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Sample records for david smiles arthur

  1. Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed…

  2. Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed…

  3. Smile psychology.

    PubMed

    Cortés, M; Gaudino, D

    1994-01-01

    Facial expression, including smiling, is an important means of universal communication and an understudied area in dentistry. Currently there is limited availability of data on smile psychology in either general or cosmetic dental literature. However, the number of cosmetic dentistry patients is increasing and many require and desire physical changes that restore or enhance facial expressions, appearances, and smiles. Cosmetic dentistry patients, particularly those presenting with dental anxiety or phobia, require a more detailed physical and psychologic assessment due to their habitual avoidance of dental care and subsequent oral health deterioration. Increasing knowledge and data facilitate the development of new intervention and treatments for anxious and phobic dental patients. These new developments strengthen the dentist-patient partnership to foster optimal dental results.

  4. Smile: A review.

    PubMed

    Manjula, W S; Sukumar, M R; Kishorekumar, S; Gnanashanmugam, K; Mahalakshmi, K

    2015-04-01

    "Beauty is in the mind of the beholder, each mind perceives a different beauty" famously said by writer Margeret Wolfe Hungerford. A beautiful smile is a gateway to the world. The aim of this article was to identify the criteria for designing the perfect smile. It was determined, smile design is a multifactorial process and various steps are involved in designing a radiant smile.

  5. Third Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Third Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on Nov. 18 at NCI at Frederick to honor the outstanding research accomplishments of David Derse, Ph.D., and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career.

  6. Third Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Third Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on Nov. 18 at NCI at Frederick to honor the outstanding research accomplishments of David Derse, Ph.D., and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career.

  7. Smile analysis: what to measure.

    PubMed

    Batwa, Waell; Grewal, Balpreet; Gill, Daljit

    2014-01-01

    Patients seek dental treatment to improve oral function as well as their attractiveness. In order to improve smile attractiveness, clinicians need to carry out a comprehensive smile assessment. The aim of this paper is to help clinicians to adopt a systematic approach toward smile assessment by introducing a smile assessment form. Smile analysis is an essential part of smile diagnosis. A smile assessment form will assist clinicians in identifying and recording smile features for diagnosis and treatment planning.

  8. Smile: A review

    PubMed Central

    Manjula, W. S.; Sukumar, M. R.; Kishorekumar, S.; Gnanashanmugam, K.; Mahalakshmi, K.

    2015-01-01

    “Beauty is in the mind of the beholder, each mind perceives a different beauty” famously said by writer Margeret Wolfe Hungerford. A beautiful smile is a gateway to the world. The aim of this article was to identify the criteria for designing the perfect smile. It was determined, smile design is a multifactorial process and various steps are involved in designing a radiant smile. PMID:26015730

  9. Tropical Storm Arthur

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-02

    ISS040-E-031651 (2 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, some 227 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of Tropical Storm Arthur moving northerly near the east coast of the USA late on July 2, 2014. The crew had photographed imagery which showed Arthur churning in Atlantic waters off of Florida some eight hours prior to this picture.

  10. NASA Sees Hurricane Arthur's Fireworks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On July 3, NASA's TRMM satellite passed over Arthur and saw intense bands of thunderstorms north of Arthur's well defined eye dropping rainfall at a rate of over 98.4 mm (3.9 inches) per hour. Thos...

  11. Celebrity smile esthetics assessment: Smile angulation.

    PubMed

    Koidou, Vasiliki P; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Rashid, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Whether deviations in the angulation discrepancy between the intercanine and interpupillary line significantly affect attractiveness is unknown. The purpose of this prospective study was to quantify dental and facial esthetics to determine whether smile angulation discrepancies in individuals identified as having attractive smiles are smaller than those in the average population. An Internet search for "best smile" and "celebrity" identified 108 celebrities (Test group). Photographs showing smiles within 10 degrees of a frontal view were gathered. In mannequin testing, small head rotation (<10 degrees) was found not to affect the measurements. Photographs of dental students were used for the control group. The angulation discrepancy between the intercanine and interpupillary line was measured using computer software. Groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Usable photographs were obtained for 94 celebrities (62 women, 32 men) and were compared with photographs of 97 dental students (54 women, 43 men). Significant (P<.01) differences in angulation discrepancy were found, with celebrities having smaller mean angulation discrepancies (0.97 degrees) than dental students (1.33 degrees). The differences between men and women were not statistically significant (P>.05). Celebrities identified as having "best smile" had significantly smaller mean angulation discrepancies than the control group. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hearing smiles and smile suppression in natural speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahota, Amy K.; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2003-04-01

    That we can hear smiles in speech is an established finding. However smiles in natural speech can be of many different kinds, serving different social functions. Previous research has focused only on one category of smile using either smiles ``posed'' during speech or degraded samples of smiling speech (to disguise the content of utterances). The present study used naturally occurring speech in three foreign languages (Czech, Spanish, and Finnish) and in English, presented to naive native English speakers. Preliminary analyses extracted two kinds of smiles in speech-``open smiles'' and ``suppressed smiles'' in contrast to speech with ``no smiles.'' Eighty listeners were presented with 18 audio-clips (six of each type) in randomized order. ``No smiles'' and ``open smiles'' were successfully identified across all languages. ``Suppressed smiles'' were most often coded as ``no smiles.'' An exploration of the pitch contours showed that ``suppressed smiles'' had a higher average pitch similar to ``open smiles,'' but a significantly higher variance in pitch range than others. Natural speech produces smiles serving very different functions. The auditory expression and perceivability of emotion is likely to be influenced by subtle social functions only evident in natural interactions.

  13. David Scott

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Dr. David R. Scott was appointed Director of NASA's Flight Research Center on April 18, 1975. From August 1973 he served as Deputy Director of FRC and was appointed acting director in January 1975. He is retired from the U.S. Air Force where he held the rank of Colonel. Dave left the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center on October 30, 1977 after the Center had been renamed in honor of Hugh L. Dryden. As a NASA astronaut, Scott flew on Gemini 8, Apollo 9 and was spacecraft commander of Apollo 15. When he left the astronaut corps in 1972, Scott was named Technical Assistant to the Apollo Program Manager at Johnson Space Center in Houston. Later he served as Special Assistant for Mission Operations and Government Funded Equipment. Dave earned a Bachelor of Science Degree from the United States Military Academy in 1954, standing fifth in a class of 633, and the degrees of Bachelor and Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1962. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Astronautical Science from the University of Michigan in 1971. Dave has graduated from the Air Force Experimental Test Pilot School and Aerospace Research Pilot School. He has over 5,600 hours flying time along with 20 hours of extra vehicular activity (EVA) time. Dr. Scott is a Fellow of the American Astronautical Society; Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and Sigma Gamma Tau. Among Dr. Scott's special honors are two NASA Distinguished Service Medals, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, two Air Force Distinguished Service Medals, the Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Force Association's David C. Schilling Trophy, and the Robert J. Collier Trophy for 1971.

  14. Principles of smile design

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile. PMID:21217950

  15. A photographic diary of travels with David Kupfer.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Ronald W

    2006-01-01

    The present article focuses on David Kupfer as a colleague and fellow traveler who participated in numerous meetings on cytochrome P450 held at exotic venues. It was always a pleasure to renew a long-standing friendship with David by meeting him at these meetings. His inscrutable smile combined with residues of an accent derived from his earlier background in Poland and Israel characterized this warm and delightful man. A number of photos of David in various locales are presented with this article in an attempt to fully capture the outstanding qualities of this man.

  16. Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on November 12, 2013, at the NCI at Frederick Conference Center to honor David Derse’s outstanding research accomplishments and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career. The Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award is sponsored by the HIV Drug Resistance Program, with support from Hye Kyung Chung-Derse, Ph.D., the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and colleagues and friends of Derse who contributed to the memorial fund in his honor.

  17. Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on November 12, 2013, at the NCI at Frederick Conference Center to honor David Derse’s outstanding research accomplishments and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career. The Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award is sponsored by the HIV Drug Resistance Program, with support from Hye Kyung Chung-Derse, Ph.D., the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and colleagues and friends of Derse who contributed to the memorial fund in his honor.

  18. Smile esthetics: calculated beauty?

    PubMed

    Lecocq, Guillaume; Truong Tan Trung, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    Esthetic demand from patients continues to increase. Consequently, the treatments we offer are moving towards more discreet or invisible techniques using lingual brackets in order to achieve harmonious, balanced results in line with our treatment goals. As orthodontists, we act upon relationships between teeth and bone. And the equilibrium they create impacts the entire face via the smile. A balanced smile is essential to an esthetic outcome and is governed by rules, which guide both the practitioner and patient. A smile can be described in terms of mathematical ratios and proportions but beauty cannot be calculated. For the smile to sit harmoniously within the face, we need to take into account facial proportions and the possibility of their being modified by our orthopedic appliances or by surgery. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Arthur: A Tale of Disempowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, La Vergne

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the case of Arthur, a neglected 9-year-old boy from an opulent home. Arthur's illiterate mother failed to provide him with books or a study area and refused to cooperate in a teacher-designed literacy program. Socioeconomic status can foster false assumptions about a child's home environment and its influence on literacy development.…

  20. Arthur: A Personalized Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Juan E.; Han, C. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether there was a significant difference in learner outcomes from the use of Arthur (Gilbert & Han, 1999), a computer-based adaptive instructional system that provides personalized instruction to each learner. Found that Arthur does provide a significant difference in learner outcomes. (EV)

  1. Smiles as Multipurpose Social Signals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jared; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Wood, Adrienne; Niedenthal, Paula

    2017-09-27

    The human smile is highly variable in both its form and the social contexts in which it is displayed. A social-functional account identifies three distinct smile expressions defined in terms of their effects on the perceiver: reward smiles reinforce desired behavior; affiliation smiles invite and maintain social bonds; and dominance smiles manage hierarchical relationships. Mathematical modeling uncovers the appearance of the smiles, and both human and Bayesian classifiers validate these distinctions. New findings link laughter to reward, affiliation, and dominance, and research suggests that these functions of smiles are recognized across cultures. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the smile can be productively investigated according to how it assists the smiler in meeting the challenges and opportunities inherent in human social living. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 10 commandments of smile esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Andre Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The search for esthetic treatment has persisted in the routine of dental professionals. Following this trend, dental patients have sought treatment with the primary aim of improving smile esthetics. The aim of this article is to present a protocol to assess patient's smile: The 10 Commandments of smile esthetics. PMID:25279532

  3. 10 commandments of smile esthetics.

    PubMed

    Machado, Andre Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The search for esthetic treatment has persisted in the routine of dental professionals. Following this trend, dental patients have sought treatment with the primary aim of improving smile esthetics. The aim of this article is to present a protocol to assess patient's smile: The 10 Commandments of smile esthetics.

  4. Tremor on smiling.

    PubMed

    Schwingenschuh, Petra; Cordivari, Carla; Czerny, Julia; Esposito, Marcello; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2009-07-30

    Facial tremor occurring on smiling is a rare phenomenon and has been described (to the best of our knowledge) in the literature only once. We describe two patients who presented with a bilateral facial tremor that occurred only on smiling and other activation of therisorii muscles and had a high frequency of 9 Hz. One patient additionally suffered from young-onset Parkinson's disease, whereas the other had no further neurological symptoms or signs apart from this tremor. Anti-parkinsonian medication was unhelpful for the facial tremor in the patient with Parkinson's disease. Tremor on smiling may be a discrete entity or may be associated in some cases of Parkinson's disease. Copyright 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Faces of Marshall: Arthur Brown

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Metallurgist Arthur Brown shares how his high school drafting and welding success led him to a NASA ca...

  6. Smiling makes you look older.

    PubMed

    Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-12-01

    People smile in social interactions to convey different types of nonverbal communication. However, smiling can potentially change the way a person is perceived along different facial dimensions, including perceived age. It is commonly assumed that smiling faces are perceived as younger than faces carrying a neutral expression. In the series of experiments reported here, I describe an unintuitive and robust effect in the opposite direction. Across different experimental conditions and stimulus sets, smiling faces were consistently perceived as older compared to neutral face photos of the same persons. I suggest that this effect is due to observer failure to ignore smile-associated wrinkles, mainly along the region of the eyes. These findings point to a misconception regarding the relationship between facial smile and perceived age and shed new light on the processes underlying human age perception.

  7. Infants Time Their Smiles to Make Their Moms Smile

    PubMed Central

    Ruvolo, Paul; Messinger, Daniel; Movellan, Javier

    2015-01-01

    One of the earliest forms of interaction between mothers and infants is smiling games. While the temporal dynamics of these games have been extensively studied, they are still not well understood. Why do mothers and infants time their smiles the way they do? To answer this question we applied methods from control theory, an approach frequently used in robotics, to analyze and synthesize goal-oriented behavior. The results of our analysis show that by the time infants reach 4 months of age both mothers and infants time their smiles in a purposeful, goal-oriented manner. In our study, mothers consistently attempted to maximize the time spent in mutual smiling, while infants tried to maximize mother-only smile time. To validate this finding, we ported the smile timing strategy used by infants to a sophisticated child-like robot that automatically perceived and produced smiles while interacting with adults. As predicted, this strategy proved successful at maximizing adult-only smile time. The results indicate that by 4 months of age infants interact with their mothers in a goal-oriented manner, utilizing a sophisticated understanding of timing in social interactions. Our work suggests that control theory is a promising technique for both analyzing complex interactive behavior and providing new insights into the development of social communication. PMID:26398187

  8. Infants Time Their Smiles to Make Their Moms Smile.

    PubMed

    Ruvolo, Paul; Messinger, Daniel; Movellan, Javier

    2015-01-01

    One of the earliest forms of interaction between mothers and infants is smiling games. While the temporal dynamics of these games have been extensively studied, they are still not well understood. Why do mothers and infants time their smiles the way they do? To answer this question we applied methods from control theory, an approach frequently used in robotics, to analyze and synthesize goal-oriented behavior. The results of our analysis show that by the time infants reach 4 months of age both mothers and infants time their smiles in a purposeful, goal-oriented manner. In our study, mothers consistently attempted to maximize the time spent in mutual smiling, while infants tried to maximize mother-only smile time. To validate this finding, we ported the smile timing strategy used by infants to a sophisticated child-like robot that automatically perceived and produced smiles while interacting with adults. As predicted, this strategy proved successful at maximizing adult-only smile time. The results indicate that by 4 months of age infants interact with their mothers in a goal-oriented manner, utilizing a sophisticated understanding of timing in social interactions. Our work suggests that control theory is a promising technique for both analyzing complex interactive behavior and providing new insights into the development of social communication.

  9. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  10. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  11. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  12. 33 CFR 117.702 - Arthur Kill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arthur Kill. 117.702 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.702 Arthur Kill. (a) The draw of the Arthur Kill (AK) Railroad Bridge shall be maintained in the full open position for navigation at all...

  13. Software Design for Smile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sodagar, A.; Rafatjoo, R.; Gholami Borujeni, D.; Noroozi, H.; Sarkhosh, A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Esthetics and attractiveness of the smile is one of the major demands in contemporary orthodontic treatment. In order to improve a smile design, it is necessary to record “posed smile” as an intentional, non-pressure, static, natural and reproducible smile. The record then should be analyzed to determine its characteristics. In this study, we intended to design and introduce a software to analyze the smile rapidly and precisely in order to produce an attractive smile for the patients. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a practical study was performed to design multimedia software “Smile Analysis” which can receive patients’ photographs and videographs. After giving records to the software, the operator should mark the points and lines which are displayed on the system’s guide and also define the correct scale for each image. Thirty-three variables are measured by the software and displayed on the report page. Reliability of measurements in both image and video was significantly high (α=0.7–1). Results: In order to evaluate intra- operator and inter-operator reliability, five cases were selected randomly. Statistical analysis showed that calculations performed in smile analysis software were both valid and highly reliable (for both video and photo). Conclusion: The results obtained from smile analysis could be used in diagnosis, treatment planning and evaluation of the treatment progress. PMID:21998792

  14. Dynamic properties of successful smiles

    PubMed Central

    Helwig, Nathaniel E.; Sohre, Nick E.; Ruprecht, Mark R.; Guy, Stephen J.; Lyford-Pike, Sofía

    2017-01-01

    Facial expression of emotion is a foundational aspect of social interaction and nonverbal communication. In this study, we use a computer-animated 3D facial tool to investigate how dynamic properties of a smile are perceived. We created smile animations where we systematically manipulated the smile’s angle, extent, dental show, and dynamic symmetry. Then we asked a diverse sample of 802 participants to rate the smiles in terms of their effectiveness, genuineness, pleasantness, and perceived emotional intent. We define a “successful smile” as one that is rated effective, genuine, and pleasant in the colloquial sense of these words. We found that a successful smile can be expressed via a variety of different spatiotemporal trajectories, involving an intricate balance of mouth angle, smile extent, and dental show combined with dynamic symmetry. These findings have broad applications in a variety of areas, such as facial reanimation surgery, rehabilitation, computer graphics, and psychology. PMID:28658294

  15. The inappropriate smile and zygomatic muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Tukasa; Shimizu, Akira; Yamashita, Koh; Iwase, Masao; Kajimoto, Osami; Tatsumoto, Yoshihiro; Sumitsuji, Noboru

    2003-04-01

    Long-term recording of activity of the zygomatic muscle, the most important mimic muscle involved in smiling, was performed in 22 disorganized type schizophrenic patients with inappropriate smiles and 15 normal subjects in two separate experiments. During inappropriate smiles, the zygomatic muscle exhibited waxing and waning bursts of activity with an amplitude of 75 to 120 microV, which could not be distinguished from the activity observed during usual smiling in normal subjects. However, the duration of such activity tended to be longer when compared to that in usual smiling by normal subjects as well as by schizophrenic patients. In contrast to usual smiles, inappropriate smiles decreased with personal contact. When asked about their thoughts during smiling shortly after inappropriate smiles, more patients reported that they thought of nothing at all or something not necessarily pleasant rather than something pleasant that would be expected to induce smiling.

  16. Lip asymmetry and smile aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Batwa, Waeil; McDonald, Fraser; Cash, Alex

    2013-11-01

    Objective : To determine if lip asymmetry can affect lip aesthetics. Setting and Participants : A group of dentists (n = 40) and cleft patients (n = 40) were recruited from the dental hospital and cleft service. Interventions : Still photographic digital images of lips and teeth were manipulated to produce a computerized gradient of smile appearance with different degrees of upper-lip vertical asymmetry. These five photographs (with 0 mm representing "symmetry," and 1, 2, 2.5, and 3 mm, asymmetries) were assessed by participants using a 5-point Likert scale. Statistics : Descriptive statistics in addition to chi-square test were used to analyze the data. In order to satisfy the requirement of the chi-square test, the five smile ratings were reduced to three. Results : Lip asymmetry did affect relative smile aesthetics, as determined by dentists and cleft patients. Both the dentists and cleft patients rated the 0-mm photograph more attractive than the 2.5-mm and 3-mm smiles (P < .05). The 0-, 1-, and 2-mm smiles were indistinguishable for both dentists and cleft patients. Conclusion : Lip asymmetry affects smile aesthetics. However, cleft patients and dentists were tolerant of minor asymmetries. This suggests that small degrees of lip asymmetry do not affect relative smile aesthetics as much as large degrees of lip asymmetry (2.5 mm or more).

  17. Learning to smile: the neuroanatomic basis for smile training.

    PubMed

    Terry, D A; Pirtle, P L

    2001-01-01

    This article demonstrates that although any layperson could recognize that the smile manifests mainly in the oral and periorbital regions, a comprehension of the neurologic and musculoskeletal elements lends the clinician insight into the many aspects of a smile. The neurologic control of a smile consists of a complex process involving many facets. As with any other complex neuromuscular activity, repetitions of the act can train the central nervous system, neural network, and muscular network in efficient performance of and correct musculoskeletal activation involved in the act itself. With functional knowledge of muscles dedicated to a pleasing full smile, together with a battery of easy and effortless exercises, the clinician is able to help the patient change behavior intended to camouflage perceived oral flaws. A patient needs reassurance that behind the guidance from the clinician lies medical evidence that such routine movement of muscles will indeed improve the smile. When asked why or how the exercise succeeds, the clinician can reassure the patient based on a working knowledge of the neurologic and muscular anatomy involved. A functional knowledge of muscles dedicated to a pleasing full smile, together with a battery of easy and effortless exercises, provides the clinician with the ability to assist the patient in altering years of behavior intended to camouflage perceived oral flaws.

  18. A smiling lens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-09

    In the centre of this image, taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, is the galaxy cluster SDSS J1038+4849 — and it seems to be smiling. You can make out its two orange eyes and white button nose. In the case of this “happy face”, the two eyes are very bright galaxies and the misleading smile lines are actually arcs caused by an effect known as strong gravitational lensing. Galaxy clusters are the most massive structures in the Universe and exert such a powerful gravitational pull that they warp the spacetime around them and act as cosmic lenses which can magnify, distort and bend the light behind them. This phenomenon, crucial to many of Hubble’s discoveries, can be explained by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. In this special case of gravitational lensing, a ring  — known as an Einstein Ring  — is produced from this bending of light, a consequence of the exact and symmetrical alignment of the source, lens and observer and resulting in the ring-like structure we see here. Hubble has provided astronomers with the tools to probe these massive galaxies and model their lensing effects, allowing us to peer further into the early Universe than ever before. This object was studied by Hubble’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) as part of a survey of strong lenses. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Judy Schmidt.

  19. Dynamic smile analysis: changes with age.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shyam; Upadhyay, Madhur; Nanda, Ravindra

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to define age-related changes in the smile. The areas of interest were upper lip length at smile and repose, upper lip thickness at smile and repose, maxillary incisal display at smile, interlabial gap height at smile, smile index, percentage of buccal corridors, intercommissural width at rest, smile height, and smile arc. A secondary objective was to study the perioral changes from rest to smile and compare them on the basis of age. Video equipment was used to capture images of 261 subjects, who were divided into 5 groups by age. Two frames for each subject were selected, 1 frame representing the lips at rest and the other representing the widest smile. After 40 subjects were excluded, the data for the remaining 221 were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Fisher LSD post-hoc test. There was a decrease of 1.5 to 2 mm in maxillary incisor display during smile with increasing age, but the smile index showed a significant increase. In accordance with some other studies, most subjects (78%) had average smile height. No subject in the 50 and over age group had a high smile, and no subject in the 15-to-19 year group had a low smile. All dynamic measurements indicated a pattern of decreasing change from rest to smile, especially evident after ages 30 to 39 years. This study helps to establish age-related dynamic norms. As a person ages, the smile gets narrower vertically and wider transversely. The dynamic measures indicate that the muscles' ability to create a smile decreases with increasing age.

  20. Obituary: David Stanley Evans, 1916-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Frank N.

    2005-12-01

    David Stanley Evans died on 14 November 2004 in Austin, Texas. He was a noted observational astronomer whose career was divided between South Africa and Texas. He also used the extensive historical collections at the University of Texas to write several books on the history of astronomy. He was born in Cardiff, Wales on 28 January 1916. David received his BA degree in mathematics in 1937 from Kings College, Cambridge. He became a PhD student at Cambridge Observatory in 1937, and was one of Sir Arthur Eddington's last surviving students. He received his PhD degree in 1941 with a dissertation entitled, "The Formation of the Balmer Series of Hydrogen in Stellar Atmospheres." He was a conscientious objector to war and, thus, spent the war years at Oxford working with physicist Kurt Mendelssohn on medical problems, involving cadavers, relating to the war. During these years, David was scientific editor of "Discovery", and he was editor of "The Observatory". David left England in 1946 in order to take up the position of Second Assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory, Pretoria, South Africa. He and H. Knox Shaw were the entire staff after R. O. Redman left, and they aluminized and installed the mirrors in the 74-inch telescope. His notable scientific contribution was to use lunar occultations to measure stellar angular diameters during the 1950s. He succeeded in determining the angular diameter of Antares and determined that Arcturus was not circular but had an elliptical shape. The elliptical shape was later shown to be an instrumental artifact, but the utility of using lunar occultations to measure stellar diameters and stellar multiplicity was conclusively demonstrated. T. Gold presented David's paper on lunar occultation angular diameters at the January 1953 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society. For the rest of his life, David resented Gold's remarks, because he felt that he had been ridiculed. By 1953, David Evans was Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory

  1. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  2. Arthur. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Arthur," a book-based educational television program designed for children ages 4-8, is popular among preschool and kindergarten students. The program is based on the storybooks, by Marc Brown, about Arthur, an 8-year-old aardvark. Each show is 30 minutes in length and includes two stories involving characters dealing with moral issues.…

  3. Smiling virtual agent in social context.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Magalie; Niewiadomski, Radoslaw; Brunet, Paul; Pelachaud, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    A smile may communicate different communicative intentions depending on subtle characteristics of the facial expression. In this article, we propose an algorithm to determine the morphological and dynamic characteristics of virtual agent's smiles of amusement, politeness, and embarrassment. The algorithm has been defined based on a virtual agent's smiles corpus constructed by users and analyzed with a decision tree classification technique. An evaluation, in different contexts, of the resulting smiles has enabled us to validate the proposed algorithm.

  4. Operation Smile "Changing Lives, One Smile at a Time."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Although many young people are concerned about acne and dieting, there are some children who retreat from social contact because of facial deformities that can be changed only through surgery. Operation Smile is an organization dedicated to giving young people suffering from physical disfigurement an opportunity to come out of hiding and become…

  5. Operation Smile "Changing Lives, One Smile at a Time."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Although many young people are concerned about acne and dieting, there are some children who retreat from social contact because of facial deformities that can be changed only through surgery. Operation Smile is an organization dedicated to giving young people suffering from physical disfigurement an opportunity to come out of hiding and become…

  6. Hurricane Arthur off the Carolinas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Captured on Friday, July 3, 2014 at 12:20 PM EDT. The National Hurricane Center in Miami says Arthur is centered about 260 miles southwest of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and about 110 miles south-southwest of Cape Fear. It's moving north at 14 mph. Satellite: Terra Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. Interview with David Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Dietz, E. Jacquelin; Moor, David

    2013-01-01

    David Moore is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at Purdue University. He served as the first President of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) from 1993-1995 and as President of the American Statistical Association (ASA) in 1998. He is a Fellow of the ASA and of the IMS and was awarded the ASA's Founders Award in…

  8. David Gale: Restless Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Walter

    2006-01-01

    David Gale was one of the mathematicians responsible for the modern form of the theory of duality in linear programming and the associated proof of the minimax theorem in the theory of games. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and is Professor Emeritus of Mathematics and Operations Research at the University of California at…

  9. David Gale: Restless Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Walter

    2006-01-01

    David Gale was one of the mathematicians responsible for the modern form of the theory of duality in linear programming and the associated proof of the minimax theorem in the theory of games. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and is Professor Emeritus of Mathematics and Operations Research at the University of California at…

  10. Interview with David Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Dietz, E. Jacquelin; Moor, David

    2013-01-01

    David Moore is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at Purdue University. He served as the first President of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) from 1993-1995 and as President of the American Statistical Association (ASA) in 1998. He is a Fellow of the ASA and of the IMS and was awarded the ASA's Founders Award in…

  11. David Macaulay's Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frew, Andrew W.

    1997-01-01

    Integrating literature and mathematics can be meaningful using David Macaulay's "Pyramid." This article provides an annotated bibliography of picture books, fiction, folk tales, nonfiction, videotapes, audio books, and CD-ROMs for grades 1-12 to support a unit on Egypt. Describes related math activities; and highlights a catalog of…

  12. Recollections of David Marr.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, H K

    2012-01-01

    David Marr came to MIT's Artificial Intelligence (AI) Lab in the early 1970s and energized the study of vision at the intersection of computer science, psychology, and neuroscience. As one of his first graduate students, I had the privilege of getting to know him and working with him during that heady period of AI research.

  13. [The smile line, a literature search].

    PubMed

    van der Geld, P A; van Waas, M A

    2003-09-01

    Beautiful teeth, visible when smiling, are in line with the present ideal of beauty. The display of teeth when smiling is determined by the smile line: the projection of the lower border of the upper lip on the maxillary teeth when smiling. On the basis of a literature search the determining methods of the smile line are discussed, demographic data of the position of the smile line are given, and factors of influence are examined. There is no unequivocal method for determining the position of the smile line. A rough distinction can be made between qualitative and (semi)-quantitative methods. The (semi)-quantitative methods have clear advantages for research purposes, but their reliability is unknown. It was demonstrated that among minimally 40% of subjects the maxillary gingiva was not visible when smiling. The mandibular gingiva was not visible when smiling among more than 90% of subjects. Furthermore, it appeared that among women the smile line was on average higher situated than among men and that it has not yet been proven that the smile line will be situated lower when growing older.

  14. Reading a smiling face: messages conveyed by various forms of smiling.

    PubMed

    Otta, E; Folladore Abrosio, F; Hoshino, R L

    1996-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of various forms of smiling (closed smile, upper smile, or broad smile) on person perception. Brazilian undergraduates (N = 330) judged a photograph of a male or female stimulus person in three age ranges (young, middle-aged, and old) and smiling or not. 7-point scales were used to measure respondents' perception of the stimulus persons on various attributes (attractiveness, happiness, extroversion, sympathy, kindness, submission, ambition, and intelligence). We found that a smile enhanced attractiveness and kindness ratings independently of its form, whereas the influence of the various forms on ratings of happiness was additive. As the neutral face changed to a closed smile and the closed smile became a broad smile, target stimuli were attributed greater rated happiness. We also found a contribution of perceivers' gender to the judgements of extroversion and sympathy, indicating a slightly greater discrimination of facial expressions among women than among men.

  15. Photographic and videographic assessment of the smile: objective and subjective evaluations of posed and spontaneous smiles.

    PubMed

    Walder, Joan F; Freeman, Katherine; Lipp, Mitchell J; Nicolay, Olivier F; Cisneros, George J

    2013-12-01

    Esthetic considerations play an increasingly important role in patient care, and clinicians need a methodology that includes imaging techniques to capture the dynamic nature of the smile. Photographs of the posed smile are routinely used to guide diagnosis and treatment, but there is no standardized and validated method for recording the dynamic smile. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine whether a posed smile is reproducible, (2) compare visual and verbal cues in eliciting a smile, and (3) compare the diagnostic value of videography and photography in evaluating a patient's smile. The smiles of 22 subjects were simultaneously photographed and videotaped on 2 separate occasions. For objective comparisons, measurements of the smile were obtained from 8 × 10 color still photographs and selected digitized video images. A panel consisting of a layperson, an oral surgeon, an orthodontist, and a prosthodontist subjectively assessed the reproducibility of the smile, posed vs spontaneous smiles, and the diagnostic value of video vs still images. Objective measurements showed that the posed smile can be reliably reproduced, whether captured by videography or still photography. However, subjectively, the panel members detected differences between the posed smiles taken on different days 80% of the time. The clinician panel members expressed a strong preference for videography over photography and for the spontaneous over the posed smiles. This study emphasizes the need to continue to investigate and standardize the methods of eliciting and recording a smile of diagnostic quality. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The interactive development of social smiling.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Daniel; Fogel, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Infant smiles emerge even in the absence of visual feedback, but their interactive development and intensification appear to be dependent on experiences of visually mediated interaction. Although neonatal smiling has no clear emotional content, social smiling emerges out of attentive engagement with an interactive caregiver. This process illustrates the dynamic systems postulate that real-time interaction is a window on developmental process. On the one hand, specific dimensions of smiling may have qualitatively different psychologically meanings. On the other hand, different features of infant smiling may reflect linked indices of a single dimension of positive emotion that ebbs and flows in time. The resolution of this paradox will likely involve continued attention to the interactive flow of positive emotion communication. This will be facilitated by new methods for measuring smiling and positive emotion in time. Smiling may simultaneously index a desire to interact and the dissipation of arousal associated with that interaction. Infants' capacity to become actively and vigorously caught up in emotionally positive smile-mediated interaction is linked to their ability to regulate that emotion by gazing away from their interactive partners. Ultimately, this attentional control paves the way for infant's tendency to use smiles to initiate early referential communication with a partner. These anticipatory smiles may provide a developmental bridge between early emotionally positive dyadic responsivity and later patterns of social competence.

  17. Be Careful Where You Smile: Culture Shapes Judgments of Intelligence and Honesty of Smiling Individuals.

    PubMed

    Krys, Kuba; -Melanie Vauclair, C; Capaldi, Colin A; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Bond, Michael Harris; Domínguez-Espinosa, Alejandra; Torres, Claudio; Lipp, Ottmar V; Manickam, L Sam S; Xing, Cai; Antalíková, Radka; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Teyssier, Julien; Hur, Taekyun; Hansen, Karolina; Szarota, Piotr; Ahmed, Ramadan A; Burtceva, Eleonora; Chkhaidze, Ana; Cenko, Enila; Denoux, Patrick; Fülöp, Márta; Hassan, Arif; Igbokwe, David O; Işık, İdil; Javangwe, Gwatirera; Malbran, María; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Mikarsa, Hera; Miles, Lynden K; Nader, Martin; Park, Joonha; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salem, Radwa; Schwarz, Beate; Shah, Irfana; Sun, Chien-Ru; van Tilburg, Wijnand; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wise, Ryan; Yu, Angela Arriola

    Smiling individuals are usually perceived more favorably than non-smiling ones-they are judged as happier, more attractive, competent, and friendly. These seemingly clear and obvious consequences of smiling are assumed to be culturally universal, however most of the psychological research is carried out in WEIRD societies (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) and the influence of culture on social perception of nonverbal behavior is still understudied. Here we show that a smiling individual may be judged as less intelligent than the same non-smiling individual in cultures low on the GLOBE's uncertainty avoidance dimension. Furthermore, we show that corruption at the societal level may undermine the prosocial perception of smiling-in societies with high corruption indicators, trust toward smiling individuals is reduced. This research fosters understanding of the cultural framework surrounding nonverbal communication processes and reveals that in some cultures smiling may lead to negative attributions.

  18. No smile like another: adult age differences in identifying emotions that accompany smiles.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Michaela; Studtmann, Markus; Westphal, Andrea; Rauers, Antje; Weber, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    People smile in various emotional contexts, for example, when they are amused or angry or simply being polite. We investigated whether younger and older adults differ in how well they are able to identify the emotional experiences accompanying smile expressions, and whether the age of the smiling person plays a role in this respect. With this aim, we produced 80 video episodes of three types of smile expressions: positive-affect smiles had been spontaneously displayed by target persons as they were watching amusing film clips and cartoons. Negative-affect smiles had been displayed spontaneously by target persons during an interaction in which they were being unfairly accused. Affectively neutral smiles were posed upon request. Differences in the accompanying emotional experiences were validated by target persons' self-reports. These smile videos served as experimental stimuli in two studies with younger and older adult participants. In Study 1, older participants were less likely to attribute positive emotions to smiles, and more likely to assume that a smile was posed. Furthermore, younger participants were more accurate than older adults at identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles. In Study 2, both younger and older participants attributed positive emotions more frequently to smiles shown by older as compared to younger target persons, but older participants did so less frequently than younger participants. Again, younger participants were more accurate than older participants in identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles, but this effect was attenuated for older target persons. Older participants could better identify the emotional state accompanying smiles shown by older than by younger target persons. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is an age-related decline in the ability to decipher the emotional meaning of smiles presented without context, which, however, is attenuated when the smiling person is also an older adult.

  19. No smile like another: adult age differences in identifying emotions that accompany smiles

    PubMed Central

    Riediger, Michaela; Studtmann, Markus; Westphal, Andrea; Rauers, Antje; Weber, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    People smile in various emotional contexts, for example, when they are amused or angry or simply being polite. We investigated whether younger and older adults differ in how well they are able to identify the emotional experiences accompanying smile expressions, and whether the age of the smiling person plays a role in this respect. With this aim, we produced 80 video episodes of three types of smile expressions: positive-affect smiles had been spontaneously displayed by target persons as they were watching amusing film clips and cartoons. Negative-affect smiles had been displayed spontaneously by target persons during an interaction in which they were being unfairly accused. Affectively neutral smiles were posed upon request. Differences in the accompanying emotional experiences were validated by target persons' self-reports. These smile videos served as experimental stimuli in two studies with younger and older adult participants. In Study 1, older participants were less likely to attribute positive emotions to smiles, and more likely to assume that a smile was posed. Furthermore, younger participants were more accurate than older adults at identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles. In Study 2, both younger and older participants attributed positive emotions more frequently to smiles shown by older as compared to younger target persons, but older participants did so less frequently than younger participants. Again, younger participants were more accurate than older participants in identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles, but this effect was attenuated for older target persons. Older participants could better identify the emotional state accompanying smiles shown by older than by younger target persons. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is an age-related decline in the ability to decipher the emotional meaning of smiles presented without context, which, however, is attenuated when the smiling person is also an older adult

  20. Smile rejuvenation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Raghu, Ramya; Shetty, Ashish; Manjunath, Gautham P.; Roy, Chimaya Kumar Samanta; Puneetha, P. G.; Reddy, Satya Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Mesiodens is the commonly occurring supernumerary tooth seen between the maxillary central incisors which causes compromised aesthetics and malocclusion. Till date orthodontic therapy provides an excellent solution for the management of mesiodens. Recently, Restorative Space Management (RSM) has been used successfully to correct tooth shape, proportions and colour with minimal tooth preparations. This case report describes the successful management of an unaesthetic smile due to presence of a mesiodens in the midline primarily using aesthetic treatment only. PMID:25298657

  1. Smile rejuvenation: A case report.

    PubMed

    Samantaroy, Chinmaya Kumar; Raghu, Ramya; Shetty, Ashish; Manjunath, Gautham P; Puneetha, P G; Reddy, Satya Narayan

    2014-09-01

    Mesiodens is the commonly occurring supernumerary tooth seen between the maxillary central incisors which causes compromised aesthetics and malocclusion. Till date orthodontic therapy provides an excellent solution for the management of mesiodens. Recently, Restorative Space Management (RSM) has been used successfully to correct tooth shape, proportions and colour with minimal tooth preparations. This case report describes the successful management of an unaesthetic smile due to presence of a mesiodens in the midline primarily using aesthetic treatment only.

  2. Incisors’ proportions in smile esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F; Batwa, Waeil

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether alteration of the maxillary central and lateral incisors’ length and width, respectively, would affect perceived smile esthetics and to validate the most esthetic length and width, respectively, for the central and lateral incisors. Materials and Methods: Photographic manipulation was undertaken to produce two sets of photographs, each set of four photographs showing the altered width of the lateral incisor and length of the central length. The eight produced photographs were assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Results: Alteration in the incisors’ proportion affected the relative smile attractiveness for laypeople (n=124), dentists (n=115) and orthodontists (n=68); dentists and orthodontists did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 0.5 mm (P<0.01), which suggests that the lateral to central incisor width ratio ranges from 54% to 62%. However, laypeople did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 1 mm (P<0.01), widening the range to be from 48% to 62%. All groups had zero tolerance for changes in central crown length (P<0.01). Conclusion: All participants recognized that the central incisors’ length changes. For lateral incisors, laypeople were more tolerant than dentists and orthodontists. This suggests that changing incisors’ proportions affects the relative smile attractiveness. PMID:24987650

  3. David Hartley's Newtonian neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1987-04-01

    David Hartley's association psychology has been immensely influential. His vibrationist neurophysiology has, in contrast, been largely overlooked and forgotten. Hartley's vibration theory is examined. On the one hand it is shown how closely it is related to Sir Isaac Newton's mathematical physics and on the other how well it complements the association theory. The vibration theory, indeed, strongly influenced Hartley's associationist psychology and hence is of more than merely antiquarian interest. Although Hartley's understanding of the central nervous system has long been superseded, his general ideas prefigure some aspects of contemporary neurophysiology and philosophy of mind and thus provide a further reason for rescuing his vibrationism from oblivion.

