Science.gov

Sample records for day reactor technologies

  1. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  2. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  3. Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors - history and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlíř, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core and also by the requirements of continuous 'on-line' reprocessing of the spent fuel. The history of Molten Salt Reactors reaches the period of fifties and sixties, when the first experimental Molten Salt Reactors were constructed and tested in ORNL (US). Several molten salt techniques dedicated to fresh molten salt fuel processing and spent fuel reprocessing were studied and developed in those days. Today, after nearly thirty years of discontinuance, a renewed interest in the Molten Salt Reactor technology is observed. Current experimental R&D activities in the area of Molten Salt Reactor technology are realized by a relatively small number of research institutions mainly in the EU, Russia and USA. The main effort is directed primarily to the development of separation processes suitable for the molten salt fuel processing and reprocessing technology. The techniques under development are molten salt/liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media, fused salt volatilization techniques and gas extraction from the molten salt medium.

  4. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  5. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  6. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  7. The CANDU Reactor System: An Appropriate Technology.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J A

    1978-02-10

    CANDU power reactors are characterized by the combination of heavy water as moderator and pressure tubes to contain the fuel and coolant. Their excellent neutron economy provides the simplicity and low costs of once-through natural-uranium fueling. Future benefits include the prospect of a near-breeder thorium fuel cycle to provide security of fuel supply without the need to develop a new reactor such as the fast breeder. These and other features make the CANDU system an appropriate technology for countries, like Canada, of intermediate economic and industrial capacity. PMID:17788102

  8. 78 FR 64200 - Innovative Spectrum Sharing Technology Day Event

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Innovative Spectrum Sharing Technology Day Event... Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology...

  9. Development of pyro-processing technology for thorium-fuelled molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, J.; Straka, M.; Szatmary, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is classified as the non-classical nuclear reactor type based on the specific features coming out from the use of liquid fuel circulating in the MSR primary circuit. Other uniqueness of the reactor type is based on the fact that the primary circuit of the reactor is directly connected with the on-line reprocessing technology, necessary for keeping the reactor in operation for a long run. MSR is the only reactor system, which can be effectively operated within the {sup 232}Th- {sup 233}U fuel cycle as thorium breeder with the breeding factor significantly higher than one. The fuel cycle technologies proposed as ford the fresh thorium fuel processing as for the primary circuit fuel reprocessing are pyrochemical and mainly fluoride. Although these pyrochemical processes were never previously fully verified, the present-day development anticipates an assumption for the successful future deployment of the thorium-fuelled MSR technology. (authors)

  10. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maya, Isaac; Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Watanabe, Yoichi; McClanahan, James A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu, Carman, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (˜100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development.

  11. Lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Kapernick, R. J.; McClure, P. R.; Trapp, T. J.

    2013-10-01

    A small lead-bismuth eutectic-cooled reactor concept (referred to as the Hyperion reactor concept) is being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Hyperion Power Generation. In this report, a critical assessment of the lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor is presented based on currently available knowledge. Included are: material compatibility, oxygen control, thermal hydraulics, polonium control. The key advances in the technology and their applications to Hyperion reactor design are analyzed. Also, the near future studies in main areas of the technology are recommended for meeting the design requirements.

  12. Sun-Earth Day - Teaching Heliophysics Through Education Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.

    2010-01-01

    Sun-Earth Day (SED) is an Education and Outreach program supported by the U.S, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The intent of the program is to teach students and the general public about Heliophysics (the science of the study of the Sun, how it varies, and how solar dynamics affect the rest of the solar system, especially the Earth). The program was begun ten years ago. Each year since that time a particular day has been designated as "Sun-Earth Day ,,. Usually the day of the spring equinox (March 20 or 21) is Sun-Earth Day, but other days have been used as well. Each year a theme is chosen relating to Heliophysics and events reflecting that theme are planned not only for Sun-Earth Day, but for the entire year. From the very beginning educational technology was emphasized in the events in order to effectively reach wide audiences with the SED message. The main approach has been to have a "webcast" related to each year's theme, often from a location that supports the theme as well. For example, a webcast took place from the Mayan pyramids at Chichen Itza, Mexico to highlight the theme of "Ancient Observatories, Timeless Knowledge". Webcasts were not the only technology employed, however. Many of the themes centered on the dynamic nature of the Sun and the effects that solar storms can have on interplanetary space and in our day-to-day life on Earth. Activities for tracking when solar storms happen and how they affect the Earth were developed and brought together in an educational package called Space Weather Action Centers. This project is explained in more detail in another presentation in this session being given by Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis. Recent Sun-Earth Days have utilized "social networking" technologies to reach widespread groups on the internet. Podcasts, Vodcasts, Facebook, Twitter, and Second Life are the types of network technologies being employed now. The NASA Distance learning Network is another method for bringing Sun

  13. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zolkaffly, Muhammed Zulfakar; Han, Ki-In

    2014-02-12

    The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology.

  14. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolkaffly, Muhammed Zulfakar; Han, Ki-In

    2014-02-01

    The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology.

  15. Convocation: Opening Day Remarks, Fashion Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marvin

    These opening day remarks by the Fashion Institute of Technology's (FIT's) retiring president focus on the Institute's educational history, mission, and future. First, the paper discusses FIT's finances which are undergoing a period of retrenchment due to a $700,000 cut in state aid, and an anticipated $500,000 reduction in city funds. The next…

  16. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R. B.; Park, Y. S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J.

    2012-07-30

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  17. Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m{sup 2} or 2116 ft{sup 2}) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage.

  18. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  19. NASA-EPA automotive thermal reactor technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P.; Hibbard, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The status of the NASA-EPA automotive thermal reactor technology program is summarized. This program is concerned primarily with materials evaluation, reactor design, and combustion kinetics. From engine dynamometer tests of candidate metals and coatings, two ferritic iron alloys (GE 1541 and Armco 18-SR) and a nickel-base alloy (Inconel 601) offer promise for reactor use. None of the coatings evaluated warrant further consideration. Development studies on a ceramic thermal reactor appear promising based on initial vehicle road tests. A chemical kinetic study has shown that gas temperatures of at least 900 K to 1000 K are required for the effective cleanup of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, but that higher temperatures require shorter combustion times and thus may permit smaller reactors.

  20. Technology Options for a Fast Spectrum Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; R. W. King; I. Y. Glagolenko; Y. Shatilla

    2006-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory has evaluated technology options for a new fast spectrum reactor to meet the fast-spectrum irradiation requirements for the USDOE Generation IV (Gen IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. The US currently has no capability for irradiation testing of large volumes of fuels or materials in a fast-spectrum reactor required to support the development of Gen IV fast reactor systems or to demonstrate actinide burning, a key element of the AFCI program. The technologies evaluated and the process used to select options for a fast irradiation test reactor (FITR) for further evaluation to support these programmatic objectives are outlined in this paper.

  1. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  2. Evaluating Russian space nuclear reactor technology for United States applications

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, G.F.; Schmidt, G.L.; Voss, S.S.; Reynolds, E.L.

    1994-08-01

    Space nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion are considered important technologies for planetary exploration, as well as selected earth orbit applications. The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) was intended to provide an early flight demonstration of these technologies at relatively low cost through extensive use of existing Russian technology. The key element of Russian technology employed in the program was the Topaz II reactor. Refocusing of the activities of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), combined with budgetary pressures, forced the cancellation of the NEPSTP at the end of the 1993 fiscal year. The NEPSTP was faced with many unique flight qualification issues. In general, the launch of a spacecraft employing a nuclear reactor power system complicates many spacecraft qualification activities. However, the NEPSTP activities were further complicated because the reactor power system was a Russian design. Therefore, this program considered not only the unique flight qualification issues associated with space nuclear power, but also with differences between Russian and United States flight qualification procedures. This paper presents an overview of the NEPSTP. The program goals, the proposed mission, the spacecraft, and the Topaz II space nuclear power system are described. The subject of flight qualification is examined and the inherent difficulties of qualifying a space reactor are described. The differences between United States and Russian flight qualification procedures are explored. A plan is then described that was developed to determine an appropriate flight qualification program for the Topaz II reactor to support a possible NEPSTP launch.

  3. Gas core reactor concepts and technology - Issues and baseline strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Kahook, Samer; Maya, Isaac

    1991-01-01

    Results of a research program including phenomenological studies, conceptual design, and systems analysis of a series of gaseous/vapor fissile fuel driven engines for space power platforms and for thermal and electric propulsion are reviewed. It is noted that gas and vapor phase reactors provide the path for minimum mass in orbit and trip times, with a specific impulse from 1020 sec at the lowest technololgical risk to 5200 sec at the highest technological risk. The discussion covers various configurations of gas core reactors and critical technologies and the nuclear vapor thermal rocket engine.

  4. Thermionic conversion reactor technology assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The in-core thermionic space nuclear power supply may be the only identified reactor-power concept that can meet the SP-100 size functional requirements with demonstrated state-of-the-art reactor system and space-qualified power system component temperatures. The SP-100 configuration limits provide a net 40 m/sup 2/ of primary non-deployed radiator area. If a reasonable 7-year degradation allowance of 15% to 20% is provided then the beginning of life (BOL) net power output requirement is about 120 kWe. Consequently, the SP-100 power system must produce a P/A of 2.7 kWe/m/sup 2/. This non-deployed radiator area power density performance can only be reasonably achieved by the thermionic in-core convertr system, the potassium Rankine turbine system and the Stirling engine system. The purpose of this study is to examine past and current tests and data, and to assess the potential for successful development of suitable fueled-thermionic converters that will meet SP-100 and growth requirements. The basis for the assessment will be provided and the recommended key developments plan set forth.

  5. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors. Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  6. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-21

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors.Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat.The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  7. Space reactor system and subsystem investigations: assessment of technology issues for the reactor and shield subsystem. SP-100 Program

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, D.F.; Lillie, A.F.

    1983-06-30

    As part of Rockwell's effort on the SP-100 Program, preliminary assessment has been completed of current nuclear technology as it relates to candidate reactor/shield subsystems for the SP-100 Program. The scope of the assessment was confined to the nuclear package (to the reactor and shield subsystems). The nine generic reactor subsystems presented in Rockwell's Subsystem Technology Assessment Report, ESG-DOE-13398, were addressed for the assessment.

  8. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, Jane

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  9. Reactor Technology Options Study for Near-Term Deployment of GNEP Grid-Appropriate Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, Daniel T; Poore III, Willis P

    2007-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to significantly increase over the coming decades. The International Energy Agency projects that electricity demand will increase 50% by 2015 and double by 2030, with most of the increase coming in developing countries as they experience double-digit rates of economic growth and seek to improve their standards of living. Energy is the necessary driver for human development, and the demand for energy in these countries will be met using whatever production technologies are available. Recognizing this inevitable energy demand and its implications for the United States, the U.S. National Security Strategy has proposed the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to work with other nations to develop and deploy advanced nuclear recycling and reactor technologies. This initiative will help provide reliable, emission-free energy with less of the waste burden of older technologies and without making available separated plutonium that could be used by rogue states or terrorists for nuclear weapons. These new technologies will make possible a dramatic expansion of safe, clean nuclear energy to help meet the growing global energy demand. In other words, GNEP seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy without increasing the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. This global expansion of nuclear power is strategically important to the United States for several reasons, including the following: (1) National security, by reducing the competition and potential for conflict over increasingly scarce fossil energy resources; (2) Economic security, by helping maintain stable prices for nonrenewable resources such as oil, gas, and coal; (3) Environmental security, by replacing or off-setting large-scale burning of greenhouse gas-emitting fuels for electricity production; and (4) Regaining technical leadership, through deployment of innovative U.S. technology-based reactors. Fully meeting

  10. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Herndon, J.N.; Stradley, J.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way [approximately] 20 yr in several countries. During the past decade, France and the United Kingdom have developed active programs in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper focuses on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP, and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere.

  11. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods which first emerged in the mid-1970’s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individua...

  12. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day?

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods that first emerged in the mid-1970s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics, whether in humans or in animals, including poultry, are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individual or flock in the shortest time possible. Ease of use, low cost and increased information from a single test (e.g. multiplexing) are also critical areas frequently targeted for improvement. New tests and modifications of current tests are reported often, and diagnostic tests are now commonly developed by commercial companies. As one would expect, most advances in diagnostic technology are applied first to human health, and then may be adapted to animal health if practical. In the present review the trends and novel innovative technologies in primarily viral diagnostics are reviewed and the practicality of these methods and application for poultry health are discussed briefly. Also, influenza will seem to be over-represented in viral diagnostics since it is frequently used as a proof-of-concept target for novel technology due to its importance for animal and public health. Finally, the review is intended to be a brief survey of some of the innovative diagnostic technologies reported in recent years. It is not entirely comprehensive of all technology and the author makes no claims or endorsements of any of the technology or products mentioned.

  13. RAPHAEL: The European Union's (Very) High Temperature Reactor Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fuetterer, Michael A.; Besson, D.; Bogusch, E.; Carluec, B.; Hittner, D.; Verrier, D.; Billot, Ph.; Phelip, M.; Buckthorpe, D.; Casalta, S.; Chauvet, V.; Van Heek, A.; Von Lensa, W.; Pirson, J.; Scheuermann, W.

    2006-07-01

    Since the late 1990, the European Union (EU) was conducting work on High Temperature Reactors (HTR) confirming their high potential in terms of safety (inherent safety features), environmental impact (robust fuel with no significant radioactive release), sustainability (high efficiency, potential suitability for various fuel cycles), and economics (simplifications arising from safety features). In April 2005, the EU Commission has started a new 4-year Integrated Project on Very High Temperature Reactors (RAPHAEL: Reactor for Process Heat And Electricity) as part of its 6{sup th} Framework Programme. The European Commission and the 33 partners from industry, R and D organizations and academia finance the project together. After the successful performance of earlier HTR-related EU projects which included the recovery of some earlier German experience and the re-establishment of strategically important R and D capabilities in Europe, RAPHAEL focuses now on key technologies required for an industrial VHTR deployment, both specific to very high temperature and generic to all types of modular HTR with emphasis on combined process heat and electricity generation. Advanced technologies are explored in order to meet the performance challenges required for a VHTR (900-1000 deg C, up to 200 GWd/tHM). To facilitate the planned sharing of significant parts of RAPHAEL results with the signatories of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) VHTR projects, RAPHAEL is structured in a similar way as the corresponding GIF VHTR projects. (authors)

  14. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  15. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Herndon, J.N.; Stradley, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way about 20 years in several countries throughout the world. During the past decade in France and the United Kingdom, active development programs have been carried out in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the EBR-II facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. Germany and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in all of these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper will focus principally on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere.

  16. Medical technology assessment and practice guidelines: their day in court.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G F; Hall, M A; Steinberg, E P

    1993-01-01

    There is the expectation that outcomes research and the promulgation of medical practice guidelines will be able to identify and hopefully reduce the amount of unnecessary or inappropriate medical care through a variety of methods, including utilization review. However, past efforts by public and private insurers to deny claims on the basis of formal technology assessments or practice guidelines have frequently been overturned by the courts for multifarious reasons. This paper examines the court's reluctance to accept a variety of technology assessment methods in coverage policy decisions. The paper reviews the options that have been proposed to restrict judicial involvement in the formulation of coverage policy and then proposes a new option that employs a more precise taxonomy of medical practice assessment. PMID:8238696

  17. The 1973 GSFC battery workshop, second day. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Technological progress in the development, testing, and manufacturing of nickel-cadmium battery cells as well as hydrogen cells is presented. The following major topics were discussed: (1) carbonate analysis; (2) nickel-cadmium memory effect; (3) use of batteries in an automatic acquisition and control system; (4) accelerated testing; (5) formulation of a mathematical odel for a nickel-cadmium cell; (6) development of a light weight nickel-cadmium battery capable of delivering 20 watt hours per pound; (7) magnetic testing of nickel-cadmium cells; (8) design and performance characteristics of nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells; and (9) development of a semiprismatic cell design. For Vol. 1, see N75-15152.

  18. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  19. Application of Molten Salt Reactor Technology to Nuclear Electric Propulsion Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Bruce; Sorensen, Kirk; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and planetary surface power missions require reactors that are lightweight, operationally robust, and scalable in power for widely varying scientific mission objectives. Molten salt reactor technology meets all of these requirements and offers an interesting alternative to traditional gas cooled, liquid metal, and heat pipe space reactors.

  20. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Katoh, Yutai; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Wilson, Dane F

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 multi-unit accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Fukushima), the nuclear community has been reassessing certain safety assumptions about nuclear reactor plant design, operations and emergency actions, particularly with respect to extreme events that might occur and that are beyond each plant’s current design basis. Because of our significant domestic investment in nuclear reactor technology (99 operating reactors in the fleet of commercial LWRs with five under construction), the United States has been a major leader internationally in these activities. The U.S. nuclear industry is voluntarily pursuing a number of additional safety initiatives. The NRC continues to evaluate and, where deemed appropriate, establish new requirements for ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety in the occurrence of low probability events at nuclear plants; (e.g., mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events initiated by external events like seismic or flooding initiators). The DOE has also played a major role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident. Initially, DOE worked with the Japanese and the international community to help develop a more complete understanding of the Fukushima accident progression and its consequences, and to respond to various safety concerns emerging from uncertainties about the nature of and the effects from the accident. DOE R&D activities are focused on providing scientific and technical insights, data, analyses methods that ultimately support industry efforts to enhance safety. These activities are expected to further enhance the safety performance of currently operating U.S. nuclear power plants as well as better characterize the safety performance of future U.S. plants. In pursuing this area of R&D, DOE recognizes that the commercial nuclear industry is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities. As such, industry is considered the primary

  2. AQUABOX 50 AND MARABU PACKED BIOLOGICAL REACTOR SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION, STADTWERKE DUESSELDORF AG SITE, DUESSELDORF, GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ITER summarizes the results of an evaluation of the AQUABOX 50 and MARABU Packed Biological Reactor technologies. The evaluation was conducted under a bilateral agreement between the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology ...

  3. Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Mckirdy

    2010-12-01

    This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750°C and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700°C to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

  4. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Toseland, B.A.

    1998-10-29

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  5. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  6. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  7. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    1999-03-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors. The past three months of research have been focused on two major areas of bubble column hydrodynamics: (1) pressure and temperature effects on gas holdup and (2) region transition using a sparger as a gas distributor.

  8. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2000-06-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  9. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR)TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D

    2000-06-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column 0reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  10. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  11. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. ); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  12. Advances in crack-arrest technology for reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is continuing to improve the understanding of conditions that govern the initiation, rapid propagation, arrest, and ductile tearing of cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This paper describes recent advances in a coordinated effort being conducted under the HSST Program by ORNL and several subcontracting groups to develop the crack-arrest data base and the analytical tools required to construct inelastic dynamic fracture models for RPV steels. Large-scale tests are being carried out to generate crack-arrest toughness data at temperatures approaching and above the onset of Charpy upper-shelf behavior. Small- and intermediate-size specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading are being developed and tested to provide additional fracture data for RPV steels. Viscoplastic effects are being included in dynamic fracture models and computer programs and their utility validated through analyses of data from carefully controlled experiments. Recent studies are described that examine convergence problems associated with energy-based fracture parameters in viscoplastic-dynamic fracture applications. Alternative techniques that have potential for achieving convergent solutions for fracture parameters in the context of viscoplastic-dynamic models are discussed. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  14. Design of a 25-kWe Surface Reactor System Based on SNAP Reactor Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, David D.; Hiatt, Matthew T.; Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    A Hastelloy-X clad, sodium-potassium (NaK-78) cooled, moderated spectrum reactor using uranium zirconium hydride (UZrH) fuel based on the SNAP program reactors is a promising design for use in surface power systems. This paper presents a 98 kWth reactor for a power system the uses multiple Stirling engines to produce 25 kWe-net for 5 years. The design utilizes a pin type geometry containing UZrHx fuel clad with Hastelloy-X and NaK-78 flowing around the pins as coolant. A compelling feature of this design is its use of 49.9% enriched U, allowing it to be classified as a category III-D attractiveness and reducing facility costs relative to highly-enriched space reactor concepts. Presented below are both the design and an analysis of this reactor's criticality under various safety and operations scenarios.

  15. Design of a 25-kWe Surface Reactor System Based on SNAP Reactor Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, David D.; Hiatt, Matthew T.; Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2006-01-20

    A Hastelloy-X clad, sodium-potassium (NaK-78) cooled, moderated spectrum reactor using uranium zirconium hydride (UZrH) fuel based on the SNAP program reactors is a promising design for use in surface power systems. This paper presents a 98 kWth reactor for a power system the uses multiple Stirling engines to produce 25 kWe-net for 5 years. The design utilizes a pin type geometry containing UZrHx fuel clad with Hastelloy-X and NaK-78 flowing around the pins as coolant. A compelling feature of this design is its use of 49.9% enriched U, allowing it to be classified as a category III-D attractiveness and reducing facility costs relative to highly-enriched space reactor concepts. Presented below are both the design and an analysis of this reactor's criticality under various safety and operations scenarios.

  16. Space-reactor system and subsystem investigations: cost and schedule estimates for reactor and shield subsystems technology development. SP-100 Program

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.; Hylin, C.

    1983-06-30

    This report presents cost and schedule estimates of the technology development for reactor and shielding subsystems of a 100-kWe class space reactor electric system. The subsystems technology development (which includes reactor and shield subsystems ground testing) is supported by materials and processes development and component development. For the purpose of the cost estimate, seven generic types of reactor subsystems were used: uranium-zirconium hydride, NaK-cooled thermal reactor; lithium-cooled, refractory-clad fast reactor; Na- or K-cooled fast reactor; in-core thermionic reactor; inert gas-cooled particle fuel reactor; inert gas-cooled metal-clad fast reactor; and heat pipe-cooled fast reactor. Also three levels of technology were included for each of the generic types of reactor subsystem: current, improved, and advanced. The data in this report encompass all these technology levels. The shielding subsystem uses both gamma (heavy-metal) and neutron (hydrogenous material) shields. The shields considered in this report would be used in conjunction with unmanned payloads.

  17. Application of Molten Salt Reactor Technology to MMW In-Space NEP and Surface Power Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Bruce; Sorensen, Kirk; Rodgers, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Anticipated manned nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and planetary surface power missions will require multimegawatt nuclear reactors that are lightweight, operationally robust, and scalable in power for widely varying scientific mission objectives. Molten salt reactor technology meets all of these requirements and offers an interesting alternative to traditional multimegawatt gas-cooled and liquid metal concepts.

  18. Sodium technology activities at HEDL in support of fast reactor development and the FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.M.

    1984-02-27

    Activities of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory are presented. A brief description of FFTF and some highlights of reactor operations are reviewed. The sodium technology work at HEDL is summarized by discussing several facets of the program and their tie-ins to breeder reactor development.

  19. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Boing, L. E.

    2000-02-17

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international technical decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of these research institutes in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these facilities. By using the reactors already undergoing decommissioning as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning, it is possible that new techniques could be made available for those future research reactor decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the research institutes in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research reactor decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to use in the research reactors. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor is currently in the final phase of dismantlement. In this paper the authors present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors.

  20. Pellet bed reactor for nuclear propelled vehicles: Part 1: Reactor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1991-01-01

    The pellet bed reactor (PBR) for nuclear propelled vehicles is briefly discussed. Much of the information is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs include information on the layout for a Mars mission using a PBR nuclear thermal rocket, the rocket reactor layout, the fuel pellet design, materials compatibility, fuel microspheres, microsphere coating, melting points in quasibinary systems, stress analysis of microspheres, safety features, and advantages of the PBR concept.

  1. Summary of the Workshop on Molten Salt Reactor Technologies Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Startup of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Mays, Gary T

    2016-01-01

    A workshop on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) technologies commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on October 15 16, 2015. The MSRE represented a pioneering experiment that demonstrated an advanced reactor technology: the molten salt eutectic-fueled reactor. A multinational group of more than 130 individuals representing a diverse set of stakeholders gathered to discuss the historical, current, and future technical challenges and paths to deployment of MSR technology. This paper provides a summary of the key messages from this workshop.

  2. Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

  3. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  4. Decommissioning of nuclear reactor fuel channels using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Slepokon, Yu. I.; Ryahin, V. M.; Kuznetsov, P. P.; Panasyuk, V. F.; Korotchenko, A. V.; Kislov, V. S.; Loktev, S. V.

    2000-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear reactors using laser remote dismounting and welding was experimentally proved at a nuclear reactor of Kursk Nuclear Power Plant. The main reason of laser beam application in this case is the marked decrease of radioactive exposure of the service personnel. The use of a high-power laser beam provided for laser cutting and welding processes realization at a distance up to 35 m between the laser and the workstation placed behind a radiation shield. By application of laser cutting gas and dust contamination is ten-fold decreased. Some results of decommissioning application of a stationary laser workstation based upon a 5 kW fast-transverse-flow discharge CW CO2 laser TL-5M installed at a nuclear reactor site are presented. A special high-beam- quality model of the laser was developed to satisfy the needs of decommissioning. Laser cutting process was applied to decommissioning of fuel channels (FC) of RBMK-1000 reactor, after their extractor from the reactor active zone during the procedure of channels replacement.

  5. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems. PMID:18049233

  6. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    PubMed

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing.

  7. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    PubMed

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. PMID:22112596

  8. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  9. R and D of On-line Reprocessing Technology for Molten-Salt Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Jan; Tulackova, Radka; Chuchvalcova Bimova, Karolina

    2006-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) represents one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included in the Generation IV reactors family. The reactor can be operated as the thorium breeder or as the actinide transmuter. However, the future deployment of Molten-Salt Reactors will be significantly dependent on the successful mastering of advanced reprocessing technologies dedicated to their fuel cycle. Here the on-line reprocessing technology connected with the fuel circuit of MSR is of special importance because the reactor cannot be operated for a long run without the fuel salt clean-up. Generally, main MSR reprocessing technologies are pyrochemical, majority of them are fluoride technologies. The proposed flow-sheets of MSR on-line reprocessing are based on a combination of molten-salt / liquid metal extraction and electro-separation processes, which can be added to the gas extraction process already verified during the MSRE project in ORNL. The crucial separation method proposed for partitioning of actinides from fission products is based on successive Anodic dissolution and Cathodic deposition processes in molten fluoride media. (authors)

  10. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Mays, Gary T; Pointer, William David; Robb, Kevin R; Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  11. An assessment of space reactor technology needs and recommendations for development

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Wiley, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    In order to provide a strategy for space reactor technology development, the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has authorized a brief review of potential national needs that may be addressed by space reactor systems. a systematic approach was used to explore needs at several levels that are increasingly specific. Level 0 -- general trends and issues; Level 1 -- generic space capabilities to address trends; Level 2 -- requirements to support capabilities; Level 3 -- system types capable of meeting requirements; Level 4 --generic reactor system types; and Level 5 -- specific baseline systems. Using these findings, a strategy was developed to support important space reactor technologies within a limited budget. A preliminary evaluation identified key technical issues and provide a prioritized set of candidate research projects. The evaluation of issues and the recommended research projects are presented in a companion paper.

