidades. Las medidas de resultado utilizadas fueron los años de vida ganados y AVAC, y en su comparacion se uso la ratio coste-utilidad incremental. Resultados. El coste-utilidad obtenido para cada opcion fue: 31.956 euros/AVAC para la ECP, 38.249 euros/AVAC para la ASBI y 75.206 euros/AVAC para la IDL. Conclusiones. Los resultados permiten evaluar la efectividad y utilidad de los diferentes tratamientos para la enfermedad de Parkinson avanzada, pues se presentan en ganancias de años vividos en plena salud. Los datos obtenidos contribuyen a la toma de decisiones que determinen la planificacion y gestion de cada caso, sin olvidar las preferencias del paciente y del neurologo, asi como las limitaciones presupuestarias.

  13. [Clinico-radiological profile of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in the childhood population. A retrospective analysis of a series of 20 patients in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Tomás-Vila, Miguel; Menor, Francisco; Otero-Reigada, M Carmen; Pérez-Tamarit, Amparo; Téllez de Meneses, Montserrat; Pitarch-Castellanos, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. La encefalomielitis aguda diseminada (EAD) es un trastorno inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central mediado inmunologicamente y de patogenia desconocida. Puede presentarse en cualquier edad, pero es mucho mas frecuente en niños. La EAD no tiene marcador biologico especifico y el diagnostico se basa en hallazgos clinicos y neurorradiologicos. Objetivo. Mejorar el conocimiento del perfil clinicorradiologico de esta enfermedad. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo con inclusion de pacientes menores de 14 años ingresados en un hospital terciario en los ultimos 15 años con el diagnostico de EAD. Se revisaron antecedentes, signos clinicos de presentacion, datos analiticos en sangre/liquido cefalorraquideo y la semiologia radiologica. En 16 casos se realizo un seguimiento medio de 25 meses. Resultados. Se revisaron 20 pacientes, un 70% niños, con una edad media de 4,4 años. El 40% tuvo un episodio febril previo. El 85% presento fiebre o vomitos, y el 70%, afectacion del estado de consciencia. Predominaron los deficits motores (45%), las convulsiones (35%) y la afectacion de pares craneales (30%). Tres niños presentaron una evolucion recidivante, y otros tres, secuelas motoras. Los estudios de resonancia magnetica mostraron lesiones hiperintensas en secuencias T2, con patron de realce escaso o nulo, que predominaron en los talamos (70%), la medula (67%) y la sustancia blanca subcortical (50%). En dos pacientes se diagnostico EAD hemorragica. Conclusiones. La EAD representa una entidad con importante afectacion general y repercusion neurologica, que muestra un potencial secuelar considerable. Los datos clinicoanaliticos y la resonancia magnetica cerebral y medular son relevantes para el diagnostico inicial y seguimiento de pacientes con EAD.

  14. Programmed home visits by nursing professionals to older adults: prevention or treatment?1

    PubMed Central

    Dios-Guerra, Caridad; Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Ruíz-Gándara, África; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2015-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: conocer la repercusión de la visita domiciliaria de los profesionales en enfermería a personas de 65 años o más, pluripatológicas, en morbimortalidad. MÉTODO: estudio retrospectivo caso-control por auditoria de historias clínicas. Muestreo aleatorio. Variables principales morbilidad, mortalidad; descriptivas: visitas de la enfermera, filiación, datos clínicos y socio sanitarios. Análisis por medidas de tendencia central, dispersión, posición, tabulación, frecuencias relativas, absolutas; no paramétricas, contrastes χ2; Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: se estudiaron a 1743 pacientes, de ellos 199 recibieron visita domiciliaria; la edad media de quien recibe visita es de 81,99 años; estos presentan mayor número de patologías de media 3,76; habitan en domicilio particular, si bien en conjunto presentan más institucionalización que los controles; el 50% no tiene identificado el Cuidador Principal; es mayor el número de visitas de las enfermeras a los pacientes que viven en residencias (p < 0,001). El 50% de casos no tiene plan de cuidados, con relación significativa (p < 0,001). No existen diferencias significativas en tiempo de vida entre los casos y los controles. CONCLUSIÓN: la visita domiciliaria del profesional en enfermería no repercute en la morbimortalidad; visita a los pacientes cuando ya ha aparecido el problema de salud, no hay datos de prevención. PMID:26312638

  15. [Generation and functions of dreams].