  4. Influence of the Smile Line on Smile Attractiveness in Short and Long Face Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hayder Mohammed, Thar; Mohammad Hamdan, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The study assessed the impact of facial height on attractiveness of smile, in association with the maxillary gingival display. This research was performed by dental professionals and laypersons. Materials and Methods Frontal extraoral photographs were captured for both short and long faces. The photographs were modified using software for image-processing and three rater groups (orthodontists, dentists, and laypersons) evaluated the smile attractiveness, with 30 subjects in each group. Differences in ratings of the different smiles among the different experimental groups were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Mann–Whitney U test was performed for pairwise comparisons between the experimental groups. Results Dentists and laypeople were most likely to agree. For the short face, laypeople and dentists both rated the +2 mm gingival display smile as the most attractive smile whilst orthodontists ranked the 0 mm gingival display smile as the most attractive smile. For the long face, laypeople and dentists ranked the 0 mm gingival display smile as the most attractive smile, whilst orthodontists ranked the +2 mm gingival display as the most attractive. Conclusion Smile line of both short and long face subjects was found to influence the smile attractiveness rating by the three rater groups. PMID:28928770

  5. Influence on smile attractiveness of the smile arc in conjunction with gingival display.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Burçak; Uyar, Ruzin

    2013-10-01

    Many variables affecting smile esthetics and attractiveness have been evaluated. However, the influence of the interaction of several variables is not as well known. Furthermore, patients and dental professionals might view smile esthetics differently. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of the smile arc in conjunction with the amount of maxillary gingival display on the perception of smile attractiveness by orthodontists, dentists, and laypersons. A frontal intraoral photograph of ideally aligned teeth was modified using image-processing software. Photos showing 7 smile arcs, from flat to vaulted, were obtained, and these were combined with photos showing 4 different amounts of maxillary gingival display. The attractiveness of the 28 images of different smiles was evaluated by 3 groups of raters (orthodontists, dentists, and laypersons), each consisting of 70 persons. Both smile arc (P <0.05) and gingival display amount (P <0.001) had statistically significant influences on the perception of smile attractiveness. Smile attractiveness scores with reference to gingival display amount showed a statistically significant (P <0.001) difference between the rater groups. A significant (P <0.05) interaction between smile arc and gingival display amount was observed. Examining other components influencing the perception of smile attractiveness might help clinicians develop more satisfying treatment plans for their patients. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marché, Jordan D., II

    2009-12-01

    Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the

  7. GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. Structured Methods in Language Education: SMILE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf-Schein, Enid G.

    This paper describes a method of language intervention, Structured Methods in Language Education (SMILE), used with students having severe language disabilities due to such factors as autistic disorder, central auditory dysfunction, impaired hearing, or mental handicap. SMILE develops a hierarchy of skills leading from phonology to morphology to…

  9. 78 FR 43063 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Arthur Kill, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard... District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Arthur Kill AK Railroad Bridge across Arthur Kill, mile 11.6, between Staten Island, New York and Elizabeth,...

  10. Improvement in smile esthetics following orthodontic treatment: a retrospective study utilizing standardized smile analysis.

    PubMed

    Maganzini, Anthony L; Schroetter, Sarah B; Freeman, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    To quantify smile esthetics following orthodontic treatment and determine whether these changes are correlated to the severity of the initial malocclusion. A standardized smile mesh analysis that evaluated nine lip-tooth characteristics was applied to two groups of successfully treated patients: group 1 (initial American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index [DI] score<20) and group 2 (initial DI score>20). T-tests were used to detect significant differences between the low-DI and high-DI groups for baseline pretreatment measurements, baseline posttreatment measurements, and changes from pre- to posttreatment. A Spearman correlation test compared the initial DI values with the changes in the nine smile measurements. Five of the smile measurements were improved in both groups following orthodontic treatment. Both groups demonstrated improved incisor exposure, an improved gingival smile line, an increase in smile width, a decreased buccal corridor space, and an improvement in smile consonance. Spearman correlation tests showed that initial DI value was not correlated to changes in any of the individual smile measurements. Smile esthetics is improved by orthodontic treatment regardless of the initial severity of the malocclusion. In other words, patients with more complex orthodontic issues and their counterparts with minor malocclusions benefitted equally from treatment in terms of their smile esthetics.

  11. The Unusual Evolution of Hurricane Arthur 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Line, William; Cangialosi, John; Halverson, Jeffery; Berndt, Emily; Sienkiewicz, Joseph; Goodman, Steve; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Arthur (2014) was an early season hurricane that had its roots in a convective complex in the Southern Plains of the U.S. As the complex moved into northern Texas, a Mesoscale Convective Vortex (MCV) formed and drifted towards the east of the southern U.S. for a few days before emerging over the southwest Atlantic near South Carolina. The MCV drifted south and slowly acquired tropical characteristics, eventually becoming a Category 2 hurricane that would affect much of eastern North Carolina prior to the 4th of July holiday weekend. Arthur continued up the coast, brushing portions of southeast New England and merged with an upper-level low, completing a full tropical to extratropical-transition in the process, producing damaging wind gusts in portions of the Canadian Maritimes. As part of the GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Proving Grounds, multiple proxy and operational products were available to analyze and forecast this complex evolution. The Storm Prediction Center had products available to monitor the initial severe thunderstorm aspect, while the National Hurricane Center and Ocean Prediction Center were able to monitor the tropical and extratropical transition of Arthur using various convective and red, green, blue (RGB) products that have been introduced in recent years. This paper will discuss Arthur's evolution through the eyes of the various Satellite Proving Ground demonstrations.

  12. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  13. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfman, Lois; Walker, Marlon A.

    2011-01-01

    "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, "Diverse" invites every college and…

  14. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfman, Lois; Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, they invite every college and…

  15. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  16. Douglas MacArthur Upon Reflection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    father’s funeral .14 Arthur II was a vigorous, bellicose, pugnacious, relentless and heroic military leader.15 According to General Enoch Crowder...the devil may care 1920s, Douglas didn’t understand the stock market, didn’t care for jazz and would not sample bathtub gin. The junior Mrs

  17. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfman, Lois; Walker, Marlon A.

    2011-01-01

    "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, "Diverse" invites every college and…

  18. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfman, Lois; Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, they invite every college and…

  19. Infant Smiling Dynamics and Perceived Positive Emotion.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Daniel S; Cassel, Tricia D; Acosta, Susan I; Ambadar, Zara; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2008-09-01

    To better understand early positive emotional expression, automated software measurements of facial action were supplemented with anatomically based manual coding. These convergent measurements were used to describe the dynamics of infant smiling and predict perceived positive emotional intensity. Over the course of infant smiles, degree of smile strength varied with degree of eye constriction (cheek raising, the Duchenne marker), which varied with degree of mouth opening. In a series of three rating studies, automated measurements of smile strength and mouth opening predicted naïve (undergraduate) observers' continuous ratings of video clips of smile sequences, as well as naïve and experienced (parent) ratings of positive emotion in still images from the sequences. An a priori measure of smile intensity combining anatomically based manual coding of both smile strength and mouth opening predicted positive emotion ratings of the still images. The findings indicate the potential of automated and fine-grained manual measurements of facial actions to describe the course of emotional expressions over time and to predict perceptions of emotional intensity.

  20. Infant Smiling Dynamics and Perceived Positive Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Daniel S.; Cassel, Tricia D.; Acosta, Susan I.; Ambadar, Zara; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand early positive emotional expression, automated software measurements of facial action were supplemented with anatomically based manual coding. These convergent measurements were used to describe the dynamics of infant smiling and predict perceived positive emotional intensity. Over the course of infant smiles, degree of smile strength varied with degree of eye constriction (cheek raising, the Duchenne marker), which varied with degree of mouth opening. In a series of three rating studies, automated measurements of smile strength and mouth opening predicted naïve (undergraduate) observers’ continuous ratings of video clips of smile sequences, as well as naïve and experienced (parent) ratings of positive emotion in still images from the sequences. An a priori measure of smile intensity combining anatomically based manual coding of both smile strength and mouth opening predicted positive emotion ratings of the still images. The findings indicate the potential of automated and fine-grained manual measurements of facial actions to describe the course of emotional expressions over time and to predict perceptions of emotional intensity. PMID:19421336

  1. Nasolabial angle at rest and upon smiling.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cardoso, Camila Lopes

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the mean and SD of the nasolabial angle (NLA) and the linear measure pronasale (Prn)-A' at rest and upon smiling and 2) to determine the difference between smile and rest in participants with normal occlusion and facial harmony. The sample consisted of 40 white Brazilian participants (20 of each gender) aged 20 to 30 years and with normal occlusion, a pleasant profile, and facial harmony. The measures NLA and Prn-A' were analyzed in profile photographs at rest and during smile, with a millimeter ruler in front of the profile during use of the Dolphin software. The statistical analysis included dependent t tests to compare the rest and smiling variables. The mean of the NLA at rest was 104.93°; it was 110.67° during smile; and the difference between them was statistically significant, with a mean of 5.74°. The mean of the linear variable Prn-A' at rest was 23.25 mm, whereas during smile it was 24.04 mm, and the difference between them was statistically significant, with a mean of 0.79 mm. The variability in the NLA and Prn-A' at rest and upon smiling was found to be significant in a normal sample, and it should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the treatment planning for sagittal dentoskeletal deformities. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Virtual smile design systems: a current review.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Moritz; Mehl, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the age of digital dentistry, virtual treatment planning is becoming an increasingly important element of dental practice. Thanks to new technological advances in the computer- assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental restorations, predictable interdisciplinary treatment using the backward planning approach appears useful and feasible. Today, a virtual smile design can be used as the basis for creating an esthetic virtual setup of the desired final result. The virtual setup, in turn, is used to plan further treatment steps in an interdisciplinary team approach, and communicate the results to the patient. The smile design concept and the esthetic analyses required for it are described in this article. We include not only a step-by-step description of the virtual smile design workflow, but also describe and compare the several available smile design options and systems. Subsequently, a brief discussion of the advantages and limitations of virtual smile design is followed by a section on different ways to integrate a two-dimensional (2D) smile design into the digital three-dimensional (3D) workflow. New technological developments are also described, such as the integration of smile designs in digital face scans, and 3D diagnostic follow-up using intraoral scanners.

  3. Smile (System/Machine-Independent Local Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1988-04-01

    This document defines the characteristics of Smile, a System/machine-independent local environment. This environment consists primarily of a number of primitives (types, macros, procedure calls, and variables) that a program may use; these primitives provide facilities, such as memory allocation, timing, tasking and synchronization beyond those typically provided by a programming language. The intent is that a program will be portable from system to system and from machine to machine if it relies only on the portable aspects of its programming language and on the Smile primitives. For this to be so, Smile itself must be implemented on each system and machine, most likely using non-portable constructions; that is, while the environment provided by Smile is intended to be portable, the implementation of Smile is not necessarily so. In order to make the implementation of Smile as easy as possible and thereby expedite the porting of programs to a new system or a new machine, Smile has been defined to provide a minimal portable environment; that is, simple primitives are defined, out of which more complex facilities may be constructed using portable procedures. The implementation of Smile can be as any of the following: the underlying software environment for the operating system of an otherwise {open_quotes}bare{close_quotes} machine, a {open_quotes}guest{close_quotes} system environment built upon a preexisting operating system, an environment within a {open_quotes}user{close_quotes} process run by an operating system, or a single environment for an entire machine, encompassing both system and {open_quotes}user{close_quotes} processes. In the first three of these cases the tasks provided by Smile are {open_quotes}lightweight processes{close_quotes} multiplexed within preexisting processes or the system, while in the last case they also include the system processes themselves.

  4. Band selection study for SMILES-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Ochiai, Satoshi; Baron, Philippe; Manago, Naohiro; Nishibori, Toshiyuki; Mizuno, Akira; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Maezawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Submillimeter limb sounding is very useful technique to investigate Earth's middle atmosphere since it can measure both reactive minor species (ClO, BrO, HO¬2, etc) and stable species (O3, HCl, etc) at day/night conditions as already established by UARS/MLS, Odin/SMR, and Aura/MLS. Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-emission Sounder (SMILES) was the first instrument to use 4K cooled SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) detection system for the limb sounding of the atmosphere in the frequency regions 625 GHz (Bands A and B) and 650 GHz (Band C) [1]. It has demonstrated its very high sensitivity (System Temperature, Tsys ~250K) for measuring stratospheric and mesospheric species, O3, HCl, ClO, HO2, HOCl, BrO, and O3 isotopes from Oct. 12, 2009 to Apr. 21, 2010 [2-5]. Since SMILES operation has terminated after only 6 months operation due to failure of sub-mm local oscillator (and later 4K cooler system), there exist strong scientific demand to develop successor of SMILES, the SMILES-2, which has optimized and enhanced frequency coverage to observe: (a) BrO and HOCl without interferences of stronger emission lines, (b) N2O, H2O, NO2, and CH3Cl not covered by the SMILES frequency regions, and (c) O2 line to measure temperature. This paper discusses possible SMILES-2 band selection considering limited instrument resources (number of SIS mixers and sub-mm local oscillator) and scientific requirements. This paper describes current status of SMILES-2 band selection study; (1) known issues of SMILES observations, (2) SMILES-2 scientific requirements, (3) methods of band selection study, (4) temperature, horizontal wind speed, H2O sensitivity study, (5) BrO and HOCl line selection, and (6) current band selection and possible instrument design.

  5. Laurance David Hall.

    PubMed

    Coxon, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    An account is given of the life, scientific contributions, and passing of Laurance David Hall (1938-2009), including his early history and education at the University of Bristol, UK, and the synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrates and other natural products during ∼20 years of research and teaching at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Lists of graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and sabbatical visitors are provided for this period. Following a generous endowment by Dr. Herchel Smith, Professor Hall built a new Department of Medicinal Chemistry at Cambridge University, UK, and greatly expanded his researches into the technology and applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and zero quantum NMR. MRI technology was applied both to medical problems such as the characterization of cartilage degeneration in knee joints, the measurement of ventricular function, lipid localization in animal models of atherosclerosis, paramagnetic metal complexes of polysaccharides as contrast agents, and studies of many other anatomical features, but also to several aspects of materials analysis, including food analyses, process control, and the elucidation of such physical phenomena as the flow of liquids through porous media, defects in concrete, and the visualization of fungal damage to wood. Professor Hall's many publications, patents, lectures, and honors and awards are described, and also his successful effort to keep the Asilomar facility in Pacific Grove, California as the alternating venue for the annual Experimental NMR Conference. Two memorial services for Professor Hall are remembered.

  6. SPECTRAL SMILE CORRECTION IN CRISM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceamanos, X.; Doute, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is affected by a common artifact in "push-broom" sensors, the so-called "spectral smile". As a consequence, both central wavelength and spectral width of the spectral response vary along the across-track dimension, thus giving rise to a shifting and smoothing of spectra (see Fig. 1 (left)). In fact, both effects are greater for spectra on the edges, while they are minimum for data acquired by central detectors, the so-called "sweet spot". The prior artifacts become particularly critical for Martian observations which contain steep spectra such as CO2 ice-rich polar images. Fig. 1 (right) shows the horizontal brightness gradient which appears in every band corresponding to a steep portion of spectra. The correction of CRISM spectral smile is addressed using a two-step method which aims at modifying data sensibly in order to mimic the optimal CRISM response. First, all spectra, which are previously interpolated by cubic splines, are resampled to the "sweet spot" wavelengths in order to overcome the spectra shift. Secondly, the non-uniform spectral width is overcome by mimicking an increase of spectral resolution thanks to a spectral sharpening. In order to minimize noise, only bands particularly suffering from smile are selected. First, bands corresponding to the outliers of the Minimum Noise Transformation (MNF) eigenvector, which corresponds to the MNF band related to smile (MNF-smile), are selected. Then, a spectral neighborhood Θi, which takes into account the local spectral convexity or concavity, is defined for every selected band in order to maximize spectral shape preservation. The proposed sharpening technique takes into account both the instrument parameters and the observed spectra. First, every reflectance value belonging to a Θi is reevaluated by a sharpening which depends on a ratio of the spectral width of the current detector and the "sweet spot" one. Then, the optimal degree of

  7. Treatment of the Patient with Gummy Smile in Conjunction with Digital Smile Approach.

    PubMed

    Arias, David Montalvo; Trushkowsky, Richard D; Brea, Luis M; David, Steven B

    2015-07-01

    Gummy smile cases are always esthetically demanding cases. This article presents a case treated with an interdisciplinary treatment approach and Digital Smile Approach (DSA) using Keynote (DSA), to predictably achieve an esthetic outcome for a patient with gummy smile. The importance of using questionnaires and checklists to facilitate the gathering of diagnostic data cannot be overemphasized. The acquired data must then be transferred to the design of the final restorations. The use of digital smile design has emerged as a powerful tool in cosmetic dentistry to help both practitioner and patient visualize the final outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. What makes Mona Lisa smile?

    PubMed

    Kontsevich, Leonid L; Tyler, Christopher W

    2004-01-01

    To study the ability of humans to read subtle changes in facial expression, we applied reverse correlation technique to reveal visual features that mediate understanding of emotion expressed by the face. Surprising findings were that (1) the noise added to a test face image had profound effect on the facial expression and (2) in almost every instance the new expression was meaningful. To quantify the effect, we asked naïve observers to rank the face of Mona Lisa superimposed with noise, based on their perception of her emotional state along the sad/happy dimension. Typically, a hundred trials (with 10 or more samples for each rank category) were sufficient to reveal areas altering the facial expression, which is about two orders of magnitude less than in the other reverse correlation studies. Moreover, the perception of smiling in the eyes was solely attributable to a configurational effect projecting from the mouth region.

  9. Volatility smile as relativistic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakushadze, Zura

    2017-06-01

    We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.

  10. Memories of David Kirzhnits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotovsky, B. M.

    2013-06-01

    In the mid-1950s, a new staff member appeared at the Theory Division of the Physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences (FIAN): David Abramovich Kirzhnits. A Moscow State University alumnus, after graduation he had been assigned to a large defense plant in the city of Gorky, where he had worked for several years as an engineer. He was "liberated" from there by Igor Evgenyevich Tamm, our department head, who managed to transfer him to FIAN. Igor Evgenyevich knew D. A. Kirzhnits - they had met in Moscow before Kirzhnits finished university. At that time Kirzhnits was performing thesis work with professor A. S. Kompaneyets as academic adviser. At his adviser's suggestion, D. Kirzhnits consulted with I. E. Tamm on questions pertaining to the thesis topic. I. E. Tamm took a great liking for the diploma student, and he even wanted to recruit D. A. Kirzhnits for the Theory Division immediately after graduation. But at that time (1949) this proved impossible for several reasons. First, D. Kirzhnits was, as they say, an "invalid of the fifth group" - a Jew - which during those years of violent struggle against cosmopolitanismb often proved an obstacle in looking for work. Second, during the years of mass repressions D. Kirzhnits' father had been arrested on treason charges (according to the charges, he had wanted to sell the Far East to Japan). After intensive investigation his father was released, but he lived only a little longer. Reports of this also could have impeded his acceptance. Third, Igor Evgenyevich didn't have enough weight in officials' eyes at that time and so was unable to overcome "first" and "second."...

  11. David Morrison on Lake Vostok

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Dr. David Morrison discusses the implications of research possibilities at Lake Vostok, one of the largest subglacial lakes located over two miles beneath the ice in Antarctica. The lake has been c...

  12. Robust smile detection using convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Celona, Luigi; Schettini, Raimondo

    2016-11-01

    We present a fully automated approach for smile detection. Faces are detected using a multiview face detector and aligned and scaled using automatically detected eye locations. Then, we use a convolutional neural network (CNN) to determine whether it is a smiling face or not. To this end, we investigate different shallow CNN architectures that can be trained even when the amount of learning data is limited. We evaluate our complete processing pipeline on the largest publicly available image database for smile detection in an uncontrolled scenario. We investigate the robustness of the method to different kinds of geometric transformations (rotation, translation, and scaling) due to imprecise face localization, and to several kinds of distortions (compression, noise, and blur). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this type of investigation has been performed for smile detection. Experimental results show that our proposal outperforms state-of-the-art methods on both high- and low-quality images.

  13. Arthur R. Jensen (1923-2012).

    PubMed

    Lubinski, David

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Arthur R. Jensen. Arthur R. Jensen epitomized the "London School" of psychological thought, studying human individuality as a branch of biology by teaming evolutionary, genetic, and experimental/multivariate/quantitative methods to examine psychological diversity. His intellectual ancestry traces back through his mentor Hans Eysenck to Cyril Burt, Charles Spearman, and, ultimately, Sir Francis Galton. Haggbloom et al. (2002, Review of General Psychology) ranked him among the top 50 eminent psychologists of the 20th century primarily for his work on the construct of general intelligence (g) and its antecedents. But he was also known for his studies in human learning, memory, the cumulative deficit hypothesis, Spearman's hypothesis, the speed of information hypothesis, and test bias. Yet, because of the controversial nature of his work, his career was conspicuously marked by tensions: The extent to which his work was either admired or reviled by many distinguished scientists is unparalleled.

  14. Arthur L. Schmeltekopf Jr. (1932-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Carleton J.

    2009-05-01

    Arthur Louis Schmeltekopf Jr. died of mesothelioma, a lung cancer associated with exposure to asbestos, at his home in Marshall, N. C., on 20 August 2007. He was born on 24 February 1932, in Kyle, Tex., to Arthur L. and Meta (Engelbrecht) Schmeltekopf and grew up nearby on the family farm. Art had an early interest in science. A dispute over the reactivity of alkali metals toward water led to an experiment at Kyle High School involving a chunk of sodium metal and a toilet in the boys' room. The resulting explosion shattered the toilet, creating a flood, multiple geysers and panic in the nearby girls' room, a displaced lid on the school’s septic tank, and an enduring school legend.

  15. Arthur Cayley and the `Gruppen Pest'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, P.

    2015-09-01

    The original contributions of Arthur Cayley to the Philosophical Magazine on group theory and his 'trees' are revisited and to some extend reinterpreted. Both topics were and are of enormous importance not only in physics (group theory, graph theory), but also in quite a few other disciplines as diverse as information technology or, for example, linguistics (trees, graph theory). In order to show that these two topics originally arose from interests in the theory of permutations also Cayley's 'Mousetrap' game is briefly mentioned.

  16. The spontaneous smile in dynamic motion.

    PubMed

    Tarantili, Vicky V; Halazonetis, Demetrios J; Spyropoulos, Meropi N

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and analyze the dynamic nature of spontaneous smiles. Fifteen children (9 girls and 6 boys; average age, 10.5 years) were filmed with a hidden camera while they watched a funny cartoon video. Spontaneous smiles were recorded, and the video frames were digitized. Time-graphs of the measurements were constructed, and plots of the movement of the mouth points were drawn. Facial measurements showed that the upper lip elevated by 28%, relative to the rest position, and the mouth increased in width by 27%. The corners of the mouth moved laterally and superiorly at an angle of approximately 47 degrees . Time analysis showed that the smiles developed in a staged fashion. The first stage (attack phase) was the shortest, lasting an average 500 ms. It was followed by a sustaining phase that included waxing and waning. The smile ended with a fade-out stage. The second and third stages were of variable duration and could be interrupted by the attack phase of a subsequent smile. The dynamics of the spontaneous smile and the findings of this study raise concerns about the validity of a single photographic capture for esthetic assessment and treatment planning.

  17. The value of genuine and polite smiles.

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2011-02-01

    Humans show remarkable ability to adapt their social behavior to suit the changing requirements of their interactions. An interaction partner's social cues, particularly facial expressions, likely play an important role in motivating and reinforcing this behavioral adaptation. Over three studies, we test a key aspect of this idea. Specifically, we ask how the reinforcement value of facial expressions compares to that of nonsocial feedback and to what degree two frequently occurring expressions (genuine and polite smiles) differ in reinforcement value. Our findings show that social feedback is preferred over nonsocial feedback and that genuine smiles are preferred over polite smiles. Based on a logistic model of our data, we show that both monetary and social values of stimuli contribute significantly to participants' decisions. Indeed, participants were willing to sacrifice the chance of a monetary reward to receive a genuine smile and produced inflated estimates of the value of genuinely smiling faces. These findings suggest that genuine smiles, and potentially other social cues, may be useful social reinforcers and therefore important in the control of social behavior on a moment-to-moment basis during interaction.

  18. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  19. Maxillary anterior papilla display during smiling: a clinical study of the interdental smile line.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Mark N; Chu, Stephen J; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantify the visual display (presence) or lack of display (absence) of interdental papillae during maximum smiling in a patient population aged 10 to 89 years. Four hundred twenty digital single-lens reflex photographs of patients were taken and examined for the visual display of interdental papillae between the maxillary anterior teeth during maximum smiling. Three digital photographs were taken per patient from the frontal, right frontal-lateral, and left frontal-lateral views. The data set of photographs was examined by two examiners for the presence or absence of the visual display of papillae. The visual display of interdental papillae during maximum smiling occurred in 380 of the 420 patients examined in this study, equivalent to a 91% occurrence rate. Eighty-seven percent of all patients categorized as having a low gingival smile line (n = 303) were found to display the interdental papillae upon smiling. Differences were noted for individual age groups according to the decade of life as well as a trend toward decreasing papillary display with increasing age. The importance of interdental papillae display during dynamic smiling should not be left undiagnosed since it is visible in over 91% of older patients and in 87% of patients with a low gingival smile line, representing a common and important esthetic element that needs to be assessed during smile analysis of the patient.

  20. Smiling when distressed: when a smile is a frown turned upside down.

    PubMed

    Ansfield, Matthew E

    2007-06-01

    This research tested self-regulation and self-presentation as psychological mechanisms that motivate smiling when distressed. In Study 1, participants viewed moderately and intensely distressing, amusing, and neutral videos in social or nonsocial conditions. Smiling when distressed was most prevalent in conditions in which participants reported the greatest emotional distress. Specifically, while viewing distressing videos, men reported experiencing greater overall distress and also smiled more than women, especially in social conditions and while viewing intensely (as opposed to moderately) distressing stimuli. In general, smiling was related to more negative affect while viewing distressing videos but to more positive affect after viewing such stimuli. Study 2 explored raters' social perceptions of participants from Study 1, confirming that people judge distressed smilers as less socially appropriate and less likable than nonsmilers. Findings suggest that although distressed smiling serves a probable self-regulatory function, it may also bear some negative social consequences.

  1. Frequency, Context and Characteristics of Smile Used in Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Lukež, Ana; Lauš, Iva; Grbeša, Marijana; Špalj, Stjepan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The images of smiling people are omnipresent in marketing. Frequency, smile characteristics, context of the smile and target audience in newspaper advertisements were points of interest of this study. Material and methods Four examiners analyzed 600 advertisements from 46 European magazines and newspapers by using content and framing analysis. Twenty items of the analysis form the presence of people, smile characteristics, context of smile use, impression of success and health, and targeted audience. The chi-square test was used in statistical analysis. Results People were present in over 70% of the newspapers advertisements, and almost 80% of them were smiling, relating the product or service with positive context more often than with neutral or negative context (p<0.001). The advertisements with smile targeted the adults more frequently (70.6%) and adolescents (33.6%), and less often the elderly (22.2%) and children (4.2%); women (45.9%) or both genders (29.2%) were targeted more often than solely men (2.6%). Smile mostly filled out one quarter of the size of the entire advertisement (97%), equally spontaneous and posed smiles were used. In 82% of cases teeth were visible during smile, and buccal corridors were present in 39% of them. Conclusions Smile is often used in newspaper advertisements, mostly targeting adult women, and providing the context of positive emotions. Most people will show teeth when they smile. Parameters of micro smile esthetics are not in the focus of an advertisement. PMID:28740269

  2. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (b) LIGHTHOUSE AND KEEPER'S COTTAGE FROM SOUTHWEST - Lighthouse, Cedar Point Scituate Harbor, Scituate, Plymouth County, MA

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (j) Int- (so- called) Slaves' Pew, East Gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (f) Int-General view looking north toward pulpit. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (e) Ext- Detail, main entrance, west front. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer October, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer October, 1934 (a) PROVINCE HOUSE STEPS FROM WEST - Wrought Iron Archway & Steps, Province & Bosworth Streets, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (g) Ext- general view, gateway entrance and fence. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  9. STS-57 PLC G. David Low, in LES, listens to egress briefing at JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Payload Commander (PLC) and Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), smiles for the photographer during an emergency egress briefing. Low, along with the other STS-57 crewmembers, will participate in an emergency egress simulation in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) to familiarize himself with the procedures necessary in the event of an emergency during launch or landing aboard the space shuttle. The CCT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  10. STS-57 PLC G. David Low, in LES, listens to egress briefing at JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Payload Commander (PLC) and Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), smiles for the photographer during an emergency egress briefing. Low, along with the other STS-57 crewmembers, will participate in an emergency egress simulation in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) to familiarize himself with the procedures necessary in the event of an emergency during launch or landing aboard the space shuttle. The CCT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  11. You may look unhappy unless you smile: the distinctiveness of a smiling face against faces without an explicit smile.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Bum; Han, Ji-Eun; Hyun, Joo-Seok

    2015-05-01

    An expressionless face is often perceived as rude whereas a smiling face is considered as hospitable. Repetitive exposure to such perceptions may have developed stereotype of categorizing an expressionless face as expressing negative emotion. To test this idea, we displayed a search array where the target was an expressionless face and the distractors were either smiling or frowning faces. We manipulated set size. Search reaction times were delayed with frowning distractors. Delays became more evident as the set size increased. We also devised a short-term comparison task where participants compared two sequential sets of expressionless, smiling, and frowning faces. Detection of an expression change across the sets was highly inaccurate when the change was made between frowning and expressionless face. These results indicate that subjects were confused with expressed emotions on frowning and expressionless faces, suggesting that it is difficult to distinguish expressionless face from frowning faces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Harati, Mahsa; Mostofi, Shahbaz Naser; Jalalian, Ezzatollah; Rezvani, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to discuss some new concepts of the desirable characteristics of smile tooth display. Due to the increasing application of cosmetic dental treatments, there is an increasing need for better understanding of the esthetic principles. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, with 212 participants, included were patients with no history of orthodontic treatment, loss or prosthetic replacement of anterior teeth, extracted teeth, lips with asymmetry or a history of trauma. Chi-square test was used to determine possible significances in the relation of smile line to Angle occlusion class, overbite and overjet and arch form. A P level of <0.05 was set as to be significant. Results: Chi-square test indicated that there was a significant difference between the smile design and overbite, overjet and gender but no statistically significant association was found between the smile design and crossbite, molar Angle classification and arch form. Conclusion: Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered. PMID:24379858

  13. MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Four of the 19 persons selected as prize fellows by the John D. and Catherine MacArthur Foundation specialize in the earth, ocean, or space sciences. The four are John P. Holdren, Robert W. Kates, Paul G. Richards, and Joseph H. Taylor.The awards, ranging from $24,000 to $60,000 annually for 5 years, are unrestricted; the recipients may pursue any field of endeavor and are not required to publish a paper or to meet similar requirements. The exact amount of the award is dependent on the recipient's age; older prize fellows receive larger awards than do younger ones.

  14. Perceptual, Categorical, and Affective Processing of Ambiguous Smiling Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Fernandez-Martin, Andres; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of…

  15. [Perception of asymmetry smile: Attempt to evaluation through Photoshop].

    PubMed

    Diakite, C; Diep, D; Labbe, D

    2016-04-01

    In the labial palliative surgery of facial paralysis, it can persist asymmetry smile. Evaluate the impact of an augmentation or reduction of the commissural course on the perception of a smile anomaly, and determine from which asymmetry threshold, the smile is estimated unsightly. We took a picture of two people with a smile not forced; including one with a "cuspid smile", and the another one with a "Mona Lisa" smile. The pictures obtained were modified by the Photoshop software, to simulate an asymmetry labial smile. The changes were related to the move of the left labial commissure, the left nasolabial furrow, and the left cheek using under-correction and overcorrection, every 4 mm. Three pictures with under-correction and four pictures with over-correction were obtained. These smiles were shown to three groups of five people, which included doctors in smile specialties, doctors in other specialties, and non-doctors. Participants were then asked to indicate on which of the pictures, the smile seemed abnormal. Between -8 mm under-correction, and +8 mm over-correction, the asymmetry of the commissural course does not hinder the perception of smile. In the labial palliative surgery of facial paralysis, in the case of persistent asymmetry, there is a tolerance in the perception of "normality" of smile concerning the amplitude of the commissural course going up to 8 mm of asymmetric with under-correction or over-correction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceptual, Categorical, and Affective Processing of Ambiguous Smiling Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Fernandez-Martin, Andres; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of…

  17. Effect of posterior gingival smile on the perception of smile esthetics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Alicia; Vicente-Hernández, Ascensión; Bravo-González, Luis-Alberto

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the influence of posterior gummy smile on the perception of smile esthetics by orthodontists, general-dentists and laypersons. A frontal photograph of a smile with normal gum exposure was chosen and manipulated digitally using Adobe Photoshop C3 to generate three further images with posterior gum exposure of 4, 6 and 8mm. These four images were assessed by the three evaluator groups: orthodontists (n=40), general-dentists (n=40) and laypersons (n=40). Both orthodontists and dentists had at least ten years professional experience and laypersons were aged between 40-50 years. The proportion of men to women was 20:20 in each group. Evaluators awarded a score to the smile esthetics of each image: 1=acceptable, 2=moderately acceptable, 3=unacceptable. Afterwards, each evaluator placed the four images in order of esthetic preference. No significant differences (p>0.05) were detected between the three evaluator groups for the photo without posterior gummy smile. The perception of smile esthetics for a the 4mm posterior gummy smile (median for orthodontists=2, general-dentists= 1, laypersons=1), the 6mm (median for orthodontists=2, general-dentists=1, laypersons=1) and the 8mm (median for orthodontists=3, general-dentists=2, laypersons=2) was significantly different between orthodontists and the other two evaluator groups (p<0.0017). The three evaluator groups coincided in placing the image with the 6mm gum exposure in first place in order of esthetic preference. Posterior gummy smile influences the perception of smile esthetics more negatively among orthodontists than the rest of the groups.

  18. SMILE - New Mission to Image the Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is a novel self-standing mission to be jointly developed between European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). It is dedicated to study the dynamic coupling of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere in a global way never attempted so far. From a highly inclined elliptical Earth orbit, SMILE will obtain X-ray images of the magnetosheath and polar cusps simultaneously with UV images of the Northern aurora, while also carrying out in situ solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements. Remote sensing of the magnetosphere with X-ray imaging is now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX). This talk will present the science that SMILE will deliver and its impact, and will provide an overview of its payload and the mission's development.

  19. David Hume on Competent Judges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Marcia Muelder

    2004-01-01

    This essay is the eighth in an occasional series on past treatments of major issues in arts education policy from antiquity through the twentieth century. The essay on which it is based, David Hume's "Of the Standard of Taste," originally published in 1757, is too extensive to be reprinted here, but it is easily accessible in the public…

  20. David Hume on Competent Judges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Marcia Muelder

    2004-01-01

    This essay is the eighth in an occasional series on past treatments of major issues in arts education policy from antiquity through the twentieth century. The essay on which it is based, David Hume's "Of the Standard of Taste," originally published in 1757, is too extensive to be reprinted here, but it is easily accessible in the public…

  1. A Reply from David Elkind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1989-01-01

    Replying to Robert H. Anderson's article in the same "Principal" issue, David Elkind defends his article against classroom rotation. Elkind strongly favors multiage grouping and team teaching, but views the real issue as departmentalization and rotation versus self-contained classrooms. Although multiage grouping and team teaching are…

  2. Smile makeover utilizing direct composite resin veneers.

    PubMed

    Koczarski, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Creating a beautiful smile is more than restoring a single tooth back to its proper form. One must take into account the entire aesthetic zone, along with the mechanics of restoring the teeth to proper form and function. To make this effort even more challenging, the clinician is in full control and completely accountable for making the direct composite resin restorations from which the smile is created. Patients usually won't critique the aesthetics of a posterior direct resin, but once we move into the visible smile (along with the fact that most cosmetic procedures are patient desire- and want-driven) we must be able to deliver what the patient expects. Preplanning the case and avoiding the "prep and pray" approach to the smile-design process is the cornerstone of success. Utilizing tools for the creation of the restorations, such as a preoperative wax-up and silicone putty matrix, help the clinician break the procedure down to individual restorations that when created in harmony with the pre-operative design or wax-up, will allow a final "smile design" to emerge with predictability without getting lost in the daunting task of creating the entire smile all at once. Proper use of ideal composite materials adds the final touch on creating realistic results that even the most discerning patients demand. Layering colors, utilizing differing opacities and translucencies within the restorative process, is a must. Having a "recipe" to follow simplifies the process and gives the clinician confidence that the final result will have that realistic look. All in all, the easiest way to handle a challenging case is to break it down into smaller and more manageable increments in order to ensure a predictable outcome.

  3. LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A STUDENT VERSION OF A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON THE "LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR" WAS DEVELOPED. SELECTED LEGENDS ARE REPRODUCED ALONG WITH AN INTRODUCTION, STUDY QUESTIONS, AND A PASSAGE FROM MALORY'S "LE MORTE D'ARTHUR" IN THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION (1485). THE TEACHER VERSION IS ED 010 814. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010…

  4. Tooth display and lip position during spontaneous and posed smiling in adults.

    PubMed

    Van Der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Berge, Stefaan J; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M

    2008-08-01

    To analyze differences in tooth display, lip-line height, and smile width between the posed smiling record, traditionally produced for orthodontic diagnosis, and the spontaneous (Duchenne) smile of joy. The faces of 122 male participants were each filmed during spontaneous and posed smiling. Spontaneous smiles were elicited through the participants watching a comical movie. Maxillary and mandibular lip-line heights, tooth display, and smile width were measured using a digital videographic method for smile analysis. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare measurements of posed and spontaneous smiling. Maxillary lip-line heights during spontaneous smiling were significantly higher than during posed smiling. Compared to spontaneous smiling, tooth display in the (pre)molar area during posed smiling decreased by up to 30%, along with a significant reduction of smile width. During posed smiling, also mandibular lip-line heights changed and the teeth were more covered by the lower lip than during spontaneous smiling. Reduced lip-line heights, tooth display, and smile width on a posed smiling record can have implications for the diagnostics of lip-line height, smile arc, buccal corridors, and plane of occlusion. Spontaneous smiling records next to posed smiling records are therefore recommended for diagnostic purposes. Because of the dynamic nature of spontaneous smiling, it is proposed to switch to dynamic video recording of the smile.