  12. [Technological problems in use of fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Mardynskií, I S; Sysoev, A S; Gulidov, I A; Obaturov, G M; Sokolov, V A; Ul'ianenko, S E; Kotukhov, I I

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss the technological problems associated with the use of fast neutrons in radiotherapy of cancer patients and outline the approaches to the solution of these problems. The state of the art is assessed. Physical and radiobiological prerequisites for the use of fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors are analyzed. Results of clinical use of BR-10 reactor at the Medical Radiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, are presented. Experimental and clinical findings indicate that the results of radiotherapy may be appreciably improved if a novel perspective source of fast neutrons, a nuclear reactor, is used.

  13. The past, present and potential for microfluidic reactor technology in chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Katherine S; Casadevall i Solvas, Xavier; Wootton, Robert C R; deMello, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The past two decades have seen far-reaching progress in the development of microfluidic systems for use in the chemical and biological sciences. Here we assess the utility of microfluidic reactor technology as a tool in chemical synthesis in both academic research and industrial applications. We highlight the successes and failures of past research in the field and provide a catalogue of chemistries performed in a microfluidic reactor. We then assess the current roadblocks hindering the widespread use of microfluidic reactors from the perspectives of both synthetic chemistry and industrial application. Finally, we set out seven challenges that we hope will inspire future research in this field.

  14. Materials technology for an advanced space power nuclear reactor concept: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Watson, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a materials technology program for a long-life (50,000 hr), high-temperature (950 C coolant outlet), lithium-cooled, nuclear space power reactor concept are reviewed and discussed. Fabrication methods and compatibility and property data were developed for candidate materials for fuel pins and, to a lesser extent, for potential control systems, reflectors, reactor vessel and piping, and other reactor structural materials. The effects of selected materials variables on fuel pin irradiation performance were determined. The most promising materials for fuel pins were found to be 85 percent dense uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf).

  15. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process.

  16. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m3/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH(4), NO(2), NO(3), PO(4), suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD(5)/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process. PMID:27386982

  17. Considerations Associated with Reactor Technology Selection for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    At the inception of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and during predecessor activities, alternative reactor technologies have been evaluated to determine the technology that best fulfills the functional and performance requirements of the targeted energy applications and market. Unlike the case of electric power generation where the reactor performance is primarily expressed in terms of economics, the targeted energy applications involve industrial applications that have specific needs in terms of acceptable heat transport fluids and the associated thermodynamic conditions. Hence, to be of interest to these industrial energy applications, the alternative reactor technologies are weighed in terms of the reactor coolant/heat transport fluid, achievable reactor outlet temperature, and practicality of operations to achieve the very high reliability demands associated with the petrochemical, petroleum, metals and related industries. These evaluations have concluded that the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) can uniquely provide the required ranges of energy needs for these target applications, do so with promising economics, and can be commercialized with reasonable development risk in the time frames of current industry interest – i.e., within the next 10-15 years.

  18. Use of probabilistic inversion to model qualitative expert input when selecting a new nuclear reactor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Charles R., Jr.

    Complex investment decisions by corporate executives often require the comparison of dissimilar attributes and competing technologies. A technique to evaluate qualitative input from experts using a Multi-Criteria Decision Method (MCDM) is described to select a new reactor technology for a merchant nuclear generator. The high capital cost, risks from design, licensing and construction, reactor safety and security considerations are some of the diverse considerations when choosing a reactor design. Three next generation reactor technologies are examined: the Advanced Pressurized-1000 (AP-1000) from Westinghouse, Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) from General Electric, and the U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR) from AREVA. Recent developments in MCDM and decision support systems are described. The uncertainty inherent in experts' opinions for the attribute weighting in the MCDM is modeled through the use of probabilistic inversion. In probabilistic inversion, a function is inverted into a random variable within a defined range. Once the distribution is created, random samples based on the distribution are used to perform a sensitivity analysis on the decision results to verify the "strength" of the results. The decision results for the pool of experts identified the U.S. EPR as the optimal choice.

  19. Day, night and all-weather security surveillance automation synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnson, Andrew; Johnston, Chris; Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L.

    2006-07-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, night-time and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics. (authors)

  20. Day, night, and all-weather security surveillance automation: synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnston, Chris; Johnson, Andrew; Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L.

    2005-05-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, nighttime and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics.

  1. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W.J.; Husser, D.L.; Mohr, T.C.; Richardson, W.C.

    2004-02-04

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  2. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Husser, D. L.; Mohr, T. C.; Richardson, W. C.

    2004-02-01

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  3. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  4. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  5. An evaluation of the performance and optimization of a new wastewater treatment technology: the air suction flow-biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Forde, P; Kennelly, C; Gerrity, S; Collins, G; Clifford, Eoghan

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory study, a novel wastewater treatment technology, the air suction flow-biofilm reactor (ASF-BR) - a sequencing batch biofilm reactor technology with a passive aeration mechanism - was investigated for its efficiency in removing organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, from high-strength synthetic wastewaters. A laboratory-scale ASF-BR comprising 2 reactors, 350 mm in diameter and 450 mm in height, was investigated over 2 studies (Studies 1 and 2) for a total of 430 days. Study 1 lasted a total of 166 days and involved a 9-step sequence alternating between aeration, anoxic treatment and settlement. The cycle time was 12.1 h and the reactors were operated at a substrate loading rate of 3.60 g filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf)/m2 media/d, 0.28 g filtered total nitrogen (TNf)/m2 media/d, 0.24 g ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N)/m2 media/d and 0.07 g ortho-phosphate (PO4-P)/m2 media/d. The average removal rates achieved during Study 1 were 98% CODf, 88% TNf, 97% NH4-N and 35% PO4-P. During Study 2 (264 days), the unit was operated at a loading rate of 2.49 g CODf/m2 media/d, 0.24 g TNf/m2 media/d, 0.20 g NH4-N/m2 media/d and 0.06 PO4-P/m2 media/d. The energy requirement during this study was reduced by modifying the treatment cycle in include fewer pumping cycles. Removal rates in Study 2 averaged 97% CODf, 86% TNf, 99% NH4-N and 76% PO4-P. The excess sludge production of the system was evaluated and detailed analyses of the treatment cycles were carried out. Biomass yields were estimated at 0.09 g SS/g CODf, removed and 0.21 g SS/g CODf, removed for Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Gene analysis showed that the use of a partial vacuum did not affect the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The results indicate that the ASF-BR and passive aeration technologies can offer efficient alternatives to existing technologies.

  6. Technological implications of SNAP reactor power system development on future space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.

    1982-11-16

    Nuclear reactor systems are one method of satisfying space mission power needs. The development of such systems must proceed on a path consistent with mission needs and schedules. This path, or technology roadmap, starts from the power system technology data base available today. Much of this data base was established during the 1960s and early 1970s, when government and industry developed space nuclear reactor systems for steady-state power and propulsion. One of the largest development programs was the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Program. By the early 1970s, a technology base had evolved from this program at the system, subsystem, and component levels. There are many implications of this technology base on future reactor power systems. A review of this base highlights the need for performing a power system technology and mission overview study. Such a study is currently being performed by Rockwell's Energy Systems Group for the Department of Energy and will assess power system capabilities versus mission needs, considering development, schedule, and cost implications. The end product of the study will be a technology roadmap to guide reactor power system development.

  7. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SITE PROGRAM DEMON- STRATION TEST - HORSEHEAD RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, INC. - FLAME REACTOR TECHNOLOGY - MONACA, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A SITE demonstration of the Horsehead Resource Development (HRD) Company, Inc. Flame Reactor Technology was conducted in March 1991 at the HRD facility in Monaca, Pennsylvania. or this demonstration, secondary lead smelter soda slag was treated to produce a potentially recyclable...

  8. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Halsey, William; Hayner, George; Katoh, Yutai; Klett, James William; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Stoller, Roger E; Wilson, Dane F

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  9. Improving ethanol production by membrane technology: The continuous saccharification reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheryan, M.; Escobar, J.

    1993-12-31

    The saccharification of liquefied starch is typically done in a batch mode, taking 30--72 hours and requiring large quantities of enzyme (since each dose of enzyme is used only once). The process can be improved considerably by using a membrane reactor in which the reaction vessel is connected in a semi-closed loop configuration to a membrane module of the appropriate chemical nature and physical configuration. The continuous membrane reactor (CMR) concept was first evaluated with a dead-end cell, and later scaled-up to a cross-flow recycle configuration using hollow fibers or spiral wound modules. The CMR results in a dramatic reduction in reaction time to 5--10 hours, and reduces overall enzyme usage by 50--70%. In addition, the dextrose stream is crystal clear with little or no suspended particles, protein or fat, thus potentially reducing downstream costs. The CMR has been scaled up to a pilot-scale system of 1,500 liters with a membrane capacity of 30--65 cm{sup 2}, which is presently undergoing on-site trials at a large ethanol plant. The economics of this operation appear to be quite attractive.

  10. Moving bed biofilm reactor technology: process applications, design, and performance.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, James P; Boltz, Joshua P

    2011-06-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) can operate as a 2- (anoxic) or 3-(aerobic) phase system with buoyant free-moving plastic biofilm carriers. These systems can be used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, aquaculture, potable water denitrification, and, in roughing, secondary, tertiary, and sidestream applications. The system includes a submerged biofilm reactor and liquid-solids separation unit. The MBBR process benefits include the following: (1) capacity to meet treatment objectives similar to activated sludge systems with respect to carbon-oxidation and nitrogen removal, but requires a smaller tank volume than a clarifier-coupled activated sludge system; (2) biomass retention is clarifier-independent and solids loading to the liquid-solids separation unit is reduced significantly when compared with activated sludge systems; (3) the MBBR is a continuous-flow process that does not require a special operational cycle for biofilm thickness, L(F), control (e.g., biologically active filter backwashing); and (4) liquid-solids separation can be achieved with a variety of processes, including conventional and compact high-rate processes. Information related to system design is fragmented and poorly documented. This paper seeks to address this issue by summarizing state-of-the art MBBR design procedures and providing the reader with an overview of some commercially available systems and their components. PMID:21751715

  11. Reactor technology. Progress report, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Breslow, M.

    1980-12-01

    Progress in the Space Power Advanced Reactor (SPAR) Program includes indications that revision of the BeO reflector configuration can reduce system weight. Observed boiling limit restrictions on the performance of the annular-wick core heat pipe have accelerated transition to the development of the target-design arterial heat pipe. Successful bends of core heat pipes have been made with sodium as the mandrel material. With the phasing out of the GCFR Program, work on the Low Power Safety Experiments Program is now concentrated on completion of the third 37-rod Full Length Subgroup test. In the Reactor Safety/Structural Analysis area, effort on the Category I Structures Program is toward developing an experimental test plan focusing on a specific structural design. Buckling experiments on thin-walled cylindrical shells with circular cutouts are reported. Results of a three-dimensional analysis of thermal stresses in the Fort St. Vrain core support block are presented. Materials investigations and operation of a molybdenum-core SiC heat pipe are reported. Entrainment limits for gravity-assisted heat pipes and heat pipe configurations for application to energy conservation are being investigated. The new solution critical assembly, SHEBA, was completed. Godiva IV was temporarily relocated at TA-15. Influence of scattered radiations in the test vault on InRad measurements was determined from detector scans of the vault produced by /sup 252/Cf neutron and /sup 137/Cs gamma sources.

  12. Moving bed biofilm reactor technology: process applications, design, and performance.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, James P; Boltz, Joshua P

    2011-06-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) can operate as a 2- (anoxic) or 3-(aerobic) phase system with buoyant free-moving plastic biofilm carriers. These systems can be used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, aquaculture, potable water denitrification, and, in roughing, secondary, tertiary, and sidestream applications. The system includes a submerged biofilm reactor and liquid-solids separation unit. The MBBR process benefits include the following: (1) capacity to meet treatment objectives similar to activated sludge systems with respect to carbon-oxidation and nitrogen removal, but requires a smaller tank volume than a clarifier-coupled activated sludge system; (2) biomass retention is clarifier-independent and solids loading to the liquid-solids separation unit is reduced significantly when compared with activated sludge systems; (3) the MBBR is a continuous-flow process that does not require a special operational cycle for biofilm thickness, L(F), control (e.g., biologically active filter backwashing); and (4) liquid-solids separation can be achieved with a variety of processes, including conventional and compact high-rate processes. Information related to system design is fragmented and poorly documented. This paper seeks to address this issue by summarizing state-of-the art MBBR design procedures and providing the reader with an overview of some commercially available systems and their components.

  13. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2009-11-30

    Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid.

  14. Flow through reactors for organic chemistry: directly electrically heated tubular mini reactors as an enabling technology for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Summary Until recently traditional heating in organic chemistry has been done with oil heating baths or using electric heat exchangers. With the advent of microwave equipment, heating by microwaves was rapidly introduced as standard method in organic chemistry laboratories, mainly because of the convenient possibility to operate at high temperature accompanied by accelerated reaction rates. In the present contribution we discuss the method of heating small, continuously operated reactors by passing electric current directly through the reactor wall as an enabling technology in organic chemistry. The benefit of this method is that the heat is generated directly inside the reactor wall. By this means high heating rates comparable to microwave ovens can be reached but at much lower cost for the equipment. A tool for the comparison of microwave heating and traditional heating is provided. As an example kinetic data for the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate were measured using this heating concept. The reaction is not only a suitable model but also one of industrial importance since this is the main production process for formic acid. PMID:20300506

  15. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-03-23

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year.

  16. Under-sodium viewing technology for improvement of fast-reactor safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Gerhart, Jeremy J; Kawakubo, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The current safeguards approach for fast reactors relies exclusively on maintenance of continuity of knowledge to track the movement of fuel assemblies through these facilities. The remote handling of fuel assemblies, the visual opacity of the liquid metal coolant. and the chemical reactivity of sodium all combine and result in significant limitations on the available options to verify fuel assembly identification numbers or the integrity of these assemblies. These limitations also serve to frustrate attempts to restore the continuity-of-knowledge in instances where the information is under a variety of scenarios. The technology of ultrasonic under-sodium viewing offers new options to the safeguards community for recovering continuity-of-knowledge and applying more traditional item accountancy to fast reactor facilities. We have performed a literature review to investigate the development of under-sodium viewing technologies. In this paper we will summarize our findings and report the state of development of this technology and we will present possible applications to the fast reactor system to improve the existing safeguards approach at these reactors and in future fast reactors.

  17. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Puneet Gupta

    2002-07-31

    This report summarizes the procedures used and results obtained in determining radial gas holdup profiles, via gamma ray scanning, and in assessing liquid and gas mixing parameters, via radioactive liquid and gas tracers, during Fischer Tropsch synthesis. The objectives of the study were (i) to develop a procedure for detection of gas holdup radial profiles in operating reactors and (ii) to test the ability of the developed, previously described, engineering models to predict the observed liquid and gas mixing patterns. It was shown that the current scanning procedures were not precise enough to obtain an accurate estimate of the gas radial holdup profile and an improved protocol for future use was developed. The previously developed physically based model for liquid mixing was adapted to account for liquid withdrawal from the mid section of the column. The ability of our engineering mixing models for liquid and gas phase to predict both liquid and gas phase tracer response was established and illustrated.

  18. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  19. 75 FR 36648 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting correction. On June 21, 2010,...

  20. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Reactor (Plant) Operator Trainee. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear reactor (plant) operator trainee program is designed for use with courses 1-16 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  1. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: HORSEHEAD RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT COMPANY INC., FLAME REACTOR TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A SITE demonstration of the Horsehead Resource Development (HRD) company, Inc. Flame Reactor Technology was conducted in March 1991 at the HRD facility in Monaca, Pennsylvania. For this demonstration, secondary lead smelter soda slag was treated to produce a potentially recyclabl...

  2. 75 FR 62892 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Correction In notice document 2010-24809 beginning on page 61220 in the issue of...

  3. MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) technology development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Neylan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the approach used to define the technology program needed to support design and licensing of a Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The MHTGR design depends heavily on data and information developed during the past 25 years to support large HTGR (LHTGR) designs. The technology program focuses on MHTGR-specific operating and accident conditions, and on validation of models and assumptions developed using LHTGR data. The technology program is briefly outlined, and a schedule is presented for completion of technology work which is consistent with completion of a Final Safety Summary Analysis Report (FSSAR) by 1992.

  4. Building enterprise-wide resilience by integrating business continuity capability into day-to-day business culture and technology.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Patrick

    2008-04-01

    This paper follows the development of the business continuity planning (BCP) programme at Lehman Brothers following the events of September 11th. Previous attempts to implement a `traditional' form of BCP had been ineffective, but following the events, the firm began to look at BCP in a new light. This paper deals with three main themes: creating a culture of resiliency, leveraging technology, and building flexible plans. Distributing accountability for BCP to business line managers, integrating BCP change management into the normal course of business, and providing every employee with personalised BCP information breeds a culture of resiliency where people are empowered to react to events without burdensome, hierarchical response and recovery procedures. Building a strong relationship with one's application development community can result in novel, customised BCP solutions; existing systems and data structures can be used to enhance an existing BCP. Even the best plans are often challenged by events; understanding that flexibility is essential to effective incident response is a critical element in the development of a proper business continuity plan.

  5. Development of fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing technology at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, T.; Takeda, H.; Togashi, A.; Hayashi, S. . Tokai Works); Stradley, J.G. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, a broad range of research development (R D) programs to establish fast breeder reactor (FBR) system and its associated fuel cycle technology have been pursued by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Developmental activities for FBR fuel reprocessing technology have been primarily conducted at PNC Tokai Works where many important R D facilities for nuclear fuel cycle are located. These include cold and uranium tests for process equipment development in the Engineering Demonstration Facilities (EDF)-I and II, and laboratory-scale hot tests in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) where fuel dissolution and solvent extraction characteristics are being investigated with irradiated FBR fuel pins whose burn-up ranges up to 100,000 MWd/t. An extensive effort has also been made at EDF-III to develop advanced remote technology which enables to increase plant availability and to decrease radiation exposures to the workers in future reprocessing plants. The PNC and the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) entered into the joint collaboration in which the US shares the R Ds to support FBR fuel reprocessing program at the PNC. Several important R Ds on advanced process equipment such as a rotary dissolver and a centrifugal contactor system are in progress in a joint effort with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). In order to facilitate hot testing on advanced processes and equipment, the design of a new engineering-scale hot test facility is now in progress aiming at the start of hot operation in late 90's. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

    2009-03-27

    This current report is a summary of information obtained in the "Information Capture" task of the U.S. DOE-funded "Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project." The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

  7. Perspectives for Fluidized Bed Nuclear Reactor Technology using Rotating Fluidized Beds in a Static Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broqueville, Axel De; Wilde, Juray De

    The new concept of a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry opens perspectives for fluidized bed nuclear reactor technology and is experimentally and numerically investigated. With conventional fluidized bed technology, the maximum attainable power is rather limited and maximum at a certain fluidization gas flow rate. Using a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry, the fluidization gas drives both the centrifugal force and the counteracting radial gas-solid drag force in a similar way. This allows operating the reactor at any chosen sufficiently high solids loading over a much wider fluidization gas flow rate range and in particular at much higher fluidization gas flow rates than with conventional fluidized bed reactor technology, offering increased flexibility with respect to cooling via the fluidization gas. Furthermore, the centrifugal force can be a multiple of earth gravity, allowing radial gas-solid slip velocities much higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The latter result in gas-solid heat transfer coefficients one or multiple orders of magnitude higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The combination of dense operation and high fluidization gas flow rates allows process intensification and a more compact reactor design.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH AND TEST REACTOR ALUMINUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL - A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program is responsible for the receipt and storage of aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel or used fuel until ultimate disposition. Aluminum research reactor used fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the U.S. and stored at DOE-EM storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper assesses the technologies and the options for safe transportation/receipt and interim storage of aluminum research reactor spent fuel and reviews the comprehensive strategy for its management. The U.S. Department of Energy uses the Appendix A, Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Criteria, to identify the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of spent nuclear fuel to be returned to the United States under the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuel is further evaluated for acceptance through assessments of the fuel at the foreign sites that include corrosion damage and handleability. Transport involves use of commercial shipping casks with defined leakage rates that can provide containment of the fuel, some of which are breached. Options for safe storage include wet storage and dry storage. Both options must fully address potential degradation of the aluminum during the storage period. This paper focuses on the various options for safe transport and storage with respect to technology maturity and application.

  9. Augmented reality technology for day/night situational awareness for the dismounted Soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, Eric; Roberts, David; Bennett, Matthew; Towles, Herman; Menozzi, Alberico; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes Applied Research Associates' (ARA) recent advances in Soldier augmented reality (AR) technology. Our AR technology, called ARC4, delivers heads-up situational awareness to the dismounted warfighter, enabling non-line-of-sight team coordination in distributed operations. ARC4 combines compact head tracking sensors with advanced pose estimation algorithms, network management software, and an intuitive AR visualization interface to overlay tactical iconic information accurately on the user's real-world view. The technology supports heads-up navigation, blue-force tracking, target handoff, image sharing, and tagging of features in the environment. It integrates seamlessly with established network protocols (e.g., Cursor-on-Target) and Command and Control software tools (e.g., Nett Warrior, Android Tactical Assault Kit) and interfaces with a wide range of daytime see-through displays and night vision goggles to deliver real-time actionable intelligence, day or night. We describe our pose estimation framework, which fuses inertial data, magnetometer data, GPS, DTED, and digital imagery to provide measurements of the operator's precise orientation. These measurements leverage mountainous terrain horizon geometry, known landmarks, and sun position, enabling ARC4 to achieve significant improvements in accuracy compared to conventional INS/GPS solutions of similar size, weight, and power. We detail current research and development efforts toward helmet-based and handheld AR systems for operational use cases and describe extensions to immersive training applications.

  10. A comparison of prototype compound parabolic collector-reactors (CPC) on the road to SOLARDETOX technology.

    PubMed

    Funken, K H; Sattler, C; Milow, B; De Oliveira, L; Blanco, J; Fernández, P; Malato, S; Brunott, M; Dischinge, N; Tratzky, S; Musci, M; de Oliveira, J C

    2001-01-01

    Solar photocatalytic detoxification of non-biodegradable chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (NBCS) is carried out in different concentrating and non concentrating devices using TiO2 as a photocatalyst fixed on the inner surface of the reaction tubes or as a slurry catalyst which has to be removed from the treated water. The reaction is most effective using 200 mg/l of TiO2 as a slurry in a non concentrating CPC reactor. The concentrating parabolic trough reactor has a poor activity because of its minor irradiated reactor surface. Catalyst coated glass tubes are less efficient then the used slurry catalyst. Their advantage is that no catalyst has not to be removed from the treated water and there is no loss of activity during treatment. Yet their physical stability is not sufficient to be competitive to the slurry catalyst. Nevertheless the degradation results are very promising and will possibly lead to commercial applications of this technology.

  11. The Role of Instrumentation and Controls Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the needs of much of the world that lacks highly stable, densely interconnected electrical grids. SMRs can present lower capital and operating costs than large reactors, allow incremental additions to power generation capacity that closely match load growth and support multiple energy applications (i.e., electricity and process heat). Taking advantage of their smaller size and modern design methodology, safety, security, and proliferation resistance may also be increased. Achieving the benefits of SMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management to address multi-unit, multi-product-stream generating stations. Realizing the goals of SMR deployment also depends on the resolution of technical challenges related to the unique characteristics of these reactor concepts. This paper discusses the primary issues related to SMR deployment that can be addressed through crosscutting research, development, and demonstration involving instrumentation and controls (I&C) technologies.

  12. The Role of Instrumentation and Control Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the needs of much of the world that lacks highly stable, densely interconnected electrical grids. SMRs can present lower capital and operating costs than large reactors, allow incremental additions to power generation capacity that closely match load growth and support multiple energy applications (i.e., electricity and process heat). Taking advantage of their smaller size and modern design methodology, safety, security, and proliferation resistance may also be increased. Achieving the benefits of SMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management to address multi-unit, multi-product-stream generating stations. Realizing the goals of SMR deployment also depends on the resolution of technical challenges related to the unique characteristics of these reactor concepts. This paper discusses the primary issues related to SMR deployment that can be addressed through crosscutting research, development, and demonstration involving instrumentation and controls (I&C) technologies.

  13. Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY) Demonstration. CEDT Phase 1 Preliminary Design Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Rene Gerardo; Hutchinson, Jesson D.; Mcclure, Patrick Ray; Myers, William L.

    2015-08-20

    The intent of the integral experiment request IER 299 (called KiloPower by NASA) is to assemble and evaluate the operational performance of a compact reactor configuration that closely resembles the flight unit to be used by NASA to execute a deep space exploration mission. The reactor design will include heat pipes coupled to Stirling engines to demonstrate how one can generate electricity when extracting energy from a “nuclear generated” heat source. This series of experiments is a larger scale follow up to the DUFF series of experiments1,2 that were performed using the Flat-Top assembly.

  14. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten, P.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Sanders, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    During 1982 the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) continued to develop experimental data required for the design and licensing of cogeneration HTGRs. The program involves fuels and materials development (including metals, graphite, ceramic, and concrete materials), HTGR chemistry studies, structural component development and testing, reactor physics and shielding studies, performance testing of the reactor core support structure, and HTGR application and evaluation studies.