    PubMed

    Medrano-Martínez, Pablo; Ramos-Platón, M José

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. En la ultima decada han aumentado considerablemente las publicaciones sobre los ensueños, lo que refleja el interes de varios campos de la neurociencia por el tema. En este trabajo se revisan las principales teorias cientificas que han contribuido al conocimiento de como se producen y cual es su funcion. Desarrollo. Se expone la evolucion de su estudio cientifico, siguiendo el enfoque neurofisiologico y el neurocognitivo. El primero busca determinar los mecanismos neurobiologicos que los generan y las estructuras cerebrales implicadas; el segundo considera los ensueños un tipo de cognicion en interaccion con el de vigilia. Se examinan diversas hipotesis sobre la funcion de los ensueños, en particular las que les atribuyen un papel en la consolidacion de la memoria y la regulacion del estado emocional. Conclusiones. Aunque no se ha determinado con exactitud como se generan los ensueños, los datos neurobiologicos resaltan la importancia de los nucleos pontinos del tronco cerebral, diversos sistemas de memoria, el sistema limbico y el sistema de recompensa cerebral y diversas areas neocorticales. Los datos neurocognitivos subrayan la relacion entre el procesamiento cognitivo y emocional que ocurre durante la vigilia y durante el sueño, asi como la influencia del entorno en el contenido de los ensueños. Respecto a su funcion, cabe destacar su valor adaptativo, al contribuir al reprocesamiento de la informacion adquirida en vigilia y al control de las emociones. Esto sugiere que los ensueños participan en el desarrollo de las capacidades cognitivas.

  16. Obstáculos a la adherencia y retención en los sistemas de salud público y privado según pacientes y personal de salud

    PubMed Central

    Arístegui, Inés; Dorigo, Analía; Bofill, Lina; Bordatto, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernández; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones., Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción el Programa Nacional de Sida garantiza el acceso universal a los antirretrovirales, aun así las personas que reciben medicamentos a través del sistema público no logran obtener una carga viral indetectable en la misma proporción que los pacientes del sistema privado. Este estudio cualitativo tiene como objeto identificar los factores asociados a la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención de VIH de los sistemas de salud público y privado de Buenos Aires, según las percepciones de pacientes y del personal de salud. Métodos se registraron datos cualitativos de 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y 4 grupos focales de pacientes y personal de salud tanto del sistema público como privado. Se codificaron y analizaron temas predeterminados sobre adherencia, utilizando el software QRS Nvivo9® de análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados pacientes y personal de salud de ambos sistemas coinciden en la importancia del estigma asociado al VIH, la relación médicopaciente, la comunicación entre ambos y la división de responsabilidades en relación al tratamiento como aspectos fundamentales para la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención. Se observan diferencias entre los sistemas en la forma en que algunos de estos aspectos actúan. Las barreras estructurales se presentan como principales obstáculos del sistema público. Discusión se resalta la necesidad de intervenciones focalizadas en la díada médico-paciente que considere las particularidades de cada sistema de atención para facilitar el compromiso del paciente en la adherencia. PMID:26878024

  17. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  18. [A descriptive study of non-symptomatic epilepsy according to age at onset at a Neuropediatric Section of regional reference].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Gomez, L; Lopez-Pison, J; Fernando-Martinez, R; Fuertes-Rodrigo, C; Samper-Villagrasa, P; Monge-Galindo, L; Pena-Segura, J L