  5. Towards a Universal SMILES representation - A standard method to generate canonical SMILES based on the InChI

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are two line notations of chemical structures that have established themselves in the field: the SMILES string and the InChI string. The InChI aims to provide a unique, or canonical, identifier for chemical structures, while SMILES strings are widely used for storage and interchange of chemical structures, but no standard exists to generate a canonical SMILES string. Results I describe how to use the InChI canonicalisation to derive a canonical SMILES string in a straightforward way, either incorporating the InChI normalisations (Inchified SMILES) or not (Universal SMILES). This is the first description of a method to generate canonical SMILES that takes stereochemistry into account. When tested on the 1.1 m compounds in the ChEMBL database, and a 1 m compound subset of the PubChem Substance database, no canonicalisation failures were found with Inchified SMILES. Using Universal SMILES, 99.79% of the ChEMBL database was canonicalised successfully and 99.77% of the PubChem subset. Conclusions The InChI canonicalisation algorithm can successfully be used as the basis for a common standard for canonical SMILES. While challenges remain – such as the development of a standard aromatic model for SMILES – the ability to create the same SMILES using different toolkits will mean that for the first time it will be possible to easily compare the chemical models used by different toolkits. PMID:22989151

  6. Quantification of facial and smile esthetics.

    PubMed

    Koidou, Vasiliki P; Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2017-05-26

    Whether deviations in alignment discrepancy, width-to-length ratio, application of the golden proportion, or number of teeth revealed in smile affect attractiveness is yet unknown. The purpose of this analytical study was to quantify dental and facial esthetics to determine whether individuals identified as having superior smiles display differences in alignment discrepancies (angulation between interpupillary and commissure line); width-to-length ratios of maxillary anterior teeth; application of the golden proportion (approximately 1.618:1); and number of teeth revealed in an animated smile when compared with an average population. An Internet search for "best smile" and "celebrity" identified 108 celebrities. Photographs showing smiles within 10 degrees of a frontal view were collected, while photographs of dental students were used for the control group. Alignment discrepancies, widths and lengths of the anterior teeth, and number of teeth revealed in an animated smile were measured with photo-editing software, and ratios were calculated. The groups were compared with repeated-measures ANOVA, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (α=.05). Usable photographs were obtained for 90 celebrities (58 women, 32 men) and compared with photographs of 97 dental students (54 women, 43 men). Statistically significant differences were found for alignment discrepancies (celebrities 0.97, students 1.25, P=.034) and for the number of teeth displayed (P=.049); 22.2% of the celebrities revealed 12 teeth, versus 6.2% of the students. In both groups, significant differences from the golden ratio (1.618:1) for the width of the central incisor/lateral incisor right and left and for the width of the lateral incisor/canine right and left were observed through 95% confidence intervals. Sex and left-right were nonsignificant factors. Celebrities identified as having a best smile had smaller mean alignment discrepancies and revealed a greater number of teeth in an

  7. Smile arcs of Caucasian and Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Keun; Rashid, Robert G; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to measure and compare the smile arcs (tooth and lip arcs) of young Caucasian and Korean subjects. Two hundred subjects (100 male and 100 female) were selected from Caucasian and Korean students. Class photographs taken with a digital camera showing the subjects with a posed smile were used for this study. Curves were rendered as semitransparent overlays, which were manipulated over the images using Adobe Photoshop to determine the best fit for tooth and lip arcs. There were statistically significant differences due to ethnicity and gender. Mean lip arcs had greater curvature than mean tooth arcs.

  8. Anticipatory smiling: Linking early affective communication and social outcome

    PubMed Central

    Parlade, Meaghan Venezia; Messinger, Daniel S.; Delgado, Christine E.F.; Kaiser, Marygrace Yale; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    In anticipatory smiles, infants appear to communicate pre-existing positive affect by smiling at an object and then turning the smile toward an adult. We report two studies in which the precursors, development, and consequences of anticipatory smiling were investigated. Study 1 revealed a positive correlation between infant smiling at 6 months and the level of anticipatory smiling at 8 and 10 months during joint attention episodes, as well as a positive correlation between anticipatory smiling and parent-rated social expressivity scores at 30 months. Study 2 confirmed a developmental increase in the number of infants using anticipatory smiles between 9 and 12 months that had been initially documented in the Study 1 sample [Venezia, M., Messinger, D. S., Thorp, D., & Mundy, P. (2004). The development of anticipatory smiling. Infancy, 6(3), 397–406]. Additionally, anticipatory smiling at 9 months positively predicted parent-rated social competence scores at 30 months. Findings are discussed with regard to the importance of anticipatory smiling in early socioemotional development. PMID:19004500

  9. Astronaut Gordon Cooper smiles for recovery crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., has a smile for the recovery crew of the U.S.S. Kearsarge, after he is on board from a successful 22 orbit mission of the earth in his spacecraft 'Faith 7'. Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off.

  10. Sellers smiles at camera during STS-121

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-05

    S121-E-05198 (5 July 2006) --- Astronaut Piers J. Sellers, STS-121 mission specialist, smiles for the camera as a crewmate photographs him on the middeck of the Space Shuttle Discovery. This was among the first group of digital still images showing the crewmembers onboard during their first full day in space.

  11. Astronaut Gordon Cooper smiles for recovery crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., has a smile for the recovery crew of the U.S.S. Kearsarge, after he is on board from a successful 22 orbit mission of the earth in his spacecraft 'Faith 7'. Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off.

  12. It is better to smile to women: gender modifies perception of honesty of smiling individuals across cultures.

    PubMed

    Krys, Kuba; Hansen, Karolina; Xing, Cai; Espinosa, Alejandra Domínguez; Szarota, Piotr; Morales, María Fernanda

    2015-03-01

    Social perception studies have revealed that smiling individuals are perceived more favourably on many communion dimensions in comparison to nonsmiling individuals. Research on gender differences in smiling habits showed that women smile more than men. In our study, we investigated this phenomena further and hypothesised that women perceive smiling individuals as more honest than men. An experiment conducted in seven countries (China, Germany, Mexico, Norway, Poland, Republic of South Africa and USA) revealed that gender may influence the perception of honesty in smiling individuals. We compared ratings of honesty made by male and female participants who viewed photos of smiling and nonsmiling people. While men and women did not differ on ratings of honesty in nonsmiling individuals, women assessed smiling individuals as more honest than men did. We discuss these results from a social norms perspective. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Hadeel A; Abuljadayel, Layla W; Al-Ali, Reem M; Yousef, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy” smile picture (P-value =0.003), diastema picture (P-value =0.000) and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004). As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009). Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. PMID:25653558

  14. Perception of adults' smile esthetics among orthodontists, clinicians and laypeople

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Enio Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, Átila Valadares; Haddad, Ana Cristina Soares Santos; Reis, Sílvia Augusta Braga

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smile esthetics has become a major concern among patients and orthodontists. Therefore, the aim of this study was: (1) To highlight differences in perception of smile esthetics by clinicians, orthodontists and laypeople; (2) To assess factors such as lip thickness, smile height, color gradation, tooth size and crowding, and which are associated with smile unpleasantness. METHODS: To this end, edited photographs emphasizing the lower third of the face of 41 subjects were assessed by three groups (orthodontists, laypeople and clinicians) who graded the smiles from 1 to 9, highlighting the markers that evince smile unpleasantness. Kruskall-Wallis test supplemented by Bonferroni test was used to assess differences among groups. Additionally, the prevailing factors in smile unpleasantness were also described. RESULTS: There was no significant difference (P = 0.67) among groups rates. However, the groups highlighted different characteristics associated with smile unpleasantness. Orthodontists emphasized little gingival display, whereas laypeople emphasized disproportionate teeth and clinicians emphasized yellow teeth. CONCLUSION: Orthodontists, laypeople and clinicians similarly assess smile esthetics; however, noticing different characteristics. Thus, the orthodontist must be careful not to impose his own perception of smile esthetics. PMID:25741823

  15. Perception of adults' smile esthetics among orthodontists, clinicians and laypeople.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, Enio Ribeiro; Vasconcelos Júnior, Átila Valadares; Haddad, Ana Cristina Soares Santos; Reis, Sílvia Augusta Braga

    2015-01-01

    Smile esthetics has become a major concern among patients and orthodontists. Therefore, the aim of this study was: (1) To highlight differences in perception of smile esthetics by clinicians, orthodontists and laypeople; (2) To assess factors such as lip thickness, smile height, color gradation, tooth size and crowding, and which are associated with smile unpleasantness. To this end, edited photographs emphasizing the lower third of the face of 41 subjects were assessed by three groups (orthodontists, laypeople and clinicians) who graded the smiles from 1 to 9, highlighting the markers that evince smile unpleasantness. Kruskall-Wallis test supplemented by Bonferroni test was used to assess differences among groups. Additionally, the prevailing factors in smile unpleasantness were also described. There was no significant difference (P = 0.67) among groups rates. However, the groups highlighted different characteristics associated with smile unpleasantness. Orthodontists emphasized little gingival display, whereas laypeople emphasized disproportionate teeth and clinicians emphasized yellow teeth. Orthodontists, laypeople and clinicians similarly assess smile esthetics; however, noticing different characteristics. Thus, the orthodontist must be careful not to impose his own perception of smile esthetics.

  16. Smiling in Pain: Explorations of Its Social Motives

    PubMed Central

    Prkachin, Kenneth; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Studies of facial responses during experimental and clinical pain have revealed a surprising phenomenon, namely, that a considerable number of individuals respond with a smile. So far, it is not known why smiling occurs during pain. It is possible that the “smile of pain” is socially motivated (e.g., reinforcing social bonds while undergoing an unpleasant experience). The present studies were conducted in an attempt to address the role of social motives in smiling during pain. In two studies, we varied the quantitative (level of sociality) and qualitative (properties of the relationship between interactants) components of the situations in which participants received painful stimulation. Participants' faces were video-recorded and the occurrence of smiling was assessed. The occurrence of smiling differed depending on stimulus intensity and the properties of the relationship between interactants. Smiling occurred more often during the painful compared to nonpainful stimulation. Whereas the presence of a stranger (experimenter) reduced the smiling behavior, the presence of an intimate other increased it. Slight variations in the level of sociality, however, had no effect on the degree of smiling. Social motives possibly aimed at strengthening social bonds and thus ensuring social support appear to underlie smiling during pain. PMID:24236233

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer May 12, 1936 FIREPLACE IN SLAVE KITCHEN, LOOKING WEST. - Herron-Vaughn House, South Goodrich Street, Seguin, Guadalupe County, TX

  18. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer; COPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer; COPY OF VIEW BELONGING RO MR. FAXON, OF QUINCY. (f) Ext- Photo of full size model of old car. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  19. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (f) Int- Mantel in southwest room first floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (c) Ext- Detail old seat on entrance porch - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (h) Int- Mantel in southwest room second floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  2. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (g) Int- Mantel in northeast room first floor - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer August, 1934 (b) Ext- Detail entrance porch from southwest - Colonel Josiah Quincy House, 20 Muirhead Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer April 24, 1936 EAST ELEVATION (FRONT). - O'Henry House, Lone Star Brewery, 600 Lone Star Boulevard, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (c) Int- Mantel detail (sitting) room SE corner, first floor - Fearing-Warr House, 14 Elm Street, Wareham, Plymouth County, MA

  6. In memoriam: Arthur Bernard Singer, 1917-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    1993-01-01

    Arthur Bernard Singer was born 4 December 1917, and died 6 April 1990. Although brought up in New York City, Arthur developed an early fascination with birds. His favorite haunts were the Bronx Zoo and the American Museum of Natural History, where Robert Cushman Murphy encouraged his efforts and where Arthur acquired a worldwide perspective. After graduating from Cooper Union Art School in New York City in 1939, he began his career as an art teacher, art director, and designer, His real interest, however, was in depicting the postures and plumages of birds and mammals. As early as 1941 his wildlife art was exhibited at the Bronx Zoo. While he was in the army, his wife Edith (“Judy”) helped mount this first exhibit; Arthur never saw the show.

  7. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer, September 23, 1936 DETAIL OF TOWER (EAST ELEVATION). - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, Mission Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 24, 1936 WEST ELEVATION SHOWING BUILDINGS 1,2 AND 3. - San Bartolo Ranch Buildings, Falcon Reservoir Site, Zapata, Zapata County, TX

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 24, 1936 EAST ELEVATION MAIN RANCH HOUSE (REAR). - San Bartolo Ranch Buildings, Falcon Reservoir Site, Zapata, Zapata County, TX

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 24, 1936 EAST ELEVATION SHOWING BUILDINGS 3, 2 AND 1. - San Bartolo Ranch Buildings, Falcon Reservoir Site, Zapata, Zapata County, TX

  11. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 24, 1936 WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN RANCH HOUSE (FRONT). - San Bartolo Ranch Buildings, Falcon Reservoir Site, Zapata, Zapata County, TX

  12. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Oct. 28, 1935 (i) INT.- WALL STENCILLING, REAR ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Peter Jayne House, 37 Mugford Street, Marblehead, Essex County, MA

  13. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer May 29, 1939 (r) INT.- MANTEL & MIRROR, SOUTHEAST ROOM, 1st. FLOOR - Cook-Oliver House, 142 Federal Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) EXT.-MAPLE MEADOW BROOK AQUEDUCT, WILMINGTON, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middlesex Canal, Maple Meadow Brook Aqueduct, Wilmington, Middlesex County, MA

  15. Arthur Miller Wins a Peace Prize: Teaching, Literature, and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopald, Meredith

    1992-01-01

    Describes how a high school student was able to express powerful feelings and achieve some kind of reconciliation with his father through his therapeutic exploration of Arthur Miller's play "Death of a Salesman." (PRA)

  16. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19 th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief.

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer July 15, 1936 DETAIL OF COOKING FIREPLACE IN BASEMENT (LOOKING WEST). - Judge Thomas J. Devine House, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November 27, 1936 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION OF SECOND FLOOR FIREPLACE. - Judge Sebron G. Sneed House, Route I-35 & Bluff Springs Road, Austin, Travis County, TX

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November 27, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT). - Judge Sebron G. Sneed House, Route I-35 & Bluff Springs Road, Austin, Travis County, TX

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer November 27, 1936 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION (SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE). - Judge Sebron G. Sneed House, Route I-35 & Bluff Springs Road, Austin, Travis County, TX

  1. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. 1, 1939 (l) INT.- STAIRWAY, 4th FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH - M.I.T., Rogers Building, 491 Boylston Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (e) Portion of old quarry wagon at head of incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) General view of incline to Quarry from Northwest. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (c) Detail of track and set pulleys on quarry incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Detail of old railroad part way up incline to quarry. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Dec. 29, 1936 (i) EXT.- 32, 34 JACKSON STREET, looking NORTHWEST - Mill Houses, 32 & 34 Jackson Street, Middleboro, Plymouth County, MA

  7. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer 1935 (N) Int--Fireplace wall, Dining Room, Main House. N. E. Room - Daniel Shute House, Main & South Pleasant Streets, Hingham, Plymouth County, MA

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934 (b) Int- Looking southwest from womens' side toward fireplace to center partition on first floor - Society of Friends Meetinghouse, Schoosett Street (Routes 139 & 53), North Pembroke, Plymouth County, MA

  9. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (h) Int-Detail Gallery Stairs, S.E. Corner. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  10. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (i) Int-Looking down on pulpit and first floor from west gallery. - Chestnut Hill Meetinghouse, Chestnut Street, Millville, Worcester County, MA

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey Employee.) (a) Ext- General view from Southeast. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1937 (From snapshot made by Survey employee.) (b) Ext- Main building, south end. - Pollard Tavern, Great Road, Bedford, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March 24, 1936 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION (SOUTH SIDE AND WEST END). - St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 307 East Pecan Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March 16, 1936 EAST ELEVATION (ALTAR END AND BELL TOWER). - St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 307 East Pecan Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer March 24, 1936 DETAIL WEST END AND SOUTH SIDE (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). - St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 307 East Pecan Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer April, 1934. (g) Int-- Detail corner cupboard, S.E. Parlor. - Reverend Aaron Bascom House, Middlefield Road, Chester, Hampden County, MA

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Ext- General view house and office from southeast. - Reverend Aaron Bascom House, Middlefield Road, Chester, Hampden County, MA

  18. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (e) Int- Paneled west side of S. E. Bedroom. - Reverend Aaron Bascom House, Middlefield Road, Chester, Hampden County, MA

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) Ext- General view house and office from southwest. - Reverend Aaron Bascom House, Middlefield Road, Chester, Hampden County, MA

  20. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (e) Int-Staircase from Jonathan Watson House, formerly on High St., Medford. - Colonel Isaac Royall Slave Quarters, 15 George Street, Medford, Middlesex County, MA

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (d) Portion of old machinery now lying beside track. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer September, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer September, 1934 (a) GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - St. Augustine Chapel, St. Augustine Cemetery, Dorchester Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1938 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1938 (c) Int- Shoe Shop looking toward East End - Henry Wilson Shoe Shop, West Central & Mill Streets, Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. (l) Int-Mantel Detail, Bedroom (S.E. Corner) Second Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  5. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (k) Int-Mantel detail, Dining (S.E. Corner) Room, First Floor. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (b) Ext- Detail doorway, east side of house. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April 1934. (A) Ext. General view from Southeast. - Reverend Roger Newton House, Newton Place (moved from original location), Greenfield, Franklin County, MA

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (b) Ext- General view of main house from southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (c) Ext- General view of House and Ell from Southeast. - Timothy Jackson House, 527 Washington Street, Newton, Middlesex County, MA

  10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (a) Model of Old Windmill and Vats found in Atwood House, W. Chatham, Mass. - Enoch Harding Salt Works, Buck's Creek, West Chatham, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW PRIOR TO 1919 STORM (EAST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW AFTER 1919 STORM (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (b) Ext- General view rear, looking from north. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (a) Ext- General front view from southeast. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935. From snapshot made by a Survey employee. (c) Ext-Detail entrance on south. - Lucy Gray House, Indian Hill Road, North Tisbury, Dukes County, MA

  16. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (b) Ext-View of remaining East Portion from Atlantic Ave. - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (d) Ext-Detail view S.W. Corner of remaining portion of old building. Corner Storer Street. - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. 1935 (c) Ext-General view remaining corner from S.W. corner Storer Street. - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. What's in a smile?: Quantification of the vertical smile of patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Weijnen, F G; van der Bilt, A; Wokke, J H; Kuks, J B; van der Glas, H W; Bosman, F

    2000-02-15

    Many patients with myasthenia gravis who experience bulbar symptoms show a vertical smile, which may have a considerable, and often underestimated, impact on social life. Peri-oral muscle function can be quantified by calculating lip-length and snout indices, which indicate the degree to which a person is capable of smiling and of pursing the lips, respectively. In the present study patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis were compared to patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients now in remission (but previously suffering from bulbar myasthenia gravis), and healthy subjects. The lip-length and snout indices of patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis were significantly lower than those of the other groups. The facial impairments were no longer detectable in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis in remission and no subclinical impairments in lip-length and snout indices were found in the ocular myasthenia gravis group. These findings were consistent with the patients' reports of impairment of smiling and other oral functions. The patients suffering from a vertical smile or other oral impairments were well aware of their condition, most probably because of the social consequences of being unable to smile. The indices could be of importance in the longitudinal evaluation of therapy in individual patients and in pharmacotherapeutical research. We found a low correlation between the lip-length and snout indices, which reflects the capricious pattern of involvement of separate muscles in myasthenia gravis. Therefore both indices deserve special attention if they are used for monitoring myasthenic symptoms.

  20. Smiling in a job interview: when less is more.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Mollie A; Hall, Judith A; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined the effect of applicants' smiling on hireability. In a pre-test study, participants were asked to rate the expected behavior for four types of applicants. Newspaper reporter applicants were expected to be more serious than applicants for other jobs. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to be an applicant or interviewer for a newspaper reporting job. Smiling was negatively related to hiring, and smiling mediated the relation between applicants' motivation to make a good impression and hiring. Hiring was maximized when applicants smiled less in the middle of the interview relative to the start and end. In Study 2, participants watched Study 1 clips and were randomly assigned to believe the applicants were applying to one of four jobs. Participants rated more suitability when applicants smiled less, especially for jobs associated with a serious demeanor. This research shows that job type is an important moderator of the impact of smiling on hiring.

  1. Honoring Jean-David Rochaix.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Redding, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    We honor Jean-David Rochaix, an outstanding scholar of chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthesis, who received the prestigious Lifetime Achievement Award of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research at its 17th International Photosynthesis Congress held in Maastricht, The Netherlands (August 5-12, 2016). With this award he joins other major discoverers in the field of photosynthesis: Pierre Joliot (of France, 2013); Ulrich W. Heber* (of Germany, 2010) and Kenneth Sauer (of USA, 2010); Jan M. Anderson* (of Australia, 2007); and Horst T. Witt* (of Germany, 2004). See "Appendix 1" for the list of those who have received the ISPR Communication, Innovation, Calvin-Benson, and Hill awards.

  2. Mona Lisa: the enigma of the smile.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, J E

    1992-11-01

    The Mona Lisa, painted by Leonardo Da Vinci, 1503, pictures a smile that has been long the subject of conjecture. It is believed, however, that the Mona Lisa does not smile; she wears an expression common to people who have lost their front teeth. A closeup of the lip area shows a scar that is not unlike that left by the application of blunt force. The changes evident in the perioral area are such that occur when the anterior teeth are lost. The scar under the lower lip of the Mona Lisa is similar to that created, when, as a result of force, the incisal edges of the teeth have pierced the face with a penetrating wound.

  3. X-ray modeling for SMILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Wang, C.; Wei, F.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zheng, J.; Yu, X. Z.; Sembay, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.

    2016-12-01

    SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) is a novel mission to explore the coupling of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system via providing global images of the magnetosphere and aurora. As the X-ray imaging is a brand new technique applied to study the large scale magnetopause, modeling of the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emissions in the magnetosheath and cusps is vital in various aspects: it helps the design of the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) on SMILE, selection of satellite orbits, as well as the analysis of expected scientific outcomes. Based on the PPMLR-MHD code, we present the simulation results of the X-ray emissions in geospace during storm time. Both the polar orbit and the Molniya orbit are used. From the X-ray images of the magnetosheath and cusps, the magnetospheric responses to an interplanetary shock and IMF southward turning are analyzed.

  4. SMILE - New mission to image the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escoubet, C.-Philippe; Wang, Chi; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Sembay, Steve; Dai, Lei; Li, Lei; Donovan, Eric; Spanswick, Emma; Sibeck, David; Read, Andy; Rebuffat, Denis; Wielders, Arno; Zheng, Jianhua; Romstedt, Jens; Raab, Walfried; Lumb, David

    2016-04-01

    Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is a novel self-standing mission to be jointly developed between ESA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). It will observe the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling via simultaneous in situ solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements, X-Ray images of the magnetosheath and polar cusps, and UV images of global auroral distributions. Remote sensing of the cusps with X-ray imaging is now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emission, first observed at comets, and subsequently found to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. The SMILE science as well as the results of the on-going study undertaken jointly by ESA and CAS will be presented.

  5. Rhinoplasty and the aesthetic of the smile.

    PubMed

    de Benito, J; Fernandez Sanza, I

    1995-01-01

    The resection of the columella and nasal depressor muscles is a simple operation to perform and one which allows an improvement in the facial physiognomy of many patients. This operation can be done alone or in conjunction with the classic rhinoplasty, thus achieving an improvement in the aesthetics of the smile. It has also been proved, contrary to common belief, that the action of these muscles has no connection with physiological breathing mechanisms.

  6. Smile esthetics from odontology students' perspectives.

    PubMed

    España, Pilar; Tarazona, Beatriz; Paredes, Vanessa

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the perception of smile esthetics and its alterations in dental degree students; to determine whether there are differences in that perception among students in different study years on those courses and between genders; and to determine if the circumstance of having received prior orthodontic treatment could influence that perception. Students (n = 192) in different study years of the dental degree course at the University of Valencia, Spain, analyzed two photographs of a patient in which, by means of computer software, midline diastema, upper and lower midlines, crown length of the maxillary right central incisor, occlusal cant, and "gummy" smile were altered. Students assessed the photographs on a scale from 1 to 10. Statistical analyses for assessing each group's level of perception were carried out. After checking the validity of the study, it was observed that the students' ability to detect alterations in smile esthetics did not improve over their degree courses, given that the differences do not present a linear development. There were no differences between genders and between those who had or had not undergone an orthodontic treatment. There are no statistically significant differences between the results of students in different study years or between genders. The circumstance of having undergone prior orthodontic treatment is not a determining factor in the ability to perceive such anomalies.

  7. Estimating smile intensity: A better way

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Jeffrey M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; De la Torre, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Both the occurrence and intensity of facial expressions are critical to what the face reveals. While much progress has been made towards the automatic detection of facial expression occurrence, controversy exists about how to estimate expression intensity. The most straight-forward approach is to train multiclass or regression models using intensity ground truth. However, collecting intensity ground truth is even more time consuming and expensive than collecting binary ground truth. As a shortcut, some researchers have proposed using the decision values of binary-trained maximum margin classifiers as a proxy for expression intensity. We provide empirical evidence that this heuristic is flawed in practice as well as in theory. Unfortunately, there are no shortcuts when it comes to estimating smile intensity: researchers must take the time to collect and train on intensity ground truth. However, if they do so, high reliability with expert human coders can be achieved. Intensity-trained multiclass and regression models outperformed binary-trained classifier decision values on smile intensity estimation across multiple databases and methods for feature extraction and dimensionality reduction. Multiclass models even outperformed binary–trained classifiers on smile occurrence detection. PMID:26461205

  8. Dynamics of a smile in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Chetan, Patil; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gulshan K; Nagar, Amit; Prasad, Veerendra; Chugh, Vinay K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate smile in different age groups and to detect gender differences in smile. Digital videographic records of 241 randomly selected subjects were obtained for smile analysis. The subjects were divided into four groups by age (15-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, and 41-50 years). Each group was further subdivided by gender. After 41 subjects were excluded, the smile dimensions of 200 subjects were analyzed by two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with Duncan's multiple range post hoc test. All dynamic measurements (change in upper lip length, upper lip thickness, commissure height, and intercommissural width from rest to smile) decreased with age in both males and females. Changes in upper lip length and commissure height on smiling were greater in males as compared with females of the same age groups. Changes in intercommissural width on smiling were greater in females as compared with males in all age groups. Smile changes with increase in age, and the changes differ between males and females. Females had a wider smile as compared with males of similar age groups.

  9. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF SMILE INTENSITY ON AGE PERCEPTIONS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; He, Xin; Liu, Fan

    2015-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive effects of smiles on interpersonal perceptions of attractiveness, likability, and friendliness. A possible mechanism underlying the effects of smiles is babyfacedness. Four studies were conducted with 1,235 participants. In Study 1, 646 participants were assigned to one of the six levels of smile intensity and responded to the measures of age perception and perceived babyfacedness. Compared to the neutral expression, the maximal smile reduced age estimations and this effect was mediated by perceived babyfacedness. In Study 2, 59 respondents' responses indicated that a maximal smile reduced the perception of age. In Study 3, 318 respondents estimated the age of models in different sex and levels of smile intensity. Maximal smiles reduced age estimations. In Study 4, 125 students and 87 non-students were randomly assigned to one of the three levels of smile intensity and provided age estimations. Replicating previous findings, maximal smiles reduced age estimations. Consistent results emerged from the various contexts, models, and samples, as well as in a pooled analysis.

  10. Proximity Begins with a Smile, But Which One? Associating Non-duchenne Smiles with Higher Psychological Distance.

    PubMed

    Bogodistov, Yevgen; Dost, Florian

    2017-01-01

    This study reveals that Duchenne (genuine) and non-Duchenne (non-genuine, polite) smiles are implicitly associated with psychological proximity and distance, respectively. These findings link two extensive research streams from human communication and psychology. Interestingly, extant construal-level theory research suggests the link may work as smiles signaling either a benign situation or politeness, resulting in conflicting predictions for the association between smile type and psychological distance. The current study uses implicit association tests to reveal theoretically and empirically consistent non-Duchenne-smile-distance and Duchenne-smile-proximity associations for all four types of psychological distance: temporal, spatial, social, and hypothetical. Practically, the results suggest several useful applications of non-Duchenne smiles in human communication contexts.

  11. Arthur J. Riopelle (1920-2012).

    PubMed

    Mason, William A

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Arthur (Art) J. Riopelle. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin in 1942, Art joined the U.S. Army. He returned to the university after the war as a graduate student in psychology and earned a doctorate in experimental psychology under the supervision of Dave Grant and Fred Mote. In 1950, Art completed his degree and moved to the Psychology Department of Emory University in Georgia. This was the beginning of an unusual and eventful career. At Emory, Art worked with Harlow W. Ades, but when Ades eventually left, Art established a small colony of monkeys to pursue his own projects. Art moved from Emory to Fort Knox, Kentucky, in 1957 to become director of the Psychology Division of the U.S. Army Medical Laboratories. He continued to be involved with primates, including on a well-publicized project that entailed launching monkeys into space. In 1959, Art left Fort Knox to become the new director of what was then known as the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology. Art played an important part in the history of regional primate research centers, which have benefited the nation in numerous ways. He had many admirable qualities. He was a tolerant, supportive, fair-minded, and principled administrator, a careful and dedicated scientist, and a steadfast friend who loved a good joke.

  12. Arthur E. Haas, His Life and Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiescher, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the life and scientific development of Arthur E. Haas, from his early career as young, ambitious Jewish-Austrian scientist at the University of Vienna to his later career in exile at the University of Notre Dame. Haas is known for his early contributions to quantum physics and as the author of several textbooks on topics of modern physics. During the last decade of his life, he turned his attention to cosmology. In 1935 he emigrated from Austria to the United States. There he assumed, on recommendation of Albert Einstein, a faculty position at the University of Notre Dame. He continued his work on cosmology and tried to establish relationships between the mass of the universe and the fundamental cosmological constants to develop concepts for the early universe. Together with Georges Lemaître he organized in 1938 the first international conference on cosmology, which drew more than one hundred attendants to Notre Dame. Haas died in February 1941 after suffering a stroke during a visit in Chicago.

  13. David Gordon Campbell Robertson: A Biographical Sketch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, J. B.

    Emeritus Professor David Robertson of the Missouri University of Science and Technology was born in Dublin Ireland on 29 December 1941. His father was a merchant navy Captain who served during WWII and during David's early years his family lived in Dublin and Donegal where David went to the local elementary school. In 1954 he moved to London with his parents and attended Highgate School before commencing metallurgy at the Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, London in 1960.

  14. Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) System, which was adopted by the Astrophysics Division for their Astrophysics Data System, is a solution to the system heterogeneity problem. The heterogeneous components of the Astrophysics problem is outlined. The Library and Library Consortium levels of the DAVID approach are described. The 'books' and 'kits' level is discussed. The Universal Object Typer Management System level is described. The relation of the DAVID project with the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program is explained.

  15. Additive SMILES-based optimal descriptors in QSAR modelling bee toxicity: Using rare SMILES attributes to define the applicability domain.

    PubMed

    Toropov, A A; Benfenati, E

    2008-05-01

    The additive SMILES-based optimal descriptors have been used for modelling the bee toxicity. The influence of relative prevalence of the SMILES attributes in a training and test sets to the models for bee toxicity has been analysed. Avoiding the use of rare attributes improves statistical characteristics of the model on the external test set. The possibility of using the probability of the presence of SMILES attributes in training and test sets for rational definition of the applicability domain is discussed.

  16. The Components of Smile Design: New York University Smile Evaluation Form Revisited, Update 2015.

    PubMed

    Calamia, John R; Wolff, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    This article updates a simple checklist of foundational knowledge in aesthetic dental concepts that allows clinicians to organize their thoughts, to record the concerns of the patient, and to map out those improvements that must be addressed. This adjunct is called a Smile Evaluation Form. Along with other adjuncts such as radiographs, study casts, and diagnostic wax-ups, the Smile Evaluation Form allows clinicians to form a conceptual visualization of the expected end point. It provides a checklist for discussions with other disciplines in the team, to provide a logical sequence of treatment with a mutually agreed-on end point.

  17. [Book review] Green engineering: environmentally conscious design, by David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Green engineering: Environmentally conscious design / David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard / Prentice-Hall, Inc., One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 2002. 552 pages. ISBN 0-13-061908-6.

  18. Development and validation of a spontaneous smile assay.

    PubMed

    Iacolucci, Carlo M; Banks, Caroline; Jowett, Nate; Kozin, Elliott D; Bhama, Prabhat K; Barbara, Maurizio; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-01-01

    Smiling can be a voluntary or involuntary movement. Facial reanimation procedures differ in their ability to restore a spontaneous smile, and an assay designed to evoke and evaluate a spontaneous smile is not available. To develop and validate an assay to assess the spontaneous smile of patients with facial paralysis. This was an exploratory cohort study. A series of short video clips were administered to laypersons via an online survey service from January 1, 2014, to March 31, 2014. Respondents rated how funny each video was on a visual analog scale from 0 to 100. The 4 funniest videos were selected to generate a 1½-minute spontaneous smile assay. The assay was then administered from July 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, to 2 different study groups: the first was composed of 100 healthy individuals (control group) and the second was composed of 30 patients with facial paralysis. We analyzed the capability of this assay to provoke at least 1 spontaneous smile and calculated smile excursion in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance. Spontaneous smile assay administered to both healthy and diseased groups. Ability of the assay to elicit smiles, as defined by an oral commissure excursion greater than 3 mm, as well as difference in commissure excursion. Ninety-five (95.0%) participants in the control group and 29 (96.7%) patients with facial paralysis experienced at least 1 oral commissure excursion that appeared to be a spontaneous smile while viewing the assay. Mean oral commissure excursion with spontaneous smile was 9.08 mm (95% CI, 2.77-15.39) in controls, 6.72 mm (95% CI, 3.13-10.31) on the healthy side in patients with flaccid facial paralysis (P=.004 vs controls), and 9.64 mm (95% CI, 3.52-15.76) on the healthy side in patients with nonflaccid facial paralysis (P=.74). Among patients with flaccid facial paralysis, a statistically significant difference was found between smile excursion of the affected and the unaffected sides

  19. Smile esthetics from patients' perspectives for faces of varying attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chan A; Fields, Henry W; Beck, Frank Michael; Springer, Nathan C; Firestone, Allen R; Rosenstiel, Stephen; Christensen, James C

    2011-10-01

    Delivering an attractive smile is a key element in orthodontic patient satisfaction. Smile characteristics can be affected by the facial context. The purpose of this study was to investigate smile esthetics related to facial attractiveness and sex of the model. Attractive, average, and unattractive model faces (2 of each; 3 male, 3 female) determined by peer ratings were combined with 10 smile variables (buccal corridor, smile arc, maxillary gingival discrepancy, gingival display, incisal-edge discrepancy, cant, overbite, central-incisor gingival margin discrepancy, and maxillary midline to face, and maxillary midline to mandibular midline). Each smile characteristic was altered digitally and presented with slider technology to allow a continuous range of choices. Raters chose the ideal and the limits of acceptability. The variables were divided into 6 separate surveys and rated 96 times. Reliability was assessed by answering each question twice. Individual smile variable reliability ranged from fair to excellent, except for the buccal corridor. Clinically significant values were defined as greater than 1.0 mm with statistical significance (P <0.05). Rater sex did not make a difference. Clinical significance was found for smile arc, gingival display, and maxillary midline to face. For females, accentuated smile arcs were preferred for the unattractive and attractive models compared with the average models. The opposite was found for male models. More gingival display was preferred for the attractive and unattractive male and female models compared with the average models. Attractive models were allowed less midline deviation. Facial attractiveness and model sex impacted smile variables with a facial context, except for occlusal cant. These smile characteristics with a facial context should be considered when diagnosing and planning treatment for an orthodontic patient. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  20. Analysis of smile esthetics in American Board of Orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Akyalcin, Sercan; Frels, Leslie K; English, Jeryl D; Laman, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the common denominators of an esthetically pleasing smile in patients who were considered to be successfully treated upon the submission to American Board Orthodontics (ABO) clinical examination. A total of 462 patients were examined. Ninety subjects that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. Standardized digital smile photographs of the subjects were rated by 30 panel members, including orthodontists, general dentists, and parents of orthodontic patients, using a numeric version of the visual analog scale. Three groups were formed using the mean esthetic score±standard deviation range: unattractive (n=21), average (n=47), and attractive (n=22) smiles. Eleven smile characteristics were digitally measured on the photographs and compared between the groups using one-way analysis of variance and χ2 tests. Additionally, regression analyses were used to investigate the association of the smile characteristics with the esthetic score. A significant difference was found between the three groups for the comparison of smile arc relationship (P<.001). When all the variables used in this study were entered in the regression analysis, a positive association was found (r=0.658; r2=0.434; P<.001). Additionally, two models were defined using stepwise regression. The first model included the smile arc (r=0.478; r2=0.228; P<.001), and the second model had both the smile arc and right gingival display/visible dentition display ratio (r =0.567; r2=0.321; P<.001). A harmonious smile arc relationship and less gingival display during a smile are significantly associated with smile attractiveness in patients considered successfully treated according to ABO standards.

  1. A Star of David catenane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, David A.; Pritchard, Robin G.; Stephens, Alexander J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the synthesis of a [2]catenane that consists of two triply entwined 114-membered rings, a molecular link. The woven scaffold is a hexameric circular helicate generated by the assembly of six tris(bipyridine) ligands with six iron(II) cations, with the size of the helicate promoted by the use of sulfate counterions. The structure of the ligand extension directs subsequent covalent capture of the catenane by ring-closing olefin metathesis. Confirmation of the Star of David topology (two rings, six crossings) is provided by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Extraction of the iron(II) ions with tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate affords the wholly organic molecular link. The self-assembly of interwoven circular frameworks of controlled size, and their subsequent closure by multiple directed covalent bond-forming reactions, provides a powerful strategy for the synthesis of molecular topologies of ever-increasing complexity.

  2. David Mechanic: Professional Zombie Hunter.

    PubMed

    Hafferty, Frederic W; Tilburt, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Within the fields of medicine and sociology, the descriptor "profession" (along with its brethren: profession, professionalization, and professionalism) has had a rich etymological history, with terms taking on different meanings at different times-sometimes trespassing into shibboleth and jargon. This etymological journey has co-evolved with the career of David Mechanic to whom this issue of the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law is devoted. We exploit a provocative metaphor applied to Mechanic's work on the challenges facing medicine as a profession as a playful exegesis on what we call "profession" to excavate an ensconced and encrusted domain of health jargon operating at the tensive interface of society and modern medical work.