  15. Filter-based pathogen enrichment technology for detection of multiple viable foodborne pathogens in 1 day.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Taku

    2012-09-01

    Conventional foodborne pathogen assays currently used in the food industry often require long culture enrichments to increase pathogen levels so they can be detected. Even using sensitive real-time PCR assays, culture enrichment at least overnight is necessary especially for detection of pathogens with slow growth rates such as Listeria monocytogenes. To eliminate this cumbersome enrichment step and detect minute amounts of pathogens within 1 day, filter-based pathogen enrichment technology was developed utilizing a unique combination of glass fiber depth filter and porous filter aid materials to efficiently separate pathogens from food homogenates and avoid filter clogging by food particles. After pathogen immobilization in depth filters, only viable pathogens were selectively collected in a small volume of growth medium via microbial multiplication and migration; nonviable pathogens remained inside the filters. By assaying viable pathogens using real-time PCRs, multiple species of foodborne pathogens were detected, including L. monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, at around 1 CFU/ml or 1 CFU/g in various food samples. This filter-based pathogen enrichment technology is a unique bacterial enrichment alternative to the conventional culture enrichment step and can significantly shorten the time necessary to obtain assay results.

  16. The impacts of the St. Patrick's Day superstorm on selected technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Lin, C. S.; Pradipta, R.; Norman, R.; Tseng, T.; Bennett, J.; Bishop, R. L.; Weygand, J. M.; Francis, M.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Groves, K. M.; Caton, R. G.; Tripathi, N.; Zhang, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the past, significant research efforts have been directed towards understanding how severe geomagnetic storms affect the near-Earth space environment. From this research, we have learned that many technologies are affected by these severe space weather events. The 2015 St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm has provided a great opportunity to analyze three selected space weather phenomena that adversely impact modern technologies; (1) Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs), (2) increased thermospheric mass density, and (3) the occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). The serious effects of GICs on power grids in the high-latitude regions is well known. Recent research has indicated that the equatorial region is also susceptible to increased GIC activity due to the equatorial electrojet. Thus, an examination of the equatorial magnetometer data during the St. Patrick's Day storm will be presented. It is also well understood that during geomagnetic storms, the thermospheric mass density at a given altitude increases due to the increase in Joule heating in the high-latitude regions. As a consequence of this, low-Earth orbiting satellites and space debris experience increased atmospheric drag. Changes in atmospheric drag causes orbits to be perturbed, resulting in less accurate orbit predictions. An investigation of the orbits of several low-Earth orbiting satellites will be presented and discussed in the context of collision avoidance, as part of the ongoing space debris problem. Finally, Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) are a common phenomenon in the nighttime low-latitude ionosphere. EPBs are known to cause random fluctuations (i.e., scintillations) in the amplitude and phase of trans-ionospheric radio signals. While EPBs have been reported during both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods, research clearly indicates that the occurrence of EPBs is dependent on the geomagnetic activity level. The occurrence of EPBs around the world will be presented

  17. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I&C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, RT

    2004-09-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l&C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l&C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States.

  18. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  19. Science, Technology, Invention in History: Impact, Influence, Change. National History Day 1999, Teacher Guide [and] Contest Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg-Daves, Jodi, Comp.; Gorn, Cathy, Ed.

    The theme for National History Day during 1998-99 school year is "Science, Technology, Invention in History: Impact, Influence, Change. National History Day competition has two divisions based on school grade: junior division--grades 6, 7, and 8; and senior division--grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. This teacher guide provides teachers with classroom…

  20. Review of the Tri-Agency Space Nuclear Reactor Power System Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrus, J. H.; Wright, W. E.; Bunch, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Nuclear Reactor Power System Technology Program designated SP-100 was created in 1983 by NASA, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Attention is presently given to the development history of SP-100 over the course of its first year, in which it has been engaged in program objectives' definition, the analysis of civil and military missions, nuclear power system functional requirements' definition, concept definition studies, the selection of primary concepts for technology feasibility validation, and the acquisition of initial experimental and analytical results.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

  2. Evaluation of the measurement technologies required for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D. E.; Kisner, R. A.; Bryan, W. L.; Hardy, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) evaluation of the measurement technologies required for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) reactor. The specific reactor parameters considered are neutron flux, temperature, coolant flow, and control element position. All four of the notional reactor module concepts are considered, to the extent technically relevant (i.e., liquid metal-thermoelectric, liquid metal-Brayton, heat pipe-Brayton, and direct cycle gas-cooled-Brayton). The mission environmental condition and the associated survival requirement assumptions are based upon the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) descriptions of the mission profile and ORNL estimation of the reactor contribution to the environment. Each reactor parameter measurement section includes a survey of the current state-of-the-art to identify candidate measurement technologies given the environmental conditions and duration of the JIMO mission and an evaluation of the potential technologies as well as the selection process rationale underlying the evaluation. The environmental conditions and performance requirements for fore-of-shield neutron detectors require technologies significantly beyond the current commercial state-of-the-art. The most challenging mission requirement is the combination of the necessity to observe the initial reactor approach to critical with fresh, highly enriched fuel combined with the strong desirability of the capability to monitor low-power, hot reactor dynamics in space with a long-lifetime detector system. The mission background radiation environment would significantly contaminate the signals from non-fission-based detector technologies located aft-of-shield. Shielded fission counters are, therefore, a strongly preferred detector technology due to their larger signal pulse sizes (which provides the additional benefit of being able to drive longer cable lengths) and consequent signal separability from the background space radiation

  3. Guideline for Performing Systematic Approach to Evaluate and Qualify Legacy Documents that Support Advanced Reactor Technology Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, George

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a systematic process for the evaluation of historic technology information for use in advanced reactor licensing is described. Efforts are underway to recover and preserve Experimental Breeder Reactor II and Fast Flux Test Facility historical data. These efforts have generally emphasized preserving information from data-acquisition systems and hard-copy reports and entering it into modern electronic formats suitable for data retrieval and examination. The guidance contained in this document has been developed to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of historic technical information (with focus on sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology) that will be used to eventually support licensing of advanced reactor designs. The historical information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The evaluation process is prescribed in terms of SFR technology, but the process can be used to evaluate historical information for any type of advanced reactor technology. An appendix provides a discussion of typical issues that should be considered when evaluating and qualifying historical information for advanced reactor technology fuel and source terms, based on current light water reactor (LWR) requirements and recent experience gained from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP).

  4. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James E.; Sabharwall, Piyush; Yoon, Su -Jong; Housley, Gregory K.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  5. Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technology Development Roadmap in Support of Grid Appropriate Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Kisner, Roger A; O'Hara, John; Quinn, Edward L.; Miller, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Grid Appropriate Reactors (GARs) are a component of the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. GARs have smaller output power (<~600 MWe), than those intended for deployment on large, tightly coupled grids. This smaller size is important in avoiding grid destabilization, which can result from having a large fraction of a grid s electrical generation supplied by a single source. GARs are envisioned to be deployed worldwide often in locations without extensive nuclear power experience. DOE recently sponsored the creation of an Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technology development roadmap emphasizing the specific characteristics of GARs [1]. This roadmapping effort builds upon and focuses the recently developed, more general nuclear energy ICHMI technology development roadmap [2]. The combination of the smaller plant size, smaller grids, and deployment in locations without extensive prior nuclear power experience presents particular infrastructure, regulation, design, operational, and safeguards challenges for effective GAR deployment. ICHMI technologies are central to efficient GAR operation and as such are a dimension of each of these challenges. Further, while the particular ICHMI technologies to be developed would be useful at larger power plants, they are not high-priority development items at the larger plants. For example, grid transient resilience would be a useful feature for any reactor/grid combination and indeed would have limited some recent blackout events. However, most large reactors have limited passive cooling features. Large plants with active safety response features will likely preserve trip preferential grid transient response. This contrasts sharply with GARs featuring passive shutdown cooling, which can safely support grid stability during large grid transients. ICHMI technologies ranging from alternative control algorithms to simplified human-interface system

  6. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Baldwin; Magdy Tawfik; Leonard Bond

    2010-06-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R&D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10–12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I&C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE has

  7. Development of fluoride reprocessing technologies devoted to molten-salt reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Jan; Marecek, Martin; Tulackova, Radka; Chuchvalcova Bimova, Karolina

    2007-07-01

    Main fuel processing and reprocessing technologies proposed for Molten Salt Reactor fuel cycle are pyrochemical or pyrometallurgical, majority of them are fluoride technologies. It is based on the fact that Molten Salt Reactor fuel is in the chemical form of molten fluorides and the reprocessing technology is needed to be an 'on-line' process. The corresponding pyrochemical separation processes proposed for MSR fuel processing and reprocessing are mainly fluoride volatilization processes, molten salt / liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media and gas extraction from the molten salt medium. Techniques based on fluoride volatilization and on electrochemical separation from fluoride molten salt media are under development in the Czech Republic. Whereas the Fluoride Volatility Method is proposed to be the main 'Front-end' technology of the MSR used as the actinide burner (transmuter), the electro-separation methods should be dedicated to the 'on-line' reprocessing of the circulating MSR fuel and should be used as for MSR incinerating transuranium fuel as for MSR working within the {sup 232}Th - {sup 233}U fuel cycle. (authors)

  8. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Mcwilliams, A. J.

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  9. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITS of 950 K and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITS ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo -generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  10. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITs of 950 and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITs ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo-generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  11. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the βmin is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the βmin, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the βmin. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  12. Preschool Student Teachers, Technology, and Gender: Positive Expectations Despite Mixed Experiences from Their Own School Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria; Gunnarsson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasises preschool teachers' task to stimulate children's interest in science and technology. Technology education, however, has not always had a given place in Swedish early childhood education, and this has been associated with female preschool teachers' fear of technology. This qualitative study…

  13. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  14. ENVIROMETAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC. - METAL-ENHANCED DECHLORINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING AN ABOVE-GROUND REACTOR, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EnviroMetal Technology's metal-enhanced dechlorination technology employs an electrochemical process that involves oxidation of iron and reductive dehalogenation of halogenated VOCs in aqueous media. The process can be operated as an above ground reactor or can alternatively perf...

  15. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Bartlett, A.H.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented.

  16. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, T.; Dickens, R.; Houts, M.; Pearson, B.; Webster, K.; Gibson, M.; Qualls, L.; Poston, D.; Werner, J.; Radel, R.

    The Nuclear Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter when being tested at MSFC. When tested at GRC the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumenta- tion (temperature, pressure, flow) data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  17. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Dickens, Ricky; Houts, Michael; Pearson, Boise; Webster, Kenny; Gibson, Marc; Qualls, Lou; Poston, Dave; Werner, Jim; Radel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and Mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program, which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter for tests at MSFC. When tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumentation (temperature, pressure, flow) for data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  18. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Allen; J. B. Benson; J. A. Foster; F. M. Marshall; M. K. Meyer; M. C. Thelen

    2009-05-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  20. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Digital Technology Business Case Methodology Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken; Lawrie, Sean; Hart, Adam; Vlahoplus, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program aims to develop and deploy technologies that will make the existing U.S. nuclear fleet more efficient and competitive. The program has developed a standard methodology for determining the impact of new technologies in order to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in building sound business cases. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway is part of the DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. It conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation’s energy and environmental security. The II&C Pathway is conducting a series of pilot projects that enable the development and deployment of new II&C technologies in existing nuclear plants. Through the LWRS program, individual utilities and plants are able to participate in these projects or otherwise leverage the results of projects conducted at demonstration plants. Performance advantages of the new pilot project technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on

  1. Non-Nuclear Testing of Compact Reactor Technologies at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Safe, reliable, compact, autonomous, long-life fission systems have numerous potential applications, both terrestrially and in space. Technologies and facilities developed in support of these systems could be useful to a variety of concepts. At moderate power levels, fission systems can be designed to operate for decades without the need for refueling. In addition, fast neutron damage to cladding and structural materials can be maintained at an acceptable level. Nuclear design codes have advanced to the stage where high confidence in the behavior and performance of a system can be achieved prior to initial testing. To help ensure reactor affordability, an optimal strategy must be devised for development and qualification. That strategy typically involves a combination of non-nuclear and nuclear testing. Non-nuclear testing is particularly useful for concepts in which nuclear operating characteristics are well understood and nuclear effects such as burnup and radiation damage are not likely to be significant. To be mass efficient, a SFPS must operate at higher coolant temperatures and use different types of power conversion than typical terrestrial reactors. The primary reason is the difficulty in rejecting excess heat to space. Although many options exist, NASA s current reference SFPS uses a fast spectrum, pumped-NaK cooled reactor coupled to a Stirling power conversion subsystem. The reference system uses technology with significant terrestrial heritage while still providing excellent performance. In addition, technologies from the SFPS system could be applicable to compact terrestrial systems. Recent non-nuclear testing at NASA s Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) has helped assess the viability of the reference SFPS and evaluate methods for system integration. In July, 2011 an Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) provided by Idaho National Laboratory was tested at the EFF-TF to assess performance and verify suitability for use in a10 kWe technology

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy and radiation synovectomy research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Nwanguma, C.I.; Wazer, D.E.; Saris, S.; Madoc-Jones, H. ); Sledge, C.B.; Shortkroff, S. )

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, current research in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and radiation synovectomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor is reviewed. In the last few years, major emphasis has been placed on the development of BNCT primarily for treatment of brain tumors. This has required a concerted effort in epithermal beam design and construction as well as the development of analytical capabilities for {sup 10}B analysis and patient treatment planning. Prompt gamma analysis and high-resolution track-etch autoradiography have been developed to meet the needs, respectively, for accurate bulk analysis and for quantitative imaging of {sup 10}B in tissue at subcellular resolutions. Monte Carlo-based treatment planning codes have been developed to ensure optimized and individualized patient treatments. In addition, the development of radiation synovectomy as an alternative therapy to surgical intervention is joints that are affected by rheumatoid arthritis is described.

  3. Plasma cryogenic etching of silicon: from the early days to today's advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussart, R.; Tillocher, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Boufnichel, M.

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of silicon cryoetching is reported in this topical review, from its very first introduction by a Japanese team to today's advanced technologies. The main advances in terms of the performance and comprehension of the mechanisms are chronologically presented. After presenting the principle of silicon cryoetching, the main defects encountered in cryoetching (such as undercut, bowing and crystal orientation dependent etching) are presented and discussed. Mechanisms involved in SiOxFy passivation layer growth in standard cryoetching are investigated through several in situ characterization experiments. The STiGer process and alternative cryoetching processes for high-aspect-ratio structures are also proposed to enhance the process robustness. The over-passivation regime, which can provide self-organized columnar microstructures, is presented and discussed. Finally, advanced technologies, such as the cryoetching of sub-20 nm features and porous OSG low-k cryoetching, are described.

  4. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Technology Development Program: Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.E.,Jr.; Kasten, P.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Sanders, J.P.

    1989-03-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Program being carried out under the US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to emphasize the development of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs) possessing a high degree of inherent safety. The emphasis at this time is to develop the preliminary design of the reference MHTGR and to develop the associated technology base and licensing infrastructure in support of future reactor deployment. A longer-term objective is to realize the full high-temperature potential of HTGRs in gas turbine and high-temperature, process-heat applications. This document summarizes the activities of the HTGR Technology Development Program for the period ending December 31, 1987.

  5. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y.; Argonne National Lab., IL; General Electric Co., San Jose, CA )

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Computer analyses for the design, operation and safety of new isotope production reactors: A technology status review

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented on the currently available technologies for nuclear reactor analyses by computer. The important distinction is made between traditional computer calculation and advanced computer simulation. Simulation needs are defined to support the design, operation, maintenance and safety of isotope production reactors. Existing methods of computer analyses are categorized in accordance with the type of computer involved in their execution: micro, mini, mainframe and supercomputers. Both general and special-purpose computers are discussed. Major computer codes are described, with regard for their use in analyzing isotope production reactors. It has been determined in this review that conventional systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5, RETRAN, etc.) cannot meet four essential conditions for viable reactor simulation: simulation fidelity, on-line interactive operation with convenient graphics, high simulation speed, and at low cost. These conditions can be met by special-purpose computers (such as the AD100 of ADI), which are specifically designed for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The greatest shortcoming of existing systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5) is their mismatch between very high computational efforts and low simulation fidelity. The drift flux formulation (HIPA) is the viable alternative to the complicated two-fluid model. No existing computer code has the capability of accommodating all important processes in the core geometry of isotope production reactors. Experiments are needed (heat transfer measurements) to provide necessary correlations. It is important for the nuclear community, both in government, industry and universities, to begin to take advantage of modern simulation technologies and equipment. 41 refs.

  7. INL Reactor Technology Complex Out-of-Service Buried Piping Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2008-05-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) buried piping and components are being characterized to determine if they should be managed as hazardous waste and subject to the Hazardous Waste Management Act /Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RTC buried piping and components involve both active piping and components from currently operating nuclear facilities, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and inactive lines from facilities undergoing D&D activities. The issue exists as to the proper methods to analyze and control hazards associated with D&D activities on facilities collocated with existing operating nuclear facilities, or future collocated facilities being considered with the resurgent nuclear industry. During initial characterization activities, it was determined that residual radioactive material in several inactive RTC lines and components could potentially exceed hazard category (HC) 3 thresholds. In addition, concerns were raised as to how to properly isolate active nuclear facility piping and components from those inactive lines undergoing RCRA actions, and whether the operating facility safety basis could be impacted. Work was stopped, and a potential inadequacy in the safety analysis (PISA) was declared, even though no clear safety basis existed for the inactive, abandoned lines and equipment. An unreviewed safety question (USQ) and an occurrence report resulted. A HC 3 or greater Nuclear Facility/Activity for the buried piping and components was also declared in the occurrence report. A qualitative hazard assessment was developed to evaluate the potential hazards associated with characterization activities, and any potential effects on the safety basis of the collocated RTC operating nuclear facilities. The hazard assessment clearly demonstrated the low hazards associated with the activities based on form and dispersiblity of the radioactive material in the piping and components. The hazard assessment developed

  8. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  9. Predicting 30- to 120-Day Readmission Risk among Medicare Fee-for-Service Patients Using Nonmedical Workers and Mobile Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovsky, Andrey; O'Connor, Lori; Marshall, Olivia; Angelo, Amanda; Barrett, Kelsy; Majeski, Emily; Handrus, Maxwell; Levy, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hospital readmissions are a large source of wasteful healthcare spending, and current care transition models are too expensive to be sustainable. One way to circumvent cost-prohibitive care transition programs is complement nurse-staffed care transition programs with those staffed by less expensive nonmedical workers. A major barrier to utilizing nonmedical workers is determining the appropriate time to escalate care to a clinician with a wider scope of practice. The objective of this study is to show how mobile technology can use the observations of nonmedical workers to stratify patients on the basis of their hospital readmission risk. Materials and Methods An area agency on aging in Massachusetts implemented a quality improvement project with the aim of reducing 30-day hospital readmission rates using a modified care transition intervention supported by mobile predictive analytics technology. Proprietary readmission risk prediction algorithms were used to predict 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-day readmission risk. Results The risk score derived from the nonmedical workers' observations had a significant association with 30-day readmission rate with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.12 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1 .09–1.15) compared to an OR of 1.25 (95 percent CI, 1.19–1.32) for the risk score using nurse observations. Risk scores using nurse interpretation of nonmedical workers' observations show that patients in the high-risk category had significantly higher readmission rates than patients in the baseline-risk and mild-risk categories at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after discharge. Of the 1,064 elevated-risk alerts that were triaged, 1,049 (98.6 percent) involved the nurse care manager, 804 (75.6 percent) involved the patient, 768 (72.2 percent) involved the health coach, 461 (43.3 percent) involved skilled nursing, and 235 (22.1 percent) involved the outpatient physician in the coordination of care in response to the alert. Discussion The predictive

  10. KWU's high conversion reactor concept - An economical evolution of modern pressurized water reactor technology toward improved uranium ore utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Markl, H.; Goetzmann, C.A.; Moldaschl, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Kraftwerk Union AG high conversion reactor represents a quasi-standard PWR with fuel assemblies of more or less uniformly enriched fuel rods, arranged in a tight hexagonal array with a pitch-to-diameter ratio p/d approx. = 1.12. High fuel enrichment as well as a high conversion ratio of --0.9 will provide the potential for high burnup values up to 70 000 MWd/tonne and a low fissile material consumption. The overall objective of the actual RandD program is to have the technical feasibility, including that for licensibility, established by the early 1990s as a prerequisite for deciding whether to enter a demonstration plant program.

  11. Fuel and cladding nano-technologies based solutions for long life heat-pipe based reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the heat pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission products to be removed in the heat pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the heat pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)

  12. THE VALUE OF HELIUM-COOLED REACTOR TECHNOLOGIES OF NUCLEAR WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    C. RODRIGUEZ; A. BAXTER

    2001-03-01

    Helium-cooled reactor technologies offer significant advantages in accomplishing the waste transmutation process. They are ideally suited for use with thermal, epithermal, or fast neutron energy spectra. They can provide a relatively hard thermal neutron spectrum for transmutation of fissionable materials such as Pu-239 using ceramic-coated transmutation fuel particles, a graphite moderator, and a non-fertile burnable poison. These features (1) allow deep levels of transmutation with minimal or no intermediate reprocessing, (2) enhance passive decay heat removal via heat conduction and radiation, (3) allow operation at relatively high temperatures for a highly efficient generation of electricity, and (4) discharge the transmuted waste in a form that is highly resistant to corrosion for long times. They also offer the possibility for the use of epithermal neutrons that can interact with transmutable materials more effectively because of the large atomic cross sections in this energy domain. A fast spectrum may be useful for deep burnup of certain minor actinides. For this application, helium is essentially transparent to neutrons, does not degrade neutron energies, and offers the hardest possible neutron energy environment. In this paper, we report results from recent work on materials transmutation balances, safety, value to a geological repository, and economic considerations.

  13. Airborne Plutonium and non-natural Uranium from the Fukushima DNPP found at 120 km distance a few days after reactor hydrogen explosions.

    PubMed

    Shinonaga, Taeko; Steier, Peter; Lagos, Markus; Ohkura, Takehisa

    2014-04-01

    Plutonium (Pu) and non-natural uranium (U) originating from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) were identified in the atmosphere at 120 km distance from the FDNPP analyzing the ratio of number of atoms, following written as n(isotope)/n(isotope), of Pu and U. The n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), n((241)Pu)/n((239)Pu), n((234)U)/n((238)U), n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((236)U)/n((238)U) in aerosol samples collected before and after the FDNPP incident were analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs in the same samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry before the destructive analysis. Comparing the time series of analytical data on Pu and U obtained in this study with previously reported data on Pu, U, and radioactive Cs, we concluded that Pu and non-natural U from the FDNPP were transported in the atmosphere directly over a 120 km distance by aerosol and wind within a few days after the reactor hydrogen explosions. Effective dose of Pu were calculated using the data of Pu: (130 ± 21) nBq/m(3), obtained in this study. We found that the airborne Pu contributes only negligibly to the total dose at the time of the incident. However the analytical results show that the amount of Pu and non-natural U certainly increased in the environment after the incident.

  14. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  15. The Development of Mobile Melt-Dilute Technology for the Treatment of Former Soviet Union Research Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.

    2003-10-09

    On-site application of the MMD process offers an economical method for converting weapons usable Former Soviet Union (FSU) High Enriched Uranium (HEU) research reactor fuel to a safe and secure Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) ingot. The objective of the MMD Project is to develop the mobile melt and dilute technology in preparation for active equipment deployment in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the FSU.

  16. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a Reference Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. Main report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWe.

  17. Regulatory Technology Development Plan Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term Development

    SciTech Connect

    Grabaskas, David S.; Brunett, Acacia Joann; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Sienicki, James J.; Sofu, Tanju

    2015-02-28

    Construction and operation of a nuclear power installation in the U.S. requires licensing by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A vital part of this licensing process and integrated safety assessment entails the analysis of a source term (or source terms) that represents the release of radionuclides during normal operation and accident sequences. Historically, nuclear plant source term analyses have utilized deterministic, bounding assessments of the radionuclides released to the environment. Significant advancements in technical capabilities and the knowledge state have enabled the development of more realistic analyses such that a mechanistic source term (MST) assessment is now expected to be a requirement of advanced reactor licensing. This report focuses on the state of development of an MST for a sodium fast reactor (SFR), with the intent of aiding in the process of MST definition by qualitatively identifying and characterizing the major sources and transport processes of radionuclides. Due to common design characteristics among current U.S. SFR vendor designs, a metal-fuel, pool-type SFR has been selected as the reference design for this work, with all phenomenological discussions geared toward this specific reactor configuration. This works also aims to identify the key gaps and uncertainties in the current knowledge state that must be addressed for SFR MST development. It is anticipated that this knowledge state assessment can enable the coordination of technology and analysis tool development discussions such that any knowledge gaps may be addressed. Sources of radionuclides considered in this report include releases originating both in-vessel and ex-vessel, including in-core fuel, primary sodium and cover gas cleanup systems, and spent fuel movement and handling. Transport phenomena affecting various release groups are identified and qualitatively discussed, including fuel pin and primary coolant retention, and behavior in the cover gas and

  18. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  19. Unraveling the mysteries of microwave chemistry using silicon carbide reactor technology.

    PubMed

    Kappe, C Oliver

    2013-07-16

    In the past few years, the use of microwave energy to heat chemical reactions has become an increasingly popular theme in the scientific community. This nonclassical heating technique has slowly progressed from a laboratory curiosity to an established method commonly used both in academia and in industry. Because of its efficiency, microwave heating dramatically reduces reaction times (from days and hours to minutes and seconds) and improves product purities or material properties among other advantages. Since the early days of microwave chemistry, researchers have observed rate-accelerations and, in some cases, altered product distributions as compared with reactions carried out using classical oil-bath heating. As a result, researchers have speculated that so-called specific or nonthermal microwave effects could be responsible for these differences. Much of the debate has centered on the question of whether the electromagnetic field can exert a direct influence on a chemical transformation outside of the simple macroscopic change in bulk reaction temperature. In 2009, our group developed a relatively simple "trick" that allows us to rapidly evaluate whether an observed effect seen in a microwave-assisted reaction results from a purely thermal phenomenon, or involves specific or nonthermal microwave effects. We use a microwave reaction vessel made from silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic. Because of its high microwave absorptivity, the vessel shields its contents from the electromagnetic field. As a result, we can easily mimic a conventionally heated autoclave experiment inside a microwave reactor under carefully controlled reaction conditions. The switch from an almost microwave transparent glass (Pyrex) to a strongly microwave absorbing SiC reaction vial under otherwise identical reaction conditions (temperature profiles, pressure, stirring speed) then allows us to carefully evaluate the influence of the electromagnetic field on the particular chemical transformation

  20. Defining the “proven technology” technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia’s nuclear power program

    SciTech Connect

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-29

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that “proven technology” is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for “proven technology” is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the “proven technology” term according to a specific country’s requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of “proven technology” that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia’s definition of “proven technology”.