    2016-11-16

    Objetivo. Estudio descriptivo de las epilepsias no sintomaticas (idiopaticas y criptogenicas), segun la edad de inicio, controladas en una unidad de neuropediatria de referencia regional durante tres años. Pacientes y metodos. Revision de historias de niños con epilepsia no sintomatica de la base de datos de neuropediatria controlados del 1 de enero de 2008 al 31 de diciembre de 2010. Resultados. De 4.595 niños atendidos en el periodo, se diagnosticaron de epilepsia 605 (13,17%), de las cuales 156 (25,79%) fueron idiopaticas, y 172 (28,43%), criptogenicas. La edad media de inicio del total fue de 4,78 años; 6,31 años en las idiopaticas y 5,43 años en las criptogenicas. El 26,12% del total de epilepsias se inicio en el primer año. Las epilepsias idiopaticas predominan en el grupo de inicio de 6-10 años, y las criptogenicas, en el de 3-6 años. La epilepsia de ausencias y la epilepsia benigna de la infancia con paroxismos centrotemporales son los sindromes epilepticos idiopaticos mas prevalentes. Conclusiones. Existen muchas diferencias de datos epidemiologicos publicados sobre epilepsia infantil por la dificultad que entraña un diagnostico sindromico en la edad pediatrica, debido a la variabilidad clinica y electroencefalografica. La ausencia de una clasificacion universalmente aceptada de los sindromes epilepticos dificulta comparaciones entre series. Todas las epilepsias son sintomaticas, puesto que tienen causa, sea genetica o adquirida. Una clasificacion util es la etiologica, con dos grupos: un gran grupo con las etiologias establecidas o sindromes geneticos muy probables y otro de casos sin causa establecida. La edad de inicio orienta a determinadas etiologias.

  19. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of Belimumab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Spain].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; García-Aparicio, Ángel María; Parrondo, Javier; Vallejo-Aparicio, Laura Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Estimar el coste-efectividad (CE) de belimumab en aquellos pacientes con biomarcadores positivos y enfermedad activa a pesar del tratamiento estandar (TE) desde la perspectiva social espanola. Métodos: A partir de un modelo de microsimulacion, que permite simular la evolucion natural de la enfermedad, se estimo el CE de belimumab + TE vs. TE. Se considero una duracion del tratamiento de dos anos y un horizonte temporal de toda la vida. La extrapolacion de eficacia a largo plazo se baso en los ensayos clinicos de belimumab y en la cohorte de pacientes John Hopkins de Estados Unidos; los datos de utilidades se obtuvieron de la literatura. Se calcularon costes directos e indirectos en base a datos espanoles publicados (€, 2014), aplicando una tasa de descuento (TD) del 3% tanto a costes como a efectos. Los resultados se expresaron como ratio coste- efectividad incremental (ICER) en terminos de anos de vida ganados (AVG) y anos de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC). Se realizaron analisis de sensibilidad deterministicos (TD al 0% y 5%, duracion de tratamiento 5 anos y exclusion de costes indirectos) asi como probabilisticos (PSA). Resultados: El ICER de belimumab + TE vs. TE fue de 16.647€/ AVG y 23.158€/AVAC respectivamente. La variacion de la TD supuso la mayor variacion de los resultados respecto al escenario base. En el 68% de los escenarios simulados en el PSA, belimumab fue una alternativa coste-efectiva considerando como umbral 30.000€/AVAC. Conclusiones: Belimumab puede considerarse una alternativa coste-efectiva desde la perspectiva social espanola.

  20. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    Introducción: En los últimos años los suplementos antioxidantes han cobrado popularidad para contrarrestar los efectos de los radicales libres y los síntomas del daño muscular, entre los que se encuentra el dolor muscular tardío (DMT). Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática en diferentes bases de datos para conocer los efectos de los suplementos antioxidantes sobre el DMT. Método: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos; Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Scopus y SportDiscus y la Web Of Science (WOS). Las palabras y acrónimos usados fueron; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant y oxidative stress. Resultados: Se identificaron 54 artículos de los cuales se recuperaron 48, todos ellos en inglés, 17 relacionados con la vitamina C y E, catorce corresponden a suplementos polifenòlicos, once a otros suplementos antioxidantes y seis a suplementos comerciales todos ellos usados para combatir, entre otras variables, el DMT. Conclusiones: Tanto las vitaminas como los suplementos comerciales presentan baja efectividad en la disminución del DMT, mientras que los polifenoles y otros suplementos antioxidantes muestran entre moderada y buena efectividad en el combate al DMT. Sin embargo, gran parte de los estudios presentan efectividad en la disminución de otros síntomas del daño muscular además de ayudar en la recuperación postejercicio.