  3. David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel.

    PubMed

    Hubel, David; Wiesel, Torsten

    2012-07-26

    While attending medical school at McGill, David Hubel developed an interest in the nervous system during the summers he spent at the Montreal Neurological Institute. After heading to the United States in 1954 for a Neurology year at Johns Hopkins, he was drafted by the army and was assigned to the Neuropsychiatry Division at the Walter Reed Hospital, where he began his career in research and did his first recordings from the visual cortex of sleeping and awake cats. In 1958, he moved to the lab of Stephen Kuffler at Johns Hopkins, where he began a long and fruitful collaboration with Torsten Wiesel. Born in Sweden, Torsten Wiesel began his scientific career at the Karolinska Institute, where he received his medical degree in 1954. After spending a year in Carl Gustaf Bernhard's laboratory doing basic neurophysiological research, he moved to the United States to be a postdoctoral fellow with Stephen Kuffler. It was at Johns Hopkins where he met David Hubel in 1958, and they began working together on exploring the receptive field properties of neurons in the visual cortex. Their collaboration continued until the late seventies. Hubel and Wiesel's work provided fundamental insight into information processing in the visual system and laid the foundation for the field of visual neuroscience. They have had many achievements, including--but not limited to--the discovery of orientation selectivity in visual cortex neurons and the characterization of the columnar organization of visual cortex through their discovery of orientation columns and ocular-dominance columns. Their work earned them the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1981, which they shared with Roger Sperry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The SMile Card: a computerised data card for multiple sclerosis patients. SMile Card Scientific Board.

    PubMed

    Mancardi, G L; Uccelli, M M; Sonnati, M; Comi, G; Milanese, C; De Vincentiis, A; Battaglia, M A

    2000-04-01

    The SMile Card was developed as a means for computerising clinical information for the purpose of transferability, accessibility, standardisation and compilation of a national database of demographic and clinical information about multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In many European countries, centres for MS are organised independently from one another making collaboration, consultation and patient referral complicated. Only the more highly advanced clinical centres, generally located in large urban areas, have had the possibility to utilise technical possibilities for improving the organisation of patient clinical and research information, although independently from other centres. The information system, developed utilising the Visual Basic language for Microsoft Windows 95, stores information via a 'smart card' in a database which is initiated and updated utilising a microprocessor, located at each neurological clinic. The SMile Card, currently being tested in Italy, permits patients to carry with them all relevant medical information without limitations. Neurologists are able to access and update, via the microprocessor, the patient's entire medical history and MS-related information, including the complete neurological examination and laboratory test results. The SMile Card provides MS patients and neurologists with a complete computerised archive of clinical information which is accessible throughout the country. In addition, data from the SMile Card system can be exported to other database programs.

  5. David L. Harrison: A Work Of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This article describes poet and writer David L. Harrison. A former School Board Chairman from Springfield, MO, David was responsible for beginning an annual "Teacher Appreciation Banquet" and for launching the "Sky High for Reading" program. The "Sky High for Reading" program encourages children in Springfield to read enough books so that, if…

  6. David L. Harrison: A Work Of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This article describes poet and writer David L. Harrison. A former School Board Chairman from Springfield, MO, David was responsible for beginning an annual "Teacher Appreciation Banquet" and for launching the "Sky High for Reading" program. The "Sky High for Reading" program encourages children in Springfield to read enough books so that, if…

  7. The Development of Laughing and Smiling in Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainum, Charlene K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A total of 86 children three, four, and five years of age were observed to evaluate the frequency of occurrence and conditions surrounding laughing and smiling. Results were interpreted as supporting interpersonal theories of laughing and smiling and as calling into question theories stressing intrapersonal factors. (Author/RH)

  8. Children's and Adolescents' Perception of the Authenticity of Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pascal; Gosselin, Pierre; Brunel, Marie-Lise; Hess, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Thibault and colleagues described the Duchenne marker as a cultural dialect for the perception of smile authenticity. The current study had the goal to follow up on this finding and to investigate the cues that French Canadian children use to evaluate the authenticity of smiles from members of three ethnic groups. The authenticity of six…

  9. Teaching Experimental Methods while Bringing Smiles to your Students' Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahe, Jon E.; Hinsz, Verlin B.; Williams, Kipling D.

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates a field experiment in which students studied whether people (1) respond to smiles with smiles and (2) fail to reciprocate frowns. Explains that the project facilitates understanding of methodological issues, such as random assignment, manipulation strength, and experimenter bias. Discusses the procedure and results from the project and…

  10. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  11. SMILE--Science and Mathematics Investigative Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzech, Miriam W.; Borden, Sue

    Oregon State University (OSU) designed and implemented the Science and Mathematics Investigative Learning Experiences Program (SMILE) to encourage minority students to pursue careers in science and engineering. SMILE offers an after-school enrichment program for middle-school Hispanic and Native American students in eight rural Oregon communities.…

  12. Beam-smiling in bent-Laue monochromators

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, B.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Wu, X. Y.; Huang, X.; Chapman, L. D.; Ivanov, I.; Zhong, Z.; Thomlinson, W. C.

    1997-07-01

    When a wide fan-shaped x-ray beam is diffracted by a bent crystal in the Laue geometry, the profile of the diffracted beam generally does not appear as a straight line, but as a line with its ends curved up or curved down. This effect, referred to as 'beam-smiling', has been a major obstacle in developing bent-Laue crystal monochromators for medical applications of synchrotron x-ray. We modeled a cylindrically bent crystal using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method, and we carried out experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. Our studies show that, while beam-smiling exists in most of the crystal's area because of anticlastic bending effects, there is a region parallel to the bending axis of the crystal where the diffracted beam is 'smile-free'. By applying asymmetrical bending, this smile-free region can be shifted vertically away from the geometric center of the crystal, as desired. This leads to a novel method of compensating for beam-smiling. We will discuss the method of 'differential bending' for smile removal, beam-smiling in the Cauchios and the polychromatic geometry, and the implications of the method on developing single- and double-bent Laue monochromators. The experimental results will be discussed, concentrating on specific beam-smiling observation and removal as applied to the new monochromator of the Multiple Energy Computed Tomography [MECT] project of the Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  13. Children's and Adolescents' Perception of the Authenticity of Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pascal; Gosselin, Pierre; Brunel, Marie-Lise; Hess, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Thibault and colleagues described the Duchenne marker as a cultural dialect for the perception of smile authenticity. The current study had the goal to follow up on this finding and to investigate the cues that French Canadian children use to evaluate the authenticity of smiles from members of three ethnic groups. The authenticity of six…

  14. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  15. The Development of Laughing and Smiling in Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainum, Charlene K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A total of 86 children three, four, and five years of age were observed to evaluate the frequency of occurrence and conditions surrounding laughing and smiling. Results were interpreted as supporting interpersonal theories of laughing and smiling and as calling into question theories stressing intrapersonal factors. (Author/RH)

  16. Visibility of gingiva - An important determinant for an esthetic smile

    PubMed Central

    Sepolia, Shipra; Sepolia, Gaurav; Kaur, Rupinder; Gautam, Devendar Kumar; Jindal, Vikas; Gupta, Subhash Chander

    2014-01-01

    Background: Need for having better esthetics is the new emerging trend seen in patients’ demands and expectations. Various periodontal procedures including the mucogingival procedures have been designed to enhance the esthetics. The amount of gingival display of the patient is also an important parameter while considering the esthetics of the patient. Till date, very few studies have been done in which the amount of gingival visibility have been determined. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of visibility of gingiva during natural smile and forced smile in the patients visiting Himachal Dental College and Hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients (242 females and 158 males), aged between 18 to 49 years, attending the outpatient department of Himachal Dental College, were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to age and gender. Clinical photographs of the patients were taken and analyzed according to the following classification: (1) Very high smile line that is more than 2 mm of marginal gingiva visible or more than 2 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction visible for the reduced but healthy periodontium, (2) high smile line that is between 0 and 2 mm of marginal gingiva visible or between 0 and 2 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction visible for the reduced but healthy periodontium, (3) average smile line in which only gingival embrasures are visible, (4) low smile line in which gingival embrasures and cementoenamel junction not visible. Examination of the gingiva was done for both natural smile and forced smile. Results: During smile analysis, the following results were revealed for Natural smile and forced smile. Natural smile analysis revealed following: C1: 1%, C2: 6%, C3: 43.50% and C4 was 49.50%. Forced smile analysis revealed the following: C1: 1%, C2: 15.50%, C3: 59% and C4: 24.50%. Conclusions: Excessive gingival display is an esthetic concern both to the patient and clinician

  17. Jmol SMILES and Jmol SMARTS: specifications and applications.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    SMILES and SMARTS are two well-defined structure matching languages that have gained wide use in cheminformatics. Jmol is a widely used open-source molecular visualization and analysis tool written in Java and implemented in both Java and JavaScript. Over the past 10 years, from 2007 to 2016, work on Jmol has included the development of dialects of SMILES and SMARTS that incorporate novel aspects that allow new and powerful applications. The specifications of "Jmol SMILES" and "Jmol SMARTS" are described. The dialects most closely resemble OpenSMILES and OpenSMARTS. Jmol SMILES is a superset of OpenSMILES, allowing a freer format, including whitespace and comments, the addition of "processing directives" that modify the meaning of certain aspects of SMILES processing such as aromaticity and stereochemistry, a more extensive treatment of stereochemistry, and several minor additions. Jmol SMARTS similarly adds these same modifications to OpenSMARTS, but also adds a number of additional "primitives" and elements of syntax tuned to matching 3D molecular structures and selecting their atoms. The result is an expansion of the capabilities of SMILES and SMARTS primarily for use in 3D molecular analysis, allowing a broader range of matching involving any combination of 3D molecular structures, SMILES strings, and SMARTS patterns. While developed specifically for Jmol, these dialects of SMILES and SMARTS are independent of the Jmol application itself. Jmol SMILES and Jmol SMARTS add value to standard SMILES and SMARTS. Together they have proven exceptionally capable in extracting valuable information from 3D structural models, as demonstrated in Jmol. Capabilities in Jmol enabled by Jmol SMILES and Jmol SMARTS include efficient MMFF94 atom typing, conformational identification, SMILES comparisons without canonicalization, identification of stereochemical relationships, quantitative comparison of 3D structures from different sources (including differences in Kekulization

  18. [Judgement of Authenticity of Smiles and Detection of Facial indexes].

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Josée; Gosselin, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    The smile is one of the most often expressed emotions during social interactions. It can be authentic, that is, associated with a joyful emotional state in the person expressing it, but it can also be false, that is, deliberately produced in the absence of that emotional state in order to deceive one or more individuals (Ekman, 1993). Even though the fake smile very much resembles the authentic smile, it generally does not constitute the perfect simile. The fake smile more often has a certain degree of asymmetry than the authentic smile (Ekman, Hager, & Friesen, 1981) and it uses the cheek raiser action less often than with the authentic smile (Ekman, Friesen, & O'Sullivan, 1988; Frank, Ekman, & Friesen, 1993). This study looked at the knowledge that adults have of these differences as well as their perceptive ability to detect them. The visual stimuli presented to participants were prepared using the Facial Action Coding System (Ekman & Friesen, 1978). Results show that participants detected the differences between the two types of smile and that detection was better using smile asymmetry than with the cheek raiser action. Analysis of the use of response categories in the detection task indicated that participants underestimated the differences between smiles when they were different and that this tendency was more apparent with the cheek raiser detection method than for asymmetry detection. Participants also demonstrated a better knowledge of smile asymmetry than cheek raiser action. The knowledge gathered suggests that the ability of the receptor to judge smile authenticity is limited by perceptive factors. However, the mediation analyses that we conducted show the judging smile authenticity is not limited to simple perceptive detection of facial clues. Detecting facial clues is a necessary condition for correctly assessing smile authenticity, but it does not explain the variance in these assessments. We believe that this variance would be due more to the

  19. Akinetic mutism and the story of David.

    PubMed

    Sinden, Rebecca; Wilson, Barbara A; Rose, Anita; Mistry, Nimisha

    2017-02-02

    Following a description about the characteristics of akinetic mutism (AM) and how it differs from locked-in syndrome (LIS) and a disorder of consciousness (DOC), we present the case of David, a 71-year-old man with AM. David sustained a stroke following a middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombus. A CT scan at the time detected old ischaemic infarcts affecting the right frontal lobe, the left occipital lobe and the left parietal lobe so David had bilateral brain damage. Initially thought to have a DOC, further neuropsychological assessments administered when David had improved a little, resulted in the diagnosis of AM. Although David spoke little, when he did speak, his words and phrases were well articulated, grammatical and with appropriate intonation. He was alert and visually aware and he was not paralysed. We discuss whether the diagnosis was correct and address the difficulties in assessing such patients.

  20. Study on imaging spectrometer with smile and keystone eliminated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Jun

    2017-03-01

    The formulas of image height in two-dimensional field about Gaussian and tilted imaging system of grating-based imaging spectrometer instrument (GISI) are deduced firstly, and the determined expressions of smile and keystone of GISI are obtained. It is proposed to correct the smile with off-axis lens, and the elimination effect of the smile is studied by means of spatial ray tracing. By controlling the degree of off-axis and the distribution of focal power of the off-axis lens, the long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer with well-eliminated smile and keystone is designed. The maximum of smile and keystone at working wavelengths in all fields of view are less than 8.57 μm and 13.33 μm, respectively.

  1. A mirror mechanism for smiling in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Fausto; Avanzini, Pietro; Gozzo, Francesca; Pelliccia, Veronica; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2017-03-01

    It was recently proposed that the neural substrate mediating smile production might play a key role also in the recognition of others' smile. This hypothesis, however, has been challenged by difficulties in eliciting ecological smiling in standard laboratory settings. Here we report of a case where these difficulties were overcome by combining electrical stimulation and intracranial electroencephalogram recording in a patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The stimulation of the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) elicited a smiling facial expression. The same leads exploring pACC showed an increase of gamma band activity (50-100 Hz) during the observation of video-clips depicting actors laughing, relative to video-clips depicting actors crying or producing a neutral expression. These findings indicate that both smile production and recognition are encoded in pACC and further support the role of this region in social cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A Smile as Big as the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-15

    NASA Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana, left, presents a special plaque to Michael Kersjes, author and former special education teacher and football coach from Michigan, after his presentation to workers during the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group, or DAAWG, event. The theme of Kersjes' presentation was "Power of the Human Spirit." Kersjes is the author of the book, "A Smile as Big as the Moon," which told the true story of how he worked to get special education students into Space Camp, a competitive education program at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. His book was made into a movie in 2012.

  3. A Smile as Big as the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-15

    Michael Kersjes, author and former special education teacher and football coach from Michigan, speaks to workers during the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group, or DAAWG, event at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The theme of his presentation was "Power of the Human Spirit." Kersjes is the author of the book, "A Smile as Big as the Moon," which told the true story of how he worked to get special education students into Space Camp, a competitive education program at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. His book was made into a movie in 2012.

  4. Assessment of the golden ratio in pleasing smiles.

    PubMed

    Nikgoo, Arash; Alavi, Kamiar; Alavi, Kavah; Mirfazaelian, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The golden ratio is a guideline to help harmoniously restore or replace missing teeth. However, this concept is controversial. This study assesses the validity of the golden ratio between the widths of the maxillary anterior teeth in individuals presenting with an attractive/nonattractive smile. A double-stage random cluster sample cross-sectional study included 903 students whose ages ranged from 18 to 30 years and met the inclusion criteria. Image-measurement software was used to assess the perceived mesiodistal widths of the maxillary anterior teeth on scanned photographs. A jury of two dental professionals, a portrait photographer, and a painter, along with the respective subject as the fifth judge, determined the attractiveness of each smile on a visual analog scale. The mean value determined whether an individual was allocated to the attractive or nonattractive smile group. Finally, the prevalence of the golden ratio was investigated in these two groups. Intraobserver correlation coefficient was 0.966. Cochran's chi-square test was used for data analysis. According to the jury, 143 individuals had an attractive smile and 289 had a nonattractive smile. Maxillary central to lateral incisor ratio showed the golden proportion in 50.3% of the students with an attractive smile as compared to 38.1% in the nonattractive smile group (P =.014). However, the golden ratio between the maxillary lateral incisors and the canines existed in only 16.8% of the individuals with an attractive smile as compared to 12.1% in the nonattractive smile group (P =.223). The golden ratio can be useful to achieve esthetic restorations of the maxillary central and lateral incisors. However, the golden ratio between the perceived widths of the maxillary lateral incisors to the canines does not seem to be decisive for an attractive smile and other factors should be considered. © 2009 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  5. The Growing Brilliance of Brady's Smile: Doing Big Things for Little Ones in Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Amy Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Smiles can do so much for an individual, regardless if a person is the giver or the receiver. When someone smiles at a person, they perceptibly see or feel something they like about that person, and that makes him or her feel special. The person smiling obviously has some joy they wish to share, and it is apparent in their smile. Little Brady…

  6. Children's Ability to Distinguish between Enjoyment and Non-Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Melanie; Maassarani, Reem

    2010-01-01

    Children's ability to distinguish between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles was investigated by presenting participants with short video excerpts of smiles. Enjoyment smiles differed from non-enjoyment smiles by greater symmetry and by appearance changes produced in the eye region by the Cheek Raiser action. The results indicate that 6- and…

  7. The Ontogenesis of Smiling and Laughter: A Perspective on the Organization of Development in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Waters, Everett

    This paper presents an integrative perspective on infant development (based on a consideration of developmental data) which focuses on the function of the smile. From the earliest spontaneous smiles of the newborn period to mature smiling and laughter, a central role was revealed for an excitation (tension)-relaxation process in producing smiles.…

  8. The Growing Brilliance of Brady's Smile: Doing Big Things for Little Ones in Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Amy Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Smiles can do so much for an individual, regardless if a person is the giver or the receiver. When someone smiles at a person, they perceptibly see or feel something they like about that person, and that makes him or her feel special. The person smiling obviously has some joy they wish to share, and it is apparent in their smile. Little Brady…

  9. From the Infant's Smile to Mastery of Anxiety: The Developmental Role of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Jacob

    The smiles and laughter of an infant form the beginning of the developmental process of interpersonal interaction and socialization. The earliest smiles are automatic expressions of internal states, but soon infants' smiles are communications of pleasure. The developmental changes in smiling and laughing in early infancy reflect the rapidity with…

  10. Children's Ability to Distinguish between Enjoyment and Non-Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Melanie; Maassarani, Reem

    2010-01-01

    Children's ability to distinguish between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles was investigated by presenting participants with short video excerpts of smiles. Enjoyment smiles differed from non-enjoyment smiles by greater symmetry and by appearance changes produced in the eye region by the Cheek Raiser action. The results indicate that 6- and…

  11. Kinematic analysis of a Duchenne smile.

    PubMed

    Jaffer, H; Ichesco, E; Gerstner, G E

    2016-04-01

    Facial expressions are communicative motor outputs, whose kinematics likely are due to musculoskeletal anatomy, neuromotor activity and the well-being and internal states of the individual. However, little has been published on the kinematics of facial expression. This study quantified lip, eye and cheek movements during the production of a Duchenne smile involving movement of lips and tissues surrounding the eyes. The three-dimensional positions of 20 markers placed around the eyes, cheeks, lips and chins of 24 young adult female subjects were digitized while they performed smiles after practicing to feedback from an investigator trained in the facial action coding system (FACS). Displacement, velocity and acceleration variables were extracted and analyzed from the markers. Results demonstrated several consistencies across subjects including: (1) relatively high peak velocities, accelerations and displacements for lip and cheek markers in the vertical and anteroposterior dimensions, (2) relatively large movements of the lower lateral eye region compared with other eye regions. The results indicate that there is significant movement in the anteroposterior dimension that is not observable in frontal views of the face alone. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Heterogeneous distributed query processing: The DAVID system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) project is the development of an easy to use computer system with which NASA scientists, engineers and administrators can uniformly access distributed heterogeneous databases. Basically, DAVID will be a database management system that sits alongside already existing database and file management systems. Its function is to enable users to access the data in other languages and file systems without having to learn the data manipulation languages. Given here is an outline of a talk on the DAVID project and several charts.

  13. 77 FR 47284 - Safety Zone; Dredge Arthur J, Lake Huron, Lakeport, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Dredge Arthur J, Lake Huron, Lakeport, MI... from a portion of Lake Huron during the preparation for and salvage operations of the Arthur J. dredge... public interest. The emergency sinking of the dredge vessel Arthur J. precluded the Coast Guard...

  14. SMILE: A new approach to exploring solar-terrestrial relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Wang, Chi; Steven, Sembay; Dai, Lei; Li, Lei; Donovan, Eric; Sun, Tianran; Kataria, Dhiren; Yang, Huigen; Read, Andrew; Whittaker, Ian; Spanswick, Emma; Sibeck, David; Kuntz, Kip; Escoubet, Philippe; Agnolon, David; Raab, Walfried; Zheng, Janhua

    2017-04-01

    SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) aims to investigate the coupling of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere, and the geospace dynamics that ensue, in a novel and global manner never tried so far. From a highly elliptical and highly inclined polar orbit, SMILE will simultaneously image the soft X-rays produced by solar wind charge exchange to delineate the Earth's magnetic boundaries and polar cusps, image the northern auroral oval in ultraviolet emissions, and measure the solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field input. SMILE measurements will inform the science underpinning our still limited understanding of solar-terrestrial relationships and of their fundamental drivers, and will validate both global empirical and first-principle models. For the first time we will be able to trace and link the processes governing magnetopause interactions to those causing charged particle precipitation into the cusps and the remainder of the auroral oval, mapping aspects of the global interaction including the evolution of energy and mass transport. SMILE is a joint space mission between the European Space Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences due for launch at the end of 2021. This presentation will cover the science that will be delivered by SMILE and will provide an overview of SMILE's payload and mission development, demonstrating the scientific potential of SMILE through simulations of the data that it will return.

  15. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

  16. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  17. Age-related changes in the Brazilian woman's smile.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luiza Nayara Almeida Lyra; Reis, Silvia Augusta Braga; Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate age-related changes in the smile of Brazilian women. The sample consisted of 249 Brazilian women who had not undergone previous orthodontic treatment or facial surgery. They were divided into four groups, according to age: G1 (20-29), G2 (30-39), G3 (40-49) and G4 (50 or older). Standardized front view photographs were taken while smiling and at rest. Measurements were evaluated by ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey. The Chi-square test was applied for qualitative variables. Upper lip thickness at rest and exposure of upper incisors on smiling decreased with age. Most individuals (60.9%) exhibited a medium smile. High smiles were more often seen in G1 (45%) and less frequently in G4 (18.8%), whereas the opposite occurred with the low smile, i.e., G4 (21.9%) and G1 (6.7%). Variations among the groups were observed in the transverse exposure of the teeth on smiling. In G1 and G3, there was a balance between tooth exposures, so that the teeth were exposed as far as the premolars and/or molars. Most of the women (56.3%) in G2 exposed their teeth as far as the first molars on smiling, whereas most of those (40.6%) in G4 exposed their teeth only as far as the first premolars on smiling. As age increased, there was decreased exposure of the upper incisors, decreased upper lip thickness and lower exposure of teeth vertically and transversely.

  18. SMILE: Simple, Mental Health, Initiative in Learning and Education.

    PubMed

    Ward, L J

    2011-12-01

    SMILE is a Simple, Mental health, Initiative in Learning and Education. SMILE was a pilot project introduced into an undergraduate clinical nursing program, Southern Cross University, Australia 2010. The program aimed to improve the knowledge and skills of third-year nursing students participating in their first clinical placement in mental healthcare. Complementary to the clinical nursing program and the university curriculum, SMILE provided further training and support for student learning in mental healthcare. The SMILE project was a structured 15-day education program that covered the following topics: suicide prevention; psychosis; drugs and alcohol education; mental state exam; families and carers in mental health; and the Mental Health Act. The education sessions were one hour in duration. The educational material and resources were created from current research, literature and health service policy. A problem-based learning approach was used to support this education project. The dynamic factor related to SMILE was that it was based in the field. SMILE enabled the students to bridge a theory-practice gap and expand upon their current knowledge base as well as participate in ward activity. Twenty students attending their first clinical placement in mental healthcare participated in SMILE and were asked to complete a pre- and post- evaluation questionnaire before starting and upon completion of the 15-day project. The students participating in SMILE reported a greater understanding of mental healthcare issues and expressed a developing knowledge base and improved practical skill level. SMILE was a positive initiative that provided valuable feedback and opportunity to improve on clinical education in mental healthcare.

  19. Function of congruent facial responses to smiling and frowning.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Makino, Junshiro

    2007-12-01

    The congruent facial response of a receiver may change a sender's facial display in subsequent facial communication. Senders were requested to smile and frown at a receiver of computer-synthesized animation and to rate how likeable the receiver was after the "interaction." It was observed that a congruent facial response maintained the sender's facial expression longer than an incongruent response did. The results of the questionnaire revealed that senders reported a greater likeability for smiling receivers than for those who frowned. Likeability ratings did not depend on the congruency of the receiver's response but simply on whether the receiver was smiling or frowning.

  20. Proportional smile design using the recurring esthetic dental (red) proportion.

    PubMed

    Ward, D H

    2001-01-01

    Dentists have needed an objective way in which to evaluate a smile. A method for determining the ideal size and position of the anterior teeth has been presented here. Use of the FIVE to evaluate the RED proportion and the width-to-height ratio, tempered with sound clinical judgment, gives pleasing and consistent results. With the diversity that exists in nature, rarely does the final result follow all the mathematical rules of proportional smile design. This approach may serve as a foundation on which to base initial smile design, however. When one begins to understand the relationship between beauty, mathematics, and the surrounding world, one begins to appreciate their interdependence.

  1. Molecular characterization of SMILE as a novel corepressor of nuclear receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuan-Bin; Nedumaran, Balachandar; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2009-01-01

    SMILE (small heterodimer partner interacting leucine zipper protein) has been identified as a coregulator in ER signaling. In this study, we have examined the effects of SMILE on other NRs (nuclear receptors). SMILE inhibits GR, CAR and HNF4α-mediated transactivation. Knockdown of SMILE gene expression increases the transactivation of the NRs. SMILE interacts with GR, CAR and HNF4α in vitro and in vivo. SMILE and these NRs colocalize in the nucleus. SMILE binds to the ligand-binding domain or AF2 domain of the NRs. Competitions between SMILE and the coactivators GRIP1 or PGC-1α have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, an intrinsic repressive activity of SMILE is observed in Gal4-fusion system, and the intrinsic repressive domain is mapped to the C-terminus of SMILE, spanning residues 203–354. Moreover, SMILE interacts with specific HDACs (histone deacetylases) and SMILE-mediated repression is released by HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A, in a NR-specific manner. Finally, ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assays reveal that SMILE associates with the NRs on the target gene promoters. Adenoviral overexpression of SMILE represses GR-, CAR- and HNF4α-mediated target gene expression. Overall, these results suggest that SMILE functions as a novel corepressor of NRs via competition with coactivators and the recruitment of HDACs. PMID:19429690

  2. MS2 Megan McArthur sleeps on the Middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-19

    S125-E-011487 (18 May 2009) --- Astronaut Megan McArthur, STS-125 mission specialist, rests in her sleeping bag, which is attached to the lockers on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis at the end of flight day eight.

  3. MS2 Megan McArthur sleeps on the Middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-19

    S125-E-011488 (18 May 2009) --- Astronaut Megan McArthur, STS-125 mission specialist, rests in her sleeping bag, which is attached to the lockers on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis at the end of flight day eight.

  4. Reconsidering Arthur Bestor and the Cold War in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Burton

    2000-01-01

    Explores the development of Arthur Bestor's ideas and his differences with progressives during the 1950's. Contends their differences, exacerbated by the Cold War, were matters of emphasis not principles. Concludes that ongoing post-Cold War battles among liberal social educators should be resolved in favor of their common social and educational…

  5. McArthur conducts SAFER onboard training during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-21

    ISS012-E-06030 (21 October 2005) --- Astronaut William S. McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA science officer, holds a Hand Control Module (HCM) while looking at laptop computer graphics during a Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) training session in the Unity node of the international space station.

  6. McArthur conducts SAFER onboard training during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-21

    ISS012-E-06035 (21 October 2005) --- Astronaut William S. McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA science officer, holds a Hand Control Module (HCM) while looking at laptop computer graphics during a Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) training session in the Unity node of the international space station.

  7. American Historian Arthur Schlesinger's Challenge to Women Historians and Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Barbara Bennett

    In 1922, Arthur Schlesinger urged his fellow historians to write women into the history books. He recognized that the size and sweep of women's history offered scholars and students the opportunity of a new major field. His call failed to arouse skeptical minds through the 1940s and 1950s as feminism fell into disrepute. But with the resurgence of…

  8. Neuro syphilis: Portrayals by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, O.

    2009-01-01

    The developments in neuro syphilis in the 19th century are integral parts of the history of psychiatry. The delineation of various aspects of neuro syphilis by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in three of his stories is discussed in brief. PMID:19881059

  9. 33 CFR 161.70 - Vessel Traffic Service Port Arthur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service Port... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Service and Vessel Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.70 Vessel Traffic Service Port Arthur. (a) The...

  10. Reconsidering Arthur Bestor and the Cold War in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Burton

    2000-01-01

    Explores the development of Arthur Bestor's ideas and his differences with progressives during the 1950's. Contends their differences, exacerbated by the Cold War, were matters of emphasis not principles. Concludes that ongoing post-Cold War battles among liberal social educators should be resolved in favor of their common social and educational…

  11. Narrative Development in Bilingual Kindergarteners: Can Arthur Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the children's TV program Arthur on the development of narrative skills over an academic year for Spanish-speaking English-language learners. In October, February, and June of their kindergarten year, children were asked to tell a story, in English, prompted by 3 pictures. Before the 2nd and 3rd assessments, half…

  12. Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars 2009--Male Finalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article features the male and female finalists of the Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars 2009. The male finalists are: (1) Sam Bradford (University of Oklahoma); (2) Jamaal Parker (University of Georgia); (3) Masumi Turnbull (University of Kentucky); and (4) Brian Robiskie (The Ohio State University). The female finalists are: (1) Shardea Croes…

  13. LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, TEACHER VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    A TEACHER VERSION OF A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON THE "LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR" WAS DEVELOPED. AN ENLARGED AND MORE DETAILED INTRODUCTION THAN THAT PROVIDED FOR THE STUDENT VERSION WAS PRESENTED. STUDY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS, WRITING ASSIGNMENTS, AND SUGGESTED READINGS WERE ALSO PROVIDED. THE STUDENT VERSION IS ED 010 813. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED…

  14. Astronaut William McArthur prepares for a training exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Wearing training versions of the partial pressure launch and entry garment, Astronaut William S. McArthur prepares to rehearse emergency egress procedures for the STS-58 mission. He is standing outside of the side hatch to the full fuselage trainer.

  15. American Historian Arthur Schlesinger's Challenge to Women Historians and Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Barbara Bennett

    In 1922, Arthur Schlesinger urged his fellow historians to write women into the history books. He recognized that the size and sweep of women's history offered scholars and students the opportunity of a new major field. His call failed to arouse skeptical minds through the 1940s and 1950s as feminism fell into disrepute. But with the resurgence of…

  16. McArthur photographs BCAT-3 samples during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-11

    ISS012-E-07685 (11 Nov. 2005) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, photographs Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-3 (BCAT-3) experiment samples in the Destiny laboratory of the international space station.

  17. Narrative Development in Bilingual Kindergarteners: Can Arthur Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the children's TV program Arthur on the development of narrative skills over an academic year for Spanish-speaking English-language learners. In October, February, and June of their kindergarten year, children were asked to tell a story, in English, prompted by 3 pictures. Before the 2nd and 3rd assessments, half…

  18. McArthur exercises on the CEVIS on Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-03

    ISS012-E-14206 (3 Jan. 2006) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur Jr., Expedition 13 commander and NASA space station science officer, exercises on the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  19. McArthur runs on the TVIS during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-19

    ISS012-E-05937 (19 Oct. 2005) --- Astronaut William S. McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA science officer, equipped with a bungee harness, exercises on the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) in the Zvezda Service Module of the international space station.

  20. Modifying gummy smile: a minimally invasive approach.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Walid Ahmed; Khalil, Hesham S; Alhindi, Maryam M; Marzook, Hamdy

    2014-11-01

    Excessive gingival display is a problem that can be managed by variety of procedures. These procedures include non-surgical and surgical methods. The underlying cause of gummy smile can affect the type of procedure to be selected. Most patients prefer minimally invasive procedures with outstanding results. The authors describe a minimally invasive lip repositioning technique for management of gummy smile. Twelve patients (10 females, 2 males) with gingival display of 4 mm or more were operated under local anesthesia using a modified lip repositioning technique. Patients were followed up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and gingival display was measured at each follow up visit. The gingival mucosa was dissected and levator labii superioris and depressor septi muscles were freed and repositioned in a lower position. The levator labii superioris muscles were pulled in a lower position using circumdental sutures for 10 days. Both surgeon's and patient's satisfaction of surgical outcome was recorded at each follow-up visit. At early stage of follow-up the main complaints of patients were the feeling of tension in the upper lip and circum oral area, mild pain which was managed with analgesics. One month postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded to be between 2 and 4 mm with a mean of (2.6 mm). Patient satisfaction records after 1 month showed that 10 patients were satisfied with the results. Three months postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded and found to be between 2 and 5 mm with a mean of 3 mm. Patient satisfaction records showed that 8 patients were satisfied with the results as they gave scores between. Surgeon's satisfaction at three months follow up showed that the surgeons were satisfied in 8 patients. The same results were found in the 6 and 12 months follow-up periods without any changes. Complete relapse was recorded only in one case at the third postoperative month. This study showed that the proposed lip

  1. A comparison of gingival display with a requested smile, Duchenne smile, grimace of disgust, and funnel-shaped expression.

    PubMed

    Walter, Robert D; Goodacre, Brian J; Goodacre, Charles J; Naylor, W Patrick; Oyoyo, Udochukwu

    2014-08-01

    A patient's smile may not elicit the maximum amount of maxillary gingiva. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of gingival display with 4 different facial expressions. Video images of 91 randomly selected adults were evaluated to measure the height of gingival display at the maxillary anterior teeth and first premolars when participants were asked to give their biggest smile (requested smile), make a Duchenne smile, mimic an intense grimace of disgust (grimace), and produce a funnel-shaped expression (funnel). Measurements were compared with the Friedman Test with post hoc comparisons (α=.05 for all tests). The intraclass correlation coefficient was (95% CI)=0.913(0.623, 0.984). At the central and lateral incisors, the grimace and funnel expressions produced the greatest amounts of gingival display. At the canines and the first premolars, both smiles (requested and Duchenne) exhibited the largest amount of gingival display of the 4 facial expressions. Neither smile type revealed a significantly greater amount of gingival display above the maxillary central or lateral incisors but the grimace and funnel facial expressions did (P ≤.001). Above the maxillary canines, both smiles displayed a significantly greater amount of gingiva than did the funnel expression (P<.001), but only the Duchenne smile displayed a greater amount than did the grimace expression (P=.05). Superiorly to the maxillary first premolars, both smile types revealed significantly greater amounts of soft tissue when compared with the other 2 facial expressions (P<.001). Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Smile as Big as the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-15

    Michael Kersjes, center, author and former special education teacher and football coach from Michigan, accepts a special plaque after his presentation to workers during the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group, or DAAWG, event at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. From left, are Susan Kroskey, Kennedy's chief financial officer and executive champion of DAAWG, Center Director Bob Cabana, and Jessica Conner and Nicole DelVesco, DAAWG co-chairpersons. The theme of Kersjes' presentation was "Power of the Human Spirit." Kersjes is the author of the book, "A Smile as Big as the Moon," which told the true story of how he worked to get special education students into Space Camp, a competitive education program at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. His book was made into a movie in 2012.

  3. SMILE transmission line adder for RADLAC II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Turman, B.N.; Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R.; Pankuch, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    SMILE is a coaxial Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line voltage adder. It replaces the original beam line of the RADLAC II accelerator by a 12.5 m long cathode electrode. The anode electrode remains practically the same, consisting of the original eight insulating stacks or feeds which are connected with equal diameter stainless steel cylinders. The beam is produced at the end of the accelerator and is free of all the possible instabilities associated with accelerating gaps and magnetic vacuum transport. Annular beams with {beta}{perpendicular} {le} 0.1 and radius r{sub b} {le} 1 cm were routinely obtained and extracted from a small magnetically-immersed foilless electron diode. Results of the experimental evaluation are presented and compared with design parameters and numerical simulation predictions. 4 refs.

  4. SMILE transmission line adder for RADLAC II

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Frost, C.A.; Turman, B.N.; Ramirez, J.J.; Prestwich, K.R. ); Pankuch, P.J. . Special Projects)

    1991-01-01

    SMILE is a coaxial Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line voltage adder. It replaces the original beam line of the RADLAC II accelerator by a 12.5 m long cathode electrode. The anode electrode remains practically the same, consisting of the original eight insulating stacks or feeds which are connected with equal diameter stainless steel cylinders. The beam is produced at the end of the accelerator and is free of all the possible instabilities associated with accelerating gaps and magnetic vacuum transport. Annular beams with {beta}{perpendicular} {le} 0.1 and radius r{sub b} {le} 1 cm were routinely obtained and extracted from a small magnetically-immersed foilless electron diode. Results of the experimental evaluation are presented and compared with design parameters and numerical simulation predictions. 4 refs.

  5. Blocking Mimicry Makes True and False Smiles Look the Same

    PubMed Central

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G.; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions. PMID:24670316

  6. Gummy smile and facial profile correction using miniscrew anchorage.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Masato; Kojima, Shunichi; Sumi, Hiromi; Koseki, Hiroyuki; Abedini, Sara; Motokawa, Masahide; Fujita, Tadashi; Ohtani, Junji; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Tanne, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a case involving a skeletal Class II facial profile with a gummy smile. While treating a facial profile and a gummy smile, the outcome may not always be successful with orthodontic therapy alone. For this reason, surgical therapy is often chosen to gain an esthetic facial profile and a good smile. However, sometimes the patients reject surgical treatment and an alternative method must be considered. Skeletal anchorage systems such as miniscrews are now frequently used for correcting severe malocclusion that should be treated by surgical therapy. In this case report, we treated a skeletal Class II malocclusion with a convex profile and a gummy smile using miniscrews, which were placed in the upper posterior and anterior areas. The active treatment period was 3.5 years, and the patient's teeth continued to be stable after a retention period of 36 months.

  7. Whitson smiles for the camera during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-03-24

    S123-E-009754 (24 March 2008) --- Astronaut Peggy Whitson, Expedition 16 commander, smiles for the camera while in the hatch which connects the flight deck and middeck of Space Shuttle Endeavour while docked with the International Space Station.

  8. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-07-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as 'gummy smile' is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat 'gummy smile'. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles thereby reducing the gingival display while smiling. This procedure is safe and predictable with minimal risk or side effects. This case report describes the successful treatment of excessive gingival display using surgical lip repositioning procedure which can be used as an alternative treatment modality for treatment of excessive gingival display.