  1. The Dynomak: An advanced spheromak reactor system with imposed-dynamo current drive and next-generation nuclear power technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G.; Morgan, K. D.; Nelson, B. A.

    2013-10-01

    A high-beta spheromak reactor system has been designed with an overnight capital cost that is competitive with conventional power sources. This reactor system utilizes recently discovered imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) and a molten salt blanket system for first wall cooling, neutron moderation and tritium breeding. Currently available materials and ITER developed cryogenic pumping systems were implemented in this design on the basis of technological feasibility. A tritium breeding ratio of greater than 1.1 has been calculated using a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) neutron transport simulation. High-temperature superconducting tapes (YBCO) were used for the equilibrium coil set, substantially reducing the recirculating power fraction when compared to previous spheromak reactor studies. Using zirconium hydride for neutron shielding, a limiting equilibrium coil lifetime of at least thirty full-power years has been achieved. The primary FLiBe loop was coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle due to attractive economics and high thermal efficiencies. With these advancements, an electrical output of 1000 MW from a thermal output of 2486 MW was achieved, yielding an overall plant efficiency of approximately 40%. A paper concerning the Dynomak reactor design is currently being reviewed for publication.

  2. CORAL: a stepping stone for establishing the Indian fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, M.; Natarajan, R.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-07-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel from Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been successfully demonstrated in the pilot plant, CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing facility for Advanced fuels in Lead shielded cell). Since commissioning in 2003, spent mixed carbide fuel from FBTR of different burnups and varying cooling period, have been reprocessed in this facility. Reprocessing of the spent fuel with a maximum burnup of 100 GWd/t has been successfully carried out so far. The feed backs from these campaigns with progressively increasing specific activities, have been useful in establishing a viable process flowsheet for reprocessing the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) spent fuel. Also, the design of various equipments and processes for the future plants, which are either under design for construction, namely, the Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (DFRP) and the Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP) could be finalized. (authors)

  3. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: Production reactor technology, management, and policy, 1942--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This book focuses on the lineage of America`s production reactors, those three at Hanford and their descendants, the reactors behind America`s nuclear weapons. The work will take only occasional sideways glances at the collateral lines of descent, the reactor cousins designed for experimental purposes, ship propulsion, and electric power generation. Over the decades from 1942 through 1992, fourteen American production reactors made enough plutonium to fuel a formidable arsenal of more than twenty thousand weapons. In the last years of that period, planners, nuclear engineers, and managers struggled over designs for the next generation of production reactors. The story of fourteen individual machines and of the planning effort to replace them might appear relatively narrow. Yet these machines lay at the heart of the nation`s nuclear weapons complex. The story of these machines is the story of arming the winning weapon, supplying the nuclear arms race. This book is intended to capture the history of the first fourteen production reactors, and associated design work, in the face of the end of the Cold War.

  4. Partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) reactor and its working mechanism: a new prospective chemical technology for phosphorus pollution control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Abbas, Ghulam; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus pollution control and phosphorus recycling, simultaneously, are focus of attention in the wastewater treatment. In this work, a novel reactor named partitionable-space enhanced coagulation (PEC) was invented for phosphorus control. The working performance and process mechanism of PEC reactor were investigated. The results showed that the PEC technology was highly efficient and cost-effective. The volumetric removal rate (VRR) reached up to 2.86 ± 0.04 kg P/(m(3) d) with a phosphorus removal rate of over 97%. The precipitant consumption was reduced to 2.60-2.76 kg Fe(II)/kg P with low operational cost of $ 0.632-0.673/kg P. The peak phosphorus content in precipitate was up to 30.44% by P2O5, which reveal the benefit of the recycling phosphorus resource. The excellent performance of PEC technology was mainly attributed to the partitionable-space and 'flocculation filter'. The partition limited the trans-regional back-mixing of reagents along the reactor, which promoted the precipitation reaction. The 'flocculation filter' retained the microflocs, enhancing the flocculation process.

  5. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Use a Basic Orientation Technology to Travel to Different Rooms within a Day Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Perilli, Viviana; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; De Caro, Maria Fara; Cassano, Germana; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use a basic orientation technology to reach different rooms within a day center. At each travel instance, the technology provided verbal messages (cues) from the room to reach. For the first two patients, the messages were presented at intervals of about 15 s. For…

  6. SUSEE: A Compact, Lightweight Space Nuclear Power System Using Present Water Reactor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Maise, George; Powell, James; Paniagua, John

    2006-01-20

    The SUSEE space reactor system uses existing nuclear fuels and the standard steam cycle to generate electrical and thermal power for a wide range of in-space and surface applications, including manned bases, sub-surface mobile probes to explore thick ice deposits on Mars and the Jovian moons, and mobile rovers. SUSEE cycle efficiency, thermal to electric, ranges from {approx}20 to 24%, depending on operating parameters. Rejection of waste heat is by a lightweight condensing radiator that can be launched as a compact rolled-up package and deployed into flat panels when appropriate. The 50 centimeter diameter SUSEE reactor can provide power over the range of 10 kW(e) to 1 MW(e) for a period of 10 years. Higher power outputs are possible using slightly larger reactors. System specific weight (reactor, turbine, generator, piping, and radiator) is {approx}3 kg/kW(e). Two SUSEE reactor options are described, based on the existing Zr/O2 cermet and the UH3/ZrH2 TRIGA nuclear fuels.

  7. Innovative reactor technology for selective oxidation of toxic organic pollutants in wastewater by ozone.

    PubMed

    Boncz, M A; Bruning, H; Rulkens, W H

    2003-01-01

    Ozonation can be a suitable technique for the pre-treatment of wastewater containing low concentrations of toxic or non-biodegradable compounds that cannot be treated with satisfactory results when only the traditional, less expensive biological techniques are applied. In this case, the oxidation process has to be made as efficient as possible, in order to reduce the coats of ozone addition and use. An efficient oxidation process with ozone can be obtained by focusing the oxidation with ozone selectively on the direct oxidation of toxic pollutants and to minimize ozone losses due to the decay of ozone in water. Supported by data of the rate constants of the reactions involved, a mathematical model was developed. It quantifies the ozone consumption by the process, and the share of ozone consumption by undesired side reactions, in several different reactor systems. Results obtained with this model indicate that a plug flow reactor (PFR) will be the most efficient design for the oxidation reactor. As an alternative, the cascaded tank reactor system (CTR), in which the ozone feed may be realized with less practical problems, might be considered. The traditional continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) is shown to be the least efficient system.

  8. Passive and inherent safety technologies for light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1990-07-01

    Passive/inherent safety implies a technical revolution in our approach to nuclear power safety. This direction is discussed herein for light-water reactors (LWRs) -- the predominant type of power reactor used in the world today. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the approach to the development of passive/inherent safety for LWRs consists of four steps: identify and quantify safety requirements and goals; identify and quantify the technical functional requirements needed for safety; identify, invent, develop, and quantify technical options that meet both of the above requirements; and integrate safety systems into designs of economic and reliable nuclear power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the first three steps of this program. The last step involves primarily the reactor vendors. These activities, as well as related activities worldwide, are described here. 27 refs., 7 tabs.

  9. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  10. Day to day with COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... day; Chronic obstructive airways disease - day to day; Chronic obstructive lung disease - day to day; Chronic bronchitis - day to day; ... strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic ... disease. Updated 2015. www.goldcopd.it/materiale/2015/GOLD_ ...

  11. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  12. Fabrication Technological Development of the Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloy MA957 for Fast Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Margaret L.; Gelles, David S.; Lobsinger, Ralph J.; Johnson, Gerald D.; Brown, W. F.; Paxton, Michael M.; Puigh, Raymond J.; Eiholzer, Cheryl R.; Martinez, C.; Blotter, M. A.

    2000-02-28

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report.

  13. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing. PMID:22452199

  14. 75 FR 68629 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 8, 2008, at 73 FR 26148. The NRC received no request for a hearing... license renewal, noticed in the Federal Register on October 5, 2010, at 75 FR 61220, and concluded that..., Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear...

  15. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing.

  16. The current status of fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) technology and its overlap with HIF target chamber concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlat, Raluca O.; Peterson, Per F.

    2014-01-01

    The fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) is a class of fission reactor designs that use liquid fluoride salt coolant, TRISO coated particle fuel, and graphite moderator. Heavy ion fusion (HIF) can likewise make use of liquid fluoride salts, to create thick or thin liquid layers to protect structures in the target chamber from ablation by target X-rays and damage from fusion neutron irradiation. This presentation summarizes ongoing work in support of design development and safety analysis of FHR systems. Development work for fluoride salt systems with application to both FHR and HIF includes thermal-hydraulic modeling and experimentation, salt chemistry control, tritium management, salt corrosion of metallic alloys, and development of major components (e.g., pumps, heat exchangers) and gas-Brayton cycle power conversion systems. In support of FHR development, a thermal-hydraulic experimental test bay for separate effects (SETs) and integral effect tests (IETs) was built at UC Berkeley, and a second IET facility is under design. The experiments investigate heat transfer and fluid dynamics and they make use of oils as simulant fluids at reduced scale, temperature, and power of the prototypical salt-cooled system. With direct application to HIF, vortex tube flow was investigated in scaled experiments with mineral oil. Liquid jets response to impulse loading was likewise studied using water as a simulant fluid. A set of four workshops engaging industry and national laboratory experts were completed in 2012, with the goal of developing a technology pathway to the design and licensing of a commercial FHR. The pathway will include experimental and modeling efforts at universities and national laboratories, requirements for a component test facility for reliability testing of fluoride salt equipment at prototypical conditions, requirements for an FHR test reactor, and development of a pre-conceptual design for a commercial reactor.

  17. Improvement of Analysis Technology for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor by Using Data Obtained in High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tochio, Daisuke; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Goto, Minoru; Takeda, Tetsuaki

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system, which is one of generation IV reactors, is the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with capabilities of hydrogen production and high efficiency electricity generation. The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is the first HTGR in Japan. The HTTR achieved full power of 30MW at a reactor outlet coolant temperature of about 950°C in April, 2004 during the “rise-to-power tests” confirming the reactor performance. The safety demonstration tests by using the HTTR started from 2002 and are under going to demonstrate inherent safety features of HTGRs. The experimental data obtained in these tests are inevitable to design the VHTR with high cost performance. The analytical models validated through these tests in the HTTR are applicable to precise simulation of an HTGR performance and can contribute to the research and development of the VHTR.

  18. Gas Turbine Energy Conversion Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Applicable to LiFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    This panel plans to cover thermal energy and electric power production issues facing our nation and the world over the next decades, with relevant technologies ranging from near term to mid-and far term.Although the main focus will be on ground based plants to provide baseload electric power, energy conversion systems (ECS) for space are also included, with solar- or nuclear energy sources for output power levels ranging tens of Watts to kilo-Watts for unmanned spacecraft, and eventual mega-Watts for lunar outposts and planetary surface colonies. Implications of these technologies on future terrestrial energy systems, combined with advanced fracking, are touched upon.Thorium based reactors, and nuclear fusion along with suitable gas turbine energy conversion systems (ECS) will also be considered by the panelists. The characteristics of the above mentioned ECS will be described, both in terms of their overall energy utilization effectiveness and also with regard to climactic effects due to exhaust emissions.

  19. A comparison of the technological effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in anaerobic UASB reactor and anaerobic reactor with an innovative design.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejewska-Cicinska, M; Kozak, K; Krzemieniewski, M

    2007-10-01

    The present research was an investigation of the influence of an innovative design of reactor filled with polyethylene (PE) granulate on model dairy wastewater treatment efficiency under anaerobic conditions compared to that obtained in a typical UASB reactor. The experiment was conducted at laboratory scale. An innovative reactor was designed with the reaction chamber inclined 30 degrees in relation to the ground with upward waste flow and was filled with PE granular material. Raw model dairy wastewater was fed to two anaerobic reactors of different design at the organic loading rate of 4 kg COD m(-3)d(-1). Throughout the experiment, a higher removal efficiency of organic compounds was observed in the reactor with an innovative design and it was higher by 7.1% on average than in the UASB reactor. The total suspended solids was lower in the wastewater treated in the anaerobic reactor with the innovative design. Applying a PE granulated filling in the chamber of the innovative reactor contributed to an even distribution of sludge biomass in the reactor, reducing washout of anaerobic sludge biomass from the reaction chamber and giving a higher organic compounds removal efficiency.

  20. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  1. Review of progress on fusion materials technology, Harwell, December 1980. Irradiation effects in fusion reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, D. R.

    1981-03-01

    The evolution of the radiation damage structure, void and gas bubble swelling, and surface blistering effects in both model and potential first wall materials for a D-T fusion reactor system of the TOKAMAK type was investigated along with radiation effects in inorganic insulator materials. In addition, investigations were carried out into the effects of irradiation on organic insulators and on the performance of rubber seals. The principal achievements are summarized and a list of 50 references is given.

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Status of Silicon Carbide Joining Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    Advanced, accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems are currently being investigated for potential application in currently operating light water reactors (LWR) or in reactors that have attained design certification. Evaluation of potential options for accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) relative to Zr-based alloys, including increased corrosion resistance, reduced oxidation and heat of oxidation, and reduced hydrogen generation under steam attack (off-normal conditions). If demonstrated to be applicable in the intended LWR environment, SiC could be used in nuclear fuel cladding or other in-core structural components. Achieving a SiC-SiC joint that resists corrosion with hot, flowing water, is stable under irradiation and retains hermeticity is a significant challenge. This report summarizes the current status of SiC-SiC joint development work supported by the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Significant progress has been made toward SiC-SiC joint development for nuclear service, but additional development and testing work (including irradiation testing) is still required to present a candidate joint for use in nuclear fuel cladding.

  3. 78 FR 40312 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA TOTAL (Technology Open to Approved Lenders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... voluntary electronic commerce procedures. The benefits of converting data to the MISMO format include... forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. HUD...

  4. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  5. Study on In-Service Inspection Program and Inspection Technologies for Commercialized Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Masato Ando; Shigenobu Kubo; Yoshio Kamishima; Toru Iitsuka

    2006-07-01

    The objective of in-service inspection of a nuclear power plant is to confirm integrity of function of components necessary to safety, and satisfy the needs to protect plant investment and to achieve high plant ability. The sodium-cooled fast reactor, which is designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems in Japan, has two characteristics related to in-service inspection. The first is that all sodium coolant boundary structures have double-wall system. Continuous monitoring of the sodium coolant boundary structures are adopted for inspection. The second characteristic is the steam generator with double-wall-tubes. Volumetric testing is adopted to make sure that one of the tubes can maintain the boundary function in case of the other tube failure. A rational in-service inspection concept was developed taking these features into account. The inspection technologies were developed to implement in-service inspection plan. The under-sodium viewing system consisted of multi ultrasonic scanning transducers, which was used for imaging under-sodium structures. The under-sodium viewing system was mounted on the under-sodium vehicle and delivered to core internals. The prototype of under-sodium viewing system and vehicle were fabricated and performance tests were carried out under water. The laboratory experiments of volumetric testing for double-wall-tubes of steam generator, such as ultrasonic testing and remote-field eddy current testing, were performed and technical feasibility was assessed. (authors)

  6. Field study of moving bed biofilm reactor technology for post-treatment of wastewater lagoon effluent at 1 degree C.

    PubMed

    Almomani, Fares A; Delatolla, Robert; Ormeci, Banu

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential use ofmoving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems as ammonia removal post-treatment units for wastewater (WW) treatment lagoons that demonstrate large temperature changes throughout their operational year (1 - 20 degrees C). The study was carried out over a six-month period using laboratory-scale MBBR reactors fed with incoming effluent from a full-scale lagoon. The study shows that significant average ammonia removal rates of 0.26 and 0.11 kgN/m . d were achieved at 20 degrees C and 1C. The increase in the ammonia removal rates with increasing temperature from 1 degrees C to 20 degrees C showed a strong correlation to an applied temperature correction coefficient model. No significant accumulation of effluent nitrite was observed at 1 degrees C or after being fed with synthetic wastewater (SWW); indicating that cold temperatures and transitions from real WW to SWW did not stress the nitrifiers. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that changes in temperature or changes from real WW to SWW do not affect the mass of biofilm attached per MBBR carrier. Hence, based on the results of this study, it is concluded that MBBR is a promising technology for post-treatment ammonia removal of WW lagoon effluent.

  7. Technology Perspectives on the Management of Spent-Resin Wastes Generated From Nuclear Power Reactor Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Shiv Vijayan; Makoto Kikuchi; Akihiro Komatsu

    2002-07-01

    Organic-resin wastes (spent resins) are generated by different purification systems employed in all types of nuclear power reactors during routine and non-routine operations. The quantities of such resin wastes, and their inventories of contaminants vary depend on the operational goals of the individual power plant. Depending on the regulatory target in the particular jurisdiction where the reactor is located, the type and amounts of radionuclides, metals and other chemical contaminants in the resin waste determine the extent of treatment required for interim storage or final disposal of the waste. Resin-waste treatment comprises different operations such as pretreatment, conditioning/stabilization and containerisation that produce a waste package suitable for handling, transport, storage and disposal. One aspect of the contaminants that has significant impact on waste conditioning and the overall cost of managing such wastes are the concentrations of short half-life (arbitrarily less than approximately 30 years) radionuclides, and long half-life radionuclides, in particular carbon-14, and toxic metals present in the waste. A spectrum of resin-waste conditioning methods is available. Some methods have been applied to specific situations while others are being developed for future applications to meet the need for reducing worker dose, environmental releases, and waste-storage and disposal costs. This paper describes waste treatment options for low-level radioactive resin wastes and potential options of resin wastes containing appreciable amounts of carbon-14. Indications are that drying of the resin waste containing long half-life radionuclides such as carbon-14 and compaction or pelletizing can be favourable to allow interim dry-storage of the waste and to provide sufficient flexibility in the preparation of a suitable waste form to meet applicable waste acceptance criteria for the eventual disposal of such wastes. (authors)

  8. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. The ability to create NTD silicon technology in the IRT-T reactor in a horizontal experimental channel with one-side access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlachev, V. A.; Golovatsky, A. V.; Emets, E. G.; Butko, Ya A.

    2016-06-01

    The article shows the ability of creation of neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of monocrystalline silicon technology in the reactor's channel, which has a one-side access. In the article a distribution of thermal neutron flux through the length of channel and it's radius, neutron spectrum were obtained which confirmed that horizontal experimental channel HEC-1 is suitable for NTD.

  10. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology: Final quarterly technical progress no. 2, 1 July - 30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Toseland, B.A.; Tischer, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward for 750–800°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-08-01

    This document presents the NGNP Critical PASSCs and defines their technical maturation path through Technology Development Roadmaps (TDRMs) and their associated Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). As the critical PASSCs advance through increasing levels of technical maturity, project risk is reduced and the likelihood of within-budget and on-schedule completion is enhanced. The current supplier-generated TRLs and TDRMs for a 750–800°C reactor outlet temperature (ROT) specific to each supplier are collected in Appendix A.

  12. Fabrication technological development of the oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA957 for fast reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; GD Johnson; WF Brown; MM Paxton; RJ Puigh; CR Eiholzer; C Martinez; MA Blotter

    2000-03-27

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material, in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report. The alloy is a ferritic stainless steel developed by International Nickel Company specifically for structural reactor applications. It is strengthened by a very fine, uniformly distributed yttria dispersoid. Its fabrication involves a mechanical alloying process and subsequent extrusion, which ultimately results in a highly elongated grain structure. While the presence of the dispersoid produces a material with excellent strength, the body centered cubic structure inherent to the material coupled with the high aspect ratio that results from processing operations produces some difficulties with ductility. The alloy is very sensitive to variations in a number of processing parameters, and if the high strength is once lost during fabrication, it cannot be recovered. The microstructural evolution of the alloy under irradiation falls into two regimes. Below about 550 C, dislocation development, {alpha}{prime} precipitation and void evolution in the matrix are observed, while above about 550 C damage appears to be restricted to cavity formation within oxide particles. The thermal expansion of the alloy is very similar to that of HT9 up to the temperature where HT9 undergoes a phase transition to austenitic. Pulse magnetic welding of end caps onto MA957 tubing can be accomplished in a manner similar to that in which it is performed on HT9, although the welding parameters appear to be very sensitive to variations in the tubing that result from small changes in fabrication conditions. The tensile and stress rupture behavior of the alloy are acceptable in the unirradiated condition, being comparable to HT9 below about 700 C and exceeding those of HT9

  13. The "Day in the Life of a Teenage Hobo" Project: Integrating Technology with Shneiderman's Collect-Relate-Create- Donate Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Justin; Daccord, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Used wisely, academic technology empowers students to take responsibility for their own learning. "In Leonardo's Laptop," Ben Shneiderman provides teachers with a powerful framework, "Collect-Relate-Create-Donate" (CRCD), for designing student-centered learning opportunities using computers. Shneiderman developed his model by applying new insights…

  14. Day as a Pathologist: Utilization of Technology to Guide Students in Exploring Careers in Breast Cancer Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Jacob J.; Judd, Mariah V.; Bringman, Lauren R.; Wells, Clark D.; Marrs, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an interactive laboratory that allows students to identify and grade tissue samples from human breast biopsies, using techniques similar to those used by actual pathologists. This unique lab develops a practical and intellectual understanding of basic tissue structures that make up living systems, utilizing technology to bring…

  15. Bubbling Reactor Technology for Rapid Synthesis of Uniform, Small MFI-Type Zeolite Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Rao, Yuxiang; Wan, Haiying; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.

    2011-06-27

    MFI-type zeolite is an important family of materials used in today’s industries as catalysts and adsorbents. Preparation of this type of zeolite material as uniform and pure crystals of sizes from tens of nanometer to hundreds of nanometer are not only desired by current catalytic and adsorption processes for enhanced reaction kinetics and/or selectivity, but also much needed by some new applications, such as CO2 capture adsorbents and composite materials. However, it has been a major challenge in the zeolite synthesis field to prepare small crystals of MFI-type zeolite over a range of Si/Al ratio with very high throughput. In this work, a gas-bubbling flow reactor is used to conduct hydrothermal growth of the zeolite crystals with controllable Si/Al ratio and crystal sizes. Distinctive, uniform ZSM-5 crystals are successfully synthesized within two hours of reaction time, exceptionally short compared to the conventional synthesis process. The crystals are small enough to form a stable milk-like suspension in water. The Si/Al ratio can be controlled by adjusting the growth solution composition and reaction conditions over a range from about 9 to infinity. Characterization by SEM/EDS, XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption/desorption, and NMR confirms ZSM-5 crystal structures and reveals presence of meso-porosity in the resulting crystals.

  16. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Prele, G.

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of microfluidics reactor technology on the kinetics of virus inactivation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark R; Chen, Dayue; Emery, Warren R; Lambooy, Peter K; Nolting, Juliana; Quertinmont, Michelle T; Shamlou, Parviz A

    2008-04-15

    Mammalian cell lines constitute an important part in the manufacture of therapeutic proteins. However, their susceptibility to virus contamination is a potential risk to patient safety and productivity, and has led to the development of a repertoire of virus inactivation techniques. From a process development viewpoint, the challenge is to demonstrate the required log reduction in virus content without a significant loss in product titer or quality. The balance between the two is dictated by the kinetics of virus inactivation and protein degradation, both of which are critically affected by process parameters. In this study we describe a commercially available microchannel reactor (MCR) and demonstrate how it can be used to evaluate the impact of temperature on the kinetics of virus inactivation and protein product degradation. Virus spiking experiments are reported using Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus and REOvirus, into buffers in the absence and presence of a therapeutic protein currently under development at Lilly. The results demonstrate that the MCR is an ideal platform for evaluation of fast reactive systems and reactions that are particularly sensitive to small changes to process conditions. These conditions include heat inactivation of a virus in a mammalian cell culture process stream used in the manufacture of therapeutic proteins and antibodies. PMID:18023056

  18. Evaluation of microfluidics reactor technology on the kinetics of virus inactivation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark R; Chen, Dayue; Emery, Warren R; Lambooy, Peter K; Nolting, Juliana; Quertinmont, Michelle T; Shamlou, Parviz A

    2008-04-15

    Mammalian cell lines constitute an important part in the manufacture of therapeutic proteins. However, their susceptibility to virus contamination is a potential risk to patient safety and productivity, and has led to the development of a repertoire of virus inactivation techniques. From a process development viewpoint, the challenge is to demonstrate the required log reduction in virus content without a significant loss in product titer or quality. The balance between the two is dictated by the kinetics of virus inactivation and protein degradation, both of which are critically affected by process parameters. In this study we describe a commercially available microchannel reactor (MCR) and demonstrate how it can be used to evaluate the impact of temperature on the kinetics of virus inactivation and protein product degradation. Virus spiking experiments are reported using Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus and REOvirus, into buffers in the absence and presence of a therapeutic protein currently under development at Lilly. The results demonstrate that the MCR is an ideal platform for evaluation of fast reactive systems and reactions that are particularly sensitive to small changes to process conditions. These conditions include heat inactivation of a virus in a mammalian cell culture process stream used in the manufacture of therapeutic proteins and antibodies.

  19. Changing optical axis due to reactor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, D. S.; Jacobson, D. L.; Baltic, E.

    2011-09-01

    During reactor operation, the neutron flux distribution is modified by the reactor control mechanisms and in the case of the reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, this is determined by the angular position of the Cd shim arms and the vertical position of an Al regulating rod. The changing flux distribution results in a change in the optical axis of neutron beams, whose view is a fixed position within the reactor core. The changing optical axis results in two noticeable image artifacts: poor registration between images of a static object taken at different times and a change in the shape of the flat field intensity. These two effects were measured during the first four days of reactor operation. Both measurements show correlation with the reactor control mechanisms, with combined correlation coefficients during the first two days after reactor startup approaching 1. The change in the edge position is well below the image spatial resolution, and has more uncertainty associated with it. However, the change in the flat-field shape demonstrates a clear correlation with both shim arm angle and regulating rod position.