  9. Our Magnetic Planet (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    It is a great honour to receive the Arthur Holmes Medal, certainly the highest scientific award of my life. My first thoughts and deep gratitude are with the people who have contributed to me being here today, from my PhD mentors, Pierre Berge and Pierre Pério, later Jacques Labeyrie, my colleagues and students and last, but not least, the members of the Committee on Education of EGU, with whom I have shared over 10 years of a wonderful educational activity. In this presentation, among the various scientific arguments in which I have been involved, I will recall only those mentioned in my letter of nomination to the Holmes Medal, trying to replace them in what was known at the time. After a PhD in Solid State Physics, working in a laboratory of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, I obtained a post doctoral research position for the the study of liquid binary critical fluids, and worked on this topics for 5 years. I then joined the Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, a CNRS-CEA Institute dedicated to the study of geological-environmental phenomena. My first task there has been to develop a paleomagnetic laboratory, dedicated to the study of Earth Sciences, through the study of the magnetic properties of sediments and igneous rocks. From there on, my entire scientific activity has been devoted to the study of our "Magnetic Planet". My first project in Geophysics dealt with the geodynamical evolution of the Aegean Arc. At the time, only a few paleomagnetic studies existed in the Mediterranean realm, and none in the Aegean region. Moreover all of them dealt with rather old geological formations, so that almost nothing was known about the recent post-cretaceous evolution. The originality of our study was to start from the most recent to the older formations, in order to precisely describe "retro-tectonically" the different phases of rotational deformation. This intensive study (over 700 sampling sites, over 10,000 samples spread over continental Greece, the Aegean

  10. OnabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of a "gummy smile".

    PubMed

    Suber, Jessica S; Dinh, Trish P; Prince, Melanie D; Smith, Paul D

    2014-03-01

    Excessive gingival display, or a "gummy smile," is defined as 2 mm or more of gingival exposure upon smiling. Such excessive gingival exposure can be aesthetically unappealing to patients. One factor that contributes to a gummy smile is hyperfunctional lip elevator muscles. The authors evaluate onabotulinumtoxinA as a safe and minimally invasive treatment for a gummy smile. In this prospective study, 14 patients (13 women, 1 man) underwent pretreatment photographs and measurements, followed by bilateral injection of onabotulinumtoxinA into their lip elevator muscles. All patients selected for the study had more than 2mm of gingival show and were classified as having a "cuspid smile," where action of all elevator muscles raised the upper lip- like a window shade-to expose the upper teeth and gingival scaffold; these patients were thought to have a better chance for a more superior result. Repeat measurements and photographs were collected at 2 weeks and 3 months. Patient-reported outcomes were collected at 2 weeks, and data were compared to determine the correlative relationship. An average of 5 units (range, 4-6 U) of onabotulinumtoxinA were injected into 3 sites bilaterally. The average preinjection gingival show over the central incisors and canines were 4.89 mm and 4.25 mm, respectively. Postinjection gingival show decreased to an average of 0.75 mm (85% improvement) and 0.74 mm (83% improvement) over the central incisors and canines, respectively. Average follow-up time was 12.6 days. One patient felt the resulting smile was unattractive and opted not to undergo repeat injections, while all other study participants experienced no negative effects and wished to undergo repeat treatment. As treatment for a "gummy smile," onabotulinumtoxinA provides an effective, minimally invasive, and safe therapy. This treatment option can lead to significant improvement in smile aesthetics with high patient satisfaction. 3.

  11. Minimally invasive cosmetic dentistry: smile reconstruction using direct resin bonding.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Lucia Trazzi; Araujo, Cintia Tereza Pimenta; de Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles; de Azevedo Vaz, Sergio Lins; D'Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies in tooth size and shape can interfere with smile harmony. Composite resin can be used to improve the esthetics of the smile at a low cost while offering good clinical performance. This article presents an approach for restoring and correcting functional, anatomic, and esthetic discrepancies with minimal intervention, using composites and a direct adhesive technique. This conservative restorative procedure provided the patient with maximum personal esthetic satisfaction.

  12. Beam-smiling in bent-Laue monochromators

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, B.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Wu, X.Y.; Huang, X.; Ivanov, I.; Thomlinson, W.C.

    1997-07-01

    When a wide fan-shaped x-ray beam is diffracted by a bent crystal in the Laue geometry, the profile of the diffracted beam generally does not appear as a straight line, but as a line with its ends curved up or curved down. This effect, referred to as {open_quotes}beam-smiling{close_quotes}, has been a major obstacle in developing bent-Laue crystal monochromators for medical applications of synchrotron x-ray. We modeled a cylindrically bent crystal using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method, and we carried out experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. Our studies show that, while beam-smiling exists in most of the crystal{close_quote}s area because of anticlastic bending effects, there is a region parallel to the bending axis of the crystal where the diffracted beam is {open_quotes}smile-free{close_quotes}. By applying asymmetrical bending, this smile-free region can be shifted vertically away from the geometric center of the crystal, as desired. This leads to a novel method of compensating for beam-smiling. We will discuss the method of {open_quotes}differential bending{close_quotes} for smile removal, beam-smiling in the Cauchios and the polychromatic geometry, and the implications of the method on developing single- and double-bent Laue monochromators. The experimental results will be discussed, concentrating on specific beam-smiling observation and removal as applied to the new monochromator of the Multiple Energy Computed Tomography [MECT] project of the Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Perceptual, categorical, and affective processing of ambiguous smiling facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-12-01

    Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of the expression (semantic), and valence evaluation (affective). The face stimulus display duration and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) were varied to assess the time course of each process. Results indicated that (a) a smiling mouth was visually more salient than the eyes both in truly happy and blended expressions; (b) a smile led viewers to categorize blended expressions as happy similarly for upright and inverted faces; (c) truly happy, but not blended, expressions primed the affective evaluation of probe scenes 550 ms following face onset; (d) both truly happy and blended expressions primed the detection of a smile in a probe scene by 170 ms post-stimulus; and (e) smile detection and expression categorization had similar processing thresholds and preceded affective evaluation. We conclude that the saliency of single physical features such as the mouth shape makes the smile quickly accessible to the visual system, which initially speeds up expression categorization regardless of congruence with the eyes. Only when the eye expression is later configurally integrated with the mouth, will affective discrimination begin. The present research provides support for serial models of facial expression processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Photoshop Smile Design technique (part 1): digital dental photography.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Garber, David A; Figueira, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of digital photography and imaging devices is enhancing clinicians' ability to visually document patients' intraoral conditions. By understanding the elements of esthetics and learning how to incorporate technology applications into clinical dentistry, clinicians can predictably plan smile design and communicate anticipated results to patients and ceramists alike. This article discusses camera, lens, and flash selection and setup, and how to execute specific types of images using the Adobe Photoshop Smile Design (PSD) technique.

  15. Attributions of guilt and punishment as functions of physical attractiveness and smiling.

    PubMed

    Abel, Millicent H; Watters, Heather

    2005-12-01

    The authors found an interaction between sex of participant and sex of defendant in the leniency bias toward a smiling defendant. Differences occurred for male participants when levying punishment for a smiling male defendant vs. a smiling female defendant and for a smiling male defendant vs. a nonsmiling male defendant, whereas differences did not occur for female participants. The authors found moderating effects of physical attractiveness and smiling between guilt and punishment. The only significant positive relationship between guilt and punishment occurred for the defendant whom participants rated low in physical attractiveness and who was not smiling. When guilty, the smiling and unattractive defendant received less punishment than did the smiling and attractive defendant. The authors discussed complex relationships between physical attractiveness, smiling, guilt, and punishment.

  16. Esthetic evaluation of dynamic smiles with attention to facial muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela I-Chun; Braun, Thomas; McNamara, James A; Gerstner, Geoffrey E

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies of smile esthetics have used still photos. Photos, however, do not capture the dynamics of a smile, an element that can contribute to overall smile esthetics. In this study, we assessed the esthetics of dynamic smiles. Four facially balanced female dental students were trained to produce 8 distinct smiles using the facial action coding system. Videos of the models' whole faces were presented to 2 panels of raters: dental students and nondental undergraduate students. Smile attractiveness was rated using a Web-based survey. The smile that used 4 labial muscles was rated significantly better than the smile involving only the risorius muscle (P <0.05). The orbicularis oculi improved smile attractiveness (P <0.04), especially among smiles rated less favorably (P <0.05). Visibility of the models' eyes, however, did not influence the ratings (P >0.05), perhaps because orbicularis oculi activation altered activations in other muscles in such a way that smile attractiveness was increased in the lower face. Smile esthetics increased with increased recruitment of muscles involved in smile production. The results were robust across the models, suggesting that objective rating methods of smile-dynamic esthetics could become an important clinical tool. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of eye movements in the judgment of enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Melanie; Roy-Charland, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Enjoyment smiles are more often associated with the simultaneous presence of the Cheek raiser and Lip corner puller action units, and these units' activation is more often symmetric. Research on the judgment of smiles indicated that individuals are sensitive to these types of indices, but it also suggested that their ability to perceive these specific indices might be limited. The goal of the current study was to examine perceptual-attentional processing of smiles by using eye movement recording in a smile judgment task. Participants were presented with three types of smiles: a symmetric Duchenne, a non-Duchenne, and an asymmetric smile. Results revealed that the Duchenne smiles were judged happier than those with characteristics of non-enjoyment. Asymmetric smiles were also judged happier than the non-Duchenne smiles. Participants were as effective in judging the latter smiles as not really happy as they were in judging the symmetric Duchenne smiles as happy. Furthermore, they did not spend more time looking at the eyes or mouth regardless of types of smiles. While participants made more saccades between each side of the face for the asymmetric smiles than the symmetric ones, they judged the asymmetric smiles more often as really happy than not really happy. Thus, processing of these indices do not seem limited to perceptual-attentional difficulties as reflected in viewing behavior. PMID:24069013

  18. Proximity Begins with a Smile, But Which One? Associating Non-duchenne Smiles with Higher Psychological Distance

    PubMed Central

    Bogodistov, Yevgen; Dost, Florian

    2017-01-01

    This study reveals that Duchenne (genuine) and non-Duchenne (non-genuine, polite) smiles are implicitly associated with psychological proximity and distance, respectively. These findings link two extensive research streams from human communication and psychology. Interestingly, extant construal-level theory research suggests the link may work as smiles signaling either a benign situation or politeness, resulting in conflicting predictions for the association between smile type and psychological distance. The current study uses implicit association tests to reveal theoretically and empirically consistent non-Duchenne-smile–distance and Duchenne-smile–proximity associations for all four types of psychological distance: temporal, spatial, social, and hypothetical. Practically, the results suggest several useful applications of non-Duchenne smiles in human communication contexts. PMID:28848483

  19. Proposal of a Smile Sensor Using Light Reflected from a Cheek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Shota; Kitazono, Yuhki; Miyauchi, Makoto; Serikawa, Seiichi

    A new sensor to detect a smile of a person is proposed in this paper. When a person smiles, the shape of cheeks changes. The change is used for the detection of the smile. The sensor consists of a infrared LED, a photodiode and a few electronic parts. When the sensor detects a smile, at first infrared light is irradiated on a cheek. Then the sensor detects the smile by using the strength of light reflected from the cheek. As a result, the sensor is simple and can detect a smile.

  20. From the Symbolic Analysis of Virtual Faces to a Smiles Machine.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Magalie; Diday, Edwin; Afonso, Filipe

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present an application of symbolic data processing for the design of virtual character's smiling facial expressions. A collected database of virtual character's smiles directly created by users has been explored using symbolic data analysis methods. An unsupervised analysis has enabled us to identify the morphological and dynamic characteristics of different types of smiles as well as of combinations of smiles. Based on the symbolic data analysis, to generate different smiling faces, we have developed procedures to automatically reconstitute smiling virtual faces from a point in a multidimensional space corresponding to a principal component analysis plane.

  1. STS-92 Mission Specialist McArthur suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-92 Mission Specialist William S. McArthur Jr. signals thumbs up for launch, scheduled for 8:05 p.m. EDT. The mission is the fifth flight for the construction of the ISS. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. During the 11-day mission, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the International Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth ISS flight and Lab installation on the seventh ISS flight. This launch is the third for McArthur. Landing is expected Oct. 21 at 3:55 p.m. EDT.

  2. 9. VIEW SHOWING PEARL WHITFORD (LEFT) AND ARTHUR RAINING BIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING PEARL WHITFORD (LEFT) AND ARTHUR RAINING BIRD (RIGHT) HOLDING A FRAMED FLOUR SACK USED BY THE ROCKY BOY'S AGENCY FLOUR MILL. THE SACK SHOWS AN IMAGE OF ROCK BOY, LEADER OF THE CHIPPEWA AND CREE INDIANS IN MONTANA AT THE TIME ROCK BOY'S RESERVATION WAS CREATED BY CONGRESS (PHOTO WAS TAKEN BEHIND THE AGENCY'S SCHOOL). - Rocky Boy's Agency Flour Mill, Rocky Boy, Hill County, MT

  3. McArthur performs FOOT setup operations during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-10

    ISS012-E-14529 (10 Jan. 2006) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur, Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, performs Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment set-up operations in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Foot Ground Interface Flight Calibration Unit (FGI-FCU) is visible upper right and the Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS) is visible in the foreground.

  4. McArthur performs FOOT setup operations during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-10

    ISS012-E-14518 (10 Jan. 2006) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur, Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, talks to Mission Control Center while holding the Total Force Foot Ground Interface (TF-FGI) during Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment set-up operations in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. The Foot Ground Interface Flight Calibration Unit (FGI-GCU) is visible at right.

  5. Assessment of Tooth Proportions in an Aesthetically Acceptable Smile

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Munish; Raghav, Pradeep; Jain, Shalu; Anjum, Arbab; Misra, Vaibhav; Suri, Ragini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aesthetic facial animation is mostly reported to be due to a close relationship between soft and hard tissue i.e. dynamic smile with appropriate tooth proportions. But variations in tooth size have been seen among various ethnic populations globally. Aim: To evaluate the size and morphology of maxillary anterior teeth, the tooth with maximum variation both mesiodistally and cervicoincisally. Also, the tooth to tooth ratio in percentage of the mean tooth sizes in both genders in patients with aesthetically acceptable smile decided by a panel in North Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) were taken and a video clip of their dynamic smile was captured .The smiles were analyzed by a panel and the tooth proportions of the selected attractive smiles were evaluated in both males and females separately. Statistical analysis: Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using Microsoft Excel 2007 software; test used was Unpaired t-test and also Mean ± S.D., Variance, Ratio of W/L and its ranges were calculated. Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. Results: The mesiodistal width and cervicoincisal length of maxillary central incisor was greater compared to lateral incisor and canine in both males and females. There was a statistically significant difference between the width/length ratio of maxillary anterior teeth between males and females.Canine and Lateral incisor showed maximum variation mesio-distally and cervico-incisally. Conclusion: A smile is more pleasing if the visible teeth are in proper morphological proportions. Thus, it relates that teeth play a vital role in increasing the attractiveness of a smile. The mean coronal width/length ratio displayed a more square like tooth form for both males and females. PMID:26023632

  6. Assessment of tooth proportions in an aesthetically acceptable smile.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sambhav; Reddy, Munish; Raghav, Pradeep; Jain, Shalu; Anjum, Arbab; Misra, Vaibhav; Suri, Ragini

    2015-04-01

    Aesthetic facial animation is mostly reported to be due to a close relationship between soft and hard tissue i.e. dynamic smile with appropriate tooth proportions. But variations in tooth size have been seen among various ethnic populations globally. To evaluate the size and morphology of maxillary anterior teeth, the tooth with maximum variation both mesiodistally and cervicoincisally. Also, the tooth to tooth ratio in percentage of the mean tooth sizes in both genders in patients with aesthetically acceptable smile decided by a panel in North Indian population. A total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) were taken and a video clip of their dynamic smile was captured .The smiles were analyzed by a panel and the tooth proportions of the selected attractive smiles were evaluated in both males and females separately. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using Microsoft Excel 2007 software; test used was Unpaired t-test and also Mean ± S.D., Variance, Ratio of W/L and its ranges were calculated. Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. The mesiodistal width and cervicoincisal length of maxillary central incisor was greater compared to lateral incisor and canine in both males and females. There was a statistically significant difference between the width/length ratio of maxillary anterior teeth between males and females.Canine and Lateral incisor showed maximum variation mesio-distally and cervico-incisally. A smile is more pleasing if the visible teeth are in proper morphological proportions. Thus, it relates that teeth play a vital role in increasing the attractiveness of a smile. The mean coronal width/length ratio displayed a more square like tooth form for both males and females.

  7. Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on lip positions at smile.

    PubMed

    Chou, Jang-Ching; Thompson, Geoffrey A; Aggarwal, Harshit A; Bosio, Jose A; Irelan, Jon P

    2014-09-01

    In complete mouth reconstructive dentistry, the occlusal vertical dimension may be increased to provide adequate restorative space or to improve esthetics. The effect of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension on the smile is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension on the dimensions of the smile. Thirty dental students, 12 men and 18 women between the ages of 21 and 30 years old, participated in this study. Polyvinyl siloxane occlusal registrations 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm in thickness were fabricated from articulated stone casts. Posed smile images at occlusal vertical dimension +0, +2, +4, +6, and +8 mm were made with a digital single lens reflex camera mounted on a tripod. A wall-mounted head-positioning device, modified from a cephalometric unit, was used to stabilize the head position. Interlabial gap height, intercommissural width, incisal edge to upper lip, and incisal edge-to-lower lip measurements were made with computer software. The smile index was obtained by dividing width by height. The display zone area was measured by using computer software tracing. One-way repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05) was used for statistical analysis. With an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension, the interlabial gap height, incisal edge to lower lip distance, and display zone area increased significantly (P<.001), whereas the smile index decreased significantly (P<.001). No significant changes were observed in the intercommissural width and incisal edge to upper lip distance. The interlabial gap height, incisal edge-to-lower lip distance, and display zone area increase with increased occlusal vertical dimension. The smile index decreases with increased occlusal vertical dimension. However, the width of the smile and the length of the upper lip tend to remain unchanged. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Sex differences in smiling and other photographed traits: a theoretical assessment.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee; Das, Shyamal

    2011-05-01

    Many studies have shown that females smile more than males do in social situations. The present study extends this research by examining a large sample of high school yearbook photographs. In addition to assessing the degree of smiling, ratings were obtained of the following traits for each photograph: hair length, hair colour, masculine-feminine appearance and physical attractiveness. Results reconfirmed earlier research showing that females smile more than males do while they are being photographed. Other findings were that smiling was positively correlated with hair length, femininity and physical attractiveness for females but not for males. When a multivariate analysis was performed, none of these traits predicted smiling in males, and only femininity was significant in predicting smiling in females. Although social learning theories of smiling can account for some of these findings, a recently proposed neurohormonal theory seems to best explain why femininity is related to smiling in females but not in males.

  9. Oral Health Problems and Smile Avoidance Among Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of oral health problems on the avoidance of smiling among preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 835 three- to five-year-old children. Caregivers answered the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire on sociodemographic data. The avoided smiling item of the child section was the dependent variable. An oral examination was performed by three dentists who had undergone calibration exercises (Kappa=0.85 to 0.90). Poisson hierarchical regression (PR) was used to determine the significance of associations between the avoidance of smiling and oral health problems (α equals five percent). The multivariate model was constructed with two hierarchical levels: (1) sociodemographic aspects and (2) oral health problems. Seven percent of the children avoided smiling, which was associated with cavitated lesions and five years of age (PR=5.070; 95 percent confidence interval=1.57 to 16.39). Age and cavitated lesions on the maxillary incisors were determinant factors for the avoidance of smiling.

  10. Gummy smile: clinical parameters useful for diagnosis and therapeutical approach.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Annalisa; Streni, Oriana; Marci, Maria Chiara; Marzo, Giuseppe; Gatto, Roberto; Giannoni, Mario

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of the characteristics of a pleasant smile, a gummy smile has negative components, which most affect the esthetics of non-verbal communication. For this purpose a proposed classification based upon etiopathogenetic criteria as useful indications for a therapeutical approach is given. The nature of a high smile line can be: dento-gingival, connected to an abnormal dental eruption, which is revealed by a short clinic crown; muscular, caused by an hyperactivity of the elevator muscle of the upper lip; dento-alveolar (skeletal), due to an excessive protuberance or vertical growth of the jawbone (maxillary); lastly, a mixed nature, in the presence of more than one of the above described factors The diagnosis of gummy smile must be precocious and based, with reference to specific parameters, upon a careful analysis of the etiopathogenetic factors and the degree of seriousness of the alteration. A correct treatment plan must contemplate the possibility of an orthognatodontic, orthopedic and/or surgical therapeutic resolution considering the seriousness and complexity of the gums exposures (high smile line) in connection with the age of the subject.

  11. Family Matters: A Conversation with David Popenoe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor David Popenoe, author of the controversial book "Disturbing the Nest: Family Change and Decline in Modern Societies" (1988). Popenoe heads the National Marriage Project at Rutgers University, where he taught sociology for forty-five years until his recent retirement. Here, Popenoe discusses his…

  12. A Conversation with...David Satcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Neil A.

    1996-01-01

    David Satcher began his career as a medical geneticist and was appointed director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1993. In this interview, Dr. Satcher talks about the responsibilities of the CDC and explains how a childhood experience inspired his interest in medicine and his continuing commitment to community service.…

  13. Family Matters: A Conversation with David Popenoe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor David Popenoe, author of the controversial book "Disturbing the Nest: Family Change and Decline in Modern Societies" (1988). Popenoe heads the National Marriage Project at Rutgers University, where he taught sociology for forty-five years until his recent retirement. Here, Popenoe discusses his…

  14. David Baines: Rural Doctor, Lecturer, Dancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisecarver, Charmaine

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the career of David Baines, an American Indian doctor who successfully integrates traditional and modern medicine. Describes problems faced by American Indian doctors, the tremendous amount of work involved in medical training, and problems associated with working in rural areas and trying to straddle two opposing cultures when…

  15. Another Perspective: An Interview with David Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ruth A.; Johnson, Kelli

    2005-01-01

    To provide another perspective on evaluation within nonformal settings, "New Directions for Evaluation" recently interviewed David Smith, the coordinator of the Professional Learning to Close the Achievement Gap program for the Kansas City, Kansas, Public Schools, who has extensive background in education and educational research. He formerly held…

  16. David Ben-Gurion: A Creative Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first Prime Minister of Israel, is included in Pasternak's (2001) list of the nine most memorable leaders of the twentieth century. All of them are remembered for the reforms they initiated. Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (Russia), Castro (Cuba), and Thatcher (England) focused on social-economical changes, whereas Gandhi…

  17. A Case of You: Remembering David Fowler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimm, David

    2004-01-01

    The author has framed this brief appreciation of David Flower in terms of influence; specifically, his influence as a teacher, both in person and through his writing (most of all his attempted rewriting of much of the history of Greek mathematics). The author will also make some second-order remarks about the influence of teachers.

  18. Exploring the Living Planet with David Attenborough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Jacquelin; Unwin, David

    1984-01-01

    In this interview David Attenborough, the celebrated natural history film maker and writer, talks about his highly successful television series, "The Living Planet." Devoted to the exposition of the world's ecosystems, the film represents a significant example of popular geographic education. (RM)

  19. David Ben-Gurion: A Creative Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first Prime Minister of Israel, is included in Pasternak's (2001) list of the nine most memorable leaders of the twentieth century. All of them are remembered for the reforms they initiated. Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (Russia), Castro (Cuba), and Thatcher (England) focused on social-economical changes, whereas Gandhi…

  20. David Baines: Rural Doctor, Lecturer, Dancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisecarver, Charmaine

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the career of David Baines, an American Indian doctor who successfully integrates traditional and modern medicine. Describes problems faced by American Indian doctors, the tremendous amount of work involved in medical training, and problems associated with working in rural areas and trying to straddle two opposing cultures when…

  1. David L. Gutmann (1925-2013).

    PubMed

    Rose, Jon; Huyck, Margaret; Grunes, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    David L. Gutmann, a pioneer in geropsychology and professor emeritus at Northwestern University, died on November 3, 2013, at the age of 88. A student of Bernice Neugarten, Bruno Bettelheim, and Erik Erikson, Gutmann discovered changes in adult psychological development related to parenting styles that held across diverse cultures.

  2. Speaking Personally--With David Foster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    David Foster is the founder of Kryterion, an Internet test administration company, and currently serves there as chief scientist and executive vice president. He is the author of numerous articles for industry trade journals and textbooks and sits on the Council for the International Test Commission. In this interview, Foster talks about his…

  3. Exploring the Living Planet with David Attenborough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Jacquelin; Unwin, David

    1984-01-01

    In this interview David Attenborough, the celebrated natural history film maker and writer, talks about his highly successful television series, "The Living Planet." Devoted to the exposition of the world's ecosystems, the film represents a significant example of popular geographic education. (RM)

  4. Speaking Personally--With Mark David Milliron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark David Milliron, board chair of the Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education, a trustee with Western Governors University, and a member of the advisory board for the University of Texas (UT) TeleCampus. He is also president and CEO of Catalyze Learning International, a private…

  5. Interview with Dr. David H. Kalsbeek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, David M.

    2005-01-01

    David H. Kalsbeek currently is vice president for enrollment management at DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois. In that capacity, he leads the marketing and enrollment development strategies for the nation's largest and fastest-growing Catholic university, enrolling 23,000 students in eight colleges and six campuses throughout the greater…

  6. Reading Pictures: An Interview with David Wiesner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2008-01-01

    Two-time Caldecott Honor winner (Free Fall, Sector 7) and three-time Caldecott Medal winner (Tuesday, The Three Pigs, Flotsam), David Wiesner is regarded as one of the most remarkable creators of visual storytelling living today. Wiesner is well known for his innovative and unique subject matter and his sophisticated painting-like illustrations…

  7. A Case of You: Remembering David Fowler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimm, David

    2004-01-01

    The author has framed this brief appreciation of David Flower in terms of influence; specifically, his influence as a teacher, both in person and through his writing (most of all his attempted rewriting of much of the history of Greek mathematics). The author will also make some second-order remarks about the influence of teachers.

  8. Re: 'Treatment of gummy smile: Nasal septum dysplasia as etiologic factor and therapeutic target'.

    PubMed

    Polo, Mario

    2015-10-01

    An evaluation and commentary of a recently suggested technique for the correction of gummy smiles is presented. A comparison of long-term stability reported with other surgical techniques, is also performed. From the results reported, use of this technique could offer a treatment option for those affected with excessive gingival display on smiling (gummy smile).

  9. Social Smiling and Its Components in High-Risk Infant Siblings without Later ASD Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Caitlin McMahon; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired affective expression, including social smiling, is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and may represent an early marker for ASD in their infant siblings (Sibs-ASD). Social smiling and its component behaviors (eye contact and non-social smiling) were examined at 15 months in Sibs-ASD who demonstrated later ASD…

  10. Social Smiling and Its Components in High-Risk Infant Siblings without Later ASD Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Caitlin McMahon; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired affective expression, including social smiling, is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and may represent an early marker for ASD in their infant siblings (Sibs-ASD). Social smiling and its component behaviors (eye contact and non-social smiling) were examined at 15 months in Sibs-ASD who demonstrated later ASD…

  11. SMILE--shaded molecular imaging on low-cost equipment.

    PubMed

    Eufri, D; Sironi, A

    1989-09-01

    The SMILE program runs under MS-DOS on IBM PC AT-compatible computers equipped with the SM640 or the PG640 Matrox graphic board. The program allows real-time three-dimensional (3D) animation and modeling of several isolated molecules that can be built from scratch, manipulated interactively and compared by superimposition. SMILE enables users to compute atomic partial charges, molecular surface area, molecular volume, electrostatic and nonbonded potential energies. PLUTO, ORTEP, and MMP2 input files are set up automatically. The program also provides simple access to crystal packing by real-time animation of the unit cell contents, interactive inspection of the relevant stereochemical parameters and fragment manipulation within the unit cell. SMILE animates stereo views and produces beautiful shaded 3D images (8 colors, 32 shades each) of molecules in many different styles--stick, ball-and-stick, CPK (space filling), and transparent CPK with backbone.

  12. 14. 1862 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING ST. DAVID'S CHURCH IN WINTER SCENE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. 1862 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING ST. DAVID'S CHURCH IN WINTER SCENE. Photocopied from George Smith's book, History of Delaware County, Penna., 1862 - St. David's Church (Episcopal), Valley Forge Road (Newtown Township), Wayne, Delaware County, PA

  13. Impact of Suction Loss During Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE).

    PubMed

    Liu, Manli; Wang, Jianchao; Zhong, Wen; Wang, Danyang; Zhou, Yugui; Liu, Quan

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of suction loss in eyes during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). This prospective paired-eye case study enrolled 8,490 eyes of 4,296 patients, of which 35 eyes experienced suction loss during the SMILE procedure while being treated for myopia or myopic astigmatism. The eyes with suction loss were re-treated with SMILE, femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK), or pseudo SMILE, and the fellow eyes were treated with SMILE. Patients were examined before surgery and at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), manifest refraction, higher order aberrations (HOAs), and morphologic modifications of corneal architecture were evaluated. At 3 months, patients were asked if they preferred the vision in either eye. High-contrast CDVA was worse in the eyes that suffered loss of suction than in the fellow eyes at 1 week postoperatively (two-tailed paired t tests, P = .04), but not at 1 and 3 months. There was no statistical significance between the two treatments in the safety and efficacy indices or the 3rd and 4th order aberrations at 3 months postoperatively (two-tailed paired t tests, all P > .05). No apparent abnormalities were observed in the corneas by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography. Re-treatment with femtosecond laser for incomplete SMILE was safe, predictable, and effective, and the patients did not perceive a difference in vision. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(10):686-692.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Human identification through the analysis of smile photographs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Souza, João Batista de; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Nunes, Fernando Gomes

    2015-06-01

    The comparison between antemortem and portmortem data comprehends the basis of the dental identification process. High-tech devices allow for optimal manipulation of postmortem data. However, in especial situations, the victims do not have records of dental treatments, making necessary the search for antemortem data from personal belongings. Smile photographs are one of the most common sources of dental information detected from personal belongings. In this context, the present study reports a forensic case in which a charred body was positively identified through the application of 3 techniques for the analysis of smile photographs.

  15. Gummy Smile Correction with Diode Laser: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Mahesh; Laju, S; Erali, Susil M; Erali, Sunil M; Fathima, Al Zainab; Gopinath, P V

    2015-01-01

    Beautification of smiles is becoming an everyday requirement in dental practice. Apart from teeth, gingiva also plays an important role in smile esthetics. Excessive visualization of gingiva is a common complaint among patients seeking esthetic treatment. A wide variety of procedures are available for correction of excessive gum display based on the cause of the condition. Soft tissue diode laser contouring of gingiva is a common procedure that can be undertaken in a routine dental setting with excellent patient satisfaction and minimal post-operative sequale. Two cases of esthetic crown lengthening with diode laser 810 nm are presented here. PMID:26668491

  16. Analysis of dynamic smile and upper lip curvature in young Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ling-Zhi; Hu, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2013-01-01

    During smile evaluation and anterior esthetic construction, the anatomic and racial variations should be considered in order to achieve better matching results. The aims of this study were to validate an objective method for recording spontaneous smile process and to categorize the smile and upper lip curvature of Chinese Han-nationality youth. One hundred and eighty-eight Chinese Han-nationality youths (88 males and 100 females) ranged from 20 to 35 years of age were selected. Spontaneous smiles were elicited by watching comical movies and the dynamics of the spontaneous smile were captured continuously with a digital video camera. All subjects' smiles were categorized into three types: commissure, cuspid and gummy smile based on video editing software and final images. Subjects' upper lip curvatures were also measured and divided into three groups: upward, straight and downward. Reliability analysis was conducted to obtain intra-rater reliabilities on twice measurements. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare differences for each parameters (α=0.05). In smile classification, 60.6% commissure smile, 33.5% cuspid smile and 5.9% gummy smile were obtained. In upper lip measurement, 26.1% upward, 39.9% straight and 34.0% downward upper lip curvature were determined. The commissure smile group showed statistically significant higher percentage of straight (46.5%) and upward (40.4%) in upper lip curvatures (P<0.05), while cuspid smile group (65.1%) and gummy smile group (72.7%) showed statistically significant higher frequency in downward upper lip curvature (P<0.05). It is evident that differences in upper lip curvature and smile classification exist based on race, when comparing Chinese subjects with those of Caucasian descent, and gender. PMID:23558343

  17. Analysis of dynamic smile and upper lip curvature in young Chinese.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ling-Zhi; Hu, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2013-03-01

    During smile evaluation and anterior esthetic construction, the anatomic and racial variations should be considered in order to achieve better matching results. The aims of this study were to validate an objective method for recording spontaneous smile process and to categorize the smile and upper lip curvature of Chinese Han-nationality youth. One hundred and eighty-eight Chinese Han-nationality youths (88 males and 100 females) ranged from 20 to 35 years of age were selected. Spontaneous smiles were elicited by watching comical movies and the dynamics of the spontaneous smile were captured continuously with a digital video camera. All subjects' smiles were categorized into three types: commissure, cuspid and gummy smile based on video editing software and final images. Subjects' upper lip curvatures were also measured and divided into three groups: upward, straight and downward. Reliability analysis was conducted to obtain intra-rater reliabilities on twice measurements. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare differences for each parameters (α=0.05). In smile classification, 60.6% commissure smile, 33.5% cuspid smile and 5.9% gummy smile were obtained. In upper lip measurement, 26.1% upward, 39.9% straight and 34.0% downward upper lip curvature were determined. The commissure smile group showed statistically significant higher percentage of straight (46.5%) and upward (40.4%) in upper lip curvatures (P<0.05), while cuspid smile group (65.1%) and gummy smile group (72.7%) showed statistically significant higher frequency in downward upper lip curvature (P<0.05). It is evident that differences in upper lip curvature and smile classification exist based on race, when comparing Chinese subjects with those of Caucasian descent, and gender.

  18. Arthur Benton and a bunch of Dutch flowers.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Anke; Bakker, Dirk J

    2009-02-01

    This paper shows how Arthur Benton's excellent research in the field of neuropsychological topics like hemispheric specialization, Gerstmann syndrome, aphasia, prosopagnosia and visuospatial deficits has influenced the development of the field of neuropsychology in The Netherlands. Also, his outstanding methodological knowledge and clinical experience have had an enormously significant impact on neuropsychological assessment in this country. Benton's knowledge about the different topics in neuropsychology was tremendous, while at the same time he was always critical and aware of findings he was not able to understand.

  19. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: the author was an ophthalmologist.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G; Migdal, C

    1995-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, and his faithful companion, Dr. Watson. A graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Doyle (1859-1930) spent nearly ten years practicing medicine. During his years in general practice, Doyle gave particular attention to the eye. Later, he studied ophthalmology in Vienna and spent time with the best known ophthalmologist in Paris. He returned to London and established an ophthalmological office near Harley Street. His literary career soon overtook the medical career, but he made many references to medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular in his writings.

  20. Etienne-Arthur Louis Fallot and his tetralogy.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Cesmebasi, Alper; Le, Duong; Etienne, Denzil; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Étienne-Arthur Louis Fallot (1850-1911) is one of the most significant medical figures of the 19th century with an eponymous congenital cardiac malformation. His initial account of the four anatomical features making up his tetralogy proved remarkably significant in the progression of clinical descriptions of the lesions producing cyanotic congenital cardiac disease. Although subsequently the cause of appreciable controversy, the accuracy of his initial descriptions underscore the current diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the malformation now known uniformly as tetralogy of Fallot.

  1. 77 FR 26765 - David H.M. Phelps: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration David H.M. Phelps: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) debarring David H.M. Phelps for a period of 20... Manual Guide 1410.35), finds that Mr. David H.M. Phelps has been convicted of 10 felony counts...

  2. Interface between astrophysical datasets and distributed database management systems (DAVID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This is a status report on the progress of the DAVID (Distributed Access View Integrated Database Management System) project being carried out at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The objective is to implement an interface between Astrophysical datasets and DAVID. Discussed are design details and implementation specifics between DAVID and astrophysical datasets.

  3. 76 FR 12971 - David E. Berman: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration David E. Berman: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring David E. Berman, MD, for 3 years... 1410.35), finds that David E. Berman has been convicted of a misdemeanor under Federal law for...

  4. The Mystery of the European Smile: A Comparison Based on Individual Photographs Provided by Internet Users

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cross-cultural differences in preference for smiling among the users of one of the most popular instant messaging sites called Windows Live Messenger in terms of facial expression (smiling vs. non-smiling) on the photographs accompanying their profiles. 2,000 photos from 10 countries were rated by two independent judges. Despite the fact that 20 years have passed since the fall of the Berlin Wall, Internet users from a former Soviet bloc appear to smile less often than those from Western Europe. Also, replicating past research, women irrespective of their nationality smiled more than men. PMID:21057574

  5. David Gill: clock maker to global astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    Reduction in the uncertainty of physical measurements underpinned many advances in solar and stellar parallax, the determination of longitude, geodesy, and the accurate mapping of the heavens using celestial photography in the late nineteenth century. A pioneer in these areas, who successfully made the transition from clock maker in Aberdeen to H.M. Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope was David Gill (1843-1914); Sir David Gill, K.C.B. from 1900. This paper celebrates the first third of Gill's career in astronomy and geodesy up to the time he was made redundant from Dun Echt Observatory at the end of 1875. It highlights how his horological skills were applied to telescope design and also how his aspirations to become a global astronomer started. The paper is timed to coincide with Gill's centenary anniversary year - he died 24 January 1914.

  6. Astronaut David Scott - Sample - "Genesis Rock" - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-12

    S71-43477 (12 Aug. 1971) --- Astronaut David R. Scott, right, commander of the Apollo 15 mission, gets a close look at the sample referred to as "Genesis rock" in the Non-Sterile Nitrogen Processing Line (NNPL) in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Scientist-astronaut Joseph P. Allen IV, left, an Apollo 15 spacecraft communicator, looks on with interest. The white-colored rock has been given the permanent identification of 15415.

  7. Let the Avatar Brighten Your Smile: Effects of Enhancing Facial Expressions in Virtual Environments.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Youn; Bailenson, Jeremy; Krämer, Nicole; Li, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the positive effects of smiling on interpersonal outcomes. The present research examined if enhancing one's smile in a virtual environment could lead to a more positive communication experience. In the current study, participants' facial expressions were tracked and mapped on a digital avatar during a real-time dyadic conversation. The avatar's smile was rendered such that it was either a slightly enhanced version or a veridical version of the participant's actual smile. Linguistic analyses using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) revealed that participants who communicated with each other via avatars that exhibited enhanced smiles used more positive words to describe their interaction experience compared to those who communicated via avatars that displayed smiling behavior reflecting the participants' actual smiles. In addition, self-report measures showed that participants in the 'enhanced smile' condition felt more positive affect after the conversation and experienced stronger social presence compared to the 'normal smile' condition. These results are particularly striking when considering the fact that most participants (>90%) were unable to detect the smiling manipulation. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive effects of transforming unacquainted individuals' actual smiling behavior during a real-time avatar-networked conversation.

  8. Factors affecting smile esthetics in adults with different types of anterior overjet malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to quantitatively assess the relationship of smile esthetic variables with various types of malocclusion, and identify the cephalometric factors affecting smile measurements. Methods This retrospective study included 106 patients who were treated with retention at the orthodontic department of Taipei Medical University Hospital. Hard-tissue variables were measured using lateral cephalographic tracings, and nine smile esthetic variables were measured using facial photographs. The patients were divided into three groups according to their overjet (< 0, 0–4, and > 4 mm). An analysis of variance was conducted to compare the pretreatment cephalometric variables and smile esthetic variables among the three groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the cephalometric factors affecting the smile measurements in each group. Results Except the upper midline and buccal corridor ratio, all of the smile measurements differed significantly among the three groups before orthodontic treatment. Some of the smile characteristics were correlated with the cephalometric measurements in different types of malocclusion. The overjet was the major factor influencing the smile pattern in all three types of malocclusion. Conclusions Smile characteristics differ between different types of malocclusion; the smile may be influenced by skeletal pattern, dental procumbency, or facial type. These findings indicate that establishment of an optimal horizontal anterior teeth relationship is the key to improving the smile characteristics in different types of malocclusion. PMID:28127537

  9. Attractiveness of variations in the smile arc and buccal corridor space as judged by orthodontists and laymen.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Sanjay Manhar; Fields, Henry W; Beck, Michael; Rosenstiel, Stephen

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate changes in attractiveness on the basis of computerized variations of smile arcs and buccal corridors for male and female smiles judged by orthodontists and laypersons. Using a visual analog scale in a Web-based survey, orthodontists and laypersons rated the attractiveness of nine digitally altered smile arc and buccal corridor variations of male and female smiles. The variations were accomplished in a clinically relevant manner and based on standards set by experienced orthodontists in a pilot web-based survey. The results indicate that both laypersons and orthodontists prefer smiles in which the smile arc parallels the lower lip and buccal corridors are minimal. Significantly lower attractiveness ratings were found for smiles with flat smile arcs and excessive buccal corridors. Flattening of the smile arc overwhelms the deleterious effects of excessive buccal corridors on attractiveness ratings. On the basis of the results of this study, care should be taken not to produce an excessively flat smile arc during orthodontic treatment.

  10. Sex differences over age groups in self-posed smiling in photographs.

    PubMed

    Otta, E

    1998-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate self-posed smiling behavior in photographs as a function of both sex and age. The photographs of 1,171 Brazilian middle-class people, taken in a wide variety of informal social settings were examined. Only 25.7% of the girls and 25.0% of the boys of 2- to 5-yrs-age group were seen smiling in the photographs. Older children, adolescents, and adults were much more expressive than young children. Furthermore, significantly more females were seen smiling than males. Females also smiled more expansively than males. Finally, smiling was less frequent among middle-aged and older groups, especially among males. The present study replicated the sex difference in self-posed smiling behavior consistently reported by American researchers examining college yearbook photographs. Further, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that, besides being associated with emotional experience, smiling has a strong social motivation.

  11. Intensity of smiling and attractiveness as facial signals of trustworthiness in women.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, K; Levenstein, R; Ambadar, Z

    2012-06-01

    Facial attractiveness is associated with a variety of positive social characteristics including trustworthiness. Variations in smiling, such as the appearance of the Duchenne marker and increased intensity of expression, have likewise been linked with positive judgments of trustworthiness. The study investigated the interaction of the effects of models' attractiveness and their smiling intensity on impressions of perceived trustworthiness. Participants rated the attractiveness and expressivity of neutral, low intensity, and high intensity smiling images of 45 women models. These images were also presented to a second group of participants who rated trustworthiness. Repeated measures analysis of covariance of the effects of attractiveness and manipulated smile intensity on trustworthiness indicated a main effect for smile intensity: increased smile intensity was associated with greater trustworthiness. Attractiveness also contributed to rated trustworthiness independently of smiling intensity. Results suggested there is an additional contribution of facial expression in creating social impressions of trustworthiness.

  12. Social Smiling and its Components in High-Risk Infant Siblings Without Later ASD Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Caitlin McMahon; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired affective expression, including social smiling, is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and may represent an early marker for ASD in their infant siblings (Sibs-ASD). Social smiling and its component behaviors (eye contact and non-social smiling) were examined at 15 months in Sibs-ASD who demonstrated later ASD symptomatology (Sibs-ASD/AS), those who did not (Sibs-ASD/NS), and low-risk controls (Sibs-TD). Both Sibs-ASD subgroups demonstrated lower levels of social smiling than Sibs-TD, suggesting that early social smiling may reflect elevated genetic vulnerability rather than a specific marker for ASD. Only the Sibs-ASD/AS demonstrated less eye contact and non-social smiling than Sibs-TD, suggesting that different processes, threshold effects, or protective factors may underlie social smiling development in the two Sibs-ASD subgroups. PMID:24057094

  13. Lip designing: the need for a beautiful smile: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mohan; D' Silva, James; Kohli, Sonali; Sarkar, Soma

    2014-01-01

    Smile is the defining element of the face, its impact holding utmost importance in the perception of feelings. Lip is an integral part for a perfectly perceived smile. The aim of the present manuscript is to present an innovative approach to smile improvement by lip design in Indian context. Thirty-five patients who had undergone smile design (lip) in the institute were taken up for retrospective analysis. The technique of using fillers for lip augmentation was assessed, and the final result evaluated. Demographic details are presented . We observed that the upliftment of the lips was more visible, and the fillers enhanced the volume resulting in an attractive smile. Smile reconstruction has been revolutionized by the new filler materials for volume augmentation of lips. We advocate this novel approach of lip design using fillers to generate a gorgeous smile.

  14. Begin at the Beginning: Reflections on the Career of Arthur Cropley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslany, George

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley's academic career began in the early 1960s and, more than 50 years later, shows few signs of abating. Over this lengthy period, he has made important contributions not only to creativity research, but to a range of related areas of psychology. Arthur Cropley has also been an influential figure in the careers of several generations…

  15. It's Elementary: Engaging Students through the Writings of Arthur Conan Doyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's writing allows for a variety of critical thinking activities, extensive use of computer technology, and the involvement of the entire faculty, staff and administration in the learning process. Presents a few activities that teachers can do with their students based on the work of Arthur Conan Doyle. (SG)

  16. Begin at the Beginning: Reflections on the Career of Arthur Cropley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslany, George

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley's academic career began in the early 1960s and, more than 50 years later, shows few signs of abating. Over this lengthy period, he has made important contributions not only to creativity research, but to a range of related areas of psychology. Arthur Cropley has also been an influential figure in the careers of several generations…

  17. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area. The following area..., and Gulfport Reach in the Arthur Kill; bounded in the northeast by a line drawn from position 40°...

  18. 33 CFR 165.T01-0727 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Kill, NY and NJ. 165.T01-0727 Section 165.T01-0727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T01-0727 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. (a) Regulated area. The following area..., and Gulfport Reach in the Arthur Kill; bounded in the northeast by a line drawn from position 40°...

  19. Truman's Firing of General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Amy; Schamel, Wynell; Potter Lee Ann

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on the events that led up to President Harry S. Truman firing General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. Includes a copy of the document dismissing MacArthur from his position. Includes teaching activities corresponding to this event in history. (CMK)

  20. 76 FR 52569 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... environmental protection, and provide for the safety of life on the navigable waters during drilling, blasting... the drilling, dredging and blasting operations being conducted in the Arthur Kill. In November 2010... require rolling two-week closures of the middle third of the Arthur Kill to conduct the drilling...

  1. Mona Lisa syndrome: solving the enigma of the Gioconda smile.

    PubMed

    Adour, K K

    1989-03-01

    The Mona Lisa smile is presented as a possible example of facial muscle contracture that develops after Bell's palsy when the facial nerve has undergone partial wallerian degeneration and has regenerated. The accompanying synkinesis would explain many of the known facts surrounding the painting and is a classic example of Leonardo da Vinci as the compulsive anatomist who combined art and science.

  2. SMILE Maker: A Web-Based Tool for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Aroyo, Lora; Kommers, Piet; Kurtev, Ivan

    This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between constructivism/instructivism, content-treatment…

  3. What Coy Smiles Say about Positive Shyness in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Bogels, Susan M.; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandzic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Positive shyness is a universal emotion with the specific social function of regulating our interactions by improving trust and liking, and showing politeness. The present study examined early infant production of coy smiles during social interactions as a measure of positive shy behavior. Eighty 4-month-olds were experimentally observed during…

  4. Forensic odontology identification using smile photograph analysis--case reports.

    PubMed

    Silva, R F; Pereira, S D; Prado, F B; Daruge, E; Daruge, E

    2008-06-01

    The identification of unknown human by smile photographs that show specific characteristics of each individual has found wide acceptance all over the world. Therefore this paper shows this situation reporting different cases which smile photograph analysis were crucial to determine the positive identification of unidentified human bodies. All the cases were subjected to personal identification by photographs of smile including one adult male found in an advanced stage of decomposition, one adult female disappeared during an ecotourism trip, and one carbonized body of a male individual found in a forest region. During the autopsy the photographs of the smile were used by comparison of the ante and postmortem images gave accurate and useful information not only about dental state but also the anatomical features surrounding the upper and lower anterior dental arches. This method is not time-consuming and also has the advantage of allowing extraoral dental examination. It is also recommended when there is a need to provide quantitative data for a forensic identification based on these structures.

  5. Influence of bimaxillary protrusion on the perception of smile esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Terki K.; Albarakati, Sahar F.; Aldrees, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of bimaxillary protrusion on smile esthetics as perceived by dental professionals and laypersons. Methods: One hundred and fifty evaluators, equally distributed into their respective panels (orthodontists, general dentists, and laypersons), participated in this cross-sectional study conducted in April to December 2012 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The patient sample consisted of 14 female patients divided equally into 2 groups: bimaxillary protrusion patients, and patients who have had 4-premolar extraction treatment. Two standardized photographs (frontal and three-quarter close-up smile views), and a lateral cephalogram were taken for each patient. The evaluators were asked to rate the attractiveness of each photo according to a 100-mm visual analog scale. These esthetic ratings were correlated with the patients’ cephalometric measurements. Results: The bimaxillary protrusion group was rated significantly as less attractive than the treatment group by each evaluator panel. Panel comparison showed that laypeople were less receptive of bimaxillary protrusion than dental professionals. Frontal and three-quarter views of the same smiles were not similarly rated for esthetic perceptions. Correlational analysis revealed that the dentoalveolar measurement with the highest significant negative correlation to the smile esthetics was the upper incisors to palatal plane (U1-PP) angle. Conclusion: Patients with bimaxillary protrusion were found to be less attractive than patients who were treated for the condition. This was especially evident among the laypersons. An increase in the upper incisor inclination, as well as a decrease in the interincisal angle compounds the bimaxillary effect. PMID:25630010

  6. Perception of Laypeople and Dental Professionals of Smile Esthetics.

    PubMed

    Saffarpour, Aida; Ghavam, Maryam; Saffarpour, Anna; Dayani, Rozita; Fard, Mohammad Javad Kharazi

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the perception of laypersons and dental professionals of smile esthetics based on two factors namely gingival display and alignment of teeth. A total of 32 females were randomly selected among dental students in the International Campus of School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) with no previous history of esthetic dental work. Frontal photographs were obtained and cropped from the subnasal to menton areas of subjects to standardize the size of pictures. Three series of slides were prepared of the pictures using Microsoft PowerPoint software. The first series of slides were shown to familiarize the observers with the images. The second and third series were displayed for the observers and they were then asked to fill out a questionnaire. The group of observers included 10 dental specialists and 10 laypersons. Each observer was given a visual analog scale (VAS) chart for scoring (1-10). After completion of the questionnaires, data were transferred to a computer and the differences in judgments of professionals and laypeople were analyzed using the Mann Whitney test. No significant difference was found in the judgments of professionals and laypeople on evaluating overall smile esthetics, gingival display and alignment of teeth except for the slide showing a reverse smile arc. Laypeople and professionals had similar perceptions of smile esthetics. Thus, it appears that clinicians can rely on the judgment of laypersons in esthetic dental treatments.

  7. Influence of bimaxillary protrusion on the perception of smile esthetics.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Terki K; Albarakati, Sahar F; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of bimaxillary protrusion on smile esthetics as perceived by dental professionals and laypersons. One hundred and fifty evaluators, equally distributed into their respective panels (orthodontists, general dentists, and laypersons), participated in this cross-sectional study conducted in April to December 2012 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The patient sample consisted of 14 female patients divided equally into 2 groups: bimaxillary protrusion patients, and patients who have had 4-premolar extraction treatment. Two standardized photographs (frontal and three-quarter close-up smile views), and a lateral cephalogram were taken for each patient. The evaluators were asked to rate the attractiveness of each photo according to a 100-mm visual analog scale. These esthetic ratings were correlated with the patients' cephalometric measurements. The bimaxillary protrusion group was rated significantly as less attractive than the treatment group by each evaluator panel. Panel comparison showed that laypeople were less receptive of bimaxillary protrusion than dental professionals. Frontal and three-quarter views of the same smiles were not similarly rated for esthetic perceptions. Correlational analysis revealed that the dentoalveolar measurement with the highest significant negative correlation to the smile esthetics was the upper incisors to palatal plane (U1-PP) angle. Patients with bimaxillary protrusion were found to be less attractive than patients who were treated for the condition. This was especially evident among the laypersons. An increase in the upper incisor inclination, as well as a decrease in the interincisal angle compounds the bimaxillary effect. 

  8. Perception of smile esthetics among Indian dental professionals and laypersons.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Gandhi, Sumit; Valiathan, Ashima

    2012-01-01

    Patients' perceptions and expectations regarding their appearance play a significant role in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of orthodontists, general dentists, and laypersons regarding smile esthetics after symmetrical and asymmetrical alterations in anterior teeth and their supporting tissues. Alterations were made in the crown length, crown width, midline diastema, and gingiva-to-lip relationship of the maxillary anterior teeth in the close-up photograph of a woman's smile. The attractiveness of the smile in the original image and in each of the modified images were assessed by orthodontists (n=40), dentists (n=40), and laypersons (n=40) and scored using a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean VAS scores were calculated for each photograph. ANOVA was used for comparisons between photographs and between groups. To determine threshold levels at which each group discriminated between esthetic and less esthetic dental features were determined by one-way ANOVA (F-test) followed by Newman-Keul's range test. Orthodontists were found to be more critical when evaluating smile images compared to general dentists and laypersons. Symmetrical or asymmetrical alterations in the mesio-distal width of the lateral incisor of up to 2 mm was not perceived as unesthetic by general dentists and laypersons. Laypersons are more accepting of minor variations in anterior tooth size and alignment than orthodontists.

  9. Perception of Laypeople and Dental Professionals of Smile Esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Saffarpour, Aida; Ghavam, Maryam; Saffarpour, Anna; Dayani, Rozita; Fard, Mohammad Javad Kharazi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess and compare the perception of laypersons and dental professionals of smile esthetics based on two factors namely gingival display and alignment of teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 females were randomly selected among dental students in the International Campus of School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) with no previous history of esthetic dental work. Frontal photographs were obtained and cropped from the subnasal to menton areas of subjects to standardize the size of pictures. Three series of slides were prepared of the pictures using Microsoft PowerPoint software. The first series of slides were shown to familiarize the observers with the images. The second and third series were displayed for the observers and they were then asked to fill out a questionnaire. The group of observers included 10 dental specialists and 10 laypersons. Each observer was given a visual analog scale (VAS) chart for scoring (1–10). After completion of the questionnaires, data were transferred to a computer and the differences in judgments of professionals and laypeople were analyzed using the Mann Whitney test. Results: No significant difference was found in the judgments of professionals and laypeople on evaluating overall smile esthetics, gingival display and alignment of teeth except for the slide showing a reverse smile arc. Conclusions: Laypeople and professionals had similar perceptions of smile esthetics. Thus, it appears that clinicians can rely on the judgment of laypersons in esthetic dental treatments. PMID:27928236

  10. Astronaut Walter Schirra smiles during post-flight physcial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. smiles at medical personnel (out of frame) during a post-flight physcial aboard the U.S.S. Kearsage, prime recovery vessel for Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) upon which Schirra served as pilot earlier today.

  11. Recovery- Cooper smiles at recovery crew on Kearsarge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    S63-07852 (16 May 1963)--- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) mission, has a smile for the recovery crew of the USS Kearsarge, after he is onboard from a successful 22-orbit mission of Earth in his spacecraft "Faith 7". Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Astronaut Walter Schirra smiles during post-flight physcial

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-10-03

    S62-06163 (3 Oct. 1962) --- Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. smiles at medical personnel (out of frame) during a postflight physcial aboard the USS Kearsage, prime recovery vessel for Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) upon which Schirra served as pilot earlier today. Photo credit: NASA

  13. A Database Design and Development Case: Smile Land Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ranida; Harris, Ken; Eplion, David

    2013-01-01

    This case describes the situation of Smile Land Academy (SLA), a real-world based childcare center. SLA has grown from a very small company to a fairly large-sized organization (30 employees with 150 children). Unfortunately, its system for record-keeping, summarization of data, and reporting has not kept pace. The hard copies and spreadsheet…

  14. An overview of SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Wang, Chi

    2016-07-01

    SMILE is a novel space mission, currently under development, dedicated to study the dynamic coupling of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere in a global way never attempted so far. From a highly elliptical Earth orbit, SMILE will obtain X-ray images of the magnetosheath and polar cusps simultaneously with UV images of the Northern aurora, while also carrying out in situ solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements. For the first time we will be able to trace and link the processes of solar wind injection in the magnetosphere with those acting on the charged particles precipitating into the cusps and eventually the aurora. X-ray imaging of the dayside magnetosheath and cusps has been made possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emission, first observed at comets, and subsequently found to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere. SMILE is the first fully collaborative space mission from inception to implementation and operations between ESA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). This talk will present the science that SMILE will deliver and its impact, and will provide an overview of its payload and of the mission's development.

  15. What Coy Smiles Say about Positive Shyness in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Bogels, Susan M.; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandzic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Positive shyness is a universal emotion with the specific social function of regulating our interactions by improving trust and liking, and showing politeness. The present study examined early infant production of coy smiles during social interactions as a measure of positive shy behavior. Eighty 4-month-olds were experimentally observed during…

  16. Lip-tooth relationships during smiling and speech: an evaluation of different malocclusion types.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Roozbeh; Heravi, Farzin

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the impact of malocclusion on lip - tooth relationships during smiling and speech. To evaluate the impact of different malocclusions on lip - tooth relationships during smiling and speech, using video images. One hundred and three subjects with Class I (N = 31), Class II division 1 (N = 26), Class II division 2 (N = 16) and Class III malocclusions (N = 30) were asked to repeat the same sentence and then smile in front of a video camera. Nine frames were extracted from each subject's video clip: at rest, posed smile, unposed smile and during the pronunciation of the sounds: 'che', 'fa', 'se', 'chee', 'tee' and 'mee'. On each frame, up to 10 parameters describing the lip - tooth relationships were measured. In all frames, there were no statistically significant differences in the upper central incisor display ratios among the malocclusion groups (p > 0.05). The buccal corridor ratio in the posed and unposed smiles did not differ significantly among the malocclusions (p > 0.05). The most frequently visible last maxillary tooth was the first premolar in the posed smile, and the second premolar in the unposed smile. In each malocclusion group, the upper central incisor display ratio varied significantly among the nine frames and the buccal corridor ratio during the unposed smile was less than the ratio during the posed smile; although this was only significant in the Class II division 2 subjects. The smile arc was similar in all malocclusions. In each malocclusion the upper central incisor display ratio varied significantly among the nine frames. In each group, the buccal corridor ratio during the unposed smile was less than that during the posed smile, but only the Class II division 2 group was significantly different. The smile arc did not differ among the malocclusions.

  17. Improvements of SMILES Level 2 products on ISAS/JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Chihiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Iwata, Yoshitaka; Manago, Naohiro; Takahashi, Chikako; Imai, Koji; Shiotani, Masato; Sano, Takuki; Takayanagi, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Hirotomo

    The Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES),which was jointly developed by JAXA and NICT, had been launched and aboard the Japanese Experiment Mod-ule (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in September, 2009. The SMILES carries 4 K-cooled Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixers to demonstrate a sensitive instrument for sub-millimeter limb sounding. SMILES system noise temperature (Tsys) is less than 500K (random noise ¡ 1 K). Since ISS has a non-sun-synchronous orbit, SMILES can observe diurnal variations of ClO, BrO, HO2 and mesospheric O3 etc. Standard L2 products, which are defined as O3, HCl, ClO, HNO3, CH3CN, HOCl, HO2, BrO, O3-isotopes on stratospheres, began to be released to RA PIs on January, 2010. The L2 data is currently 4 85 km, with 3 km interval (geometrical altitude) in HDF ver.5 file format similar to EOS-HDF including time, location etc.However, release data (ver. 005-06-0024) is a test version which is retrieved by prelaunch algorithms (Rodgers 1976. SMILES mission plan 2002. Takahashi et al., 2010. Imai et al., 2010.), and has some known issues. The one of the main issue is less product data. SMILES observes 1630 scans per a day. However, release products include only 60 percents of observation data. There are two reasons for this. The first is that antenna main beam is interfered by the ISS solar paddles. The second is that star tracker cameras, which determine SMILES observation points, are interfered by the Sun. In latter case, if we estimate the points by other information, geophysical parameters are retrieved since observed spectrums are useful. In new release data, we use both STT and ISS information and 80 percents of the data are included to products. In this presentation, we will introduce improvements of operational level 2 processing for new release product version.

  18. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jamille Barros; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; da Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. Methods: An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Results: Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Conclusions: Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation. PMID:28125140

  19. SMILE: A new way to explore solar-terrestrial relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Wang, Chi; Sembay, Steven; Dai, Lei; Li, Lei; Donovan, Eric; Read, Andy; Spanswick, Emma; Sibeck, David; Escoubet, Philippe; Rebuffat, Denis; Raab, Walfried; Zheng, Jianhua

    2016-10-01

    SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) will investigate the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere to the impact of the solar wind in a unique and global manner, never attempted before. From a highly elliptical Earth orbit, SMILE will combine soft X-ray imaging of the Earth's magnetic boundaries and polar cusps with simultaneous UV imaging of the Northern aurora, while self-sufficiently measuring solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field conditions in situ. X-ray imaging of the dayside magnetosheath and cusps is an innovative technique made possible by the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emission, first observed at comets, and subsequently found to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere.For the first time we will be able to trace and link the processes of solar wind injection in the magnetosphere with those acting on the charged particles precipitating into the cusps and eventually the aurora. While the basic theory of magnetospheric circulation is well known and the microscale has been explored by many in situ measurements, the reality of how this complex interaction takes place on a global scale, and how it evolves, is still not understood. SMILE will answer questions such as: What are the fundamental modes of the dayside solar wind/magnetosphere interaction and the large-scale structure of the interaction region? What defines the substorm cycle? How do CME-driven storms arise and how do they relate to substorms?SMILE is a joint space mission between ESA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This presentation will cover the science that will be delivered by SMILE and its impact on our understanding of the way the solar wind interacts with the Earth's environment, and will give an overview of its payload and of the mission's development.

  20. Bradykinesia of posed smiling and voluntary movement of the lower face in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Luca; Agostino, Rocco; Bologna, Matteo; Belvisi, Daniele; Palma, Adalgisa; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-04-01

    Impaired facial expression, including spontaneous and emotional movements such as smiling, has been often reported in Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a general consensus that spontaneous smiling is abnormal in PD. Investigations on posed smiling yield contrasting results. Moreover, no study has yet addressed the relationship between posed smiling and abnormalities of voluntary movements of the lower face, global motor impairment and the effects of dopaminergic medication. We investigated the kinematics of posed smiling (mimicking a smile shown in a picture) and those of voluntary movements of the lower face (showing the teeth as fast as possible - voluntary grinning) in 15 patients with PD (ON and OFF therapy) and in 16 healthy controls. Facial movements were recorded using a 3D optoelectronic system and analyzed using dedicated software. Some kinematic parameters of both posed smiling and voluntary grinning were abnormally lower in PD patients in comparison to healthy subjects. The kinematics of posed smiling correlated with those of voluntary grinning in PD patients but not in healthy controls. Posed smiling and voluntary grinning abnormalities were related to global motor severity but did not significantly improve upon L-dopa administration. These results suggest that posed smiling and voluntary grinning are both abnormal in PD patients and that they are likely mediated by a common pathophysiological mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. America's foremost early astronomer. [David Rittenhouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

    1995-01-01

    The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and partriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

  2. America's foremost early astronomer. [David Rittenhouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

    1995-01-01

    The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and partriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

  3. Smiles as signals of lower status in football players and fashion models: evidence that smiles are associated with lower dominance and lower prestige.

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, Timothy; Koenig, Bryan L; Gambacorta, Daniel; Dolgov, Igor; Hor, Daniel; Zarzosa, Jennifer; Luna-Nevarez, Cuauhtémoc; Klungle, Micki; Wells, Lee

    2012-07-10

    Across four studies, the current paper demonstrates that smiles are associated with lower social status. Moreover, the association between smiles and lower status appears in the psychology of observers and generalizes across two forms of status: prestige and dominance. In the first study, faces of fashion models representing less prestigious apparel brands were found to be more similar to a canonical smile display than the faces of models representing more prestigious apparel brands. In a second study, after being experimentally primed with either high or low prestige fashion narratives, participants in the low prestige condition were more likely to perceive smiles in a series of photographs depicting smiling and non-smiling faces. A third study of football player photographs revealed that the faces of less dominant (smaller) football players were more similar to the canonical smile display than the faces of their physically larger counterparts. Using the same football player photographs, a fourth study found that smiling was a more reliable indicator of perceived status-relevant personality traits than perceptions of the football players' physical sizes inferred from the photographs.

  4. Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle and the case of congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Arthur M; Ruggere, Christine

    2006-01-01

    In 1894, Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle wrote "The Third Generation," a short story involving the transmission of congenital syphilis from generation to generation. Analysts of his writings have interpreted the pathogenetic mechanism involved in modern terms: infection of mother by father and then transplacental infection of the fetus. However, a review of the contemporary literature and the history of the concepts of congenital and "hereditary" syphilis demonstrates that the late 19th-century understanding of the process involved a Lamarckian transmission of paternal infection, via the sperm at the moment of conception. It was undoubtedly this concept that Doyle learned in medical school in the late 1870s and that provided the background to his story.

  5. Ernest Arthur Kendall: his life in peace and war.

    PubMed

    Faragher, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Ernest Arthur Kendall (1876-1938), whose father founded the first veterinary school in Australia, qualified as a veterinary surgeon, as did three of his brothers. He was commissioned in the Australian Army Veterinary Corps and fought with distinction in both the Boer War and World War I. He established an Australian Veterinary Hospital near Calais, France, in 1917. The Purple Cross Society of Victoria paid for the fit-out and necessary material for the running of the hospital, which treated 24,300 animals before it closed in 1919. In that year, Colonel Kendall resumed his career in the Department of Agriculture Victoria, where he was appointed Chief Veterinary Officer in 1926 and Chairman of the Milk Board in 1934. He worked toward a pure milk supply, enabled the establishment of a laboratory to test milk samples, and looked forward to a well-planned campaign for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  6. Arthur van Gehuchten takes neurology to the movies.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2002-11-26

    To present the cinematographic production of Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914) and to put this collection into its medical and sociocultural context. The arrival of Edison's Kinetoscope (1891) and Lumière's Cinématographe (1895) provoked the immediate interest of neurologists who foresaw the potential of motion pictures for illustration, research, and teaching. Arthur Van Gehuchten, professor of anatomy and neurology at the Catholic University of Louvain, was trained as a microscopist and a cytologist. From neuroanatomy, he progressively broadened his interest to neurology. Van Gehuchten was an avant-garde teacher, eager to adopt new visual aids. In 1895, he attended the first cinematographic screenings. Medical cinematography was soon brought into disrepute in European academic circles, when films made by the French surgeon Doyen were copied and shown on fairgrounds. Nevertheless, in 1905, Van Gehuchten began to film neurologic patients. He used this technique extensively to demonstrate clinical signs, to illustrate neurologic diseases, and to document functional evolution following surgery. For decades, these films were screened for medical students by Van Gehuchten's successors to the chair of neurology. The original nitrate films (more than 2 hours) have been recently rediscovered. They have been restored by the Royal Belgian Film Archive, where they are the oldest Belgian films. At the beginning of the 20th century, Van Gehuchten built up a collection of moving pictures for teaching purposes. This was one of the first such undertakings. This unique set of films has miraculously survived, and serves as an important archive of nervous diseases and their manifestations prior to the advent of modern therapies.

  7. Development and validation of a computerized model of smiling: Modeling the percentage movement required for perception of smiling in unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Penn, Jack W; James, Antonia; Khatib, Manaf; Ahmed, Usama; Bella, Husam; Clarke, Alex; Butler, Peter E M

    2013-03-01

    The inability to smile stands out as a notable difficulty for individuals with facial nerve palsies; a problem that facial reanimation surgery aims to rectify. However, smile reconstruction currently lacks quantitative data by which to objectively measure outcomes. This study aims to identify the relative importance of different oral muscles in terms of smiling, and explore the percentage function that needs to be restored for a smile to be perceived by an observer. A computer animation tool was developed to model the oral facial muscles and demonstrate the facial expressions produced by contraction of different muscle groups. By programming a variable unilateral paralysis of the zygomaticus major, the effects of 0-100% function of this muscle can also be seen in a further set of animations using the basic muscular structure of a smile to produce a computerized proxy smile. These animations were shown to 75 adults from the general population who reported those expressions they perceived as a smile. The only facial expression consistently associated with a perceived smile was caused by the combined contraction of the zygomaticus major and the levator anguli oris (P < 0.001). This concurs with previously reported observations of the human smile. Over 70% of the subjects were able to perceive a smile with just 40% function of the unilateral paralyzed zygomaticus major. These results present an objective target for facial reanimation surgery by which outcomes may be measured. This computerized model also provides a valuable tool for patient education during pre-operative consent. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Signal Characteristics of Spontaneous Facial Expressions: Automatic Movement in Solitary and Social Smiles

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karen L.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Tian, Yingli

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that the smile is an evolved facial display suggests that there may be universal features of smiling in addition to the basic facial configuration. We show that smiles include not only a stable configuration of features, but also temporally consistent movement patterns. In spontaneous smiles from two social contexts, duration of lip corner movement during the onset phase was independent of social context and the presence of other facial movements, including dampening. These additional movements produced variation in both peak and offset duration. Both onsets and offsets had dynamic properties similar to automatically controlled movements, with a consistent relation between maximum velocity and amplitude of lip corner movement in smiles from two distinct contexts. Despite the effects of individual and social factors on facial expression timing overall, consistency in onset and offset phases suggests that portions of the smile display are relatively stereotyped and may be automatically produced. PMID:14638288

  9. Recognition of Posed and Spontaneous Dynamic Smiles in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Nora A.; Lehrfeld, Jonathan M.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated age effects in the ability to recognize dynamic posed and spontaneous smiles. Study 1 found that both younger and older adult participants were above-chance in their ability to distinguish between posed and spontaneous younger adult smiles. Study 2 found that younger adult participant performance declined when judging a combination of both younger and older adult target smiles, while older adult participants outperformed younger adult participants in distinguishing between posed and spontaneous smiles. A synthesis of results across the two studies showed a small-to-medium age effect (d = −0.40) suggesting an older adult advantage when discriminating between smile types. Mixed stimuli (i.e., a mixture of younger and older adult faces) may impact accurate smile discrimination. Future research should investigate both the sources (cues, etc.) and behavioral effects of age-related differences in the discrimination of positive expressions. PMID:20718538

  10. Smile intensity and warm touch as thin slices of child and family affective style.

    PubMed

    Oveis, Christopher; Gruber, June; Keltner, Dacher; Stamper, Juliet L; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The authors investigate the claim that thin slices of expressive behavior serve as reliable indicators of affective style in children and their families. Using photographs, the authors assessed smile intensity and tactile contact in kindergartners and their families. Consistent with claims that smiling and touch communicate positive emotion, measures of children's smile intensity and warm family touch were correlated across classroom and family contexts. Consistent with studies of parent-child personality associations, parents' warm smiles and negative facial displays resembled those of their children. Finally, consistent with observed relations between adult personality and positive display, children's smiling behavior in the classroom correlated with parent ratings of children's Extraversion/Surgency. These results highlight the utility of thin slices of smiling and touch as indicators of child and family affective style. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Smile Intensity and Warm Touch as Thin Slices of Child and Family Affective Style

    PubMed Central

    Oveis, Christopher; Gruber, June; Keltner, Dacher; Stamper, Juliet L.; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the claim that thin slices of expressive behavior serve as reliable indicators of affective style in children and their families. Using photographs, we assessed smile intensity and tactile contact in kindergartners and their families. Consistent with claims that smiling and touch communicate positive emotion, measures of children’s smile intensity and warm family touch were correlated across classroom and family contexts. Consistent with studies of parent-child personality associations, parents’ warm smiles and negative facial displays resembled those of their children. Finally, consistent with observed relations between adult personality and positive display, children’s smiling behavior in the classroom correlated with parent ratings of children’s Extraversion/Surgency. These results highlight the utility of thin slices of smiling and touch as indicators of child and family affective style. PMID:19653777

  12. Duchenne smile, emotional experience, and autonomic reactivity: a test of the facial feedback hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Soussignan, Robert

    2002-03-01

    This study examined the modulatory function of Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles on subjective and autonomic components of emotion. Participants were asked to hold a pencil in their mouth to either facilitate or inhibit smiles and were not instructed to contract specific muscles. Five conditions--namely lips pressing, low-level non-Duchenne smiling, high-level non-Duchenne smiling, Duchenne smiling, and control--were produced while participants watched videoclips that were evocative of positive or negative affect. Participants who displayed Duchenne smiles reported more positive experience when pleasant scenes and humorous cartoons were presented. Furthermore, they tended to exhibit different patterns of autonomic arousal when viewing positive scenes. These results support thefacial feedback hypothesis and suggest that facial feedback has more powerful effects when facial configurations represent valid analogs of basic emotional expressions.

  13. What Lies Beneath? Minority Group Members' Suspicion of Whites' Egalitarian Motivation Predicts Responses to Whites' Smiles.

    PubMed

    Kunstman, Jonathan W; Tuscherer, Taylor; Trawalter, Sophie; Lloyd, E Paige

    2016-09-01

    Antiprejudice norms and attempts to conceal racial bias have made Whites' positive treatment of racial minorities attributionally ambiguous. Although some minorities believe Whites' positivity is genuine, others are suspicious of Whites' motives and believe their kindness is primarily motivated by desires to avoid appearing prejudiced. For those suspicious of Whites' motives, Whites' smiles may paradoxically function as threat cues. To the extent that Whites' smiles cue threat among suspicious minorities, we hypothesized that suspicious minorities would explicitly perceive Whites' smiles as threatening (Study 1), automatically orient to smiling White-as opposed to smiling Black-targets (Study 2), and accurately discriminate between Whites' real and fake smiles (Study 3). These results provide convergent evidence that cues typically associated with acceptance and affiliation ironically function as threat cues among suspicious racial minorities.

  14. French Crossings: III. The Smile of the Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article continues the theme of ‘French Crossings’ explored in other Presidential Addresses by focussing on the border zone between the human and the animal. The focus is on the allegedly tiger-like character attributed to Maimilien Robespierre, particularly after his fall from power and his execution in 1794. This theme is explored in terms of Thermidorian propaganda, French Revolutionary historiography and the ancient discipline of physiognomy, which was reactivated by Johann-Caspar Lavater in the late eighteenth century and still influential through much of the nineteenth. Robespierre’s animal rather than human status was also held to emerge in his inability to smile or laugh, a significant point also in that the meaning of the smile was changing in the same period. PMID:27630376

  15. SMILE: Orbital analysis and Schwarzschild modeling of triaxial stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Eugene

    2013-08-01

    SMILE is interactive software for studying a variety of 2D and 3D models, including arbitrary potentials represented by a basis-set expansion, a spherical-harmonic expansion with coefficients being smooth functions of radius (splines), or a set of fixed point masses. Its main features include: orbit integration in various 2d and 3d potentials (including N-body and basis-set representations of an arbitrary potential);methods for analysis of orbital class, fundamental frequencies, regular or chaotic nature of an orbit, computation of Lyapunov exponents;Poincaré sections (in 2d) and frequency maps (in 3d) for analyzing orbital structure of potential;construction of self-consistent Schwarzschild models; andconvenient visualization and integrated GUI environment, and a console scriptable version.SMILE is portable to different platforms including MS Windows, Linux and Mac.

  16. SMILE user's guide: a macro preprocessor for extending FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, L.H.

    1984-06-01

    SMILE is a precompiler that translates programs from a macro language into FORTRAN. It is available on the VAX-11 VMS (Virtual Memory System), the Cray-1 CTSS (Cray Time-Sharing System), and the CDC 7600 LTSS (Livermore Time-Sharing System). SMILE has supported and will continue to support the major FORTRAN compilers in use at Los Alamos. A macro library file may contain command predefinitions for a family of programs or a program being worked on by a number of coders. A selective compilation feature allows the selection of the appropriate code for each supported compiler. Rather efficient code for all systems results from an optional cleanup feature. Additional language features include multiple statements, symbolic labels, and byte support.

  17. Lip repositioning: An alternative cosmetic treatment for gummy smile

    PubMed Central

    Dayakar, Mudnoor Manjunath; Gupta, Sachin; Shivananda, Hiranya

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gingival display, commonly referred to as ‘gummy smile’ is a major hurdle in overall personality of an individual. Gummy smile, secondary to altered passive eruption and tooth mal-positioning, can be predictably treated with Surgery and orthodontic therapy. In patients with jaw deformities, orthognathic surgery can be performed. However, this requires hospitalization and entails significant discomfort. Lip repositioning is a simple surgical procedure to treat ‘gummy smile’. The procedure restricts the muscle pull of the elevator lip muscles thereby reducing the gingival display while smiling. This procedure is safe and predictable with minimal risk or side effects. This case report describes the successful treatment of excessive gingival display using surgical lip repositioning procedure which can be used as an alternative treatment modality for treatment of excessive gingival display. PMID:25210272

  18. Test results after refurbish of cryogenic system for smiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Kiyomi; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Okabayashi, Akinobu; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Ryota

    2010-09-01

    Superconducting Sub-millimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) is to be operated aboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009. SMILES uses two superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers for sub-millimeter-wave atmospheric observation and they are cooled to 4 K levels by a cryogenic system with a two-stage Stirling cooler, a Joule-Thomson (JT) cycle cooler and a cryostat composed of three stages. Two-stage Stirling cooler precools the JT circuit and also cools radiation shields in the cryostat. JT circuit has three tube-in-tube type heat exchangers and an orifice for JT expansion in the cryostat. The cryogenic system is built, tested and delivered.