  20. High temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulera, I. V.; Sinha, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements.

  1. Development of BEACON technology. Topical report: tandem reactor testing of hydrogen catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The BEACON process involves the catalytic deposition of a highly reactive form of carbon from a gas stream which contains carbon monoxide. The carbon-depleted gas is combusted with air to produce power, and the carbon is reacted with steam to produce methane or hydrogen. Both the methane production and hydrogen production processes from low Btu gases have been developed successfully through bench-scale under a Cooperative Agreement between the US Department of Energy and TRW, Inc. Bench-scale development of the methane process was completed during the second quarter of 1983. Also catalyst selection testing (screening tests) for hydrogen manufacturing was completed at the same time and the results reported in a Topical Report dated October 1983. This document summarizes the data generated at bench-scale on the production of hydrogen from low Btu gas. Bench-scale development of the BEACON hydrogen process was concluded with the completion of Task 3. The objective of Task 3 was to qualify through bench-scale a BEACON-type catalyst for the production of hydrogen from low Btu gases. Catalyst No. 11, a modified SNG BEACON catalyst which proved highly selective to hydrogen production during laboratory scale screening tests was subjected to a total of 265 hours of steady state operation at three pressures (50, 75 and 100 psig) in the fluidized bed Tandem Reactor apparatus (bench-scale). The catalyst met all the requirements of stability and selectivity cited above. Carbon deposition and carbon steaming to hydrogen took place at near equilibrium yields, methane suppression was greater than 80% at all pressures, and there was no significant build-up of inactive carbon residue on the catalyst. 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  3. Gas-cooled reactor programs: high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented concerning HTGR chemistry; fueled graphite development; irradiation services for General Atomic Company; prestressed concrete pressure vessel development; HTGR structural materials; graphite development; high-temperature reactor physics studies; shielding studies; component flow test loop studies; core support performance test; and application and project assessments.

  4. eHealth Technology Competencies for Health Professionals Working in Home Care to Support Older Adults to Age in Place: Outcomes of a Two-Day Collaborative Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Ansam; Woolrych, Ryan D; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kearns, William D

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand for care is increasing, whereas in the near future the number of people working in professional care will not match with the demand for care. eHealth technology can help to meet the growing demand for care. Despite the apparent positive effects of eHealth technology, there are still barriers to technology adoption related to the absence of a composite set of knowledge and skills among health care professionals regarding the use of eHealth technology. Objective The objective of this paper is to discuss the competencies required by health care professionals working in home care, with eHealth technologies such as remote telecare and ambient assisted living (AAL), mobile health, and fall detection systems. Methods A two-day collaborative workshop was undertaken with academics across multiple disciplines with experience in working on funded research regarding the application and development of technologies to support older people. Results The findings revealed that health care professionals working in home care require a subset of composite skills as well as technology-specific competencies to develop the necessary aptitude in eHealth care. This paper argues that eHealth care technology skills must be instilled in health care professionals to ensure that technologies become integral components of future care delivery, especially to support older adults to age in place. Educating health care professionals with the necessary skill training in eHealth care will improve service delivery and optimise the eHealth care potential to reduce costs by improving efficiency. Moreover, embedding eHealth care competencies within training and education for health care professionals ensures that the benefits of new technologies are realized by casting them in the context of the larger system of care. These care improvements will potentially support the independent living of older persons at home. Conclusions This paper describes the health care professionals

  5. Development of tokamak experiment technology: A study on the nuclear fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Won; Hwang, Chul Kew; In, Sang Ryul; Kim, Sung Kyu; Oh, Byung Hoon; Jeong, Seung Ho; Hong, Bong Guen; Yoon, Jae Sung; Yoon, Byung Joo; Song, Woo Sup

    1994-07-01

    Overall test operation of KT-1 tokamak has been done with the modified power supplies and constructed plasma position feedback control system. The achieved plasma parameters of KT-1 are Ip (plasma current) greater than 15 kA (9ms) and Td (plasma current sustaining time) greater than 12 ms (7.5 kA) until now. Instrumentations for the carbonization/boronization are also equipped and applied to the first boronization of invessel components of KT-1 tokamak. As a preliminary treatment of the 1st wall of tokamak vacuum torus, RG discharge cleaning has been done. Plasma qualities have been improved by discharge cleaning. In addition, helicon plasma device is designed succeeding exploitation of the first wall conditioning program which are all for the development of conditioning technology of 1st wall facing the plasma. As a part of the development program on the plasma monitoring technologies, conceptual design study on the FIR interferometer- polarimeter is accomplished. Parallel to these experimental activities, an effort has been made in designing the operating scenario of poloidal field system of KT-2 tokamak.

  6. The use of sequencing batch reactor technology for the treatment of high-strength dairy processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarski, R.; Nyhuis, G.

    1996-11-01

    Mueller Milch, a German dairy, discharged process wastewater to a local municipal treatment plant. However, increasing user fees for industrial discharges and overloading of the local treatment plant forced Mueller Milch to evaluate alternatives for a new wastewater treatment facility. In 1992, after the evaluation of treatment alternatives, Mueller Milch dairy discharged effluent from Europe`s first full scale 0.4 mgd Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). In a similar situation was Westmilch dairy, another German milk processor unable to meet new stringent effluent limits requiring nutrient removal with their conventional activated sludge system. Following a construction period of only six weeks, the existing treatment facility was retrofitted to a dual basin 0.19 mgd SBR system with sludge digester, eliminating the need for additional tanks. This paper focuses on the design and performance of the SBR process for the treatment of high-strength dairy process wastewater, and describes the success both Mueller Milch and Westmilch dairy have achieved by utilizing this technology.

  7. Safety and Traceability in Patient Healthcare through the Integration of RFID Technology for Intravenous Mixtures in the Prescription-Validation-Elaboration-Dispensation-Administration Circuit to Day Hospital Patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, María; Vázquez González, Guillermo; Dafonte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the integration of the RFID technology with the aim of ensuring the traceability of patients and minimization of adverse events during the process of prescription-validation-elaboration-dispensation-administration of medication by means of the implementation of various passive and active WIFI RFID systems in the Pharmacy and Day Hospital services of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña. Obtaining patient traceability and using the patient/drug binomial during this process allows us to minimize the occurrence of adverse events. The key points in this work are the unmistakably unique identification and accurate real time location of the controlled items (patients and medication). RFID technology has proved to be invaluable in assisting with the everyday clinical practice of a hospital, and has been successfully implemented in this environment and others. In services such as the day hospital, the implementation of said technology is further justified by the high costs of the service and the high risk to the patient. PMID:27483269

  8. Safety and Traceability in Patient Healthcare through the Integration of RFID Technology for Intravenous Mixtures in the Prescription-Validation-Elaboration-Dispensation-Administration Circuit to Day Hospital Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Pérez, María; Vázquez González, Guillermo; Dafonte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the integration of the RFID technology with the aim of ensuring the traceability of patients and minimization of adverse events during the process of prescription-validation-elaboration-dispensation-administration of medication by means of the implementation of various passive and active WIFI RFID systems in the Pharmacy and Day Hospital services of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña. Obtaining patient traceability and using the patient/drug binomial during this process allows us to minimize the occurrence of adverse events. The key points in this work are the unmistakably unique identification and accurate real time location of the controlled items (patients and medication). RFID technology has proved to be invaluable in assisting with the everyday clinical practice of a hospital, and has been successfully implemented in this environment and others. In services such as the day hospital, the implementation of said technology is further justified by the high costs of the service and the high risk to the patient. PMID:27483269

  9. Safety and Traceability in Patient Healthcare through the Integration of RFID Technology for Intravenous Mixtures in the Prescription-Validation-Elaboration-Dispensation-Administration Circuit to Day Hospital Patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, María; Vázquez González, Guillermo; Dafonte, Carlos

    2016-07-28

    This work presents the integration of the RFID technology with the aim of ensuring the traceability of patients and minimization of adverse events during the process of prescription-validation-elaboration-dispensation-administration of medication by means of the implementation of various passive and active WIFI RFID systems in the Pharmacy and Day Hospital services of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña. Obtaining patient traceability and using the patient/drug binomial during this process allows us to minimize the occurrence of adverse events. The key points in this work are the unmistakably unique identification and accurate real time location of the controlled items (patients and medication). RFID technology has proved to be invaluable in assisting with the everyday clinical practice of a hospital, and has been successfully implemented in this environment and others. In services such as the day hospital, the implementation of said technology is further justified by the high costs of the service and the high risk to the patient.

  10. Gas-cooled reactor programs. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report, December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten, P.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Bartine, D.E.; Sanders, J.P.

    1984-06-01

    ORNL continues to make significant contributions to the national program. In the HTR fuels area, we are providing detailed statistical information on the fission product retention performance of irradiated fuel. Our studies are also providing basic data on the mechanical, physical, and chemical behavior of HTR materials, including metals, ceramics, graphite, and concrete. The ORNL has an important role in the development of improved HTR graphites and in the specification of criteria that need to be met by commercial products. We are also developing improved reactor physics design methods. Our work in component development and testing centers in the Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL), which is being used to evaluate the performance of the HTR core support structure. Other work includes experimental evaluation of the shielding effectiveness of the lower portions of an HTR core. This evaluation is being performed at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility. Researchers at ORNL are developing welding techniques for attaching steam generator tubing to the tubesheets and are testing ceramic pads on which the core posts rest. They are also performing extensive testing of aggregate materials obtained from potential HTR site areas for possible use in prestressed concrete reactor vessels. During the past year we continued to serve as a peer reviewer of small modular reactor designs being developed by GA and GE with balance-of-plant layouts being developed by Bechtel Group, Inc. We have also evaluated the national need for developing HTRs with emphasis on the longer term applications of the HTRs to fossil conversion processes.

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 1. Main report. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE.

  12. Career Day 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 200 high school juniors and seniors with interests in science, technology, engineering and math met one-on-one with professionals at NASA's Langley Research Center during Career Day 2012,...

  13. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  14. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  15. Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond cryogenic barrier technology demonstration: Pre-barrier subsurface hydrology and contaminant transport investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Moline, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes that has since been drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by a tributary that empties into Melton Branch Creek and that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily {sup 90}Sr. Because of the proximity of the tributary to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the tributary, it is hypothesized that the HRE Pond is a source of contamination to he creek. As a means for temporary containment of contaminants within the impoundment, a cryogenic barrier technology demonstration was initiated in FY96 with a background hydrologic investigation that continued through FY97. Cryogenic equipment installation was completed in FY97, and freezing was initiated in September of 1997. This report documents the results of a hydrologic and geologic investigation of the HRE Pond/cryogenic barrier site. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the impoundment in order to meet the following objectives: (1) to provide a pre-barrier subsurface hydrologic baseline for post-barrier performance assessment; (2) to confirm that the impoundment is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments; and (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the impoundment. The methods of investigation included water level and temperature monitoring in a network of wells and standpipes in and surrounding the impoundment, a helium tracer test conducted under ambient flow conditions, and geologic logging during the drilling of boreholes for installation of cryogenic probes and temperature monitoring wells.

  16. Completely stirred tank reactor behavior in an unmixed anaerobic digester: the induced bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Dustin, J Shaun; Hansen, Conly L

    2012-09-01

    The induced bed reactor (IBR) was developed to apply high-rate anaerobic digestion techniques to high suspended solids substrates (6 to 12% total solids). This technology has been implemented at multiple full-scale installations in the United States and Canada. Residence time distribution studies for 58-L laboratory-scale reactors operated at a 3.8-day hydraulic retention time were conducted at 35, 45, and 55 degrees C under control and active digestion conditions. Rhodamine WT and lithium ion were used as tracers. The results show that the IBR most closely approximated completely stirred tank reactor behavior when operated under the study conditions. Mixing was likely a result of a (1) combination of energy inputs from thermal gradients induced by heat flux through the reactors, and (2) shear induced by gas evolution in the sludge bed. PMID:23012770

  17. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  18. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation. PMID:27573503

  19. Comparison and validation of HEU and LEU modeling results to HEU experimental benchmark data for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MITR reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T. H.; Wilson, E. H; Bergeron, A.; Horelik, N.; Stevens, J.

    2011-03-02

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Towards this goal, comparisons of MCNP5 Monte Carlo neutronic modeling results for HEU and LEU cores have been performed. Validation of the model has been based upon comparison to HEU experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a model which could represent the experimental HEU data, and therefore could provide a basis to demonstrate LEU core performance. This report presents an overview of MITR-II model geometry and material definitions which have been verified, and updated as required during the course of validation to represent the specifications of the MITR-II reactor. Results of calculations are presented for comparisons to historical HEU start-up data from 1975-1976, and to other experimental benchmark data available for the MITR-II Reactor through 2009. This report also presents results of steady state neutronic analysis of an all-fresh LEU fueled core. Where possible, HEU and LEU calculations were performed for conditions equivalent to HEU experiments, which serves as a starting point for safety analyses for conversion of MITR-II from the use of HEU

  20. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Research activities are described concerning HTGR chemistry; fueled graphite development; prestressed concrete pressure vessel development; structural materials; HTGR graphite studies; HTR core evaluation; reactor physics; shielding; application and project assessments; and HTR Core Flow Test Loop studies.

  1. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  2. Zoo Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Zoo Day was one of the culminating activities of Art Extravaganza, a pilot summer art program for high ability first-and second-graders. Field trips, art history lessons, box sculpture, and a study of cavemen were included. (SJL)

  3. Utilization of Minor Actinides (Np, Am, Cm) in Nuclear Power Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, A.; Bergelson, B.; Tikhomirov, G.

    2014-06-01

    Calculation research of the utilization process of minor actinides (transmutation with use of power released) is performed for specialized power reactor of the VVER type operating on the level of electric power of 1000 MW. Five subsequent cycles are considered for the reactor with fuel elements containing minor actinides along with enriched uranium. It was shown that one specialized reactor for the one cycle (900 days) can utilize minor actinides from several VVER-1000 reactors without any technological and structural modifications. Power released because of minor actinide fission is about 4% with respect to the total power

  4. The Implementation of a One-Day Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Career Exploration Workshop for Middle School Girls in Elmira, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Carol-Witkowski CW

    Even now, women are underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers. The literature shows that one significant approach to address this issue is to work with middle school girls, ages eleven to thirteen, to get them interested and excited about STEM career paths. In addition to appropriate in-school support a review of many different middle school programs indicates that such programs exist in certain service areas but are still missing in others, especially the rural areas. To address this situation, a one-day STEM workshop called "Full STEAHM Ahead!" was implemented spring 2012 in Elmira, New York, to address the career exploration "turning point" for rural middle school girls. The implementation involved pre-workshop, workshop, and post-workshop phases. The success and effectiveness of the workshop was demonstrated by survey comments and verbal feedback from both the girls and educators who attended.

  5. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  6. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  7. Energy Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program in which students present their displays in the normal science-fair style but without the competitive element and more as a "science-share". Describes an "energy day" celebration which included an energy exhibition and engaged students in an "energy decathlon" that challenged them with tasks encompassing many aspects of energy.…

  8. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  9. Multistage pH-responsive mucoadhesive nanocarriers prepared by aerosol flow reactor technology: A controlled dual protein-drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Neha; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Araújo, Francisca; Mäkilä, Ermei; Raula, Janne; Kauppinen, Esko I; Salonen, Jarno; Sarmento, Bruno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-11-01

    Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems are anticipated to overcome the persistent challenges in oral protein and peptide administration, and lead to the development of long awaited non-invasive therapies. Herein, an advanced single-step aerosol flow reactor based technology was used to develop a multifunctional site specific dual protein-drug delivery nanosystem. For this purpose, mucoadhesive porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles encapsulated into a pH-responsive polymeric nanomatrix was developed for advanced oral type 2 diabetes mellitus therapy with an antidiabetic peptide, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and the enzyme inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). Chitosan surface modification inherited the mucoadhesiveness to the nanosystem which led to enhanced cellular interactions and increased cellular compatibility. An advanced aerosol flow reactor technology was used to encapsulate the chitosan modified nanoparticles into an enteric polymeric nanomatrix. The pH-sensitive polymeric matrix simultaneously prevented the gastric degradation of the encapsulated peptide and also preserved the mucoadhesive functionality of the chitosan-modified PSi nanoparticles in the harsh stomach environment. The multidrug loaded nanosystem showed augmented intestinal permeability of GLP-1, evaluated in an in vitro cell-based intestinal epithelium model, attributed to the permeation enhancer effect of chitosan and inhibition of GLP-1 degradation by the DPP4 inhibitor. The applied technology resulted in the development of a dual-drug delivery nanosystem that synergizes the antidiabetic effect of the loaded peptide and the enzyme inhibitor, thereby indicating high clinical potential of the system and preparation technique.

  10. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE. This volume contains the appendices.

  11. The Innovations, Technology and Waste Management Approaches to Safely Package and Transport the World's First Radioactive Fusion Research Reactor for Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Jim Chrzanowski; Mike Viola; Ron Strykowsky

    2003-09-15

    Original estimates stated that the amount of radioactive waste that will be generated during the dismantling of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor will approach two million kilograms with an associated volume of 2,500 cubic meters. The materials were activated by 14 MeV neutrons and were highly contaminated with tritium, which present unique challenges to maintain integrity during packaging and transportation. In addition, the majority of this material is stainless steel and copper structural metal that were specifically designed and manufactured for this one-of-a-kind fusion research reactor. This provided further complexity in planning and managing the waste. We will discuss the engineering concepts, innovative practices, and technologies that were utilized to size reduce, stabilize, and package the many unique and complex components of this reactor. This waste was packaged and shipped in many different configurations and methods according to the transportation regulations and disposal facility requirements. For this particular project, we were able to utilize two separate disposal facilities for burial. This paper will conclude with a complete summary of the actual results of the waste management costs, volumes, and best practices that were developed from this groundbreaking and successful project.

  12. The effectiveness of using the combined-cycle technology in a nuclear power plant unit equipped with an SVBR-100 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Gospodchenkov, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    The design of a modular SVBR-100 reactor with a lead-bismuth alloy liquid-metal coolant is described. The basic thermal circuit of a power unit built around the SVBR-100 reactor is presented together with the results of its calculation. The gross electrical efficiency of the turbine unit driven by saturated steam at a pressure of 6.7 MPa is estimated at η{el/gr} = 35.5%. Ways for improving the efficiency of this power unit and increasing its power output by applying gas-turbine and combined-cycle technologies are considered. With implementing a combined-cycle power-generating system comprising two GE-6101FA gas-turbine units with a total capacity of 140 MW, it becomes possible to obtain the efficiency of the combined-cycle plant equipped with the SVBR-100 reactor η{el/gr} = 45.39% and its electrical power output equal to 328 MW. The heat-recovery boiler used as part of this power installation generates superheated steam with a temperature of 560°C, due to which there is no need to use a moisture separator/steam reheater in the turbine unit thermal circuit.

  13. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation

  14. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Classification of decommissioning wastes. Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.S.

    1984-09-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning of the reference boiling water reactor power station are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. The 18,949 cubic meters of waste from DECON are classified as follows: Class A, 97.5%; Class B, 2.0%; Class C, 0.3%. About 0.2% (47 cubic meters) of the waste would be generally unacceptable for disposal using near-surface disposal methods.

  15. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Classification of decommissioning wastes. Addendum 3

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.S.

    1984-09-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning of the reference pressurized water reactor power station are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. The 17,885 cubic meters of waste from DECON are classified as follows: Class A, 98.0%; Class B, 1.2%; Class C, 0.1%. About 0.7% (133 cubic meters) of the waste would be generally unacceptable for disposal using near-surface disposal methods.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  17. Reactor neutrino monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear reactors are the most intense man-controlled sources of antineutrinos and as such have hosted number of key physics experiments, from the antineutrino discovery to modern oscillation measurements. At the present time, both detection technology and understanding of fundamental physics are mature enough to think about antineutrinos as a new tool for reactor monitoring. We describe below how antineutrinos can provide online information on reactor operation and amount of plutonium accumulated in the core. Reactors are the only sources of plutonium on earth and this element can be chemically separated from the rest of the nuclear fuel and diverted into nuclear weapons. We present in the next sections the unique features antineutrino detectors could provide to safeguards agencies such as IAEA. We review the worldwide efforts to develop small ( 1m scale) antineutrino detectors dedicated to automated and non-intrusive reactor monitoring.

  18. Preliminary assessment of the effects of biaxial loading on reactor pressure vessel structural-integrity-assessment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Dickson, T.L.; McAfee, W.J.; Merkle, J.G.

    1996-04-01

    Effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness were studied to determine potential impact on structural integrity assessment of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transient loading and pressure-temperature (PT) loading produced by reactor heatup and cooldown transients. Biaxial shallow-flaw fracture-toughness tests results were also used to determine the parameter controlling fracture in the transition temperature range, and to develop a related dual-parameter fracture-toughness correlation. Shallow-flaw and biaxial loading effects were found to reduce the conditional probability of crack initiation by a factor of nine when the shallow-flaw fracture-toughness K{sub Jc} data set, with biaxial-loading effects adjustments, was substituted in place of ASME Code K{sub Ic} data set in PTS analyses. Biaxial loading was found to reduce the shallow-flaw fracture toughness of RPV steel such that the lower-bound curve was located between ASME K{sub Ic} and K{sub IR} curves. This is relevant to future development of P-T curve analysis procedures. Fracture in shallow-flaw biaxial samples tested in the lower transition temperature range was shown to be strain controlled. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture-toughness correlation was developed and shown to be capable of predicting the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture toughness for strain-controlled fracture.

  19. Reactors, Weapons, X-Rays, and Solar Panels: Using SCOT, Technological Frame, Epistemic Culture, and Actor Network Theory to Investigate Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The article explores how four different theories have been used to investigate technology. It highlights the worth and limitations of each theory and argues that an eclectic, ever-evolving approach to the study of technology is warranted. (Contains 1 table.)

  20. Progress Towards Deployable Antineutrino Detectors for Reactor Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, N; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Keefer, G; Reyna, D; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Kiff, S

    2010-04-05

    Fission reactors emit large numbers of antineutrinos and this flux may be useful for the measurement of two quantities of interest for reactor safeguards: the reactor's power and plutonium inventory throughout its cycle. The high antineutrino flux and relatively low background rates means that simple cubic meter scale detectors at tens of meters standoff can record hundreds or thousands of antineutrino events per day. Such antineutrino detectors would add online, quasi-real-time bulk material accountancy to the set of reactor monitoring tools available to the IAEA and other safeguards agencies with minimal impact on reactor operations. Between 2003 and 2008, our LLNL/SNL collaboration successfully deployed several prototype safeguards detectors at a commercial reactor in order to test both the method and the practicality of its implementation in the field. Partially on the strength of the results obtained from these deployments, an Experts Meeting was convened by the IAEA Novel Technologies Group in 2008 to assess current antineutrino detection technology and examine how it might be incorporated into the safeguards regime. Here we present a summary of our previous deployments and discuss current work that seeks to provide expanded capabilities suggested by the Experts Panel, in particular aboveground detector operation.

  1. A review of nuclear data needs and their status for fusion reactor technology with some suggestions on a strategy to satisfy the requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Cheng, E.T.

    1991-09-01

    A review was performed on the needs and status of nuclear data for fusion-reactor technology. Generally, the status of nuclear data for fusion has been improved during the past two decades due to the dedicated effort of the nuclear data developers. However, there are still deficiencies in the nuclear data base, particularly in the areas of activation and neutron scattering cross sections. Activation cross sections were found to be unsatisfactory in 83 of the 153 reactions reviewed. The scattering cross sections for fluorine and boron will need to be improved at energies above 1 MeV. Suggestions concerning a strategy to address the specific fusion nuclear data needs for dosimetry and activation are also provided.

  2. Advanced Non-Destructive Assessment Technology to Determine the Aging of Silicon Containing Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, T. W.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; King, J. C.; Fletcher, J.; Gerstenberger, L.; Lawrence, S.; Martin, A.; Mejia, C.; Meyer, M. K.; Kennedy, R.; Hu, L.; Kohse, G.; Terry, J.

    2011-06-01

    To create an in-situ, real-time method of monitoring neutron damage within a nuclear reactor core, irradiated silicon carbide samples are examined to correlate measurable variations in the material properties with neutron fluence levels experienced by the silicon carbide (SiC) during the irradiation process. The reaction by which phosphorus doping via thermal neutrons occurs in the silicon carbide samples is known to increase electron carrier density. A number of techniques are used to probe the properties of the SiC, including ultrasonic and Hall coefficient measurements, as well as high frequency impedance analysis. Gamma spectroscopy is also used to examine residual radioactivity resulting from irradiation activation of elements in the samples. Hall coefficient measurements produce the expected trend of increasing carrier concentration with higher fluence levels, while high frequency impedance analysis shows an increase in sample impedance with increasing fluence.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  4. Applying Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology to Examine Austenitic Coarse-Grained Structures for Light Water Reactor Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2003-12-18

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is evaluating the capabilities and limitations of phased array (PA) technology to detect service-type flaws in coarse-grained austenitic piping structures. The work is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Research. This paper presents initial work involving the use of PA technology to determine the effectiveness of detecting and accurately characterizing flaws on the far-side of austenitic piping welds.

  5. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  6. Evaluation of a Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Technology. INTERNATIONAL WASTEWATER SYSTEMS, INC. MODEL 6000 SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of the IWS Model 6000 SBR began in April 2004 when one SBR was taken off line and cleaned. The verification testing started July 1, 2004 and proceeded without interruption through June 30, 2005. All sixteen four-day sampling events were completed as scheduled, yielding...

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  9. Sequencing batch reactor technology: the key to a BP refinery (Bulwer Island) upgraded environmental protection system--a low cost lagoon based retro-fit.