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, FRONT ELEVATION SHOWING BELLTOWER AND PROJECTING VERANDA. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION SHOWING PROJECTING VERANDA. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  1. 13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, WEST HALF, LOOKING WEST - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  2. 14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, NORTH HALF LOOKING NORTH - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  3. Which Factors Affect Dental Esthetics and Smile Attractiveness in Orthodontically Treated Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Rashed, Roozbeh; Zarrabi, Mohammad Javad; Setayesh, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to find the factors that affect dental esthetics and smile attractiveness in orthodontically treated patients according to laypeople’s judgment, and to determine whether there is any relationship between dental and smile esthetics. Materials and Methods: Using the Q-sort technique, 60 laypersons (30 males, 30 females) rated dental and smile photographs of 48 orthodontically treated patients based on their degree of attractiveness. Dental and smile parameters of each rated image were measured by Smile Analyzer software. The Student’s t-test and chi-square test were used to compare dental and smile parameters between attractive and unattractive images. The logistic regression was used to assess which variables predicted dental and smile esthetics in treated individuals. Results: The philtral to commissural height ratio and gingival display were significantly different in attractive and unattractive smiles (P=0.003 and P=0.02, respectively). None of the dental variables were found to be a determinant of dental esthetics at the end of the orthodontic treatment (P>0.05). According to the judgment of all raters (female and male) and the male raters’ judgment, smile attractiveness could be predicted by philtral to commissural height ratio and buccal corridor ratio (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between dental esthetics and smile attractiveness in orthodontically treated patients (P>0.05). Conclusion: The philtral to commissural height ratio and buccal corridor ratio can be considered as predictors of smile attractiveness in orthodontically treated patients. Achieving dental esthetics at the end of orthodontic treatment does not guarantee smile attractiveness. PMID:26877739

  4. Which Factors Affect Dental Esthetics and Smile Attractiveness in Orthodontically Treated Patients?

    PubMed

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Heravi, Farzin; Rashed, Roozbeh; Zarrabi, Mohammad Javad; Setayesh, Yasin

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to find the factors that affect dental esthetics and smile attractiveness in orthodontically treated patients according to laypeople's judgment, and to determine whether there is any relationship between dental and smile esthetics. Using the Q-sort technique, 60 laypersons (30 males, 30 females) rated dental and smile photographs of 48 orthodontically treated patients based on their degree of attractiveness. Dental and smile parameters of each rated image were measured by Smile Analyzer software. The Student's t-test and chi-square test were used to compare dental and smile parameters between attractive and unattractive images. The logistic regression was used to assess which variables predicted dental and smile esthetics in treated individuals. The philtral to commissural height ratio and gingival display were significantly different in attractive and unattractive smiles (P=0.003 and P=0.02, respectively). None of the dental variables were found to be a determinant of dental esthetics at the end of the orthodontic treatment (P>0.05). According to the judgment of all raters (female and male) and the male raters' judgment, smile attractiveness could be predicted by philtral to commissural height ratio and buccal corridor ratio (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between dental esthetics and smile attractiveness in orthodontically treated patients (P>0.05). The philtral to commissural height ratio and buccal corridor ratio can be considered as predictors of smile attractiveness in orthodontically treated patients. Achieving dental esthetics at the end of orthodontic treatment does not guarantee smile attractiveness.

  5. Role of sagittal and oblique smiling profiles in evaluating facial esthetics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianrui; Yi, Yating; Yang, Shuying; Xue, Chaoran; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Mingjia; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2015-03-01

    Surgeons and orthodontists used to use a conventional set of facial photographs, composed of front, front smiling, and profile images to evaluate facial esthetics, whereas sagittal and oblique smiling profile images have been largely neglected in practice. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of sagittal and oblique smiling profiles in evaluating facial esthetics. Photographs from 80 patients, of whom 40 underwent orthognathic surgery and 40 underwent orthodontic treatment, including front, front smiling, profile, sagittal profile smiling, and oblique profile smiling images before and after treatment, were collected and synthesized into 6 categories. Thirty judges gave scores to these photographs based on their own esthetic conception with a 1-week interval for each category. The results demonstrated that the mean score change of evaluating facial attractiveness of patients who underwent orthognathic surgery was lower when adding sagittal or oblique smiling profiles before the treatment, whereas it was higher after the treatment, which were opposite to the orthodontic treatment group with a higher score before the treatment and a lower score after the treatment when sagittal or oblique smiling profiles were added. The changes have a significant difference in adding both sagittal smiling profiles (P < 0.05) and oblique smiling profiles (P < 0.05) before and after treatment. Along with oblique smiling profile, sagittal smiling profile is crucial in evaluating facial esthetics for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. Both of them suggested to be integrated in routine photographic assessment of facial attractiveness evaluation before and after treatment, especially in orthognathic surgery for facial esthetic evaluation.

  6. Collaborative development of a natural-looking smile: case presentation.

    PubMed

    Fondriest, James; Roberts, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Sophisticated patients want their dental concerns treated without appearing as if they have been restored. This case presentation describes the planning and treatment steps for the recreation of an aesthetic smile. The patient had dento-facial asymmetries and an elevated occlusal risk of fracture due to bruxism. Lithium disilicate glass ceramic in a pressed version with stocked veneering porcelain was selected as an ideal restorative material for natural aesthetics and to fulfill the strength requirements for the maxillary anterior restorations.

  7. Laypeople's perceptions of frontal smile esthetics: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Parrini, Simone; Rossini, Gabriele; Castroflorio, Tommaso; Fortini, Arturo; Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare

    2016-11-01

    The emphasis on dental esthetics has increased in recent years. There are, however, differences in esthetic perceptions among professional and lay groups. The aim of this comprehensive review was to update previous reviews and answer the following research question: Can lay thresholds for acceptance of smile esthetic anomalies be defined? A systematic search in the medical literature (PubMed, PMC, NLM, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Google Scholar, and LILACs) was performed to identify all peer-reviewed articles reporting data regarding evaluations of laypeople's perceptions of dental esthetic factors. Of the 6032 analyzed articles, 66 studies were selected for the final review process. Among the selected articles investigated perceptions of diastema, 15 analyzed modifications in tooth size and shape, 8 considered incisor positions, 15 evaluated midline discrepancies, 16 investigated buccal corridors, 26 analyzed gingival display and design, 3 considered lip height, and 20 investigated miscellaneous factors. Threshold values were identified for the following features: diastema (0-2 mm), tooth size and shape of incisor position, midline discrepancy (0-3 mm), buccal corridors (5-16 mm), gingival exposure (1.5-4 mm), occlusal canting (0°-4°), and overbite (2-5 mm). Furthermore, few other smile characteristics were found to be significantly associated with perception of smile aesthetics, even though any threshold could be detected. On the basis of the obtained results, threshold values for the main features of smile and dental esthetics could be identified. Limitations of the present study were the heterogeneity of data which made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis, and the lack of information about sample selection and selective outcome reporting. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity study of SMILES-2 for chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Manago, Naohiro; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Satoshi; Baron, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Sensitivity studies of temperature and chemical species (Observed by ISS/JEM/SMILES: O3, HCl, ClO, HO2, BrO, HNO3, CH3CN, and Not observed by SMILES: Temperature, H2O, N2O, NO2, NO, CH3Cl, CO, H2CO, OH and O-atom) was carried out for the SMILES-2 proposal, a sub-mm and THz observation of limb emission from space over the spectral region from 400 GHz to 2.5 THz. Tentative but optimal candidate of frequency bands to cover these species was selected with 3 SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) mixers; SIS-1 (485-489 GHz + 523-527 GHz), SIS-2 (623-627 GHz + 648-652 GHz), SIS-3 (557 GHz + 576.3 GHz) and 2 HEB (Hot Electron Bolometer); HEB-1 (1.8 THz OH) and HEB-2 (2.06 THz O-atom). Temperature can be retrieved with 1 K precision and 1 km vertical resolution from 15 to 120 km. Other chemical species also showed very high single scan precision (random error) comparable to statistical standard error of previous satellite measurements.

  9. The SMILE Mission: Orbit Design and Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J.; Yu, X. Z.; Wang, C.; Sun, T.; Han, J. W.; Rebuffat, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Zhu, X. C.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Li, L.; Wei, F.; Dai, L.; Raab, W.

    2016-12-01

    SMILE is a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft composed of Payload Module, SerVice Module and Propulsion Module. It carries two remote sensing instruments, a Soft X-Ray Imager and a Ultraviolet Imager, and two in-situ instruments, a Light Ion Analyser and a Magnetometer. Its aim is to observe the Earth's global system responses to the solar wind and geomagnetic variations. SMILE will first be launched into a high inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO) either by Soyuz dual launcher or Vega-C single launcher. Then the Propulsion Module will take the spacecraft into a polar highly elliptical orbit (HEO) with an altitude of 5000km×19Re. In the high inclination HEO, the X-Ray imager and UV imager will image the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling above 50000km, and the Light Ion Analyser and the Magnetometer will measure the plasma and magnetic field during the whole HEO orbit. This talk will present the HEO orbit optimized design, an overview of the preliminary design for the SMILE spacecraft, the observation strategy and observation time.

  10. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    PubMed

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tennessee smiles: the UT grassroots oral health outreach initiative.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maurice W; Wasson, Waletha; Scarbecz, Mark; Aubertin, Mary A; Woods, Marjorie; Himel, Van T

    2011-01-01

    Access to and awareness of oral healthcare in the United States have been highlighted in the mass media and discussed among diverse populations. The current surge to provide access to oral healthcare for citizens springs from this quagmire of oral healthcare issues which affects global to local (grassroots) communities. Publications by the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health for All and the United States' Healthy People have set into motion an agenda by which institutions, healthcare professionals and governments can develop action plans to foster and nurture grassroots organizations to address these issues. An initiative has been undertaken by members of the faculty, student doctors and staff of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Dentistry (UTHSC CoD) and its partners. This cadre of volunteers has implemented grassroots efforts for the citizens of western Tennessee to date as the flagship of Tennessee Smiles: UT Grassroots Oral Health Outreach Initiative (Tennessee Smiles). By participation in health fairs, school programs and other cultural events, these volunteers have made a difference in the lives of thousands of Tennessee citizens who need exposure to information regarding their oral health care needs. The authors discuss the basis for the Tennessee Smiles organization, their successes and challenges. Future plans and the need for support of the organization are emphasized.

  12. Which has a Greater Influence on Smile Esthetics Perception: Teeth or Lips?

    PubMed Central

    Farzanegan, Fahimeh; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Darvishpour, Hadi; Salari, Soheil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of teeth and lips in the perception of smile esthetics. Materials and Methods: Thirty women, ranging between 20 and 30 years of age, all with Class I canine and molar relationships and no history of orthodontic treatment, were chosen. Five black and white photographs were taken of each participant in a natural head position while smiling. The most natural photo, demonstrating a social smile, was selected. Two other photographs were also taken from a dental frontal view of each subject using a retractor, as well as a lip-together smile. Three groups of judges including 20 orthodontists, 20 restorative specialists, and 20 laypersons were selected. The judges were then asked to confirm the esthetics of each picture on a visual analogue scale. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analysis. Results: For the orthodontists group, correlation between the scores given to the full smile and each of its components was significant (α=0.05), with equal correlation of each component with the full smile. In contrast to laypersons, the correlation between the scores given to the full smile and each of its components among restorative specialists was significant. Conclusion: For orthodontists and restorative specialists, esthetic details and the components of the smile (teeth and perioral soft tissues) were important in esthetics perception. In contrast, laypersons perceived no effect of esthetics detail or smile components. PMID:24303447

  13. Let the Avatar Brighten Your Smile: Effects of Enhancing Facial Expressions in Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Youn; Bailenson, Jeremy; Krämer, Nicole; Li, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the positive effects of smiling on interpersonal outcomes. The present research examined if enhancing one’s smile in a virtual environment could lead to a more positive communication experience. In the current study, participants’ facial expressions were tracked and mapped on a digital avatar during a real-time dyadic conversation. The avatar’s smile was rendered such that it was either a slightly enhanced version or a veridical version of the participant’s actual smile. Linguistic analyses using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) revealed that participants who communicated with each other via avatars that exhibited enhanced smiles used more positive words to describe their interaction experience compared to those who communicated via avatars that displayed smiling behavior reflecting the participants’ actual smiles. In addition, self-report measures showed that participants in the ‘enhanced smile’ condition felt more positive affect after the conversation and experienced stronger social presence compared to the ‘normal smile’ condition. These results are particularly striking when considering the fact that most participants (>90%) were unable to detect the smiling manipulation. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive effects of transforming unacquainted individuals’ actual smiling behavior during a real-time avatar-networked conversation. PMID:27603784

  14. SMILES-based QSAR approaches for carcinogenicity and anticancer activity: comparison of correlation weights for identical SMILES attributes.

    PubMed

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Benfenati, Emilio; Gini, Giuseppina; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2011-12-01

    CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral/) has been used for modeling of carcinogenicity (logTD50) of 401 compounds, and anticancer activity (-logIC50) of 100 compounds, on the basis of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR). The simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES) was used for the representation of the molecular structures. A new additional global invariant of the molecular structure was tested. This is an indicator of the presence of pairs of chemical elements (F, Cl, Br, N, O, S, and P). Three random splits into sub-training, calibration, and test set were examined. Molecular features (calculated with SMILES and statistically significant), which increase the anticancer activity have been identified: their presence in the molecular structure could be helpful criterion in the search for new anticancer agents.

  15. McArthur conducts troubleshooting operations on the TCCS during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-31

    ISS012-E-06038 (31 October 2005) --- Astronaut William S. McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA science officer, conducts troubleshooting operations on the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS) in the Destiny laboratory of the international space station.

  16. McArthur wears a Santa hat to celebrate Christmas during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-11

    ISS012-E-11488 (11 Dec. 2005) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, poses with Christmas decorations in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  17. The osteosarcoma of the great poet Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891).

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G

    2005-01-01

    Thanks to Arthur Rimbaud's excellent medical auto-observation, which is included in his correspondance, we can diagnose, post-mortem, an osteosarcoma in the right knee, a disease which turned out to be fatal for him.

  18. Pediatric patients' orthodontic treatment need, quality of life, and smiling patterns -- an analysis of patient, parent, and provider responses.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neha D; Arruda, Airton; Inglehart, Marita R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to explore the relationship between pediatric patients' orthodontic treatment need, the patients' assessments of their smile-related quality of life (QoL), their parents' proxy assessment of their child's QoL and own assessments of their child's smile, and the patients' objectively assessed smiling patterns. Survey data were collected from 102 patients (53 boys/49 girls; age range: 9-13 years) and their parents. Orthodontic treatment need was assessed with the Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON). Smiling patterns were determined by videotaping patients' smiles while they watched a cartoon. Thirty predetermined sections of these tapes were then assessed by two independent raters to measure the patients' smiling patterns. The aesthetic component and total ICON scores correlated with the patients' smile-related QoL (r = 0.25; P = 0.014/r = 0.23; P = 0.024), parental proxy assessments of the child's smile-related QoL (r = 0.29; P= 0.004/r = 0.26; P= 0.009), the parents' own assessments of their child's smile (r= 0.32; P= 0.002/ r = 0.29; P = 0.005), and the number of negative adjectives chosen by the parents to describe their child's smile (r= 0.32; P = 0.002/r = 0.30; P = 0.004). Although the smiling patterns were correlated with the patients' smile-related QoL responses (height of smile: r = 0.29; P = 0.005/number of teeth shown: r = 0.30; P = 0.004), the ICON scores were not correlated with the patients' smiling patterns. Objectively assessed orthodontic treatment need correlates with the patients' and parents' assessments of the child's smile-related QoL scores. However, while objective smiling patterns are related with the patients' smile-related QoL, they are not correlated with the patients' orthodontic treatment need.

  19. David Lasser - An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the use of rockets for human spaceflight. His involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he moved on to pursue a distinguished, if turbulent, career in the labor movement. In lieu of an oral history, Mr. Lasser provided his recollections on the pioneering days of rocketry and his thoughts on mankind's destiny in space. This paper provides an overview of Mr. Lasser's life and accomplishments as an American spaceflight visionary, along with a compilation of the information that he graciously provided.

  20. David D. Derse, 1949-2009.

    PubMed

    Shuh, Maureen

    2009-12-01

    David D. Derse, Ph.D., Head of the Retrovirus Gene Expression Section in the HIV Drug Resistance Program at the National Cancer Institute-Frederick (NCI-Frederick), passed away on October 9, 2009, a scant six weeks after being diagnosed with liver cancer. It was with great sadness that family, friends, and colleagues gathered together for his memorial service on Saturday, October 17, 2009, at the Middletown United Methodist Church in Maryland. As a NCI scientist since 1986, Dave studied the molecular mechanisms of infection and replication of a number of different types of retroviruses. Dave became an internationally known expert on human T cell lymphotrophic viruses type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) and served on the editorial boards of Virology and Retrovirology. His most recent studies focused on the mechanisms of HTLV-1 virion morphogenesis, transmission, and replication.

  1. Rainforest pioneer. Millennium trailblazers 3: David Cassell.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, D

    1999-01-01

    The Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation in Guyana is headed by Australian forester David Cassells who is also chairman of the Advisory Group for the World Conservation Union Forest Conservation Program. He states that this program is different from other projects to conserve tropical forests since it focuses on financial sustainability and self-sufficiency. He also plans that the revenue for the center will come from a mixture of eco-forestry with certified logging, ecotourism, sustainable production of non-timber products such as vines and latexes, bioprospecting, and the sale of forest management expertise. He further added that the program's success could change the way people value and use tropical forests.

  2. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) for the neuromuscular correction of excessive gingival display on smiling (gummy smile).

    PubMed

    Polo, Mario

    2008-02-01

    Previously, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) (Botox; Allergan, Irvine, Calif) was shown to be effective in reducing excessive gingival display in 5 patients with gummy smiles. This study was conducted to determine whether the doses and the primary injection sites used in the pilot study for the correction of gummy smiles provide consistent, statistically significant, and esthetically pleasing results. Thirty patients received BTX-A injections to reduce excessive gingival display. Gingival display was defined as the difference between the lower margin of the upper lip and the superior margin of the right incisor. Patients were followed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks postinjection, with changes documented by photographs and videos. At week 2, the patients rated the effects of BTX-A. A group of specialty clinicians also evaluated the effects of BTX-A. Preinjection gingival display averaged 5.2 +/- 1.4 mm in the 30 patients. At 2 weeks postinjection, mean gingival display had declined to 0.09 mm (+/- 1.06 mm) in 30 patients (t = 26.01, P <.00001). The average lip-drop at 2 weeks was 5.1 mm for 30 patients. Gingival display gradually increased from 2 weeks postinjection through 24 weeks, but, at 24 weeks, average gingival display had not returned to baseline values. Based on predictions from a third-order polynomial equation, the baseline average of 5.2 mm would not be reached until 30 to 32 weeks postinjection. Patients and specialty evaluators rated the effects of BTX-A as highly favorable. BTX-A injections for the neuromuscular correction of gummy smiles caused by hyperfunctional upper lip elevator muscles was effective and statistically superior to baseline smiles, although the effect is transitory.

  3. David Lukens Reasoner (1941-1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Rick

    David Lukens Reasoner, former head of NASA's Ionospheric Physics branch, died on April 21, 1992. Reasoner was born July 1, 1941. He worked tirelessly to expand NASA's Space Physics Division, bringing his deep experience and personal expertise to bear on the challenges of growth.During the magical period of the late 1950s and early 1960s when America turned its eyes toward space and the Moon, David Lukens Reasoner journeyed north from the nearby Texas town of Dickinson to Rice University with an idea of getting involved in exploring the frontiers of space. He pursued a course of study in electrical engineering and received a bachelor's degree in 1963 and a master's degree in 1964. In the early 1960s, the Space Science Department at Rice was formed, and President John Kennedy visited to say that America chose to go to space not because it is easy but because it is hard and because it would require the very best talents of our nation to succeed. Dave Reasoner was one of those talented people. His excellence in electrical engineering and physics, combined with his natural abilities in the laboratory, suited him ideally for building the machines of space. As a student, he built sounding rocket payloads and multiple instruments for satellites and experiment packages that were placed on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts. He completed his doctoral degree in space science in 1968. It was in these early thrilling days of space exploration that I first met Dave, beginning a friendship and collegial relationship that was to last 27 years.

  4. McArthur and Tokarev celebrate New Year with Grandfather Frost during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-28

    ISS012-E-14244 (28 Dec. 2005) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur Jr. (right), Expedition 13 commander and NASA space station science officer, and cosmonaut Valery I. Tokarev, flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, pose for a holiday photo in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. McArthur and Tokarev are holding Christmas stockings and wearing Santa Claus hats. A small Christmas tree and Santa Claus figurine sit on the gallery table in the foreground.

  5. The Operational Leadership of General Douglas MacArthur in OPERATION CHROMITE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. The Operational Leadership of General Douglas MacArthur in OPERATION CHROMITE by Judie A. Heineman Commander, United...Operations. The contents of this paper reflect my own personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the Naval War College or the Department of...MacArthur in Operation Chromite 9. Personal Author: Judie Ann Heineman, Commander, United States Navy 10.Type of Report: FINAL 11. Date of Report: 13

  6. McArthur conducts the last FOOT session for Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-03-09

    ISS012-E-20043 (9 March 2006) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur, Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, sets up the electromyography (EMG) calibration cord assembly for a data collection session of the Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. McArthur was attired in the specially instrumented Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS), cycling tights outfitted with sensors for the experiment.

  7. When you smile, the world smiles at you: ERP evidence for self-expression effects on face processing

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Merino, Beatriz; Tuettenberg, Simone; Forster, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Current models of emotion simulation propose that intentionally posing a facial expression can change one’s subjective feelings, which in turn influences the processing of visual input. However, the underlying neural mechanism whereby one’s facial emotion modulates the visual cortical responses to other’s facial expressions remains unknown. To understand how one’s facial expression affects visual processing, we measured participants’ visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during a facial emotion judgment task of positive and neutral faces. To control for the effects of facial muscles on VEPs, we asked participants to smile (adopting an expression of happiness), to purse their lips (incompatible with smiling) or to pose with a neutral face, in separate blocks. Results showed that the smiling expression modulates face-specific visual processing components (N170/vertex positive potential) to watching other facial expressions. Specifically, when making a happy expression, neutral faces are processed similarly to happy faces. When making a neutral expression or pursing the lips, however, responses to neutral and happy face are significantly different. This effect was source localized within multisensory associative areas, angular gyrus, associative visual cortex and somatosensory cortex. We provide novel evidence that one’s own emotional expression acts as a top-down influence modulating low-level neural encoding during facial perception. PMID:25717074

  8. When you smile, the world smiles at you: ERP evidence for self-expression effects on face processing.

    PubMed

    Sel, Alejandra; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz; Tuettenberg, Simone; Forster, Bettina

    2015-10-01

    Current models of emotion simulation propose that intentionally posing a facial expression can change one's subjective feelings, which in turn influences the processing of visual input. However, the underlying neural mechanism whereby one's facial emotion modulates the visual cortical responses to other's facial expressions remains unknown. To understand how one's facial expression affects visual processing, we measured participants' visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during a facial emotion judgment task of positive and neutral faces. To control for the effects of facial muscles on VEPs, we asked participants to smile (adopting an expression of happiness), to purse their lips (incompatible with smiling) or to pose with a neutral face, in separate blocks. Results showed that the smiling expression modulates face-specific visual processing components (N170/vertex positive potential) to watching other facial expressions. Specifically, when making a happy expression, neutral faces are processed similarly to happy faces. When making a neutral expression or pursing the lips, however, responses to neutral and happy face are significantly different. This effect was source localized within multisensory associative areas, angular gyrus, associative visual cortex and somatosensory cortex. We provide novel evidence that one's own emotional expression acts as a top-down influence modulating low-level neural encoding during facial perception. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Did General Douglas MacArthur have Parkinson disease? A video and archival analysis.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lauren N; Malaty, Irene A; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Okun, Michael S

    2011-05-10

    Historians have suggested that MacArthur had Parkinson disease (PD), and that this may have influenced his military judgment. There is little evidence to support or to refute this suggestion. We aimed in this article to review multiple cinematic images, as well as the personal writings of Douglas MacArthur to determine the likelihood that he had PD. A complete review of the Western literature on Douglas MacArthur, including YouTube, Google Scholar/Google Images/Google Video, PubMed, and HighWirePress was undertaken. Over 200 minutes of film footage was analyzed, including such factors as MacArthur's facial profiles, facial expression, gait, posture, and movement. Handwriting samples from over 6 decades were compared for evidence of micrographia. Videos and handwriting samples were independently reviewed by 3 fellowship-trained movement disorders neurologists. Examination of video footage showed evidence of progression of head tremors, postural action tremors, and voice tremors. There were no clear indications of a masked face, rigidity, bradykinesia, or a resting tremor on film footage recorded from 1906 to 1964. There was no evidence of micrographia in handwriting samples. Oral testimony and letters written by an attending gastroenterologist present at MacArthur's death in 1964 revealed no evidence of parkinsonian features. We conclude that MacArthur had mild essential tremor that was more evident in his postmilitary career. There was no evidence to suggest that he had a clinical diagnosis of progressive PD.

  10. 75 FR 10244 - Ellsworth, David C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 43 (Friday, March 5, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 10244] [FR Doc No: 2010-4611] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-3716-001] Ellsworth, David C.; Notice of Filing February 25, 2010. Take notice that on February 12, 2010, David C....

  11. 77 FR 71189 - Falck, David P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Falck, David P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 23, 2012, David P. Falck submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking positions...-8659. Comment Date: 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on December 14, 2012. Dated: November 23, 2012. Kimberly...

  12. Teaching Students about the Environment with Henry David Thoreau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Walden: The Ballad of Thoreau" is a two-act four-character play about the final two days writer Henry David Thoreau spent in his cabin before leaving Walden Pond. Teachers can use this play to teach about preserving the earth to students. This article presents a brief synopsis of the play and a brief biography of Henry David Thoreau.

  13. Music: Part of the Basics at David Douglas and Salem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant, Marilyn

    1985-01-01

    This bulletin highlights elements of the music programs in two Oregon school districts--David Douglas School District 40 and Salem School District 24J--that have kept these programs viable in spite of financial constraints. Ingredients for success of the overall music program at David Douglas are first described. Important elements include hiring…

  14. Teaching Students about the Environment with Henry David Thoreau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Walden: The Ballad of Thoreau" is a two-act four-character play about the final two days writer Henry David Thoreau spent in his cabin before leaving Walden Pond. Teachers can use this play to teach about preserving the earth to students. This article presents a brief synopsis of the play and a brief biography of Henry David Thoreau.

  15. Arthur Rainsford Mowlem (1902-1986), plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    Arthur Rainsford Mowlem, the junior of the 'big four' plastic surgeons, with Harold Delf Gillies, Thomas Pomfret Kilner and Archibald Hector McIndoe, came to prominence managing casualties of the Second World War. Rainsford Mowlem's ancestor was John Mowlem, the creator of the construction firm. Rainsford worked his passage to the United Kingdom from New Zealand in 1927 and did not return to New Zealand but retired at the age of 60 to enjoy 23 more years in Spain. He was the driving force between 1934 and 1939 at the Plastic Surgery Unit at St James's Hospital, Balham, and instigated the North London Plastic Surgery Unit at Hill End, St Albans, from 1939 to 1953 and subsequently developed the Unit after moving to Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex. After successfully hosting the International Meeting of Plastic Surgeons in London in 1959, he received recognition and honours in America but soon afterwards he surprised colleagues by retiring in 1962. Despite his significant contributions, he did not receive national honours but his life outside surgery was active including Trusteeship of the Mowlem Estate at Swanage in Dorset for 40 years.

  16. Flood geomorphology of Arthurs Rock Gulch, Colorado: paleoflood history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Jarrett, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Episodic late Quaternary flooding is recorded by bouldery deposits and slackwater sediments along Arthurs Rock Gulch, an ephemeral stream west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Flood deposits consist of individual granodiorite and pegmatite boulders, boulder bars, and coarse overbank sediment that rest on erosional terrace segments along the channel. We identified evidence for at least five flood in the lower two thirds of the 1.84 km2 drainage basin. Flood deposits are differentiated by their position above the active channel, weathering characteristics, degree of boulder burial by colluvium, amount of lichen cover, and position with respect to terrace and colluvial deposits. Age estimates for the flood deposits are based on radiocarbon dating, tree-ring analyses, and relative-age criteria from four sites in the basin. At least two floods occurred in the last 300 years; a third flood is at least 5000 years old, but likely younger than 10,000 yr BP; and the two oldest floods occurred at least 40,000 years BP. ?? 1994.

  17. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  18. Flood geomorphology of Arthurs Rock Gulch, Colorado: paleoflood history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    1994-11-01

    Episodic late Quaternary flooding is recorded by bouldery deposits and slackwater sediments along Arthurs Rock Gulch, an ephemeral stream west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Flood deposits consist of individual granodiorite and pegmatite boulders, boulder bars, and coarse overbank sediment that rest on erosional terrace segments along the channel. We identified evidence for at least five flood in the lower two thirds of the 1.84 km 2 drainage basin. Flood deposits are differentiated by their position above the active channel, weathering characteristics, degree of boulder burial by colluvium, amount of lichen cover, and position with respect to terrace and colluvial deposits. Age estimates for the flood deposits are based on radiocarbon dating, tree-ring analyses, and relative-age criteria from four sites in the basin. At least two floods occurred in the last 300 years; a third flood is at least 5000 years old, but likely younger than 10,000 yr BP; and the two oldest floods occurred at least 40,000 years BP.

  19. Transcriptional Corepressor SMILE Recruits SIRT1 to Inhibit Nuclear Receptor Estrogen Receptor-related Receptor γ Transactivation*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuan-Bin; Park, Jeong-Hoh; Kim, Don-Kyu; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Oh, Sangmi; Park, Seung Bum; Shong, Minho; Lee, In-Kyu; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2009-01-01

    SMILE (small heterodimer partner interacting leucine zipper protein) has been identified as a corepressor of the glucocorticoid receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α. Here we show that SMILE also represses estrogen receptor-related receptor γ (ERRγ) transactivation. Knockdown of SMILE gene expression increases ERRγ activity. SMILE directly interacts with ERRγ in vitro and in vivo. Domain mapping analysis showed that SMILE binds to the AF2 domain of ERRγ. SMILE represses ERRγ transactivation partially through competition with coactivators PGC-1α, PGC-1β, and GRIP1. Interestingly, the repression of SMILE on ERRγ is released by SIRT1 inhibitors, a catalytically inactive SIRT1 mutant, and SIRT1 small interfering RNA but not by histone protein deacetylase inhibitor. In vivo glutathione S-transferase pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays validated that SMILE physically interacts with SIRT1. Furthermore, the ERRγ inverse agonist GSK5182 enhances the interaction of SMILE with ERRγ and SMILE-mediated repression. Knockdown of SMILE or SIRT1 blocks the repressive effect of GSK5182. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that GSK5182 augments the association of SMILE and SIRT1 on the promoter of the ERRγ target PDK4. GSK5182 and adenoviral overexpression of SMILE cooperate to repress ERRγ-induced PDK4 gene expression, and this repression is released by overexpression of a catalytically defective SIRT1 mutant. Finally, we demonstrated that ERRγ regulates SMILE gene expression, which in turn inhibits ERRγ. Overall, these findings implicate SMILE as a novel corepressor of ERRγ and recruitment of SIRT1 as a novel repressive mechanism for SMILE and ERRγ inverse agonist. PMID:19690166

  20. Obituary: David L. Band (1957-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominsky, Lynn

    2011-12-01

    David L. Band, of Potomac Maryland, died on March 16, 2009 succumbing to a long battle with spinal cord cancer. His death at the age of 52 came as a shock to his many friends and colleagues in the physics and astronomy community. Band showed an early interest and exceptional aptitude for physics, leading to his acceptance at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as an undergraduate student in 1975. After graduating from MIT with an undergraduate degree in Physics, Band continued as a graduate student in Physics at Harvard University. His emerging interest in Astrophysics led him to the Astronomy Department at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), where he did his dissertation work with Jonathan Grindlay. His dissertation (1985) entitled "Non-thermal Radiation Mechanisms and Processes in SS433 and Active Galactic Nuclei" was "pioneering work on the physics of jets arising from black holes and models for their emission, including self-absorption, which previewed much to come, and even David's own later work on Gamma-ray Bursts," according to Grindlay who remained a personal friend and colleague of Band's. Following graduate school, Band held postdoctoral positions at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley and the Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences at the University of California San Diego where he worked on the BATSE experiment that was part of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), launched in 1991. BATSE had as its main objective the study of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and made significant advances in this area of research. Band became a world-renowned figure in the emerging field of GRB studies. He is best known for his widely-used analytic form of gamma-ray burst spectra known as the "Band Function." After the CGRO mission ended, Band moved to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he worked mainly on classified research but continued to work on GRB energetics and spectra. When NASA planned

  1. "Mona Lisa, Mona Lisa--Men Have Named You": Smiles as a Social Fact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that a longitudinal content analysis of smiling by senior women in college yearbooks provides beginning sociological students with an excellent way to discover many sociological concepts. Presents a classroom assignment in which students code college yearbooks for female smiles and make hypotheses about their findings. (CFR)

  2. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-25

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a "smile contour" delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  3. Laughing and Smiling to Manage Trouble in French-Language Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petitjean, Cécile; González-Martínez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with communicative functions of laughter and smiling in the classroom studied using a conversation analytical approach. Analysing a corpus of video-recorded French first-language lessons, we show how students sequentially organise laughter and smiling, and use them to preempt, solve or assess a problematic action. We also focus…

  4. Differences between Children and Adults in the Recognition of Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Colle, Livia

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences between 8-year-olds (n = 80) and adults (n = 80) in recognition of felt versus faked enjoyment smiles by using a newly developed picture set that is based on the Facial Action Coding System. The authors tested the effect of different facial action units (AUs) on judgments of smile authenticity. Multiple…

  5. Effects of Environmental Events on Smiling and Laughing Behavior in Angelman Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Demetriades, Louisa; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the variability of smiling and laughing behaviors of three children (ages 7-17) with Angelman syndrome. Results found laughing and smiling increased during social situations and occurred at low levels during non-social situations. The behaviors, therefore, did not occur totally inappropriately, as has been suggested. (Contains…

  6. Effects of Social Stimuli on Laughing and Smiling in Young Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, David M.; Gernat, Eric; Teichman, Heather

    2006-01-01

    The effects of social stimuli present and absent on laughing and smiling in 2 young children with Angelman syndrome were assessed via a multielement design. Results indicated that laughing and smiling for either child was unaffected by the social stimuli assessed in the social interaction condition. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of…

  7. Brief Report: A Longitudinal Study of Excessive Smiling and Laughing in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dawn; Horsler, Kate; Mount, Rebecca; Oliver, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Elevated laughing and smiling is a key characteristic of the Angelman syndrome behavioral phenotype, with cross-sectional studies reporting changes with environment and age. This study compares levels of laughing and smiling in 12 participants across three experimental conditions [full social interaction (with eye contact), social interaction with…

  8. When Does the Brain Distinguish between Genuine and Ambiguous Smiles? An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Marrero, Hipolito; Beltran, David

    2013-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the processing time course of ambiguous facial expressions with a smiling mouth but neutral, fearful, or angry eyes, in comparison with genuinely happy faces (a smile and happy eyes) and non-happy faces (neutral, fearful, or angry mouth and eyes). Participants judged whether the faces…

  9. Laughing and Smiling to Manage Trouble in French-Language Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petitjean, Cécile; González-Martínez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with communicative functions of laughter and smiling in the classroom studied using a conversation analytical approach. Analysing a corpus of video-recorded French first-language lessons, we show how students sequentially organise laughter and smiling, and use them to preempt, solve or assess a problematic action. We also focus…

  10. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a “smile contour” delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  11. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a “smile contour” delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile. PMID:26911450

  12. The impact of occlusal plane cant along with gingival display on smile attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Kaya, B; Uyar, R

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of occlusal plane cant in conjunction with maxillary gingival display on perception of smile attractiveness by orthodontists, dentists, and laypersons. Faculty of Dentistry at Baskent University. A total of 204 raters for smile attractiveness. A frontal intra-oral photograph of aligned teeth was modified using image processing software. Six different occlusal lines representing 0° to 5° cants were obtained by tilting the photographs. Each occlusal cant was adjusted in five manners resulting in five different gingival display amounts. Attractiveness of the 30 different smiles was evaluated by 204 raters divided into three groups (n = 68 in each group). Both occlusal cant (p < 0.001) and gingival display amount (p < 0.001) had a statistically significant influence on smile attractiveness. Smile attractiveness scores with reference to amount of gingival display showed a significant difference between rater groups (p < 0.001). Orthodontists preferred 1-mm coverage of upper central incisors by the upper lip, whereas dentists and laypersons preferred 2 mm. Significant (p < 0.001) interaction was observed between occlusal cant and gingival display amount, which influenced smile attractiveness. Increase in both occlusal plane cant and gingival display negatively influences smile attractiveness. The influence of occlusal plane cant becomes less when gingival display increases, whereas the influence of gingival display decreases when occlusal cant increases. Dentists are more generous than orthodontists, while laypersons are the most generous regarding smile attractiveness scores. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Upper lip changes and gingival exposure on smiling: vertical dimension analysis.

    PubMed

    Miron, Hagai; Calderon, Shlomo; Allon, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate and quantify upper lip soft-tissue changes in the vertical dimensions both at rest and at maximum smile, and to examine the correlation between upper labial vestibular attachment height and maxillary gingival exposure on smiling. Seventy-two volunteers (36 men, 36 women) aged 20 to 40 (mean, 30.49 years) were recruited for this study. For each subject, 9 measurements of upper lip position and maxillary incisor crown height at rest and in maximum smile were recorded. A statistically significant sexual dimorphism was apparent in most of the measured variables. Relaxed external upper lip length was 3.1 mm shorter in the women than in the men. The mean maxillary central incisor display at rest was 1.78 mm greater in the women than in the men. A high smile line was 2.5 times more prevalent in the women. The upper lip was shortened by 30% in subjects with a high smile line compared with 23% in subjects with a low smile line. The following findings were observed in subjects with a high smile pattern: (1) short upper lip length, (2) low smiling/resting upper lip length ratio, (3) inferior attachment of the upper labial vestibule, and (4) prominent upper lip vermilion. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [The Temporal Smile. Speech therapy for facial palsy patients after temporal lengthening myoplasty].