    PubMed

    Hudson, N; Doyle, J; Lant, P; Roach, N; de Bruyn, B; Staib, C

    2001-01-01

    BP Refinery (Bulwer Island) Ltd (BP) located on the eastern Australian coast is currently undergoing a major expansion as a part of the Queensland Clean Fuels Project. The associated wastewater treatment plant upgrade will provide a better quality of treated effluent than is currently possible with the existing infrastructure, and which will be of a sufficiently high standard to meet not only the requirements of imposed environmental legislation but also BP's environmental objectives. A number of challenges were faced when considering the upgrade, particularly; cost constraints and limited plot space, highly variable wastewater, toxicity issues, and limited hydraulic head. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) Technology was chosen for the lagoon upgrade based on the following; SBR technology allowed a retro-fit of the existing earthen lagoon without the need for any additional substantial concrete structures, a dual lagoon system allowed partial treatment of wastewaters during construction, SBRs give substantial process flexibility, SBRs have the ability to easily modify process parameters without any physical modifications, and significant cost benefits. This paper presents the background to this application, an outline of laboratory studies carried out on the wastewater and details the full scale design issues and methods for providing a cost effective, efficient treatment system using the existing lagoon system.

  10. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  11. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  12. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  13. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  14. Plant maintenance and advanced reactors, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-09-15

    The focus of the September-October issue is on plant maintenance and advanced reactors. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A new day for energy in America; Committed to success more than ever, by Andy White, GE--Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Competitive technology for decades, by Steve Tritch, Westinghouse Electric Company; Pioneers of positive community relationship, by Exelon Nuclear; A robust design for 60-years, by Ray Ganthner, Areva; Aiming at no evacuation plants, by Kumiaki Moriya, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd.; and, Desalination and hydrogen economy, by Dr. I. Khamis, International Atomic Energy Agency. Industry innovation articles in this issue are: Reactor vessel closure head project, by Jeff LeClair, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant; and Submersible remote-operated vehicle, by Michael S. Rose, Entergy's Fitzpatrick Nuclear Station.

  15. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  17. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  18. An emerging reactor technology for chemical synthesis: surface acoustic wave-assisted closed-vessel Suzuki coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ketav; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of an energy-efficient surface acoustic wave (SAW) device for driving closed-vessel SAW-assisted (CVSAW), ligand-free Suzuki couplings in aqueous media. The reactions were carried out on a mmolar scale with low to ultra-low catalyst loadings. The reactions were driven by heating resulting from the penetration of acoustic energy derived from RF Raleigh waves generated by a piezoelectric chip via a renewable fluid coupling layer. The yields were uniformly high and the reactions could be executed without added ligand and in water. In terms of energy density this new technology was determined to be roughly as efficient as microwaves and superior to ultrasound.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  20. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions.

  1. Windowless High-Pressure Solar Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R.

    1985-01-01

    Obscuration by reaction products eliminated. Chemical reactor heated by Sunlight employs rocket technology to maintain internal pressure. Instead of keeping chamber tightly closed, pressure maintained by momentum balance between incoming and outgoing materials. Windowless solar reactor admits concentrated Sunlight through exhaust aperture. Pressure in reactor maintained dynamically.

  2. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  3. Driver Technology for Inertial Fusion Research 1.Status of High Power Solid State Laser for Laser Fusion Experiments and the Prospect of Future Reactor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hisanori

    The progress in development of high-power glass laser systems during the past 30 years is remarkable NIF (National Ignition Facility), which will deliver 1.8 MJ at 0.35 μm is now construction in the United States. Recently, technology that smoothes out the focal pattern has been developed to a great extent. RPP (Random Phase Plate) and PCL (Partially Coherent Laser) both gave an excellent focal pattern with standard deviation of 3% in the Gekko XII laser system. In the US, Japan and Europe, several ultra-short pulse lasers were developed for research on “fast ignition”. “Fast ignition” is a method which will reduce the total required laser energy for ignition. Because a diode-pumped, solid state laser can operate at a repetition rate of over 10 Hz with an efficiency of about 10% research area of high-power systems at the 1 kW level started to focus on the development of a driver for a commercial laser fusion reactor.

  4. The molten salt reactor adventure

    SciTech Connect

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-08-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF4-ThF4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized.

  5. Proceedings of a Symposium on Advanced Compact Reactor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Reactor system technologies suitable for a variety of aerospace and terrestrial applications are considered. Technologies, safety and regulatory considerations, potential applications, and research and development opportunities are covered.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  8. Reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Hista, J. C.

    1984-09-18

    Reactor building comprising a vessel shaft anchored in a slab which is peripherally locked. This reactor building comprises a confinement enclosure within which are positioned internal structures constituted by an internal structure floor, a vessel shaft, a slab being positioned between the general floor and the internal structure floor, the vesse

  9. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  11. In vitro fertilization in Japan — Early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world’s first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe.1) In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine.2,3) IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient’s uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  12. In vitro fertilization in Japan - early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world's first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe. In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine. IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient's uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  13. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  14. EBT reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Santoro, R. T.; Spong, D. A.; Uckan, T.; Owen, L. W.; Barnes, J. M.; McBride, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with <..beta../sub core/> approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density.

  15. Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  18. Chemical Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  1. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  6. Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power Systems (MCNSPS) conceptual design and evaluation report. Volume 2, technologies 1: Reactors, heat transport, integration issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetch, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Megawatt Class Nuclear Space Power System (MCNSPS) study are summarized and candidate systems and subsystems are described. Particular emphasis is given to the heat rejection system and the space reactor subsystem.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  8. Purge gas recovery of ammonia synthesis plant by integrated configuration of catalytic hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor and solid oxide fuel cell as a novel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siavashi, Fakhteh; Saidi, Majid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    The purge gas emission of ammonia synthesis plant which contains hazardous components is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. Using integrated configuration of catalytic hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system is a new approach which has a great impact to reduce the pollutant emission. By application of this method, not only emission of ammonia and methane in the atmosphere is prevented, hydrogen is produced through the methane steam reforming and ammonia decomposition reactions that take place simultaneously in a catalytic membrane reactor. The pure generated hydrogen by recovery of the purge gas in the Pd-Ag membrane reactor is used as a feed of SOFC. Since water is the only byproduct of the electrochemical reaction in the SOFC, it is recycled to the reactor for providing the required water of the reforming reaction. Performance investigation of the reactor represents that the rate of hydrogen permeation increases with enhancing the reactor temperature and pressure. Also modeling results indicate that the SOFC performance improves with increasing the temperature and fuel utilization ratio. The generated power by recovery of the purging gas stream of ammonia synthesis plant in the Razi petrochemical complex is about 8 MW.

  9. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  10. Temperature effects on chemical reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, M.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we had to study some characteristics of the chemical reactors, from which we can understand the reactor operation in different circumstances; from these and the most important factor that has a great effect on the reactor operation is the temperature, it is a mathematical processing of a chemical problem that was already studied, but it may be developed by introducing new strategies of control; in our case we deal with the analysis of a liquid-gas reactor which can make the flotation of the benzene to produce the ethylene; this type of reactors can be used in vast domains of the chemical industry, especially in refinery plants where we find the oil separation and its extractions whether they are gases or liquids which become necessary for industrial technology, especially in our century.

  11. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide poets; original…

  12. Further development around the Hoger Onderwijs reactor of IRI in Delft

    SciTech Connect

    Bruin, M. de )

    1992-01-01

    The Interfacultair Reactor Instituut (IRI) was founded in 1958, and its reactor first reached criticality in 1963. Until 1987, IRI was an interuniversity institute, owned and directed by the combined universities. Since then it constitutes part of the Delft University of Technology but continues its role as an interuniversity institute. The main facility is the Hoger Onderwijsreactor (HOR), a 2-MW swimming-pool reactor operated 24 h/day, 5 day/week. In the 5-yr working plan of 1988-1993, much attention is being paid to development and construction of new experimental facilities connected to the reactor. A double-stacked mirror neutron guide, a reactor coupled source of variable energy positrons, and an irradiation facility for activation analysis of large samples have been installed. Completion of a neutron reflectometer suitable for application to solids as well as liquids is foreseen for 1993. Further plans for facility development will focus on the construction of a small beam hall and a three- or fourfold stacked mirror neutron guide to provide neutron beams to that hall. The IRI research program will be continued along the lines discussed on earlier occasions but with increasing emphasis on research using neutron beams and positron techniques and nuclear technology. Major new research activities are focused on plant uptake of long-lived fission products and on the behavior of natural nuclides in large-scale industrial processes.

  13. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  14. Research reactors - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. NCSU PULSTAR Reactor instrumentation upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, P.B.; Bilyj, S.J.

    1993-08-12

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University initiated an upgrade program at the NCSU PULSTAR Reactor in 1990. Twenty-year-old instrumentation is currently undergoing replacement with solid-state and current technology equipment. The financial assistance from the United States Department of Energy has been the primary source of support. This interim report provides the status of the first two phases of the upgrade program.

  16. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater by inverse fluidization: the inverse fluidized bed and the inverse turbulent bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz, C; Buffiere, P; Elmaleh, S; Lebrato, J; Moletta, R

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the application of the inverse fluidization technology to the anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater. Two reactors were investigated: the inverse fluidized bed reactor and the inverse turbulent reactor. In these reactors, a granular floating solid is expanded by a down-flow current of effluent or an up-flow current of gas, respectively. The carrier particles (Extendospheres) were chosen for their large specific surface area (20,000 m2m(-3)) and their low energy requirements for fluidization (gas velocity of 1.5 mm s(-1), 5.4 m h(-1)). Organic load was increased stepwise by reducing hydraulic retention time from more than 60 days to 3 days, while maintaining constant the feed COD concentration. Both reactors achieved more than 90% of COD removal, at an organic loading rate of 10-12 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. The performances observed were similar or even higher than that of other previously tested fluidized bed technologies treating the same wastewater. It was found that the main advantages of this system are: low energy requirement, because of the low fluidization velocities required; there is no need of a settling device, because solids accumulate at the bottom of the reactor, so they can be easily drawn out and particles with high-biomass content can be easily recovered. Lipid phosphate concentration has been revealed as a good method for biomass estimation in biofilms since it only includes living biomass.

  19. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1957-10-01

    A reactor of the type which preferably uses plutonium as the fuel and a liquid moderator, preferably ordinary water, and which produces steam within the reactor core due to the heat of the chain reaction is described. In the reactor shown the fuel elements are essentially in the form of trays and are ventically stacked in spaced relationship. The water moderator is continuously supplied to the trays to maintain a constant level on the upper surfaces of the fuel element as it is continually evaporated by the heat. The steam passes out through the spaces between the fuel elements and is drawn off at the top of the core. The fuel elements are clad in aluminum to prevent deterioration thereof with consequent contamimation of the water.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  2. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  3. Catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.

    1963-01-01

    This patent covers a power-producing nuclear reactor in which fuel rods of slightly enriched U are moderated by heavy water and cooled by liquid metal. The fuel rods arranged parallel to one another in a circle are contained in a large outer closed-end conduit that extends into a tank containing the heavy water. Liquid metal is introduced into the large conduit by a small inner conduit that extends within the circle of fuel rods to a point near the lower closed end of the outer conduit. (AEC) Production Reactors

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1957-09-24

    Reactors of the type employing plates of natural uranium in a moderator are discussed wherein the plates are um-formly disposed in parallel relationship to each other thereby separating the moderator material into distinct and individual layers. Each plate has an uninterrupted sunface area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the active portion of the reactor, the particular size of the plates and the volume ratio of moderator to uranium required to sustain a chain reaction being determinable from the known purity of these materials and other characteristics such as the predictable neutron losses due to the formation of radioactive elements of extremely high neutron capture cross section.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  8. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  9. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  10. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  11. Irradiation Facilities at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the third generation and largest test reactor built in the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC – formerly known as the Test Reactor Area), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to study the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The RTC was established in the early 1950s with the development of the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), which operated until 1970. The second major reactor was the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), which operated from 1957 to 1981, and finally the ATR, which began operation in 1967 and will continue operation well into the future. These reactors have produced a significant portion of the world’s data on materials response to reactor environments. The wide range of experiment facilities in the ATR and the unique ability to vary the neutron flux in different areas of the core allow numerous experiment conditions to co-exist during the same reactor operating cycle. Simple experiments may involve a non-instrumented capsule containing test specimens with no real-time monitoring or control capabilities1. More sophisticated testing facilities include inert gas temperature control systems and pressurized water loops that have continuous chemistry, pressure, temperature, and flow control as well as numerous test specimen monitoring capabilities. There are also apparatus that allow for the simulation of reactor transients on test specimens.

  12. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-08-17

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield.

  13. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Weinberg, A.M.; Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1962-12-25

    A reactor is described comprising a plurality of horizontal trays containing a solution of a fissionable material, the trays being sleeved on a vertical tube which contains a vertically-reciprocable control rod, a gas-tight chamber enclosing the trays, and means for conducting vaporized moderator from the chamber and for replacing vaporized moderator in the trays. (AEC)

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-09-27

    A unit assembly is described for a neutronic reactor comprising a tube and plurality of spaced parallel sandwiches in the tube extending lengthwise thereof, each sandwich including a middle plate having a central opening for plutonium and other openings for fertile material at opposite ends of the plate.

  18. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  19. Antineutrino monitoring of thorium reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A.; Bernstein, Adam; Norman, Eric B.

    2016-09-30

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuel types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring. Thorium molten salt reactors breed 233U, that if diverted constitute a direct use material as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of 233U has been estimated for the first time, and the feasibility of detecting the diversion of 8 kg ofmore » 233U, within a 30 day timeliness goal has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos at a 25 m standoff. It was found that the diversion of a significant quantity of 233U could not be detected within the current IAEA timeliness detection goal using either tests. In conclusion, a rate-time based analysis exceeded the timeliness goal by 23 days, while a spectral based analysis exceeds this goal by 31 days.« less

  20. Antineutrino monitoring of thorium reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A.; Bernstein, Adam; Norman, Eric B.

    2016-09-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuel types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring. Thorium molten salt reactors breed 233U, that if diverted constitute a direct use material as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of 233U has been estimated for the first time, and the feasibility of detecting the diversion of 8 kg of 233U, within a 30 day timeliness goal has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos at a 25 m standoff. It was found that the diversion of a significant quantity of 233U could not be detected within the current IAEA timeliness detection goal using either tests. A rate-time based analysis exceeded the timeliness goal by 23 days, while a spectral based analysis exceeds this goal by 31 days.

  1. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  2. Every Day Is National Lab Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

  3. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  4. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

    Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  5. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  6. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  9. REACTOR MONITORING

    DOEpatents

    Bugbee, S.J.; Hanson, V.F.; Babcock, D.F.

    1959-02-01

    A neutron density inonitoring means for reactors is described. According to this invention a tunnel is provided beneath and spaced from the active portion of the reactor and extends beyond the opposite faces of the activc portion. Neutron beam holes are provided between the active portion and the tunnel and open into the tunnel near the middle thereof. A carriage operates back and forth in the tunnel and is adapted to convey a neutron detector, such as an ion chamber, and position it beneath one of the neutron beam holes. This arrangement affords convenient access of neutron density measuring instruments to a location wherein direct measurement of neutron density within the piles can be made and at the same time affords ample protection to operating personnel.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to a reflector means for a neutronic reactor. A reflector comprised of a plurality of vertically movable beryllium control members is provided surrounding the sides of the reactor core. An absorber of fast neutrons comprised of natural uramum surrounds the reflector. An absorber of slow neutrons surrounds the absorber of fast neutrons and is formed of a plurality of beryllium blocks having natural uranium members distributcd therethrough. in addition, a movable body is positioned directly below the core and is comprised of a beryllium reflector and an absorbing member attached to the botiom thereof, the absorbing member containing a substance selected from the goup consisting of natural urantum and Th/sup 232/.

  11. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  12. REACTOR UNLOADING

    DOEpatents

    Leverett, M.C.

    1958-02-18

    This patent is related to gas cooled reactors wherein the fuel elements are disposed in vertical channels extending through the reactor core, the cooling gas passing through the channels from the bottom to the top of the core. The invention is a means for unloading the fuel elements from the core and comprises dump values in the form of flat cars mounted on wheels at the bottom of the core structure which support vertical stacks of fuel elements. When the flat cars are moved, either manually or automatically, for normal unloading purposes, or due to a rapid rise in the reproduction ratio within the core, the fuel elements are permtted to fall by gravity out of the core structure thereby reducing the reproduction ratio or stopping the reaction as desired.

  13. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Warren R.

    1978-05-30

    A graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  15. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.B.

    1960-01-01

    A reactor is described which comprises a tank, a plurality of coaxial steel sleeves in the tank, a mass of water in the tank, and wire grids in abutting relationship within a plurality of elongated parallel channels within the steel sleeves, the wire being provided with a plurality of bends in the same plane forming adjacent parallel sections between bends, and the sections of adjacent grids being normally disposed relative to each other.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  18. Problems and prospects connected with development of high-temperature filtration technology at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER-1000 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelik, S. V.; Pavlov, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    Results of work on restoring the service properties of filtering material used in the high-temperature reactor coolant purification system of a VVER-1000 reactor are presented. A quantitative assessment is given to the effect from subjecting a high-temperature sorbent to backwashing operations carried out with the use of regular capacities available in the design process circuit in the first years of operation of Unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power plant. Approaches to optimizing this process are suggested. A conceptual idea about comprehensively solving the problem of achieving more efficient and safe operation of the high-temperature active water treatment system (AWT-1) on a nuclear power industry-wide scale is outlined.

  19. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  20. Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Milora, Stanley

    2015-11-01

    The original Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper was published in 1986. This update describes what has changed in 30 years. Notably, the construction of ITER is providing important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs. In addition, we use a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence. But these cost-increasing factors are offset by greater optimism on the thermal-electric conversion efficiency and potential availability. The main examples show the cost of electricity (COE) as a function of aspect ratio and neutron flux to the first wall. The dependence of the COE on availability, thermo-electric efficiency, electrical power output, and the present day's low interest rates is also discussed. Interestingly, at fixed aspect ratio there is a shallow minimum in the COE at neutron flux around 2.5 MW/m2. The possibility of operating with only a small COE penalty at even lower wall loadings (to 1.0 MW/m2 at larger plant size) and the use of niobium-titanium coils are also investigated. J. Sheffield was supported by ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  1. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki; Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki; GOTO, Shoji

    2006-07-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)

  2. Use of activated carbon and natural zeolite as support materials, in an anaerobic fluidised bed reactor, for vinasse treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández, N; Fdz-Polanco, F; Montalvo, S J; Toledano, D

    2001-01-01

    In Cuba, the alcohol distillation process from cane sugar molasses, produces a final waste (vinasse), with an enormous polluting potential and a high sulfate content. Applying the anaerobic technology, most of the biodegradable organic matter can turn into biogas, rich in methane but with concentrations of sulfide above 1%. The present work develops two experiences with anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR) using both Cuban raw material, activated carbon and natural zeolite, as support media, with the purpose of obtaining high organic matter removal rates and keeping sulfide and ammonium concentrations in the permissible ranges. The reactors were operated during 120 days, achieving an organic loading rate of 10 kg COD/m3 day, with COD removal above 70%, and a methane production of 2 L/d. The activated carbon and natural zeolite used support materials in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors, and showed good results of distillery waste removal. PMID:11575071

  3. Evaluation of a hybrid anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks as biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas; Jedidi, Naceur; Escudié, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Wine production processes generate large amount of both winery wastewater and solid wastes. Furthermore, working periods, volumes and pollution loads greatly vary over the year. Therefore, it is recommended to develop a low-cost treatment technology for the treatment of winery effluents taking into account the variation of the organic loading rate (OLR). Accordingly, we have investigated the sequential operation of an anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks (GSs) as biofilm carrier with an OLR ranging from 0.65 to 27 gCOD/L/d. The result showed that, during the start-up with wastewater influent, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate ranged from 83% to 93% and was about 91% at the end of the start-up period that lasted for 40 days. After 3 months of inactivity period of the reactor (no influent feeding), we have succeeded in restarting-up the reactor in only 15 days with a COD removal of 82% and a low concentration of volatile fatty acids (1 g/L), which confirms the robustness of the reactor. As a consequence, GSs can be used as an efficient carrier support, allowing a fast reactor start-up, while the biofilm conserves its activity during a non-feeding period. The proposed hybrid reactor thus permits to treat both winery effluents and GSs.

  4. Open Day at SHMI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  5. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  6. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  7. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  8. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  9. [Start-up of full-scale UASB reactors].

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Sheng, F; Lu, Z

    2001-09-01

    The UASB reactors treating high-temperature citric acid wastewater could be started up in the alternation of mesophilic and thermophilic ranges because the local climate changed greatly by seasons. The reactors were started up in mesophilic range, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 77%-86%; when the temperature of reactors reached 44 degrees C-45 degrees C, the reactors were operated in thermophilic range, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 84%-93%; the reactors were re-operated in mesophilic range after closing about 38 days, and the total efficiency of the two-stage reactors reached 82%-96%. The start-up in the alternation of mesophilic and thermophilic ranges of the full-scale UASB reactors and the characteristics of mesophilic and thermophilic granular sludge were reported in this paper.

  10. REACTOR COMPONETN

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor fuel element comprised of a slug of fissionable material disposed in a sheath of corrosion resistantmaterial is described. The sheath is in the form of a tubular container closed at one end and is in tight-fitting engagement with the peripheral sunface of the slug. An inner cap is insented into the open end of the sheath against the slug, which end is then bent around the inner cap and welded thereto. An outer cap is then welded around its peripheny to the bent portion of the container.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  12. UCLA program in reactor studies: The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of tokamak reactors with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Four ARIES visions are currently planned for the ARIES program. The ARIES-1 design is a DT-burning reactor based on modest'' extrapolations from the present tokamak physics database and relies on either existing technology or technology for which trends are already in place, often in programs outside fusion. ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 are DT-burning reactors which will employ potential advances in physics. The ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs employ the same plasma core but have two distinct fusion power core designs; ARIES-2 utilize the lithium as the coolant and breeder and vanadium alloys as the structural material while ARIES-4 utilizes helium is the coolant, solid tritium breeders, and SiC composite as the structural material. Lastly, the ARIES-3 is a conceptual D-{sup 3}He reactor. During the period Dec. 1, 1990 to Nov. 31, 1991, most of the ARIES activity has been directed toward completing the technical work for the ARIES-3 design and documenting the results and findings. We have also completed the documentation for the ARIES-1 design and presented the results in various meetings and conferences. During the last quarter, we have initiated the scoping phase for ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs.

  13. Reactor production of Thorium-229.

    PubMed

    Hogle, Susan; Boll, Rose Ann; Murphy, Karen; Denton, David; Owens, Allison; Haverlock, Tamara J; Garland, Marc; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2016-08-01

    Limited availability of (229)Th for clinical applications of (213)Bi necessitates investigation of alternative production routes. In reactor production, (229)Th is produced from neutron transmutation of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (227)Ac and (228)Th. Irradiations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (227)Ac targets at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor result in yields of (229)Th at 26 days of 74.0±7.4MBq/g, 260±10MBq/g, and 1200±50MBq/g, respectively. Intermediate radionuclide yields and cross sections are also studied.

  14. Reactor production of Thorium-229.

    PubMed

    Hogle, Susan; Boll, Rose Ann; Murphy, Karen; Denton, David; Owens, Allison; Haverlock, Tamara J; Garland, Marc; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2016-08-01

    Limited availability of (229)Th for clinical applications of (213)Bi necessitates investigation of alternative production routes. In reactor production, (229)Th is produced from neutron transmutation of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (227)Ac and (228)Th. Irradiations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (227)Ac targets at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor result in yields of (229)Th at 26 days of 74.0±7.4MBq/g, 260±10MBq/g, and 1200±50MBq/g, respectively. Intermediate radionuclide yields and cross sections are also studied. PMID:27163437

  15. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Analysis and finite element simulation of electromagnetic heating in the nitride MOCVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Ming; Hao, Yue; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Xu, Sheng-Rui; Ni, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Wei

    2009-11-01

    Electromagnetic field distribution in the vertical metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) reactor is simulated by using the finite element method (FEM). The effects of alternating current frequency, intensity, coil turn number and the distance between the coil turns on the distribution of the Joule heat are analysed separately, and their relations to the value of Joule heat are also investigated. The temperature distribution on the susceptor is also obtained. It is observed that the results of the simulation are in good agreement with previous measurements.

  16. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  17. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  18. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  19. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  20. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  1. School Building Day, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    This document presents information and development materials about "School Building Day" (an event spotlighting the school facility and developing support and pride in the community's schools) to help local school districts conduct their own "School Building Day" to be held on April 20th of 2001. Included are lists of suggested activities and…

  2. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her…

  3. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  4. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  5. Day Care Personnel Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi Strauss Foundation, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The information presented in this guide focuses on the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes needed for effective personnel management in day care settings. Information included in this publication came from the suggestions of day care directors who participated in Training for Child Care Project workshops on administration, as well as from…

  6. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  7. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies on conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) described in the earlier study; defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs; and completing a study of recent PWR steam generator replacements to determine realistic estimates for time, costs and doses associated with steam generator removal during decommissioning. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in four areas concerning decommissioning of the reference PWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; assessing the cost and dose impacts of recent steam generator replacements; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation.

  8. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies of conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference boiling water reactor (BWR) described in the earlier study; and defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in three areas concerning decommissioning of the reference BWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation.

  9. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  10. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  11. Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with light water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul Majid, Amran Ab.; Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.

    2015-04-29

    Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) is an innovative design for the thermal breeder reactor that has important potential benefits over the traditional reactor design. LFTR is fluoride based liquid fuel, that use the thorium dissolved in salt mixture of lithium fluoride and beryllium fluoride. Therefore, LFTR technology is fundamentally different from the solid fuel technology currently in use. Although the traditional nuclear reactor technology has been proven, it has perceptual problems with safety and nuclear waste products. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential advantages of LFTR in three aspects such as safety, fuel efficiency and nuclear waste as an alternative energy generator in the future. Comparisons between LFTR and Light Water Reactor (LWR), on general principles of fuel cycle, resource availability, radiotoxicity and nuclear weapon proliferation shall be elaborated.

  12. Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with light water reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul; Majid, Amran Ab.; Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.

    2015-04-01

    Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) is an innovative design for the thermal breeder reactor that has important potential benefits over the traditional reactor design. LFTR is fluoride based liquid fuel, that use the thorium dissolved in salt mixture of lithium fluoride and beryllium fluoride. Therefore, LFTR technology is fundamentally different from the solid fuel technology currently in use. Although the traditional nuclear reactor technology has been proven, it has perceptual problems with safety and nuclear waste products. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential advantages of LFTR in three aspects such as safety, fuel efficiency and nuclear waste as an alternative energy generator in the future. Comparisons between LFTR and Light Water Reactor (LWR), on general principles of fuel cycle, resource availability, radiotoxicity and nuclear weapon proliferation shall be elaborated.

  13. Control Means for Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J. H.

    1961-06-27

    An apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a tank just below the reactor, tubes extending from the tank into the reactor, and a thermally expansible liquid neutron absorbent material in the tank. The liquid in the tank is exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor which heats the liquid causing it to expand into the reactor when the neutron flux in the reactor rises above a predetermincd danger point. Boron triamine may be used for this purpose.

  14. DOE's way-out reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1986-03-21

    The SP-100 reactor, envisioned long before Star Wars, was to power civilian structures such as the space station and orbiting commercial labs. According to the SDI Organization, it will be the cornerstone for SDI, used as a no-maintenance, general source of energy for the military's infrastructure - weapons scale power will come later. DOE wants to spend $72 in FY 1977 to design and build these reactors. Funding problems with Congress, as well as some of the technology and timetables are discussed here.

  15. Prosthetics and Related Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Related Technology for Restoring Veterans’ Abilities DISCOVERY INNOVATION ADVANCEMENT PROSTHETICS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY VA Research and ... technology to perform day-to-day activities. DISCOVERY INNOVATION ADVANCEMENT DISCOVERY INNOVATION ADVANCEMENT A Message to Our ...

  16. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  17. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    PubMed

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  18. A novel sorbent for transport reactors and fluidized bed reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.; Cesario, M.; Gershanovich, Y.; Sibold, J.; Windecker, B.

    1998-12-31

    Coal Fired Gasifier Combined Cycles (GCC) have both high efficiency and very low emissions. GCCs critically need a method of removing the H{sub 2}S produced from the sulfur in the coal from the hot gases. There has been extensive research on hot gas cleanup systems, focused on the use of a zinc oxide based sorbent (e.g., zinc titanate). TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing a novel sorbent with improved attrition resistance for transport reactors and fluidized bed reactors. The authors are testing sorbents at conditions simulating the operating conditions of the Pinon Pine clean coal technology plant. TDA sulfided several different formulations at 538 C and found several that have high sulfur capacity when tested in a fluidized bed reactor. TDA initiated sorbent regeneration at 538 C. The sorbents retained chemical activity with multiple cycles. Additional tests will be conducted to evaluate the best sorbent formulation.

  19. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... between days 7 and 20 of a woman's menstrual cycle. In order to become pregnant, having sex every ... hours of ovulation. If you have an irregular menstrual cycle, an ovulation predictor kit can help you know ...

  20. Day care health risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... after going to the bathroom or changing a diaper, and then preparing food. In addition to good ... washing, important policies include: Preparing food and changing diapers in different areas Making sure day care staff ...

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1957-09-17

    A reactor of the type having coolant liquid circulated through clad fuel elements geometrically arranged in a solid moderator, such as graphite, is described. The core is enclosed in a pressure vessel and suitable shielding, wherein means is provided for circulating vapor through the core to superheat the same. This is accomplished by drawing off the liquid which has been heated in the core due to the fission of the fuel, passing it to a nozzle within a chamber where it flashes into a vapor, and then passing the vapor through separate tubes extending through the moderator to pick up more heat developed in the core due to the fission of the fuel, thereby producing superheated vapor.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1962-12-18

    A power plant is described comprising a turbine and employing round cylindrical fuel rods formed of BeO and UO/sub 2/ and stacks of hexagonal moderator blocks of BeO provided with passages that loosely receive the fuel rods so that coolant may flow through the passages over the fuels to remove heat. The coolant may be helium or steam and fiows through at least one more heat exchanger for producing vapor from a body of fluid separate from the coolant, which fluid is to drive the turbine for generating electricity. By this arrangement the turbine and directly associated parts are free of particles and radiations emanating from the reactor. (AEC)

  4. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  5. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  6. Evaluation of the resilience of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge reactor to long-term outages at a sewage treatment plant in India.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Takayama, Daisuke; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Harada, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    Resilience to process outages is an essential requirement for sustainable wastewater treatment systems in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor to recover after a 10-day outage. The DHS tested in this study uses polyurethane sponge as packing material. This full-scale DHS reactor has been tested over a period of about 4 years in India with a flow rate of 500 m(3)/day. Water was not supplied to the DHS reactor that was subjected to the 10-day outage; however, the biomass did not dry out because the sponge was able to retain enough water. Soon after the reactor was restarted, a small quantity of biomass, amounting to only 0.1% of the total retained biomass, was eluted. The DHS effluent achieved satisfactory removal of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonium nitrogen within 90, 45, and 90 min, respectively. Conversely, fecal coliforms in the DHS effluent did not reach satisfactory levels within 540 min; instead, the normal levels of fecal coliforms were achieved within 3 days. Overall, the tests demonstrated that the DHS reactor was sufficiently robust to withstand long-term outages and achieved steady state soon after restart. This reinforces the suitability of this technology for developing countries. PMID:27450993

  7. Evaluation of the resilience of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge reactor to long-term outages at a sewage treatment plant in India.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Takayama, Daisuke; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Harada, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    Resilience to process outages is an essential requirement for sustainable wastewater treatment systems in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor to recover after a 10-day outage. The DHS tested in this study uses polyurethane sponge as packing material. This full-scale DHS reactor has been tested over a period of about 4 years in India with a flow rate of 500 m(3)/day. Water was not supplied to the DHS reactor that was subjected to the 10-day outage; however, the biomass did not dry out because the sponge was able to retain enough water. Soon after the reactor was restarted, a small quantity of biomass, amounting to only 0.1% of the total retained biomass, was eluted. The DHS effluent achieved satisfactory removal of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonium nitrogen within 90, 45, and 90 min, respectively. Conversely, fecal coliforms in the DHS effluent did not reach satisfactory levels within 540 min; instead, the normal levels of fecal coliforms were achieved within 3 days. Overall, the tests demonstrated that the DHS reactor was sufficiently robust to withstand long-term outages and achieved steady state soon after restart. This reinforces the suitability of this technology for developing countries.

  8. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  9. Prospects for toroidal fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    Work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak has refined understanding of the realities of a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning magnetic fusion reactor. An ITER-like tokamak reactor using ITER costs and performance would lead to a cost of electricity (COE) of about 130 mills/kWh. Advanced tokamak physics to be tested in the Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX), coupled with moderate components in engineering, technology, and unit costs, should lead to a COE comparable with best existing fission systems around 60 mills/kWh. However, a larger unit size, {approximately}2000 MW(e), is favored for the fusion system. Alternative toroidal configurations to the conventional tokamak, such as the stellarator, reversed-field pinch, and field-reversed configuration, offer some potential advantage, but are less well developed, and have their own challenges.

  10. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  11. Hot Gas Desulfurization Using Transport Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moorehead, E.L.

    1996-12-31

    Sierra Pacific Power Company is building a 100 MW, IGCC power plant based on KRW fluid bed gasifier technology that utilizes transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Use of a transport absorber avoids the need for pre-filtration of dust-laden gasifier effluent, while a transport regenerator allows for the use of 100% air without the need for heat exchange equipment. Selection of transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization using a proprietary sorbent, based on testing performed in a transport reactor test unit (TRTU) at the M. W. Kellogg Technology Development Center and in a fixed bed reactor at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is outlined. The results obtained in these two test facilities and reasons for selecting transport reactors for the IGCC power plant in preference to either fixed bed or fluidized bed reactors are discussed. This paper reviews the evolution of the hot gas desulfurization system designs and includes selected results on H{sub 2}S absorption and regeneration of sulfided sorbent over several absorption/regeneration cycles conducted in the TRTU and the METC fixed bed reactor. The original design for the Sierra Pacific Project was based on fixed bed reactors with zinc ferrite as the sorbent. Owing to the high steam requirements of this sorbent, zinc titanate was selected and tested in a fixed bed reactor and was found unacceptable due to loss of strength on cyclic absorption/regeneration operation. Another sorbent evaluated was Z-Sorb{reg_sign}, a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company, was found to have excellent sulfur capacity, structural strength and regenerability. Steam was found unsuitable as fixed bed regenerator diluent, this results in a requirement for a large amount of inert gas, whereas a transport regenerator requires no diluent. The final Sierra design features transport reactors for both desulfurization and regeneration steps using neat air. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  13. NASA (Career Day)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The presentation was developed for speakers to user for outreach. It provides information about Kennedy Space Center programs, launch services, the International Space Station, and the technological challenges of life in space.

  14. TREATMENT OF METHANOLIC WASTEWATER BY ANAEROBIC DOWN-FLOW HANGING SPONGE (ANDHS) REACTOR AND UASB REACTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumino, Haruhiko; Wada, Keiji; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    Anaerobic down-flow hanging sponge (AnDHS) reactor and UASB reactor were operated at 30℃ for over 400 days in order to investigate the process performance and the sludge characteristics of treating methanolic wastewater (2 gCOD/L). The settings OLR of AnDHS reactor and of UASB reactor were 5.0 -10.0 kgCOD/m3/d and 5.0 kgCOD/m3/d. The average of the COD removal demonstrated by both reactors were over 90% throughout the experiment. From the results of methane producing activities and the PCR-DGGE method, most methanol was directly converted to methane in both reactors. The conversion was carried out by different methanogens: one closely related to Methanomethylovorans hollandica in the AnDHS retainted sludge and the other closely related to Methanosarcinaceae and Metanosarciales in the UASB retainted sludge.

  15. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roland

    2011-08-03

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

  16. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail.

  17. Jupiter Night and Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Day and night side narrow angle images taken on January 1, 2001 illustrating storms visible on the day side which are the sources of visible lightning when viewed on the night side. The images have been enhanced in contrast. Note the two day-side occurrences of high clouds, in the upper and lower parts of the image, are coincident with lightning storms seen on the darkside. The storms occur at 34.5 degrees and 23.5 degrees North latitude, within one degree of the latitudes at which similar lightning features were detected by the Galileo spacecraft. The images were taken at different times. The storms' longitudinal separation changes from one image to the next because the winds carrying them blow at different speeds at the two latitudes.

  18. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR MANIPULATING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1962-08-01

    A cable connecting a control rod in a reactor with a motor outside the reactor for moving the rod, and a helical conduit in the reactor wall, through which the cable passes are described. The helical shape of the conduit prevents the escape of certain harmful radiations from the reactor. (AEC)

  20. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  1. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  2. Photoneutron effects on pulse reactor kinetics for the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR).

    SciTech Connect

    Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is a swimming-pool type pulsed reactor that maintains an epithermal neutron flux and a nine-inch diameter central dry cavity. One of its uses is neutron and gamma-ray irradiation damage studies on electronic components under transient reactor power conditions. In analyzing the experimental results, careful attention must be paid to the kinetics associated with the reactor to ensure that the transient behavior of the electronic device is understood. Since the ACRR fuel maintains a substantial amount of beryllium, copious quantities of photoneutrons are produced that can significantly alter the expected behavior of the reactor power, especially following a reactor pulse. In order to understand these photoneutron effects on the reactor kinetics, the KIFLE transient reactor-analysis code was modified to include the photoneutron groups associated with the beryllium. The time-dependent behavior of the reactor power was analyzed for small and large pulses, assuming several initial conditions including following several pulses during the day, and following a long steady-state power run. The results indicate that, for these types of initial conditions, the photoneutron contribution to the reactor pulse energy can have a few to tens of percent effect.

  3. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  4. First Day of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, a science teacher at F. C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia, describes how the setting up of a simple science experiment on the first day of school can get students excited about learning science. The experiment involves heating a small amount of water in a flask, then covering the opening of the…

  5. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  6. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  7. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  8. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  9. An Earth Day Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

  10. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  11. Make a Splash Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

  12. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  13. Seize the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve what happens in classrooms, a considerable amount of work needs to take place between teachers and principals. This can only happen if campus leaders make dramatic shifts in how and where they spend their daily time. Principals can have a greater impact on teaching and learning by transforming their work one day at a time. The…

  14. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merk, John

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation. Long-duration surface missions necessitate reliable autonomous operation, and manned missions impose added requirements for failsafe reactor protection. There is a need for an advanced instrumentation and control system for space-nuclear reactors that addresses both aspects of autonomous operation and safety. The Reactor Instrumentation and Control System (RICS) consists of two functionally independent systems: the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Supervision and Control System (SCS). Through these two systems, the RICS both supervises and controls a nuclear reactor during normal operational states, as well as monitors the operation of the reactor and, upon sensing a system anomaly, automatically takes the appropriate actions to prevent an unsafe or potentially unsafe condition from occurring. The RPS encompasses all electrical and mechanical devices and circuitry, from sensors to actuation device output terminals. The SCS contains a comprehensive data acquisition system to measure continuously different groups of variables consisting of primary measurement elements, transmitters, or conditioning modules. These reactor control variables can be categorized into two groups: those directly related to the behavior of the core (known as nuclear variables) and those related to secondary systems (known as process variables). Reliable closed-loop reactor control is achieved by processing the acquired variables and actuating the appropriate device drivers to maintain the reactor in a safe operating state. The SCS must prevent a deviation from the reactor nominal conditions by managing limitation functions in order to avoid RPS actions. The RICS has four identical redundancies that comply with physical separation, electrical isolation, and functional independence. This architecture complies with the

  15. Transport Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.A.; Shoemaker, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is currently evaluating hot gas desulfurization (HGD)in its on-site transport reactor facility (TRF). This facility was originally constructed in the early 1980s to explore advanced gasification processes with an entrained reactor, and has recently been modified to incorporate a transport riser reactor. The TRF supports Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power systems, one of METC`s advanced power generation systems. The HGD subsystem is a key developmental item in reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of the IGCC concept. The TRF is a unique facility with high-temperature, high-pressure, and multiple reactant gas composition capability. The TRF can be configured for reacting a single flow pass of gas and solids using a variety of gases. The gas input system allows six different gas inputs to be mixed and heated before entering the reaction zones. Current configurations allow the use of air, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen, steam, or any mixture of these gases. Construction plans include the addition of a coal gas input line. This line will bring hot coal gas from the existing Fluidized-Bed Gasifier (FBG) via the Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR) after filtering out particulates with ceramic candle filters. Solids can be fed either by a rotary pocket feeder or a screw feeder. Particle sizes may range from 70 to 150 micrometers. Both feeders have a hopper that can hold enough solid for fairly lengthy tests at the higher feed rates, thus eliminating the need for lockhopper transfers during operation.

  16. Development of high temperature catalytic membrane reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaher, G.; Gerdes, T.; Gregg, R.

    1992-02-28

    Early efforts in 1992 were focused on relocating the membrane reactor system from Alcoa Separation Technology, Inc.`s Warrendale, PA facility to laboratory space at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (UPARC) in Harmarville, PA following the divestiture of Alcoa Separations to US Filter, Inc. Reconstruction was completed in March, 1992, at which time the reactor was returned to ethylbenzene dehydrogenation service. Efforts on ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene focused on optimizing hybrid reactor performance relative to packed bed operation. Following this, the reactor system was converted to isobutane dehydrogenation. Experimentation on isobutane dehydrogenation focused on design of an inert reactor, evaluation of commercial light alkane dehydrogenation catalysts, and modeling of membrane reactor performance relative to the performance of a packed bed reactor. This report summarizes the effort in 1992 on the development of ceramic membranes as dehydrogenation reactors. In addition, outside interactions on behalf of this investigation are discussed.

  17. Research reactor de-fueling and fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, R.D.; Jawdeh, E.; Strydom, J.

    1998-08-01

    Planning for the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor operations during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games began in early 1995. Before any details could be outlined, several preliminary administrative decisions had to be agreed upon by state, city, and university officials. The two major administrative decisions involving the reactor were (1) the security level and requirements and (2) the fuel status of the reactor. The Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) was a heavy-water moderated and cooled reactor, fueled with high-enriched uranium. The reactor was first licensed in 1964 with an engineered lifetime of thirty years. The reactor was intended for use in research applications and as a teaching facility for nuclear engineering students and reactor operators. Approximately one year prior to the olympics, the Georgia Tech administration decided that the GTRR fuel would be removed. In addition, a heightened, beyond regulatory requirements, security system was to be implemented. This report describes the scheduling, operations, and procedures.

  18. Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

  19. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  20. Day One Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead…

  1. Generic Stellarator-like Magnetic Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper, published in 1985, has been updated, reflecting the improved science and technology base in the magnetic fusion program. Key changes beyond inflation are driven by important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs from ITER construction, and the use of a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence in modern fusion reactor designs. In this paper the generic approach is applied to a catalyzed D-D stellarator-like reactor. It is shown that an interesting power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved for a reference reactor: R/ < a > ~ 4 , confinement factor, fren = 0.9-1.15, < β > ~ 8 . 0 -11.5 %, Zeff ~ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ~ 0.07, Bm ~ 14-16 T, and R ~ 18-24 m. J. Sheffield was supported under ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  2. Market day midwives.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    In August 1994 in Uganda, the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project invited midwives to counsel clients and sell low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs), condoms, and the progestin-only OCs in local markets. They now sell these contraceptives from vendor stalls in busy markets, which allows clients to speak privately with the midwives. The midwives refer clients to their maternity clinics or to hospitals for other contraceptive methods and reproductive/maternal and child health (MCH) services. All Market Day Midwives have taken a 1-month family planning course and a course in quality of customer service. By the end of March 1994, 17 midwives served 22 marketplaces ranging from rural village markets operating once every 2 weeks to very busy, daily city markets. Some markets have 15 permanent stalls, while other midwives move within markets. Market Day Midwives have been able to add more than 1900 women to the list of women using the OC Pilplan. 65% of the new acceptors had not used any OC before Pilplan. 46% of them would be women considered to be high risk if they were to become pregnant (teenagers, women over 35, and women with many children). These midwives have been successful because they operate where the people are and they provide anonymity. Market Day Midwives have also brought in men who seek them out for family planning/sexually transmitted disease prevention services. They have sold more than 1000 Protector condoms. Another benefit of the market day approach is professional growth of the midwives. They often invest their earnings into new equipment and their private maternity clinics. They have learned the significance of advertising and the value of high-quality customer service. They look to expand into other markets and to integrate MCH products (e.g., oral rehydration) into their contraceptive business.

  3. The Dying Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, Carl

    1993-05-01

    The 85-foot telescope's dying day was part of a week of memorably unusual weather---which, in turn, was part of a memorable winter in California (and elsewhere!). On this day, it spent several hours finishing a months-long, apparently successful observation of Zeeman splitting of the 18-cm OH lines in absorption against the Galactic center continuum source Sgr A. Later, it continued a survey of weak diffuse radio recombination lines near the Galactic plane---observations that were interrupted by strong winds, which made the telescope move to the stow position. We know the rest. Had the telescope not been destroyed, it would have been reconfigured the following day to observe the 21-cm line. It would have continued an ongoing survey of interstellar magnetic fields using Zeeman splitting of the 21-cm line. It would have begun a search for broad, weak line wings, which had been previously discovered in association with supernova remnants. It would have been involved in a number of H I mapping projects. And it would have continued its measurements of diffuse radio recombination lines. Had it not been for the inclement weather, the weekend would have seen it being used in laboratory exercises for undergraduates at UC Berkeley.

  4. Liquid metal cooled reactors for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, S.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Van Hoomissen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The technology basis for evaluation of liquid metal cooled space reactors is summarized. Requirements for space nuclear power which are relevant to selection of the reactor subsystem are then reviewed. The attributes of liquid metal cooled reactors are considered in relation to these requirements in the areas of liquid metal properties, neutron spectrum characteristics, and fuel form. Key features of typical reactor designs are illustrated. It is concluded that liquid metal cooled fast spectrum reactors provide a high confidence, flexible option for meeting requirements for SP-100 and beyond.

  5. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  6. Increase productivity with novel reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, S.T.; Mulvaney, R.C.; Felch, D.E.; Petri, J.A.; Vandenbussche, K.; Dandekar, H.W.

    1998-03-01

    Hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators have always desired flexible control over process temperature as the chemical reactions proceeded. By managing reaction temperature, petrochemical manufacturers can optimize other processing variables, thus increasing product yields and minimizing wastes and byproducts. Diverse requirements of the HPI have spawned many different reactor types. Each design has benefits but also limitations. Ongoing challenges in reactor development include large pressure drop, high catalyst inventory, labor-intensive change-out of catalysts, etc. Two case histories explore using adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactor technology for exothermic and endothermic reactions.

  7. Application of Reactor Antineutrinos: Neutrinos for Peace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suekane, F.

    2013-02-01

    In nuclear reactors, 239Pu are produced along with burn-up of nuclear fuel. 239Pu is subject of safeguard controls since it is an explosive component of nuclear weapon. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is watching undeclared operation of reactors to prevent illegal production and removal of 239Pu. In operating reactors, a huge numbers of anti electron neutrinos (ν) are produced. Neutrino flux is approximately proportional to the operating power of reactor in short term and long term decrease of the neutrino flux per thermal power is proportional to the amount of 239Pu produced. Thus rector ν's carry direct and real time information useful for the safeguard purposes. Since ν can not be hidden, it could be an ideal medium to monitor the reactor operation. IAEA seeks for novel technologies which enhance their ability and reactor neutrino monitoring is listed as one of such candidates. Currently neutrino physicists are performing R&D of small reactor neutrino detectors to use specifically for the safeguard use in response to the IAEA interest. In this proceedings of the neutrino2012 conference, possibilities of such reactor neutrinos application and current world-wide R&D status are described.

  8. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modem pressurized water reactors.

  9. Principles and rationale of the Fusion-Fission Hybrid burner reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2012-06-01

    The potential advantages of Fusion-Fission Hybrid (FFH) reactors (relative to critical fast reactors) for closing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. The choices of fission and fusion technologies for FFH burner reactors that would fission the transuranics remaining in spent fuel discharged from nuclear power reactors are summarized. The conceptual design and fuel cycle performance of the SABR FFH burner reactor are presented, and a fusion power development schedule with a symbiotic dual FFH path is outlined.

  10. One Cold Autumn Day

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral change is at the heart of effective primary care, but when patients don’t change, how do we account for our days? In this personal essay, I relate an encounter with a patient who wants to quit smoking, lose weight, and control her diabetes. I am discouraged when she deflects my recommendations, but a colleague’s comment encourages a deeper inquiry. Knowing the patient’s story and deepening the conversation, however, do not guarantee change. The experience reminds me why patience, humility, and faith are core values of the primary care physician. PMID:25964410

  11. Dublin centre sees light of day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John

    2008-01-01

    An innovative new centre designed to get the public interested in science and technology will open at Trinity College Dublin later this month. The centre, known as the Science Gallery, will allow scientists and the public to debate and exchange ideas through a variety of interactive exhibitions, workshops and other events. The first exhibition will be “Lightwave” - a nine-day, city-wide festival about the principles of light and the technologies used to control it.

  12. D and D (System Closure) Mockup Testing Demonstration. Remediation of Legacy Radioactive Piping and Tank Systems at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne-Kelly, D.; Brown, Ch.; Hart, A.; Welty, B.; Winterholler, K.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an integrated mockup demonstration of technologies and equipment designed to remove radioactively contaminated piping systems from underground vaults and pipe trenches at the Idaho National Laboratory. The integrated mockup demonstration included performing a bench scale wax fixative study and field demonstrations of the remotely operated equipment that will be used to remove radioactively contaminated pipe systems. The bench-scale wax fixative study involved defining optimum temperature and moisture conditions for effectively filling pipe sections containing residual wastes with a wax based fixative. The field demonstrations involved dismantling underground vault and trench piping systems, including pipe sections filled with the wax fixative. The purpose of the demonstration was to ensure the selected technologies and equipment would be effective prior to field deployment. The demonstration was conducted as a joint effort by MSE Technology Applications, Inc., and CWI on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte Montana. In summary: The mockup included two main tests at the MSE facility: 1) a vault mockup that included stainless and carbon steel pipe cutting and removal; and 2) a trench mockup that included cutting and removing buried Duriron and ductile iron piping. Both mockups included cutting and removing a pipe filled with the WAXFIX stabilizing material. Based on the MSE moisture tests, project personnel concluded that the WAXFIX product would be effective when used on wastes with different moisture contents that may be encountered in piping systems during the closure of the TRA-630 Catch Tank System at INL. A section of stainless steel pipe was also used to test a number of leak stop alternatives for wax leaks that may be encountered in a degraded piping system. Both the vault and the trench mockup demonstration proved successful for ICP, DOE, and MSE. The ICP

  13. The first SPIE software Hack Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Deen, C.; Radziwill, N.; Crawford, S.; Gilbert, J.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Kubánek, P.

    2014-07-01

    We report here on the software Hack Day organised at the 2014 SPIE conference on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation in Montréal. The first ever Hack Day to take place at an SPIE event, the aim of the day was to bring together developers to collaborate on innovative solutions to problems of their choice. Such events have proliferated in the technology community, providing opportunities to showcase, share and learn skills. In academic environments, these events are often also instrumental in building community beyond the limits of national borders, institutions and projects. We show examples of projects the participants worked on, and provide some lessons learned for future events.

  14. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  15. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  16. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  17. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  19. Reactor System Transient Code.

    1999-07-14

    RELAP3B describes the behavior of water-cooled nuclear reactors during postulated accidents or power transients, such as large reactivity excursions, coolant losses or pump failures. The program calculates flows, mass and energy inventories, pressures, temperatures, and steam qualities along with variables associated with reactor power, reactor heat transfer, or control systems. Its versatility allows one to describe simple hydraulic systems as well as complex reactor systems.

  20. Investigation of the generation of several long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology: Report on a Coordinated Research Program sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1994-05-01

    The IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1988 to obtain reliable information for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology: {sup 27}Al (n, 2n){sup 26}Al, {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni, {sup 94}Mo(n,p) {sup 94}Nb, {sup 109}Ag(n,2n){sup 108m}Ag, {sup 179}Hf(n,2n) {sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 182}W(n,n{sup `}a){sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 151}Eu(n,2n) {sup 150}gEu, {sup 153}Eu(n,2n){sup 152+m2}Eu, {sup 159}Tb(n, 2n){sup 158}Tb, {sup 158}Dy(n,p){sup 158}Tb, {sup 193}Ir(n,2n) {sup 192m2}Ir, {sup 187}Re(n,2n){sup 186m}Re, {sup 62}Ni(n{gamma}) {sup 63}Ni, {sup 98}Mo(n,{gamma}){sup 99}Mo({beta}-){sup 99}Tc, {sup 165}Ho(n,{gamma}) {sup 166m}Ho and {sup 191}Ir(n,{gamma}){sup 192m2}Ir. this paper documents progress achieved from the start of the program through mid- 1993.

  1. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  2. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  3. Efficient Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.; Jewett, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    High-purity silicon efficiently produced and transferred by continuous two-cycle reactor. New reactor operates in relatively-narrow temperature rate and uses large surfaces area to minimize heat expenditure and processing time in producing silicon by hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane. Two cycles of reactor consists of silicon production and removal.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  5. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELDING

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1961-07-11

    A special hydrogenous concrete shielding for reactors is described. In addition to Portland cement and water, the concrete essentially comprises 30 to 60% by weight barytes aggregate for enhanced attenuation of fast neutrons. The biological shields of AEC's Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and Materials Testing Reactor are particular embodiments.

  7. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  8. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8902), for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period... COMMISSION Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... regulatory guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method...

  10. LBB application in the US operating and advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wichman, K.; Tsao, J.; Mayfield, M.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory application of leak before break (LBB) for operating and advanced reactors in the U.S. is described. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved the application of LBB for six piping systems in operating reactors: reactor coolant system primary loop piping, pressurizer surge, safety injection accumulator, residual heat removal, safety injection, and reactor coolant loop bypass. The LBB concept has also been applied in the design of advanced light water reactors. LBB applications, and regulatory considerations, for pressurized water reactors and advanced light water reactors are summarized in this paper. Technology development for LBB performed by the NRC and the International Piping Integrity Research Group is also briefly summarized.

  11. Challenges in the Development of High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Carl Stoots

    2013-10-01

    Advanced reactor designs offer potentially significant improvements over currently operating light water reactors including improved fuel utilization, increased efficiency, higher temperature operation (enabling a new suite of non-electric industrial process heat applications), and increased safety. As with most technologies, these potential performance improvements come with a variety of challenges to bringing advanced designs to the marketplace. There are technical challenges in material selection and thermal hydraulic and power conversion design that arise particularly for higher temperature, long life operation (possibly >60 years). The process of licensing a new reactor design is also daunting, requiring significant data collection for model verification and validation to provide confidence in safety margins associated with operating a new reactor design under normal and off-normal conditions. This paper focuses on the key technical challenges associated with two proposed advanced reactor concepts: the helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the molten salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR).

  12. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  13. EBT reactor characteristics consistent with stability and power balance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Santoro, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a recent EBT reactor study that includes both ring and core plasma properties and consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters.

  14. STS-107 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The fifth day of the STS-107 space mission begins with a presentation of The Six Space Technology and Research Students (STARS) program experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, Lichtenstein and The United States send scientific experiments into space. The video includes the progress of experiments with various insects including silkworms, carpenter bees, ants, fish, and spiders.

  15. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  16. The triple day.

    PubMed

    Smith, V

    1980-08-01

    The risks are high and the returns low when Peruvian women work outside the home, but they have few other options. Most have large families, and their husbands scramble to earn a few dollars. For some women the day begins at 3:30 a.m. when they go to Lima to peddle fish, combs, or whatever commodity is available. The poor women who live in the pueblos jovenes of Lima, the newly formed outskirts, have banded together in a Christian group called Luz y Esperanza, or Light and Hope. The group has a 10-year history of coping with unsanitary water and resultant health problems, child care, and lack of electricity. The women began with neighborhood issues but have also developed an interest in trade unions and other less local concerns. Members have also started to attend union meetings in Lima and involved themselves in recent trade union struggles. The development of the women's political consciousness is closely intertwined with their Christian faith. They believe Christ is the source of the energy they need to persevere. PMID:12262074

  17. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  18. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  19. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  20. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant).

  1. Operation of a cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber fabric for efficient methane fermentation from thickened sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kengo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Morita, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Norio; Igarashi, Yasuo; Ohmura, Naoya

    2013-02-01

    A bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) containing carbon fiber fabric (CFF) (BER+CFF) enabled efficient methane fermentation from thickened sewage sludge. A cylindrical BER+CFF was proposed and scaled-up to a volume of 4.0-L. Thickened sewage sludge was treated using three types of methanogenic reactors. The working electrode potential in the BER+CFF was regulated at -0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). BER+CFF showed gas production of 3.57 L L(-1) day(-1) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4.0 days; however, non-BER+CFF showed a lower gas production rate (0.83 L L(-1) day(-1)) at this HRT, suggesting positive effects of electrochemical regulation. A stirred tank reactor (without CFF) deteriorated at an HRT of 10 days, suggesting positive effects of CFF. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the BER+CFF included 3 kinds of hydrogenotrophic methanogens and 1 aceticlastic methanogen. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the BER+CFF for scale-up and flexibility of this technology. PMID:23262013

  2. Role of nuclear reactors in future military satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Future military capabilities will be profoundly influenced by emerging Shuttle Era space technology. Regardless of the specific direction or content of tomorrow's military space program, it is clear that advanced space transportation systems, orbital support facilities, and large-capacity power subsystems will be needed to create the generally larger, more sophisticated military space systems of the future. This paper explores the critical role that space nuclear reactors should play in America's future space program and reviews the current state of nuclear reactor power plant technology. Space nuclear reactor technologies have the potential of satisfying power requirements ranging from 10 kW/sub (e)/ to 100 MW/sub (e)/.

  3. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  4. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  5. Space reactor/Stirling cycle systems for high power Lunar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, P.D.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-09-01

    NASA`s Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has proposed the use of high power nuclear power systems on the lunar surface as a necessary alternative to solar power. Because of the long lunar night ({approximately} 14 earth days) solar powered systems with the requisite energy storage in the form of regenerative fuel cells or batteries becomes prohibitively heavy at high power levels ({approximately} 100 kWe). At these high power levels nuclear power systems become an enabling technology for variety of missions. One way of producing power on the lunar surface is with an SP-100 class reactor coupled with Stirling power converters. In this study, analysis and characterization of the SP-100 class reactor coupled with Free Piston Stirling Power Conversion (FPSPC) system will be performed. Comparison of results with previous studies of other systems, particularly Brayton and Thermionic, are made.

  6. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  7. The advanced neutron source reactor: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be a new user facility for all kinds of neutron research, including neutron scattering, materials testing, materials analysis, isotope production and nuclear physics experiments. The centerpiece of the facility is to be the world's highest flux beam reactor. There will be beams of hot, cold and thermal neutrons for more than 40 simultaneous scattering and nuclear physics experiments. In addition, there will be irradiation positions and rabbit tubes for in-pile experiments, testing and isotopes production (including transuranium isotopes). To reduce technical risks and to minimize safety issues, the reactor design is based on technology already employed in existing research reactors. The fuel elements are annular assemblies of aluminum clad involute fuel plates, similar to the design of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) Reactor in Grenoble. As is common with many other research reactors, the core is cooled, moderated and reflected by heavy water. The preferred fuel is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} - a high-density fuel form developed by Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock and Wilcox that has been extensively tested in reactors in the United States, Europe and Japan. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. (UA1 reactor fuels safety and performance)

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1990-07-13

    The traveler visited several reactor and hot cell experimental facilities connected with JAERI at the Oarai and Tokai establishments. Uranium silicide fission product release experimental data and related acquisition systems were discussed. A presentation was made by the traveler on analysis and modeling of fission product release from UAl reactor fuels. Data obtained by JAERI thus far were offered to the traveler for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) review and analysis. This data confirmed key aspects of ORNL theoretical model predictions and will be useful for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) design. The Oarai establishment expressed their interest and willingness to pursue ORNL/JAERI cooperative efforts in understanding volatile fission product release behavior from silicide fuels. The traveler also presented a perspective overview on ORNL severe accident analysis technology and identified areas for cooperation in JAERI's forthcoming transient testing program. JAERI staff presented plans for evaluating silicide fuel performance under transient reactivity insertion accident conditions in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) facility. A surprise announcement was made concerning JAERI's most recent initiative relating to the construction of a safety demonstration reactor (SDR) at the Tokai site. The purpose of this reactor facility would be to demonstrate operational safety of both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) in support of Japan's nuclear power industry.

  9. Tech Forum Highlights: Last October, Technology Directors, Superintendents, Principals, Teacher Trainers, and Other Education Leaders Gathered Just outside New York City for T&L's One-Day Tech Forum Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes the events and discussions that took place at the annual Fall Tech Forum event, hosted at the IBM Conference Center in Palisades, New York. At the Forum, practitioners and leaders gathered for a day of professional development sessions and networking with colleagues and industry experts. The highlights of the Forum are…

  10. Recent results and challenges in development of metallic Hall sensors for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ďuran, Ivan; Mušálek, Radek; Kovařík, Karel; Sentkerestiová, Jana; Kohout, Michal

    2014-08-21

    Reliable and precise diagnostic of local magnetic field is crucial for successful operation of future thermonuclear fusion reactors based on magnetic confinement. Magnetic sensors at these devices will experience an extremely demanding operational environment with large radiation and thermal loads in combination with required long term, reliable, and service-free performance. Neither present day commercial nor laboratory measurement systems comply with these requirements. Metallic Hall sensors based on e.g. copper or bismuth could potentially satisfy these needs. We present the technology for manufacturing of such sensors and some initial results on characterization of their properties.

  11. Dick Crane's California Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrow, Charles H.

    2011-03-01

    Horace Richard Crane (1907-2007) was born and educated in California. His childhood was full of activities that helped him become an outstanding experimental physicist. As a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology (1930-1934), he had the good fortune to work with Charles C. Lauritsen (1892-1968) just as he introduced accelerator-based nuclear physics to Caltech. They shared the euphoric excitement of opening up a new field with simple, ingenious apparatus and experiments. This work prepared Crane for his career at the University of Michigan (1935-1973) where in the 1950s, after making the first measurement of the electron's magnetic moment, he devised the g-2 technique and made the first measurement of the anomaly in the electron's magnetic moment. A man of direct, almost laconic style, he made lasting contributions to the exposition of physics to the general public and to its teaching in high schools, community colleges, four-year colleges, and universities. I tell how he became a physicist and describe some of his early achievements.

  12. Day one sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-05-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead the UK through such adaptations. This paper discusses the importance of interdisciplinary teaching to produce multi-faceted team approaches to sustainable design solutions. Methods for measuring success in education are often not fit for purpose, producing good students but poor engineers. Real-world failures to apply sustainable design present a serious, difficult to detect, and ultimately economically negative situation. Techniques to replace summative examinations are presented and discussed, with the aim of enhancing core technical skills alongside those required for sustainable design. Finally, the role of our future engineers in policy-making is discussed. In addition to carbon, the provision of water and food will heavily influence the work of civil engineers in the coming decades. Leadership from civil engineers with the technical knowledge and social awareness to tackle these issues will be required. This provides both opportunities and challenges for engineering education in the UK.

  13. Hydraulic retention time effects on wastewater nutrient removal and bioproduct production via rotating algal biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Iman Shayan, Sahand; Agblevor, Foster A; Bertin, Lorenzo; Sims, Ronald C

    2016-07-01

    Rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) technology was successfully employed in an effective strategy to couple the removal of wastewater nutrients with accumulation of valuable bioproducts by grown algae. A secondary stage municipal wastewater was fed to the developed system and the effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) parameter on both nutrient removal and bioproduct production were evaluated under fed-batch operation mode. Two sets of bench scale RABRs were designed and operated with HRTs of 2 and 6days in order to provide competitive environment for algal growth. The HRT significantly affected nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes along with lipid and starch accumulations by microalgae in harvested biofilms. Domination of nitrogen removal in 2-day HRT with higher lipid accumulation (20% on dried weight basis) and phosphorus removal in 6-day HRT with higher starch production (27% on dried weight basis) was observed by comparing the performances of the RABRs in duplicate runs. PMID:27038261

  14. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  15. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  16. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  17. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  18. Franco, the Early Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemssen, R. H.

    2004-04-01

    As this meeting is to honour Franco on the occasion of his 60 birthday I thought that it might be fitting to report on some early reminiscences of Franco of the pre-IBA days. Franco first came to Groningen in 1972 for a seminar on the invitation of Alex Lande. Alex and Franco had known each other from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, where they had collaborated. In 1972 both Alex and I had been freshly appointed at Groningen, Alex on the Faculty of the Theory Department, and I myself as the new director of the KVI. A position for a Senior Scientist in theory had been newly created at the KVI with the aim to establish a strong in-house theory group. Needless to say that everyone who met Franco was deeply impressed by him. We thus were extremely happy to be able to entice Franco to join the KVI as a Senior Scientist in 1974, after he had spent a few weeks in Groningen in 1973 as a visitor. So characteristic of Franco he immediately took a strong interest in the experimental program as evidenced by the following publications on the weak-coupling description of three-nucleon pickup in the (p, α) reaction [1] and the spreading width of deep-hole states [2]. Both topics appear to have maintained their actuality, looking at the many papers that have been published since on these and related topics. But this brief citation of the "other Franco" would not do justice to him without mentioning the diverse palette of Franco's work also listed in the KVI 1974 Annual Report, reflecting Franco's extremely broad and diversified scientific interests. [3-10]...

  19. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  20. Impact of complementary therapies via mobile technologies on Icelandic same day surgical patients' reports of anxiety, pain and self-efficacy in healing: a randomized controlled trial in process.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Therapies (CAT) are increasingly being utilized in conjunction with conventional medicine. Health Information Technology (HIT) and CAT are being scrutinized for evidence based health outcomes. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine if the use of mobile technologies delivering CAT, specifically relaxation technique (RT), medical music intervention (MMI), nature landscape applications with (NLAM) and without music (NLAWM) compared with no intervention (control group) will assist in decreasing pre- and post-surgical patients' anxiety and pain levels while increasing post-operative healing self-efficacy levels.

  1. Parliament votes against building fifth power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    After a heated three-day debate, Finland's parliament voted on September 24 to reject the proposal to build the country's fifth nuclear power reactor. As predicted, the vote was close: 107 voted against more nuclear power, 90 were in favor, two members of the 200-seat parliament were not present, and the speaker did not vote.

  2. Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) hydrate formation within variable volume reactor accompanied by evaporation and condensation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, K; Choo, Y S; Hong, H J; Yoon, Y S; Song, M H

    2015-03-01

    Vast size hydrate formation reactors with fast conversion rate are required for the economic implementation of seawater desalination utilizing gas hydrate technology. The commercial target production rate is order of thousand tons of potable water per day per train. Various heat and mass transfer enhancement schemes including agitation, spraying, and bubbling have been examined to maximize the production capacities in scaled up design of hydrate formation reactors. The present experimental study focused on acquiring basic knowledge needed to design variable volume reactors to produce tetrafluoroethane hydrate slurry. Test vessel was composed of main cavity with fixed volume of 140 ml and auxiliary cavity with variable volume of 0 ∼ 64 ml. Temperatures at multiple locations within vessel and pressure were monitored while visual access was made through front window. Alternating evaporation and condensation induced by cyclic volume change provided agitation due to density differences among water and vapor, liquid and hydrate R134a as well as extended interface area, which improved hydrate formation kinetics coupled with latent heat release and absorption. Influences of coolant temperature, piston stroke/speed, and volume change period on hydrate formation kinetics were investigated. Suggestions of reactor design improvement for future experimental study are also made. PMID:25832270

  3. Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) hydrate formation within variable volume reactor accompanied by evaporation and condensation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, K; Choo, Y S; Hong, H J; Yoon, Y S; Song, M H

    2015-03-01

    Vast size hydrate formation reactors with fast conversion rate are required for the economic implementation of seawater desalination utilizing gas hydrate technology. The commercial target production rate is order of thousand tons of potable water per day per train. Various heat and mass transfer enhancement schemes including agitation, spraying, and bubbling have been examined to maximize the production capacities in scaled up design of hydrate formation reactors. The present experimental study focused on acquiring basic knowledge needed to design variable volume reactors to produce tetrafluoroethane hydrate slurry. Test vessel was composed of main cavity with fixed volume of 140 ml and auxiliary cavity with variable volume of 0 ∼ 64 ml. Temperatures at multiple locations within vessel and pressure were monitored while visual access was made through front window. Alternating evaporation and condensation induced by cyclic volume change provided agitation due to density differences among water and vapor, liquid and hydrate R134a as well as extended interface area, which improved hydrate formation kinetics coupled with latent heat release and absorption. Influences of coolant temperature, piston stroke/speed, and volume change period on hydrate formation kinetics were investigated. Suggestions of reactor design improvement for future experimental study are also made.

  4. Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) hydrate formation within variable volume reactor accompanied by evaporation and condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, K.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, H. J.; Yoon, Y. S.; Song, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Vast size hydrate formation reactors with fast conversion rate are required for the economic implementation of seawater desalination utilizing gas hydrate technology. The commercial target production rate is order of thousand tons of potable water per day per train. Various heat and mass transfer enhancement schemes including agitation, spraying, and bubbling have been examined to maximize the production capacities in scaled up design of hydrate formation reactors. The present experimental study focused on acquiring basic knowledge needed to design variable volume reactors to produce tetrafluoroethane hydrate slurry. Test vessel was composed of main cavity with fixed volume of 140 ml and auxiliary cavity with variable volume of 0 ˜ 64 ml. Temperatures at multiple locations within vessel and pressure were monitored while visual access was made through front window. Alternating evaporation and condensation induced by cyclic volume change provided agitation due to density differences among water and vapor, liquid and hydrate R134a as well as extended interface area, which improved hydrate formation kinetics coupled with latent heat release and absorption. Influences of coolant temperature, piston stroke/speed, and volume change period on hydrate formation kinetics were investigated. Suggestions of reactor design improvement for future experimental study are also made.

  5. Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) hydrate formation within variable volume reactor accompanied by evaporation and condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, K.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, H. J.; Yoon, Y. S.; Song, M. H.

    2015-03-15

    Vast size hydrate formation reactors with fast conversion rate are required for the economic implementation of seawater desalination utilizing gas hydrate technology. The commercial target production rate is order of thousand tons of potable water per day per train. Various heat and mass transfer enhancement schemes including agitation, spraying, and bubbling have been examined to maximize the production capacities in scaled up design of hydrate formation reactors. The present experimental study focused on acquiring basic knowledge needed to design variable volume reactors to produce tetrafluoroethane hydrate slurry. Test vessel was composed of main cavity with fixed volume of 140 ml and auxiliary cavity with variable volume of 0 ∼ 64 ml. Temperatures at multiple locations within vessel and pressure were monitored while visual access was made through front window. Alternating evaporation and condensation induced by cyclic volume change provided agitation due to density differences among water and vapor, liquid and hydrate R134a as well as extended interface area, which improved hydrate formation kinetics coupled with latent heat release and absorption. Influences of coolant temperature, piston stroke/speed, and volume change period on hydrate formation kinetics were investigated. Suggestions of reactor design improvement for future experimental study are also made.

  6. Treatment of sanitary landfill leachates in a lab-scale gradual concentric chamber (GCC) reactor.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Lourdes; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates are a major environmental problem in South American countries where sanitary landfills are still constructed and appropriate designs for the treatment of these leachates remain problematic. The performance of a lab-scale Gradual Concentric Chamber (GCC) reactor for leachates treatment is presented in this study. Two types of sanitary landfill residuals were evaluated, one directly collected from the garbage trucks (JGL), with high organic strength (84 g COD/l) and the second one, a 6-month-generated leachate (YL) collected from the lagoon of the sanitary landfill in Quito, Ecuador, with an organic strength of 66 g COD/l. Different operational parameters, such as organic loading rate (OLR), temperature, recycling and aeration, were tested. The GCC reactor was found to be a robust technology to treat these high-strength streams with organic matter removal efficiencies higher than 65%. The best performance of the reactors (COD removal efficiencies of 75-80%) was obtained at a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of around 20 h and at 35 degrees C, with an applied OLR up to 70 and 100 g COD/l per day. Overall, the GCC reactor concept appears worth to be further developed for the treatment of leachates in low-income countries.

  7. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  8. Advanced Computational Thermal Fluid Physics (CTFP) and Its Assessment for Light Water Reactors and Supercritical Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. McEligot; K. G. Condie; G. E. McCreery; H. M. McIlroy; R. J. Pink; L.E. Hochreiter; J.D. Jackson; R.H. Pletcher; B.L. Smith; P. Vukoslavcevic; J.M. Wallace; J.Y. Yoo; J.S. Lee; S.T. Ro; S.O. Park

    2005-10-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of Generation IV reactor systems such as supercritical water reactors (SCWR) for higher efficiency, improved performance and operation, design simplification, enhanced safety and reduced waste and cost. The objective of this Korean / US / laboratory / university collaboration of coupled fundamental computational and experimental studies is to develop the supporting knowledge needed for improved predictive techniques for use in the technology development of Generation IV reactor concepts and their passive safety systems. The present study emphasizes SCWR concepts in the Generation IV program.

  9. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  10. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  11. Family Day Care Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatsu, Gail

    California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family…

  12. Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, K.R.; Trinh, T.Q.; Luker, S. M.

    2011-07-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

  13. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, Hans D.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the

  14. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the

  15. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  16. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    last the longest 2 minutes and 40 seconds is the small town of Hopkinsville, KY. WKU is located a little over an hour away, and both locations are prepared for a large influx of people on eclipse day!Partial solar eclipse as viewed by the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]WKU is located just off the centerline of eclipse path, which has some advantages: this provides better viewing of some of the chromospheric features of the Sun during the eclipse, like priminences and solar loops. WKU is setting up a variety of educational and public outreach activities at their football stadium and the WKU farm, and they encourage you to come visit for the eclipse!In addition, they are participating in a nationwide experiment called Citizen CATE, short for the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse. This project will use 60 telescopes spanning the 2500 mile path of totality to record continuous data of the eclipse as it travels across the US. The result will be data of a remarkable 90 minutes of totality, revealing the activity of the solar corona and providing an extended view of the eclipse as has never been seen before.Science During the EclipseNext up was Shadia Habbal (University of Hawaii), who is a co-leader of the AAS 2017 Eclipse Task Force. In addition to her education and outreach efforts associated with the eclipse, however, Habbal is a solar eclipse researcher. She and her collaborators are known as the Solar Wind Sherpas, due to the fact that they hand-carry their science equipment around the world for solar eclipses!Solar corona during a 2008 eclipse, with color overlay indicating emission from highly ionized iron lines. [Habbal et al. 2010]The primary science done during solar eclipses is the study of the solar corona, the region that extends from the solar surface out to several solar radii. This region is too faint to observe normally, but when the light from the Suns disk is blocked out, we can examine it.Unfortunately, the space telescopes that

  17. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  18. Reactor Monitoring (near and far) with Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Learned, John G.

    2005-06-01

    We are approaching a time when our understanding of neutrinos and the advance of technology will permit practical applications of neutrinos. The detection of electron anti-neutrinos (ν), permits monitoring of reactors and nuclear weapons tests which cannot be shielded or jammed, and gives unambiguous signals. Measurements close to reactor sites can determine the fuel content of even uncooperative facilities. Distant, but of necessity enormous detectors in a worldwide network can detect, locate and measure power output of reactors and of bomb tests in useful ranges. Close-in detectors are in test operation now. A world network will require development of new technology in photodetectors, now on the horizon and huge scaling up from present instruments. Under optimistic assumptions such a scheme may be affordable.

  19. STS-88 Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-88 mission, the flight crew, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Nancy J. Currie, James H. Newman, Jerry L. Ross, and Sergei Krikalev are awakened with the song "Goodnight, Sweetheart, Goodnight". Pilot Rick Sturckow undocks Endeavour from the station and backs the shuttle away to a distance of 450 feet above the station before beginning a nose-forward fly-around. Later Cabana, Sturckow and Ross deploy the SAC-A satellite from Endeavour's payload bay. SAC-A is a small, self-contained, non-recoverable satellite built by the Argentinean National Commission of Space Activities. The cube-shaped, 590-pound satellite will test and characterize the performance of new equipment and technologies that may be used in future scientific or operational missions. The payload includes a differential global positioning system, a magnetometer, silicon solar cells, a charge-coupled device Earth camera and a whale tracker experiment.

  20. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    last the longest 2 minutes and 40 seconds is the small town of Hopkinsville, KY. WKU is located a little over an hour away, and both locations are prepared for a large influx of people on eclipse day!Partial solar eclipse as viewed by the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]WKU is located just off the centerline of eclipse path, which has some advantages: this provides better viewing of some of the chromospheric features of the Sun during the eclipse, like priminences and solar loops. WKU is setting up a variety of educational and public outreach activities at their football stadium and the WKU farm, and they encourage you to come visit for the eclipse!In addition, they are participating in a nationwide experiment called Citizen CATE, short for the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse. This project will use 60 telescopes spanning the 2500 mile path of totality to record continuous data of the eclipse as it travels across the US. The result will be data of a remarkable 90 minutes of totality, revealing the activity of the solar corona and providing an extended view of the eclipse as has never been seen before.Science During the EclipseNext up was Shadia Habbal (University of Hawaii), who is a co-leader of the AAS 2017 Eclipse Task Force. In addition to her education and outreach efforts associated with the eclipse, however, Habbal is a solar eclipse researcher. She and her collaborators are known as the Solar Wind Sherpas, due to the fact that they hand-carry their science equipment around the world for solar eclipses!Solar corona during a 2008 eclipse, with color overlay indicating emission from highly ionized iron lines. [Habbal et al. 2010]The primary science done during solar eclipses is the study of the solar corona, the region that extends from the solar surface out to several solar radii. This region is too faint to observe normally, but when the light from the Suns disk is blocked out, we can examine it.Unfortunately, the space telescopes that