    PubMed

    Lambert-Prou, M-P

    2003-10-01

    We present our approach to speech therapy developed for patients with definitive peripheral facial palsy treated by temporal lengthening myoplasty. The main goal is to rehabilitate smiling function, a major component in social communication codes, by transferring labial and jugal functions to the transferred temporal muscle. Several phases are involved. The first phase, termed the Mandibular Smile involves mobilization of the mandible (original function of the temporal) by contraction of the transferred temporal and inducing an elevation of the commissura labiorum. The second phase, the Voluntary Temporal Smile is obtained by contraction of the temporal independently of mandibular movement which remains under voluntary control. The smile produces should become as symmetrical as possible. Finally, the last phase is designed to achieve a spontaneous smile independent of mandibular movement Spontaneous Temporal Smile. Temporal contraction should produce both a "real" expressive smile and good quality articulate speech, saliva evacuation, prehension, and labial junction. Acquisition of the Temporal Smile involves cerebral plasticity implying rehabilitation processes both on the peripheral and central levels.

  15. Differences between Children and Adults in the Recognition of Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Colle, Livia

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences between 8-year-olds (n = 80) and adults (n = 80) in recognition of felt versus faked enjoyment smiles by using a newly developed picture set that is based on the Facial Action Coding System. The authors tested the effect of different facial action units (AUs) on judgments of smile authenticity. Multiple…

  16. Brief Report: A Longitudinal Study of Excessive Smiling and Laughing in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dawn; Horsler, Kate; Mount, Rebecca; Oliver, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Elevated laughing and smiling is a key characteristic of the Angelman syndrome behavioral phenotype, with cross-sectional studies reporting changes with environment and age. This study compares levels of laughing and smiling in 12 participants across three experimental conditions [full social interaction (with eye contact), social interaction with…

  17. Impact of Treatment Decentration on Higher-Order Aberrations after SMILE

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenwen; Cheng, Xinliang; Cai, Jianru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate decentration following femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and sub-Bowman keratomileusis (SBK) and its impact on higher-order aberrations (HOAs). Methods. Prospective, nonrandom, and comparison study. There were 96 eyes of 52 patients who received SMILE and 96 eyes of 49 patients who received SBK in this study. Decentration was calculated 6 months after surgery with Pentacam. HOAs and visual acuity after the surgery were examined for patients in both groups before and 6 months after surgery. Results. The mean decentration displacement in SMILE group was significantly less than SBK group (P = 0.020). 89 eyes were decentered within 0.50 mm after SMILE and SBK. The association between vertical decentration and the induced spherical aberration was insignificant in SMILE group (P = 0.035). There was an association between decentration and safety index, efficacy index, vertical coma, spherical aberration, and HOAs in root mean square (RMS, μm) after SBK (all P < 0.05). No difference was found in uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, safety index, efficacy index, and wavefront aberrations between the two subgroups at any delimited value after SMILE (all P > 0.05). Decentration exceeding 0.37 mm affected vertical coma and RMSh of SBK eyes (P = 0.002, 0.005). Conclusion. SMILE surgery achieved more accurate centration than SBK surgery. Vertical decentration is associated with the induced spherical aberration in SMILE. PMID:28396804

  18. When Does the Brain Distinguish between Genuine and Ambiguous Smiles? An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Marrero, Hipolito; Beltran, David

    2013-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the processing time course of ambiguous facial expressions with a smiling mouth but neutral, fearful, or angry eyes, in comparison with genuinely happy faces (a smile and happy eyes) and non-happy faces (neutral, fearful, or angry mouth and eyes). Participants judged whether the faces…

  19. Relationship between Hyperactivity of Depressor Septi Nasi Muscle and Changes of Alar Base and Flaring during Smile

    PubMed Central

    Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash; Rezaei, Ezatollah; Zanjani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperactivity of depressor septi nasi muscle leads to smiling deformity and nasal tip depression. Lateral fascicles of this muscle help in widening the nostrils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length changes and the alar base and the alar flaring changes during smile. METHODS Standard photographs are performed in the face and lateral views with forward gaze in the repose and maximum smile. Nasal length, alar base, and alar flaring were measured on the prints of the photographs. To decrease possible errors in the size of the printed photographs, middle face height from glabella to ANS was measured in the lateral view and the interpupil distance in the face view to standardize the measurements. RESULTS Fifty cases were enrolled in this study. In 39 cases (78%), the nasal length was increased during smile. Forty-six cases (92%) had an increase in alar base diameter during smile. Alar flaring during smile increased in 48 cases (96%). Nasal length and alar base changes during smiling were not significantly correlated. Nasal length and alar flaring changes during smiling were not significantly related too. On the other hand, alar base and alar flaring changes during smile showed correlation. Alar base and alar flaring changes during smile were not significantly different in hyperactive and non-hyperactive cases. CONCLUSION Nasal length change during smiling and hypertrophy of the medial fascicles of depressor septi nasi were not related to alar base or alar flaring change during smile. PMID:27308240

  20. Relationship between Hyperactivity of Depressor Septi Nasi Muscle and Changes of Alar Base and Flaring during Smile.

    PubMed

    Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash; Rezaei, Ezatollah; Zanjani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity of depressor septi nasi muscle leads to smiling deformity and nasal tip depression. Lateral fascicles of this muscle help in widening the nostrils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length changes and the alar base and the alar flaring changes during smile. Standard photographs are performed in the face and lateral views with forward gaze in the repose and maximum smile. Nasal length, alar base, and alar flaring were measured on the prints of the photographs. To decrease possible errors in the size of the printed photographs, middle face height from glabella to ANS was measured in the lateral view and the interpupil distance in the face view to standardize the measurements. Fifty cases were enrolled in this study. In 39 cases (78%), the nasal length was increased during smile. Forty-six cases (92%) had an increase in alar base diameter during smile. Alar flaring during smile increased in 48 cases (96%). Nasal length and alar base changes during smiling were not significantly correlated. Nasal length and alar flaring changes during smiling were not significantly related too. On the other hand, alar base and alar flaring changes during smile showed correlation. Alar base and alar flaring changes during smile were not significantly different in hyperactive and non-hyperactive cases. Nasal length change during smiling and hypertrophy of the medial fascicles of depressor septi nasi were not related to alar base or alar flaring change during smile.

  1. Smile analysis in rhinoplasty: a randomized study for comparing resection and transposition of the depressor septi nasi muscle.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Hormozi, Abdoljalil; Beiraghi-Toosi, Arash

    2014-02-01

    The depressor septi nasi muscle is responsible for smiling deformity. Its manipulation is beneficial in patients with muscle hypertrophy. In addition, it enhances the smile and tip-lip relationship. In this study, depressor septi nasi muscle excision through a transfixion incision is compared with its transposition through an upper labial sulcus incision. Two techniques of depressor septi nasi muscle treatment were performed randomly for rhinoplasty cases. Smile analysis in rhinoplasty, consisting of measurements of nasal length, nasal diagonal, tip projection, and upper lip height, and noting transverse upper labial crease in repose and full smile, was performed on preoperative and postoperative photographs. One hundred patients were studied in two equal groups. Preoperatively, tip projection and upper lip height were decreased significantly with smiling. Generally, the effect of smiling on all five parameters was decreased significantly following rhinoplasty. The two different techniques were not significantly different in decreasing the effects of smiling on nasal length, nasal diagonal, tip projection, upper lip height, or transverse crease. The two different techniques were the same in decreasing the effects of smiling. The authors recommend smile analysis in rhinoplasty, consisting of measurement of nasal length, nasal diagonal, tip projection, and upper lip height, and noting transverse upper labial crease in repose and during smiling, before rhinoplasty for preoperative evaluation and after the operation for outcome assessment. Depressor septi nasi muscle treatment should be considered if a decrease in tip projection or upper lip height with smiling or a transverse upper labial crease during smiling is extraordinary or unsightly. Therapeutic, II.

  2. Positive Feeling, Negative Meaning: Visualizing the Mental Representations of In-Group and Out-Group Smiles

    PubMed Central

    Dotsch, Ron; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Even though smiles are seen as universal facial expressions, research shows that there exist various kinds of smiles (i.e., affiliative smiles, dominant smiles). Accordingly, we suggest that there also exist various mental representations of smiles. Which representation is employed in cognition may depend on social factors, such as the smiling person’s group membership: Since in-group members are typically seen as more benevolent than out-group members, in-group smiles should be associated with more benevolent social meaning than those conveyed by out-group members. We visualized in-group and out-group smiles with reverse correlation image classification. These visualizations indicated that mental representations of in-group smiles indeed express more benevolent social meaning than those of out-group smiles. The affective meaning of these visualized smiles was not influenced by group membership. Importantly, the effect occurred even though participants were not instructed to attend to the nature of the smile, pointing to an automatic association between group membership and intention. PMID:26963621

  3. Analysis of the imaging method for assessment of the smile of laser diode bars.

    PubMed

    Martí-López, Luis; Ramos-de-Campos, José A; Furlan, Walter D

    2009-09-10

    We study imaging systems designed to assess the smile of laser diode bars (LDBs). The magnification matrix is derived from the required sampling period and the geometries of the LDBs and the charge-coupled device (CCD) array. These image-forming systems present in-plane pure translation invariance, but in the case of anamorphic ones, lack in-plane rotation invariance. It is shown that the smile parameters of the image of the LDB are linked with the smile parameters of the LDB by simple mathematical expressions. The spatial resolution of such optical systems is estimated at approximately 1 microm for a mean wavelength of lambda approximately 800 nm. Our results suggest that, with the current state-of-the-art, the formation of imaging methods for LDB smile assessment can be used to assess smile heights > or = 1 microm.

  4. Redefining treatment of gummy smile with Botox--a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpreet; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sharma, Poonam; Kapoor, Pranav; Roy, Pinaki

    2014-01-01

    Excessive contraction of upper lip elevator muscles is one of the many ascribed reasons of gummy smiles for which patients seek treatment. Myriad numbers of invasive surgical procedures have been employed for the improvement of the condition, but increased cost and involved risks act as major deterrent. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been widely used in the management of several conditions associated with excessive muscular contraction and pain. This article aims to highlight the efficacy of BTX-A in treatment of gummy smiles. Three adult patients with gummy smiles due to hyperfunctional upper lip muscles were injected with BTX-A injections under electromyographic guidance. This minimally invasive treatment modality produced esthetically pleasing smiles in these patients, lasting up to 3-5 months. BTX-A injections at preselected hyperactive muscle sites provides novel and cosmetically viable alternative for management of gummy smiles caused by hypefunctional upper lip musculature.

  5. A study to evaluate the prevalence of golden proportion and RED proportion in aesthetically pleasing smiles.

    PubMed

    Meshramkar, R; Patankar, A; Lekha, K; Nadiger, R

    2013-03-01

    A beautiful smile is the most striking feature in the face. However beauty is not absolute and is extremely subjective. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of 'Golden proportion and Recurring aesthetic dental proportion' in individuals presenting attractive smiles. 214 smile photographs of students of SDM Dental College aged 18-25 years with natural dentition were analysed for their attractiveness based on 6 predetermined criteria. Further, smiles were digitally analysed to evaluate the prevalence of Golden Proportion and Recurring Aesthetic dental proportion (RED) and obtained data was statistically analysed. RED proportion was present in 6.6% of population as opposed to golden proportion which was found in 0.6% of population. It was found that 70% RED was more prevalent than Golden Proportion in attractive as well as unattractive smiles.

  6. CurlySMILES: a chemical language to customize and annotate encodings of molecular and nanodevice structures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    CurlySMILES is a chemical line notation which extends SMILES with annotations for storage, retrieval and modeling of interlinked, coordinated, assembled and adsorbed molecules in supramolecular structures and nanodevices. Annotations are enclosed in curly braces and anchored to an atomic node or at the end of the molecular graph depending on the annotation type. CurlySMILES includes predefined annotations for stereogenicity, electron delocalization charges, extra-molecular interactions and connectivity, surface attachment, solutions, and crystal structures and allows extensions for domain-specific annotations. CurlySMILES provides a shorthand format to encode molecules with repetitive substructural parts or motifs such as monomer units in macromolecules and amino acids in peptide chains. CurlySMILES further accommodates special formats for non-molecular materials that are commonly denoted by composition of atoms or substructures rather than complete atom connectivity. PMID:21214931

  7. The specific molecular identification of life experiment ( SMILE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, M. R.; Cullen, D. C.; Bannister, N. P.; Grant, W. D.; Henry, O.; Jones, R.; McKnight, D.; Thompson, D. P.; Wilson, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    We describe a compact, highly integrated instrument concept for the detection and identification of a wide range of molecules associated with extinct/extant life or potential life processes. The Specific Molecular Identification of Life Experiment ( SMILE) will be sensitive to the presence of a range of target molecules using both electrical and optical transduction techniques, and incorporates molecular imprinted polymers in addition to traditional biological receptors such as antibodies. A number of versions of the concept are possible depending on available resources e.g. mass, volume, etc. The full concept utilises a novel imaging interferometer where a large number of molecular receptors are deposited on the measurement plane of an imaging interferometer and read out by an imaging detector, enabling multiple targets - biomarkers - within a sample to be measured simultaneously. The optics can also form the basis of an UV-NIR imaging Fourier spectrometer allowing basic mineralogy studies to be conducted using optical properties to assist in the determination of the geological context of the samples. By incorporating micro-fabricated transducer arrays, micro-fluidics and artificial molecular recognition systems, as well as recombinant antibody technology with appropriate integration methods, SMILE forms a compact and robust "Life Marker Chip" which has been proposed for future planetary missions including ESA's ExoMars mission, where the instrument offers the possibility of conducting a direct in situ search for signs of past or present biological activity on Mars. In addition to its role in planetary exploration, derivatives of SMILE have multiple terrestrial applications in fields such as forensic analysis and environmental monitoring.

  8. Improving gingival smile by means of guided bone regeneration principles

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo de Almeida; Brandão, Roberto Carlos Bodart; Martinelli, Carolina Borges; Pignaton, Túlio Bonna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of guided bone regeneration (GBR) carried out with xenogenic bone substitute (Bio-OssTM) and collagen resorbable membrane (Bio-GideTM) to improve gingival smile (GS) in patients with excessive vertical maxillary growth (EVMG). Methods: Twelve healthy women aged between 20 and 49 years old (mean age of 26 years), with 5 mm or more of gingival exposure during fully posed smile (FPS) due to EVMG, were included. Baseline digital photographs were taken with standardized head position at rest and FPS. In eight out of 12 cases, crown lengthening procedure was indicated and the initial incision was made 2 to 4 mm from the gingival margin. In four cases, with no indication for crown lengthening procedure, a sulcular incision was performed. GBR was performed in all cases, using micro screws and/or titanium mesh associated with Bio-OssTM and Bio-GideTM. After 10 days, sutures were removed. Recall appointments were scheduled at 1, 6, and 12 months when standardized photographs were again taken. ImageToolTM software was used to measure the gingival exposure (GE) during FPS from the standardized close-up smile photographs at baseline and 12 months. Results: GE mean at baseline was 275.44 mm2. After 12 months, patients who undergone exclusively GBR procedure, presented GE reduction of 40.7%, ∆ = 112.01 mm2 (statistically significant, p = 0.12), and patients who had crown lengthening associated with the graft had a reduction of 60%, ∆ = 167.01 mm2. Conclusion: Our results using GBR to improve GS in cases of EVMG showed an exceptionally high patient acceptance and satisfaction. One-year follow-up confirmed stable results. PMID:27409660

  9. The JIM interview. David Korn, MD.

    PubMed

    Korn, D

    1995-04-01

    When David Korn, MD, was named dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine on October 9, 1984, he assumed leadership of a world class research institution. Stanford was at the forefront of medicine in the areas of transplantation and oncology, and the steady influx of privately insured patients had generated a net operating surplus of $17 million in that year alone. However, in the same issue of the Stanford University Hospital newsletter which announced the selection of Korn as Dean, a small article appeared on a new prospective payment system based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). The article stated that the new system had begun smoothly, though some payments for cost outliers had been delayed. Other cost containment measures soon followed, most notably the implementation of managed care, and by 1990, Stanford was $14 million in the red. Buffeted by changes in medical reimbursement, competition with less costly hospitals, and a nasty squabble with Congress over indirect research costs, Stanford has been on the frontlines of a struggle now confronting many academic medical centers. After successfully consolidating the university's clinical services into a unified Stanford Health System, Korn announced that he would be stepping down as Dean on April 1. Interviewed in his office in Palo Alto, Korn reflected on the difficulties of dealing with managed care, the current financial state of the institution, and what Stanford's experience may predict for other academic medical centers.

  10. David J. Hofmann (1937-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshler, Terry; Butler, James H.; Solomon, Susan; Barnes, John E.; Schnell, Russell C.

    2009-12-01

    David J. Hofmann, a pioneer in stratospheric aerosol and ozone research, passed away in Boulder, Colo., on 11 August 2009. He was 72. Dave, a frequent contributor to AGU publications and meetings, was elected an AGU Fellow in 2006. His long and prolific scientific career was, as he would say, simple in concept: Make a long-term commitment to specific measurements, pay attention to the details, and focus on the important issues that the measurements raise. This is simple in concept yet challenging to maintain in a world of short-term contracts and budgets. That Dave sustained and led key measurement programs through 25 years at the University of Wyoming (UW), in Laramie, and 17 years with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL, which became the Global Monitoring Division (GMD) of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory) in Boulder, speaks volumes about the scientific and societal benefits that have resulted from his work. Most of the measurement programs he initiated, and the instruments he helped develop for them, continue today as testament to the value of his focus and lasting influence.

  11. David MacKay's wooden blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skilling, John

    2017-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir David MacKay FRS. In his inspiring last talk, MacKay discussed the problem of packing his young son's identical wooden blocks, of size 2×1×1. How many ways are there of packing n3/2 such blocks into a cubical box of volume n3? This is the same problem as finding the entropy of cubic packing of dimeric molecules, so the investigation is not merely childish. Here, I use this example as an exemplar of the use of nested sampling in computational inference. In this analogy, the posterior covers the "glassy" arrangements of non-overlapping blocks in the box, whereas the prior represents the wider set of unrestricted model configurations. The required number of possible glass states is the compressive prior-to-posterior fraction of the known number of model configurations. And the compression (as logarithm) is immediately available from the number of equilibrating iterations in nested sampling. The clarity of this example offers useful lessons for computational inference more generally.

  12. The SMILE fluxgate sensor: performance and possibilities of improvement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyayev, S.; Ivchenko, N.; Korepanov, V.; Marusenkov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Small Magnetometer in Low-Mass Experiment (SMILE) is a miniaturized triaxial fluxgate magnetometer with volume compensation incorporating efficient signal processing algorithms within a field programmable gate array (FPGA). SMILE was designed in collaboration between the Lviv Centre of Institute for Space Research (LC ISR) in Ukraine where the sensor was developed and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden where the electronics used to operate the instrument were designed and programmed. The SMILE magnetometer compares well with modern digital FGMs in resolution (20 bit, corresponding to 0.1 nT per bit ) and sample rate (up to 250 sample per second), but has significantly lower consumption (about 260 mW), smaller size (the sensor - 20x20x20 cubic millimeters, the first prototype of the electronic board - 120x80 square millimeters) and lower weight (the sensor - 21 g and the board - 80 g). Using the cubic coils for volume compensation, optimizing the sensor design and using Macor for main sensor parts resulted in achieving uniquely stable geometric parameters for such a small sensor. A calibration of the SMILE instrument was carried out at the Nurmijarvi Geophysical Observatory, showing high linearity (deviation no more than 6 nT along total ±50 μT scale) and low orthogonality error (<22 arcmin). The temperature coefficients of the scale factors were below 11 ppm/C and the deviation of the magnetic axes was about 3 arcsec per C in the range of -30 to +45 centidegrees. The bar-core fluxgate sensors are based on the two strips of amorphous Co-Fe-Si-B alloy of the dimensions 16x1x0.02 cubic millimeters. The sensors noise level is less than 30 pT/sqrt(Hz)at 1 Hz that it is rather good for such modest magnetic core volume. In the recent publications [1-3] the peculiarities of the electronic unit design, the signal detection algorithm and the results of the numerical simulation of the sensor magnetic core behavior during its excitation were

  13. Microsurgical reconstruction of the smile--contemporary trends.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Chang, James; Khosla, Rohit K

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Microsurgical innovation has introduced the modern age of dynamic reconstruction for facial palsy. This review will focus on microsurgical reconstruction for smile restoration in patients with long-standing facial palsy. The most common donor muscles and nerves will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of single-stage versus multi-stage reconstruction will be discussed. Contemporary trends will be highlighted and the authors' preferred practice outlined. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Facial Esthetics and Snap-On Smile.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lee; Bradshaw, Jonathan P; Marks, Murray K

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary enamel protein disorder affecting deciduous and secondary crown formation. The prevalence ranges from 1:700 to 1:14,000 depending on the population. These teeth may be hypoplastic, hypomineralized, or hypermineralized and are often discolored, sensitive and caries vulnerable. Patients often present with psychosocial issues due to appearance. Primary teeth are often treated with stainless steel crowns while secondary teeth are treated with full coverage esthetic crowns. The presenting preteen male here was fitted with Snap-On Smile? (www.snaponsmile.com). This treatment option provided cosmetic enhancement of the patient's appearance besides stabilization without altering the primary and secondary dentition during adolescent development.

  15. Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) history, fundamentals of a new refractive surgery technique and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the current status of the small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) procedure. Following the early work by Sekundo et al. and Shah et al., SMILE has become increasingly popular. The accuracy of the creation of the lenticule with the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec) has been verified using very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Visual and refractive outcomes have been shown to be similar to those achieved with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), notably in a large population reported by Hjortdal, Vestergaard et al. Safety in terms of the change in corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) has also been shown to be similar to LASIK. It was expected that there would be less postoperative dry eye after SMILE compared to LASIK because the anterior stroma is disturbed only by the small incision, meaning that the anterior corneal nerves should be less affected. A number of studies have demonstrated a lower reduction and faster recovery of corneal sensation after SMILE than LASIK. Some studies have also used confocal microscopy to demonstrate a lower decrease in subbasal nerve fiber density after SMILE than LASIK. The potential biomechanical advantages of SMILE have been modeled by Reinstein et al. based on the non-linearity of tensile strength through the stroma. Studies have reported a similar change in Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert) parameters after SMILE and LASIK, however, these have previously been shown to be unreliable as a representation of corneal biomechanics. Retreatment options after SMILE are discussed. Tissue addition applications of the SMILE procedure are also discussed including the potential for cryo-preservation of the lenticule for later reimplantation (Mohamed-Noriega, Angunawela, Lim et al.), and a new procedure referred to as endokeratophakia in which a myopic SMILE lenticule is implanted into a hyperopic patient (Pradhan et al.). Finally, studies reporting

  16. Smile analysis in different facial patterns and its correlation with underlying hard tissues.

    PubMed

    Grover, Neha; Kapoor, D N; Verma, Santosh; Bharadwaj, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    The subject's inherent growth pattern can be an effective factor in characteristics of smile. More vertical growth in the posterior maxilla than in the anterior maxilla could result in a changed relationship between the occlusal plane and the curvature of the lower lip upon smile. In order to broaden the understanding of how smile gets affected by growth pattern and the underlying hard tissues, the present study was undertaken to compare smile in various growth patterns, to determine sexual dimorphism, if any; as well as to correlate smile with underlying hard tissues. One hundred and fifty subjects were selected amongst the students in the Dental Institute and from the outpatient department of Department Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Sample selected for the study ranged in the age group of 17 to 25 years. Selected individuals were subjected to lateral head cephalometric radiography in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and videography. Cephalograms were traced and the subjects were divided into horizontal, average, and vertical growth pattern on the basis of GoGn-SN, lower anterior facial height, and Jaraback's ratio. The video clip was downloaded to obtain frame of posed smile. Cephalometric and photographic measurements were recorded and subjected to statistical analysis. The mean values of smile parameters were significantly higher in males as compared to females irrespective of the growth pattern. The mean incisal display, interlabial gap, lower lip to incisal edge distance, upper vertical lip length, and occlusal plane angle was highest in both males and females of vertical facial growth pattern group; whereas, the smile index, posterior corridor (left and right) were less in vertical facial growth pattern group in both males and females. Thus, the parameters in vertical dimension were increased in vertical growers whereas, the parameters in transverse dimension decreased. The facial growth pattern has significant influence on the

  17. Does the presence of unilateral maxillary incisor edge asymmetries influence the perception of smile esthetics?

    PubMed

    Betrine Ribeiro, Joanna; Alecrim Figueiredo, Bruna; Wilson Machado, Andre

    2017-07-08

    Determine orthodontists and laypersons' perception of maxillary central and lateral incisor edge asymmetries in full-face and close-up smiles. Four smile photos were selected for this study: two full-face and two close-up smile photos of two male subjects, a white man and an Afro-descendant man. Both were considered pleasant smiles, following some principles of an ideal smile. Images were digitally altered to create tooth wear asymmetries on the maxillary left central and lateral incisor in 0.5 mm increments. Final images were arranged randomly into a photo album and were shown to 86 judges (43 orthodontists and 43 laypersons). Judges were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images according to a visual analog scale. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Tukey's post hoc test and the Student t test. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean esthetic scores of the full-face and close-up smile photos. The most attractive smiles were those without asymmetries and those with 0.5 mm wear in the lateral incisor, whereas the least attractive ones were those with 1.0-1.5 mm wear in the central incisors. Statistically significant difference was found in the mean scores given by the judges in most cases. The orthodontists were more critical and assigned lower scores than the laypersons. The presence of maxillary incisor asymmetries is a critical factor influencing the perception of smile esthetics. The most attractive smiles of the men investigated were those without asymmetry and those with 0.5 mm incisor edge asymmetry in the lateral incisor. The presence of incisal asymmetries (especially in maxillary central incisors) negatively influences smile esthetics, corroborating the clinical hypothesis that the closer to the facial midline, the greater the need for symmetry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Groundwater Flow in the Arthur Marble Aquifer, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. K.

    2008-05-01

    Arthur Marble underlies the Takaka Valley and outcrops in Karst Uplands to east and west of the valley in the South Island of New Zealand. It is the principal groundwater aquifer in the region and host to the remarkable Waikoropupu Springs near the coast. With average flow of 13,300 L/s, the karstic springs have many interesting features including unusual size and clarity. This work uses rainfall and river level, natural tracer and chemical measurements to determine the recharge sources and nature of the flow system in the Arthur Marble Aquifer (AMA). Total recharge to the AMA of 19,750 L/s comes from three sources (Karst Uplands stream seepage, Takaka River seepage and Takaka Valley rainfall infiltration). Since 13,300 L/s is discharged at the springs, the remainder must escape via offshore springs (6,450 L/s). The oxygen-18 mass balance allows the contribution of each source to each spring to be determined; most of the flow to the Main Spring of the Waikoropupu Springs comes from the Karst Uplands. The offshore springs are mostly fed from the Takaka River. The chemical concentrations of the Main Spring show input of 0.5% of sea water on average, but varying with flow. This variation with flow shows that two water components (sea-water-bearing and non-sea-water-bearing) contribute to the spring's discharge. Tritium measurements spanning 40 years, and CFC-11 measurements, give a mean residence time of 8 years for the Main Spring water using the preferred two-component model. Our conceptual flow model, based on the flow, oxygen-18, chloride and tritium measurements, reveals that two different flow systems with different recharge sources are needed to explain the flow within the AMA. One system contains deeply penetrating old water with mean age 10.2 years and water volume 3 cubic kilometers, recharged from the Karst Uplands. The other, at shallow levels below the valley floor, has much younger water, with mean age 1.2 years and water volume 0.4 cubic kilometers

  19. The Smile Esthetic Index (SEI): A method to measure the esthetics of the smile. An intra-rater and inter-rater agreement study.

    PubMed

    Rotundo, Roberto; Nieri, Michele; Bonaccini, Daniele; Mori, Massimiliano; Lamberti, Elena; Massironi, Domenico; Giachetti, Luca; Franchi, Lorenzo; Venezia, Piero; Cavalcanti, Raffaele; Bondi, Elena; Farneti, Mauro; Pinchi, Vilma; Buti, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    To propose a method to measure the esthetics of the smile and to report its validation by means of an intra-rater and inter-rater agreement analysis. Ten variables were chosen as determinants for the esthetics of a smile: smile line and facial midline, tooth alignment, tooth deformity, tooth dischromy, gingival dischromy, gingival recession, gingival excess, gingival scars and diastema/missing papillae. One examiner consecutively selected seventy smile pictures, which were in the frontal view. Ten examiners, with different levels of clinical experience and specialties, applied the proposed assessment method twice on the selected pictures, independently and blindly. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Fleiss' kappa) statistics were performed to analyse the intra-rater and inter-rater agreement. Considering the cumulative assessment of the Smile Esthetic Index (SEI), the ICC value for the inter-rater agreement of the 10 examiners was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51 to 0.72), representing a substantial agreement. Intra-rater agreement ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. Inter-rater agreement (Fleiss' kappa statistics) calculated for each variable ranged from 0.17 to 0.75. The SEI was a reproducible method, to assess the esthetic component of the smile, useful for the diagnostic phase and for setting appropriate treatment plans.

  20. TDRS-L Tribute Decal to Arthur "Skip" Mackey, Jr.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-22

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – This memorial message was added to the Atlas V rocket for NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, or TDRS-L, spacecraft being prepared for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Launch Complex 41. Arthur J. "Skip" Mackey Jr. was the “Voice of NASA” during the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s for flight commentary after liftoff for expendable vehicles launched from Cape Canaveral. Mackey served as branch chief for Telemetry and Communications at Hangar AE in the agency’s Expendable Launch Vehicle Program and then the Launch Services Program for 39 years. He died in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., on Nov. 19, 2013. The TDRS-L spacecraft is the second of three new satellites designed to ensure vital operational continuity for NASA by expanding the lifespan of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System TDRSS fleet, which consists of eight satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The spacecraft provide tracking, telemetry, command and high bandwidth data return services for numerous science and human exploration missions orbiting Earth. These include NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the International Space Station. TDRS-L has a high-performance solar panel designed for more spacecraft power to meet the growing S-band communications requirements. TDRSS is one of NASA Space Communication and Navigation’s SCaN three networks providing space communications to NASA’s missions. For more information more about TDRS-L, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/tdrs To learn more about SCaN, visit: www.nasa.gov/scan For more on "Skip" Mackey go to: http://www.nasa.gov/content/skip-mackey-remembered-by-colleagues-as-voice-of-nasa/ Image credit: United Launch Alliance

  1. Boundaries and interfaces in materials: The David A. Smith symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, R.C. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Clark, W.A.T. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); King, A.H. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Williams, D.B. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States

    1998-01-01

    Just over a year ago David Smith died. Then the loss of a distinguished scientist and dedicated teacher was mourned. Now it is time to celebrate his accomplishments both as a scientist and teacher and this book serves as a reminder of his many contributions to the field of boundaries and interfaces. Researchers from ten countries contributed their work to the symposium, many of whom were former students of David from his years in Oxford. This emphasizes David's tremendous effect on the career of many established scientists through his role as both a teacher and an advisor. Separate abstracts were prepared for 38 papers in this book.

  2. Digital Smile Design concept delineates the final potential result of crown lengthening and porcelain veneers to correct a gummy smile.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, Richard; Arias, David Montalvo; David, Steven

    Prior to initiating any treatment, it is necessary to visualize the desired outcomes. It then becomes possible to formulate the steps required to achieve this result. Digital Smile Design (DSD) utilizes patient input and information gathered through diagnostic procedures to create an esthetic treatment scheme. In the case presented here, the NYUCD Esthetic Evaluation Form, intraoral and extraoral photographs, mounted diagnostic casts, physical examination, and radiographs were the diagnostic modalities. The gathered information served as a starting point for a wax-up and intraoral mock-up. This case report demonstrates how the DSD served as a template for crown lengthening procedures and design of the final porcelain veneer restorations.

  3. Status of SMILES research products and retrieval algorithm description.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Philippe; Kasai, Yasuko; Ochiai, Satoshi; Sagawa, Hideo; Mendrok, Jana; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal P.; Moller, Joakim; Murayama, Yasuhiro

    The super-conducting SubMillimeter wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) is a high sensi-tive radiometer to study atmospheric dynamics and chemistry with a strong emphasis on the stratosphere. It is the result of the collaboration between the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications and Technol-ogy (NICT, Japan). It is operating from the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) onboard the International Space Station. Observations started on October, 2009. The latitude coverage is typically from -38° to 65° . The main products are the distribution from the upper-troposphere to the mesosphere of O3 and its isotopes, H35 Cl, H37 Cl, ClO, BrO, HO2 , HOCl, H2 O2 , CH3 CN and H2 O. Thanks to its high signal to noise ratio, SMILES is very well suited for observing radicals with very low abundances such as BrO and HO2 . Furthermore due to the ISS orbit precession, it is possible to follow their diurnal variation at given latitudes. The operational processing of the observations is done in JAXA for levels 1b and 2 data, and in NICT for level 3 data. A system for research on retrieval algorithms has been developed by NICT. The results are named research products. In this presentation, we will present the status and the algorithms for the NICT research products as well as the ongoing research including plans for new products.

  4. Hearing smiles and frowns in normal and whisper registers.

    PubMed

    Tartter, V C; Braun, D

    1994-10-01

    Two experiments measured listeners' abilities to detect facial expression in unfamiliar speech in normal and whisper registers. Acoustic differences between speech produced with neutral or marked facial expression were also assessed. Experiment 1 showed that in a forced-choice identification task, listeners could accurately select frowned speech as such, and neutral speech as happier sounding than frowned speech in the same speakers. Listeners were able to judge frowning in the same speakers' whispered speech. Relative to neutral speech, frowning lowers formant frequencies and increases syllable duration. In both registers, judgments of frowning and its relative happiness were significantly poorer for lip-rounded vowels, suggesting that listeners may recover lip protrusion in making judgments. Experiment 2 replicated the finding [V. Tartter, Percept. Psychophys. 27, 24-27 (1980)] that listeners can select speech produced with a smile as happier sounding than neutral speech in normal register, and extended the findings to whisper register. Relative to neutral, smiling increased second formant frequency. Results are discussed with respect to nonverbal auditory emotion prototypes and with respect to the direct realist theory of speech perception.

  5. One Visit Providing Desirable Smile by Laser Application

    PubMed Central

    Fekrazad, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Providing desirable smile is one of the main concerns in cosmetic dentistry. Hyperpigmentation is one of the esthetic concerns especially in gummy smile patients. Lasers with different wavelength are used for oral surgery including Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2), Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG), Erbium family and diode laser. In this case, all esthetic procedures including gingival depigmentation, caries detection and removal were done by laser technology in one session. Case study: A 40- year-old male with a chief complaint of black gingiva in upper jaw was referred. The right side of maxillary was anesthetized and depigmentation was done by Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er-Cr: YSGG) laser. Due to scores obtained from Diagnodent which indicated caries in dentin, the cavities were prepared by Er-Cr:YSGG laser. The cavities were restored by composite resin. The patient was advised to keep oral hygiene instructions and use mouthwash. Results: The patient reported no pain after surgery and did not use any systemic antibiotic. After 4 weeks, complete healing was observed. Conclusion: Considering acceptable clinical outcome, Er-Cr: YSGG laser can be considered as an effective method for combination of soft and hard tissue treatment. PMID:25606339

  6. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Preissmann, Delphine; Chmetz, Florian; Duraku, Andrea; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:26074833

  7. Smile Train: The ascendancy of cleft care in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Subodh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Though India has an estimated population of one million untreated cleft patients, facilities for its treatment have been limited and are not evenly distributed across the country. Furthermore, a paucity of committed cleft surgeons in fewer hospitals to provide quality surgical treatment to these patients, poverty, illiteracy, superstitions and poor connectivity in some remote regions severely limit the chances of an average cleft lip patient born in India from receiving rational and effective comprehensive treatment for his/her malady. The Smile Train Project with its singular focus on cleft patients started its philanthropic activities in India in the year 2000. It made hospitals and included clefts surgeon equal partners in this programme and helped them treat as many cleft patients as they possibly could. The Project encouraged improvement of the training and infrastructure in various centres across the length and breadth of the region. The Project received an unprecedented success in terms of growth of number of centres, cleft surgeons and quantum of cleft patients reporting for treatment. The G S Memorial Hospital is one such partner hospital. It started innovative outreach programmes and took a holistic view of the needs of these patients and their families. With the support of the Smile Train, it has not only succeeded in providing treatment to more than 14,500 patients in 5 years, but has also devised innovative outreach programmes and seamlessly incorporated salient changes in the hospital system to suit the needs of the target population. PMID:19884676

  8. David A. Wright in ER-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-27

    David A. Wright is associate director for Center Operations at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. He was formerly director of Flight Operations. He is also a research pilot, flying NASA's ER-2 and T-38. The ER-2s are civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft and carry scientific instruments to study the Earth during worldwide deployments. Wright has more than 4,500 hours in six different aircraft. He held the position of deputy director of the Airborne Science Program at Dryden from 2002 until 2004. Wright came to Dryden after retiring from the U.S. Air Force as a lieutenant colonel. His final assignment was to the Joint Staff J3, Directorate of Operations at the Pentagon from November 1996 until August 1999. Prior to the Pentagon assignment, he served as commander of the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron at Beale Air Force Base near Marysville, Calif., the unit responsible for training all U-2 pilots. He was the operations officer for one the largest U-2 operations in history, flying combat missions against Iraq and managing an unprecedented U-2 flying schedule during the 1991 Desert Storm conflict. He was selected for the Air Force U-2 program in 1987 following duty as an aircraft commander in the E-3A AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) aircraft. Wright was a T-38 instructor for three years at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, following completion of pilot training in 1978. He graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1977 with a Bachelor of Science in mathematics and computer science. Wright earned a Master of Arts in Adult Education from Troy State University, Montgomery, Ala., in 1987, and a Master of Science in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College, Newport, R.I., in 1995.

  9. David Haussler, Ph.D., Lectures on Cancer Genomics - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In this lecture, Dr. David Haussler provides a historical overview of the field of genomics leading up to TCGA, including the Cancer Genomics Hub at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and the TCGA Pan-Cancer initiative.

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 SOUTH FACADE WITH MANURE PIT IN FOREGROUND - Longview Farm, North Dairy Barn, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  11. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR EAST WING LOOKING NORTH - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  12. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 SOUTH FACADE OF EAST WING - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  13. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 NORTH FACADE OF WEST WING FROM EAST NORTHEAST - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  15. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR EAST WING LOOKING NORTHEAST - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  16. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 EAST FACADE, PART OF NORTH FACADE, TAKEN FROM NORTHWEST - Longview Farm, North Dairy Barn, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 NORTH ELEVATION OF CENTRAL PORTION - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 NORTH ELEVATION OF CENTRAL PORTION, CLOSER - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  19. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR CENTRAL ROOM LOOKING WEST - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 NORTH FACADE OF WEST WING FROM NORTHEAST - Longview Farm, South Dairy Barn-Milkhouse, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO