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Sample records for day-old chicks hens

  1. Memantine improves observational learning in day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A; Kimbrough, Tiffany N

    2015-06-01

    Evidence of observational learning (social learning) is present in many species. One such task is the one-trial taste-avoidance task, in which Actor chicks peck a bead coated with an aversant substance. Observer chicks learn to avoid beads that are similar in appearance to the one presented to the Actors. It has been firmly established that active learning of the one-trial taste-avoidance task is dependent on a constrained level of glutamate receptor activation. The current study examined the effects of memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on the learning by Observers. Memantine produced an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent response curve; 1.0 mmol/l memantine produced significant improvement. These results demonstrate that memantine influences memory formation for observational learning in the day-old chick and support the hypothesis that memantine can improve memories by altering levels of glutamate during memory formation.

  2. Effects of heat stress on day-old broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ernst, R A; Weathers, W W; Smith, J

    1984-09-01

    Short-term heat stress can occur when chicks are transported from the hatchery to growing facilities. Two experiments were conducted to determine the possible effects of short-term heat stress on growth and feed conversion of broiler (Hubbard X Hubbard) chicks. The heat stress was accomplished by placing chicks in Jamesway 252 incubators at dry bulb temperatures ranging from 40 to 45 C for variable times. Growth, feed consumption, and mortality were measured for 16 days following the heat stress. Short sublethal heat stress significantly reduced growth rate to 16 days in these experiments without any effect on feed conversion ratio. The results indicate that the hatchery industry should avoid overheating chicks even for periods as short as 1 hr.

  3. A novel method for sexing day-old chicks using endoscope system.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Miyashita, Osamu; Shibata, Mitsuru; Sato, Fujiyuki; Naito, Mitsuru

    2016-11-01

    Sexing day-old chicks is important for layer and broiler production. A novel method for sexing day-old chicks was developed using an endoscope system. The probe of the endoscope was inserted from the cloaca into the intestine of a chick, and the presence of testes or ovary was observed through the wall of the intestine. The picture image was displayed on the monitor. Sexing was performed in White Leghorn (WL) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicks using this new system. The accuracy of sexing was 91.1% in WL chicks and 88.3% in RIR chicks, confirmed by observing gonads after laparotomy or appearances at 80 d of age. Accuracy of sexing male chicks (95.0%) was higher than that of female chicks (86.0%). The overall accuracy of sexing was 90.2% in the present study, and the accuracy would be improved by continuous training in the handling of the endoscope. The endoscope system devised in this study requires no specific skills and anyone can perform sexing of chicks after short-term training. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. A simple method for enema administration in one-day-old broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; Grandi, Fabrizio; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe a simple technique for enema administration in one-day-old broiler chicks. For this purpose we used 455 unsexed health birds divided into four groups submitted to three different experimental protocols: in the first one, we measured the total length of the large intestine in order to establish a secure distance for probe introduction; in the second, we evaluated maximum compliance of large intestine and diffusion range; finally, based on results obtained we tested the hypothesis in 400 birds in order to standardize the method. Enema solutions applied in an intrarectal manner with a stainless steel gavage BD-10 probe into one-day-old broiler chicks at 0.2 mL at a distance of 1.5 cm proved to be a reliable method.

  5. Passive avoidance training enhances cell proliferation in 1-day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Dermon, C R; Zikopoulos, B; Panagis, L; Harrison, E; Lancashire, C L; Mileusnic, R; Stewart, M G

    2002-10-01

    One-day-old domestic chicks were injected i.p. with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) before training on a one-trial passive avoidance task where the aversive experience was a bead coated with a bitter tasting substance, methyl anthranilate (MeA). Animals were tested 24 h later; those avoiding (if MeA-trained) or pecking if water (W)-trained (which they peck appetitively), along with a group of untrained naïve chicks, were used to determine cell proliferation either 24 h or 9 days post BrdU injection. In all three groups, BrdU positive cells were identified sparsely throughout the forebrain but labelling was pronounced around ventricular zone (VZ) surfaces at both 24 h and 9 days post-BrdU-injection. Double immunolabelling with neuronal specific antibodies, to either NeuN, or beta-tubulin III, confirmed that most BrdU labelled cells appeared to be neurons. Unbiased stereological analysis of labelled cells in selected forebrain areas 24 h post BrdU injection showed a significant MeA-training induced increase in labelled cells in both the dorsal VZ surface bordering the intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) and the tuberculum olfactorium (TO). By 9 days post-BrdU-injection, there was a significantly greater number of BrdU labelled cells in MeA-trained birds within the IMHV, lobus parolfactorius (LPO) and TO. These results demonstrate that avoidance training in 1-day-old chicks has a marked effect on cell proliferation, in the LPO and IMHV, regions of the chick previously identified as a key loci of memory formation, and in a second region (TO), which has olfactory functions, but has not been previously investigated in relation to avoidance learning.

  6. Perception of the Ebbinghaus illusion in four-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rosa Salva, O; Rugani, R; Cavazzana, A; Regolin, L; Vallortigara, G

    2013-11-01

    In the Ebbinghaus size illusion, a central circle surrounded by small circles (inducers) appears bigger than an identical one surrounded by large inducers. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate sensitivity to this illusion in pigeons and baboons, leading to the conclusion that avian species (possibly also nonhuman primates) might lack the neural substrate necessary to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion in a human-like fashion. Such a substrate may have been only recently evolved in the primate lineage. Here, we show that this illusion is perceived by 4-day-old domestic chicks. During rearing, chicks learnt, according to an observational-learning paradigm, to find food in proximity either of a big or of a small circle. Subjects were then tested with Ebbinghaus stimuli: two identical circles, one surrounded by larger and the other by smaller inducers. The percentage of approaches to the perceptually bigger target in animals reinforced on the bigger circle (and vice versa for the other group) was computed. Over four experiments, we demonstrated that chicks are reliably affected by the illusory display. Subjects reinforced on the small target choose the configuration with big inducers, in which the central target appears perceptually smaller; the opposite is true for subjects reinforced on the big target. This result has important implications for the evolutionary history of the neural substrate involved in the perception of the Ebbinghaus illusion.

  7. Vaccination of one-day-old broiler chicks against infectious coryza.

    PubMed

    Conde, Maximiliano Daniel; Huberman, Yosef Daniel; Espinoza, Alfredo Mendoza; Delgado, Rosa Inés; Terzolo, Horacio Raúl

    2011-03-01

    In order to evaluate the protection conferred by an experimental inactivated vaccine against infectious coryza, three challenge trials were undertaken using 112 1-day-old broilers. The vaccine "Hepa Inmuno NC" included bacterial antigens of Avibacterium paragallinarum (serogroups A, B, variant B, and C) as well as antigens of Newcastle virus and hepatitis virus. Fifty-six broiler chicks were vaccinated at the first day of life at the hatchery while another 56 chicks were left unvaccinated. Three infection trials were conducted simultaneously using each of the three serogroups A, B, or C of Av. paragallinarum. In each trial, 17 vaccinated and 17 unvaccinated broilers were used. Challenge was performed at day 31 of life by injection, into the left infraorbital sinus, of approximately 1 x 10(5) colony forming units of the corresponding Av. paragallinarum strain. Clinical signs were recorded on day 2 postchallenge. All broilers were euthanatized and both infraorbital sinuses were bacteriologically examined for the presence of Av. paragallinarum on day 5 postchallenge. In comparison with the unvaccinated broilers, the vaccine significantly reduced the number of broilers with clinical signs after challenge with serogroup B, and significantly fewer vaccinated broilers were positive for the presence of Av. paragallinarum after challenge with serogroup C. On the other hand, no significant protection was observed when broilers were challenged with Av. paragallinarum from serogroup A. Despite the high infection rates in vaccinated chicks after an experimental infection with Av. paragallinarum, it was possible to reduce colonization of Av. paragallinarum (serogroup B) and clinical signs (serogroup C) in broiler chicks by vaccination at the first day of life. Further cross-protection trials should be done, including other Av. paragallinarum strains in the vaccine, especially those from serogroup A.

  8. Piracetam, an AMPAkine drug, facilitates memory consolidation in the day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Samartgis, Jodi R; Schachte, Leslie; Hazi, Agnes; Crowe, Simon F

    2012-12-01

    Piracetam is an AMPAkine drug that may have a range of different mechanisms at the cellular level, and which has been shown to facilitate memory, amongst its other effects. This series of experiments demonstrated that a 10mg/kg dose of piracetam facilitated memory consolidation in the day-old chick when injected from immediately until 120min after weak training (i.e. using a 20% v/v concentration of methyl anthranilate) with the passive avoidance learning task. Administration of piracetam immediately after training led to memory facilitation which lasted for up to 24h following training. This dose of the AMPAkine was not shown to facilitate memory reconsolidation. These findings support the contention that application of the AMPAkine piracetam facilitates memory using a weak training task, and extend the range of actions previously noted with NMDA-related agents to those which also facilitate the AMPA receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Task- and time-dependent memory enhancement by dehydroepiandosterone in day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Johnston, A N; Migues, P V

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) in the day-old-chick brain, and a role for it in enhanced memory formation. Here we confirm that intracerebral injections of DHEA 5 min before training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 hours after training. Recall per se on an appetitive visual categorization task was not altered by administration of DHEA 5 min before training. However administration of DHEA 5 min before limited or very limited training on a visual categorization task (20 or 10 pecks only) appeared to enhance consolidation of this task at test 24 h after training; reducing the latency and total time taken to complete the test (60 pecks), while not detrimentally altering accuracy. Moreover, DHEA is unlikely to induce this effect via possible anxiolytic effects because it did not alter behavior in the open field test. We also examined diffusion of DHEA throughout the brain at various stages following intracerebral injection.

  10. Dehydroepiandosterone and its sulphate enhance memory retention in day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Migues, P V; Johnston, A N B; Rose, S P R

    2002-01-01

    We report the presence of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEA-S) in the day-old-chick brain, and their possible role in memory formation. DHEA and DHEA-S were present in the brain at higher concentrations than in the plasma. Radioimmunoassay examination of the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale 5 or 30 min after training or the lobus parolfactorius 60 or 120 min after training on the passive avoidance task did not show learning-related differences in absolute levels of DHEA or DHEA-S. However, bilateral intracerebral injections of DHEA or DHEA-S before or after training on the weak passive avoidance task enhanced recall 24 h after training. Memory retention was enhanced by administration of DHEA and DHEA-S 15 min before training or 30 and 60 but not 180 min after training. Neurosteroids are present in high concentrations in regions of the chick brain known to be associated with learning and memory for an aversive one-trial task. Our study demonstrates that memory retention for this task is enhanced by administration of the neurosteroids DHEA-S and DHEA. These findings provide additional evidence that these neurosteroids have memory-enhancing properties and, thus, if common to other tasks and species, that DHEA-S and DHEA may constitute potential therapeutic tools for the treatment of cognitive deficits.

  11. Temporal effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on memory formation in day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Sujkovic, E; Mileusnic, R; Fry, J P; Rose, S P R

    2007-08-24

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been shown to enhance memory retention in different animal models and in various learning paradigms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of peripherally administered DHEAS on the acquisition, consolidation and retention of memory using a weak version of the one-trial passive avoidance task in day-old chicks. Intraperitoneally administered DHEAS (20 mg/kg) either 30 min before or 30 min and 4.5 h after training on the weakly aversive stimulus, enhanced recall at 24 h following training, suggesting a potentiation of not only the acquisition but also the early and late phases of memory consolidation. In contrast, when DHEAS was administered at 30 min prior to the 24 h retention test there was no memory enhancement, indicating a lack of effect on memory retrieval. Memory recall was unaltered when DHEAS was administered at 30 min before training in a control group trained on a strongly aversive stimulus, confirming memory-specific effects. Interestingly, the memory enhancement appeared to be sex-specific as male chicks showed higher recall than females. These findings provide further evidence that DHEAS enhances memory and may be involved in the temporal cascade of long-term memory formation.

  12. Discrimination of shape and size sues by day-old chicks in two one-trial learning tasks.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A

    2016-03-01

    The ability of day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) to discriminate between the shape and size of beads was investigated in two one-trial tasks, taste avoidance and sickness-conditioned learning. Previous studies determined that color is a critical classification cue for conditioned stimuli in these tasks. In taste avoidance learning, a chick pecks a bead coated with a bitter substance. In sickness-conditioned learning, chicks peck a dry bead and are injected 30min later with lithium chloride. Chicks could discriminate beads of different sizes, but not different shapes, when trained in the taste avoidance task, whereas in the sickness-conditioned learning task, chicks could discriminate shape, but not size. These results suggest that chicks use a number of classificatory cues to remember an avoidance response, and, in the absence of color cues, chicks rely on different cues for different learning tasks.

  13. Salmonella spp. infection in imported 1-day-old chicks, ducklings, and turkey poults: a public health risk.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Yousef, Ashgan M M; Aly, Mona M; Radwan, Moustafa I

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in 750 birds was assessed. The samples included the internal organs (caecal pouches, yolk sac, liver, and lung) of imported 1-day-old chicks (n = 150), grandparent chicks (n = 150), breeder chicks (n = 150), ducklings (n = 150), and turkey poults (n = 150), and paper-lined boxes (n = 250). Salmonellae isolated from the internal organs and paper-lined box of 1-day-old chicks, ducklings, and poults were mostly evident from the paper-lined box followed by caecal samples. Imported 1-day-old grandparent flocks were Salmonella free. Although 23.3% of the imported breeder flocks were positive for Salmonella, the imported duckling flocks and day-old turkey poults exhibited 19.3% and 12.6%, respectively. The widest diversity in isolated salmonellae was from the 1-day-old chicks where Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Kentucky, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Shubra, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Agona were isolated. On the other hand, two Salmonella serovars were isolated from the imported breeders, Salmonella Shubra and Salmonella Shipley, and from the imported ducklings, Salmonella Shubra and Salmonella Saintpaul. The three Salmonella serovars isolated from the imported day-old turkey poults were Salmonella Shubra, Salmonella Newport, and Salmonella Saintpaul. The high percentage and diversity of Salmonella isolation from the imported birds cause concern because of the zoonotic potential of this agent and its economical importance to the local commercial poultry breeding industry. From 80 samples investigated for Salmonella, the positivity of the standard microbiological technique method was 17.5% and of the polymerase chain reaction method (Salmonella-specific invA gene) was 22.5%. The concordance between the two methods was 90% (k = 0.850). Our results indicated that the polymerase chain reaction approach is better than culturing for detecting Salmonella in poultry samples when using the preenriched medium combinations used in this

  14. Memantine facilitates memory consolidation and reconsolidation in the day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Samartgis, Jodi R; Schachte, Leslie; Hazi, Agnes; Crowe, Simon F

    2012-05-01

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been approved for the treatment of the cognitive deficits noted in Alzheimer's disease. While there is a body of research that supports memantine's facilitative action upon memory compromise, this series of studies aimed to investigate the effects of this drug in healthy animals with intact memory functioning. A 0.1 mM dose of memantine injected immediately after a weakly aversive training event (i.e. 20% v/v methyl anthranilate) was found to enhance passive avoidance learning for this event in day-old chicks up to 24 h following training. The same dose of memantine was also observed to enhance memory for the training event when it was administered in conjunction with a reminder trial. These results suggest that memantine is capable of facilitating both memory consolidation as well as memory reconsolidation. It was concluded that memantine's mechanism may involve the short-term or intermediate memory phases of the Gibbs and Ng model of memory, and that the current findings represent enhancement of intact memory, rather than amelioration of memory compromise. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  16. Impact of transportation duration on stress responses in day-old chicks from young and old breeders.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Buyse, Johan; Tuyttens, Frank Andre Maurice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interaction effect of transportation duration and parental age on physiological stress responses and quality in day-old chicks. After hatch, 3240 chicks from either 29-week old (young) or 60-week old (old) broiler breeders were transported for 1.5h (short) or 11h (long). Thereafter, 228 chicks were assessed for quality and blood plasma was assayed for corticosterone (CORT), lactate, glucose, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, increased concentrations can indicate oxidative stress). No interaction effects of parental age and transportation duration were found (all P>0.10). Chicks from young breeders showed higher CORT levels (P=0.007) and were of higher quality (Tona method, P<0.001) than those from old breeders. After long transportation, chicks showed increased CORT (P<0.001) and lower TBARS levels (P<0.001) compared to after short transportation. No evidence was provided that long transportation differently affected the quality or stress responses of chicks from breeder flocks of two ages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The influences of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on clonidine-induced sleep in 2-day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Min, Y S; Jeong, J H; Choi, Y M; Lee, B C; Huh, I H; Lee, S Y; Sohn, U D

    2001-08-01

    1. It has been shown that magnetic fields (MFs) affect a variety of biological effects in animal brains. There have been few experiments on the effects of MFs on sleep. Therefore, we investigated whether extremely low frequency (ELF) MFs affect the sleep induced by clonidine, a central alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist. Clonidine produced dose-related increase of the sleeping time and dose-related decrease of the onset time in 2-day-old chicks. 2. Exposure of chicks to MFs (5, 10, 20 G; for 3, 6, 9, 12 h) significantly increased the clonidine-induced sleep time as a direct function of intensity and duration of MF application. Clonidine reduced noradrenaline or tyrosine in the brain, an effect which was not further changed in animals exposed to MF. 3. To determine whether the gamma amino butyric acid A (GABA(A))/benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor system is involved in the decrease in clonidine-induced sleep caused by activation of central alpha(2)-adrenergic systems, we examined exposure of chicks to the effects of the BZD receptor antagonist flumazenil (0.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline (0.1 mg kg-1, i.p.) on clonidine-induced sleep. Bicuculline and flumazenil inhibited the increase of clonidine-induced sleep time by MFs. Clonidine or MFs did not change GABA levels in the brain. 4. These results suggest that MFs can increase clonidine-induced sleep via a change of GABA(A) and BZD receptor system irrespective of the concentration of GABA or noradrenaline in the brain of 2-day-old chicks.

  18. Added Value of Avian Influenza (H5) Day-Old Chick Vaccination for Disease Control in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Marisa; Choisy, Marc; Sobhy, Heba; Kilany, Walid H; Gély, Marie; Tripodi, Astrid; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Saad, Mona; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma

    2016-05-01

    The immunity profile against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the commercial poultry value chain network in Egypt was modeled with the use of different vaccination scenarios. The model estimated the vaccination coverage, the protective seroconversion level, and the duration of immunity for each node of the network and vaccination scenario. Partial budget analysis was used to compare the benefit-cost of the different vaccination scenarios. The model predicted that targeting day-old chick avian influenza (AI) vaccination in industrial and large hatcheries would increase immunity levels in the overall poultry population in Egypt and especially in small commercial poultry farms (from <30% to >60%). This strategy was shown to be more efficient than the current strategy of using inactivated vaccines. Improving HPAI control in the commercial poultry sector in Egypt would have a positive impact to improve disease control.

  19. Memantine improves memory for taste-avoidance learning in day-old chicks exposed to isolation stress.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A; Meyers, Ryan A; McGettigan, Brian F

    2010-04-01

    Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate is particularly important in the initial stages of memory consolidation. Memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, ameliorates memory impairment under certain circumstances, despite blocking the activation of NMDA receptors. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that memantine can improve memory deficits induced by isolation stress in day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) trained in a one-trial taste-avoidance task. Three experiments assessed the effects of memantine at different concentrations and in combination with isolation stress. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that, under normal, non-stressed conditions, memory in control animals is strong and 15.0 mM memantine impairs memory, similar to that seen in many studies of the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on learning. However, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 showed that, when chicks were exposed to isolation stress during the pre-training period, memory formation for saline-injected control animals was impaired and 5.0 mM memantine significantly improved memory in an inverted U-shaped dose response function. The current results extend the findings that memantine can ameliorate memory impairment and supports the hypothesis that memantine, despite its action to reduce NMDA receptor activity, can facilitate normalized memory acquisition.

  20. Effects of Maternal Zinc Glycine on Mortality, Zinc Concentration, and Antioxidant Status in a Developing Embryo and 1-Day-Old Chick.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-05-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zinc glycine (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) on mortality, zinc (Zn) concentration, and antioxidant status in a developing embryo and 1-day-old chick. Six hundred 39-week-old broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each treatment including 5 replicates with 20 birds each. Six treatments received a basal diet (control, 24 mg Zn/kg diet) or a basal diet supplemented with ZnSO4 (80 mg Zn/kg) or Zn-Gly (20, 40, 60, or 80 mg Zn/kg), respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-experiment with a basal diet. At the last week, 100 eggs per replicate were randomly collected for incubation. Compared with the control treatment, Zn supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) embryo mortalities of the late stage and the whole period, increased (P < 0.05) liver Zn concentration in the embryo of d9, d19, and 1-day-old chick, and improved (P < 0.05) antioxidant status in the embryo of d19 and 1-day-old chick. Compared with the ZnSO4 treatment, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the late stage embryo mortality and increased (P < 0.05) liver Zn concentration in the embryo of d9, d19, and 1-day-old chick. The 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment significantly increased (P < 0.05) copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity in d19 embryo and 1-day-old chick, total superoxide dismutase activity in 1-day-old chick, and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of d9 embryo and 1-day-old chick than that in ZnSO4 treatment. The liver metallothionein concentration of the developing embryo and 1-day-old chick and its mRNA abundance of d19 embryo were also significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly treatment in comparison with ZnSO4 treatment. In conclusion, maternal Zn supplementation decreased embryo mortalities of the late stage and the whole period by increasing liver Zn

  1. Domestic hen chicks' conditioned place preferences for sound.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amy R; Bizo, Lewis A; Foster, T Mary

    2012-01-01

    Food and sounds (white noise, a food call and the sound of other chicks) were used in an attempt to establish conditioned place preferences with domestic hen chicks. Thirty-two chicks were randomly allocated to one of the 4 groups, and exposed to a 3-compartment apparatus to establish a baseline of their movements across 4 15-min sessions. They were then confined to one compartment and provided with free access to food or exposed to one sound for 15 min and then they were confined to the alternate compartment with no food or sound for 15 min. This process was repeated 3 times. Post-conditioning test sessions showed a conditioned place preference towards the area associated with food and away from the area associated with white noise. After conditioning, chicks showed no preference for spending time in the side associated with the food call or the sounds of other chicks; however, they entered a compartment first more often when it was associated with the food call and less often when it was associated with chick-sounds. Overall, these results showed that it was possible to use the conditioned place preference procedure to assess the effects of sounds and that the procedure has potential use for assessing other environmental stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Involvement of AMPA receptors in maintenance of memory for a passive avoidance task in day-old domestic chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Steele, R J; Stewart, M G

    1995-06-01

    Day-old chicks (Gallus domesticus) were trained on a one-trial passive avoidance task where the aversive stimulus was an unpleasant tasting substance, methyl anthranilate. Chicks were killed 6.5 h after training. The kinetic parameters of [3H] alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ([3H]AMPA) binding were determined using quantitative receptor autoradiography and Scatchard analyses in 15 discrete forebrain regions of trained and control (water-trained) chicks, revealing two components of binding in each. KD values showed some regional variation, but were 22.2 +/- 1.1 nmol l-1 for the high-affinity component and 685 +/- 25 nmol l-1 for the low-affinity component of binding to whole forebrain sections from control chicks. Analyses also revealed that Hill coefficients were significantly less than 1 in all regions measured. A significant decrease in KD for the low-affinity component occurred bilaterally in the intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV; left, 34.8%; right, 33.3%), a region that has previously been shown to be implicated in the processes of memory formation, following passive avoidance training. A significant decrease in KD for the high-affinity component occurred in the right palaeostriatum augmentatum (19.5%). Significant decreases in Bmax accompanied the KD alterations in both cases. Additionally, bilateral intracerebral injections (administered 4.5-5.5 h after training) into the IMHV of 500 nmol l-1 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), a selective antagonist of non-NMDA glutamate receptors (particularly AMPA receptors), resulted in amnesia for one-trial passive avoidance training in day-old chicks tested 6.5 h after training.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  4. Prenatal Loud Music and Noise: Differential Impact on Physiological Arousal, Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Spatial Behavior in One Day-Old Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation. PMID:23861759

  5. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  6. Implication of protein kinase C of the left intermediate medial mesopallium in memory impairments induced by early prenatal morphine exposure in one-day old chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yao, Yang; Nie, Han; He, Xingu

    2017-01-15

    Previously we reported that prenatal morphine exposure during embryonic days 5-8 can cause cognitive deficits of one-trial passive avoidance learning (PAL) in one-day old chicks. Because protein kinase C (PKC) has been associated with memory capacity, we investigated the effects of prenatal morphine exposure on PKC isoforms expression in the left intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) of chick brain at a time when memory tests were performed at 30, 120 and 360min respectively following training in PAL paradigm. We found that the level of PKCα in the membrane fractions in left IMM was decreased but that in the cytosol fractions showed a increased trend in prenatally morphine-exposed chicks with impaired long-term memory (120 and 360min). Moreover, the translocation of PKC δ from cytosol to membrane in left IMM was shown in prenatal morphine group which had significantly impaired long-term memory at 360min after training. Furthermore, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding the expressions of PKCα and PKC δ in the membrane fraction, although their levels in the cytosol fraction of prenatal morphine group which showed impaired intermediate-term memory at 30min after training, were quite different from that of prenatal saline group. Taken together, these results indicate that PKCα and PKC δ in the left IMM are differentially involved in the impairments of long-term memory induced by prenatal morphine exposure. Neither PKCα nor PKC δ in left IMM may be associated with the disruption of intermediate-term memory of chicks prenatally exposed to morphine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of long-term memory retention by Colostrinin in one-day-old chicks trained on a weak passive avoidance learning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael G; Banks, Duncan

    2006-07-01

    Colostrinin (CLN) is a biologically active proline-rich polypeptide which has therapeutic potential for the alleviation of memory deficits in age-related dementias in a number of human conditions, particularly Alzheimer's disease. To examine the efficacy of CLN in other species, day-old domestic chicks were used as a model system to study its effects on retention of memory for a single one-trial learning paradigm--avoidance of a bitter-tasting substance (methylanthranilate, MeA). Birds were presented with a bead coated with either a dilute (10%) solution of MeA or a bead coated with 100% MeA. Those trained on 100% MeA avoided pecking at a similar but dry bead 24 h later, thereby demonstrating long-term memory whereas chicks trained on the 10% solution pecked the bead at 24 h, indicating lack of long term memory for the task. However, when CLN was injected (i.c.) into a region known to be important in memory formation, the mesopallium intermediomediale (IMM), prior to training with 10% MeA, chicks exhibited strong memory retention at 24 h, similar to those trained on 100% MeA. Control chicks trained on 10% MeA but injected i.c. with a 10% saline solution did not show improvement in memory retention. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CLN were as effective as the i.c. route. These data extend the known efficacy of CLN from mammals demonstrating its widespread efficacy as a cognitive enhancer.

  8. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  9. Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses.

  10. Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Tong, Q; Roulston, N; Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Garain, P; Demmers, T G M; McGonnell, I M; Bahr, C; Burel, C; Eterradossi, N; Michel, V

    2013-12-01

    This experiment studied the effect of transportation duration of 1-d-old chicks on dehydration, mortality, production performance, and pododermatitis during the growout period. Eggs from the same breeder flock (Ross PM3) were collected at 35, 45, and 56 wk of age, for 3 successive identical experiments. In each experiment, newly hatched chicks received 1 of 3 transportation duration treatments from the hatchery before placement in the on-site rearing facility: no transportation corresponding to direct placement in less than 5 min (T00), or 4 (T04) or 10 h (T10) of transportation. The chicks were housed in 35-m(2) pens (650 birds each) and reared until 35 d old. Hematocrit and chick BW were measured on sample chicks before and after transportation. During the growout period, bird weight, feed uptake, and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly until slaughter. Transportation duration affected BW; T00 groups had a significantly higher BW than T04 and T10 transported birds but this effect lasted only until d 21. No clear effect on hematocrit, feed uptake, feed conversion ratio, or mortality was observed for birds transported up to 10 h. The decrease in weight in T10 birds was associated with less severe pododermatitis. Increasing age of the breeder flock was correlated with reduced egg fertility and hatchability, and also with higher quality and BW of hatched chicks. Chicks from older breeders also exhibited reduced mortality during the growout period.

  11. Passive Avoidance Training and Recall are Associated With Increased Glutamate Levels in the Intermediate Medial Hyperstriatum Ventrale of the Day-Old Chick

    PubMed Central

    Daisley, Jonathan N.; Gruss, Michael; Rose, Steven P. R.; Braun, Katharina

    1998-01-01

    In the young chick, the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale is involved in learning paradigms, including imprinting and passive avoidance learning. Biochemical changes in the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale following learning include an up-regulation of amino-acid transmitter levels and receptor activity. To follow the changes of extracellular amino acid levels during passive avoidance training, we used an in vivo microdialysis technique. Probes were implanted in chicks before training the animals, either on a methyl- anthranylate-or water-coated bead. One hour later, recall was tested in both groups by presenting a similar bead. An increase of extra-cellular glutamate levels accompanied training and testing in both groups; during training, glutamate release was higher in methylanthranylate- trained than in water-trained chicks. When compared with the methylanthranylate-trained chicks during testing, the water-trained chicks showed enhanced extra-cellular glutamate levels. No other amino acid examined showed significant changes. After testing, the chicks were anesthetized and release- stimulated with an infusion of 50 mM potassium. Extra-cellular glutamate and taurine levels were significantly increased in both methylanthranylate-and water-trained chicks. The presentation of methylanthranylate as an. olfactory stimulus significantly enhanced glutamate levels, especially in methylanthranylate-trained chicks. The results suggest that such changes in extra-cellular glutamate levels in the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale accompany pecking at either the water- or the methylanthranylate-bead. The taste of the aversant may be responsible for the greater increases found in methylanthranylate-trained birds. PMID:9920682

  12. Xanthophylls increased HDLC level and nuclear factor PPARγ, RXRγ and RARα expression in hens and chicks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y-Y; Jin, L; Peng, H; Xu, L-H; Wang, Q-X; Ji, J; Wang, C-K; Bi, Y-Z

    2017-05-15

    This study was designed to investigate effects of xanthophylls on serum lipid profile (triglyceride, TG; cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDLC; and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC) and nuclear factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; PPAR gamma coactivator 1 alpha, PGC1α; retinoid X receptor gamma, RXRγ; and retinoic acid receptor alpha, RARα) gene expression of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (as control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. Blood was sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of trial. Liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 35 days of trial. Results showed that serum HDLC level of hens was increased after dietary 40 mg/kg xanthophyll addition for 21, 28 and 35 days, while serum TG, CHO and LDLC were not affected. Xanthophyll addition also increased PPARγ expression in jejunum, RXRγ expression in duodenum and jejunum, and RARα expression in liver and duodenum. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed diet containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. Liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 days. Results showed that in ovo xanthophylls elevated PPARγ in duodenum and jejunum, and RXRγ and RARα in liver of chicks mainly within 1 week after hatching, while dietary xanthophylls increased serum HDLC level and PPARγ and RXRγ in liver from 2 weeks onwards. In conclusion, our research suggested xanthophylls can regulate serum lipid profile and nuclear factor expression in hens and chicks. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium to the thymus, liver/gallbladder and spleen following oral and intracloacal inoculation of day old chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is complicated because of the numerous potential sources of contamination in an integrated poultry operation. In addition, Salmonella can colonize a young chick by entering through an assortment of body openings such as the mouth, cloaca, eye and naval. The movemen...

  14. Impact of the administration of a third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) to one-day-old chicks on the persistence of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli in intestinal flora: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Baron, Sandrine; Jouy, Eric; Touzain, Fabrice; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Larvor, Emeline; de Boisseson, Claire; Amelot, Michel; Keita, Alassane; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate under controlled conditions the impact on the excretion of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli of the injection of one-day-old chicks with ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin (3GC). Three isolators containing specific-pathogen-free chicks were used. In the first one, 20 birds were injected with ceftiofur then ten of them were orally inoculated with a weak inoculum of a 3GC-resistant E. coli field isolate containing an IncI1/ST3 plasmid encoding a blaCTX-M-1 beta-lactamase. The other chicks were kept as contact birds. None of the 20 birds in the second isolator were injected with ceftiofur, but ten of them were similarly inoculated with the 3GC-resistant strain and the others kept as contact birds. A third isolator contained ten non-injected, non-inoculated chicks. Fecal samples were collected regularly over one month and the E. coli isolated on non-supplemented media were characterized by antimicrobial agar dilution, detection of selected resistance genes and determination of phylogenetic group by PCR. The titers of 3GC-resistant E. coli in individual fecal samples were evaluated by culturing on 3GC-supplemented media. Results showed that the inoculated strain rapidly and abundantly colonized the inoculated and contact birds. The ceftiofur injection resulted in significantly higher percentages of 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates among the analyzed E. coli. No transfer of the 3GC-encoding plasmid to other isolates could be evidenced. In conclusion, these results highlight the dramatic capacity of 3GC-resistant E. coli to colonize and persist in chicks, and the selecting pressure imposed by the off-label use of ceftiofur.

  15. Metabolizable energy value of conjugated linoleic acid for broiler chicks and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Sell, J L; Jin, S; Jeffrey, M

    2001-02-01

    Two experiments with broiler chicks and one experiment with laying hens were conducted to determine the MEn value of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). In Experiment 1, for 8 d, 16-d-old chicks were fed diets in which 4, 8, or 12% of CLA Source A or 4, 8, or 12% of soybean oil (SO) was substituted for glucose. Dietary MEn increased linearly (P < or = 0.001) with increments of CLA Source A or SO. Regression analysis relating increases in dietary MEn and increments of the dietary fat sources showed that the MEn values of CLA Source A and SO, when evaluated separately, were 7,419 and 8,429 kcal/kg, respectively. In Experiment 2, feed was withheld from laying hens for 38 h and then the hens were force-fed diets containing 15% glucose, 15% CLA Source A, or 15% SO (two feedings of 30 g each). Excreta samples were collected for 36 h after the last feeding. The MEn values obtained for CLA Source A and SO were 8,517 and 8,437 kcal/kg, respectively. The MEn of CLA Source B (higher in unsaturated fatty acids than CLA Source A) was determined in Experiment 3 by feeding diets containing 4, 8, or 12% CLA Source B to 14-d-old chicks. Increases in dietary MEn with increments of CLA Source B were curvilinear, with resulting MEn of 9,375 to 9,588 kcal/kg of fat when CLA Source B was fed at 4 or 8% of the diet and 7,917 kcal/kg when fed at 12% of the diet. Results of this research show that CLA sources can contribute substantial energy to diets, but the MEn value of CLA sources for young chicks varies with fatty acid composition and dietary concentration.

  16. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No

  17. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S D; Sannat, C; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. No significant difference in the rate of transfer of Ig

  18. Newborn chicks show inherited variability in early social predispositions for hen-like stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Versace, Elisabetta; Fracasso, Ilaria; Baldan, Gabriele; Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Predispositions of newborn vertebrates to preferentially attend to living beings and learn about them are pervasive. Their disturbance (e.g. in neonates at risk for autism), may compromise the proper development of a social brain. The genetic bases of such predispositions are unknown. We use the well-known visual preferences of newly-hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) for the head/neck region of the hen to investigate the presence of segregating variation in the predispositions to approach a stuffed hen vs. a scrambled version of it. We compared the spontaneous preferences of three breeds maintained genetically isolated for at least eighteen years while identically raised. Visually-naïve chicks of all breeds (Padovana, Polverara and Robusta maculata) showed the same initial preference for the predisposed stimulus, suggesting that the direction of the initial preference might be genetically fixed. A few minutes later though, striking differences emerged between breeds, which could indicate different strategies of dealing with affiliative objects: while the Polverara breed maintained a constant preference across the entire test, the Padovana and Robusta breeds progressively explored the alternative stimulus more. We hence documented the presence of inherited genetic variability in the expression of early social predispositions in interaction with environmental stimuli. PMID:28117411

  19. Changes in substrate access did not affect early feather-pecking behavior in two strains of laying hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Laura M; Duncan, Ian J H

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking, commonly found in flocks of laying hens (Gallus gallus), is detrimental to bird welfare. Thought to cause this problem is the normal housing of layers without a floor substrate. Some evidence suggests that early substrate access decreases later feather pecking. However, there has been little research on the immediate effects of a change in substrate availability on bird welfare, although environmental modifications like this are often done when brooding and rearing laying hen chicks. To investigate this, the behavior of two strains of laying hen chicks was recorded for 4 weeks. The study kept the birds on either wire or peat moss for 14 days and then switched half the chicks to the other flooring. Early feather pecking was not significantly different for birds started on peat moss and switched to wire than for birds only on wire (p > .05). Because moving chicks from peat moss to wire did not cause additional welfare problems, the study recommends that chicks be kept on a substrate when young as feather-pecking levels are lower and immediate welfare is improved compared with birds kept only on wire.

  20. Oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to extra thyroxine modulates early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N; Akhlaghi, A A; Navidshad, B; Yussefi Kelarikolaei, K; Hashemi, S R

    2013-04-01

    Based on the findings of a recent study suggesting a decreased cold-induced ascites incidence in broiler progeny from hyperthyroid (HYPER) breeder hens, and a controversy on the effects of hyperthyroidism on immunocompetence, the present study was conducted to determine the probable adverse effect of induced maternal hyperthyroidism on immune function in progeny chicks. Breeder hens (n = 88) were randomly allotted to the control or HYPER groups and received common or thyroxine (T4)-added (1 mg/L) water, respectively. The hens were artificially inseminated, and hatching eggs (n = 924) were incubated. Thereafter, the male hatchlings (n = 288) were reared for 42 d, and several cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated at standard or low ambient temperature. Prevaccination antibody titers to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease virus were higher in HYPER chicks during 1 wk of age, although not different in their dams. For primary response to SRBC administered at 7 d of age, HYPER chicks recorded higher total, IgM (d 14), and IgG (d 21) anti-SRBC antibody titers. Higher cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response in HYPER chicks (d 10) was not observed at 35 d of age. Carbon clearance assay showed no difference, but in vitro lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A was higher in 19-d-old HYPER chicks, independent of temperature treatment. An increase in lymphocyte percentage coincided with a decreased heterophil percentage and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (d 14) in the HYPER group. The weight of lymphoid organs in progeny was not influenced by the oral exposure of dams to extra T4. Independent of T4 treatment, cold exposure was generally associated with decreased immune functions at early stages. The data suggested that oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to 1 mg/L of T4 not only had no adverse effect on immune function, but also modulated early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks for which the causal

  1. Effects of copper source on phosphorus retention in broiler chicks and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Banks, K M; Thompson, K L; Rush, J K; Applegate, T J

    2004-06-01

    Copper sulfate is often added to broiler and laying hen diets at prophylactic dosages due to its antimicrobial and growth promoting effects despite reduced P digestibility, whereas P use from other Cu sources is unknown. Therefore, male broiler chicks were fed diets containing 0 or 250 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate (Cu SUL), Cu citrate (Cu CIT), Cu lysinate (Cu LYS), or CuCl from 9 to 22 d of age (8 cages/diet, 6 birds/cage) to determine the effect of each Cu source on performance characteristics, bone mineralization, and P retention. Body weight gain was not different among treatments (P > 0.05). Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu LYS resulted in chicks having greater toe and tibia ash weights as compared with chicks fed Cu SUL (P < or = 0.05) but was not significantly different from those of birds fed Cu CL, Cu CIT, and 0 ppm Cu diets. Supplementation with Cu LYS resulted in birds with greater toe ash percentage as compared with birds fed Cu CIT, Cu SUL, and the 0 ppm Cu diets (P < or = 0.05) but was not significantly different than those of birds fed the CuCl diet. Birds fed the Cu LYS diet had greater tibia ash percentage as compared with birds fed Cu SUL and 0 ppm Cu diets (P < or = 0.05) but were not significantly different than birds fed the Cu CL or Cu CIT diet. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu SUL or Cu CIT reduced apparent P retention by 0.029 and 0.053 percentage-units of the diet, respectively (P < or = 0.05) as compared with the 0 ppm diet; whereas the apparent P retention when 250 ppm Cu LYS or Cu CL was fed was not different from the 0 ppm Cu diet (P > 0.05). Feeding of different Cu sources in a subsequent experiment had no influence on P retention in laying hens (P > 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu CIT or Cu SUL resulted in decreased apparent P retention. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu CL or Cu LYS, however, improved apparent P retentions as compared with Cu CIT or Cu SUL.

  2. Distribution of mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding sites in the brain of the one-day-old domestic chick (Gallus domesticus): An in vitro quantitative autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Csillag, A.; Bourne, R.C.; Stewart, M.G. )

    1990-12-15

    Three highly specific opioid ligands--(D-Ala2,Gly-ol)-enkephalin (DAGO) for mu (mu) receptor sites, (D-Pen2,D-Pen5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) for delta (delta) sites, and U-69593 for kappa (kappa) sites--were used to determine the regional distribution of the three major subtypes of opioid receptor binding sites in the brains of 1-day-old domestic chicks by the technique of quantitative receptor autoradiography. While there was a degree of heterogeneity in the binding levels of each of the ligands, some notable similarities existed in the binding of the mu and kappa ligands in several forebrain regions, and in the optic tectum of the midbrain where mu and delta binding was very high. In the forebrain there was a high level of binding of mu and kappa ligands in the hyperstriatum, and for the mu ligand there was a very distinct lamination of binding sites in hyperstriatum accessorium, intercalatum supremum, dorsale and ventrale. Levels of binding of the mu and kappa ligands were also high in nucleus basalis, and (for mu only) in the neostriatum. The distribution of binding of the delta specific ligand in the forebrain showed marked differences to that of mu and kappa, being particularly low in the hyperstriatum and neostriatum. Very high levels of labelling of delta binding sites were, however, found in the nucleus rotundus. Binding of the three ligands was generally low or absent in the cerebellum and medulla, apart from a distinct labelling of the granule cell layer by the mu-ligand. A kinetic analysis was made of the binding of the three ligands to whole forebrain sections using scintillation counting methods.

  3. Diseases in chicks and laying hens during the first 12 years after battery cages were banned in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann-Bart, M; Hoop, R K

    2009-02-14

    Between 1992 and 2003, a period of 12 years after the definitive ban on battery cages in Switzerland, more than 10,000 replacement chicks and laying hens were examined postmortem. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of viral diseases, mostly due to a reduction in Marek's disease, but there was a marked increase in bacterial diseases, particularly since 1999, mainly due to colisepticaemia in young laying hens. There was a steady decrease in parasitic infections, but the incidence of non-infectious diseases varied from year to year, with no clear trends. There were no significant emerging diseases or economic losses in the alternative housing systems. Vaccination and hygiene were the most effective precautions against infections, and control strategies brought about a marked decline in notifiable diseases, especially for Salmonella Enteritidis. Fifteen years after the ban on battery cages in Switzerland, the health and egg production of laying hens is good.

  4. Comparative efficacy of a yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in broiler chicks from breeder hens of different ages.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Thanissery, R R

    2011-05-01

    The intestine of the newly hatched chick is immature at hatch. Yeast contains nucleotides and β-glucans that enhance intestinal development and chick growth. Accordingly, a 14-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in chicks obtained from young (26-27 wk old) and old (58 to 59 wk old) breeder hens. Chicks (384) were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Treatment 1 (YH) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet alone. Treatment 2 (YHB) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which BMD was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 (YHE) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which yeast extract (YE) was added at 0.075% level. Treatment 4 (YHED) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which YE was added at 0.15% level. Treatments 5 (OH), 6 (OHB), 7 (OHE), and 8 (OHED) consisted of chicks from old hens fed diets similar to those given to YH in treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Growth performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was evaluated on d 7 and 14. Intestinal tissue samples were also analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as an indicator of intestinal maturation on d 4 and 13 of experiment. Results showed that by d 14 of experiment, only BMD treatments (YHB and OHB) improved body weight gain (P < 0.05). However, the body weight gains of chicks in the yeast-supplemented treatments (YHE, YHED, OHE, and OHED) were statistically similar (P > 0.05) to those of the BMD treatments. Ileal ALP activity was consistently enhanced by BMD and yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet. It was concluded that antibiotic BMD and our novel yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet improved early chick growth and maturation of the ileal segment of the small intestine.

  5. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks.

  6. Isolation and purification of a hen nuclear oestrogen receptor and its effect on transcription of chick chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R G; Schwartz, R J

    1979-01-01

    An oestrogen receptor was isolated, characterized and purified from the nuclear fraction of the hen oviduct. The receptor sediments at 4.6 S on glycerol gradients, has an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.1 X 10(-10)M, an association constant (ka) of 1.4 X 10(-6) M-1.S-1, and a dissociation constant (kd) of 5 x 10(-5) s-1. The receptor chromatographed from DEAE-cellulose as a single peak at 0.15 M-KCl and was not retained by phosphocellulose. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the receptor in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate demonstrated two subunits with apparent mol.wts. of 74000 and 80000. The overall purification achieved was 90000-fold by using a combination of cell fractionation, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and affinity chromatography. This represents the first separation, isolation and purification of the highest-affinity binding component (Kd 10(-10)M) of two high-affinity oestrogen-binding proteins present in both chick and hen oviduct cytosol and nuclei. To examine directly the effect of the purified receptor on transcription a reconstituted cell-free system was used, which contained the receptor--oestradiol complex, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, rifampicin and chromatin prepared from hormone-withdrawn chick tissue. The receptor-hormone complex at a concentration of 0.1 nM stimulated transcription of oviduct chromatin by promoting an increase of 14000 sites for RNA-chain initiation, which is similar to the number of additional sites measured in the oviducts of diethylstilboestrol-stimulated immature chicks [Tsai, Schwartz, Tsai & O'Malley (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 5165-5174]. Oestradiol alone had no effect on transcription. Thus the data demonstrate that the purified nuclear oestradiol-receptor complex can regulate gene transcription in vitro in a manner similar to that observed in target cells in vivo. Images Fig. 4. PMID:534532

  7. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  8. Characterization of the invasiveness of monophasic and aphasic Salmonella Typhimurium strains in 1-day-old and point-of-lay chickens.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca; Kennedy, Emma; Rabie, André; Reeves, Hannah; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity; Davies, Rob; La Ragione, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Egg-related outbreaks of salmonellosis are a significant health concern. Although Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is the major egg-associated serotype, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) can also infect the hen's reproductive tract and contaminate eggs. Recently, monophasic and aphasic variants of ST have been reported with increased frequency in Europe, and the isolation of these variants from laying flocks triggers the same legislative restrictions associated with biphasic ST strains. However, little is known about the colonization, invasiveness and persistence of monophasic and aphasic ST strains in laying hens. In this study, seven groups of 1-day-old and point-of-lay commercial Hy-line chicken layers were separately challenged with four different strains of monophasic ST, one aphasic ST, one biphasic ST and one egg-invasive SE strain. Tissue samples and cloacal swabs (point-of-lay chickens only) were collected at regular intervals post challenge in order to recover the Salmonella challenge strains. In 1-day-old chicks, only the aphasic ST strain and the SE strain were recovered after direct plating, suggesting that the number of salmonellas colonizing the tissues of the chicks infected with the other strains was likely to be low. Interestingly, all of the strains colonized well in the point-of-lay chickens, and there was no statistical difference in the overall number of positive samples or Salmonella counts between the seven strains. Salmonella was recovered from the point-of-lay birds to the end of the study (20 days after challenge). Monophasic and aphasic ST strains colonized point-of-lay birds as efficiently as biphasic ST and SE strains. Further studies are necessary to estimate the invasiveness of these strains in naturally-infected vaccinated laying hens, and to assess the impact of natural infection on egg contamination.

  9. Passive protection against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection from maternally derived antibodies of hens vaccinated with a ghost vaccine.

    PubMed

    Si, Wei; Yu, Shenye; Chen, Liping; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Wanjiang; Liu, Siguo; Li, Guangxing

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated maternal immunity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis acquired through the egg yolk. Two-hundred 19-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) broiler breeders which were randomly divided into two groups of equal size were injected with S. Enteritidis ghosts (5 × 10(9) colony forming units in 0.1 ml per hen) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, 0.01 mol ⋅ l(-1), pH 7.4) twice, respectively, with an interval of 2 weeks. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect specific antibodies against S. Enteritidis. S. Enteritidis-specific antibody levels in the vaccinated group increased over time and were significantly higher than those of the control group on days 28 (P < 0.001) and 35 (P < 0.001) post-vaccination. Ten 7-day-old chicks from hens that were vaccinated with a S. Enteritidis ghost vaccine were challenged at 14 days of age with 5 × 10(9) CFU of S. Enteritidis DH091 (homologous to the vaccine strain), 8/10 (80%) chicks from vaccinated hens survived, whereas 3/10 (30%) chicks from unvaccinated hens survived. The chicks acquired high levels of serum antibodies against S. Enteritidis. These results reveal that maternal antibodies in chicks acquired from vaccinated hens through eggs can confer a significant protection against S. Enteritidis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of bone in chick embryos from Cobb 500 breeder hens fed diets supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from inorganic and amino acid-complexed sources.

    PubMed

    Favero, A; Vieira, S L; Angel, C R; Bos-Mikich, A; Lothhammer, N; Taschetto, D; Cruz, R F A; Ward, T L

    2013-02-01

    Sources of Zn, Mn, and Cu (IZMC) as sulfates or as amino acid complexes (OZMC) were used to supplement Cobb 500 breeder hen diets. Experimental treatments consisted of diets supplemented with 1) 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC (control); 2) 60, 60, and 3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from OZMC (ISO); and 3) a diet with 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC as in control plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from OZMC (on top). Ten replications of 20 females and 2 males were used per treatment. Eggs from breeders at 30, 40, 50 and 60 wk of age were incubated, and 5 embryos per replicate were collected at 10 (E10), 14 (E14), and 18 (E18) d of incubation. Midshaft width and calcification were measured for left tibia and femur stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. At hatch, the left tibia of 5 chicks per replicate was sampled for histological evaluation of the diaphysis and distal epiphysis. Feeding the ISO treatment compared with the control diet increased the Zn (P < 0.05) but not Mn and Cu content of the yolk and albumen blend. At E14, the ISO and on-top treatments had a trend to increase tibia calcification at the rates of 1.6 and 1%, respectively (P < 0.1). The E18 ISO and on-top treatments had 2% thicker tibia compared with the control, regardless of hen age (P < 0.05). Also, at E18, calcification of tibia and femur was higher from hens fed the on-top treatment (P < 0.05). The chicks from the ISO and on-top groups had increased tibia moment of inertia (P < 0.01) at day of hatch. Broiler breeder hens consuming OZMC associated with IZMC produced embryos and hatching chicks with improvements in selected bone mineralization parameters.

  11. Reduction of Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in 20-day-old broiler chickens by the plant derived compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) colonization in broiler chicks. In three separate experiments for each compound, day-old, chicks (N=75/experiment) were randomly assigned to five treatments (n=15/treatment): a...

  12. The role of gravity in chick embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suda, T; Abe, E; Shinki, T; Katagiri, T; Yamaguchi, A; Yokose, S; Yoshiki, S; Horikawa, H; Cohen, G W; Yasugi, S

    1994-02-28

    Thirty fertilized chick eggs preincubated for 0, 7 and 10 days on earth (10 eggs each) were flown in the space shuttle 'Endeavour' and further incubated for 7 days under microgravity. Twenty out of thirty eggs (9/10 ten-day-old; 10/10 seven-day-old; 1/10 zero-day-old) were recovered alive after landing. The only living embryo of the zero-day-old group died 24 days after launch, and was comparable to a 16-day-old embryo. The high mortality of the 0-day-old eggs appeared to be related to the specific inner structure of the egg. Simulation experiments performed on earth indicated that when yolk stayed in the albumen for more than 2 days, most of the embryos died. The subtle difference in specific gravity between the yolk (1.029) and albumen (1.040) plays a critical role in early chick embryogenesis.

  13. Colonization and organ invasion in chicks experimentally infected with Dermanyssus gallinae contaminated by Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Moro, Claire Valiente; Fravalo, Philippe; Amelot, Michel; Chauve, Claude; Zenner, Lionel; Salvat, Gilles

    2007-08-01

    The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important and common ectoparasite of laying hens in Europe. This haematophagous mite has been experimentally demonstrated to be a vector of Salmonella Enteritidis by acquiring bacteria through the blood meal or cuticular contact. We have evaluated another route of infection by orally inoculating chicks with mites previously infected by S. Enteritidis. Two methods of infecting the mites were tested: mites contaminated by cuticular contact or during the blood meal. After the washing of mites with paraformaldehyde, groups of 10 Salmonella-contaminated mites were inoculated individually into 1-day-old chicks. The titre of the inoculum suspension was evaluated by crushing mites and followed by bacteriological counting. It was 3x10(4) colony-forming units/chick and 2.7x10(6) colony-forming units/chick, respectively, for cuticular contact and orally mediated contamination of mites. Each bird was found to be positive 12 days post-inoculation. Salmonella colonized the intestinal tracts and invaded the livers and spleens. The caecal content concentration reached a mean level of S. Enteritidis of 8.5x10(4) most probable number (MPN) Salmonella/g. This experiment demonstrated the ability of mites to orally infect 1-day-old chicks with subsequent colonization and multiplication of Salmonella. Consequently, mites infected by S. Enteritidis constitute potential reservoir hosts of this bacterium, allowing it to persist in the poultry house as a source of infection for newly introduced animals. If contaminated mites are found in poultry facilities, effective red mite control should be performed before new batches are introduced into the facility.

  14. Cholecystokinin-8 activates myenteric neurons in 21- and 35-day old but not 4- and 14-day old rats.

    PubMed

    Washington, Martha C; Murry, Candace R; Raboin, Shannon J; Roberson, Allison E; Mansour, Mahmoud M; Williams, Carol S; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2011-02-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) activates the myenteric neurons of adult rats. The goal of this work is to determine the ontogeny of this activation by CCK-8 in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum (2cm immediately following the pyloric sphincter aborally) and compare it with that of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) - which occurs in 1-day old pups. Despite the existence of both of the CCK receptors, CCK(1) and CCK(2), in 4, 14, 21 and 35 day old rats, CCK-8 (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40μg/kg, i.p.) increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI, a marker for neuronal activation) in the myenteric neurons of 21- and 35-day old rats but in the DVC of all age groups. As such, this belated activation of myenteric neurons by CCK-8 compared to the DVC may reflect a delayed role for these neurons in CCK-related functions.

  15. Tyzzer's disease in an 11-day-old foal.

    PubMed Central

    St Denis, K A; Waddell-Parks, N; Belanger, M

    2000-01-01

    An 11-day-old pony became depressed, anorectic, and pyrexic 2 days after the topsoil of its paddock had been turned over. Rapid progression to colic and head pressing occurred, despite intensive therapy for Tyzzer's disease, and the foal died within 7 h of the appearance of central nervous system signs. PMID:10857035

  16. Recalling an Aversive Experience by Day-Old Chicks Is Not Dependent on Somatic Protein Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mileusnic, Radmila; Lancashire, Christine L.; Rose, Steven P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term memory is dependent on protein synthesis and inhibiting such synthesis following training results in amnesia for the task. Proteins synthesized during training must be transported to the synapse and disrupting microtubules with Colchicines, and hence, blocking transport, results in transient amnesia. Reactivating memory for a previously…

  17. Recalling an Aversive Experience by Day-Old Chicks Is Not Dependent on Somatic Protein Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mileusnic, Radmila; Lancashire, Christine L.; Rose, Steven P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term memory is dependent on protein synthesis and inhibiting such synthesis following training results in amnesia for the task. Proteins synthesized during training must be transported to the synapse and disrupting microtubules with Colchicines, and hence, blocking transport, results in transient amnesia. Reactivating memory for a previously…

  18. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin)-contaminated wheat to female White Leghorn chickens from day old through egg production.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Corrier, D E; Huff, W E

    1987-10-01

    White Leghorn chickens one day of age were fed starter and grower diets containing either a control (noncontaminated) wheat diet or a naturally contaminated deoxynivalenol (DON) wheat diet (18 mg DON/kg) from 1 day of age to the onset of egg production. The hens were then placed on their respective layer diets of control wheat or DON-contaminated wheat (18 mg DON/kg) for six 28-day egg production periods. Feeding the DON-contaminated diet did not significantly influence body weights during the growing or the laying phases. Overall, hen-day egg production and egg weights were significantly higher for hens receiving the DON diet. Feeding DON contaminated wheat caused no significant changes in percent shell, albumen height, percent fertility, percent hatch of fertile eggs, percent hatch of eggs set, or weight of chicks at hatch. There were slight, although significant, changes in shell weight and shell thickness and in some serum chemistry values. There were no significant differences in the hematology parameters measured or in prothrombin times. None of the eggs collected from hens fed the control and the DON-contaminated wheat diet contained detectable quantities of DON. Microscopic examination of sections of the liver, kidney, and proventriculus of control and treated hens revealed no unusual histopathology. The results indicate that feeding DON at relatively high levels beginning at 1 day of age and continuing through six egg production periods had only slight effects on the parameters measured.

  19. Avian maternal response to chick distress

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, J. L.; Lowe, J. C.; Paul, E. S.; Nicol, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which an animal is affected by the pain or distress of a conspecific will depend on its capacity for empathy. Empathy most probably evolved to facilitate parental care, so the current study assessed whether birds responded to an aversive stimulus directed at their chicks. Domestic hens were exposed to two replicates of the following conditions in a counterbalanced order: control (C; hen and chicks undisturbed), air puff to chicks (APC; air puff directed at chicks at 30 s intervals), air puff to hen (APH; air puff directed at hen at 30 s intervals) and control with noise (CN; noise of air puff at 30 s intervals). During each test, the hens' behaviour and physiology were measured throughout a 10 min pre-treatment and a 10 min treatment period. Hens responded to APH and APC treatments with increased alertness, decreased preening behaviour and a reduction in eye temperature. No such changes occurred during any control period. Increased heart rate and maternal vocalization occurred exclusively during the APC treatment, even though chicks produced few distress vocalizations. The pronounced and specific reaction observed indicates that adult female birds possess at least one of the essential underpinning attributes of empathy. PMID:21389025

  20. Acute suppurative parotitis in a 33-day-old patient.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Belet, Nursen; Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar

    2015-06-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is a rare disease in childhood. Its incidence is higher in premature newborns. Parotid swelling and pus drainage from Stenson's duct is pathognomonic, and Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent in most cases. Here, a 33-day-old patient with acute suppurative parotitis is presented. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of enzyme supplement on nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, egg production, egg quality and intestinal morphology of the broiler chicks and layer hens fed hull-less barley based diets.

    PubMed

    Yaghobfar, A; Boldaji, F; Shrifi, S D

    2007-07-15

    The effects of beta-glucanase (550 U g(-1)) and xylanase (800 U g(-1)) supplementation on the nutrient digestibility and metabolizable energy of egg production, egg quality intestinal morphology of the broiler chicks and layer hens fed hull-less barley-based diets were examined in three similar experiments. The results of this study showed that the inclusion of beta-glucanase and xylanase in the hull-less barley based diets had no significant improvement on the growth performance of broiler, feed conversion ratio. The results of this experiment showed that beta-glucanase and xylanase had negative effects on egg shell quality as reduced egg shell weight (4.6%) and egg shell thickness (5.32%). The addition of beta-glucanase and xylanase had also no effects on yolk color and Hugh units of eggs either. The results also demonstrated that beta-glucanase and xylanase supplementation did not improve the metabolizable energy, organic matter, protein and starch digestibility of the diet contained hull-less barley. The addition of glucanase and xylanase to the diets significantly reduced villus height, villus width, crypt depth, villus height: crypt depth ratio and goblet cell numbers of the duodenum and jejunum of small intestine compared with the control group. But, the numbers of goblet cells were more in the jejunum than in duodenum of small intestine. On the other hand, these enzymes reduced villus width and crypt depth of the ileum while increased villus length of the ileum receptivity. The goblet cells numbers in the villi of the ileum of birds fed the hull-less based diet; with exogenous enzyme were significantly higher than those in the jejunum and duodenum section of small intestine of layer hens. Goblet cells are responsible for the secretion of mucin that is used for the mucinous lining of the intestinal epithelium. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzyme on the nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, intestinal morphology and

  2. What learning in day-old chickens can teach a neurochemist: focus on astrocyte metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Leif; Gibbs, Marie E

    2009-05-01

    The learning process sets in motion a prolonged, reproducible, and complicated pattern of brain activation, which provides information about biochemical reactions in activated brain. Study of this pattern during one-trial aversive bead discrimination in day-old chick is facilitated by precise timing of sequential metabolic events occurring between a 10-s learning period, in which the chicks learn to associate a red bead with aversive taste, and memory consolidation, indicated by unwillingness to peck at untainted red beads while freely pecking at corresponding blue beads. Inhibition of learning by metabolic inhibitors and restoration of memory by specific substrates at specific times allow determination of specific metabolic events and their neuronal or astrocytic localization. Downstream metabolism of glycogen and of glucose to pyruvate/lactate is segregated into separate pools. Glucose metabolism via pyruvate dehydrogenation provides energy in both neurons and astrocytes and may include gap junction-mediated lactate transport into astrocytes. A key role is played by glycogenolysis, stimulated by beta2-adrenergic and/or 5-HT2-receptor stimulation along with alpha2-adrenergic stimulation of glycogen synthesis. The importance of glycogen reflects that it selectively supports de novo synthesis of transmitter glutamate by combined pyruvate dehydrogenation and carboxylation in astrocytes.

  3. Acute alcohol intoxication in a 15-day-old neonate.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Masafumi; Inada, Yukiko; Tashiro, Katsuya; Hayashi, Chiduru; Doi, Hirohito; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Matsuo, Muneaki

    2013-12-01

    We describe a 15-day-old newborn girl who was fed with formula milk that was accidentally diluted with sake (Japanese wine prepared from fermented rice). The clinical features were flushed skin, tachycardia and low blood pressure indicating circulatory failure, somnolence and metabolic acidosis without hypoglycemia. The serum ethanol concentration was 43.0 mg/dL at 3 h after intake. The patient recovered under intravenous fluid replacement without complications. Follow-up examinations at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months confirmed normal psychomotor development. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Congenital miliary tuberculosis in an 18-day-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jue Seong; Lim, Chang Hoon; Kim, Eunji; Lim, Hyunwook; Lee, Yoon; Choung, Ji Tae

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is a rare disease that is associated with high mortality. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent, may be transmitted from the infected mother to the fetus by the transplacental route or by aspiration of infected amniotic fluid. Clinical symptoms and signs are not specific. Miliary patterns are the most common findings in the chest X-rays of many infants with congenital TB. In this case, an 18-day-old boy had jaundice on the fifth day of birth, and fever and respiratory distress appeared on the 18th day. Chest X-ray showed diffuse fine bilateral infiltration. Clinically, pneumonia or sepsis was suspected. Respiratory symptoms and chest X-ray findings worsened despite empirical antibiotic therapy. The lungs showed miliary infiltration suggestive of TB. Gastric aspirates were positive for M. tuberculosis. Respiratory distress and fever were gradually improved after anti-TB medication. Congenital TB is difficult to detect because of minimal or no symptoms during pregnancy and nonspecific symptoms in neonates. Hence, clinicians should suspect the possibility of TB infection even if neonates have non-specific symptoms. Early diagnosis and meticulous treatment are required for the survival of neonates with TB. PMID:28018449

  5. Bloody Stools in a 3-Day-Old Term Infant.

    PubMed

    Bray-Aschenbrenner, Amelia; Feldenberg, L Richard; Kirby, Amelia; Fitzpatrick, Colleen M; Josephsen, Justin B

    2017-09-01

    A 3-day-old term, male infant presented to the emergency department for evaluation of bloody stools. The infant was born after an uncomplicated pregnancy followed by a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. The mother was group B Streptococcus colonized, and received antenatal penicillin prophylaxis. The infant received routine delivery room care, and was given ophthalmic erythromycin and intramuscular vitamin K. Circumcision was performed without bleeding and he was discharged from the newborn nursery and the hospital after 48 hours. On the day of presentation, he had streaky bright red blood in 4 consecutive stools. After discussion with the infant's pediatrician, the parents took him to the emergency department. The infant was afebrile, nursing well without emesis, and had made ∼10 wet diapers that day. The physical examination revealed a fussy infant with mild tachycardia, tachypnea, and scleral icterus. The complete blood count was unremarkable. Serum total bilirubin was 11.9 mg/dL, sodium 156 mmol/L, chloride 120 mmol/L, potassium 4.7 mmol/L, and bicarbonate 16 mmol/L. International normalized ratio was prolonged at 2.7, prothrombin time 26.6 seconds, partial thromboplastin time 38.9 seconds. The stool was hemeoccult positive. An obstructive radiograph series of the abdomen showed a nonobstructed gas pattern. Official radiology interpretation the following day reported possible pneumatosis intestinalis in the left and right colon. Our multidisciplinary panel will discuss the assessment of bloody stools in the term newborn, evaluation of electrolyte abnormalities, the diagnosis, and patient management. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni amongst broiler chicks: experimental studies.

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, S.; Lee, A.; Sorrell, T. C.

    1990-01-01

    Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni was investigated in campylobacter-free broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty chicks housed individually, were provided with water containing 10(2)-10(9) c.f.u./ml C. jejuni. Colonization was rapid [47 of 73 (64%) positive cloacal cultures within 3 days and 65 of 73 (89%) within 7 days], dependent on C. jejuni strain and inoculum size but independent of chick age. Groups of 5-24 chicks in isolators were exposed to C. jejuni-contaminated water or colonized seeder chicks. Transmission occurred in 2-7 days concurrent with a gradual increase of C. jejuni in litter, water and feed. Environmental samples were culture-negative within 3 days following removal of colonized chicks. Treatment of 1-day-old chicks with adult caecal microbiota did not affect colonization. Treated and control chicks were all C. jejuni-positive within 3 days of seeder challenge. PMID:2307180

  7. Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni amongst broiler chicks: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Shanker, S; Lee, A; Sorrell, T C

    1990-02-01

    Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni was investigated in campylobacter-free broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty chicks housed individually, were provided with water containing 10(2)-10(9) c.f.u./ml C. jejuni. Colonization was rapid [47 of 73 (64%) positive cloacal cultures within 3 days and 65 of 73 (89%) within 7 days], dependent on C. jejuni strain and inoculum size but independent of chick age. Groups of 5-24 chicks in isolators were exposed to C. jejuni-contaminated water or colonized seeder chicks. Transmission occurred in 2-7 days concurrent with a gradual increase of C. jejuni in litter, water and feed. Environmental samples were culture-negative within 3 days following removal of colonized chicks. Treatment of 1-day-old chicks with adult caecal microbiota did not affect colonization. Treated and control chicks were all C. jejuni-positive within 3 days of seeder challenge.

  8. Planktonic and biofilm communities from 7-day-old chicken cecal microflora cultures: characterization and resistance to Salmonella colonization.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, C L; Crippen, T L; Andrews, K; Bongaerts, R J; Nisbet, D J

    2009-09-01

    Information implicating bacterial biofilms as contributory factors in the development of environmental bacterial resistance has been increasing. There is a lack of information regarding the role of biofilms within the microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract of food animals. This work used a continuous-flow chemostat model derived from the ceca of 7-day-old chicks to characterize these communities and their ability to neutralize invasion by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We characterized and compared the biofilm and planktonic communities within these microcosms using automated ribotyping and the Analytical Profile Index biotyping system. Eleven species from eight different genera were identified from six culture systems. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from all planktonic communities and four of the biofilm communities. Three of the communities resisted colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, two communities suppressed growth, and one community succumbed to colonization. In cultures that resisted colonization, no Salmonella could be isolated from the biofilm; in cultures that succumbed to colonization, Salmonella was consistently found within the biofilms. This study was one of a series that provided a molecular-based characterization of both the biofilm and planktonic communities from continuous-flow culture systems derived from the cecal microflora of chicks, ranging in age from day-of-hatch to 14 days old. The one common factor relating to successful colonization of the culture was the presence of Salmonella within the biofilm. The capacity to sequester the introduced Salmonella into the biofilm appears to be a contributing factor to the inability of these cultures to withstand colonization by the Salmonella.

  9. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  10. Persistent effect of broody hens on behaviour of chickens.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Maruyama, Yuji; Fujino, Saori; Kamimura, Eriko; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    We reported previously that behavioral development of chicks was promoted remarkably by the presence of a broody hen. Here we report that these effects at an early age persist after maturity. A total of 60 female chicks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: six pens with five chicks (brooded group) each were reared by a broody hen and six pens with five chicks (non-brooded group) each were provided with an infrared heating lamp. We evaluated the persistent effects of broody hens by measures of behavior, physical condition and production at 9, 16, 35 and 55 weeks of age. The numbers of threatening, aggressive pecking, fighting and severe feather pecking behaviors were higher in non-brooded than in brooded chickens (all P < 0.05). Egg production was lower in brooded than in non-brooded chickens (P < 0.05), while the number of brooding chickens was higher in the brooded than in the non-brooded group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of broody hens at an early stage of chicks' lives has a persistent effect on behavior. Although brooded chickens showed more brooding and lower egg production than non-brooded chickens, feather pecking and aggressive interaction were decreased in brooded hens.

  11. Sudden decrease in physical activity evokes adipocyte hyperplasia in 70- to 77-day-old rats but not 49- to 56-day-old rats

    PubMed Central

    Company, Joseph M.; Roberts, Michael D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Cruthirds, Clayton L.

    2013-01-01

    The cessation of physical activity in rodents and humans initiates obesogenic mechanisms. The overall purpose of the current study was to determine how the cessation of daily physical activity in rats at 49–56 days of age and at 70–77 days of age via wheel lock (WL) affects adipose tissue characteristics. Male Wistar rats began voluntary running at 28 days old and were either killed at 49–56 days old or at 70–77 days old. Two cohorts of rats always had wheel access (RUN), a second two cohorts of rats had wheel access restricted during the last 7 days (7d-WL), and a third two cohorts of rats did not have access to a voluntary running wheel after the first 6 days of (SED). We observed more robust changes with WL in the 70- to 77-day-old rats. Compared with RUN rats, 7d-WL rats exhibited greater rates of gain in fat mass and percent body fat, increased adipocyte number, higher percentage of small adipocytes, and greater cyclin A1 mRNA in epididymal and perirenal adipose tissue. In contrast, 49- to 56-day-old rats had no change in most of the same characteristics. There was no increase in inflammatory mRNA expression in either cohort with WL. These findings suggest that adipose tissue in 70- to 77-day-old rats is more protected from WL than 49- to 56-day-old rats and responds by expansion via hyperplasia. PMID:24089381

  12. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2012-10-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks

  13. Effect of mothering on the spatial exploratory behavior of quail chicks.

    PubMed

    de Margerie, E; Peris, A; Pittet, F; Houdelier, C; Lumineau, S; Richard-Yris, M-A

    2013-04-01

    Previous maternal deprivation experiments demonstrated that absence of maternal care impacts the behavioral development of young animals. Here we assessed the influence of the presence of a mothering hen on the spatial exploration of Japanese quail chicks, after the mothering period. Brooded and nonbrooded chicks were placed in a novel environment containing feeding troughs. The distribution of chicks and their inter-individual distances were measured during repeated tests. Brooded chicks exhibited a higher ability to disperse, thereby progressively exploiting larger surfaces and gaining access to food more easily. The fact that exploration by nonbrooded chicks was delayed suggests a deficit in their exploratory motivation and/or spatial skills. We hypothesize that brooded chicks experienced the constraint to follow the mothering hen, and to adapt to frequent reconfigurations of their environment. The lack of this variability in the environment of nonbrooded chicks could have reduced adaptability of their spatial behavior.

  14. Chick (Gallus domesticus) Approach Preferences for Natural and Artificial Sound Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gloria J.

    1976-01-01

    Two-day-old chicks were found to prefer an ancestral maternal call over a brief repetitive pure tone burst when stationary models emitted the calls; however, other chicks prefered the repetitive tone over the maternal call when the models emitting the calls were moving. (JMB)

  15. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocysts vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, day- old chicks were immunized with oocysts of E. maxima, E. acervulin...

  16. Experimental colonization of broiler chicks with Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, S.; Lee, A.; Sorrell, T. C.

    1988-01-01

    Minimal colonization inocula for two broiler strains of Campylobacter jejuni were determined in broiler chicks aged 2-3 days and 2 weeks. Individually housed chicks were exposed to a single oral or cloacal challenge. Diarrhoeal symptoms were absent in all 380 chicks included in the study. Chick susceptibility to the two C. jejuni strains varied. Colonization was effected by less than 10(2)-10(4) colony forming units (c.f.u.) via cloacal challenge and 10(4)-10(6) c.f.u. via the oral route. Colonization inocula for 2- to 3-day and 2-week-old chicks were similar. Treatment of 1-day-old chicks with fresh adult caecal flora or an anaerobic broth culture of adult caecal flora did not inhibit colonization after challenge with low-dose C. jejuni. Susceptible chicks were colonized rapidly. C. jejuni was detected in 167 of 189 (88%) colonized chicks within 3 days of challenge and persisted during the 2-week monitoring period. Our data suggest that colonization of broiler chicks with C. jejuni is effected more easily by the cloacal than the oral route and is independent of age. PMID:3338504

  17. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  18. Comparisons of insulin related parameters in commercial-type chicks: Evidence for insulin resistance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Jun-Ichi; Yanagita, Kouichi; Fukumori, Rika; Sugino, Toshihisa; Fujita, Masanori; Kawakami, Shin-Ichi; McMurtry, John P; Bungo, Takashi

    2011-05-03

    The aim of this study is to elucidate whether insulin acts differentially within the central nervous system (CNS) of two types of commercial chicks to control ingestive behavior. Male layer and broiler chicks (4-day-old) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with saline or insulin under satiated and starved conditions. Feed intake was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after treatment. Secondly, blood and hypothalamus were collected from both chick types under ad libitum feeding and fasting for 24 h. Plasma insulin concentration was measured by time-resolved fluoro-immunoassay. Hypothalamic insulin receptor mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The ICV injection of insulin significantly inhibited feed consumption in layer chicks when compared with saline (P<0.05), but not broiler chicks (P>0.1). Plasma insulin concentration of both chick types significantly decreased following 24 h of fasting, while insulin concentrations in the broiler chicks were significantly higher compared to the layers fed under ad libitum conditions. Hypothalamic insulin receptor mRNA expression levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in broiler chicks than in layer ones under ad libitum feeding. Feed deprivation significantly decreased insulin receptor mRNA levels in layer chicks (P<0.01), but not in broiler chicks (P>0.1). Moreover, plasma insulin concentrations correlated negatively with hypothalamic insulin receptor protein expression in the two types of chicks fed ad libitum (P<0.05). These results suggest that insulin resistance exists in the CNS of broiler chicks, possibly due to persistent hyperinsulinemia, which results in a down-regulation of CNS insulin receptor expression compared to that in layer chicks.

  19. Multiple facial and left eye injuries in a 13 day old baby secondary to rat bite.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed Ademola; Ibraheem, Anifat Boladale; Ibraheem, Ajagbe Kayode

    2014-01-01

    A case of traumatic blepharectomy secondary to a rat bite in a 13 day old neonate. Infants should not be kept in an isolated place in a rat endemic area. This case suggests an existence of a relationship between poverty and rat bite.

  20. Preference for Infant-Directed Singing in 2-Day-Old Hearing Infants of Deaf Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masataka, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    Used a modified visual-fixation-based auditory-preference procedure to test preferences for infant-directed singing versus adult-directed singing in 15 two-day-old hearing infants of deaf parents. Subjects heard a Japanese and an English play song. Found that infants prefer infant-directed singing over adult-directed singing and that the…

  1. Organophosphate poisoning in a 12-day-old infant: case report.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, D A; Heikens, G T

    2011-01-01

    A 12-day-old infant girl was admitted with increasing lethargy and respiratory distress. Initial treatment was for pneumonia but deterioration despite appropriate treatment prompted review of her diagnosis and consideration of organophosphate poisoning. There was a brisk response to atropine. To our knowledge, this is the youngest infant reported to have been exposed to poisoning by organophosphates.

  2. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  3. The loss rates of web tags applied to day-old Anas and Aythya ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers studied the loss rate of web tags on Anas and Aythya ducklings by double marking day-old ducklings of five species with web tags and plasticine-filled rings. Tag loss was examined over three-month, one-year, and three-year periods. Web tag loss was greatest for Anas and occurred mostly in the first three months following tagging.

  4. Suspected transient pseudohypoaldosteronism in a 10-day-old quarter horse foal

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Luis G.; Vengust, Modest; Dobson, Howard; Viel, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    A 10-day-old quarter horse colt was presented for signs of disorientation and inability to nurse. Hydronephrosis/hydroureters, with concomitant pyelonephritis and a severe electrolytes disturbance, were diagnosed. The clinical findings closely resembled those described for a syndrome of transient pseudohypoaldosteronism in human neonates. PMID:18512462

  5. Patent ductus arteriosus in a 9-day-old Grant’s zebra

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 9-day old Grant’s zebra with a 3-day history of lethargy, weight loss, inappetance, and diarrhea was treated with ampicillin, vitamin E and selenium, and tetanus antitoxin without effect in 24 h. On transfer to the local veterinary clinic, a grade IV/VI continuous heart murmur was detected and a patent ductus arteriosus found at necropsy. PMID:16152724

  6. A study on the growth curve of and maximum profit from layer-type cockerel chicks.

    PubMed

    Gang, F Y; Zhen, Y S

    1997-09-01

    1. 2900 commercial layer-type cockerel chicks were reared on the floor from 1-day-old to 9 weeks of age. 2. The growth curve of the cockerel chicks was [formula see text] 3. The feeding costs (US$) of layer-type cockerel chicks were described by the equation Y = a + bx + cx2 = 0.0657 - 0.0091x + 0.0069x2. 4. When the layer-type cockerel chicks' marketing price was US$0.82 per kg. (6.8 Renminbi per kg), the optimum marketing age for maximum profit margin was 5.9 weeks (41 to 42 d).

  7. Loxoribine pretreatment reduces Salmonella Enteritidis organ invasion in 1-day-old chickens.

    PubMed

    Swaggerty, C L; He, H; Genovese, K J; Duke, S E; Kogut, M H

    2012-04-01

    Young poultry exhibit a transient colonization by some food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella, during the first week of life that stems from immature innate and acquired defense mechanisms. Consequently, modulation of the hosts' natural immune response is emerging as an important area of interest for food animal producers, including the poultry industry. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been shown to boost the innate immune response in young chickens and increase their resistance to colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The objective of the present study was to determine if pretreatment with loxoribine, a TLR7 agonist and immune modulator, protects young chicks from Salmonella Enteritidis organ invasion. Loxoribine (0-100 μg) was administered intra-abdominally to 1-d-old broiler chicks, and 4 h later, the birds were challenged orally with Salmonella Enteritidis. Twenty-four hours postchallenge, birds were euthanized and the liver and spleen aseptically removed and cultured for Salmonella Enteritidis. This was carried out on 3 separate occasions using 26 to 50 chicks per dose per experiment. Pretreatment of chicks with loxoribine (6.25-25 μg) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced liver and spleen organ invasion by Salmonella Enteritidis. Higher doses (50-100 μg) of loxoribine had no effect. The results obtained in this study indicate that there is a potential application for using loxoribine to increase protection of young chicks when they are most susceptible to infections with Salmonella.

  8. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  9. Central depressant effects and toxicity of propofol in chicks.

    PubMed

    Naser, A S; Mohammad, F K

    2014-01-01

    Propofol is an ultra-short acting anesthetic agent. The information on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of propofol in the chicken is rather limited. This study examines the toxicity and pharmaco-behavioral effects of propofol given intraperitoneally in 7-10 day-old chicks. The median effective doses of propofol for the induction of sedation, analgesia to electric stimulation and sleep in the chicks were 1.82, 2.21 and 5.71 mg/kg, respectively. The 24-h median lethal dose of propofol in chicks was 57.22 mg/kg. The therapeutic indices of propofol for sedation, analgesia and sleep were 31.4, 25.9 and 10, respectively. Propofol at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg reduced the locomotor activity and increased the duration of tonic immobility in chicks. Propofol at 2 and 4 mg/kg caused analgesia to electric stimulation as well as analgesia and anti-inflammatory responses against formalin test in chicks. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg induced sleep in chicks for 8.4 to 25 min. Physostigmine shortened the sleep duration of propofol. Data suggest that propofol induces anti-inflammatory action and central nervous system depression in chicks resulting in sedation, analgesia and anesthesia with wide safety margin. These effects could form the basis of further pharmacological and toxicological studies on propofol in the young chick model, and the drug could be safely applied clinically in the chicken.

  10. Corticosterone is not correlated with nest departure in snowy owl chicks (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed

    Romero, L Michael; Holt, Denver W; Maples, Mike; Wingfield, John C

    2006-11-01

    Snowy owl chicks typically depart from nests at approximately 18 days of age, but 3 weeks before taking their first flight. High concentrations of corticosterone have been implicated in behavioral changes in many species, leading us to assess corticosterone's role in chick nest departure. Corticosterone titers in free-living chicks, however, do not predict this departure event. Baseline corticosterone concentrations decrease as chicks age. By 13 days, corticosterone concentrations are 50% of concentrations in 1-day-old chicks. Baseline concentrations, however, do not differ between departed and nest-bound chicks. Furthermore, corticosterone concentrations become significantly elevated 30min after collecting the baseline sample, indicating that chicks are able to mount a corticosterone response to handling. This stress-induced rise in corticosterone also did not differ between departed and nest-bound chicks. Brood sizes varied, possibly resulting in increased stress in chicks from larger broods. Although many chicks died before reaching departure age, brood sizes at time of nest departure ranged from 1 to 10 chicks. Brood size was not correlated with age of nest departure or individual corticosterone concentrations. These data indicate that it is unlikely that corticosterone plays a role in triggering nest departure in snowy owl chicks.

  11. Application of gel-bead technology for delivering Eimeria oocysts to day-old broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current methods of preventing outbreaks of avian coccidiosis involve medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals or by vaccination of chicks with low doses of Eimeria oocysts in ovo or by spray vaccination just after hatch. Our data indicates that the uniformity and efficiency of...

  12. [Macroscopy, light and electron microscopy studies on the genesis and function of the gonads after experimental sex-reversal following left-side ovariectomy of hen chicks (Gallus domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Wallenburg, J

    1982-01-01

    Complete left ovariectomy of female chicken results in a phenotypic sex-reversal accompanied by the development of a right fertile or sterile testoid. Incomplete left ovariectomy can induce either a sterile or fertile ovariotestoid or a sterile testoid. In comparison with the normal testis the right testoid of sex-reversed hens shows many abnormalities: The size of the testoid of juvenile sex-reversed hens is only about 10 x 2 mm and those of the adults about 20 x 10 mm. First signs of maturation division are visible 25 weeks after hatching, i.e. a retardation of 8 weeks. The histology of the testoids is very heteromorphic and considerably different from that of a normal testis. The spermatogenic parenchyma consists of supporting-cell-areas (SERTOLI-cell only tissue), sterile testis-cords (SERTOLI-cell only cords) and of fertile testis-cords. According to the differentiation of the germ cells and supporting cells respectively, the testis cords are subdivided into 4 stages. Spermatogenesis is stopped in the spermatid stage and it is impossible to enforce further maturation by utilizing the direct spermatogenic effect of high androgen doses. The ultimate component of the blood-testis barrier, the inter-SERTOLI-cell junctions, is visible neither in the sterile nor the fertile testis-cords. Thus, as far as the immune system is concerned, the haploid germ cells are acting like endogenic foreign-body cells. This becomes apparent by severe cell death and finally by a total destruction of testis-cords. The interstitial-glandular parenchyma consists of testicular single-interstitial-cells (LEYDIG-cells), ovarian interstitial-cell-nodules and interstitial-cell-areas. Statements concerning the qualitative and quantitative ability of the interstitial cells are made using morphological criteria and by consideration of test data in steroid-hormones. As to the atypical cytomorphology of interstitial-cells (4 types are distinguishable) distinct deviations in the hormonal status

  13. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  14. The content of dityrosine in chick and rabbit aorta proteins.

    PubMed

    Malaník, V; Ledvina, M

    1979-01-01

    The possible presence of dityrosine in elastin derived by two different methods and in structural glycoproteins from aortas of 1 day old chicks, adult rabbits and fetal rabbits was determined by a sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure. Only chick tissues were found to contain dityrosine, 0.3 residues/100,000 total amino acid residues in aortic elastin and 12-15 residues/100,000 residues in the structural glycoproteins. No dityrosine could be detected in any of the fetal or mature rabbit tissues. However, related fluorescent compounds with different excitation-emission maxima and different elution times were obtained by ion exchange chromatography of structural glycoproteins partially hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions.

  15. Control of arachidonic acid release in chick muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, G. H.; Padalino, M.; Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    Cultures from thigh muscles of 12 day old embryonic chicks are utilized to examine arachidonic release, prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The preparation of the cultures is described. It is observed that exogenous arachidonic acid is formed into photsphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, is released by a calcium ionosphere or phospholiphase simulator, and is the substrate for the biosynthesis of PG; the epidermal growth factor and PGF do not stimulate protein synthesis over the basal levels. The relationship between arachidonate release and melittin is studied. The data reveal that a change in intracellular calcium stimulates phospholiphase activity, arachidonate release, and PG synthesis in chick muscle culture.

  16. Mortality, temporal substrate and insulin responses to endotoxic shock in zero, ten and twenty-eight day old rats.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Goto, M; Witek-Janusek, L; Hurley, R M

    1991-11-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant health problem. However, to our knowledge, the temporal substrates and insulin response to endotoxin have not been characterized in the young animal to guide the investigations of glucoregulation in septic shock in the newborn. We characterized the temporal response to endotoxin in the developing rat. Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin in high and low lethal doses to zero, ten and 28 day old rats. Mortality, temporal glucose, lactate, hepatic glycogen and insulin were monitored. Mortality experiments show the ten day old rat is 300 times as sensitive to endotoxin as the 28 day old rat. Plasma glucose concentration increased in the high mortality groups by 120 minutes in the zero and ten day old rats (102 +/- 4 milligrams per deciliter, 119 +/- 6 milligrams per deciliter, respectively, and by 60 minutes in the 28 day old rats (223 +/- 12 milligrams per deciliter). The plasma glucose level decreased to 52 +/- 3 milligrams per deciliter by 240 minutes in the ten day old and by 180 minutes to 99 +/- 8 milligrams per deciliter in the 28 day high mortality groups. Peak lactic acid levels in the high lethality groups were zero day 2.8 +/- 0.2 millimoles per liter in zero day old rats, 3.3 +/- 0.2 millimoles per liter in 28 day old rats. Glycogen in the liver decreased rapidly by 120 minutes in all age groups. Plasma insulin concentration did not elevate significantly in zero and ten day old rats. In the 28 day old rat, insulin concentration increased by 120 minutes to 52 +/- 17 microunits per milliliter. Insulin glucose ratios were also elevated in the 28 day old endotoxin treated rat, indicating hyperinsulinemia. Thus, temporal substrates and insulin responses to endotoxin differ with animal age.

  17. Effects of acute manganese neurotoxicity in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Al-Zubaidy, Muna H I; Mohammad, Fouad K

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an industrial neurotoxicant in humans and animal models limited to rodent species. The present study analyses the potential neurotoxicity of acute Mn administration in young chicks. The acute (24 h) LD50 values of Mn following intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous and oral administrations of MnCl2 in seven-day-old chicks were 21.3 mg kg-1, 28.1 mg kg-1, 28.1 mg kg-1 and 469.5 mg kg-1 body weight of Mn, respectively. Signs of Mn poisoning appeared in the chicks within 2 min and 13 min after parenteral administration and within 20 min and 32 min after oral administration. The signs demonstrated the depressant action of Mn in the chicks. The behavioural effects of Mn given at 5 mg kg-1, 10 mg kg-1 and 20 mg kg-1 intramuscularly were examined in 7 to 12 day old chicks using the three-minute open-field and tonic immobility tests. Manganese decreased the overall locomotor activity of the chicks in the open-field arena as manifested by a significant increase in the latency to move from the central square and decreases in line crossing, frequency of defecation and vocalization score when compared to control values. It also increased the duration of the chicks' tonic immobility response. Pharmacological challenges of Mn-treated chicks with general anaesthetics xylazine-ketamine and thiopental caused the loss of right reflex at a faster rate in comparison with control values. Thiopental increased the duration of loss of righting reflex in Mn-treated chicks when compared with that of the control group. Chlorpromazine challenge of Mn-treated chicks significantly increased the depressant action of Mn in the open-field arena and increased the duration of tonic immobility response produced by the metal. The injections of Mn at 10 mg kg-1, 20 mg kg-1, 50 mg kg-1 and 100 mg kg-1 intramuscularly significantly increased the Mn levels in the plasma, liver, kidneys and entire brain of the chicks. The data suggests acute neurotoxicity of Mn chloride in the young

  18. Mother and sibling discrimination at a distance by three- to seven-day-old lambs.

    PubMed

    Nowak, R

    1990-04-01

    This study examined some aspects of the developmental phase of social bonding in newborn lambs. In Experiment 1, 3-day-old Merino lambs (singles and twins) were tested in a 2-choice situation for mother discrimination at a distance. In Experiment 2, the ability of twins to discriminate their siblings at a distance was studied 3 and 7 days after birth. When released at 9 m from two postparturient ewes after a latency of 30 s, which allowed the lambs to hear and to see both animals, most lambs chose to run and to stay with their own mothers before the end of the 2-min test (Experiment 1). There was no difference between singles and twins, nor between males and females in their distant discriminative ability. However, twins were initially undecided, slower to reach their mothers, and spent significantly less time with them. When the same testing procedure was used for sibling discrimination, most 3-day-old twins went to a lamb, but the proportion of lambs reaching the sibling first did not differ significantly from random, and the time spent near either lamb was similar (Experiment 2). During these tests, female lambs performed better than males. When tested 7 days after birth, all twins reached a lamb and a high proportion of them chose to go to the sibling first. They also spent most of the time near it. These results demonstrate that mother discrimination from a distance is well established in 3-day-old lambs and sibling discrimination takes longer to develop but has occurred by 7 days of age.

  19. Performance and tissue fatty acid profile of broiler chickens and laying hens fed hemp oil and HempOmegaTM.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Zhao, S; House, J D

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of hemp oil (HO) and HempOmega (HΩ), an equivalent product to HO, on performance and tissue fatty acid profile of layers and broiler chickens in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, forty 19-wk old Lohmann white laying hens were randomized to 1 of 5 dietary treatments, either a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 4 or 8% hemp oil provided by HO or HΩ, for a period of 6 wk (n = 8/diet). In experiment 2, 150-day-old mixed-sex (75 male; 75 female) Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated into 5 dietary treatments, a control diet or a control diet supplemented with either 3 or 6% hemp oil provided by HO or HΩ, each with six replicates of 5 chicks for a 21-d feeding period. Performance of layers and broilers was not affected by dietary treatments. Animals provided with either HO or HΩ diets had greater total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in egg yolks, thighs, and breasts compared to the control diet (P < 0.01), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) content of egg yolks and thighs decreased (P < 0.05). The levels of total n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), or arachidonic acid (ARA) of the egg yolk and meat were generally not affected by dietary supplementation with HO or HΩ, but gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was notably increased (P < 0.01). The current data show that inclusion of hemp oil up to 8% in layer diets and 6% in broiler diets provided by HO or HΩ does not negatively affect overall performance of birds and results in the enrichment of n-3 PUFAs and GLA in eggs and meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Gastroesophageal intussusception in a 50-day-old German shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Torad, Faisal A; Hassan, Elham A

    2015-03-01

    Gastroesophageal intussusception is a rare but life-threatening condition that requires immediate diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention. We describe the clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and gross pathologic examinations of a 50-day-old German Shepherd dog with gastroesophageal intussusception associated with esophageal dilatation. The dog was brought to the clinic 10 days after weaning with a history of regurgitation, persistent vomiting, hematemesis, and dyspnea. On admission, the dog was lethargic with signs of shock and died just before surgery. Gastroesophageal intussusception should be considered in the differential diagnosis in dogs with progressive vomiting or regurgitation especially at the weaning time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Myocardial infarction in a 35-day-old infant with incomplete Kawasaki disease and chicken pox.

    PubMed

    Kossiva, Lydia; Papadopoulos, Marios; Lagona, Evangelia; Papadopoulos, George; Athanassaki, Corina

    2010-10-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile vasculitis of infancy and early childhood. It is uncommon in early infancy, because a significant proportion of these children do not meet the classical diagnostic criteria at this age. Infants younger than 6 months with persistent fever and some of the criteria of Kawasaki disease should always raise suspicion for Kawasaki disease early to avoid delayed diagnosis with severe cardiac complications. We present a 35-day-old infant with incomplete Kawasaki disease complicated with myocardial infarction during chicken pox.

  2. Dietary versus maternal sources of organochlorines in top predator seabird chicks: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza K H; Furness, Robert W; Borgå, Katrine; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2013-06-04

    We examined the relative importance of dietary sources and maternal transfer on organochlorine concentrations (∑OCs) in Great skua chicks (Stercorarius skua) in Shetland by food supplementing parents with known wintering area. We predicted that experimental chicks (whose parents were supplemented) should have (i) higher growth rates and, (ii) lower ∑OCs due to growth dilution effect and/or due to being fed with less contaminated food compared to control chicks. We also predicted a significant influence of maternal wintering area on chicks' ∑OCs. Plasma ∑OCs of adults, assessed prior to the manipulation, significantly differed between wintering areas of birds. Chicks were weighed every 5 days and plasma ∑OCs were assessed at 20 days old. Based on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis, the supplementary food contributed on average 20% of the dietary protein of the chicks. Although experimental chicks experienced better developmental conditions, supplementary food did not alleviate their organochlorine burden. Nevertheless, chicks whose mothers wintered in Europe showed ∑OCs 50% higher than chicks whose mothers wintered in Africa. Moreover, based on the positive relationship between ∑OCs of chicks and females, the contaminant load of Great skua chicks in Shetland appears to be more influenced by maternal transfer than by trophic transfer.

  3. The use of proportion by young domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2015-05-01

    We investigated whether 4-day-old domestic chicks can discriminate proportions. Chicks were trained to respond, via food reinforcement, to one of the two stimuli, each characterized by different proportions of red and green areas (¼ vs. ¾). In Experiment 1, chicks approached the proportion associated with food, even if at test the spatial dispositions of the two areas were novel. In Experiment 2, chicks responded on the basis of proportion even when the testing stimuli were of enlarged dimensions, creating a conflict between the absolute positive area experienced during training and the relative proportion of the two areas. However, chicks could have responded on the basis of the overall colour (red or green) of the figures rather than proportion per se. To control for this objection, in Experiment 3, we used new pairs of testing stimuli, each depicting a different number of small squares on a white background (i.e. 1 green and 3 red vs. 3 green and 1 red or 5 green and 15 red vs. 5 red and 15 green). Chicks were again able to respond to the correct proportion, showing they discriminated on the basis of proportion of continuous quantities and not on the basis of the prevalent colour or on the absolute amount of it. Data indicate that chicks can track continuous quantities through various manipulations, suggesting that proportions are information that can be processed by very young animals.

  4. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day−1, 768 kJ day−1, and 1,935 kJ day−1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day−1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16–192 μg day−1.

  5. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. Results: This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (p<0.05) reduced and increased the number of gut E. coli and Lactobacillus sps. Colonies, respectively, as compared to that of control groups; Villi was significantly (p<0.05) taller and broader on 14 days of age across the jejunum of chicks fed with neem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (p<0.05) was observed in the duodenum of Aloe supplementation. Villus height: Crypt depth ratio of duodenum and jejunum was significantly (p<0.05) increased neem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Conclusion: Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut. PMID:28717305

  6. Efficacy of early chick nutrition with Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica on gut health and histomorphometry in chicks.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, Tamilvanan; Abhinaya, Sivasankar; Sunder, Jai; Thangapandian, Marudhai; Kundu, Anandamoy

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted with an aim of studying the efficacy of water supplements of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica (neem) during pre-starter age (0-2 weeks) on gut health and histomorphometry in Vanaraja chicks. A total of 192 day old Vanaraja chicks were randomly assigned to one of four herbal water treatments throughout the experimental pre-starter stage (0-2 weeks) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was given four replicates consisting of 12 chicks per replicate. Water treatments comprised T1: Control with regular antibiotic supplement, T2: 3 ml Aloe juice per chick per day, T3: 3 ml neem extract per chick per day, T4: 1.5 ml Aloe and 1.5 ml neem per chick per day. Gut culture was done for Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sps. and gut histomorphometry in 24 gut samples at 14 days of age. This study revealed that supplementation of A. vera and neem in water significantly (p<0.05) reduced and increased the number of gut E. coli and Lactobacillus sps. Colonies, respectively, as compared to that of control groups; Villi was significantly (p<0.05) taller and broader on 14 days of age across the jejunum of chicks fed with neem supplementation as compared to that of control chicks. Significantly lower crypt depth (p<0.05) was observed in the duodenum of Aloe supplementation. Villus height: Crypt depth ratio of duodenum and jejunum was significantly (p<0.05) increased neem and Aloe supplementation in chicks as compared to their combination and control. Immediate post hatch supplementation of Aloe juice and neem extract in chicks improved the development and health of their gut.

  7. Protection conferred by live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses against variant Middle East IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like isolates in commercial broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the infectious bronchitis H120 (a Massachusetts strain) and CR88 (a 793B strain) live attenuated vaccine viruses to protect from two Middle East infectious bronchitis virus isolates, IS/885/00-like (IS/885) and IS/1494/06-like (IS/1494) in broiler chicks was investigated. Day-old chicks were separated into three groups, (I) vaccinated with H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, (II) vaccinated with H120 and CR88 simultaneously at day-old and again with CR88 at 14 days-old, (III) control unvaccinated. At 30 days-old, each of the groups was challenged with virulent IS/885 or IS/1494. Protection was evaluated based on the clinical signs, tracheal and kidney gross lesions and tracheal ciliostasis. Results showed that administering combined live H120 and CR88 vaccines simultaneously at day-old followed by CR88 vaccine at 14 days-old gave more than 80 per cent tracheal ciliary protection from both of the Middle East isolates. In addition, this programme conferred 100 per cent protection from clinical signs and tracheal or kidney lesions. The other vaccination programme, H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, the tracheal ciliary protection conferred were 60 per cent and 80 per cent from IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like, respectively. PMID:26392909

  8. Corrosive Esophagitis with Benzalkonium Chloride in a Two Days Old Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Gulcu, Didem; Erkan, Tulay

    2016-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a caustic agent which is used in farms, homes and hospitals for cleaning skin and wounds as an antiseptic solution. It may lead to digestive system injuries in case of ingestion. We present a two-days-old newborn case which was carried to the emergency unit with complaints of poor breastfeeding, uneasiness and crying for 4-6 hours. Her mom confessed that she had given a spoon of 10% BAC solution for her cough. Initial laboratory tests were in normal ranges. A gastroscopy performed in the second hour of her admission revealed an hyperemic and edematous mucosa in the middle third of esophagus and a circumferential ulceration followed in the distal portion. Hereupon, a conservative treatment for 10 days was administered and the control gastroscopy demonstrated that the damage was almost totally improved. She was the youngest case with this etiology and successfully treated with conservative approach. PMID:27738603

  9. Corrosive Esophagitis with Benzalkonium Chloride in a Two Days Old Neonate.

    PubMed

    Civan, Hasret Ayyildiz; Gulcu, Didem; Erkan, Tulay

    2016-09-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a caustic agent which is used in farms, homes and hospitals for cleaning skin and wounds as an antiseptic solution. It may lead to digestive system injuries in case of ingestion. We present a two-days-old newborn case which was carried to the emergency unit with complaints of poor breastfeeding, uneasiness and crying for 4-6 hours. Her mom confessed that she had given a spoon of 10% BAC solution for her cough. Initial laboratory tests were in normal ranges. A gastroscopy performed in the second hour of her admission revealed an hyperemic and edematous mucosa in the middle third of esophagus and a circumferential ulceration followed in the distal portion. Hereupon, a conservative treatment for 10 days was administered and the control gastroscopy demonstrated that the damage was almost totally improved. She was the youngest case with this etiology and successfully treated with conservative approach.

  10. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Christopher; Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis.

  11. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Presenting in a 7-Day-Old Infant

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Luke; Brock, Lee; Fagiana, Angela

    2017-01-01

    A 7-day-old male infant presented to the emergency room after respiratory distress was noted at an outpatient well child check. On exam, he was observed to have tachypnea, increased work of breathing, and decreased breath sounds on the left side of the chest. On chest X-ray, he was found to have a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The infant was transported to a tertiary care facility where the defect was repaired without complication. Interestingly, the mother had a history of a normal antenatal ultrasound, completed at 19 + 2 weeks of gestational age. This case report summarizes the challenges of diagnosing late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia, associated malformations, possible etiologies, and prognosis. PMID:28133553

  12. A 21-day-old boy with an annular eruption. Tinea faciei / Tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Berry, Adam; Abramovici, Gil; Chamlin, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    A healthy 21-day-old black male was referred to pediatric dermatology for evaluation of a facial and scalp eruption that had been present for less than 1 week. The child's parents had applied a topical corticosteroid cream for several days without any improvement noted. The child was otherwise well and thriving. Review of systems was negative. Family history was unremarkable for autoimmune or infectious skin diseases. On physical examination the patient was alert, active, and vigorous. He had multiple 1 to 2.5-cm erythematous annular, scaly plaques with pustules on the periphery on his upper cheeks, forehead, and anterior scalp (Figures 1-2). No alopecia was noted. Occipital and neck lymph nodes were not palpable. A potassium hydroxide skin preparation was negative for fungal elements and a fungal culture was performed. Serum laboratory testing was also performed.

  13. [The nonlinear parameters of interference EMG of two day old human newborns].

    PubMed

    Voroshilov, A S; Meĭgal, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    Temporal structure of interference electromyogram (iEMG) was studied in healthy two days old human newborns (n = 76) using the non-linear parameters (correlation dimension, fractal dimension, correlation entropy). It has been found that the non-linear parameters of iEMG were time-dependent because they were decreasing within the first two days of life. Also, these parameters were sensitive to muscle function, because correlation dimension, fractal dimension, and correlation entropy of iEMG in gastrocnemius muscle differed from the other muscles. The non-linear parameters were proven to be independent of the iEMG amplitude. That model of early ontogenesis may be of potential use for investigation of anti-gravitation activity.

  14. Pediatric burn injuries from day-old campfires: a highly morbid and preventable problem.

    PubMed

    Antonoff, Mara B; Abbott, Andrea M; Rood, Jody; Mohr, Wm J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the authors' experience with pediatric burns from day-old campfires. The authors sought to characterize the operative courses, hospitalizations, and complications arising from burn injuries in this patient population. After Institutional Review Board approval, charts were retrospectively reviewed of pediatric patients seeking care for burn injuries at a regional burn center over 6 years. From June 2002 to September 2008, 30 pediatric patients sought care for burn injuries sustained in campfires; 25 (83.3%) of these occurred in fire pits with previously extinguished fires; 68% were male, with median age of 2.0 years (range, 14 months to 17 years). The median TBSA burned was 2% (range, 1-40%). The most common burn locations were hand (68%), forearm (28%), and foot (24%). Additional locations included back, arm, abdomen, and thigh. Eighteen patients (72%) required hospital admission; among these patients, mean number of hospitalizations was 1.3 (range, 1-2) and mean length of stay was 5 days (range, 1-22 days). This group accounted for 23 admissions, 96 hospital days, 3 intensive care unit days, 16 operations under general anesthesia, and 30 procedural sedations/dressing changes under anesthesia. Operative procedures included 9 full-thickness skin grafts, 13 split-thickness skin grafts, 2 escharotomies, and 1 amputation. Complications included one death (4%), one graft loss (4%), two cellulitis (8%), and four scar hypertrophies (16%). Day-old campfires may cause significant burns in the pediatric population, resulting in considerable short- and long-term morbidities and utilization of health care resources. Our experience with this patient population lends justification for campaigns aimed to prevent such injuries.

  15. Effectiveness of five-day-old 10% bleach in a student microbiology laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    In the student laboratory, 10% bleach (sodium hypochlorite) is used to disinfect benches before and after work, and when a spill occurs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guidelines recommend diluting bleach daily. In a student laboratory setting, the organisms in use are known and may include only selected standard bacteria. Diluting bleach daily is time consuming and wastes bleach. We hypothesized that 10% bleach stored in low density polyethylene (LDPE) wash bottles would maintain sufficient chlorine concentration to be effective against the organisms used in the student laboratory for five days, so that bleach could be diluted weekly instead of daily. Approximately 3 x 10(6) CFU of each bacterium were spotted to a laboratory bench surface in duplicate and allowed to air dry. One spot was individually cleaned with five-day old 10% bleach following the same protocol as student laboratories. The second spot was uncleaned and sampled as a control. Contact plates containing D/E Neutralizing agar were touched to the spots, incubated overnight at 35 degrees C and examined for growth. An uninoculated spot was also sampled as a background control. A total of 22 different organisms were tested, representing the major groups of organisms used in the student laboratories. All organisms tested were eliminated by the five-day old bleach. All uncleaned spots showed dense growth. The background control had no growth. Reducing the dilution of bleach to once a week rather than daily will save time and money, which can then be devoted to more teaching and curriculum responsibilities, while still maintaining laboratory safety.

  16. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 μg 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D.

  17. Identification and localization of a novel zinc finger gene in developing chick skin and feather buds.

    PubMed

    Padanilam, B J; Solursh, M

    1996-03-07

    We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding a novel zinc finger protein (Fzf-1) containing two tandem repeats of zinc finger motifs of the C2H2 type. The cDNA is 3.0 Kb long and has an open reading frame which codes for a protein of 789 amino acids. The expression pattern of the zinc finger gene was studied in chick embryonic skin and feathers by in situ hybridization. The expression of the gene is found to be temporally and spatially regulated. In stage 38 chick embryos, the transcripts are localized to the epidermis but in 10-day-old embryos, the signal is localized to the forming dermis. In 12-day-old chick, the transcripts are localized to the mesenchymal region of the elongated feather buds. Reverse transcription followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) did not detect the transcripts in any other tissues.

  18. Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2010-06-01

    The protective effects of various feed supplements against the harmful effect of ochratoxin A on egg production and sexual maturation of two-weeks old Plymouth Rock female chicks designed for laying hens were studied. A significant protective effect of the feed additives or materials: water extract of artichoke (WEA), sesame seed (SS), Roxazyme-G (RG) and l-beta phenylalanine (PHE) against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on egg production of laying hens was found. A similar protection was also seen on the toxic effect of OTA on various internal organs of the same hens. A significant protection was found against the decrease of the weight or the quantity of eggs as well as against the delay of the beginning of the laying period of chicks, both of which were provoked by ochratoxin A. These protective effects were strongest in chicks treated with SS or WEA, but were slightest in chicks treated with l-beta PHE.

  19. Defining the blood plasma protein repertoire of seven day old dairy calves - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, W F; Ozgo, M; Lepczynski, A; Herosimczyk, A

    2011-06-01

    During the early postnatal period in calves various adaptational changes occur. These functional, morphological and also metabolic alteration are reflected by blood plasma protein changes as they are secreted and shed from many cells and tissues. Blood plasma protein pattern of an adult cattle differs in some respect when compared with neonatal calves. There exist a very few data concerning 2-D maps of neonatal calves blood plasma. The above prompted us to establish protein pattern of this biological fluid characteristic of healthy, 7 day old, Polish Black-and-White (Polish Friesian) breed calves. Blood plasma proteins of the isoelectric point ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 were analyzed by the aid of high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Subsequently, 79 excised protein spots corresponding to 23 different gene products were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS). Protein map obtained in the present study may be useful in assessing the changes in the calves blood plasma protein profiles occurring in response to different physiological and/or pathophysiological factors.

  20. Enzyme response of traumatized tissue after intracortical injection into 5 day old rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, N.

    1972-01-01

    Penetration of a microneedle and injection of 4 μl. saline into the neocortex of the 5 day old rat brain produced no changes in behaviour of the rats up to 21 days post-injection. Within 24 hours sections indicated that tissue damage was apparent only at the pia-arachnoid membrane and where fluid was released; elsewhere the needle pathway was identified by the enzyme response. The enzyme histochemistry showed a marked increase in glial cell activity of some phosphatases within 24 hours at the site of injury; the pia-arachnoid and outer limiting membrane also showed abnormally high phosphatase reactions. NADH2-diaphorase was the only dehydrogenase that was raised in some nerve and glial cells at 24 hours post-injection but other dehydrogenases, mainly LDH and SDH, showed changes at four days post-injection. The phosphatases and 5'-nucleotidase previously showing intense glial cell enzyme reactions appeared to reach peaks of activity at eight days, and at 16 days the onset of scarring was apparent. In the pia-arachnoid enzyme activity increased to 21 days. Some enzymes, particularly AChE and MAO, showed no alterations of note throughout. Images PMID:4405286

  1. An unexpected clinical course in a 29-day-old infant with ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Hiu-Fai; Muller, Allison A

    2014-02-01

    Ethanol exposure can affect all pediatric age groups but occurs most commonly in ambulatory children and adolescents. Infants are less likely to ingest ethanol because they have limited ability to explore their environments. However, ethanol exposures in infants can occur. We report the case of a 29-day-old (3.5 kg) baby girl who presented with a blood alcohol level of 301 mg/dL after ingesting formula that had been prepared with gin. To our knowledge, she is the youngest reported child with such an elevated ethanol level in the medical literature. Despite her markedly elevated blood alcohol level, she had an unexpectedly mild clinical course, exhibiting subtle neurologic symptoms but no hypothermia, hypoglycemia, or cardiorespiratory impairment. This case demonstrates that the ethanol-exposed infant may lack typical or clear symptoms of acute intoxication. Therefore, the clinician must have a low threshold for pursuing blood alcohol testing in infants and young children with altered mental status. A prompt diagnosis of ethanol exposure is important for ensuring the health and safety of the child.

  2. Neuropathogenic Capacity of Lentogenic, Mesogenic, and Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Day-Old Chickens.

    PubMed

    Moura, V M B D; Susta, L; Cardenas-Garcia, S; Stanton, J B; Miller, P J; Afonso, C L; Brown, C C

    2016-01-01

    Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have different abilities to elicit neurologic signs. To determine the capacity of different NDV strains to replicate and cause lesions in the brain, independently of their peripheral replication, 1-day-old chickens were inoculated in the subdural space with 7 NDV strains of different virulence (4 velogenic, 2 mesogenic, 1 lentogenic). Velogenic strains induced severe necrotizing and heterophilic ventriculitis and meningitis, as well as edema of the neuroparenchyma, and replicated extensively in the nervous tissue by day 2 postinfection, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, when all infected birds died. Clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and viral replication were delayed (days 3 and 4 postinfection) with mesogenic strains. Velogenic and mesogenic NDV strains replicated mainly in neurons, and immunolabeling was first detected in surface-oriented areas (periventricular and submeningeal), possibly as a reflection of the inoculation route. The lentogenic NDV strain did not cause death of infected birds; replication was confined to the epithelium of the ependyma and choroid plexuses; and lesions consisted of lymphoid aggregates limited to the choroid plexuses. Results show that extensive NDV replication in the brain is typical of velogenic and mesogenic, but not lentogenic, NDV strains. In addition, this study suggests that differences in the rate of NDV replication in nervous tissue, not differences in neurotropism, differentiate velogenic from mesogenic NDV strains. This study indicates that intracerebral inoculation might be used as an effective method to study the mechanisms of NDV neuropathogenesis.

  3. Macroanatomical investigation of the aorticorenal ganglion in 1-day-old infant sheep.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Kaczyńska, K; Jakubowska, W

    2009-06-01

    The aorticorenal gland belongs to the paired splanchnic ganglion, which is the main component of the coeliac plexus. It lies near the renal artery and suprarenal gland. The research was conducted on 13 1-day-old infant sheep - eight males and five females. Based on the conducted studies, it was concluded that the aorticorenal ganglion is characterized by the variable location in relation to the abdominal aorta, renal artery, caudal vena cava and suprarenal gland (holotopy), the thoracic and lumbar segment of the vertebral column (skeletotopy) (between L(1) and L(3)) and also a different shape (elongated, round, triangular, oval) as well as variable length (the aorticorenal ganglion is longer on the left side of the body; 2.72 mm) and distance from the caudal end of the suprarenal gland (longer on the left side of the body; 8.34 mm). With regard to the sex of the animal, the ganglion is the longest on the left side in ewes (3.02 mm), while in rams it is the longest on the right side (2.68 mm). Regarding the division according to sex, the longest segment was observed on the right side in ewes (9.27 mm), and the shortest segment in rams was also on the right side (6.84 mm).

  4. Adrenocortical suppression in highland chick embryos is restored during incubation at sea level.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos E; Villena, Mercedes; Blanco, Carlos E; Giussani, Dino A

    2011-01-01

    By combining the chick embryo model with incubation at high altitude, this study tested the hypothesis that development at high altitude is related to a fetal origin of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary suppression and that hypoxia is the mechanism underlying the relationship. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at altitude with oxygen supplementation. At day 20 of incubation, embryonic blood was taken for measurement of plasma corticotropin, corticosterone, and Po(2). Following biometry, the adrenal glands were collected and frozen for measurement of catecholamine content. Development of chick embryos at high altitude led to pronounced adrenocortical blunting, but an increase in adrenal catecholamine content. These effects were similar whether the fertilized eggs were laid by sea-level or high altitude hens. The effects of high altitude on the stress axes were completely prevented by incubation at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. When chick embryos from high altitude hens were incubated at sea level, plasma hormones and adrenal catecholamine content were partially restored toward levels measured in sea-level chick embryos. There was a significant correlation between adrenocortical blunting and elevated adrenal catecholamine content with both asymmetric growth restriction and fetal hypoxia. The data support the hypothesis tested and provide evidence to isolate the direct contribution of developmental hypoxia to alterations in the stress system.

  5. Studies on the endogenous phospholipids of chick embryo myocardium and their in vitro hydrolysis by endogenous phospholipases during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Fatma M; Aikins, Anthea; Hughes, Jeniter; Belfield, Carrie; Juracka, Amal

    2007-01-01

    The phospholipid profiles of the myocardium (from 10- and 18-day old chick embryos and 13-day old chick) and their in vitro response to the endogenous lipolytic enzymes (mainly of the phospholipase group) at pH 7.4 and 38 degrees C for 60 min were analyzed by TLC technology and densitometry. Cardiolipin (CL) was shown to be one of the major phospholipids of the chick embryo myocardium and its concentration increased as the chick embryo advanced in development. Monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) was produced subsequent to in vitro incubation of whole tissue homogenates in all myocardia studied as well as a concurrent reduction in CL. This deacylation of CL increased in magnitude as the chick embryo advanced in development indicating its age relatedness. The level of phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) plasmalogen was also high in all myocardia studied. Lyso alkenyl PE (LPE) was produced subsequent to in vitro incubation and its level increased as the chick embryo advanced in development, indicating PLA(2) action on the sn-2 fatty acid of PE. Phosphatidyl choline (PC) plasmalogen was also present in the chick embryo myocardium and its level increased gradually as the chick embryo advanced in development. In contrast, yolk-sac membrane contains very minute amounts of CL and PE. No PC was detected and no LPE was formed following in vitro incubation. The yolk of the unfertilized chicken egg has no CL and has very minute amounts of PE, no PC and no lysophospholipids were detected following in vitro incubation in all samples analyzed.

  6. Effect of varying levels of dietary vitamin D3 on turkey hen egg production, fertility and hatchability, embryo mortality and incidence of embryo beak malformations.

    PubMed

    Stevens, V I; Blair, R; Salmon, R E; Stevens, J P

    1984-04-01

    Two hundred Large White turkey hens were fed diets varying in vitamin D3 supplementation (300, 900, or 2700 IU/kg feed) from day-old to 37 weeks of age. Hens receiving 300 IU vitamin D3/kg feed produced fewer eggs, which were lighter in weight and had thinner shells than those laid by hens receiving the higher levels of vitamin D3. Fertility was not affected by treatment; however, hatchability of eggs from hens fed 300 IU vitamin D3/kg feed was reduced by 48% from that of hens fed the two higher levels. A shortened upper mandible, which was detected in embryos during Week 4 of incubation, accounted for approximately 10% of the total embryo mortality and 49.5% of the embryo mortality, during Week 4. It appeared that hens fed the low vitamin D3 did not have adequate amounts of the vitamin to transport to the egg for normal embryonic development.

  7. Physiological Disturbance May Contribute to Neurodegeneration Induced by Isoflurane or Sevoflurane in 14 Day Old Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Binbin; Yu, Zipu; You, Shan; Zheng, Yihu; Liu, Jin; Gao, Yajing; Lin, Han; Lian, Qingquan

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile anesthetics are widely used in pediatric anesthesia but their potential neurotoxicity raise significant concerns regarding sequelae after anesthesia. However, whether physiological disturbance during anesthetic exposure contributes to such side effects remains unknown. The aim of the current study is to compare the neurotoxic effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane in 14 day old rat pups under spontaneous breathing or ventilated conditions. Methods Postnatal 14 day rats were assigned to one of five groups: 1) spontaneous breathing (SB) + room air (control, n = 17); 2) SB + isoflurane (n = 35); 3) SB + sevoflurane (n = 37); 4) mechanical ventilation (MV) + isoflurane (n = 29); 5) MV + sevoflurane (n = 32). Anesthetized animal received either 1.7% isoflurane or 2.4% seveoflurane for 4 hours. Arterial blood gases and blood pressure were monitored in the anesthetized groups. Neurodegeneration in the CA3 region of hippocampus was assessed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DNA nick-end labeling immediately after exposure. Spatial learning and memory were evaluated with the Morris water maze in other cohorts 14 days after experiments. Results Most rats in the SB groups developed physiological disturbance whereas ventilated rats did not but become hyperglycemic. Mortality from anesthesia in the SB groups was significantly higher than that in the MV groups. Cell death in the SB but not MV groups was significantly higher than controls. SB + anesthesia groups performed worse on the Morris water maze behavioral test, but no deficits were found in the MV group compared with the controls. Conclusions These findings could suggest that physiological disturbance induced by isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia may also contribute to their neurotoxicity. PMID:24400105

  8. Serotonergic Activation of Locomotor Behavior and Posture in One-day Old Rats

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Hillary E.; Kempe, R. Blaine; Van Orden, Ashley M.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what dose of quipazine, a serotonergic agonist, facilitates air-stepping and induces postural control and patterns of locomotion in newborn rats. Subjects in both experiments were 1-day-old rat pups. In Experiment 1, pups were restrained and tested for air-stepping in a 35-min test session. Immediately following a 5-min baseline, pups were treated with quipazine (1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg) or saline (vehicle control), administered intraperitoneally in a 50 microliter injection. Bilateral alternating stepping occurred most frequently following treatment with 10.0 mg/kg quipazine, however the percentage of alternating steps, interlimb phase, and step period were very similar between the 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg doses. For interlimb phase, the forelimbs and hindlimbs maintained a near perfect anti-phase pattern of coordination, with step period averaging about 1 second. In Experiment 2, pups were treated with 3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg quipazine or saline, and then were placed on a surface (open field, unrestrained). Both doses of quipazine resulted in developmentally advanced postural control and locomotor patterns, including head elevation, postural stances, pivoting, crawling, and a few instances of quadrupedal walking. The 3.0 mg/kg dose of quipazine was the most effective at evoking sustained locomotion. Between the 2 experiments, behavior exhibited by the rat pup varied based on testing environment, emphasizing the role that environment and sensory cues exert over motor behavior. Overall, quipazine administered at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg was highly effective at promoting alternating limb coordination and inducing locomotor activity in both testing environments. PMID:26795091

  9. Pathogenicity of Vietnamese enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains in colostrum-deprived one-day-old piglets.

    PubMed

    Do, T N; Wilkie, I; Driesen, S J; Fahy, V A; Trott, D J

    2006-03-01

    Preweaning colibacillosis is a major cause of economic loss to the swine industry in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to examine the enteropathogenicity of representative enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains obtained during an earlier epidemiologic survey conducted in five provinces in North Vietnam. This included isolates belonging to serotype O8 that produced heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins but did not produce any of the recognized fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F41, F18). In vitro hemagglutination (unique mannose-resistant hemagglutination activity with guinea pig, sheep, human, and chicken red blood cells at 37 degrees C, but not at 18 degrees C) and enterocyte brush border attachment assays suggested that the F- ETEC strains produced an unidentified colonization factor that promoted adherence to the intestinal epithelium. Colostrum-deprived 1-day-old piglets challenged with an F- strain (1-2 x 10(9) bacteria) developed acute watery diarrhea within 4 hours of inoculation and suffered up to 20% weight loss, with comparable severity to piglets challenged with conventional F4 and F5 strains. At necropsy, viable counts and histopathologic examination of intestinal sections demonstrated colonization of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum by F4-positive strains. In comparison, the F- and F5-positive strains attached exclusively to the ileum. Transmission electron micrographs of negatively stained F- cells grown at 37 degrees C demonstrated the presence of fimbriae. These results confirm the presence of a potentially new pathogenic ETEC fimbrial type in piggeries in Vietnam, with a unique hemagglutination property and attachment characteristics similar to ETEC bearing F5 fimbriae.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Salmonella enterica in day-old ducklings in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M; Marouf, Sherif H; Zolnikov, Tara R; AlAtfeehy, Nayerah

    2014-01-01

    Importing day-old ducklings (DOD) unknowingly infected with non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) may be associated with disease risk. Domestic and international trade may enhance this risk. Salmonella enterica serovars, their virulence genes combinations and antibiotic resistance, garner attention for their potentiality to contribute to the adverse health effects on populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of imported versus domestic DOD as potential carriers of NTS. The results confirm the prevalence of salmonellosis in imported ducklings was 18.5% (25/135), whereas only 12% (9/75) of cases were determined in the domestic ducklings. Fourteen serovars (Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella kisii, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella gaillac, Salmonella uno, Salmonella eingedi, Salmonella shubra, Salmonella bardo, Salmonella inganda, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella stanley, Salmonella virchow, Salmonella haifa, and Salmonella anatum) were isolated from the imported ducklings, whereas only S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, S. virchow, and S. shubra were isolated from the domestic ducklings. The isolated Salmonella serovars were 100% susceptible to only colistin sulphate and 100% resistant to lincomycin. The 14 Salmonella serovars were screened for 11 virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, and bcfC) by PCR. The invA, sopB, and bcfC genes were detected in 100% of the Salmonella serovars; alternatively, the gipA gene was absent in all of the isolated Salmonella serovars. The 11 virulent genes were not detected in either of S. stanley or S. haifa serovars. The results confirm an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence of Salmonella in the DOD. This study confirms the need for a country adherence to strict public health and food safety regimes. PMID:24548159

  11. Neuronal damage in chick and rat embryos following X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, B.F.; Norton, S.

    1980-12-01

    Exposure of rat and chick embryos to X-irradiation at the time of development of neurons at the telencephalic-diencephalic border results in prolonged damage to neurons in this area as measured by neuronal nuclear size. A dose of 100 rads to the seven-day-old chick embryo has about the same effect as 125 rads to the 15-day-old rat fetus. The nuclear volume of large, multipolar neurons in the chick paleostriatum primitivum and the rat lateral preoptic area are reduced from 10 to 15%. Larger doses of X-irradiation to the chick (150 and 200 rads) cause progressively greater reductions in nuclear size. The large neurons which were measured in the rat and chick are morphologically similar in the two species. Both contain cytoplasmic acetylcholinesterase and have several branched, spiny dendritic processes. The similarity of response of chick and rat neurons to X-irradiation diminishes the significance of maternal factors as the cause of the effects of fetal irradiation in these experiments.

  12. Central administration of substance P inhibits feeding behavior in chicks.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Matsuda, Kiyoko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Cline, Mark A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether central administration of substance P (SP), a tachykinin neuropeptide, influenced feeding behavior in layer chicks (Gallus gallus). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of 5 nmol SP decreased food intake in 5- and 6-day-old chicks under both ad libitum and 3-h fasting conditions. There are 3 major subtypes of tachykinin receptors, namely, neurokinin 1, 2 and 3 receptors. Injection of neurokinin A and neurokinin B, which are respectively endogenous agonists for neurokinin 2 and 3 receptors, did not suppress feeding behavior in chicks, suggesting that the anorexigenic effect of SP might be mediated by the neurokinin 1 receptor rather than neurokinin 2 and 3 receptors. Chicks that received 5 nmol SP did not change their locomotion, standing, sitting or drinking time, suggesting that its anorexigenic action might not be due to SP-induced hyperactivity or sedation. ICV injection of SP increased water intake, also indicating that SP likely did not affect feeding behavior through malaise. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of SP might not be related to corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) because plasma corticosterone concentration was not affected by ICV injection of SP and co-administration of the CRH receptor antagonist astressin did not affect the anorexigenic effect of SP. The present study suggests that central SP acts as an anorexigenic neuropeptide in chicks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  14. Translocation of Campylobacter and Salmonella to the spleen and liver/gallbladder in 7 and 14 day old broiler chicks following oral gavage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Day-of-hatch broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery and orally gavaged with 0.10mL of either 103 or 106 cells of a marker strain of Campylobacter coli (CC) or Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). At one and two wk after inoculation 10 broilers from the control and each treatment group were human...

  15. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

  16. Suppurative meningitis in a 7-day-old Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) caused by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chiou, Shiow-Her; Chan, Jacky Peng-Wen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the clinical and pathological features of an orphan 7-day-old, male Formosan sambar fawn that was hospitalized for treatment of weakness. The fawn had been deprived of colostrum and developed suppurative meningitis that was attributed to Escherichia coli. PMID:20514257

  17. Prolonged suppression of chick humoral immune response by antigen specific maternal antibody.

    PubMed

    Elazab, Mohamed Fahmy Abou; Fukushima, Yuji; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Haruo; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2009-04-01

    Although the inhibitory effect of maternal antibodies on active immunization of neonates has been extensively documented, much less attention has been devoted on the exact level of these antibodies which can induce this effect and the extent of such effect. Firstly, laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH).Then, maternal anti-DNP antibodies in chicks derived from these hens were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chicks with high levels of maternal anti-DNP showed immune suppression, while chicks with low levels of maternal anti-DNP showed normal immune response when they immunized with the same antigen at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Then, different doses of purified maternal anti-DNP were transferred to fertile eggs at 16 days of embryogenesis by in ovo injection and all chicks were immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Chicks received 1 mg of anti-DNP showed normal immune response, chicks received 3 mg of anti-DNP showed weak immune response, and chicks received 5 and 8 mg of anti-DNP showed immune suppression. Chicks received 8 mg of anti-DNP were immunized with DNP-KLH at 4 and 7 weeks of age. Their immune response was significantly lower than that of chicks of no-maternal anti-DNP. These results suggested that high levels of maternal antibodies interfere or suppress the immune response of active immunization not only at early period but also at the period in which the maternal antibodies at very low levels.

  18. Reduction of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Colonization in 20-Day-Old Broiler Chickens by the Plant-Derived Compounds trans-Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol

    PubMed Central

    Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Mattson, Tyler; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Babapoor, Sankhiros; March, Benjamin; Valipe, Satyender; Darre, Michael; Hoagland, Thomas; Schreiber, David; Khan, Mazhar I.; Donoghue, Ann; Donoghue, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The efficacies of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in broiler chickens were investigated. In three experiments for each compound, 1-day-old chicks (n = 75/experiment) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (n = 15/treatment group): negative control (-ve S. Enteritidis, -ve TC, or EG), compound control (-ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.75% [vol/wt] TC or 1% [vol/wt] EG), positive control (+ve S. Enteritidis, -ve TC, or EG), low-dose treatment (+ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.5% TC, or 0.75% EG), and high-dose treatment (+ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.75% TC, or 1% EG). On day 0, birds were tested for the presence of any inherent Salmonella (n = 5/experiment). On day 8, birds were inoculated with ∼8.0 log10 CFU S. Enteritidis, and cecal colonization by S. Enteritidis was ascertained (n = 10 chicks/experiment) after 24 h (day 9). Six birds from each treatment group were euthanized on days 7 and 10 after inoculation, and cecal S. Enteritidis numbers were determined. TC at 0.5 or 0.75% and EG at 0.75 or 1% consistently reduced (P < 0.05) S. Enteritidis in the cecum (≥3 log10 CFU/g) after 10 days of infection in all experiments. Feed intake and body weight were not different for TC treatments (P > 0.05); however, EG supplementation led to significantly lower (P < 0.05) body weights. Follow-up in vitro experiments revealed that the subinhibitory concentrations (SICs, the concentrations that did not inhibit Salmonella growth) of TC and EG reduced the motility and invasive abilities of S. Enteritidis and downregulated expression of the motility genes flhC and motA and invasion genes hilA, hilD, and invF. The results suggest that supplementation with TC and EG through feed can reduce S. Enteritidis colonization in chickens. PMID:22327574

  19. Reduction of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis colonization in 20-day-old broiler chickens by the plant-derived compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol.

    PubMed

    Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Mattson, Tyler; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Babapoor, Sankhiros; March, Benjamin; Valipe, Satyender; Darre, Michael; Hoagland, Thomas; Schreiber, David; Khan, Mazhar I; Donoghue, Ann; Donoghue, Dan; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2012-04-01

    The efficacies of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in broiler chickens were investigated. In three experiments for each compound, 1-day-old chicks (n = 75/experiment) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (n = 15/treatment group): negative control (-ve S. Enteritidis, -ve TC, or EG), compound control (-ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.75% [vol/wt] TC or 1% [vol/wt] EG), positive control (+ve S. Enteritidis, -ve TC, or EG), low-dose treatment (+ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.5% TC, or 0.75% EG), and high-dose treatment (+ve S. Enteritidis, +ve 0.75% TC, or 1% EG). On day 0, birds were tested for the presence of any inherent Salmonella (n = 5/experiment). On day 8, birds were inoculated with ∼8.0 log(10) CFU S. Enteritidis, and cecal colonization by S. Enteritidis was ascertained (n = 10 chicks/experiment) after 24 h (day 9). Six birds from each treatment group were euthanized on days 7 and 10 after inoculation, and cecal S. Enteritidis numbers were determined. TC at 0.5 or 0.75% and EG at 0.75 or 1% consistently reduced (P < 0.05) S. Enteritidis in the cecum (≥3 log(10) CFU/g) after 10 days of infection in all experiments. Feed intake and body weight were not different for TC treatments (P > 0.05); however, EG supplementation led to significantly lower (P < 0.05) body weights. Follow-up in vitro experiments revealed that the subinhibitory concentrations (SICs, the concentrations that did not inhibit Salmonella growth) of TC and EG reduced the motility and invasive abilities of S. Enteritidis and downregulated expression of the motility genes flhC and motA and invasion genes hilA, hilD, and invF. The results suggest that supplementation with TC and EG through feed can reduce S. Enteritidis colonization in chickens.

  20. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival.

    PubMed

    Guttery, Michael R; Dahlgren, David K; Messmer, Terry A; Connelly, John W; Reese, Kerry P; Terletzky, Pat A; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival.

  1. Effects of Landscape-Scale Environmental Variation on Greater Sage-Grouse Chick Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guttery, Michael R.; Dahlgren, David K.; Messmer, Terry A.; Connelly, John W.; Reese, Kerry P.; Terletzky, Pat A.; Burkepile, Nathan; Koons, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Effective long-term wildlife conservation planning for a species must be guided by information about population vital rates at multiple scales. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations declined substantially during the twentieth century, largely as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation. In addition to the importance of conserving large tracts of suitable habitat, successful conservation of this species will require detailed information about factors affecting vital rates at both the population and range-wide scales. Research has shown that sage-grouse population growth rates are particularly sensitive to hen and chick survival rates. While considerable information on hen survival exists, there is limited information about chick survival at the population level, and currently there are no published reports of factors affecting chick survival across large spatial and temporal scales. We analyzed greater sage-grouse chick survival rates from 2 geographically distinct populations across 9 years. The effects of 3 groups of related landscape-scale covariates (climate, drought, and phenology of vegetation greenness) were evaluated. Models with phenological change in greenness (NDVI) performed poorly, possibly due to highly variable production of forbs and grasses being masked by sagebrush canopy. The top drought model resulted in substantial improvement in model fit relative to the base model and indicated that chick survival was negatively associated with winter drought. Our overall top model included effects of chick age, hen age, minimum temperature in May, and precipitation in July. Our results provide important insights into the possible effects of climate variability on sage-grouse chick survival. PMID:23824519

  2. Pathological Changes Following the Inoculation of Chick Embryos with Adult Cells

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, P. M.; Payne, L. N.

    1961-01-01

    The pathological changes in the livers and spleens which occur after the inoculation of adult fowl blood into fifteen-day-old embryos have been followed for about 7 weeks. Three consecutive histological stages were noticed. The first two stages, termed the splenomegaly syndrome and the stage of lymphoid hyperplasia, closely resembled those described following the injection of adult spleen cells into fifteen-day-old embryos (Biggs and Payne, 1960). The third stage was found in chicks in the terminal stages of runt disease, and was characterized by involution of the lymphoid tissues. The significance of these changes is discussed. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6

  3. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  5. The several elements of intestinal innate immune system at the beginning of the life of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Eren, U; Kum, S; Nazligul, A; Gules, O; Aka, E; Zorlu, S; Yildiz, M

    2016-07-01

    Functional capacity of digestive system and intestinal adaptive immunity are immature at hatching of broiler chicks. Therefore, intestinal innate immunity after hatching is vital to young chicks. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression and tissue distributions of several elements of the innate immune system (i.e., TLR2, TLR4, CD83, and MHC class II expressing cells) in the intestine of one-day-old chicks. For this purpose, ileum and cecum were examined the under different conditions, which included the control and 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phosphate buffered saline. The findings indicated that regardless of the antigenic stimulation, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 expressing cells were present in the intestinal tissues of one-day-old chicks. We noticed that the intestinal segments have different TLR expression levels after LPS stimulation. Dendritic cells were identified, and they left the intestinal tissue after LPS treatment. MHC class II molecules were diffusely present in both the ileum and cecum. This study demonstrates that the intestinal tissue of one-day-old chicks has remarkable defensive material, including histological properties and several elements of the innate immune system. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:604-614, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  7. Astrovirus-induced "white chicks" condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Pać, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Anna; Pikuła, Anna; Minta, Zenon; Króliczewska, Bożena; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the "white chicks" condition associated not only with increased embryo/chick mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed abnormal signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks with characteristic whitish plumage among normal ones. CAstV was detected in submitted samples and was then isolated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. We also reproduced an infection model for the "white chicks" condition in SPF layer chickens using the isolated PL/G059/2014 strain as the infectious agent. Results of experimental reproduction of the "white chicks" condition were somewhat more serious than field observation. The administration of the CAstV material into the yolk sac of 8-day-old SPF chicken eggs caused delay and prolongation of hatching, as well as death of embryos/chicks, and also a change of plumage pigmentation. Only two chicks of a total of 10 inoculated SPF eggs survived and were observed for 2 months. A gradual elimination of the CAstV genome was noted in this period. Moreover, a few contact-naive SPF chicks, which had been placed in the same cage, were infected with CAstV. Molecular characterization of detected CAstV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the full ORF2 region encoding the capsid precursor protein gene. Phylogenetic studies showed that the PL/G059/2014 isolate clustered in the subgroup Aiii of CAstV. In the light of the new classification rules, the Polish PL/G059/2014 CAstV isolate could be assigned to a new species of the Avastrovirus genus.

  8. Influence of Fusarium-infected corn and F-2 on laying hens.

    PubMed

    Marks, H L; Bacon, C W

    1976-09-01

    Diets containing either Fusarium-infected corn supplying 25 and 100 p.p.m. of F-2 (zearalenone) or purified F-2 at these levels did not adversely influence the reproductive performance of laying hens. In trial 1, no deleterious effects were observed for 20- and 36-week body weights, age at first egg, egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, fertility or hatchability when Fusarium-infected corn was fed to 20-week-old pullets for 28 days. Percent hen-day egg production of birds fed Fusarium-infected corn supplying 25 and 100 p.p.m. of F-2 was superior (P less than or equal to 0.5) to egg production of nontreated controls. In trial 2, three replications of ten adult Leghorn hens were evaluated under five dietary treatments: (1) 16.7% protein basal; (2) basal plus Fusarium-infected corn (25 p.p.m. of F-2); (3) basal plus 25 p.p.m. of (purified) F-2; (4) basal plus Fusarium-infected corn (100 p.p.m. of F-2); (5) basal plus 100 p.p.m. of (purified) F-2. Difference between dietary treatments for 14-day pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment periods were nonsignificant for 42- and 44-week body weights, egg production, egg weights, fertility and hatchability. Body weights of chicks from hens fed F-2 diets were not significantly different from those of chicks from hens fed the basal diet.

  9. The effects of acute cold exposure on morphology and gene expression in the heart of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Shimamoto, Saki; Ijiri, Daichi; Ohtsuka, Akira; Kanai, Yukio; Hirabayashi, Miho

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure induces an increase in blood flow and blood pressure, and long-term exposure to cold causes cardiac hypertrophy. Neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) are highly sensitive to cold exposure, because their capacity for thermogenesis is immature until 1 week after hatching. Hence, we hypothesized that the heart of chicks at around 1 week of age acutely responds to cold environment. To investigate the effect of acute (24 h) and long-term (2 weeks) cold on the heart of chicks, 7-day-old chicks were exposed to cold temperature (4 °C) or kept warm (30 °C). Chicks exposed to the cold showed cardiac hypertrophy with marked left ventricular (LV) chamber dilation and wall thickening. On the other hand, long-term cold exposure (2 weeks from 7-day-old) induced an increase in total ventricular mass, but not in LV morphological parameters. Then, we investigated the details of acute cardiac hypertrophy in chicks. Electron microscopy revealed that cardiomyocytes in the hypertrophied LV had enlarged mitochondria with less dense cristae. Although the mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase in the LV of the cold-exposed chicks significantly increased, the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation did not change in response to cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and function under physiological cardiac hypertrophy, increased in LV of cold-exposed chicks. The study found that acute cold exposure to neonatal chicks induces LV hypertrophy. However, these results suggest that acute cold exposure to chicks might induce both adaptive and maladaptive responses of the LV.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of the superficial pineal gland of the 15-day-old rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, G G; García, J J; Feria-Velasco, A; Rosales-Corral, S A; Reiter, R J

    2004-06-01

    The presence of a cortex and medulla in the superficial pineal gland has been a controversial point in the morphology of this structure in mammals. The published reports indicate contradictory data especially in rodents. In this study the pineal gland of 15-day-old male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were studied, using scanning electron microscopy, in an attempt to determine whether or not a cortex and medulla are apparent in the pineal gland of young rats. The superficial pineal gland of the 15-day-old rat exhibited both a cortex and a medulla; these areas exhibited different structural organizations. The cortex had a thickness of 40-80 microm and the cells did not show a particular arrangement. The center of the gland was composed of a medulla, which had a width of 1000-1200 microm, and consisted of cells arranged in cords; its morphology was distinctly different from that of the cortex.

  11. Cu influence on hens weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    Copper plays an important part in living being bodies. But, both high and low Cu levels may cause human and animal diseases. Some East Siberia areas are characterized by Cu pollution [1]. 5 group of hens were formed: 1 - control, 2-5 - experimental. For a month the hens from experimental groups were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). Group 1 - 3 hens' weight was almost the same during the experiment. Weight decrease (from 2020 to 1656 g) was detected in group 4 (20 UL) for the first half a month. All the hens of group 4 except for 3 hens were died for the last 2 weeks. In group 5 (30 UL) all the hens died after 2 ... 14 days. Thus, high Cu concentrations (20 ... 30 UL) cause hens' weight reduction of and their death.

  12. Experimental infection of IS/885/00-like infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free and commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Chhabra, Rajesh; Forrester, Anne; Chantrey, Julian; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Hussein, Hussein Aly; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenesis of an IS/885/00-like (IS/885) strain of variant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined in one day old specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chicks. Chicks were humanely euthanized at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21 and 28 days post infection (dpi) for necropsy examination, and tissues were collected for histopathology and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Respiratory clinical signs and gross lesions consisting of tracheal caseous exudate and plugs, and swollen kidneys (with or without) urate deposits were observed in SPF and broiler chicks. The onset of disease developed more slowly and were of lesser severity in broiler compared to SPF chicks, reflecting the inhibitory effects of the IBV maternal-antibodies in the broiler chicks or genetic/strain susceptibility, or both. Head swelling was observed in one infected broiler chick at 15 dpi and the virus was recovered by RT-PCR and isolation. In the IS/885-infected SPF chicks, cystic oviducts were found in two female chicks. IS/885 was isolated from the cystic fluid. Using ELISA, low to moderate levels of the antibodies to IBV was detected in the SPF compared to broiler infected chicks.

  13. Effect of gestational ethanol exposure on long-term memory formation in newborn chicks.

    PubMed

    Rao, Venugopal; Chaudhuri, Joydeep D

    2007-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition occurring in some children of mothers who have consumed alcohol during pregnancy, is characterized by craniofacial malformations, and physical and mental retardation. It is significant that even children with history of gestational ethanol exposure but relatively unaffected overall IQ performance, often exhibit learning difficulties and behavioral problems, suggestive of impaired memory formation. Hence, the specific aim of this study was to examine memory formation in chicks exposed to ethanol during early gestation toward the understanding of neurobehavioral disturbances in FAS. Chicks were exposed to alcohol on gestational days 1-3 by injection of ethanol into the airspace of freshly fertilized eggs. The effects of prenatal ethanol on physical growth and development, and memory formation were studied. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm in 1-day-old chicks was used to study memory formation in these chicks. It was observed that chick embryos exposed to 10% ethanol on gestational days 1-3 had significant reduction in all body parameters when compared with appropriate controls. Further, ethanol-exposed chick embryos had significantly impaired (P<.05) long-term memory (LTM) formation after training, though short-term or intermediate-term memory formation was unimpaired. Thus, the findings of the current study demonstrate the detrimental effects of ethanol exposure during early pregnancy on developing chick embryos in general and on memory formation in particular. Hence, it is suggested that impairment in LTM could be a fundamental mechanism for learning disorders and neurobehavioral abnormalities observed in FAS.

  14. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  15. Brain asymmetry modulates perception of biological motion in newborn chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Rosa Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Few light-points on the joints of a moving animal give the impression of biological motion (BM). Day-old chicks prefer BM to non-BM, suggesting a conserved predisposition to attend to moving animals. In humans and other mammals a network of regions, primarily in the right hemisphere, provides the neural substrate for BM perception. However, this has not been investigated in avians. In birds the information from each eye is mainly feeding to the contralateral hemisphere. To study brain asymmetry, we recorded the eye spontaneously used by chicks to inspect a BM stimulus. We also investigated the effect of lateralization following light exposure of the embryos. In Experiment 1, highly lateralized chicks aligned with the apparent direction of motion only when they were exposed to a BM-stimulus moving rightward first, monitoring it with the left-eye-system. In Experiment 2 weakly lateralized chicks did not show any behavioral asymmetry. Moreover, they counter aligned with the apparent direction of motion. Brain lateralization affects chicks behavior while processing and approaching a BM stimulus. Highly lateralized chicks aligned their body with the apparent direction of the BM, a behavior akin to a following response, monitoring the stimulus preferentially with their left eye. This suggests a right hemisphere dominance in BM processing. Weakly lateralized chicks counter-aligned with the apparent direction of the BM, facing it during interaction, and monitored it equally with both eyes. Environmental factors (light stimulation) seem to affect the development of lateralization, and consequently social behavior.

  16. Arithmetic in newborn chicks

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Fontanari, Laura; Simoni, Eleonora; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Newly hatched domestic chicks were reared with five identical objects. On days 3 or 4, chicks underwent free-choice tests in which sets of three and two of the five original objects disappeared (either simultaneously or one by one), each behind one of two opaque identical screens. Chicks spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set (experiment 1). Results were confirmed under conditions controlling for continuous variables (total surface area or contour length; experiment 2). In the third experiment, after the initial disappearance of the two sets (first event, FE), some of the objects were visibly transferred, one by one, from one screen to the other (second event, SE). Thus, computation of a series of subsequent additions or subtractions of elements that appeared and disappeared, one by one, was needed in order to perform the task successfully. Chicks spontaneously chose the screen, hiding the larger number of elements at the end of the SE, irrespective of the directional cues provided by the initial (FE) and final (SE) displacements. Results suggest impressive proto-arithmetic capacities in the young and relatively inexperienced chicks of this precocial species. PMID:19364746

  17. Reduction in choroidal blood flow occurs in chicks wearing goggles that induce eye growth toward myopia

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yung-Feng; Fitzgerald, Malinda E.C.; Norton, Thomas T.; Gamlin, Paul D.R.; Hodos, William; Reiner, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Goggles that degrade the retinal image produce axial enlargement of the ocular globe and large myopic refractive errors. Many authors have assumed that visual image degradation itself leads to myopia. Hodos and co-authors have shown, however, that goggled eyes in chicks are considerably warmer than normal. Such temperature changes may either underlie or be a consequence of alterations in choroidal blood flow (CBF). Since alterations in CBF could affect eye growth, we explored the effect of monocular goggling on CBF in chicks. Plastic goggles were glued over one eye in four-day old chicks and the goggles were left in place for 12 or 14 days. Fourteen days after the goggling, CBF was measured using laser Doppler velocimetry. Three groups of chicks were studied: 1) chicks with goggles for 14 days; 2) chicks with goggles for 12 days followed by no goggles for the two days; 3) age matched non-goggled chicks. A-scan ultrasonography confirmed that the visual deprivation produced vitreous chamber elongation in the goggled eye and that the degree of elongation for the goggled eye was the same for the two goggled groups. The results were : 1) blood flow in non-goggled chicks was similar in both eyes; 2) blood flow was significantly reduced in the goggled eye in chicks wearing goggles for 14 days- 37% of control; and 3) blood flow was still significantly reduced in the goggled eye in chicks whose goggles were removed two days before measurement- 51% of control. These results show that CBF is reduced by goggles that result in myopic eye growth. These findings have implications for the mechanisms underlying myopic eye growth and for the retinopathy that often attends high myopia. PMID:8482110

  18. Recycling dead hens by enzyme or sodium hydroxide pretreatment and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2000-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the recycling of whole dead hens into feed ingredients by enzyme or sodium hydroxide pretreatment and fermentation. Evaluation criteria included nutrient preservation, pathogenic microorganism elimination, and assays of nutritional quality. The pH levels of enzyme- and NaOH-treated hen carcasses decreased from 6.01 and 7.66 to 4.18 and 4.24, respectively, during the 21-d fermentation. Hydrogen sulfide levels were not detected on Days 1 and 3 from the enzyme treatment; however, high levels (800 ppm) were measured from the NaOH treatments. By Day 21, H2S levels of both treatments had decreased to 78 ppm. The control, enzyme, and NaOH treatments before fermentation contained high levels of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus; however, after fermentation, these potential pathogens were eliminated in the enzyme and NaOH treatments. Levels of CP, EE, and ash of the control product were higher than either the enzyme or NaOH treatment. NaOH reduced pepsin digestibility by 11% compared to the enzyme treatment. In a bioassay, the chicks fed control autoclaved hen meal (CHM) had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and net protein ratio (NPR) than enzyme-treated, fermented, and autoclaved hen meal (EHM) or NaOH-treated, fermented, and autoclaved hen meal (NHM). However, the AMEn of the CHM and EHM were higher than the NHM (P < 0.05) when evaluated using mature cockerels. These results indicated that fermentation processing of dead hens reduced the concentration of some nutrients and depressed growth performance when hen meals were fed to young chicks.

  19. Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feeds.

    PubMed

    Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the immunological status of progeny of hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feed. For this purpose, White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into six groups (A-F). Hens in Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B and C were kept on a diet amended with 3 and 5 mg OTA/Kg, respectively. Group D was fed a ration containing 5 mg AFB(1)/Kg, while hens in Groups E and F were kept on feed amended with OTA and AFB(1) each. All feedings were for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. Fertile eggs were set for hatching on a weekly basis to obtain progeny of each week separately. At 14 days-of-age, subsets of progeny were euthanized and the frequency of immunoglobulin(s)-bearing cells in their spleen and bursa of Fabricius assessed; at 16 days-of-age, other chicks in each set were utilized to determine their lymphoblastogenic responses against phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P). At 30 days-of-age, the final sub-set of chicks/group was euthanized and their peritoneal macrophages harvested for measurements of phagocytic potential and nitrite production. Relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and of the spleen were significantly lower in the progeny of hens fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets for 14 and 21 days. The frequencies of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-bearing cells were also significantly lower in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen of progeny chicks obtained from hens fed the OTA + AFB(1) mixed diet. Feeding contaminated diets to breeder hens also resulted in significantly lower responses to PHA-P. In addition, the percentages of peritoneal macrophages displaying phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), the number of SRBC/macrophage, and nitrite production were each significantly lower in cells from progeny chicks from OTA- and AFB(1)-fed hens. The findings of the present study indicated there were severe immunosuppressive effects in progeny chicks as a result of exposure of their

  20. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  1. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linear<0.05). Nevertheless, BW corrected for egg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired

  2. Manipulation of the phenotypic appearance of individuals in groups of laying hens: effects on stress and immune-related variables.

    PubMed

    Nazar, F N; Marin, R H; Liste, G; Campderrich, I; Estevez, I

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether phenotypic appearance (PA) alteration during two developmental phases in laying hens, reared in two different group sizes, affects stress and immune responses. After hatching, 750 chicks were randomly assigned to 30 pens at a group size of either 10 or 40 birds. Then, the appearance of 0, 30, 50, 70 or 100% of the chicks in each pen was altered by blackdyeing their head feathers (marked); remaining chicks were unmarked. At 32 weeks, basal and postacute stress plasma corticosterone concentration, leukocyte counts, phytohemagglutinin-p lymphoproliferative and primary antibody responses were measured in six birds/pen. Analysis of variances (ANOVAs) showed no differences among treatment combinations. In a second phase, birds within initially homogeneous pens were sequentially either marked or had dye bleached to alter PA of 70% of hens in each flock (= group in a pen). Hens within initially heterogeneous pens remained unaltered as controls. The above variables were remeasured. Hens in phenotypically manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts compared to hens in control pens, indicating a chronic stress reaction in all penmates (whether individual PA was altered or not). Social isolation increased plasma corticosterone concentration. However, within groups of n = 40, phenotypically unaltered hens had lower responses than their altered penmate counterparts, suggesting that remaining in a stable PA group aids better coping with challenges. Although all hens in manipulated pens showed modified leukocyte counts, their antibody and lymphoproliferative responses did not differ from controls suggesting that all groupmates were able to immunologically cope with the challenges presented, within the timeframe evaluated.

  3. Differences in the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks during food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Inui, Mariko; Yoshimoto, Yu; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Genetic selection results in a higher growth rate and meat yield in broiler chickens than in layer chickens. We herein demonstrated differences in the effects of 24 h of fasting on the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks. The mRNA levels of proteolysis-related genes were analyzed in the pectoralis major muscle of 14-day-old chicks after 0 or 24 h of fasting. The mRNA levels of ubiquitin ligases such as atrogin-1 and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1) as well as transcription factor forkhead box class O (FOXO) 1 were significantly increased by fasting in broiler and layer chicks, suggesting that the FOXO1-induced ubiquitin-proteasome system, a major proteolytic system in skeletal muscles, was activated by fasting in both chicks. The mRNA levels of atrogin-1 were significantly lower in broiler chicks than in layer chicks after fasting. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 were significantly decreased by fasting in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks. The mRNA levels of FOXO3 were significantly increased by fasting in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks. Therefore, the ubiquitin-proteasome system did not appear to have been fully upregulated in broiler chicks. These results suggest that differences in the expression of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks during food deprivation are one of the causes of the high growth rate in broiler chickens.

  4. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on embryo and chick development, growth, and behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize an avian model to determine the effects of 60-Hz electric fields on embryo and chick development. A specially designed incubator allowed simultaneous incubation of control eggs and eggs exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Two series of experimental voltages were utilized for this study. In Series 1, the subject eggs were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kV/m fields and, in Series 2, eggs were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 kV/m. Data were collected on mortality, malformation, and growth (weight) of 7- and 14-day-old embryos after continuous exposure to electric fields. Eggs were also incubated, exposed to electric fields, and hatched in order to collect data on chick weights at one day and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after hatching. Behavior tests on newly hatched chicks that had been exposed to electric fields during development were also performed. The results indicated no consistent effect of 60-Hz electric fields, varying from 0.1 to 100 kV/m, on mortality, malformations, weights, bone growth (metatarsal length), or behavior of embryos or chicks. This study strongly suggests that within the scope of this project, there is no consistent direct effect of 60 Hz electric fields on the health and well-being of avian embryos. A dose-response analysis was also utilized in which all the data in each series, for each age of the embryos, were simultaneously evaluated in a statistical model. This analysis demonstrated that there is no significant dose-response of electric fields on 7- and 14-day-old embryo and 1-day-old chick weights. 24 refs., 21 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Effect of the level of cholecalciferol supplementation of broiler breeder hen diets on the performance and bone abnormalities of the progeny fed diets containing various levels of calcium or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol.

    PubMed

    Atencio, A; Edwards, H M; Pesti, G M

    2005-10-01

    Four experiments were conducted using Ross x Ross chicks hatched from broiler breeder hens fed various levels of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; 0 to 4,000 IU/kg of diet) to determine the effect of the maternal diet on the performance and leg abnormalities of the progeny. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by the hens at different ages were used in experiments 1 to 4. The studies were conducted in an ultraviolet light-free environment as split plot designs, with Ca levels or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in the chicks' diet as the whole plot, and vitamin D3 in the maternal diet as a subplot. Chicks in experiments 1 and 2 were fed 2 levels of Ca (0.63% or 0.90%) and chicks in experiments 3 and 4 were fed 6 levels of 25-OHD3 (0 to 40 microg/kg of diet). Significant increases in body weight gain (BWG) of the progeny were observed in experiments 1, 2, and 4 as the vitamin D3 level in the maternal diet increased. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by hens fed the highest levels of D3 had the highest tibia ash. Significant reductions in Ca rickets incidence (experiments 1 and 2) and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence (experiment 1) were observed as the level of vitamin D3 in the maternal diet increased. Chicks fed lower levels of Ca had lower BWG and tibia ash and higher incidences of TD and Ca rickets than chicks fed higher levels of Ca. Increasing the level of 25-OHD3 in the chicks' diet significantly improved BWG, tibia ash, and plasma Ca and reduced TD and Ca rickets incidence. An overall evaluation of the study indicates that chicks from hens fed the highest levels of vitamin D3 and fed high levels of Ca or 25-OHD3 had the highest BWG, tibia ash, and plasma Ca, and the lowest incidences of TD and Ca rickets.

  6. Cardiac and vascular disease prior to hatching in chick embryos incubated at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Camm, E J; Tuckett, J D; Weerakkody, R A; Kane, A D; Shelley, A M; Wooding, F B P; Quy, M; Giussani, D A

    2010-02-01

    The partial contributions of reductions in fetal nutrition and oxygenation to slow fetal growth and a developmental origin of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. By combining high altitude with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on growth. This study isolated the direct effects of high-altitude hypoxia on cardiovascular development. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high-altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. High altitude promoted embryonic growth restriction, cardiomegaly and aortic wall thickening, effects which could be prevented by incubating eggs from high-altitude hens at sea level or by incubating eggs from sea-level hens at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. Embryos from high-altitude hens showed reduced effects of altitude incubation on growth restriction but not on cardiovascular remodeling. The data show that: (1) high-altitude hypoxia promotes embryonic cardiac and vascular disease already evident prior to hatching and that this is associated with growth restriction; (2) the effects can be prevented by increased oxygenation; and (3) the effects are different in embryos from sea-level or high-altitude hens.

  7. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  8. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  9. Dietary supplementation with glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid improves growth performance and serum parameters in 22- to 35-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Bai, X; Shah, A A; Wen, A Y; Hua, J L; Che, C Y; He, S J; Jiang, J P; Cai, Z H; Dai, S F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed using 360 21-day-old chicks to determine the influences of diet supplementation with glutamine (5 g/kg), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 100 mg/kg) or their combinations on performance and serum parameters exposed to cycling high temperatures. From 22 to 35 days, the experimental groups (2 × 2) were subjected to circular heat stress by exposing them to 30-34 °C cycling, while the positive control group was exposed to 23 °C constant. The blood of broilers was collected to detect serum parameters on days 28 and 35. Compared with the positive control group, the cycling high temperature decreased (p < 0.05) the feed consumption, weight gain and serum total protein (TP), glucose, thyroxine (T4), insulin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamine, GABA and glutamate levels, while increased (p < 0.05) the serum triglyceride (TG), corticosterone (CS), glucagon (GN), creatine kinase (CK), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels during 22-35 days. However, dietary glutamine (5 g/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the feed consumption, weight gain and serum levels of glutamine, TP, insulin and ALP, but decreased (p < 0.05) the serum TG, CK, GOT, NOS and GPT levels. Diet supplemented with GABA also increased (p < 0.05) weight gain and the serum levels of TP, T4, ALP, GABA and glutamine. In addition, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between glutamine and GABA were found in the feed consumption, weight gain and the serum ALP, CK, LDH, GABA, T3 and T4 levels of heat-stressed chickens. This research indicated that dietary glutamine and GABA improved the antistress ability in performance and serum parameters of broilers under hot environment. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Faces Are Special for Newly Hatched Chicks: Evidence for Inborn Domain-Specific Mechanisms Underlying Spontaneous Preferences for Face-Like Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    It is currently being debated whether human newborns' preference for faces is due to an unlearned, domain-specific and configural representation of the appearance of a face, or to general mechanisms, such as an up-down bias (favouring top-heavy stimuli, which have more elements in their upper part). Here we show that 2-day-old domestic chicks,…

  11. Faces Are Special for Newly Hatched Chicks: Evidence for Inborn Domain-Specific Mechanisms Underlying Spontaneous Preferences for Face-Like Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    It is currently being debated whether human newborns' preference for faces is due to an unlearned, domain-specific and configural representation of the appearance of a face, or to general mechanisms, such as an up-down bias (favouring top-heavy stimuli, which have more elements in their upper part). Here we show that 2-day-old domestic chicks,…

  12. Pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A after oral and oculonasal challenges of day-old turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Dutta, V; Johnson, M G; Nannapaneni, R

    2008-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, environmental pathogen that has contaminated poultry ready-to-eat products resulting in large-scale recalls. Research is needed to determine the source of product and processing plant contamination with L. monocytogenes. The purpose of this study was to compare the oral and oculonasal routes of infection on the pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes in turkey poults under different housing conditions. One-day-old turkey poults were challenged by either route with the Scott A strain of L. monocytogenes and placed either in paper-lined battery-brooder cages for 1 wk or in floor pens on fresh pine-shaving litter. On day 7, birds challenged in battery cages were transferred to floor pens. Challenge by the oculonasal route resulted in higher mortality (P = 0.05) and lower body weights (P < 0.0001) compared with both nonchallenged controls and those challenged by the oral route. Birds contained in battery cages for 1 wk had higher mortality (P = 0.002) and higher body weights (P < 0.0001) compared with floor-pen-reared birds. Using direct plating, the challenge strain was isolated from the gall bladder, brain, and knee joint of only one dead poult challenged by the oculonasal route. These results suggest that day-old turkey poults may be more susceptible to an oculonasal challenge with L. monocytogenes than to an oral challenge and that containment in battery cages for the first week increased contact exposure to the challenge.

  13. The dynamics of Chinese variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus production in Vero cells and intestines of 2-day old piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhui; Gao, Xiaojing; Yao, Yali; Zhang, Yunjing; Lv, Chaochao; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Yuzhou; Jia, Xiangrui; Zhuang, Jinshan; Xiao, Yan; Li, Xiangdong; Tian, Kegong

    2015-10-02

    A severe porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) epizootic has been affecting pigs of all ages that are characterized by high mortality among suckling piglets in China since late 2010, causing significant economic losses. Obtaining a current-circulating PEDV variant isolate that can grow efficiently in cell culture is prerequisite for the development of efficient vaccines. In this study, PEDV strain HN1303 was isolated successfully on Vero cells with supplemental trypsin, and the isolate has been serially propagated in cell culture for over 95 passages. The infectious titers of the virus during the first 10 passages ranged from 10(2.6) to 10(5.8) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml, and the titers of 20-95 passages ranged from 10(6.2) to 10(8.0)TCID50/ml. The growth curve of Vero cell-adapted HN1303 in cell culture was determined, and dynamics of virus production was confirmed by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on spike gene indicate that the HN1303 strain belongs to genotype IIa. In addition, the fourth passage cell-culture HN1303 was subjected to 2-day old piglets. All piglets orally inoculated developed severe watery diarrhea and vomiting within 24 hours post-inoculation (hpi) and died within 72 hpi. The results of animal experiments reveal that this strain is highly pathogenic to 2-day old piglets.

  14. Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques Reveal that Genomic Imprinting Is Absent in Day-Old Gallus gallus domesticus Brains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Kaiyang; Zhang, Daixi; Li, Junying; Xu, Guiyun; Zheng, Jiangxia; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon characterized by parent-of-origin-specific gene expression. While widely documented in viviparous mammals and plants, imprinting in oviparous birds remains controversial. Because genomic imprinting is temporal- and tissue-specific, we investigated this phenomenon only in the brain tissues of 1-day-old chickens (Gallus gallus). We used next-generation sequencing technology to compare four transcriptomes pooled from 11 chickens, generated from reciprocally crossed families, to the DNA sequences of their parents. Candidate imprinted genes were then selected from these sequence alignments and subjected to verification experiments that excluded all but one SNP. Subsequent experiments performed with two new sets of reciprocally crossed families resulted in the exclusion of that candidate SNP as well. Attempts to find evidence of genomic imprinting from long non-coding RNAs yielded negative results. We therefore conclude that genomic imprinting is absent in the brains of 1-day-old chickens. However, due to the temporal and tissue specificity of imprinting, our results cannot be extended to all growth stages and tissue types.

  15. Rehabilitation of a One-day-Old Neonate with Cleft Lip and Palate using Palatal Obturator: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Pathak, Ashish; Bhatia, Baldev; Gupta, Sailesh; Kumar Gautam, Keshav

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Feeding a neonate with a complete cleft lip and palate is difficult pursuit due to communication between oral cavity and nasal cavity. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage the complex problems involved in case of such neonates and their families. Present case is of a 1-day-old neonate having complete bilateral cleft lip and palate for which palatal obturator was constructed. A stepwise simple, easy and uncomplicated procedure for making accurate impressions, maxillary cast and fabrication of palatal obturator in infants with cleft lip and palate has been presented. The objective to present this case report is to emphasize the fact that how these palatal obturators /plates help in feeding, speech/language development, presurgical orthopedics and prevent other associated otorhinolaryngeal problems. How to cite this article: Bansal R, Pathak AK, Bhatia B, Gupta S, Gautam KK. Rehabilitation of a One-day Old Neonate with Cleft Lip and Palate using Palatal Obturator: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):145-147. PMID:25206156

  16. Profile of spontaneous demand for services among infants younger than 30 days old at a children's tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Arbio, Soledad; Brunner, Nicolás; Pierro, Eugenio; Rodríguez, Susana; Fariña, Diana

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, admission of critical newborn infants (NBIs) to the neonatal intensive care unit of Hospital Garrahan (HG) has been limited due to the hospitalization of infants younger than 30 days old through spontaneous demand for services. This is probably a multifactorial situation, and one of its causes is a lack of regionalization, which results in an inadequate use of resources or a distorted use of resources intended for more complex care. To establish the profile of NBIs who make a spontaneous demand for services at HG and to assess the level of care required based on their medical condition. Cross-sectional study. All infants < 30 days old who sought care at HG in a period of 12 months were assessed. The analysis included clinical characteristics of NBIs, prior visits, parental reason for consultation at HG, and whether NBIs could have been seen at a primary or secondary care facility. A total of 307 consultations were analyzed; NBI age was 18 days ± 7.6. Of these, 78% required hospitalization. The most common reason for hospitalization was acute respiratory tract infection. Thirty-five percent had health insurance coverage; 54% had sought care more than once at a different facility. Only 15% of NBIs had a highly complex condition that should have actually been solved at HG. Based on the analysis of NBIs seen at HG through spontaneous demand for services, a high requirement of hospitalization for low and medium complexity pathologies was observed.

  17. Effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in chicks.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in vertebrate brain development. However, there is little understanding of the direct effects of fetal thyroid dysfunction, i.e., not acquired through the mother, on learning ability. In the present study, we use a chick embryo as a fetal model to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in hatched chicks. Methimazole (MMI) at 20micromol/egg or 5micromol/egg of propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to eggs on day 14 while the control was given only a vehicle. An imprinting test was conducted after the chicks hatched. Day-old chicks were exposed to a rotating training object for 150min. The next day, the trained chicks were exposed to the training object and a novel object. The imprinting preference was represented as a preference score (PS) calculated as the rate of following the training object to following the training and novel objects. In the MMI-treated chicks, the PS was 0.68+/-0.06 (range, 0.38-0.88), which was significantly lower than that in the control chicks (0.86+/-0.04, p<0.01). In the PTU-treated chicks, the PS was 0.69+/-0.04 (range, 0.52-0.89), which was also significantly lower than that in the control (0.88+/-0.02, p<0.001). The present findings suggested that fetal thyroid dysfunction inhibited brain development, leading to impaired learning and memory. Our chick model can be considered useful for investigating the direct effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs or substances in the environment on learning ability after birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo and ex vivo phagocytic potential of macrophages from progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)-contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Zahoor-ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz; Noreen, Mnaza

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the phagocytic potential of macrophages in progeny of breeder hens kept on an OTA-contaminated diet. For this purpose, 84 White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into seven groups (A-G). Hens in Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B-G were kept on a diet amended with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, or 10.0 mg OTA/kg, respectively, for up to 3 weeks (n = 12/treatment group; n = 4/time sub-group/treatment group). Fertile eggs were set for hatching on a weekly basis to get the progeny of each week separately. Hatched chicks (n = 10 from each group) were injected with India ink at day 14-of-age to study the in vivo phagocytosis of carbon particles. At day 30, abdominal macrophages were collected from 15 chicks/group and were used to assess their ex vivo/in vitro phagocytic potential against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as well as for nitrite production upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The phagocytic indices of the reticuloendothelial system of all three sets of progeny (chicks obtained from hens fed OTA for 7, 14, and 21 days) were significantly lower than values seen with Group A chicks. The number of macrophages that were actively phagocytic, the number of SRBC internalized per macrophage, and the extent of nitrite production after stimulation with LPS were each significantly lower in the cells obtained from chicks of breeder hens that had been maintained on the OTA-contaminated diets. The findings of this study clearly showed that there are immunosuppressive effects-in terms of depressed in vivo and in vitro macrophage functionality-in progeny of OTA-fed breeder hens.

  19. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    PubMed

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L

    2011-09-01

    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  20. Interactions among arsenic, zinc, and taurine in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Uthus, E.O.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    A 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment was done using day-old cockerel chicks to ascertain whether Zn and taurine (Tau), through changing methionine (Met) or sulfate metabolism, affect signs of As deprivation. The dietary variables were supplements of As, 0 or 2 ..mu..g/g; Zn, 10 or 40 ..mu..g/g; and Tau, 0 or 0.84%. The basal diet contained (per g): 15 ng As, 7 ..mu..g Zn, and 5.65 mg Met. For comparison purposes two additional groups of chicks were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 ..mu..g As, 40 ..mu..G Zn, 0 Tau, and 0.5 Met. After 26 days, Tau supplementation alleviated many perturbations caused by an apparent methionine deficiency. For example, final body wt was increased from 596 g to 741 g. However, Tau was much less effective than Met in inhibiting the elevation in plasma Mo caused by Met lack. An interaction between Tau and Zn affected several indices including liver Zn concentration. Tau decreased the liver Zn concentration when dietary Zn was 40 ..mu..g/g. An interaction between Tau and As affected plasma urea. Supplemental As elevated urea in chicks fed 0 Tau, but depressed urea in chicks fed 0.84% Tau. Kidney arginase tended to follow a similar trend. The findings show that Tau can fulfill some of the Met requirements of chicks and that Tau interacts with Zn and As. Some findings also support the hypothesis that As has a physiological role that affects arginine and Met metabolism.

  1. GENETIC CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE TRAITS IN LAYING HENS.

    PubMed

    Rozempolska-Rucińska, Iwona; Zięba, Grzegorz; Kibała, Lucyna; Próchniak, Tomasz Paweł; Łukaszewicz, Marek

    2017-02-23

    The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic correlations between the behavioural profile and performance in laying hens as an indirect answer to the question whether the observed behavioural responses are associated with increased levels of stress in these birds. The assessment of birds' temperament was carried out using the Novel Objects Test. The behavioural test was conducted in two successive generations comprising 9483 Rhode Island White birds (approx. 4700 individuals per generation) and 4326 Rhode Island Red birds (approx. 2100 individuals per generation). Based on the recorded responses, the birds were divided into two groups: a fearful profile (1418 RIW hens and 580 RIR hens) and a brave/curious profile (8065 RIW hens and 3746 RIR hens). The birds were subjected to standard assessment of their performance traits, including SM- age at sexual maturity, ST - shell thickness, SG - egg specific gravity, EW - mean egg weight, IP - initial egg production, and PW/HC - number of hatched chicks. The lineage comprised a three-generation population of birds. Estimation of the components of variance of the behavioural traits was performed with Gibbs sampling (300000 rounds with 100000 burn-in rounds) based on the multi-trait animal model. The analyses revealed negative correlations between the performance traits of the laying hens and the behavioural profile defined as fearful. In the group of fearful RIW birds, delayed sexual maturation (0,22) as well as a decrease in the initial egg production (-0,30), egg weight (-0,54), egg specific gravity (-0,331), shell thickness (-0,11), and the number of hatched chicks (-0,24) could be expected. These correlations were less pronounced in the RIR breed, in which the fearful birds exhibited a decline in hatchability (-0,37), egg specific gravity (-0,11), and the number of hatched chicks (-0,18). There were no correlations in the case of the other traits or they were positive but exhibited a substantial standard error, as for

  2. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  3. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  4. Life history and social learning: megapode chicks fail to acquire feeding preferences from conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Göth, Ann; Evans, Christopher S

    2005-11-01

    Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, are birds with an unusual life history: The young receive no parental care and first encounter conspecifics at an unpredictable age. Brush-turkey chicks that were 3-4 days old were presented with a robot model that appeared to feed from a distinctively colored dish. In control training trials, chicks saw a robot standing next to a different dish and scanning from side to side. Chicks expressed a strong tendency to feed from dishes of the type indicated by the pecking robot, but this effect proved ephemeral. Brush-turkeys hence appear to show no social learning under conditions that inculcate stable preferences in other galliforms such as chickens, suggesting that life history plays an important role in the evolution of learning. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates associated with mortality in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Walker, S E; Sander, J E; Cline, J L; Helton, J S

    2002-01-01

    In mid-2000, a broiler chicken company in Alabama experienced high early mortality rates in chicks from two different hatcheries. Five isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, obtained from these contaminated hatcheries and resulting broiler chicks with omphalitis, were selected to determine virulence of the bacteria. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chicks were placed into positive pressure isolation units (10 chicks per unit); feed and water were provided ad libitum. The five isolates of P. aeruginosa (1 x 10(1) or 1 x 10(1) colony-forming units/bird) were used to challenge two replicates of 10 chicks via yolk sac inoculation. Two control groups were injected with 0.1 ml of phosphate-buffered saline, and two groups received no treatment. Mortality was recorded daily, and the chicks that died were necropsied and liver and yolk sacs were cultured. After 14 days, the remaining chickens were euthanatized and necropsied. Bacterial isolates retrieved from liver and yolk sacs were identified by the API 20 NE typing system to confirm that they were the same as the challenge isolate. Virulence varied greatly among the isolates, resulting in mortality rates from 0 to 90%. The challenge isolates produced different and often distinctive postmortem lesion patterns. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that all five isolates were resistant to sulfisoxazole, ceftiofur, penicillin, lincomycin, bacitracin, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, naladixic acid, and tetracycline. The isolates varied in sensitivity to other antibiotics, but all isolates were sensitive to gentamicin.

  6. The mechanism underlying the central glucagon-induced hyperglycemia and anorexia in chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Uemura, Taku; Yanagi, Takashi; Saito, Noboru; Kurose, Yohei; Sugahara, Kunio; Katoh, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Shin

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the mechanism underlying central glucagon-induced hyperglycemia and anorexia in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of glucagon in chicks induced hyperglycemia and anorexia from 30 min after administration. However, the plasma insulin level did not increase until 90 min after glucagon administration, suggesting that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells may be suppressed by central glucagon. The plasma corticosterone concentration significantly increased from 30 min to 120 min after administration, suggesting that central glucagon activates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in chicks. However, central administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which activates the HPA axis in chicken hypothalamus, significantly reduced not only food intake but also plasma glucose concentration, suggesting that CRF and the activation of the HPA axis are related to the glucagon-induced anorexia but not hyperglycemia in chicks. Phentolamine, an α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the glucagon-induced hyperglycemia, suggesting that glucagon induced hyperglycemia at least partly via α-adrenergic neural pathway. Co-administration of phentolamine and α-helical CRF, a CRF receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated glucagon-induced hyperglycemia and anorexia. It is therefore likely that central administration of glucagon suppresses food intake at least partly via CRF-induced anorexigenic pathway in chicks.

  7. Selenium and metal concentrations in waterbird eggs and chicks at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Eichhorst, B.A.; Warburton, D.

    2007-01-01

    Exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were reported in eggs, feathers, or livers of selected waterbird species nesting at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz) in 1994. Ten- to 15-day-old Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan), black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) chicks were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2001 at Agassiz and analyzed for selenium (Se) and metals including Cd and Cr. Freshly laid eggs were collected in 2001 from Franklin's gull, black-crowned night-heron, eared grebe, and pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) nests at Agassiz. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of Se and metal concentrations differed among species for eggs, chick feathers, and chick livers. Low Cd and Cr concentrations were measured in eggs, chick livers, and chick feathers of all four species. Mercury concentrations in black-crowned night-heron and eared grebe eggs collected from Agassiz in 2001 were lower than concentrations reported in 1994. Se and metal concentrations, including Cd and Cr, in waterbird eggs and chicks collected at Agassiz in 1998, 1999, and 2001 were not at toxic levels. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on diazepam and xylazine sedation in chicks

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Yaareb J.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause various neuronal dysfunctions and modulate responses to many centrally acting drugs. This study examines the effects of oxidative stress produced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on sedation induced by diazepam or xylazine as assessed in 7–14 day-old chicks. Day-old chicks were provided with either plane tap water (control group) or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine glutathione and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and whole brain. Drug-induced sedation in the chicks was assessed by monitoring the occurrence of signs of sedation manifested as drooping of the head, closed eyelids, reduced motility or immotility, decreased distress calls, and recumbency. The latency to onset of sedation and its duration were also recorded. H2O2 treatment for two weeks significantly decreased glutathione and increased malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and whole brain of the chicks on days 7, 10 and 14 as compared with respective age-matched control groups. H2O2 decreased the median effective doses of diazepam and xylazine for the induction of sedation in chicks by 46% and 63%, respectively. Injection of diazepam at 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.m. or xylazine at 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, i.m. induced sedation in both control and H2O2-treated chicks in a dose dependent manner, manifested by the above given signs of sedation. H2O2 significantly decreased the latency to onset of sedation in chicks treated with diazepam at 5 and 10 mg/kg, increased the duration of sedation and prolonged the total recovery time in comparison with respective non-stressed control chicks. A similar trend occurred with xylazine in the H2O2-treated chicks, though the differences from control counterparts did not attain the statistical significance, except for the recovery time of the lowest dose of the drug. The data suggest that H2O2-induced oxidative stress sensitizes the

  9. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on diazepam and xylazine sedation in chicks.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Yaareb J; Mohammad, Fouad K

    2012-12-01

    Oxidative stress may cause various neuronal dysfunctions and modulate responses to many centrally acting drugs. This study examines the effects of oxidative stress produced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on sedation induced by diazepam or xylazine as assessed in 7-14 day-old chicks. Day-old chicks were provided with either plane tap water (control group) or H2O2 in tap water as 0.5% v/v drinking solution for two weeks in order to produce oxidative stress. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine glutathione and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and whole brain. Drug-induced sedation in the chicks was assessed by monitoring the occurrence of signs of sedation manifested as drooping of the head, closed eyelids, reduced motility or immotility, decreased distress calls, and recumbency. The latency to onset of sedation and its duration were also recorded. H2O2 treatment for two weeks significantly decreased glutathione and increased malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and whole brain of the chicks on days 7, 10 and 14 as compared with respective age-matched control groups. H2O2 decreased the median effective doses of diazepam and xylazine for the induction of sedation in chicks by 46% and 63%, respectively. Injection of diazepam at 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.m. or xylazine at 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, i.m. induced sedation in both control and H2O2-treated chicks in a dose dependent manner, manifested by the above given signs of sedation. H2O2 significantly decreased the latency to onset of sedation in chicks treated with diazepam at 5 and 10 mg/kg, increased the duration of sedation and prolonged the total recovery time in comparison with respective non-stressed control chicks. A similar trend occurred with xylazine in the H2O2-treated chicks, though the differences from control counterparts did not attain the statistical significance, except for the recovery time of the lowest dose of the drug. The data suggest that H2O2-induced oxidative stress sensitizes the

  10. Central administration of neuropeptide Y differentially regulates monoamines and corticosterone in heat-exposed fed and fasted chicks.

    PubMed

    Bahry, Mohammad A; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yang, Hui; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Han, Guofeng; Ikeda, Hiromi; Cockrem, John F; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression was increased in heat exposed chicks. However, the functions of brain NPY during heat stress are unknown. This study was conducted to investigate whether centrally administered NPY affects food intake, rectal temperature, monoamines, stress hormones and plasma metabolites in chicks under high ambient temperatures (HT). Five or six-day-old chicks were centrally injected with 0, 188 or 375pmol of NPY and exposed to either HT (35±1°C) or a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30±1°C) for 3h whilst fed or fasted. NPY increased food intake under both CT and HT. NPY reduced rectal temperature 1 and 2h after central administration under CT, but not under HT. Interestingly, NPY decreased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in fed chicks, but increased concentrations of brain dopamine and its metabolites in fasted and fed chicks, respectively. Plasma epinephrine was decreased by NPY in fed chicks, but plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine were increased significantly by NPY in fasted-heat exposed chicks. Furthermore, NPY significantly reduced plasma corticosterone concentrations in fasted chicks. Plasma glucose and triacylglycerol were increased by NPY in fed chicks, but triacylglycerol declined in fasted NPY-injected chicks. In conclusion, brain NPY may attenuate the reduction of food intake during heat stress and the increased brain NPY might be a potential regulator of the monoamines and corticosterone to modulate stress response in heat-exposed chicks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Numerical Abstraction in Young Domestic Chicks (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    In a variety of circumstances animals can represent numerical values per se, although it is unclear how salient numbers are relative to non-numerical properties. The question is then: are numbers intrinsically distinguished or are they processed as a last resort only when no other properties differentiate stimuli? The last resort hypothesis is supported by findings pertaining to animal studies characterized by extensive training procedures. Animals may, nevertheless, spontaneously and routinely discriminate numerical attributes in their natural habitat, but data available on spontaneous numerical competence usually emerge from studies not disentangling numerical from quantitative cues. In the study being outlined here, we tested animals' discrimination of a large number of elements utilizing a paradigm that did not require any training procedures. During rearing, newborn chicks were presented with two stimuli, each characterized by a different number of heterogeneous (for colour, size and shape) elements and food was found in proximity of one of the two stimuli. At testing 3 day-old chicks were presented with stimuli depicting novel elements (for colour, size and shape) representing either the numerosity associated or not associated with food. The chicks approached the number associated with food in the 5vs.10 and 10vs.20 comparisons both when quantitative cues were unavailable (stimuli were of random sizes) or being controlled. The findings emerging from the study support the hypothesis that numbers are salient information promptly processed even by very young animals. PMID:23776457

  13. Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks.

  14. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of 3-alkynyl selenophene in 21-day-old rats on pilocarpine model of seizures.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Ethel A; Jesse, Cristiano R; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Nogueira, Cristina W; Savegnago, Lucielli

    2009-06-30

    This study investigated the anticonvulsant effect of 3-alkynyl selenophene (3-ASP) on pilocarpine (PC)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures and mortality in 21-day-old rats. Rats were pretreated by oral route (p.o.) with 3-ASP (10, 25 and 50mg/kg) before intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of PC (400mg/kg), PTZ (80 mg/kg) or KA (45 mg/kg). 3-ASP increased the latency to the seizure onset on PTZ and KA models. At the dose of 50mg/kg, 3-ASP avoided the death caused by PTZ and KA. 3-ASP (50mg/kg) abolished seizures and death induced by PC in rats. To investigate the antioxidant effect of 3-ASP on rats exposed to PC, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+)K(+)ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the levels of reactive species (RS) and ascorbic acid (AA) were determined in brains of rats. 3-ASP protected against the increase in RS levels and CAT activity induced by PC in brains of rats. The decrease in the levels of AA and inhibition of Na(+)K(+)ATPase, SOD and AChE activities caused by PC were protected by 3-ASP. Subeffective doses of 3-ASP plus diazepam, 5S,10R-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801) or 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) increased the latency to the seizure onset induced by PC, suggesting the involvement of ionotropic glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors in anticonvulsant action of 3-ASP. The anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of 3-ASP in 21-day-old rats on PC model were demonstrated.

  15. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors.

  16. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals.

  17. Intestinal disaccharidase activities in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Siddons, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Disaccharidase activities of the small and large intestines of the chick were studied. 2. Homogenates of the small intestine readily hydrolysed maltose, sucrose and palatinose (6-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-fructose), hydrolysed lactose slowly and did not hydrolyse trehalose and cellobiose. 3. Within the small intestine the disaccharidases were located mainly in the intestinal wall; the activity in the contents accounted for less than 5% of the total activity. 4. The disaccharidases were non-uniformly distributed along the small intestine, the activities being greatest in the middle section. 5. The disaccharidase activities increased with age between 1 and 43 days. 6. Homogenates of the large intestine and contents readily hydrolysed maltose, sucrose, palatinose and lactose and hydrolysed cellobiose and trehalose slowly. 7. The large-intestinal disaccharidases were located mainly in the contents. 8. Similar Km and pH optimum values were found for the maltase, sucrase and palatinase activities of the large and small intestines. 9. The lactase activity of the large intestine was markedly affected by diet and had different Km and pH values from the small intestinal lactase. 10. Low activities of intestinal disaccharidase were found in 12-day-old embryos and marked increases in the intestinal disaccharidases of the developing embryo occurred 2–3 days before hatching. PMID:5774506

  18. Selenium involved with vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Hady, M.M. )

    1991-03-11

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the vitamin E (VE) deficiency disease of the chick, encephalomalacia (EM), is affected by changes in selenium (Se) status. When 0.15 ppm Se and either 3.3 or 100 IU/kg VA was added to the diet, chicks fed the lower VE level showed signs of EM by 7 days. Day-old chicks had a mean plasma {alpha}-T level of .384 {mu}g/ml and relatively high {alpha}-T levels in brain, with those of the cerebrum exceeding those of the cerebellum (the target of histological lesions in EM). Chicks fed the greater VE level had no EM and showed increasing tissue {alpha}-T levels over time. Chicks fed the lower VE level showed progressive decreases in the {alpha}-T levels of plasma, cerebrum and cerebellum; when EM was manifest, the {alpha}-T levels in these tissues had dropped to {lt}.10 {mu}g/ml, {lt}.35 {mu}g/g and {lt}.3 {mu}g/g, respectively. When the diet was supplemented with a marginal level of Se and graded levels of VE, at least 10 IU VE/kg was required to prevent EM. A 2 {times} 3 complete factorial design with two levels of Se and three levels of VE revealed that, among chicks fed the lowest VE level, Se-adequate chicks showed a lower incidence of EM with later onset than low-Se chicks; nevertheless, dietary Se level did not affect brain {alpha}-T levels.

  19. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  20. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  1. [Concentration and distribution of fluorine in hen's eggs as an aspect of selected biological parameters].

    PubMed

    Machaliński, B

    1996-01-01

    The actual paper presents the method and results of studies concerning the content and decomposition of fluorine compounds in the component structures of eggs and in the bone system of a domestic hen, as well as its progeny under conditions of increased content of these compounds in the drinking water. The objective of the paper has been: 1) determining the effect of environmental contamination (NaF in drinking water) exerted on the presence of fluorine in eggs, 2) defining the distribution of fluorine in component structures of the egg, 3) studying the fluorine effect on selected physical parameters of eggs, 4) determination of fluorine content in tibial bones of laying hens, after receiving NaF in drinking water, and to compare the tibial bone composition in hens and their progeny with control groups, 5) analyzing the share of fluorine compounds in the construction of skeleton and beaks of chicks. The conceptions of the work were elaborated on the basis of results stemming from an accomplished experimental breeding of domestic hens in a semi-intensive system. The experiment proceeded 4 weeks. A part of eggs obtained by breeding was designed for hatching. Due to the requirements associated with analyzing the skeleton, all the experimental birds, including the chicks, were assigned for further analyses. The material, obtained in this way, (bones of hens, chicks, eggs) was subsequently subjected to detailed studies. According to the conceptions of the paper the selected physical parameters of eggs were studied, therein resistance tests, using specialized apparatuses. Fluoride was determined potentiometrically, by applying fluoride ion selective electrode, while the metallic elements by aid of atomic spectrophotometer (Tab. 1-5, Fig. 1). Finally, the following conclusions were presented, namely: 1. The egg shell in hens plays an essential role in binding fluorine compounds and constitutes one of the means of their fast elimination from the organism. 2. Egg shells may

  2. Production performance and egg quality of four strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Cheng, K M; Silversides, F G

    2009-02-01

    Production performance and egg quality were compared between 4 strains of beak-trimmed layers: 3 commercial strains-Lohmann White (LW), H&N White (HN), Lohmann Brown (LB)-and a noncommercial cross between Rhode Island Red (male) and Barred Plymouth Rock (female) in conventional cages and in floor pens. All chicks were reared and 857 pullets were housed at 18 wk of age in their respective environments. Body weight, hen-day egg production, feed consumption and efficiency, and egg quality were measured at wk 20, 30, 40, and 50. In floor pens, the location of eggs was recorded for 4 consecutive days at 4-wk intervals between 20 and 50 wk of age. Eggs from cages, nest-boxes, and the floor were tested for Escherichia coli and coliform contamination at 38 and 42 wk of age. Mortality was recorded during the rearing and laying periods. Housing systems significantly influenced BW and mortality but not feed consumption or feed efficiency. The interaction between environment and strain was significant for hen-day egg production at wk 20 to 30 and for BW at wk 30, 40, and 50. Hens in floor pens had greater BW, egg and yolk weights, and yolk color than those in cages. Commercial hens produced more eggs than the cross hens. Overall, HN hens had the best production performance, whereas cross hens had better egg quality. In floor pens, LW and HN hens laid most of their eggs in nest boxes, whereas LB and cross hens laid half of their eggs on the floor. Eggs from cages had lower E. coli and coliform contamination than those from nest-boxes and the floor, and E. coli contamination was greater for LB eggs than for LW eggs. Significant strain differences were found for the use of nest-boxes, with a high percentage of floor eggs for brown egg strains. This study suggests that genotype x environment interactions should be considered when alternative housing systems are proposed.

  3. Comparative effects of furnished and battery cages on egg production and physiological parameters in White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Pohle, K; Cheng, H-W

    2009-10-01

    Laboratory animal well-being can be improved by housing the animals in species-specific natural or near-to-natural environments. An enriched environment may have a similar effect on chickens. The purpose of this study was to examine if housing environment (furnished cages vs. battery cages) effects the well-being of laying hens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed White Leghorn W-36 chicks were reared and randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages at 19 wk of age. The furnished cages had wire floors and solid metal walls, with perches, a dustbathing area, scratch pads, and a nestbox area with concealment curtain. Ten hens were housed per cage, providing a stocking density of 610 cm2 of floor space per hen. The battery cages were commercial wire cages containing 6 birds per cage, providing 645 cm2 of floor space per hen. Body weight and egg production were calculated from 25 to 60 wk of age. The peripheral concentrations of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, corticosterone, and IgG were analyzed at 30, 40, 50, and 60 wk of age. Compared with the hens housed in the battery cages, the hens housed in the furnished cages were significantly heavier from 30 to 60 wk of age (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively) and produced more eggs at 40 wk of age (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on eggshell thickness (P>0.05). The concentrations of serotonin were reduced, whereas corticosterone was increased from 50 to 60 wk of age in the hens housed in the battery cages (P<0.05) but not in those housed in the furnished cages, which may indicate that the hens housed in the battery cages were stressed. Although further studies remain to be completed, the present results suggest that furnished cages may be a favorable alternative for housing laying hens.

  4. Brain dopamine response in isolated 10-day-old rats: assessment using D2 binding and dopamine turnover.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, P; Clash, K; Skipsey, K; Shoemaker, W J

    1996-01-01

    A single 5-min isolation from the nest, dam, and siblings in 10-day-old rat pups was investigated for its effect on brain dopamine systems. The release of dopamine in innervated brain regions was measured in separate studies using in vivo ligand binding of 3H-raclopride, ex vivo binding using 3H-raclopride, and neurochemical measurement of the dopamine turnover using levels of DOPAC and dopamine. In addition, in vitro homogenate binding was performed to determine baseline Bmax and Kd values for 3H-raclopride binding sites across treatments. Isolation for 5 min in a "novel" environment resulted in decreased 3H-raclopride binding in striatum and septum as determined by both in vivo and ex vivo binding, as well as increased dopamine turnover. There was no difference in Bmax and Kd values for 3H-raclopride in these brain regions after the 5-min isolation, indicating that the binding decreases were due to an increase of available dopamine, presumably from terminal release. The convergence of results from three different techniques supports the interpretation that dopamine is released during the 5-min isolation in both brain regions.

  5. Increased in vivo glucose utilization in 30-day-old obese Zucker rat: Role of white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Krief, S.; Bazin, R.; Dupuy, F.; Lavau, M. )

    1988-03-01

    In vivo whole-body glucose utilization and uptake in multiple individual tissues were investigated in conscious 30-day-old Zucker rats, which when obese are hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and normoglycemic. Whole-body glucose metabolism (assessed by (3-{sup 3}H)glucose) was 40% higher in obese (fa/fa) than in lean (Fa/fa) rats, suggesting that obese rats were quite responsive to their hyperinsulinemia. In obese compared with lean rats, tissue glucose uptake was increased by 15, 12, and 6 times in dorsal, inguinal, perigonadal white depots, respectively; multiplied by 2.5 in brown adipose tissue; increased by 50% in skin from inguinal region but not in that from cranial, thoracic, or dorsal area; and increased twofold in diaphragm but similar in heart in proximal intestine, and in total muscular mass of limbs. The data establish that in young obese rats the hypertrophied white adipose tissue was a major glucose-utilizing tissue whose capacity for glucose disposal compared with that of half the muscular mass. Adipose tissue could therefore play an important role in the homeostasis of glucose in obese rats in the face of their increased carbohydrate intake.

  6. Time course of neuronal damage in the hippocampus following lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus in 12-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Druga, Rastislav; Mares, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2010-10-08

    Status epilepticus (SE) leads to serious damage in hippocampus of the adult brain. Much less is known about immature brain where neuronal degeneration may have different localization and time course. Lithium-pilocarpine SE was induced in 12-day-old male Wistar rats. Six different intervals after SE (from 4 h to 1 week) were studied using Fluoro-Jade B staining. Three to four animals were used for every interval. Severity of damage in individual parts of hippocampal formation was semi-quantified. A consistent neuronal damage occurred in all hippocampal fields (CA 1, CA 3, dentate gyrus) at all survival intervals. Hippocampal fields CA 1 and CA 3 exhibited degeneration of interneurons located mainly in stratum oriens and pyramidale at shorter intervals (4-12h). Massive degeneration of pyramidal cells started at 24h in CA 1 and at 48 h in CA 3. Dentate gyrus exhibited degenerating neurons in granular layer with a peak at short intervals (4-8 h), and molecular layer was spared. The lower blade of dentate gyrus was more affected than the upper blade. Damage of hilar neurons was negligible. Our results demonstrate that SE elicited in immature rats causes acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus. Time course of this degeneration is different for individual parts of hippocampal formation and for individual cell types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interannual variation in the adrenal responsiveness of black-legged kittiwake chicks (Rissa tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Brewer, John H; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Dean Kildaw, S; Loren Buck, C

    2008-04-01

    Over the last decade, field endocrinologists have explored the efficacy of using plasma corticosterone concentrations of breeding seabirds as an indicator of food availability and predictor of breeding success. However, studies have been predominately confined to adults and the results have been inconsistent. We examined the relationship between the productivity of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and the baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels of 12-15 day-old kittiwake chicks in a multi-year study in Chiniak Bay, Kodiak, Alaska. We predicted that corticosterone levels would negatively correlate with productivity. Productivity decreased across years from relatively high levels in 2002, to very low levels in 2004 and 2005. Baseline corticosterone levels of the chicks did not increase consistently across years. Stress-induced corticosterone levels were statistically indistinguishable in high productivity years but increased significantly in low productivity years. The decline in kittiwake productivity coincided with warming ocean conditions, which, historically, are linked to declines in forage abundance for kittiwakes. Inconsistent changes in baseline corticosterone levels suggest some adult kittiwakes were able to buffer their chicks from poor foraging conditions. However, large increases in stress-induced corticosterone levels during the low productivity years indicate chicks were physiologically stressed for some period prior to sampling. Our results suggest that stress-induced corticosterone levels of kittiwake chicks are effective indicators of productivity in poor years, whereas the changes in baseline corticosterone levels across years are not as pronounced and therefore may not be as reliable.

  8. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of rosiglitazone on appetite-associated parameters in chicks.

    PubMed

    Matias, Justin A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Denbow, D Michael; Cline, Mark A

    2015-12-23

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist that increases insulin sensitivity. A documented side effect of this diabetes drug is increased appetite, although the mechanism mediating this response is unknown. To better understand effects on food intake regulation, we evaluated the appetite-associated effects of rosiglitazone in an alternative vertebrate and agriculturally-relevant model, the domesticated chick. Four day-old chicks received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of 0, 5, 10 or 20nmol rosiglitazone and food and water intake were measured. Chicks that received 5 and 10nmol rosiglitazone increased food intake during the 2h observation period, with no effect on water intake. In the next experiment, chicks were ICV-injected with 10nmol rosiglitazone and hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection for total RNA isolation. Real-time PCR was performed to measure mRNA abundance of appetite- and glucose regulation-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA decreased while NPY receptor 1 (NPYr1) mRNA increased in rosiglitazone-injected chicks compared to the controls. Results show that central effects of rosiglitazone on appetite are conserved between birds and mammals, and that increases in food intake might be mediated through NPY and POMC neurons in the hypothalamus.

  9. [Effects of sugar cane molasses on the nutritive value of Canavalia ensiformis seeds for broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Vargas, R E; Castillo, M; Michelangeli, C

    1996-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sugar cane molasses to improve performance of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 30% raw or autoclaved Canavalia ensiformis seeds (Jack beans). For this latter purpose, canavalia seeds were ground and autoclaved at 120 degrees C and 15 psi during 60 min. Day-old male chicks (Cobb x Cobb) were used throughout the study. In Experiment 1, adding 10% molasses to a control diet devoided of jack beans seeds significantly (p < 0.05) increased chick feed intake. However, neither the addition of 10% molasses nor of 5% glucose, sucrose, fructose, xylose or corn starch to the 30% raw canavalia ration allowed feed intakes similar to that shown by the control diet (Experiment 2). Broiler performance was evaluated in Experiment 3 in response to diets containing 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal. Ten-percent molasses was also added to both diets which along with the control diet were fed to chiks had free access to diets. Growth was depressed when the Jack bean containing diets were pair-fed to chicks. The results indicated that the use of molasses does not overcome the deleterious effects on chick performance due to the presence of 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal in the diets.

  10. Effects of aluminum and nicotinic acid on bone minerals and growth in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.E.; Dunn, M.A.; Ross, E.; Zierold, C. )

    1991-03-15

    One-day old Brown Leghorn-Cross male chicks were divided into three groups of ten chicks for each of the following experimental treatments: control; .05% Al and AlCl{sub 3}; 1.5% nicotinic acid (nic); .05% Al + 1.5% nic (Alnic). A standard corn-soybean meal chick starter diet served as the basal diet. Feed consumption and growth rates were recorded during the 14-day study. Chicks were sacrificed at the end of the study. Tibias were taken, weighed, ashed and dissolved in dilute acid. The acid digests were analyzed for mineral content (P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn) using induction-coupled-plasma emission spectroscopy. There were no significant differences between treatments based on mineral content per gram of bone. Bone weights of the Alnic group were decreased by 33% as compared to the control and all other groups; control being 6.49 {plus minus} 1.28g and Alnic being 4.37 {plus minus} 1.32. Body weight was decreased by 21% in the Alnic group. Although Al or nic had no effect on mineral content of bone, the combination of Al and nic caused a decrease in bone weight of the chicks. The combination was more toxic than administrative of either Al or nic alone. This finding may be relevant to the use of nicotinic acid as a supplement when Al containing substances are ingested at the same time.

  11. Oral administration of a combination of select lactic acid bacteria strains to reduce the Salmonella invasion and inflammation of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y; Tsen, H-Y; Lin, C-L; Yu, B; Chen, C-S

    2012-09-01

    One-day-old chicks are susceptible to infection by strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies. Because multistrain probiotics are suggested to be more effective than monostrain probiotics due to the additive and synergistic effects, in this study, we prepared a multistrain formula A (MFA) consisting of 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains selected by enhancing the TNF-α production for mouse macrophage 264.7 cells. The antagonistic effect of this MFA against the cecal colonization, viscera invasiveness, as well as the inflammation of 1-d-old chicks challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium were then assayed. One-day-old chicks were fed with MFA from d 1 to d 3, and on d 4, chicks were challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium (200 μL, 10(6) cfu/mL). The livers, spleens, and cecal tonsils of chicks were then removed on d 3 and 6 postinfection. Compared with the multistrain formula B (MFB) which consisted of LAB strains selected at random, the efficacy of MFA to reduce the Salmonella counts recovered from the cecal tonsils, spleens, and livers of chicks were significantly higher. Moreover, when the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and anti-inflmmatory cytokine, that is, IL-10, in cecal tonsils were measured by reverse-transcription real-time quantitative PCR; it was found that chicks fed with MFA for 3 d had lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and a higher level of IL-10 in the cecal tonsils of chicks as compared with those of the chicks fed with MFB or without LAB. These results suggest that multistrain probiotics consisting of LAB strains selected by immunomodulatory activity and adherence are more effective than those consisting of strains selected at random in antagonistic effect against Salmonella colonization, invasion, and the induced inflammation.

  12. Selective excretion of yolk-derived tocotrienols into the bile of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Surai, P F; Speake, B K

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of biodiscrimination between different forms of vitamin E during the development of the chick embryo. The vitamin E present in the initial yolk consisted of alpha-tocopherol (90%), (beta + gamma)-tocopherol (8%), alpha-tocotrienol (0.3%) and (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (1.3%). In marked contrast, the vitamin E recovered from the bile of the day-16 embryo contained much higher proportions of alpha-tocotrienol (10%) and especially of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (42%). By the time of hatching, 56% of the vitamin E present in the bile was in the form of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol. The residual yolk of the newly-hatched chick contained far greater proportions of alpha-tocotrienol (2.6%) and (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol (10%) than were present in the initial yolk. The results suggest that the liver of the embryo may selectively excrete tocotrienols as components of bile, whilst retaining the tocopherols within the hepatocytes. The increased proportions of tocotrienols in the residual yolk may result from the recycling of bile from the gall bladder to the yolk. The liver of the day-old chick contained alpha-tocopherol as the main form of vitamin E (90%) with only a small proportion (0.2%) of (beta + gamma)-tocotrienol. The alpha-tocopherol form was also the main vitamin E component in the brain (85%), heart (79%), lung (82%) and adipose tissue (91%) of the day-old chick. The present study suggests the occurrence of a high degree of biodiscrimination between tocopherols and tocotrienols during the development of the chick embryo.

  13. Clostridium chauvoei in hens.

    PubMed

    Prukner-Radovcic, E; Milakovic-Novak, L; Ivesa-Petricevic, S; Grgic, N

    1995-03-01

    The bacterium Clostridium chauvoei causes disease in certain animals, most frequently in cattle and sheep. It occurs rarely in pigs, while equines and poultry appear to be resistant to infection. Two cases are presented in which C. chauvoei was isolated from disease of complex aetiology in hens. In Case I, 15-week-old light hybrid chickens were affected with chronic respiratory disease, coccidiosis, ascariasis and inflammation of the skin on the head, with necrosis of the comb. Growth was uneven and mortality reached 24%. Clostridium chauvoei was isolated from two of three combs examined. In Case II a flock of broiler breeders aged 11 weeks developed coccidiosis and, owing to disease or death, 60% were excluded from production. Clostridium chauvoei was isolated from all of 10 livers examined. These results demonstrate that C. chauvoei can infect chickens and that its possible role as a pathogen under certain circumstances should be further investigated.

  14. Regional development of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside transport in the small intestine of chick embryos and newly-hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Esteban, S; Moreno, M; Mestre, I; Planas, J M; Tur, J A

    1991-12-01

    A regional study of the intestinal hexose transport shows the role played by duodenum, jejunum and ileum during the chick perinatal development. From at least two days before hatching the three regions of small intestine accumulate alpha-Méthyl-D-Glucose (alpha-MG) by mediated transport mechanisms, and phloridzin inhibit about 90% of the uptakes. This ability reaches the maximal level at 1 day after hatch in the three regions. Before hatching the jejunum shows higher transport levels than the observed values in the duodenum and ileum, but the three regions show similar values at 1 day after hatch. In the following days, the alpha-MG transport ability is strongly reduced in the duodenum, slightly reduced in the jejunum and maintained in the ileum until at least 7 day-old chicks.

  15. Release of acetylcholine by chick embryo heart before innervation

    PubMed Central

    Coraboeuf, E.; Le Douarin, G.; Obrecht-Coutris, G.

    1970-01-01

    1. In chick embryo hearts, 3-day-old and not yet innervated, repetitive direct stimulation causes a transitory inhibition of the spontaneous rhythm. 2. The degree of post-stimulation inhibition depends on the frequency and duration of the artificial stimulation and on the concentration of K and Ca ions in the extracellular solution. 3. After treatment with atropine (10-5 g/ml.) post-stimulation inhibition is no longer observed. The spontaneous rhythm is accelerated by atropine. The findings therefore suggest that an ACh-like substance is released from the non-innervated embryonic heart during activity. 4. By use of the dorsal muscle of the leech for biological assay the liberation of an ACh-like substance from the non-innervated embryonic heart was confirmed. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:5498489

  16. THE LETHAL EFFECT OF ENDOTOXINS ON THE CHICK EMBRYO

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard T.; Thomas, Lewis

    1956-01-01

    Inoculation of the CAM of the 10-day chick embryo with endotoxin preparations derived from the meningococcus and other Gram-negative microorganisms has been shown to result in multiple hemorrhages and death of the embryo within a few hours. Evidence has been presented to indicate that this lethal effect is specific for the general class of endotoxins derived from Gram-negative bacteria. Susceptibility to endotoxin was maximal in 10-day old embryos, and younger or older embryos showed little or no response. The optimal incubation temperature for the effect of endotoxin was 39.5°C., and embryos incubated at 28°C. were completely protected. The lethal effect was prevented by small amounts of cortisone, hydrocortisone, and 9-alpha fluorohydrocortisone, but not by cholesterol, desoxycorticosterone, or 1-dehydrocortisone. PMID:13345967

  17. The endocrine interface of environmental and egg factors affecting chick quality.

    PubMed

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2007-05-01

    Day-old chicks are the endproduct of the hatchery industry and form important starting material for the broiler farms. The major objective is to obtain a high hatchability of marketable chicks and a low spread of hatch. For the farmers, these chicks have to perform well, which is translated in high viability, high growth rate, high breast meat yield, and low feed conversion. A good-quality 1-d-old chick is hence a crucial hinge between the hatchery and the broiler farm. Moreover, maximal hatchability is not always synonymous with maximal posthatch viability and growth potential of the chick. Quantitative and qualitative scoring of chick quality is assessed. We will briefly discuss some recently developed scoring systems, which will convert differences in qualitative parameters into a quantitative score. Preincubation factors such as egg storage duration and age of broiler breeders, as well as incubation conditions, affect day-old chick quality and subsequent broiler performance. Heat production and metabolism, hormonal balances of thyroid hormones and corticosterone, and gas exchange (O(2), CO(2)) are of fundamental importance for embryonic development and survival during incubation. Results from our studies indicated that embryos with higher pCO(2) levels in the air cell and higher triiodothyronine-thyroxine ratios at internal pipping or in the newly hatched chicks had higher hatchability, chick quality, and posthatch chick growth until 7 d of age. Incubation factors such as temperature, turning conditions, or gaseous environment also affect development, change concentrations of hormones related to metabolism and growth of the embryo, and in this way affect 1-d-old chick quality. Moreover, the spread of the hatch process is affected by incubation conditions as well as by the aforementioned preincubation factors. Depending on the spread of the hatching curve together with the place in the sequence of hatching (early or late) and in interaction with quality of the

  18. Development of a procedure to determine standardized mineral availabilities in soybean meal for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songbai; Li, Sufen; Lu, Lin; Xie, Jingjing; Zhang, Liyang; Jiang, Yong; Luo, Xugang

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for estimating the standardized mineral (calcium, Ca; phosphorus, P; copper, Cu; manganese, Mn; zinc, Zn) availabilities (SMA) in soybean meal for broilers. In experiment 1, twelve 24-day-old male chicks were used to determine the length of the pre-experimental fasting period needed to empty the total tract of feed residues. Feed was removed and excreta samples were collected for 12, 24, 36 or 48 h after feed withdrawal, respectively. The result indicated that birds were fasted for at least 24 h after feed withdrawal in order to ensure that no previous feed residues remained in the digestive tract of chicks. In a subsequent experiment, forty-eight 24-day-old male chicks were used to determine SMA in soybean meal. Chicks were fasted for 24 h and then fed mineral-free or soybean meal diet for 4 h, and excreta samples were collected until 24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal. The results showed that the extended excreta collection time of 48 h after feed withdrawal was adequate for estimating SMA. The standardized availability values of Ca, P, Cu, Mn or Zn in soybean meal were 51.14%, 50.22%, 36.28%, 30.79% or 49.66%, respectively. In experiment 3, a similar bioassay was conducted with forty-eight 36-day-old male chicks to measure SMA in the same soybean meal. The standardized availability values of P (51.59%), Cu (36.37%), Mn (31.94%) or Zn (43.37%) were similar (P > 0.12) to the results of experiment 2 except for Ca (41.49%), indicating that the age of birds had no effect on the standardized availabilities of P, Cu, Mn or Zn in soybean meal. The results from this study suggested that this simple and rapid procedure could be used to determine SMA in feedstuffs (e.g., soybean meal) for broiler chicks.

  19. Perturbation of microbiota in one-day old broiler chickens with antibiotic for 24 hours negatively affects intestinal immune development.

    PubMed

    Schokker, Dirkjan; Jansman, Alfons J M; Veninga, Gosse; de Bruin, Naomi; Vastenhouw, Stephanie A; de Bree, Freddy M; Bossers, Alex; Rebel, Johanna M J; Smits, Mari A

    2017-03-20

    Gut microbial colonization and development of immune competence are intertwined and are influenced by early-life nutritional, environmental, and management factors. Perturbation of the gut microbiome at young age affects the crosstalk between intestinal bacteria and host cells of the intestinal mucosa. We investigated the effect of a perturbation of the normal early life microbial colonization of the jejunum in 1-day old chickens. Perturbation was induced by administering 0.8 mg amoxicillin per bird per day) via the drinking water for a period of 24 h. Effects of the perturbation were measured by 16S rRNA profiling of the microbiome and whole genome gene expression analysis. In parallel to what has been observed for other animal species, we hypothesized that such an intervention may have negative impact on immune development. Trends were observed in changes of the composition and diversity of the microbiome when comparing antibiotic treated birds with their controls. in the jejunum, the expression of numerous genes changed, which potentially leads to changes in biological activities of the small intestinal mucosa. Validation of the predicted functional changes was performed by staining immune cells in the small intestinal mucosa and a reduction in the number of macrophage-like (KUL01(+)) cells was observed due to a direct or indirect effect of the antibiotic treatment. We provide evidence that a short, early life antibiotic treatment affects both the intestinal microbiota (temporarily) and mucosal gene expression over a period of 2 weeks. These results underscore the importance of early life microbial colonization of the gut in relation to immune development and the necessity to explore the capabilities of a variety of early life dietary and/or environmental factors to modulate the programming for immune competence in broilers.

  20. Impact of intracranial blood-flow redistribution on stroke size during ischemia-reperfusion in 7-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Leger, Pierre-Louis; Deroide, Nicolas; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2011-05-15

    We evaluated color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasound imaging for the assessment of intracranial blood flow in two models of cerebral ischemia in 7-day-old (P7) rats. Blood-flow velocities (BFVs) were measured in the internal carotid arteries and basilar trunk upstream from the circle of Willis, and in the posterior cerebral arteries downstream (1) before, (2) during left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation and 50 min-transient either one (I/R-1) or both (I/R-2) common carotid (CCA) arteries occlusion, and (3) after release of CCA(s) occlusion. At 48 h after ischemia 41-48% (I/R-1 model) and 24% (I/R-2 model) of rats did not present a lesion. Those rats displayed increased mean BFV in both right internal carotid artery and basilar trunk in I/R-1 model, and increased mean BFV in the basilar trunk (BT) in I/R-2 model. In contrast, no significant changes in mean BFV were observed in lesioned rats. Furthermore, mean BFV in the BT was inversely correlated to the size of the lesion (r² = 0.75, p<0.0001) in the I/R-2 model. Thus, we demonstrated the protective role of collateral support in P7 rodents. Ultrasound imaging can evidence the establishment or not of the cerebral collateral recruitment, leading to the presence or absence of a lesion. This novel approach should greatly help preclinical studies to reduce animal variability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulation of 5-HT release in the hippocampus of 30-day-old rats exposed in utero to protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Mokler, David J; Galler, Janina R; Morgane, Peter J

    2003-05-14

    Previous in vivo microdialysis studies have shown increased spontaneous release of 5-HT in the hippocampus of adult behaving rats exposed to prenatal protein malnutrition. Furthermore, behavioral studies have shown that adolescent rats (PD30) that have been prenatally protein malnourished demonstrate an increased sensitivity to the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide (CDP). Given this altered sensitivity to benzodiazepines in adolescent malnourished rats, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased release of 5-HT in the hippocampus is present in adolescent rats and that this release is modulated by CDP. An altered release of 5-HT at PD30 would suggest an early developmental change associated with prenatal malnutrition. PD30 rats were implanted with microdialysis probes into the dorsal hippocampus and 5-HT release was monitored before and after administration of CDP. As previously reported in adult rats, release of 5-HT was significantly elevated in the dorsal hippocampus of PD30 rats as compared to well-nourished 30-day-old controls. Administration of CDP did not affect the release of 5-HT from the hippocampal formation of well-nourished rats but significantly decreased the elevated release of 5-HT in the malnourished rats. Following CDP, 5-HT release in the malnourished rats was at the same levels as release in well-nourished animals. Benzodiazepines have been reported to decrease extracellular 5-HT in stressed rats but not in unstressed rats. Thus, the elevated 5-HT release in the hippocampus in rats exposed to prenatal protein malnutrition may be associated with an increased response to stress. These data support other data that prenatal protein malnutrition alters the response to stressful stimuli possibly through changes in the GABAergic and/or serotonergic systems.

  2. Simultaneous oral administration of Salmonella Infantis and S. Typhimurium in chicks.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koichi; Maeda-Mitani, Eriko; Onozuka, Daisuke; Noda, Tamie; Sera, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Fujimoto, Shuji; Murakami, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis that Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar (S.) Infantis has higher basic reproductive rates in chicks compared with other Salmonella serovars, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks (n = 8) were challenged simultaneously with S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium per os. Challenged chicks (Group A) were then housed with non-infected chicks (Group B, n = 4) for 6 days (from 2 to 8 days of age). Group B birds were then housed with other non-infected birds (Group C, n = 4), which were then transferred to cages containing a further group of untreated chicks (Group D, n = 2). A control group consisting of four non-infected chicks was used for comparison. All chickens were humanely sacrificed at 18 days of age, and Salmonella from bowel and liver samples were enumerated. Both serovars were isolated from all groups except the control group. S. Typhimurium was isolated at a greater frequency than S. Infantis from the bowel samples of chicks from Groups B, C and D, while no differences in colonisation rates were observed between the two serovars in liver samples from Groups B, C and D. S. Typhimurium, but not S. Infantis, was immunohistochemically detected in the lamina propria of the cecum and rectum in five birds of Group A. Despite the competitive administration, neither of the two serovars completely excluded the other, and no differences were observed in basic reproductive rates between the two serovars. These findings, together with data from previous studies, suggest that the initial quantitative domination of S. Infantis in chicken flocks may explain why this serovar is predominant in broiler chickens.

  3. Accurate visual memory of colors in controlling the pecking behavior of quail chicks.

    PubMed

    Aoki, M; Izawa, E; Koga, K; Yanagihara, S; Matsushima, T

    2000-11-01

    Animals are predisposed to memorize specific features of objects they encounter, and to link them with behavioral outputs in a selective manner. In this study, we examined whether chicks memorize objects by colors, and how they exploit the memorized color cues for selective pecking in 1- to 2-days-old quail chicks (Coturnix japonica). Ball-shaped beads painted in green (G), yellowish green (YG) and the intermediate color (YGG) were used. Repetitive presentation of a bead (interval: 4.5 min) resulted in gradually fewer pecks (habituation). Subsequent presentation of a different color caused proportionately more pecks (dishabituation); e.g., after habituation to the G bead, the YG bead caused a stronger dishabituation than the YGG bead did. The dishabituation appeared symmetric; e.g., the YG bead caused as strong dishabituation after the G-habituation, as was caused by the G bead after the YG-habituation. Number of pecks could thus reveal the memory-based color perception in chicks. Similar discrimination of beads by memorized color cues was found after one-trial passive avoidance training, where chicks learned to avoid a bitter-tasting object without any differential pre-training experiences. However, proportion of the chicks that discriminated between different colors became progressively smaller at test 15 min, 1 hr, and 24 hr post-training. On the other hand, proportion of chicks that distinguished beads by non-color cues remained unchanged. Chicks may primarily form an accurate memory of colors, but gradually change the link between the color memory and the pecking behavior.

  4. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  5. Chicks incubated in hypomagnetic field need more exogenous noradrenaline for memory consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Wang, Qian; Xu, Mu-Ling; Jiang, Jin-Chang; Li, Bing

    2009-07-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is one of the essential characteristics of the terrestrial environment but does not apply in outer space. The elimination of GMF may interfere with the normal activities of life in many aspects. Previous behavioral experiments have found that long-term memory is impaired in chicks incubated in a near-zero magnetic environment (i.e. hypomagnetic field or HMF). The present study was designed to evaluate the possible involvement of noradrenergic change in the functional abnormality observed before. A HMF space was produced by nullifying the natural GMF with three pairs of Helmholtz coils. The one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm was performed on day-old chicks incubated in either the HMF space or the natural GMF. Exogenous noradrenaline was administered by intracerebral injections and the effect on memory consolidation was compared between the two categories of subjects. In the behavioral paradigm, the HMF chicks had a higher elimination rate than the GMF chicks and displayed a significant reduction in overall responsiveness. The administration of moderate doses (0.1-0.5 nmol/hemisphere) of noradrenaline led to fairly good memory retention in GMF chicks but had little effect on HMF chicks. However, long-term memory of HMF chicks could be elevated to the normal level by much higher doses (1.0-1.75 nmol/hem) of the drug. These results suggest that prolonged exposure to HMF may induce disorders in the noradrenergic system in the brain and indicate a potentiality of counteracting the ill-effect of GMF deprivation with appropriate pharmacological manipulation.

  6. L-Ornithine is a potential acute satiety signal in the brain of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Do, Phong H; Bahry, Mohammad A; Yang, Hui; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Recently, we observed that neonatal chicks exhibit feeding behavior characterized by frequent food intake and short resting intervals, with changes detected in the brain amino acid and monoamine concentrations. In this study, we aimed to clarify further the relationship between the appetite of neonatal chicks and brain amino acid metabolism. In Experiment 1, changes were investigated in free amino acids in the brain under conditions of regulated appetite induced by fasting and subsequent short-term re-feeding. Chicks (5 days old) were distributed into four treatment groups--namely, fasting for 3h, and fasting for 3h followed by re-feeding for 10, 20 or 30 min. Brain samples were collected after treatment to analyze free amino acid concentrations. Amino adipic acid and proline in all brain parts as well as arginine and ornithine in all brain parts--except mesencephalic arginine and cerebellar ornithine--were increased in a time-dependent manner following re-feeding. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effect of exogenous administration of some amino acids altered in association with feeding behavior in Experiment 1. We chose L-arginine and its functional metabolite, L-ornithine, to analyze their effects on food intake in chicks. Intracerebroventricular injection (2 μmol) of L-ornithine, but not L-arginine, significantly inhibited food intake in neonatal chicks. In Experiment 3, we found that central injection of L-ornithine (2, 4, and 6 μmol) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in chicks. These results suggested that L-ornithine may have an important role in the control of food intake as an acute satiety signal in the neonatal chick brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur. PMID:27047021

  8. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks.

  9. Carotenoid supplementation and sex-specific trade-offs between colouration and condition in common tern chicks.

    PubMed

    Benito, María M; González-Solís, Jacob; Becker, Peter H

    2011-05-01

    Carotenoids, as pigments with antioxidant and immunoregulatory properties, play a crucial role in developing chicks. Carotenoids must be acquired through diet and are relatively scarce, suggesting that their availability is a limiting factor leading to a trade-off between colour displays and physiological functions. However, potential differences in this trade-off between male and female chicks have been little studied. We manipulated carotenoid availability in 9 days old common tern Sterna hirundo chicks by supplementing their fish diet with four carotenoids during 9 days. Our aim was to examine sex-specific responses to the experimental increase of dietary carotenoids on plasma circulation, physiological and condition variables and successful fledging. Furthermore, to explore the functional and evolutionary basis of the trade-off, we studied the relationships among carotenoid concentration, mediated immune response and foot colouration. After treatment, control chicks showed decreasing plasma levels for most carotenoid types, whereas supplemented chicks had strong increases. Colour luminosity and saturation increased in both treatment groups, while hue only changed significantly towards redder feet in supplemented females. Supplemented chicks presented neither different T-cell-mediated immunity nor other differences compared to control chicks. Nevertheless, supplemented females showed tendencies towards decreased immune responses and increased δ(15)N signatures, and supplemented males towards greater body mass. Our results indicate colouration may have, in females, a signalling function as to compensate for immunological costs. In males, additional availability of carotenoids may contribute to improve the body condition. This study suggests that trade-off responses to carotenoid availability are sex-specific in tern chicks. Thus, parental carotenoid supply to chicks may be an unrecognised component in sex allocation.

  10. Chicks like consonant music.

    PubMed

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    The question of whether preference for consonance is rooted in acoustic properties important to the auditory system or is acquired through enculturation has not yet been resolved. Two-month-old infants prefer consonant over dissonant intervals, but it is possible that this preference is rapidly acquired through exposure to music soon after birth or in utero. Controlled-rearing studies with animals can help shed light on this question because such studies allow researchers to distinguish between biological predispositions and learned preferences. In the research reported here, we found that newly hatched domestic chicks show a spontaneous preference for a visual imprinting object associated with consonant sound intervals over an identical object associated with dissonant sound intervals. We propose that preference for harmonic relationships between frequency components may be related to the prominence of harmonic spectra in biological sounds in natural environments.

  11. Lipids in maternal diet influence yolk hormone levels and post-hatch neophobia in the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Elske N; Calandreau, Ludovic; Baéza, Elisabeth; Chartrin, Pascal; Palme, Rupert; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic; Lumineau, Sophie; Houdelier, Cécilia; Denis, Isabelle; Arnould, Cécile; Meurisse, Maryse; Bertin, Aline

    2017-04-01

    We assessed whether the ratio of dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during egg formation engenders transgenerational maternal effects in domestic chicks. We analyzed yolk lipid and hormone concentrations, and HPA-axis activity in hens fed a control diet (high n-6/n-3 ratio) or a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs (low n-6/n-3 ratio) for 6 consecutive weeks. Their chicks were tested for neophobia during the first week of life. We found higher corticosterone metabolites in droppings of hens fed the diet enriched in n-3 and significantly higher concentrations of yolk progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol in their eggs compared to controls. Chicks of hens fed the n-3 enriched diet showed a lower body mass at hatch than controls and expressed higher neophobia when exposed to a novel object. These results add support to the hypothesis that the nutritional state of female birds produces variation in yolk hormone levels and engender maternal effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of four antibiotic additives on the Salmonella contamination of chicks protected by an adult caecal flora.

    PubMed

    Humbert, F; Lalande, F; L'hospitalier, R; Salvat, G; Bennejean, G

    1991-12-01

    Avoparcin (10 mg/kg feed), bacitracin (50 mg/kg), flavomycin (5 mg/kg) and virginiamycin (20 mg/kg) were tested for their synergy or antagonism on the protective effect of an adult caecal flora administered to 1-day-old chicks. The chicks were challenged experimentally per os with 10(4) to 10(5)Salmonella typhimurium (a rifampicin-resistant strain) when aged 2 days. Chicks receiving avoparcin continuously in the feed had significantly more Salmonella in their caeca than control birds given feed containing no antibiotics; those receiving flavomycin had similar numbers to the controls whereas the groups fed on a diet supplemented with bacitracin or virginiamycin exhibited the lowest level of Salmonella carriage.

  13. Visually Inexperienced Chicks Exhibit Spontaneous Preference for Biological Motion Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Regolin, Lucia; Marconato, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    When only a small number of points of light attached to the torso and limbs of a moving organism are visible, the animation correctly conveys the animal's activity. Here we report that newly hatched chicks, reared and hatched in darkness, at their first exposure to point-light animation sequences, exhibit a spontaneous preference to approach biological motion patterns. Intriguingly, this predisposition is not specific for the motion of a hen, but extends to the pattern of motion of other vertebrates, even to that of a potential predator such as a cat. The predisposition seems to reflect the existence of a mechanism in the brain aimed at orienting the young animal towards objects that move semi-rigidly (as vertebrate animals do), thus facilitating learning, i.e., through imprinting, about their more specific features of motion. PMID:15934787

  14. Binocular and monocular/unihemispheric sleep in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus) after a moderate sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Bobbo, Daniela; Nelini, Cristian; Mascetti, Gian G

    2008-03-01

    Binocular (Bin-sleep) and monocular/unihemispheric sleep (Mo-Un sleep) were studied in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) after an 8 h period of sleep deprivation. Eleven-day-old chicks were divided into three groups: two non-deprived (N-DEP1 and N-DEP2) and one deprived for 8 h (DEP-8H). Deprivation was performed by placing chicks on a treadmill on which they were forced to walk continuously. Sleep behaviour was recorded for 6 h consecutively immediately after the end of sleep deprivation. During the recovery period, sleep-deprived chicks slept for a longer duration, spent significantly more time in binocular sleep and slept for significantly longer episodes that did control chicks. Regarding Mo-Un sleep, sleep deprivation seems to affect the right hemisphere by reducing the number of episodes and the time spent sleeping with the left eye closed. These results suggest that sleep-deprivation significantly influences the pattern of sleep in domestic chicks allowing for a better recovery.

  15. Cold-induced enhancement of avian uncoupling protein expression, heat production, and triiodothyronine concentrations in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Collin, Anne; Buyse, Johan; van As, Pieter; Darras, Veerle M; Malheiros, Ramon D; Moraes, Vera M B; Reyns, Geert E; Taouis, Mohammed; Decuypere, Eddy

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) mRNA expression, heat production, and thyroid hormone metabolism were investigated in 7-14-day-old broiler chicks (Gallus gallus) exposed to a low temperature (cold-exposed chicks, CE) or a thermoneutral temperature (TN). After 7 days of exposure, CE chicks exhibited higher heat production (+83%, P<0.01), avUCP mRNA expression (+20%, P<0.01), and circulating triiodothyronine (T(3)) levels (+104%, P=0.07) for non-statistically different body weights and feed intake between 3 and 7 days of exposure as compared to TN chicks. Plasma thyroxine (T(4)) concentration was clearly decreased in CE chicks (-33%, P=0.06). The lower hepatic inner-ring deiodination activity (-47%) and the higher renal outer-ring deiodination activity (+75%) measured in CE compared to TN chicks could partly account for their higher plasma T(3) concentrations. This study describes for the first time the induction of avUCP mRNA expression by low temperature in chickens, as it has been previously shown in ducklings, and supports the possible involvement of avUCP in avian thermogenesis.

  16. Interactive effects of temperature and hypoxia on heart rate and oxygen consumption of the 3-day old chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Wills, Kathryn; Trippenbach, Teresa; Al Awam, Khalid

    2010-03-01

    In the chick embryo at day 3, gas exchange occurs by diffusion and oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) does not depend on the cardiovascular convection of O(2). Whether or not this is the case in hypoxia is not known and represents the aim of the study. The heart of chicken embryos at 72 h (stage HH18) was filmed through a window of the eggshell by a camera attached to a microscope. Stroke volume was estimated from the changes in heart silhouette between systole and diastole. V(O(2))was measured by a closed system methodology. In normoxia, a decrease in temperature (T) from 39 to 31 degrees C had parallel depressant effects on V(O(2))and HR. At 39 degrees C, a progressive decrease in O(2) lowered V(O(2)); HR was maintained until the O(2) threshold of approximately 15%. In severe hypoxia (4% O(2)) V(O(2))and HR were, respectively, approximately 12% and approximately 62% of normoxia. At 32 degrees C the hypoxic threshold for HR was significantly lower. During constant hypoxia (7% O(2)) V(O(2))did not respond to T, while the HR response was preserved. Stroke volume changed little with changes in T or O(2), except at 6 and 4% O(2), when it decreased by approximately 20 and 30%. In embryos growth-retarded because of incubation in chronic hypoxia, V(O(2))and HR responses to T and hypoxia were similar to those of normal embryos. We conclude that in the early embryo during hypoxia cardiovascular O(2) convection is not responsible for the drop in V(O(2)). The generalised hypometabolic response, in combination with the extremely small cardiac V(O(2)), probably explains the minor effects of hypoxia on cardiac activity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Invasive and noninvasive measurement of stress in laying hens kept in conventional cages and in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Cook, N; Cheng, K M; Silversides, F G

    2009-07-01

    Measurements of the heterophil:lymphocyte (H/L) ratio (invasive technique) and corticosterone in yolk and albumen (noninvasive techniques) were used to measure stress in 3 commercial laying strains, Lohmann White (LW), H&N White (HN), Lohmann Brown (LB), and a noncommercial cross (CR) between Rhode Island Red (male) and Barred Plymouth Rock (female), kept in conventional cages or floor pens. All chicks were reared in their respective environments, and 450 and 432 pullets were placed at 18 and 7 wk of age in cages and floor pens, respectively. Blood from 12 hens per strain was taken at 19, 35, and 45 wk of age in each housing system. A total of 100 heterophils and lymphocytes were counted and their ratio (H/L ratio) was calculated. Corticosterone was measured in yolk and albumen from 12 hens per strain in each housing system at 22 and 45 wk of age. The H/L ratio was within the normal range. The interaction between environment and strain for the H/L ratio showed that in both environments, LB and CR hens had a higher H/L ratio than LW and HN layers. In cages, there were significant differences in H/L ratios between LW and HN hens that were likely due to genetic differences. The LW hens had significantly lower corticosterone concentrations in yolk than LB hens. In cages but not floor pens, yolk corticosterone concentrations at wk 22 were significantly higher than at wk 45. In floor pens but not cages, albumen corticosterone at wk 22 was higher than at wk 45. The H/L ratios suggest that none of the hens were unduly stressed, and corticosterone levels in yolk and albumen support the suggestion that hens adapted to their environments with age. Although measurement of yolk corticosterone and the H/L ratio may be comparable, the measurement of corticosterone level in the albumen may differ because it is secreted over a short time.

  18. Characterization of chick serum lipoproteins isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vico, F; Lopez, J M; Castillo, M; Zafra, M F; Garcia-Peregrin, E

    1992-01-01

    Serum lipoproteins from 12h fasted male chicks (15-day-old) were separated into 20 fractions by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. A new procedure was described by collecting the different fractions from the bottom of tube instead of by aspiration from the meniscus of each tube. Analyses of chemical composition of serum lipoproteins have permitted to reevaluate the density limits of major classes: VHDL, d greater than 1.132 g/ml; HDL, d 1.132-1.084 g/ml; LDL, d 1.084-1.038; IDL, d 1.038-1.022; and VLDL d less than 1.022. HDL fractions clearly predominated (approx. 77% of total lipoproteins) while IDL and VLDL were present at low percentage. LDL was the fraction richest in cholesterol; triacylglycerol content clearly increased from HDL to VLDL, while protein content decreased. All the chemical components of chick serum lipoproteins were accumulated in HDL, although triacylglycerol was relatively distributed in all the lipoprotein classes.

  19. Vulnerability of black grouse hens to goshawk predation: result of food supply or predation facilitation?

    PubMed

    Tornberg, Risto; Helle, Pekka; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2011-07-01

    The plant cycle hypothesis says that poor-quality food affects both herbivorous voles (Microtinae spp.) and grouse (Tetraonidae spp.) in vole decline years, leading to increased foraging effort in female grouse and thus a higher risk of predation by the goshawk Accipiter gentilis. Poor-quality food (mainly the bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus) for these herbivores is induced by seed masting failure in the previous year, when the bilberry is able to allocate resources for chemical defence (the mast depression hypothesis; MDH). The predation facilitation hypothesis (PFH) in turn states that increased searching activity of vole-eating predators during or after the decline year of voles disturbs incubating and brooding grouse females. The behaviours used by grouse to avoid these terrestrial predators make them more vulnerable to predation by goshawks. We tested the main predictions of the MDH and PFH by collecting long-term (21-year) data from black grouse Tetrao tetrix hens and cocks killed by breeding goshawks supplemented with indices of bilberry crop, vole abundance and small carnivores in the vicinity of Oulu, northern Finland. We did not find obvious support for the prediction of the MDH that there is a negative correlation of bilberry crop in year t with vole abundance and with predation index of black grouse hens in year t + 1. We did find obvious support for the prediction of the PFH that there is a positive correlation between predator abundance and predation index of grouse hens, because the stoat Mustela erminea abundance index was positively related to the predation index of black grouse hens. We suggest that changes in vulnerability of grouse hens may mainly be caused by the guild of vole-eating predators, who shift to alternative prey in the decline phase of the vole cycle, and thus chase grouse hens and chicks to the talons of goshawks and other avian predators.

  20. Analysis of metabolic pools in broilers chicks.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Maria Márcia Pereira; Denadai, Juliana Célia; Sartori, José Roberto; Campos, Daniel; Macari, Marcos; Pezzato, Antônio Celso; Ducatti, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the possibility of obtaining new parameters for the mathematical modelling of data on stable isotopes in biological systems and its application in obtaining data on metabolic pools of blood plasma, blood serum, liver and muscle of broilers. This theory states that the modelling of turnover used for studies of isotopic incorporation when the metabolism has a single metabolic pool is feasible by the technique of setting an exponential. However, when the metabolism has more than one metabolic pool, it is necessary to apply the linearization technique, linear regression adjustment and evaluation of the assumptions of regression to obtain the kinetic parameters such as half-life (T1/2) and isotope exchange rate (k). The application of this technique on carbon-13 data from 100 one-day-old chicks, with the change of diet composed of grains of the photosynthetic cycle of plants from C4 to C3, in broilers has enabled the discovery that the liver, blood plasma and blood serum have a single metabolic pool; however, the pectoral muscle has two metabolic pools. For the liver, blood plasma and blood serum, the half-life values were found by the exponential fit being T1/2 = 1.4 days with the rate of exchange of k = 0.502, T1/2 = 2.4 days with k = 0.293 and T1/2 = 2.0 days with k = 0.348, respectively. For the pectoral muscle, after linearization, the half-life values were found for T1/2(1) = 1.7 and T1/2(2) = 3 days, with exchange rates of k1 = 0.405 and k2 = 0.235, representing approximately 66 and 34%, respectively.

  1. A novel, nonsurgical method for the treatment of tibiotarsal rotation in houbara bustard (Chlamydotis macqueenii) chicks.

    PubMed

    Stiévenart, Corinne

    2008-03-01

    Rotational limb deformity due to tibiotarsal rotation can affect captive-bred houbara bustard chicks (Chlamydotis macqueenii) from an early age. If not completely corrected, the affected birds can neither be released into the wild nor used in captive-breeding projects. A nonsurgical orthopedic method was developed to correct this deformity before growth is completed. The method consists of hobbling digits III and the distal part of the tarsometatarsus of each leg with a self-adhesive conforming bandage that keeps digits III parallel with enough freedom of movement to allow walking. The tibiotarsal bones are left free. This treatment was successful when it was implemented for 20 days on 10-day-old houbara bustard chicks presenting with 60 degrees to 90 degrees unilateral tibiotarsal rotation. Implementing the same corrective method at an older age was not successful. This cheap, accessible, and noninvasive technique may be applicable to other avian species.

  2. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed Central

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-01-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl. Images PMID:2280022

  3. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-12-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl.

  4. Animal cognition. Number-space mapping in the newborn chick resembles humans' mental number line.

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Priftis, Konstantinos; Regolin, Lucia

    2015-01-30

    Humans represent numbers along a mental number line (MNL), where smaller values are located on the left and larger on the right. The origin of the MNL and its connections with cultural experience are unclear: Pre-verbal infants and nonhuman species master a variety of numerical abilities, supporting the existence of evolutionary ancient precursor systems. In our experiments, 3-day-old domestic chicks, once familiarized with a target number (5), spontaneously associated a smaller number (2) with the left space and a larger number (8) with the right space. The same number (8), though, was associated with the left space when the target number was 20. Similarly to humans, chicks associate smaller numbers with the left space and larger numbers with the right space.

  5. A substance secreted by rat Sertoli cells induces feminization of embryonic chick testes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Jiménez, R; Burgos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R

    1994-06-01

    Male and female gonads from 7- to 9-day-old chick embryos were cultured for 6 days in Sertoli cell-conditioned medium or in serum-free medium to investigate the possible effect of substances secreted by rat Sertoli cells on chick gonad development. Histological analysis showed that whereas all female gonads proceed through normal ovarian development in both culture media, most of male gonads showed clear feminization only when cultured in Sertoli cell-conditioned medium; male gonads cultured in serum-free medium developed as normal testes. Because the only substance detected in our conditioned medium with the potential to cause these effects was sex-specific antigen (Sxs), our results provide further evidence that Sxs antigen may play a role in sexual differentiation in birds, and probably in mammals.

  6. Involvement of Notch signaling in early chick ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Changquan; Li, Jian; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2016-01-01

    The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells, and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4), and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks.

  7. Chick heart invasion assay.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc E; Parmar, Virinder S; Depass, Anthony L; Stevens, Christian V; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Mareel, Marc M

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are microecosystems in which a continuous cross talk between cancer cells and host cells decides on the invasive behavior of the tumor cell population as a whole (Mareel et al., Encyclopedia of cancer, San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 1997). Both compartments secrete activating and inhibitory factors that modulate activities such as cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, cell-cell adhesion, remodeling of the ECM, and cell motility. For this reason, confrontations of cancer cells with a living normal host tissue in organ culture have been introduced by several groups: Wolff and Schneider in France (Wolff and Schneider, C R S Soc Biol (Paris) 151:1291-1292, 1957), Easty and Easty in the United Kingdom (Easty and Easty, Nature 199:1104-1105, 1963), and Schleich in Germany (Schleich et al., J Natl Cancer Inst 56:221-237, 1976). Embryonic chick heart fragments in organ culture maintain many histological features of their tissue of origin: They are composed of myocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and their ECM contains fibronectin, laminin, and several collagen types. Moreover, the fragments remain contractile, and this activity allows the monitoring of their functional integrity during organ culture.

  8. Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on beta-carotene utilization by the chick.

    PubMed

    Erdman, J W; Fahey, G C; White, C B

    1986-12-01

    Effects of various purified dietary fiber components on beta-carotene utilization by the chick were investigated in two experiments (expt.). Eight-day-old Columbian X New Hampshire male (expt. 1) or female (expt. 2) chicks were fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 1 wk and then fed beta-carotene-supplemented diets containing 0% fiber, 7% arenaceous flour or 7% of a purified fiber source for 4 wk. Results of expt. 1 showed that hemicellulose, lignin and citrus pectin, but not arenaceous flour or polygalacturonic acid, depressed beta-carotene utilization by the chick, as measured by percentage of consumed beta-carotene stored in liver as vitamin A relative to the 0% fiber control. In expt. 2, effects of the methoxyl content of pectin were studied. High and medium methoxyl apple pectin, citrus pectin and polygalacturonic acid reduced storage of vitamin A in liver. Low methoxyl apple pectin had no significant effect on beta-carotene utilization. Thus, several purified forms of dietary fiber significantly reduced beta-carotene utilization by chicks when fed at the 7% supplementary level. Moreover, with pectin, there was an inverse relationship between methoxyl content of pectin and beta-carotene utilization.

  9. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals’ ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts. PMID:27465742

  10. Ratio abstraction over discrete magnitudes by newly hatched domestic chicks (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; McCrink, Koleen; de Hevia, Maria-Dolores; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Regolin, Lucia

    2016-07-28

    A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts.

  11. Early-age heat exposure affects skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in chicks.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Krispin, A; Leshem, Y; McMurtry, J P; Yahav, S

    2001-07-01

    Exposure of young chicks to thermal conditioning (TC; i.e., 37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in significantly improved body and muscle growth at a later age. We hypothesized that TC causes an increase in satellite cell proliferation, necessary for further muscle hypertrophy. An immediate increase was observed in satellite cell DNA synthesis in culture and in vivo in response to TC of 3-day-old chicks to levels that were significantly higher than those of control chicks. This was accompanied by a marked induction of insulin-like growth factor-I (IFG-I), but not hepatocyte growth factor in the breast muscle. No significant difference between treatments in plasma IGF-I levels was observed. A marked elevation in muscle regulatory factors on day 5, followed by a decline in cell proliferation on day 6 together with continuous high levels of IGF-I in the TC chick muscle may indicate accelerated cell differentiation. These data suggest a central role for IGF-I in the immediate stimulation of satellite cell myogenic processes in response to heat exposure.

  12. Fasting alters protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase in the hypothalamus of broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Yue, Yunshuang; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Everaert, Nadia; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan

    2012-09-15

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fasting and re-feeding on hypothalamic 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels and (an)orexigenic neuropeptides. Male Arbor Acres chicks (7-day-old, n=160) were allocated to four equal treatment groups: control chicks (fed ad libitum for 48 h, C48), chicks that were fasted for 48 h (F48), chicks that were first fasted for 48 h and then re-fed for 24h (F48C24), and chicks that were fed ad libitum for 72h (C72). Fasting for 48 h significantly (P<0.05) increased the ratio of phosphorylated AMPKα to total AMPKα and phosphorylated LKB1 to total LKB1, whereas re-feeding for 24h reduced these ratios to that of the ad libitum fed C72 chicks. The gene expressions of agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocortin receptor 4, melanin-concentrating hormone, prepro-orexins and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the fasted chicks relative to the ad libitum fed C48 group. The gene expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), as well as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was not affected by the nutritional status. Fasting significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). The results suggest that the LKB1/AMPK signal pathway is involved in the energy homeostasis of fasted chicks, and its possible role in feed intake regulation might be mediated by the AgRP/NPY rather than the POMC/CART pathway.

  13. Monocular sleep in male domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone; Bobbo, Daniela; Rugger, Marina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2004-08-31

    Behavioural sleep during the first 2 weeks after hatching was studied in male chicks reared with an imprinting object (I-chicks) and in social isolation (NI-chicks). Time spent in sleeping with both eyes closed (binocular sleep) decreased gradually with age in both I-chicks and in NI-chicks whilst the number of episodes of binocular sleep decreased with age in NI-chicks but not in I-chicks. The pattern of monocular sleep (only one eye closed) of both I-chicks and NI-chicks showed no significant bias towards predominant left- or right-eye closure during the first week. During the second week, I-chicks showed a tendency towards more pronounced left-eye closure with a peak on day 10, whilst NI-chicks showed a tendency for more pronounced right-eye closure with peaks on days 9 and 11. In a different group of chicks, changing the colour of the imprinting object on day 8 produced a shift towards right-eye closure. In contrast, the removal of the imprinting object on day 8 did not cause any change in the pattern of monocular sleep. Differences with respect to sleeping patterns previously observed in females chicks are discussed.

  14. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P < 0.01) feed intake, BW gain, and deteriorated (P < 0.05) feed conversion values compared with those kept in the thermoneutral house. Dietary supplementation with CrMet increased (P < 0.01) feed intake and improved (P < 0.01) weight gain and feed efficiency. There were significant Cr level × temperature interactions, so that inclusion of CrMet into the diets was more effective in heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P < 0.01) cutaneous hypersensivity response to phytohemagglutinin-P injection at 30 d of age, and dietary supplementation of 500 μg Cr/kg induced (P < 0.05) this response, with the greater impacts in heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P < 0.01) Cr × temperature interaction. Antibody responses against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were diminished (P < 0.01) in heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P < 0.05) antibody responses to different immunostimulants, and this effect was more pronounced in heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the proportion of helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes and increased cytotoxic (CD8+) T lymphocytes, resulting in a decreased (P < 0.01) CD4+ to CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood

  15. Filial responses as predisposed and learned preferences: Early attachment in chicks and babies.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Loveland, Jasmine L; Mayer, Uwe; Rosa-Salva, Orsola; Versace, Elisabetta; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-09-08

    To what extent are filial responses the outcome of spontaneous or acquired preferences? The case of domestic chicks illustrates the connection between predisposed and learned knowledge in early social responses. In the absence of specific experience, chicks prefer to approach objects that are more similar to natural social partners (e.g. they prefer face-like configurations, biological motion, self-propelled objects and those that move at variable speed). Spontaneous preferences are complemented by filial imprinting, a powerful learning mechanism that enables chicks to quickly learn the features of specific social partners. While neurobiological studies have clarified that the substrates of spontaneous and learned preferences are at least partially distinct in chicks, evidence shows that spontaneous preferences might orient and facilitate imprinting on animate stimuli, such as the mother hen, and that hormones facilitate and strengthen preferences for predisposed stimuli. Preferences towards animate stimuli are observed in human neonates as well. The remarkable consistency between the perceptual cues attended to by newborn babies and naïve chicks suggests that the attentional biases observed in babies are unlikely to result from very rapid post-natal learning, and confirms that research on precocial species can inform and guide human infant research with regards to both typical and atypical development. This has potentially important biomedical implications, opening new possibilities for the early detection of subjects at risk for autism spectrum disorders. We show how the parallel investigation of predispositions in naïve chicks and human infants, both benefiting from contact with social partners since the beginning of life, has greatly improved our understanding of early responses to social stimuli at the behavioural and neurobiological level.

  16. Investigations of the vertical transmission of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Atoussa; Philipp, Hans C; Bonsack, Heiko; Voss, Matthias

    2006-06-01

    Erysipelas was diagnosed in a layer breeder flock in Sweden in 2002. Although vertical transmission of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae has not been previously described in chickens, the potential of erysipelas infection to adversely affect hatching eggs was of concern. To clarify the possible impact of erysipelas on hatching eggs and their progeny, an experiment was done using 200 hatching eggs collected from the infected flock. The eggs were incubated for 21 days, and the egg shells, infertile eggs, dead-in-shell embryos, and a sample of day-old hatched chicks and blood samples from 5-day-old chicks were cultured for E. rhusiopathiae. In addition, after 28 days of grow-out, the male chickens were euthanatized and cultured for the bacterium, and the remaining female chickens were placed as a backyard flock and observed over a 4-mo period. Bacteriological test results of the above-mentioned samples were negative for E. rhusiopathiae. Mortality rates were not excessive, and no clinical symptoms of erysipelas were observed during the period of observation. The result of the investigation suggests that in layer breeder chickens, E. rhusiopathiae is not vertically or egg transmitted and that the disease outbreak in the parent stock had no adverse impact on the quality of hatching eggs in terms of increased embryo mortality.

  17. [Developmental characteristics of the sensorimotor cortex of 7-8 days old rats in the roller cultures of free-floating brain slices].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, O P; Lyzhin, A A; Viktorov, I V

    2004-01-01

    Development and formation of neuronal architectonic of organotypic structures of sensomotor cortex of 7-8-day-old rats was studied in roller cultures. Free-floating cortical slices were cultured for 2-3 weeks. Serial paraffin sections of cultured tissue were stained with cresyl violet fast using Nissl's method. It was shown that during cultivation cortical slices changed their initial flat configuration and transformed into spherical bodies that retained main histiotypic features of cortical formations. Radially oriented pyramidal and fusiform neurons formed cortical structure that was not subdivided into individual layers and covered the whole surface of spherical tissue bodies. It is concluded that histogenetical processes were continuing in free-floating slices of sensomotor cortex of 7-8-day-old rats during roller cultivation. They result in formation of histiotypic cortical structure similar to phylogenetically more ancient allocortical formations of the forebrain.

  18. EFFECT OF DIETARY ANTIBIOTICS UPON COLIFORM BACTERIA AND LACTOBACILLI IN THE INTESTINAL TRACT OF URIC ACID-FED CHICKS1

    PubMed Central

    Bare, L. N.; Wiseman, R. F.; Abbott, O. J.

    1964-01-01

    Bare, L. N. (University of Kentucky, Lexington), R. F. Wiseman, and O. J. Abbott. Effect of dietary antibiotics upon coliform bacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal tract of uric acid-fed chicks. J. Bacteriol. 87:329–331. 1964.—Male chicks (1-day-old; Vantress X Arbor Acre) were fed a basal glucose-soybean oil meal diet, a 2% uric acid-containing diet with and without 5 mg/lb of zinc bacitracin and 20 mg/lb of procaine penicillin G, and one supplemented with the antibiotics only. After 4 weeks, the chicks receiving the uric acid without antibiotics showed a weight depression. The presence of antibiotics in the ration with the uric acid reversed this growth depression. Bacteriological and chemical analyses of the contents of the small intestine revealed an increase in numbers of uricolytic Aerobacter spp. and an increased degradation of uric acid in the tract of the “uric-antibiotic”-fed chicks. The counts of lactobacilli were always lowest in this group of chicks PMID:14151052

  19. Response of chicks to two diets of differing energy levels under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.; Kese, A. G.

    1987-12-01

    A 2×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the performance and certain physiological parameters of 200 day-old chicks fed diets containing either 2600 or 3000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram for a period of 28 days under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat in a hot humid tropical area. The results indicated that within each dietary energy level, there was no significant difference in growth rates of chicks brooded with or without supplemental heat, however, the high energy diet significantly (P<0.01) promoted greater weight gains than the low energy diet. Brooding chicks with supplemental heat and with the high energy diet, decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion efficiency. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat consumed significantly (P<0.01) less water than those brooded with heat, irrespective of the dietary energy level. Mortality and blood glucose levels were not affected by the heat and dietary energy treatments. Thyroid weight expressed as percentage of body weight, haemoglobin and hematocrit values were significantly (P<0.01) higher for chicks brooded without supplemental heat. On the other hand, dietary energy levels did not exert any effect on these physiological parameters. No significant heat and dietary energy level interaction effects were noted on all the parameters considered under this trial.

  20. Experimental increase of flying costs in a pelagic seabird: effects on foraging strategies, nutritional state and chick condition.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Joan; González-Solís, Jacob

    2007-02-01

    A central point in life history theory is that parental investment in current reproduction should be balanced by the costs in terms of residual reproductive value. Long-lived seabirds are considered fixed investors, that is, parents fix a specific level of investment in their current reproduction independent to the breeding requirements. We tested this hypothesis analysing the consequences of an experimental increase in flying costs on the foraging ecology, body condition and chick condition in Cory's shearwaters Calonectris diomedea. We treated 28 pairs by reducing the wing surface in one partner and compared them with 14 control pairs. We monitored mass changes and incubation shifts and tracked 19 foraging trips per group using geolocators. Furthermore, we took blood samples at laying, hatching and chick-rearing to analyse the nutritional condition, haematology, muscle damage and stable isotopes. Eighty-day-old chicks were measured, blood sampled and challenged with PHA immune assay. In addition, we analysed the effects of handicap on the adults at the subsequent breeding season. During incubation, handicapped birds showed a greater foraging effort than control birds, as indicated by greater foraging distances and longer periods of foraging, covering larger areas. Eighty-day-old chicks reared by treated pairs were smaller and lighter and showed a lower immunity than those reared by control pairs. However, oxygen demands, nutritional condition and stable isotopes did not differ between control and handicapped birds. Although handicapped birds had to increase their foraging effort, they maintained physical condition by reducing parental investment and transferred the experimentally increased costs to their partners and the chick. This result supports the fixed investment hypothesis and is consistent with life history theory.

  1. A rare case of neonatal cryptococcal meningitis in an HIV-unexposed 2-day-old infant: the youngest to date?

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Dominic Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is uncommon in children, particularly in infants. A 2-day-old boy was admitted with signs suggestive of meningitis. Lumbar puncture confirmed meningitis and cryptococcal infection (cryptococcal antigen and Indian ink stain-positive). His mother was HIV-negative. This is thought to be the youngest case of cryptococcal meningitis to be reported. Cryptococcal infection should be considered in children of all ages with meningitis where there is possible immunodeficiency or failure to respond to initial treatment with antibiotics.

  2. Performance of male broiler chicks exposed to heat from infrared or microwave sources

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; Amyot, E.; McMillan, I.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    In eight trials, 240 male broiler birds, initially 7 days old, were randomly allocated to three treatments. Treatments were: continuous infrared (CI), intermittent infrared (II; 4 min on, 2 min off, 10 cycles/h), and intermittent microwaves (IM; 2 min on, 4 min off, 10 cycles/h). At the conclusion of the 14-day experimental period the 21-day-old birds were killed. Although there were significant differences (P less than or equal to .05) in mean gain over the 2-wk treatment period between trials, no differences (P greater than .05) were attributed to treatments. There were, however, significant differences in feed:gain ratios between trials and between treatments. Feed:gain ratios of birds kept under CI and II treatments did not differ significantly (P greater than .05). However, feed:gain ratios, 1.61 +/- .04 and 1.57 +/- .04 for CI and II, respectively, differed significantly (P less than or equal to .05) from that of the IM treatment (1.76 +/- .04). The protein content of chicks under II was significantly (P less than or equal to .05) lower than that of birds under IM. There were no differences (P greater than .05) in fat, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content of chicks among treatments.

  3. Detection of rotaviruses and intestinal lesions in broiler chicks from flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS).

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M; Elschner, Mandy; Reetz, Jochen; Löhren, Ulrich; Diller, Roland

    2006-09-01

    The intestinal tract and intestinal contents were collected from 34 stunted, 5-to-14-day-old broiler chicks from eight flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in Northern Germany to investigate intestinal lesions and the presence of enteric pathogens with a special focus on rotaviruses (RVs). Seven chicks from a healthy flock were used as controls. Severe villous atrophy was seen in chicks from six flocks with RSS but not in the control flock. Lesions were often "regionally" distributed in the middle-to-distal small intestine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and seminested RT-PCR were used for detection and characterization of RVs. The PAGE allows discrimination of different RV groups, and the RT-PCR was used to verify the presence of group (gp) A RVs. RVs were detected (by all methods) in 32 of 34 chicks from the flocks with RSS. By TEM (negative staining), RV particles were observed in intestinal contents of 28 chicks from the flocks with RSS. PAGE analysis showed four RV groups: gpA, gpD, gpF, and gpG. Group A RVs were detected in four chicks from two flocks with RSS, without intestinal lesions. GpD RVs were detected in 12 chicks of five flocks with RSS, 10 of them with severe villous atrophy. GpF RVs were confirmed in four chicks from three flocks with RSS and in two birds in the control flock. GpG RVs were verified in two chicks from two flocks with RSS, one with, and one without, intestinal lesions. At present, PCR methods are only available for detection of gpA RVs. Using RT-PCR, gpA RVs were identified in samples from 22 chicks including samples of two chicks from the control flock. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between presence of gpD RV and severe villous atrophy in flocks with RSS. The results suggest that gpD RV plays a major role in the pathogenesis of RSS.

  4. Effect of zinc imprinting and replacing inorganic zinc with organic zinc on early performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, S; Timmons, J; Ao, T; Paul, M; Macalintal, L; Pescatore, A; Cantor, A; Ford, M; Dawson, K A

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a zinc (Zn) deficient diet to broiler chicks for 96 h post-hatch followed by feeding diets with different Zn sources and supplemental levels (5 to 21 d) on the growth performance, tissue, and excreta Zn content. At the start of the study, four hundred 20-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn soybean meal based diet containing 25 mg of Zn/kg (imprinting diet, ID). The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 40 mg of Zn/kg from Zn oxide (ZnO) (non-imprinting diet, NID). Both groups were fed these diets for 96 h. At d 5, chicks from each group were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments consisting of the basal diet alone or the basal diet supplemented with 8 or 40 mg/kg Zn as ZnO or Zn proteinate. Main effects of post-hatch Zn ID were observed on feed intake and G:F. ID decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and improved (P < 0.05) the gain to feed ratio (G:F) of 14 and 21 d old chicks compared to G:F of chicks fed NID. Additionally, G:F for 14 and 21 d was improved (P < 0.05) by interaction of Zn source × level. Furthermore, at d 21 chicks fed the ID had a lower (P < 0.05) Zn content in the tibia ash and excreta, and a higher (P < 0.05) Zn content in the pancreas tissue compared to chicks fed NID. These results suggest that Zn imprinting can affect body Zn stores and early performance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  5. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Ohh, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Seongjin; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-Mahn

    2016-06-01

    Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His) is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD), BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old) in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group). The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05). ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions.

  6. Effect of zinc imprinting and replacing inorganic zinc with organic zinc on early performance of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, J.; Ao, T.; Paul, M.; Macalintal, L.; Pescatore, A.; Cantor, A.; Ford, M.; Dawson, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a zinc (Zn) deficient diet to broiler chicks for 96 h post-hatch followed by feeding diets with different Zn sources and supplemental levels (5 to 21 d) on the growth performance, tissue, and excreta Zn content. At the start of the study, four hundred 20-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn soybean meal based diet containing 25 mg of Zn/kg (imprinting diet, ID). The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 40 mg of Zn/kg from Zn oxide (ZnO) (non-imprinting diet, NID). Both groups were fed these diets for 96 h. At d 5, chicks from each group were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments consisting of the basal diet alone or the basal diet supplemented with 8 or 40 mg/kg Zn as ZnO or Zn proteinate. Main effects of post-hatch Zn ID were observed on feed intake and G:F. ID decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and improved (P < 0.05) the gain to feed ratio (G:F) of 14 and 21 d old chicks compared to G:F of chicks fed NID. Additionally, G:F for 14 and 21 d was improved (P < 0.05) by interaction of Zn source × level. Furthermore, at d 21 chicks fed the ID had a lower (P < 0.05) Zn content in the tibia ash and excreta, and a higher (P < 0.05) Zn content in the pancreas tissue compared to chicks fed NID. These results suggest that Zn imprinting can affect body Zn stores and early performance. PMID:27664197

  7. Interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Erinle, O Y; William, G A; Ogunade, A C

    2015-10-01

    The interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks were investigated using 250-day-old cockerel chicks previously reared for 7 days pre-experimental period. Birds were fed with commercial chick mash during the pre-experimental period. At the expiration of this period, 192 chicks were selected on weight equalization basis and assigned into 24 pens. Each treatment consisted of six pens, while each pen housed eight birds. Four wheat-soya bean-based experimental diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets having two wheat forms (ground and whole wheat grain) each supplemented or not with 1 g/kg MOS/kg feed. Whole wheat feeding (irrespective of MOS supplementation) showed reduced (p < 0.05) feed intake. Birds fed whole wheat diet supplemented with MOS recorded the highest (p < 0.01) final live weight, weight gain and the best (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. Haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell count of the chicks were not affected (p > 0.05) by dietary treatment. However, dietary supplementation with MOS resulted in increased (p < 0.05) WBC counts. The caecum content of chicks fed with MOS-supplemented whole wheat diets recorded the least (p < 0.01) salmonella counts. In conclusion, combination of whole wheat feeding and MOS supplementation showed improved growth performance, gut microbiota and indications of improved health status of cockerel chicks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Immunological responses as affected by dietary protein and arginine concentrations in starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R

    2009-09-01

    The study presented here aimed to investigate the effect of dietary protein content on Arg needs and immunological responses of broiler chicks during the starter period. A total of 715 one-day-old male Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 5 replicate pens for each of 11 experimental diets during a 21-d feeding trial. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal control diet or experimental diets (corn-soybean meal-corn gluten meal) containing 5 dietary Arg levels of 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120% of NRC recommendations and 2 dietary protein levels of 19 and 22.35% of diet. Increasing dietary CP content significantly (P<0.001) increased daily feed consumption and weight gain. Also, feeding diets deficient in Arg to the chicks led to a noticeable decline in feed intake, and dietary Arg supplementation overcame decreased feed consumption and weight gain observed in Arg-deficient chicks. Feed efficiency was affected only by dietary Arg concentration so that chicks on Arg-deficient diets markedly (P<0.001) increased feed conversion ratio. Contrast comparisons showed that the highly variable responses of chicks to dietary Arg level were mainly attributed to dietary protein concentration: more dietary protein content and higher Arg demands. Among lymphoid organs, thymus (P<0.001) and spleen (P<0.05) were affected by dietary Arg deficiency, whereas diets low in CP content decreased (P<0.001) relative weights of thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Increase in dietary CP level from 19 to 22.35% caused an increase (P<0.001) in the proportion of lymphocytes and consequently lower (P<0.05) heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Broiler chicks on Arg-deficient diets decreased the proportion of heterophils in peripheral blood. Furthermore, skin reaction to phytohemagglutinin P was impaired when the diets were low in CP and Arg contents. Similarly, a decrease in dietary CP and Arg levels diminished the antibody production response to Newcastle disease virus. The broken

  9. Physiological stress in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mumma, J Odihambo; Thaxton, J P; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Dodson, W L

    2006-04-01

    Stress responses in laying hens were mediated by continuous infusion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) via osmotic pumps. The ACTH was dissolved in saline solution (0.85%), and each pump delivered 8 IU of ACTH per kilogram of BW per day at the rate of 1 microL/h for 7 d. Control hens received pumps loaded with saline. Measurements were made at 6 d postpump implantation, unless otherwise indicated. The ACTH-treatment increased BW and total carcass, rear half of carcass, intestinal, and liver weights. Proximate analyses of liver showed increases in dry weight, moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash content. Weights of the front half of the carcass, as well as weights of the abdominal fat pad, heart, head, feet, and skin were unaffected by ACTH-treatment. Plasma corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins were increased by ACTH, whereas triglycerides were decreased. Feed and water intake, total excreta, and excretory DM were all increased in ACTH-treated hens. The ACTH decreased carbohydrate in excreta, whereas ash, protein, fiber, and gross energy of excreta were unaffected. The ACTH did not affect digestibility of dry matter, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, or gross energy; however, absorption of ash, protein, carbohydrates, and gross energy were increased by ACTH. Antibody levels to sheep red blood cells, cell-mediated immunity (wattle index to phytohemagglutinin-phosphate), and relative spleen weight were reduced by ACTH, whereas heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was increased. Reproduction in hens was negatively affected by ACTH treatment, as measured by cessation of laying on the third day of treatment, atretic follicles, and decreased oviduct weight.

  10. Normal hematologic and biochemical values for prelaying greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and their influence on chick survival.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mike R; Gregg, Michael A; Giordano, Mark R; Davis, Dawn M; Byrne, Michael W; Crawford, John A; Tornquist, Susan J

    2005-09-01

    Declines in greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) productivity and population numbers throughout their range demand a better understanding of how nutrition influences sage grouse populations. During March and April 1999-2001, blood samples were collected from 158 female (73 adult, 85 yearling), free-ranging, prelaying, greater sage grouse from an area in northwestern Nevada, USA, and southeastern Oregon, USA. These blood samples were evaluated to establish normal blood values for sage grouse and ascertain if certain blood parameters, as indices of nutrition, are useful for predicting if sage grouse hens would raise at least one chick to 1 August. Results of logistic regression indicated that three of six blood parameters analyzed--glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium: phosphorus ratio-affected the probability of a female sage grouse raising at least one chick to late summer. Ranking of the standardized estimates revealed that glucose and total plasma protein had the greatest impact on the likelihood of a female successfully raising chicks. Odds ratios indicated that a 1-unit increase in glucose (1 mg/dl) and plasma protein (0.1 g/dl) would result in a 4% and 113% positive increase, respectively, in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August. Odds ratios for calcium : phosphorus ratio revealed a 70% decline in the predicted odds of at least one chick surviving until 1 August if the level of this parameter increased one unit (e.g., 3:1 to 4:1). Based on these analyses, values of some blood parameters used as indices of nutrition, especially glucose, total plasma protein, and calcium : phosphorus ratio, can be successfully used to predict reproductive success of sage grouse. These parameters are not only indicative of the nutritional status of prelaying hens but may be associated with nutritional quality of the habitat and therefore have important management significance.

  11. Prediction of optimal vaccination timing for infectious bursal disease based on chick weight.

    PubMed

    Vaziry, Asaad; Venne, Daniel; Frenette, Diane; Gingras, Sylvain; Silim, Amer

    2007-12-01

    Growth rate in broiler birds has increased substantially in the last decade due to improvement in genetics, feed formulation, cleaner environment, and vaccine formulations. As a result, it has become necessary to review and revise prediction method for vaccination in chicks. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of the rate of weight gain rather than age in predicting vaccination time. Two groups of 1-day-old broilers originating from old and young breeders, respectively, and with different levels of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were used in this study. The chicks were divided into four groups and subjected to two feed regiments: groups A1 and B1 were fed broiler feed for normal growth rate, and groups A2 and B2 were fed breeder feed for slower growth rate. At 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 29, and 36 days of age, 22 chicks in each group were weighed, and blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against IBDV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. Maternal antibody decline curves for each group were plotted according to chick age and chick weight. Fast-growing birds in groups A1 and B1 showed a faster rate of antibody decline, whereas slow-growing birds in groups A2 and B2 had a slower rate of antibody decline. Based on the effect of weight gain on maternal antibody decline, a new way of predicting vaccination time for IBDV based on measuring maternal antibody titers at 4 days of age was proposed and tested. The predicted antibody decline was shown to correspond to the real ELISA titers measured in our experiments (R = 0.9889), whereas a lower correlation (R = 0.8355) was detected between real ELISA titers and the titers predicted by the current method using age-based Deventer formula.

  12. Effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chickens on developmental stability, hatchability and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Narinç, D; Erdoğan, S; Tahtabiçen, E; Aksoy, T

    2016-08-01

    Stress based on high temperature and humidity reduces the production performance of fast-growing broilers and causes high mortality. Temperatures higher than optimum have been applied to broilers in the embryonic period in order to overcome thermal stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of exposure to two long-term high-thermal environments on the developmental stability of embryonic growth, hatchability and chick quality. For this purpose, 600 broiler eggs were incubated. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C at 55% relative humidity throughout (control), heated to 39.6°C at 60% relative humidity for 6 h daily from 0 to 8th day, and heated to 39.6°C at 60% relative humidity for 6 h daily from the 10 to 18th day. Embryo weights and lengths of face, wing, femur, tibia and metatarsus were measured daily between the 10th and 21st day of the experiment. Daily relative asymmetry values of bilateral traits were estimated. The hatchability, the weight of the 1-day-old chicks and chick quality were determined. In conclusion, no negative effects of the treatments of the long-term high-thermal environment in the early and late stages of incubation for epigenetic adaptation were determined on the embryo morphology, development stability and weight of the chick. Moreover, regressed hatchability of embryos that were exposed to a long-term high-thermal environment was detected. Especially between the 10 and 18th day, the thermal manipulation considerably reduced the quality of the chicks. Acclimation treatments of high temperature on the eggs from cross-breeding flocks should not be made long term; instead, short-term treatments should be made by determining the stage that generates epigenetic adaptation.

  13. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocyst vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Jenkins, Mark C; Miska, Katarzyna B; Barfield, Ruth C

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, 1-day-old chicks were immunized with oocysts of Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, or Eimeria tenella exposed to gamma radiation ranging from 0-500 Gy. The litter oocyst counts at 7 days postimmunization, and the effect on weight gain following a challenge infection, decreased with an optimum dose between 150-200 Gy. Based on this finding, broiler chicks were immunized with a mixture of E. maxima, E. acervulina, and E tenella that had been exposed to 150 or 200 Gy. This resulted in more than a 100-fold reduction in litter oocyst counts and significant protection from a challenge infection, as measured by improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Immunization of birds with oocysts receiving 200 Gy was less effective in providing protection from a challenge infection. An additional formulation of vaccines containing two different oocyst doses of the three species that had been irradiated with 150 Gy were evaluated in their ability to attenuate oocyst output and convey protection to challenge. Results were similar with both high and low numbers of irradiated oocysts. Immunized chicks shed less oocysts at 7 days postimmunization and were protected from negative effects of challenge infection as measured by FCR, changes in weight gain, lesion scores, and measurement of body composition. However, the level of protection was somewhat less than that achieved by immunization with nonirradiated oocysts. The overall conclusion is that an irradiated oocyst vaccine developed in this study can effectively protect chicks that are raised on litter from challenge infection with multiple species of Eimeria, comparable to vaccines with virulent or precocious strains.

  14. A method for detecting MFO induction by Japanese pulp mill effluents with chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kamaya, Yasushi

    1995-12-31

    As a biomarker of physiological responses in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents, mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction has been investigated by many researchers. The induction and/or inhibition of MFOs is generally affected by various factors of fish such as species, maturity, sex, size and spawning status, and by other environmental variables. Therefore, the method demands technical skills to get a constant result. In addition, the test is costly and also time consuming. In this paper, the authors propose a MFOs induction method using chick embryo, instead of fish, for the assessment of pulp mill effluent. The merits of this method are as follows; inexpensive and commercially available test organisms, easy maintenance of the organisms, no feeding, high uniformity of the developing stage, sensitive responses to xenobiotics, low sample volume requirements, easy testing of various samples at one time and minimal training. P450 1A1 has been found in the microsome of chick embryo. Metabolic function of the P450 1A1 can be regarded basically the same as that of fish. Small amount of xenobiotics, about 100 {micro}l, were injected into the air chamber of 16-day-old chick embryos. Liver microsomes were isolated 48 h after administration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was determined by the direct fluorimetric method. Using the chick embryo method, the authors analyzed various chloro-organics, model bleached kraft pulp mill effluents, model black liquor and several total effluents of Japanese pulp mills. Methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-TCDD were used as positive controls. In this paper, the authors will report the details of the chick embryo method and also some results of the assessment using the method.

  15. Effect of nucleus accumbens lesions on socially motivated behaviour of young domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Gergely; Tóth, András Sebestyén; Balogh, Márton; Csillag, András

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of young domestic chicks when isolated from conspecifics is influenced by two conflicting drives: fear of potential predator and craving for company. The nucleus accumbens (Ac) has been suggested to influence social behaviour, as well as motivation in goal-directed tasks. In this study, the Ac of 1-day-old domestic chicks was lesioned bilaterally, using radiofrequency method. Open field behaviour before and after presenting a silhouette of a bird of prey was recorded, followed by a behavioural test to measure group size preference and social motivation of chicks. Ac-lesioned individuals emitted more distress calls and ambulated more in the open field test, however, they reacted to the predatory stimulus very similarly to control chicks: their vocalization was reduced and the intergroup difference in motor activity also disappeared. There was no difference between the lesioned and control chicks in the latency to approach their conspecifics in the social motivation test, and both groups chose the larger flock (eight) of conspecifics over the smaller one (three). Concerning the role of Ac in social behaviour, a difference between lesioned and sham birds was evident here only in the absence of detectable stimulus (predator or conspecifics). These findings may reflect either decreased fear of exposure to predators or increased craving for conspecifics suggesting that the likely function of Ac is to modulate goal-driven, including socially driven, behaviours, especially when the direct stimulus representing the goal is absent. This is in harmony with the known promotion of impulsiveness by Ac lesions. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of TEX-OE(®) treatment on the development of heat shock proteins in commercial broiler chicks and the impact on performance indicators in the grow-out period.

    PubMed

    Parker, C D; Prins, C; Saliba, C; Gutierrez, G; Serrar, M

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved proteins, shown to protect organisms against physical and physiological stress. TEX-OE(®) is a patented total extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica, which has been demonstrated to accelerate the development of HSPs in several animal species. One-day-old commercial broiler chicks were treated with TEX-OE(®); HSP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a large commercial field trial investigated key performance indicators (KPIs) in treated versus untreated controls chicks. TEX-OE(®) significantly increased HSP concentrations in treated chicks versus controls. Final cumulative mortality, liveweight and percentage factory-rejects were better than in controls. The accelerated HSP response may enable chicks to cope with early stressors, which is reflected in improved KPIs.

  17. Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen.

    PubMed

    Abou Elazab, Mohamed Fahmy; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2015-11-01

    Specific immune suppression in newly hatched chicks induced by specific maternal antibodies has been reported. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP and non-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) Y antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and then, they were immunized with an optimum immunogenic dose of DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of anti-DNP antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proportions of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood of these chicks were also measured by flow cytometric analysis at 5 weeks of age (one week after the second immunization). Suppression of anti-DNP antibody response and down-regulation of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. On the other hand, normal anti-DNP antibody response and normal proportion of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of non-specific IgY antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. Furthermore, when chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age and then with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) at 5 and 8 weeks of age, their primary anti-RSA response was also significantly suppressed. We indicate here that specific maternal antibodies can affect both B and T cell responses and induce non-specific suppression against different antigens. However, this non-specific suppression does not continue for a long time.

  18. Induction of non-specific suppression in chicks by specific combination of maternal antibody and related antigen

    PubMed Central

    ABOU ELAZAB, Mohamed Fahmy; HORIUCHI, Hiroyuki; FURUSAWA, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Specific immune suppression in newly hatched chicks induced by specific maternal antibodies has been reported. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP and non-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) Y antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and then, they were immunized with an optimum immunogenic dose of DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age. Concentrations of anti-DNP antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proportions of T-cell subsets in peripheral blood of these chicks were also measured by flow cytometric analysis at 5 weeks of age (one week after the second immunization). Suppression of anti-DNP antibody response and down-regulation of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. On the other hand, normal anti-DNP antibody response and normal proportion of CD3+CD4+ cells were observed in the chicks received high dose of non-specific IgY antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH. Furthermore, when chicks received high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and immunized with DNP-KLH at 1 and 4 weeks of age and then with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) at 5 and 8 weeks of age, their primary anti-RSA response was also significantly suppressed. We indicate here that specific maternal antibodies can affect both B and T cell responses and induce non-specific suppression against different antigens. However, this non-specific suppression does not continue for a long time. PMID:26050841

  19. Antibody response to and maternal immunity from an experimental psittacine beak and feather disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, B W; Niagro, F D; Latimer, K S; Steffens, W L; Pesti, D; Campagnoli, R P; Lukert, P D

    1992-09-01

    Adult umbrella cockatoos, Moluccan cockatoos, African grey parrots, and a yellow-headed Amazon parrot were inoculated IM or SC with beta-propiolactone-treated psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) virus. Thirty- to 45-day-old African grey parrot, umbrella cockatoo, and sulphur-crested cockatoo chicks also were vaccinated with the same inoculum. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar-gel diffusion tests were used to assay for post-vaccination development of anti-PBFD virus antibodies. All adult vaccinates seroconverted and had increases in HI and precipitating antibodies. The vaccinated chicks had increased concentrations of HI antibodies, but precipitating antibodies could not be detected. To demonstrate that chicks from vaccinated hens are protected from PBFD virus challenge, 3 African grey parrot chicks and 2 umbrella cockatoo chicks from vaccinated hens and 1 African grey parrot chick and 1 umbrella cockatoo chick from nonvaccinated hens were exposed to purified PBFD virus. Chicks from the vaccinated hens remained clinically normal during the 50-day test period. Chicks from the nonvaccinated hens developed clinical and histologic lesions of PBFD. Infected tissues from these birds were confirmed to contain viral antigen, using immunohistochemical staining techniques. The PBFD virus was recovered from the affected birds. These findings indicate that adult and 30- to 45-day-old psittacine birds will seroconvert following vaccination with beta-propiolactone-treated PBFD virus. Also, hens inoculated with beta-propiolactone-treated PBFD virus produce chicks that are, at least temporarily, resistant to virus challenge.

  20. Effects of feeding regimen, fiber inclusion, and crude protein content of the diet on performance and egg quality and hatchability of eggs of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Shivazad, M; Zaghari, M; Rezaian, M; Aminzadeh, S; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    A 12-wk experiment was conducted to study the effects of feeding regimen, inclusion of a fiber source, and CP content of the diet on performance of broiler breeder hens. In total, 360 hens and 60 males, 43 wk of age, were assigned to 60 floor pens (6 hens and 1 male each). There were 12 treatments arranged factorially with 2 feeding regimens [restricted (R) and liberal feeding (close to ad libitum consumption; LIB)], 3 sources of fiber (0, 3% inulin, and 3% cellulose), and 2 levels of CP (14.5 and 17.4%). No interactions among main effects were observed for any of the traits studied, and therefore, only main effects are presented. Body weight, liver weight, and abdominal fat weight were higher (P < 0.001) for the LIB than for the R-fed hens. However, egg production (P < 0.001), fertility index (P < 0.05), and percentage of hatch (P < 0.01) were lower for LIB than for R hens. The weights of ovaries (P < 0.05) and the size of the first preovulatory follicle (P < 0.05) were higher for the LIB than for the R hens. Also, egg yolk, egg weight, and BW of the hatching chicks were higher (P < 0.001) for the LIB hens. The inclusion of a fiber source in the diet decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, BW gain, absolute liver and abdominal fat weight, and egg yolk weight, with effects being more pronounced (P < 0.05) with cellulose than with inulin. Hens fed additional fiber produced more (P < 0.05) eggs that were more fertile (P < 0.05) than control hens. Crude protein content of the diet did not affect hen performance but reduced (P < 0.01) the relative weight of the liver, ovary, and abdominal fat. It is concluded that the inclusion of inulin or cellulose in the diet improved hen performance and that an increase in dietary CP reduced obesity in broiler breeder hens.

  1. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) disruption of passive avoidance learning in the day-old chick appears to be due to its effect on GABAB not gamma-hydroxybutyric [corrected] acid (GHB) receptors.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Joanne M; Hazi, Agnes; Hale, Mathew W; Milsome, Sarah L; Crowe, Simon F

    2009-02-11

    Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is a prodrug to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and metabolises to GHB when ingested. Discrimination stimulus studies report generalisation of effects of GHB to GBL. While amnesia is one of the most commonly reported symptoms of GHB's ingestion in human users, as yet few studies have examined this effect. Although an endogenous GHB specific receptor is present in the brain, several studies have indicated that the clinical effects of exogenous doses of GBL/GHB are due to its action on GABA(B) receptors rather than on the GHB receptor. In this series of studies, New Hampshire x White leghorn cockerels were trained using a modified version of the passive avoidance learning task. Subcutaneous injections of GBL induced a memory deficit by 10 min post-training, which persisted for at least 24 h. No effect on memory was seen with administration of the specific GHB agonist NCS-356 (gamma-p-chlorophenyl-trans-4-hydroxycrotonate). The GBL-induced memory deficit appeared similar to the deficit produced by baclofen, where the antagonist facilitated learning. Additionally, GBL-induced memory deficit was ameliorated by application of a GABA(B) antagonist. The results support the hypothesis that GBL exerts its influence on memory via the GABA(B) receptor rather than by the specific GHB receptor.

  2. Key Brainstem Structures Activated during Hypoxic Exposure in One-day-old Mice Highlight Characteristics for Modeling Breathing Network in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Fanny; Loiseau, Camille; Perrin-Terrin, Anne-Sophie; Cayetanot, Florence; Frugière, Alain; Voituron, Nicolas; Bodineau, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We mapped and characterized changes in the activity of brainstem cell groups under hypoxia in one-day-old newborn mice, an animal model in which the central nervous system at birth is particularly immature. The classical biphasic respiratory response characterized by transient hyperventilation, followed by severe ventilation decline, was associated with increased c-FOS immunoreactivity in brainstem cell groups: the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, retrotrapezoid/parafacial region, parapyramidal group, raphe magnus nucleus, lateral, and medial parabrachial nucleus, and dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus. In contrast, the hypoglossal nucleus displayed decreased c-FOS immunoreactivity. There were fewer or no activated catecholaminergic cells activated in the medulla oblongata, whereas ~45% of the c-FOS-positive cells in the dorsal subcoeruleus were co-labeled. Approximately 30% of the c-FOS-positive cells in the parapyramidal group were serotoninergic, whereas only a small portion were labeled for serotonin in the raphe magnus nucleus. None of the c-FOS-positive cells in the retrotrapezoid/parafacial region were co-labeled for PHOX2B. Thus, the hypoxia-activated brainstem neuronal network of one-day-old mice is characterized by (i) the activation of catecholaminergic cells of the dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus, a structure implicated in the strong depressive pontine influence previously reported in the fetus but not in newborns, (ii) the weak activation of catecholaminergic cells of the ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, an area involved in hypoxic hyperventilation, and (iii) the absence of PHOX2B-positive cells activated in the retrotrapezoid/parafacial region. Based on these results, one-day-old mice could highlight characteristics for modeling the breathing network of premature infants. PMID:28018238

  3. A Chick Embryo in-Vitro Model of Knee Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Edward K.; Munasinghe, Jeeva

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this feasibility study, a mechanically loaded in-vitro tissue culture model of joint morphogenesis using the isolated lower extremity of the 8 day old chick embryo was developed to assess the effects of mechanical loading on joint morphogenesis. Methods: The developed in-vitro system allows controlled flexion and extension of the chick embryonic knee with a range of motion of 20 degrees from a resting position of 90-100 degrees of flexion. Joint morphogenesis at 2, 3, 4 and 7 days of culture was assessed by histology and micro MRI in 4 specimen types: undisturbed in-ovo control embryos, in-ovo paralyzed embryos, in-vitro unloaded limb cultures, and in-vitro loaded limb cultures. Relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration across the joint was assessed with an MRI technique referred to as dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage) where T1 is proportional to glycosaminoglycan concentration. Results: Average T1 over the entire tissue image for the normal control (IC) knee was 480 msec; for the 4 day loaded specimen average T1 was 354 msec; and for the 7 day loaded specimens T1 was 393 msec. The 4 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 279 msec while the 7 day unloaded specimen had an average T1 of 224 msec. The higher T1 values in loaded than unloaded specimens suggest that more glycosaminoglycan is produced in the loaded culture than in the unloaded preparation. Conclusion: Isolated limb tissue cultures under flexion-extension load can be viable and exhibit more progression of joint differentiation and glycosaminoglycan production than similarly cultured but unloaded specimens. However, when compared with controls consisting of intact undisturbed embryos in-ovo, the isolated loaded limbs in culture do not demonstrate equivalent amounts of absolute growth or joint differentiation. PMID:27200386

  4. Impact of chlorpyrifos on health biomarkers of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Zishan; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, M Tariq; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the deleterious effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in experimentally exposed broiler birds. The experiment was carried out on one day old (n = 120) broiler chicks. The CPF was reconstituted in corn oil as vehicle (1 ml/kg) to obtain a final concentration of a single dose to the birds 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) for fourteen days of the experiment through the stomach tube. The control group was given corn oil 1 ml/kg only. Birds exposed to high dose (20 mg/kg BW) showed signs of toxicity (salivation, lacrimation, gasping, convulsions, frequent defecation and tremors). The birds exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased body weight. Significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased hematological parameters i.e. total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and total leukocyte were observed in the high dosed group as compared to control and other low dosed fed birds. Serum protein and albumin showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in high dosed CPF fed birds. Non significant results were observed in the case of globulin. The acetylcholinestrease (AChE) activity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in blood, serum and plasma in CPF fed birds compared to control birds. In CPF fed birds as compared to control birds we found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Necrotic and degenerative changes were observed on histopathological investigations of spleen, kidneys, bursa of Fabricius, thymus and brain tissues in CPF exposed birds. In conclusion the chlorpyrifos induced toxicopathological effects on health biomarkers of broiler chicks.

  5. Corn expressing an Escherichia coli-derived phytase gene: comparative evaluation study in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Nyannor, E K D; Adeola, O

    2008-10-01

    The efficacy of corn expressing an Escherichia coli-derived gene (corn-based phytase; CBP) and an E. coli-derived microbial phytase (expressed in Pichia pastoris) sprayed onto a wheat carrier (Quantum) was comparatively evaluated in two 14-d broiler chicken studies. In experiment 1, a total of 288 seven-day-old male broiler chicks were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 6 cages, with 6 birds per cage, and used to measure growth performance, bone mineralization, and nutrient utilization. In experiment 2, a total of 192 seven-day-old male broiler chicks were used, with 4 birds per cage. Six dietary treatment groups were randomly allotted to the cages within each of 8 blocks. The corn-soybean meal-based diets used in each study consisted of a positive control adequate in P and Ca; a negative control (NC) low in P and Ca (no added inorganic P); the NC supplemented with 3,630, 36,300, or 363,000 phytase units (FTU) of CBP/kg; and the NC + 3,630 FTU of Quantum/kg. Growth performance and bone mineralization criteria were reevaluated in the second broiler study. Data from the 2 experiments were combined because there was no diet x experiment interaction and analyzed as a randomized complete block design. Weight gain decreased (P < 0.05) with a reduction in dietary P and Ca in the NC diet. Weight gain, feed efficiency, and percentage of tibia ash of birds fed 3,630 FTU/kg of either CBP or Quantum phytase were not different. There was a quadratic response (P < 0.01) to CBP supplementation of the NC diets in weight gain of the broiler chicks. Feed intake increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with CBP supplementation of the NC diets, but CBP supplementation of the NC diets did not affect feed efficiency. Tibia ash of birds fed the positive control diet was greater (P < 0.01) than that of birds fed the NC diet. There was a quadratic response (P < 0.01) to CBP supplementation of the NC diets in tibia ash of the broiler chicks. Birds fed supplemental phytase had greater (P < 0

  6. Virulence in the chick model and stress tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovar Orion var. 15+.

    PubMed

    La Ragione, R M; Coles, K E; Jørgensen, F; Humphrey, T J; Woodward, M J

    2001-03-01

    Three Salmonella enterica serovar Orion var. 15+ isolates of distinct provenance were tested for survival in various stress assays. All were less able to survive desiccation than a virulent S. Enteritidis strain, with levels of survival similar to a rpoS mutant of the S. Enteritidis strain, whereas one isolate (F3720) was significantly more acid tolerant. The S. Orion var. 15+ isolates were motile by flagellae and elaborated type-1 and curli-like fimbriae; surface organelles that are considered virulence determinants in Salmonella pathogenesis. Each adhered and invaded HEp-2 tissue culture cells with similar proficiency to the S. Enteritidis control but were significantly less virulent than S. Enteritidis in the one-day-old and seven-day-old chick model. Given an oral dose of 1 x 10(3) cfu to one-day-old chicken, S. Orion var. 15+ isolates colonised 25% of liver and spleens examined at 24 h whereas S. Enteritidis colonised 100% of organs by the same with the same dose. Given an oral dose of 1 x 10(7) cfu at seven-day old, S. Orion var. 15+ failed to colonise livers and spleens in any bird examined at 24 h whereas S. Enteritidis colonised 50% of organs by the same with the same dose. Based on the number of internal organs colonised, one of the three S. Orion var. 15+ isolates tested (strain F3720) was significantly more invasive than the other two (B1 and B7). Also, strain F3720 was shed less than either B1 or B7 supporting the concept that there may be an inverse relationship between the ability to colonise deep tissues and to persist in the gut. These data are discussed in the light that S. Orion var. 15+ is associated with sporadic outbreaks of human infection rather than epidemics.

  7. Early events in retinoic acid-induced ptilopody in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Dhouailly, Danielle

    1983-01-01

    Intra-amniotic injection of 125 μg of retinoic acid to 10-day old chick embryos causes the formation of feathers on the scales of the anterior face of the tarsometatarsus.The early effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the chick foot integument have been studied between 12 h and 72 h following RA injections by two methods. Firstly, sequential fixation in glutaraldehyde and then osmium tetroxide to follow the early changes at the macroscopical and ultrastructural levels. Secondly, sequential grafts of contralateral samples on to chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of nontreated chick embryos to test their morphogenetic performance and to determine the minimum time for RA to take effect.Results show that during the first 24 h RA causes morphological changes of both epidermal and dermal cells in almost half of the injected embryos. In particular, the dermal-epidermal junction is transformed from scale-type into feather-type. However, the development of grafted samples shows that feather morphogenesis is irreversibly undertaken only 24 to 48 h after the treatment. At this stage, roundish feather-like placodes are formed instead of the normal rectangular, scale placodes. The scales, the formation of which has been temporarily inhibited, resume their development between 48 h and 72 h after the the injection, proximally to the feather buds, so that feathers are finally carried by the distal tips of the scales.

  8. Hypoxia during embryonic development increases energy metabolism in normoxic juvenile chicks.

    PubMed

    Amaral-Silva, Lara do; Scarpellini, Carolina da S; Toro-Velasquez, Paula Andrea; Fernandes, Marcia H M R; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Bícego, Kênia C

    2017-05-01

    Environmental changes during perinatal development can affect the postnatal life. In this sense, chicken embryos that experience low levels of O2 over a specific phase of incubation can have their tissue growth reduced and the ventilatory response to hypoxia blunted, at least until hatching. Additionally, exposure to low level of O2 after birth reduces the thermogenesis as well. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia over the third week of incubation affects the thermoregulation of juvenile chicks at an age when thermogenesis is already expected to be well-developed. To this end, we measured body temperature (Tb) and oxygen consumption (V̇02) under acute hypoxia or different ambient temperatures (Ta) of 1 and 10day-old chicks that have been exposed to 21% O2 for entire incubation (Nx) or to 15% O2 in the last week of incubation (Hx). We also assessed the thermal preference under normoxia or acute hypoxia of the older chicks from both incubation groups in a thermocline. Hypoxia over incubation reduced growth but did not affect the cold-induced thermogenesis in hatchlings. Regarding the juvenile Hx, present data indicate a catch up growth with higher resting V̇02, a thermal preference for warmer Tas and a possible higher thermal conductance. In conclusion, our results show that hypoxia over the third week of incubation can affect the thermoregulation at least until 10days after hatch in chickens.

  9. Filial imprinting in domestic chicks is associated with spine pruning in the associative area, dorsocaudal neostriatum.

    PubMed

    Bock, J; Braun, K

    1999-07-01

    Juvenile emotionally modulated learning events are fundamental for the normal development of socio-emotional competence and intellectual capabilities. Filial imprinting in the domestic chick provides a suitable model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying such juvenile learning events. The forebrain area dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc), a multimodal integration area and presumed equivalent to mammalian parietotemporal association cortices, has been shown to be critically involved in this learning process. We investigated whether filial imprinting is associated with changes of synaptic connectivity in the Ndc. Quantitative measurements of spine densities of a large neuron type in the Ndc revealed a massive pruning of spine synapses after filial imprinting. Compared with 7-day-old naive control chicks, imprinted chicks displayed significantly lower spine frequencies on all dendritic segments. Since the average length of the dendritic segments did not change during imprinting, these results can be interpreted as a reduction of the absolute number of spine synapses on this neuron type. In a control region, the primary sensory forebrain area ectostriatum, spine density and dendritic length remained unchanged. These results indicate that synaptic pruning may represent a mechanism of selective synaptic reorganization in higher associative forebrain areas as a fundamental feature of juvenile learning events.

  10. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

  11. Investigation of the effect of coccidial vaccine challenge on apparent and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in grower and finisher broilers and its evaluation in 21-day-old broilers.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Helmbrecht, A; Applegate, T J

    2016-08-01

    The effect of coccidial vaccine challenge (CVC, Coccivac(®)B; challenged, CHA; or unchallenged, NCH) on ileal endogenous amino acid (IEAA) losses and standardized ileal AA digestibility (SIAAD) in 21- and 42-day-old broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers' grains with solubles-poultry by-product meal-based diet (Expt. 1) and the effect of supplemental AA in ameliorating the effect of CVC (Expt. 2) were evaluated. Expt. 1 was designed as a 2 (d 21 or 42) x 2 (NCH or CHA) factorial arrangement of treatments with 8 replicates in a complete randomized design. The CVC birds were gavaged with 12 x coccidial vaccine on d 15 and 36 and were sampled on 6 d post challenge. SIAAD was determined by correcting apparent ileal AA digestibility for IEAA losses. Feed intake (FI) and BW gain were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in 21-day-old NCH birds compared to the 21-day-old CHA birds while 42-day-old birds had higher FI and BW gain than 21-day-old NCH and CHA birds. Ileal endogenous nitrogen loss was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in 42-day-old CHA birds compared to 42-day-old NCH birds. Apparent ileal AA digestibility in 21-day-old CHA birds was lower (P ≤ 0.05) than for 21-day-old NCH and 42-day-old NCH and CHA birds. SIAAD in 21-day-old CHA birds was lower (indispensable AA = 15.2 and dispensable AA = 17.8%-unit; P ≤ 0.05) than for 21-day-old NCH and 42-day-old NCH and CHA birds. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract utilization of DM, N, and energy were not different between d 21 NCH and d 42 NCH and CHA birds but higher (P ≤ 0.05) than for d 21 CHA birds. Supplemental AA restored feed efficiency, but not BW gain, to that of the positive control (0.715 vs. 0.737). Results from Expt.1 showed that CVC significantly influenced ileal AA digestibility in 21- but not in 42-day-old birds. Expt. 2 showed that consideration of SIAAD in feed formulation may benefit feed efficiency. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Effect of extrusion processing of soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2016-12-01

    The present experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of extrusion of inadequately processed soybean meal (SBM) on amino acid (AA) digestibility and performance of broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 180 day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 6 pen replicates (15 chicks each) of 2 dietary treatments; diets based on SBM or extruded SBM (ESBM) as the main protein sources. Based on the results of Exp. 1 and AA digestibility assay, Exp. 2 was designed using 216 day-old Ross broiler chicks (6 replicates of 18 chicks each), in which dietary SBM content was replaced by 86% using ESBM. This replacement caused about a 9% decrease in dietary crude protein (CP) level. Results showed that coefficients of CP and AA digestibility were greater (P < 0.05) for ESBM than those of SBM. Extrusion processing of SBM increased digestibility coefficients of Lys, Thr, Cys, Leu, Phe, Tyr, Pro, Ser, and Gly. Except during the starter period, dietary inclusion of ESBM increased (P < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) in Exp. 1 and caused increases (P < 0.01) in average daily weight gains (ADWG) throughout the trial period. Also, using ESBM improved the (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio (FCR) during starter and finisher periods. In Exp. 2, reducing dietary CP level using ESBM decreased both ADFI (P < 0.05) and ADWG (P < 0.01) in the starter period. During grower, finisher, and entire trial periods, however, ADFI and ADWG were not influenced by dietary treatments. Dietary inclusion of ESBM improved (P < 0.05) FCR value in the finisher period. Although carcass yield was not affected by dietary treatments, reducing dietary CP level resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in abdominal fat percentage. Moreover, a decrease in dietary CP level reduced (P = 0.08) breast yield. The present findings indicate that extrusion of SBM could improve its nutritive value for broiler chicks. Using ESBM, one can reduce dietary CP level by about 9% without any detrimental effect on

  13. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  14. Consequences of different growth rates in broiler breeder and layer hens on embryogenesis, metabolism and metabolic rate: A review.

    PubMed

    Buzała, M; Janicki, B; Czarnecki, R

    2015-04-01

    Intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens for economically important production traits, which has been carried out for almost a century, resulted in considerable differences in the mechanisms of growth and development and, thus, in avian metabolism, both during embryogenesis and after hatching. Selection for meat production (broiler breeders) and eggs (layer hens) led to increased productivity but also brought about metabolic disorders. That intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens is effective is seen, for example, in the differences in growth and development, metabolism of the yolk sac, hormones and lipids, gas exchange, and thermogenesis. Due to genetic proximity and different developmental mechanisms in broiler breeders and layer hens, avian embryos and chicks serve as excellent models for fundamental scientific research. This review paper discusses the consequences of different growth rates as a result of long-term genetic selection on embryonic development and metabolic rate of broilers and layers. The evidence presented herein indicates that it would be worth comparing these issues in a meta-analysis. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Effects of chronic and acute methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) administration on locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalizations, and neuromotor development in 3- to 11-day-old CD-1 mouse pups.

    PubMed

    Penner, M R; McFadyen, M P; Carrey, N; Brown, R E

    2001-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of chronic and acute treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) on isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations, spontaneous locomotor activity, and neuromotor coordination in 3- to 11-day-old CD-1 mouse pups. In Experiment 1, 3- to 11-day-old pups received daily injections of saline, 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of methylphenidate hydrochloride, or no injection and were tested on postnatal Days 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Both doses of methylphenidate resulted in significant increases in locomotor activity at all ages, but had no significant effect on body weight, neuromotor development, or emission of ultrasonic vocalizations. In Experiment 2, pups were given a single dose of methylphenidate (5 or 20 mg/kg), saline, or no injection on one of postnatal Days 5, 7, 9, or 11. This acute methylphenidate treatment increased locomotor activity, but had no significant effects on ultrasonic vocalizations or neuromotor coordination. These results indicate that short-term, chronic methylphenidate treatment elevates locomotor responses, but has no immediate effects on anxietylike responses or on the development of neuromotor behavior of CD-1 mice in the first 11 days of life.

  16. The age estimation of blood stains up to 30 days old using visible wavelength hyperspectral image analysis and linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Beveridge, Peter; O'Hare, William T; Islam, Meez

    2013-09-01

    A novel application of visible wavelength hyperspectral image analysis has been applied to determine the age of blood stains up to 30 days old. Reflectance spectra from selected locations within the hyperspectral image, obtained from a portable instrument, were subjected to spectral pre-processing. This was followed by the application of a linear discriminant classification model, making estimations possible with an average error of ±0.27days for the first 7 days and an overall average error of ±1.17days up to 30 days. This is also the first reported study of the determination of the age of fresh blood stains (less than one day old) with an error of ±0.09h. The studies have been made under controlled conditions and represent, at this stage, proof of concept results but also are the most accurate age estimation results for measurements between 0 and 30 days reported to date. The results are consistent with well-established kinetic processes suggesting that the pre-processing stages described are revealing spectroscopic changes which are reliably following the time dependent oxidation of HbO2. The potential for parameterisation of environmental factors to make the method generally applicable at crime scenes is discussed, along with the developments required to further improve classification and to make the instrument genuinely portable.

  17. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Odacı, E; Hancı, H; Yuluğ, E; Türedi, S; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Y; Kaya, H; Çolakoğlu, S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure in utero to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymis. Pregnant rats were divided into control (CG; no treatment) and EMF (EMFG) groups. The EMFG was exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day during days 13 - 21 of pregnancy. Newborn rats were either newborn CG (NCG) or newborn EMF groups (NEMFG). On postnatal day 60, a testis and epididymis were removed from each animal. Epididymal semen quality, and lipid and DNA oxidation levels, apoptotic index and histopathological damage to the testis were compared. We found a higher apoptotic index, greater DNA oxidation levels and lower sperm motility and vitality in the NEMFG compared to controls. Immature germ cells in the seminiferous tubule lumen, and altered seminiferous tubule epithelium and seminiferous tubule structure also were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of NEMFG testis. Nuclear changes that indicated apoptosis were identified in TUNEL stained sections and large numbers of apoptotic cells were observed in most of the seminiferous tubule epithelium in the NEMFG. Sixty-day-old rat testes exposed to 900 MHz EMF exhibited altered sperm quality and biochemical characteristics.

  18. Creatine regulation in the embryo and growing chick

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Oscar; Calva, Edmundo; Trejo, Augusto

    1970-01-01

    1. The absence of creatine was demonstrated enzymically in the hen's-egg yolk and in the albumin contrary to former reports. 2. A comparison of the results obtained by enzymic and colorimetric methods to measure creatine is presented. 3. Creatine phosphate was not detected in the yolk extracts. 4. The content of free arginine enzymically assayed was 15.7μmol in the yolk and 3.38μmol in the albumin. Arginine amounts to practically all of the guanidine compounds in the yolk and one-half of those in the albumin. 5. No glycine amidinotransferase activity was found in the egg-yolk homogenates. 6. The heart of the chick embryo does not receive creatine from the egg and the creatine kinase activity present in this organ starting from the 27th hour of incubation suggests that the enzyme is a constitutive one working probably as an adenosine triphosphatase in a way similar to the kinase isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. 7. Liver glycine amidinotransferase activity appeared clearly after day 5 of incubation. The specific activity reached a maximum at day 12 and then declined; however, the activity per total mass of liver increased steadily during all the prenatal period. Concomitantly with this steady increase a rise in the creatine content of the whole embryo was observed. An analogous increasing relationship between total liver amidinotransferase activity and liver creatine content was also detected during the postnatal period. 8. Repression of amidinotransferase by creatine cannot be accepted as occurring under physiological conditions since an inverse relationship between the two parameters was not observed. 9. Repression of liver amidinotransferase is observed only when pharmacological concentrations of the exogenous creatine are present in the chick liver. PMID:5493509

  19. Maternally derived anti-fibroblast growth factor 23 antibody as new tool to reduce phosphorus requirement of chicks.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhouzheng; Bütz, Daniel E; Sand, Jordan M; Cook, Mark E

    2017-04-01

    Novel means to reduce phosphate input into poultry feeds and increase its retention would preserve world phosphate reserves and reduce environmental impact of poultry production. Here we show that a maternally derived antibody to a fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) peptide (GMNPPPYS) alleviated phosphorus deficiency in chicks fed low non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) diets. White Leghorn laying hens were vaccinated with either an adjuvant control or the synthetic FGF-23 peptide, and chicks with control or anti-FGF-23 maternal antibodies were fed a diet containing either 0.13 or 0.45% nPP (experiment 1), and 0.20 or 0.45% nPP (experiment 2) for 14 d. In both experiments, decreasing nPP from 0.45 to 0.13 or 0.20% decreased BW gain, G:F, excreta phosphorus, plasma phosphate, and plasma FGF-23 at all time periods examined (nPP main effect, P < 0.05). In experiment 1, chicks with maternal anti-FGF-23 antibody had increased tibiotarsi ash (d 14), and decreased excreta phosphate (d 7, 14) and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (d 7) when compared to chicks with control antibody (antibody main effect, P < 0.05). Mortality (d 7 to 14, 1 to 14), posture scores (d 7, 14) and bone lesion scores (d 14) decreased and plasma phosphate (d 14) increased in anti-FGF-23 chicks fed 0.13% nPP, compared to those with control antibody on the same diet (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, chicks with maternal anti-FGF-23 antibody had increased tibiotarsi ash (d 14), and plasma phosphate (d 14) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (d 14) levels, compared to chicks with control antibody (antibody main effect, P < 0.05). BW gain and G:F were increased in chicks with anti-FGF-23 antibody fed 0.20% nPP, compared to control antibody chicks on the same diet, at all time periods examined (P < 0.05). In conclusion, maternally-derived anti-FGF-23 antibody increased phosphorus retention in chicks fed diets containing either 0.13 or 0.20% nPP and thereby, reduced signs of phosphorus deficiency. © 2016 Poultry Science Association

  20. Female begging calls reflect nutritional need of nestlings in the hen harrier Circus cyaneus.

    PubMed

    Redpath, Steve; Thompson, Alex; Amar, Arjun

    2017-06-19

    Most birds exhibit bi-parental care with both sexes providing food for their young. Nestling signal food needs through begging. However, for some species, males rarely visit the nest, so have limited opportunity for gaining information directly from the chicks. Instead, females beg when males deliver food. We tested whether this calling signalled nutritional need and specifically the needs of the female (Breeder Need hypothesis) or that of their chicks (Offspring Need hypothesis). We observed begging and provisioning rates at 42 nests of hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) in Scotland, explored the factors associated with variation in begging rate and the relationship between begging and provisioning. We also tested the impact of food on begging and provisioning through a feeding experiment. Female begging rate increased up to a chick age of 3 weeks and then tailed off. In addition, begging increased when broods were large. Our data provided support for the Offspring Need hypothesis. At nests where adlib food was provided females reduced their begging rate. These patterns suggested that female begging was an honest signal of need. However, begging continued even with adlib food and was only weakly associated with greater provisioning by males, suggesting that these calls may also play an additional role, possibly reflecting sexual or parent-offspring conflict.

  1. Isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from layer hens showing clinical signs of infectious coryza.

    PubMed

    Pérez Márquez, V M; Ochoa, J López; Cruz, C Vázquez; Alonso, P Sánchez; Olmedo-Alvarez, G; Vaca, S; Abascal, E Negrete

    2014-12-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causal agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious respiratory disease that affects swine nearly exclusively. An isolate with characteristics of some Pasteurellaceae family members (Gram-negative bacterium, pleomorphic, and NAD-dependent) was isolated from layer hens showing clinical signs of infectious coryza. This bacterium presented hemolysis on rabbit red blood cell agar plates, and PCR amplification and sequencing of its 16S rDNA gene indicated 99% identity with A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 3 and 7. The presence of a putative apxIIA gene was also determined by PCR. A single, smooth colony of this bacterium inoculated in five, 7-day-old chicken embryos via the yolk sac route induced 100% mortality. However, inoculation into 10-wk-old, specific-pathogen-free chickens induced only light facial swelling, and reisolation of the inoculated bacterium was negative.

  2. Brain-derived mast cells could mediate histamine-induced inhibition of food intake in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, S; Bungo, T; Ohgushi, A; Ando, R; Shimojo, M; Masuda, Y; Denbow, D M; Furuse, M

    2000-02-28

    In the present study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine on food intake of neonatal chicks was examined over 2 h. Histamine (100, 200 or 400 nmol, respectively) was injected in the lateral ventricle of 2-day-old chicks, and cumulative food intakes were measured. i.c.v. injection of histamine significantly inhibited food intake in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compound 48/80, which causes degranulation of mast cells and release of histamine, or thioperamide, which is an antagonist of the histamine H3 autoreceptor and increases histamine release from histaminergic nerve terminals, was injected i.c.v. to clarify whether mast cell- or neuron-derived histamine in the central nervous system of chicks is essential to the feeding inhibition. Central administration of compound 48/80 inhibited food intake with a dose-dependent manner, but thioperamide had no effect on feeding. An inhibitor of mast cell degranulation, sodium cromoglycate, somewhat attenuated food intake inhibited by compound 48/80. These results suggest that brain-derived mast cells could be a major source of histamine in the inhibition of food intake of neonatal chicks.

  3. Fermented rapeseed meal is effective in controlling Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and improving growth performance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ashayerizadeh, Amin; Dastar, Behrouz; Shams Shargh, Mahmoud; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Zerehdaran, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    The aim of present experiment was to assess the effects of fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) colonization and growth performance in broiler chicks. Two hundred forty day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were divided into six experimental treatments with four replicates and 10 birds per each. The treatments were including two positive and negative controls which birds received a basal corn-soybean diet as well as four others which birds received the diets that rapeseed meal (RSM) or FRSM was replaced with soybean meal at 50 and 100% levels. All chicks except the negative control birds were challenged orally with 10(5) CFU of S. Typhimurium at 3days of age. Results showed that birds were fed FRSM had significantly greater lactic acid bacteria populations and lesser S. Typhimurium colonization in ileal and cecal sections compared to others (P<0.05). The less percentage of liver and bursa of fabricius was belonged to negative control group. At 10day, feeding chicks with diet containing FRSM, but not RSM, significantly decreased the organ invasion by S. Typhimurium (P<0.05). Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly lesser in chicks were fed FRSM compared to those fed RSM or positive control (P<0.05). Birds were fed FRSM had significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion ratio compared to those birds were fed RSM (P<0.05). The findings of present experiment concerning positive effects of feeding FRSM on reducing S. Typhimurium and improving growth performance show that this processed protein source can be considered as a nutritional effective strategy to control Salmonella contamination in broiler chicks.

  4. Toxico-pathological changes induced by cypermethrin in broiler chicks: their attenuation with Vitamin E and selenium.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Faiza; Khan, Ahrar; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Sharaf, Summaira; Gul, Shafia Tahseen; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif

    2010-07-01

    Ninety 1-day old broiler chicks of mixed gender (as hatched) procured from a local hatchery were randomly divided into five equal groups. All the treatments were given through crop tubing. Groups 1-4 received cypermethrin (CY) (600mgkg(-1)b. wt.) daily for 30 days. In addition to CY (group 1), groups 2-4 received Vit E (150mgkg(-1)b. wt.), Se (0.25mgkg(-1)b. wt.), and Vit E (150mgkg(-1)b. wt.)+Se (0.25mgkg(-1)b. wt.), respectively. Group 5 served as control andreceived normal saline (2mlkg(-1)b. wt.) for 30 days. Randomly selected six broiler chicks from each group were slaughtered at experimental days 10, 20 and 30 for the collection of serum/plasma and morbid tissues. Absolute organ weights were recorded. Total plasma proteins, fibrinogen and creatinine were significantly (P<0.05) increased while alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and urea decreased significantly (P<0.05) in CY-treated group when compared with the control group. Kidneys were swollen grossly in treated broiler chicks. In liver, necrosis of hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolation, bile duct hyperplasia and mononuclear cellular infiltration were observed. In kidneys, necrosis of tubular epithelial cells, cytoplasmic vacuolation, cellular infiltration and atrophy of glomeruli were observed. Sub-arachnoid space was much dilated in CY-treated broiler chicks. It can be concluded that CY induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broilers chicks; however, these toxic effects can be ameliorated by Vit E or Se. Combination of Vit E and Se was more effective in ameliorating toxic effects of cypermethrin in broilers chicks.

  5. Brain, liver and plasma unsaturated aldehydes in nutritional encephalomalacia of chicks.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, H; Sallmann, H P

    2000-04-01

    Vitamin E deficiency and linoleic acid-feeding lead to nutritional encephalomalacia (NE) in chicks, affecting the cerebellum exclusively. The relevance of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products to the pathogenesis of the disease was studied. Laying hens received a diet low in vitamin E. Resulting chicks were assigned to four groups fed either with linoleic (C18: 2n-6) or linolenic (C18: 3n-3) acid together with 1 or 50 p.p.m. vitamin E. Nine days post-hatching NE occurred in the vitamin E-deficient group fed linoleic acid. With each chick showing NE, a healthy one from all four groups was killed. Unsaturated aldehydes were determined in plasma, liver, cerebrum and cerebellum. Results underlined that the type of dietary fat is decisive for the aldehyde pattern. In the liver of linoleic acid-fed animals total aldehydes were increased. Diseased animals had increased aldehydes stemming from n-3 fatty acids. In plasma, vitamin E deficiency led to higher malondialdehyde and OH-nonenal concentrations. In brain, neither vitamin E deficiency nor NE were accompanied by increased aldehyde concentrations. In consequence a direct role of unsaturated aldehydes for the development of NE in the cerebellum is not probable.

  6. Florfenicol induces early embryonic death in eggs collected from treated hens.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahrani, S; Naidoo, V

    2015-08-18

    Florfenicol, a commonly used veterinary antibiotic, was reported to have caused a severe drop in egg hatchability following its off-label use on a broiler breeder farm in South Africa. According to the pharmacovigilance report, hatchability dropped by 80 % for up to a week following a five day course at 10 mg/kg (both males and females treated metaphylactically) to manage an Escherichia coli infection. While mammalian toxicity studies indicate the potential for early embryonic death in utero or testicular damage, no literature is available on the avian toxicity of florfenicol. For this study we investigated the effects of florfenicol at various doses from 10 to 90 mg/kg on the egg hatchability in a breeder flock we kept and established under controlled conditions, with the same cockerels and hens being exposed in a phased manner. Following five days of oral exposure, no toxic signs were evident in any of the cockerels or hens treated at doses up to 90 mg/kg. Treatment of only the cockerels had no effect on egg hatchability, while treatment of only the hens at doses of 60 and 90 mg/kg resulted in decreased hatchability of 0 % in comparison to 70 % of the control as early 24 h after treatment. In all cases, decreased hatchability was associated with embryonic death at 5 days of development. The toxic effects of florfenicol were completely reversible with comparable hatchability being present by day 4 post-treatment withdrawal. Toxicity correlated with total egg florfenicol concentrations with an LC50 of 1.07 μg/g. Florfenicol appears to be toxic to the developing chick embryo at around day 5 of incubation, in the absence of related toxicity in the hen or cockerel.

  7. Bone's early responses to mechanical loading differ in distinct genetic strains of chick: selection for enhanced growth reduces skeletal adaptability.

    PubMed

    Pitsillides, A A; Rawlinson, S C; Mosley, J R; Lanyon, L E

    1999-06-01

    Bone's functional competence is established and maintained, at least partly, by mechanisms involving appropriate adaptation to mechanical loading. These appear to fail in chickens selectively bred either for maximum egg (Egg-type) or meat (Meat-type) production, which show high rates of fracture and skeletal abnormality, respectively. By measuring several early strain-induced responses in cultured embryonic tibiotarsi from commercially bred (Egg-type and Meat-type) and wild-type (Wild-type) chicks, we have investigated the possibility that these skeletal failures are the product of a compromised ability to respond appropriately to loading-induced mechanical strain. Axial loads engendering peak dynamic (1 Hz) longitudinal strains of between -1300 microepsilon and -1500 microepsilon (for 10 minutes) in vitro in tibiotarsi from the three types of 18-day-old chicks increased periosteal osteoblast glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in both Wild-type (26%, p < 0.01) and Egg-type (49%, p < 0.001) chicks in situ, while Meat-type chicks did not show any significant changes (11%). Load-induced increases in medium nitrite accumulation (stable nitric oxide [NO] metabolite) were produced in Egg-type and Wild-type tibiotarsi (82 +/- 12%, p < 0.01; 39 +/- 8%, p < 0.01), respectively. In contrast, loading produced no change in NO release from Meat-type chick tibiotarsi. These changes in NO release correlated with load-related increases in G6PD activity (R2 = 0.98, p < 0.05) in the different chick types. Wild-type and Meat-type tibiotarsal periosteal osteoblasts responded in a biphasic manner to exogenous prostacyclin (PGI2), with maximal stimulation of G6PD activity at 10(-7) M and 10(-6) M PGI2. However, Egg-type chick osteoblasts showed smaller, progressive increases up to 10(-5) M PGI2. These results indicate that early phases of the adaptive response to loading differ in different genetic strains of embryonic chick; that skeletal abnormalities which develop in

  8. Primitive Spindle Cell Neoplasm of Ileum with Extensive Heterotopic Cartilage, Presenting as Acute Abdomen in a 6-Day-Old Neonate.

    PubMed

    Nael, Ali; Wu, William W; Shane, Lisa; Rao, Nagesh; Zwerdling, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal intestinal masses with spindle cell morphology have broad differential diagnoses and require a multidisciplinary approach to make the final diagnosis. Spindle cell masses with heterotopic cartilage in the gastrointestinal tract are very rare, and, to our knowledge, have not previously been reported in the neonate. Here we present a case of intestinal primitive spindle cell neoplasm with extensive heterotopic cartilage that manifested initially as acute abdomen in a 6-day-old term infant. Plain radiography demonstrated pneumoperitoneum, prompting diagnostic laparotomy that identified a perforated mass involving the midileum. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination demonstrated an infiltrative spindle cell tumor most compatible with infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) by a process of exclusion, with nodules of mature heterotopic cartilage. Additional staging studies did not reveal any evidence of residual or metastatic disease. Recognition of this rare variant of IFS will aid in differentiation from other neonatal intestinal mesenchymal tumors.

  9. Antibiotic resistance and polymorphism in the quinolone resistance-determining region of Campylobacter spp. isolated from 1-day-old ducklings.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Engy A; AbdelRahman, Mona A A; Shalaby, Azhar G; Morsy, Mai M; Nasef, Soad A

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-three isolates of Campylobacter coli and three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were recovered from 150 1-day-old ducklings. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and amikacin, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) by the disc diffusion method. Most isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin, but resistant to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Of the 33 C. coli isolates, nine were positive for the tetracycline resistance gene tet(O), although only two of these were resistant to tetracycline in the disc diffusion test. None of the isolates possessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene infrequently linked to FQ-resistance. The finding indicated that ducklings may be a source of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter spp. with potential poultry and public health hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitric oxide and fever: immune-to-brain signaling vs. thermogenesis in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dantonio, Valter; Batalhão, Marcelo E; Fernandes, Marcia H M R; Komegae, Evilin N; Buqui, Gabriela A; Lopes, Norberto P; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Carnio, Évelin C; Steiner, Alexandre A; Bícego, Kênia C

    2016-05-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in thermogenesis but does not mediate immune-to-brain febrigenic signaling in rats. There are suggestions of a different situation in birds, but the underlying evidence is not compelling. The present study was designed to clarify this matter in 5-day-old chicks challenged with a low or high dose of bacterial LPS. The lower LPS dose (2 μg/kg im) induced fever at 3-5 h postinjection, whereas 100 μg/kg im decreased core body temperature (Tc) (at 1 h) followed by fever (at 4 or 5 h). Plasma nitrate levels increased 4 h after LPS injection, but they were not correlated with the magnitude of fever. The NO synthase inhibitor (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, l-NAME; 50 mg/kg im) attenuated the fever induced by either dose of LPS and enhanced the magnitude of the Tc reduction induced by the high dose in chicks at 31-32°C. These effects were associated with suppression of metabolic rate, at least in the case of the high LPS dose. Conversely, the effects of l-NAME on Tc disappeared in chicks maintained at 35-36°C, suggesting that febrigenic signaling was essentially unaffected. Accordingly, the LPS-induced rise in the brain level of PGE2 was not affected by l-NAME. Moreover, l-NAME augmented LPS-induced huddling, which is indicative of compensatory mechanisms to run fever in the face of attenuated thermogenesis. Therefore, as in rats, systemic inhibition of NO synthesis attenuates LPS-induced fever in chicks by affecting thermoeffector activity and not by interfering with immune-to-brain signaling. This may constitute a conserved effect of NO in endotherms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Acute toxicity of veterinary and agricultural formulations of organophosphates dichlorvos and diazinon in chicks.

    PubMed

    Al-Zubaidy, Muna H I; Mousa, Yaareb J; Hasan, Mohammad M; Mohammad, Fouad K

    2011-12-01

    Formulation components of organophosphate insecticidal preparations might affect their toxic action in animals. The objective of this study was to examine and compare the acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in seven to 14-day-old chicks dosed orally with dichlorvos and diazinon in standard veterinary and agricultural formulations. The acute (24 h) oral median lethal doses (LD50) of the formulations were determined using the up-and-down method. Respective LD50 of dichlorvos of the veterinary and agricultural formulations in chicks were 11.1 mg kg(-1) and 6.51 mg kg(-1) and those of diazinon 6.4 mg kg(-1) and 6.7 mg kg(-1). Plasma and brain cholinesterase activities were measured by electrometry after in vivo and in vitro exposure to organophosphates. The chicks showed signs of cholinergic toxicosis within one hour of dosing. Dichlorvos (8 mg kg(-1)) and diazinon (4 mg kg(-1)) in the veterinary and agricultural formulation significantly reduced both plasma and brain cholinesterase activities in the chicks. The veterinary formulation of dichlorvos reduced plasma ChE by 60% and agricultural by 40% and brain ChE by 93% and 87%, respectively. In contrast, ChE inhibition by diazinon in the agricultural formulation of diazinon was stronger than by the veterinary formulation; 72% vs. 64% in plasma and 97% vs. 80% in the brain, respectively. The highest in vitro inhibitions were observed with dichlorvos in the agricultural formulation (50%) in the brain samples and with diazinon in the agricultural formulation (52%) in the plasma samples. While they exist, differences between formulations cannot be taken as a rule and further investigations should inventory the toxicity of standard veterinary and agricultural organophosphate formulations in addition to the known data for pure forms.

  12. Induction of immune suppression in the chick by an optimal dose of an immunizing antigen in the presence of its specific maternal antibody.

    PubMed

    Elazab, Mohamed Fahmy Abou; Fukushima, Yuji; Fujita, Yukihiro; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Haruo; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2010-03-01

    Prolonged interference or suppression of maternal antibodies of the humoral immune response of newly hatched chicks to active immunization has been documented; however, the immunological mechanisms responsible for such suppression are still unclear. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP or non-specific IgY antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and they were immunized with DNP-KLH or rabbit serum albumen (RSA) at 1 and 4 weeks of age. The concentrations of anti-DNP and anti-RSA antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immune responses of the chicks that received a high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and were immunized with an appropriate dose of DNP-KLH were suppressed. However, those of the chicks that received the same high dose of maternal non-specific IgY antibodies and were immunized with an appropriate dose of DNP-KLH and those of the chicks that received a high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and were immunized with RSA were not suppressed. On the other hand, suppression of anti-DNP antibody production would not be induced if the chicks received a high dose of antigen specific maternal antibodies and were immunized with a high dose of the same antigen. These results revealed that the immune suppressive effect of maternal antibodies on the immune response of the newly hatched chicks was antigen specific and depended mainly on the ratio of antigen/maternal antibody at the time of immunization.

  13. Dietary soya beans and kidney beans stimulate secretion of cholecystokinin and pancreatic digestive enzymes in 400-day-old Hooded-Lister rats but only soya beans induce growth of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Alonso, R; Edwards, J E; Murray, S

    2000-04-01

    The effects of age on cholecystokinin (CCK) release, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and growth of the pancreas mediated by dietary kidney beans or soya beans were evaluated in trials with 30-, 90-, 250-, and 400-day-old rats. Soya beans increased blood CCK and caused hypersecretion of digestive enzymes and rapid pancreatic growth in all rats. Kidney beans also elevated circulating CCK and stimulated enzyme secretion. However, with 90-, 250-, and 400-day-old rats, the secretory responses were attenuated. Furthermore, kidney beans did not induce pancreatic growth in 250- and 400-day-old rats.

  14. Oral vaccination of 1-day-old turkeys with in vitro attenuated Histomonas meleagridis protects against histomonosis and has no negative effect on performance.

    PubMed

    Liebhart, D; Windisch, M; Hess, M

    2010-10-01

    One-day-old turkey poults were vaccinated against histomonosis (syn. histomoniasis) via the oral route by application of in vitro attenuated Histomonas meleagridis. Subsequently, two different groups composed of 14 birds each were challenged cloacally with highly virulent histomonads after 2 or 4 weeks. Two additional groups of non-vaccinated birds were infected with the challenge inoculum at the same time points. In addition, a group of 19 birds, of which 14 were vaccinated but not challenged, were kept for clinical and serological examinations. Non-vaccinated and non-challenged birds (n=10) represented the negative control group. All non-vaccinated but infected birds and 10 out of 14 vaccinated turkeys challenged 2 weeks post vaccination (w.p.v.) contracted severe histomonosis. Turkeys challenged 4 w.p.v. and all remaining birds used in this experiment did not show any pathognomonic clinical signs. In addition, no adverse effect regarding the weight gain could be observed in birds that were vaccinated but not challenged. The excretion of attenuated and virulent live histomonads was observed very infrequently by re-isolation, but transmission to in-contact birds was very efficient. Presence of antibodies was first noticed 3 w.p.v. and antibody levels remained above the cut-off value until termination of the experiment at 16 w.p.v. The present experiment demonstrates for the first time the potential efficacy of in vitro attenuated histomonads used as an orally applied vaccine to 1-day-old turkeys for protection against fatal histomonosis without affecting performance.

  15. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation facilitates operant self-administration of the drug in 5-day-old rats

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies postnatal affinity to the drug, increasing the probability of ethanol use and abuse. The present study tested developing rats (5-day-old) in a novel operant technique to assess the degree of ethanol self-administration as a result of prenatal exposure to low ethanol doses during late gestation. On a single occasion during each of gestational days 17–20, pregnant rats were intragastrically administered ethanol 1 g/kg, or water (vehicle). On postnatal day 5, pups were tested on a novel operant conditioning procedure in which they learned to touch a sensor to obtain 0.1% saccharin, 3% ethanol, or 5% ethanol. Immediately after a 15-min training session, a 6-min extinction session was given in which operant behavior had no consequence. Pups were positioned on a smooth surface and had access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump, which served to deliver an intraoral solution as reinforcement (Paired group). A Yoked control animal evaluated at the same time received the reinforcer when its corresponding Paired pup touched the sensor. Operant behavior to gain access to 3% ethanol was facilitated by prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation. In contrast, operant learning reflecting ethanol reinforcement did not occur in control animals prenatally exposed to water only. Similarly, saccharin reinforcement was not affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. These results suggest that in 5-day-old rats, prenatal exposure to a low ethanol dose facilitates operant learning reinforced by intraoral administration of a low-concentration ethanol solution. This emphasizes the importance of intrauterine experiences with ethanol in later susceptibility to drug reinforcement. The present operant conditioning technique represents an alternative tool to assess self-administration and seeking behavior during early stages of development. PMID:24355072

  16. Progestin receptor cells in the 8-day-old male and female mouse cerebral cortex: Autoradiographic evidence for a sexual dimorphism in target cell number

    SciTech Connect

    Shughrue, P.J.; Stumpf, W.E.; Elger, W.; Schulze, P.E.; Sar, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the number and distribution of progestin receptor cells in the 8-day-old male and female cortex and compared cortical labeling with that in the preoptic area and central hypothalamus. Eight-day postnatal mice (four males and four females), treated with estradiol, were each sc injected with 0.32 micrograms/100 g BW (125I)progestin. Brains were frozen 2 h after injection of (125I)progestin, sectioned, and processed for thaw-mount autoradiography. Cells with a nuclear concentration of radioactivity were localized in lamina VI of the lateral cortical regions of the male and female brain, while only a few cortical cells were seen in laminae II, III, and V of the suprarhinal, lateral, and cingulate/paracingulate regions. Comparison of the number of labeled cells revealed that the female cortex contained significantly more labeled cells than the male at three of the four levels investigated. Similarly, the number of target cells was higher in the female medial preoptic nucleus, but not in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, while the distributions of labeled cells in the male and female preoptic/hypothalamic regions were comparable. Injection of unlabeled progesterone or R5020 1 h before (125I)progestin reduced the nuclear concentration of radioactivity in all target regions and verified the specificity of (125I)progestin for the progestin receptor. The results of these studies indicate that mouse 8-day-old cortex and preoptic area in the female animal have more progestin receptor cells than those in the male and demonstrate that progestin receptor cells are localized in a region of the cortex known to contain few estrogen target cells. These results further suggest that a sexual dimorphism in progestin cell number may result in a differential effect of progestin on the cortex and preoptic area of the mouse.

  17. Eimeria tenella: expression profiling of toll-like receptors and associated cytokines in the cecum of infected day-old and three-week old SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Renqiang; Ma, Liping; Wang, Yingwei; Pan, Baoliang; Cai, Jianping; Wang, Ming

    2012-04-01

    Coccidiosis is an economically important protozoan disease worldwide caused by Eimeria parasites. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of highly conserved proteins, are involved in pathogen detection by initiating host responses, and play important roles in the reduction and clearance of pathogens. Little is known about the roles of chicken TLRs during Eimeria tenella infection. We detected the dynamic changes in the expression of TLRs and associated cytokines in the cecum of E. tenella-infected chickens during the early stage of infection. Day-old (Experiment 1) and three-week-old (Experiment 2) chickens were orally gavaged with 10,000 oocysts (30 chickens each experiment), and their cecum intraepithelial lymphocytes were collected at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h post-infection (hpi). Expression profiling of TLR1LA, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR21, and IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-12 genes were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Almost all TLR transcripts were transiently increased at 3hpi in Experiment 1. In three-week-old chickens, TLR1LA, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR21 expression was upregulated at 12hpi, and TLR1LA, TLR5, and TLR21 were highly expressed at 72hpi. In day-old chickens, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-12 expression was significantly upregulated at 3hpi (156.1-1117.1-fold change), in comparison to the different peak level times and relatively small changes for these cytokines in the three-week-old chickens. Our results provide a valuable overview for the expression pattern of TLRs and associated cytokines during the early stage of E. tenella infection in chickens.

  18. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation facilitates operant self-administration of the drug in 5-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies postnatal affinity to the drug, increasing the probability of ethanol use and abuse. The present study tested developing rats (5-day-old) in a novel operant technique to assess the degree of ethanol self-administration as a result of prenatal exposure to low ethanol doses during late gestation. On a single occasion during each of gestational days 17-20, pregnant rats were intragastrically administered ethanol 1 g/kg, or water (vehicle). On postnatal day 5, pups were tested on a novel operant conditioning procedure in which they learned to touch a sensor to obtain 0.1% saccharin, 3% ethanol, or 5% ethanol. Immediately after a 15-min training session, a 6-min extinction session was given in which operant behavior had no consequence. Pups were positioned on a smooth surface and had access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump, which served to deliver an intraoral solution as reinforcement (Paired group). A Yoked control animal evaluated at the same time received the reinforcer when its corresponding Paired pup touched the sensor. Operant behavior to gain access to 3% ethanol was facilitated by prenatal exposure to ethanol during late gestation. In contrast, operant learning reflecting ethanol reinforcement did not occur in control animals prenatally exposed to water only. Similarly, saccharin reinforcement was not affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. These results suggest that in 5-day-old rats, prenatal exposure to a low ethanol dose facilitates operant learning reinforced by intraoral administration of a low-concentration ethanol solution. This emphasizes the importance of intrauterine experiences with ethanol in later susceptibility to drug reinforcement. The present operant conditioning technique represents an alternative tool to assess self-administration and seeking behavior during early stages of development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Choi, Hee Jung; Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Young Min; Rengaraj, Deivendran; Nagai, Hiroki; Sheng, Guojun; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  20. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  1. Effect of methionine supplement on physical responses and neurological symptoms in broiler chicks fed grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)-based starter ration.

    PubMed

    Fikre, Asnake; Yami, Alemu; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Ahmed, Seid; Gheysen, Godelieve; Lambein, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    Starter feeding experiments of broiler chicks with raw grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) supplemented with different levels of DL-methionine were undertaken for 4 weeks to assess the toxicity of grass pea-based feed and to correlate it with neurological symptoms. Four hundred fifty day-old broiler chicks were divided into two groups and were given formulations containing 35% (ration I) or 98.5% (ration II) grass pea, respectively. Each ration included controls and treatments with added methionine of four different concentrations. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were much higher in ration I than in ration II and these parameters significantly improved by addition of methionine in both rations. Significant increase of neurological signs with higher grass pea intake and significant reduction of acute neurological signs with addition of methionine were observed. Tolerance for grass pea was enhanced with increasing methionine in the diet and with age. Despite a similarity in the initial intake, a significant (p0.05) increase in the final feed intake by the chicks with methionine addition was found in both rations. These results suggest that methionine can improve a grass pea-based diet for broiler chicks and especially can protect young chicks from neurological symptoms.

  2. Predicted metabolizable energy density and amino acid profile of the crop contents of free-living scarlet macaw chicks (Ara macao).

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J; Dierenfeld, E S; Bailey, C A; Brightsmith, D J

    2012-12-01

    Hand rearing of neonates is a common practice for the propagation of psittacines. However, nutritional requirements for their growth and development are not well understood, and malnutrition is common. We analysed the amino acid (AA) profile of the crop contents of 19 free-living scarlet macaw (Ara macao) chicks, 19-59 days old. Predicted metabolizable energy (PME) density was 16.9 MJ/kg DM and true protein (total AA protein) 8.3 g/MJ PME. Crude protein (CP) was 10.0 g/MJ PME, lower than the requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn chicks but not different than the requirements of growing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and lovebirds (Agapornis spp.). The mean concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine (Lys) and methionine on a PME basis were below the minimum requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn-type chicks. The calculated PME density of the samples did not vary with age. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the average age of the chicks and the Lys concentration. We conclude that the lower CP and AA densities compared with poultry could result from a combination of (i) differences in the essential AA composition of the body tissues, (ii) adaptations that allow the birds to grow on low-protein food sources and (iii) suboptimal nutrition of these free-ranging chicks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate with Busumbu rock phosphate on performance and the mechanical properties of bone in growing chicks.

    PubMed

    Odongo, N E; Plaizier, J; van Straaten, P; McBride, B

    2002-07-01

    Three hundred, day-old broiler chicks, with an average initial weight of 41.8 +/- 1.79 g, were used in a 15-day study (10 birds per battery cage) to characterize their performance and fluorine status when dicalcium phosphate (DCP) was replaced by Busumbu rock phosphate (BRP) as the source of phosphorus in the chicks' ration. The treatments comprised a standard ration with BRP replacing 0, 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of DCP. Replacing DCP with BRP significantly reduced the final weight of the chicks (p < 0.01), feed intake (p < 0.01), weight gains (p < 0.01) and dry matter digestibility (p < 0.05) but increased (p < 0.05) the feed-to-gain ratio. True phosphorus absorption and the percentage of phosphorus in the tibia were not affected by increasing amounts of BRP in the diet. Increasing levels of BRP in the diet linearly reduced (p < 0.01) the percentage bone ash, calcium, Ca:P ratio, ultimate breaking force, bending moment, stress, and modulus of elasticity. Leg stiffness, lameness, reduced feed intake, and a decline in general health were recorded in 10-40% of the chicks on 75% and 100% BRP, respectively. These results suggest that excessive ingestion of fluorine from the BRP caused the reduction in the chicks' performance.

  4. Antidote to Controversy? Responses to Carolyn Henly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Mary Ella; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides four practicing teachers' written responses to Carolyn Henly's article entitled "Reader Response Theory as Antidote to Controversy: Teaching "The Bluest Eye," which appears in the same issue. (HB)

  5. Refractive plasticity of the developing chick eye: a summary and update.

    PubMed

    Irving, Elizabeth L; Sivak, Jacob G; Callender, Murchison G

    2015-11-01

    To summarize the OPO 1992 Classic Paper: Refractive plasticity of the developing chick eye (12: 448-452) and discuss recent findings in refractive development. The classic paper shows that when lightweight plastic goggles with rigid contact lens inserts are applied to the eyes of newly hatched chicks, the eye responds accurately to defocus between -10 and +20 D, although hyperopia develops more rapidly. While the changes largely are due to change in axial length, high levels of hyperopia are associated with corneal flattening. Also, newly hatched chicks are better able to compensate for the induced defocus than chicks that are 9 days old. In addition, astigmatism of 2-6 D can be produced by applying 9 D toric inducing lenses on the day of hatching, and the most myopic meridian coincides with the power meridian of the inducing lens. This astigmatism appears to be primarily due to corneal toricity. Furthermore, the greatest magnitude was produced when the plano meridian of the inducing lens was placed 45° from the line of the palpebral fissure. Since our publication in 1992, it has been shown that similar results can be produced in a variety of species, including; tree shrews, marmosets, monkeys and fish. Considerable effort has been spent in trying to determine what the eye uses, if not the brain, as the signal to the sign of the defocus. Accommodation, chromatic aberration, diurnal variation, astigmatism and higher order monochromatic aberrations have all been considered. Choroidal thinning and thickening play a role in myopia and hyperopia development, respectively, in chicks. High light levels (15,000 lux) increase the rate at which chicks compensate for positive lenses and decrease the compensation rate for negative lenses. However these light levels do not prevent the eye from fully compensating for either type of lens. It has also been shown that brief periods of normal vision prevent the development of form deprivation myopia. Finally, the importance of the

  6. Improved performance and immunological responses as the result of dietary genistein supplementation of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental genistein (an isoflavonoid) on performance, lymphoid organs' development, and cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 675-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to the five replicate pens (15 chicks each) of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments included a negative (not-supplemented) control diet, two positive control groups (virginiamycin or zinc-bacitracin, 20 mg/kg), and diets containing 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of genistein. The cutaneous basophil hypersensivity (CBH) test was measured at day 10 of age after toe web injection with phytohemagglutinin-P. In addition, sera samples were collected after different antigen inoculations to investigate antibody responses. At day 28 of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were euthanized to evaluate the relative weights of lymphoid organs. Results showed that dietary supplementation of both antibiotics increased (P<0.01) feed intake during 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, daily weight gain was influenced (P<0.01) by dietary treatments throughout the trial, so that the birds fed on antibiotics and 20 to 80 mg/kg genistein diets revealed the greater weight gains compared with other experimental groups. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio assigned to the birds fed on diets containing antibiotics and moderate levels (40 to 80 mg/kg) of genistein. Although the relative weights of thymus (P<0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01) were greater in birds fed on genistein-supplemented diets compared with antibiotics-supplemented birds, the spleen weight was not affected by experimental diets. Similarly, CBH response and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were markedly (P<0.05) greater in chicks fed on diets supplemented with 20 to 80 mg/kg of genistein. Interestingly, the higher dosages of genistein suppressed CBH and antibody responses to the

  7. Effects of Optically Imposed Astigmatism on Early Eye Growth in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin Hung Geoffrey; Kee, Chea Su

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of optically imposed astigmatism on early eye growth in chicks. Methods 5-day-old (P5) White Leghorn chicks were randomly assigned to either wear, monocularly, a “high magnitude” (H: +4.00DS/-8.00DC) crossed-cylindrical lens oriented at one of four axes (45, 90, 135, and 180; n = 20 in each group), or were left untreated (controls; n = 8). Two additional groups wore a “low magnitude” (L: +2.00DS/−4.00DC) cylindrical lens orientated at either axis 90 or 180 (n = 20 and n = 18, respectively). Refractions were measured at P5 and after 7 days of treatment for all chicks (P12), whereas videokeratography and ex-vivo eyeshape analysis were performed at P12 for a subset of chicks in each group (n = 8). Results Compared to controls, chicks in the treatment groups developed significant amounts of refractive astigmatism (controls: 0.03±0.22DC; treatment groups: 1.34±0.22DC to 5.51±0.26DC, one-way ANOVAs, p≤0.05) with axes compensatory to those imposed by the cylindrical lenses. H cylindrical lenses induced more refractive astigmatism than L lenses (H90 vs. L90: 5.51±0.26D vs. 4.10±0.16D; H180 vs. L180: 2.84±0.44D vs. 1.34±0.22D, unpaired two-sample t-tests, both p≤0.01); and imposing with-the-rule (H90 and L90) and against-the-rule astigmatisms (H180 and L180) resulted in, respectively, steeper and flatter corneal shape. Both corneal and internal astigmatisms were moderately to strongly correlated with refractive astigmatisms (Pearson’s r: +0.61 to +0.94, all p≤0.001). In addition, the characteristics of astigmatism were significantly correlated with multiple eyeshape parameters at the posterior segments (Pearson’s r: -0.27 to +0.45, all p≤0.05). Conclusions Chicks showed compensatory ocular changes in response to the astigmatic magnitudes imposed in this study. The correlations of changes in refractive, corneal, and posterior eyeshape indicate the involvement of anterior and posterior ocular segments during the

  8. Effects of optically imposed astigmatism on early eye growth in chicks.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chin Hung Geoffrey; Kee, Chea Su

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of optically imposed astigmatism on early eye growth in chicks. 5-day-old (P5) White Leghorn chicks were randomly assigned to either wear, monocularly, a "high magnitude" (H: +4.00DS/-8.00DC) crossed-cylindrical lens oriented at one of four axes (45, 90, 135, and 180; n = 20 in each group), or were left untreated (controls; n = 8). Two additional groups wore a "low magnitude" (L: +2.00DS/-4.00DC) cylindrical lens orientated at either axis 90 or 180 (n = 20 and n = 18, respectively). Refractions were measured at P5 and after 7 days of treatment for all chicks (P12), whereas videokeratography and ex-vivo eyeshape analysis were performed at P12 for a subset of chicks in each group (n = 8). Compared to controls, chicks in the treatment groups developed significant amounts of refractive astigmatism (controls: 0.03 ± 0.22DC; treatment groups: 1.34 ± 0.22DC to 5.51 ± 0.26DC, one-way ANOVAs, p ≤ 0.05) with axes compensatory to those imposed by the cylindrical lenses. H cylindrical lenses induced more refractive astigmatism than L lenses (H90 vs. L90: 5.51 ± 0.26D vs. 4.10 ± 0.16D; H180 vs. L180: 2.84 ± 0.44D vs. 1.34 ± 0.22D, unpaired two-sample t-tests, both p ≤ 0.01); and imposing with-the-rule (H90 and L90) and against-the-rule astigmatisms (H180 and L180) resulted in, respectively, steeper and flatter corneal shape. Both corneal and internal astigmatisms were moderately to strongly correlated with refractive astigmatisms (Pearson's r: +0.61 to +0.94, all p ≤ 0.001). In addition, the characteristics of astigmatism were significantly correlated with multiple eyeshape parameters at the posterior segments (Pearson's r: -0.27 to +0.45, all p ≤ 0.05). Chicks showed compensatory ocular changes in response to the astigmatic magnitudes imposed in this study. The correlations of changes in refractive, corneal, and posterior eyeshape indicate the involvement of anterior and posterior ocular segments during the development of astigmatism.

  9. Distribution of glutamine synthetase in the chick forebrain: implications for passive avoidance memory formation.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, B S; Ng, K T; Robinson, S R

    1997-01-01

    The glial enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) converts glutamate to glutamine; the latter is used by neurons for the resynthesis of glutamate and GABA. We have used a monoclonal antibody to GS to examine the regional distribution of this enzyme in the forebrains of day-old chicks. GS was detected in glia throughout the rostral and caudal regions of the forebrain and was particularly intense in the hippocampus, area parahippocampus and parts of the hyperstriatal and paleostriatal complex, regions widely considered to be involved in memory formation. Thus, our data provide an anatomical framework for the conclusion that neurons require the support of glia in order to restock their glutamate and/or GABA transmitter supplies during memory processing.

  10. Structure of the intra-chorionic blood sinus in the chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Narbaitz, R

    1977-01-01

    Portions of the chorio-allantoic membranes from 15 day old chick embryos were processed for electron microscopical examination. The analysis of both 1 micrometer thick sections stained with toluidine blue, and of thin sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, showed that the lumen of the intraepithelial vascular spaces in the chorion constitutes a single cavity extending over the whole membrane. The vascular arrangement can thus best be described as a single blood sinus, and not as a network of capillaries or sinusoids. The large lumen of the sinus is interrupted by cylindrical columns connecting its floor with its roof. Each column is enveloped in a layer of endothelium, a basal lamina intervening. The core of the column is formed by cytoplasm from two to five different cells ('villuscavity' cells, 'capillary-covering' cells or various combinations of both). Images Figs. 2-3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:591432

  11. Polyphenols in Eucalyptus leaves improved the egg and meat qualities and protected against ethanol-induced oxidative damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Chen, H; Li, W; Miao, J; Chen, N; Shao, X; Cao, Y

    2017-03-09

    Polyphenols in Eucalyptus leaves (PE) were value resources due to various pharmacological activities, but data on the effect on laying hens are very scare. This study was conducted to determine the effect of PE on the laying performance, egg traits, meat quality, antioxidant status and liver tissues of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 256-day-old Yueqinhuang laying hens were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (different levels of PE at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg diet) for 63 days with 15 replicates per group. Addition of 0.8 g/kg PE not only improved the egg trait by increasing the eggshell thickness and decreasing MDA production and cholesterol content in the egg yolk, but also significantly enhanced meat quality of hens, as suggested by the increase pH45 min (p < .01) and a* value, and decrease drip loss rate (p < .01). Meanwhile, under acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage condition, supplementation of 0.8 g/kg PE enhanced the serum antioxidant status by increasing enzymatic activities (GSH-PX, T-SOD, T-AOC), inhibited oxidative damage and provided protective effect to liver tissue. In conclusion, addition of 0.8 g/kg PE not only improved the egg traits and meat quality without obvious adverse effects, but also increased the serum antioxidant status of the hens and protected their liver tissue from ethanol-induced oxidative damage. This study indicated that PE could be utilized as an effective feed additive for laying hens to improve health performance and egg traits. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Potential for amelioration of aflatoxin B1-induced immunotoxic effects in progeny of White Leghorn breeder hens co-exposed to vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Ul Hassan, Zahoor; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of Vitamin E (Vit E) on the immunotoxic effects induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the progeny of breeder hens. For this purpose, 192 White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens were divided into 12 groups (A-L) and then fed test diets for either 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Group A was kept on basal feed (2900 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy) and served as control, while group B was offered a feed supplemented with Vit E at 100 mg/Kg. Groups C-G were offered feed containing 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/Kg AFB1, respectively, whereas groups H-L were offered the same dietary levels of AFB1 along with 100 mg/Kg Vit E supplementation. Hatching eggs were shifted to an incubator on a weekly basis to get progeny chicks. Hatched chicks in each group were maintained on basal ration and then subjected to different immunological assays. Lymphoproliferative responses (against PHA-P), antibody titers (against SRBC), oxidative damage to RBC, as well as phagocytic and nitrite production potential of the peritoneal macrophages from the chicks, were all adversely impacted by hen exposure to the higher doses of AFB1 or by increased intake (time) by the hens at a given dose of the toxin. No consistent ameliorative effects from Vit E were noted in these studies, i.e. effects seen against lower AFB1 doses were no longer apparent with the highest doses of AFB1. As such, for now it can be concluded that, with this particular single dose level of Vit E, AFB1-associated immunotoxic effects in progeny chicks can potentially be mitigated by dietary intake of Vit E by their hen dams. However, this is clearly an outcome that is driven by the level of the mycotoxin present in the feed. Future studies need to examine what impact higher Vit E doses than those employed herein might have in these ameliorative outcomes.

  13. Lesions in the thymus and bone marrow in chicks with experimentally induced chicken infectious anemia disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuscu, Burak

    2008-01-01

    One-day-old SPF chicks were inoculated with the Cux-l strain of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), and the clinical development of disease and its macroscopic and microscopic alterations in the thymus and bone marrow, were observed. Tissue sections of thymus and bone marrow were stained using the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method and examined under light microscope for evaluation of antigenic intensities in tissues. Those findings were then compared with blood parameters and ELISA results obtained through collected sera during sacrifice procedures. We sought to determine: the localization of viral antigens in thymus and bone marrow tissues after inoculation, the correlation between antigen intensities and hematologic, serologic and histopathologic findings, definitive diagnostic criteria using histopathologic and immunoperoxidase methods, and the reliability of these methods in the diagnosis of CIAV infection. For this purpose, 83, one-day-old SPF chicks were used. The birds were divided into experimental (n = 52) and control (n = 26) groups. A virus dose of TCID50 of 100,000/ml was administered intramuscularly to every bird in the experimental group. Based on the results of this study, we have suggested that clinical examination, along with macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the thymus and bone marrow, maybe undertaken starting from day 7 post-inoculation (PI). ELISA, might be of value, as it might give consistent results starting from day 14 PI. However, the most reliable results were obtained through examination of thymus and bone marrow sections from infected birds stained by immunoperoxidase technique, as early as day 4 PI. PMID:18296884

  14. Effects of excess iodine in chick embryo thyroid follicles: initial inhibition and subsequent hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Z; Narbaitz, R; Fryer, J N

    1991-01-01

    The effects of excess iodine on the development of the thyroid gland of chick embryos was assessed following injections of potassium iodide prior to incubation. Iodide injection resulted in a significantly greater thyroid gland weight (goitre) on Day 18 of incubation and a delay in hatching. Histological studies of the thyroid gland on Day 12 of incubation revealed that iodide injection had inhibited thyroid follicle development. On Day 14, however, the thyroid glands of the iodide-treated embryos were indistinguishable from controls and on Day 18 the thyroid follicles of the iodide-injected embryos were clearly hypertrophied. In agreement with these light microscopical observations, electron microscopical examination showed conspicuous development of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the follicle cells of both iodide-treated 14 and 18 days old embryos and in those of the corresponding controls. Immunocytochemical studies of the pituitary of 18 days old embryos revealed a depletion of immunoreactive TSH suggesting that the iodide-induced hypertrophy of the thyroid was mediated by an activation of the thyrotropes. Iodide treatment was without effect on plasma levels of T3 and T4 for Day 18 embryos suggesting that the compensatory hypertrophy of the thyroid gland was sufficient to maintain circulating levels of thyroid hormones. The present results demonstrate that, in the embryonic chick thyroid, excess iodine produces effects which occur in two phases. The first phase consists of a transitory inhibition of the formation of follicles; it is followed by a second phase of compensatory hypertrophy resulting in goitre. The first phase probably results from a direct inhibitory effect of iodine on the developing thyroid whereas the second phase probably reflects a stimulation of the thyroid by TSH. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1917670

  15. Acetate inhibition of chick bone cell proliferation and bone growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saitta, J C; Lipkin, E W; Howard, G A

    1989-06-01

    A hypothesis has been advanced that parenteral solutions as commonly formulated for use in clinical practice have a toxic effect on cell metabolism. A specific component of these solutions, sodium acetate, has been suggested to disrupt normal bone turnover and therefore to contribute to the osteopenia observed in patients receiving hemodialysis and parenteral nutrition (PN). We developed an in vitro model to test the hypothesis that sodium acetate at concentrations that are infused in PN solutions has a deleterious effect on bone metabolism. Osteoblasts and preosteoblasts from 16- to 17-day-old embryonic chick calvaria, and tibiae and femora from 10-day-old embryonic chicks were grown in BGJb medium (control) or in BGJb medium plus sodium acetate (5, 10, or 20 mM). Calvarial cell proliferation was quantified by direct cell counts as well as by incorporation of [3H]TdR into DNA as an index of cell proliferation. Calvarial cell alkaline phosphatase activity was quantified by the ability of extracts of the cultured cells to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol, and bone growth was determined by measuring final dry weight. Calvarial cell counts as well as DNA synthesis showed a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of sodium acetate (5-20 mM) compared with controls. [3H]TdR incorporation was decreased a mean 19% with 5 mM, 38% with 10 mM, and 63% with 20 mM acetate. Alkaline phosphatase activity per cell increased 48% with 5 mM, 140% with 10 mM, and 355% with 20 mM acetate. Cell viability as assessed by trypan blue exclusion was identical for test and control media (greater than 95%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control chicks, while the expression of mRNA encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma was not affected. In addition, both mRNA expression (P<0.05) and enzymatic activity (P<0.05) of fatty acid synthase (FAS) were decreased in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  18. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.M.; Gray, E.M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L.W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.

    1999-01-01

    We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

  19. Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Burgos, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9) showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature. PMID:12831405

  20. Comparison of probiotics maintained by in vivo passage through laying hens and broilers.

    PubMed

    Ziprin, R L; Deloach, J R

    1993-04-01

    Cecal colonization by salmonellae may be greatly reduced by inoculating chickens with normal cecal microflora, a phenomenon known as competitive exclusion. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to reliably store active cecal microflora over long time periods, and it is difficult to obtain consistent experimental results with different batches of microflora. In order to overcome these problems, the present authors have maintained active cecal flora through a 2-yr period by in vivo passage through both broiler chicks and layers that were fed a diet containing 5% lactose. Competitive exclusion cultures maintained in laying hens worked as well as cultures from broilers. Cecal microflora from either source excluded both nonlactose-fermenting and lactose-fermenting Salmonella strains. Colonization by both types of Salmonella was reduced even when the competitive exclusion organisms were given as late as 3 days after oral challenge inoculation with Salmonella typhimurium.

  1. A stereological analysis of the cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells of 30-day-old and adult rats undernourished during early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Bedi, K S; Hall, R; Davies, C A; Dobbing, J

    1980-10-15

    Male rats undernourished from birth to 30 days of age were nutritionally rehabilitated till 160 days of age. Quantitative stereological procedures at the light microscope level were used to estimate, among other things, the numerical densities of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells on a "per unit volume of cortex" basis. These were subsequently used to calculate granule-to-Purkinje cell ratios. The 30-day-old undernourished rats had a mean +/- S.E. of 290 +/- 27 granule cells for every Purkinje cell present, compared to 395 +/- 34 for the controls. This was a deficit of about 27% (p < 0.05). At 160 days of age, the previously undernourished rats still showed a persisting deficit of about 25% (p < 0.05) in this ratio, despite the lengthy nutritional rehabilitation. There were no statistically significant age-related changes in this ratio. The numerical density of Purkinje cells, but not that of granule cells, was significantly greater in the previously undernourished rats than in controls, for both age groups, Increasing age caused a fall in the numerical density of both cell types. Granule and Purkinje cell nuclear diameters were unaffected by nutrition. However, Purkinje cell nuclei decreased in size by between 7%--13% with increasing age. These results indicate that undernutrition during early life can cause a permanent distortion of the relative number of the various cell types in the cerebellum.

  2. Progestin receptors in brain and pituitary of 20-day-old fetal mice: an autoradiographic study using (/sup 125/I)progestin

    SciTech Connect

    Shughrue, P.J.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Elger, W.; Schulze, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of progestin target sites in the brain and pituitary of estrogen-primed 20-day-old fetal mice was investigated by thaw-mount autoradiography. Three pregnant mice were each implanted sc with a Silastic tube containing estrogen on day 17 and ovariectomized on day 19 of gestation. Twenty-four hours after ovariectomy 10 fetuses (5 males and 5 females) were collected and each injected sc with 0.33 microgram/100 g BW (/sup 125/I)progestin (SA, 2200 Ci/mM). For competition, two additional fetuses were injected with 20 micrograms R5020 1 h before (Z)-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(2(/sup 125/I)iodovinyl)4-estren-3-one ((/sup 125/I)Progestin) to demonstrate that nuclear uptake and retention of radioactivity were specific for progestin. Two hours after injection of (/sup 125/I)Progestin all fetuses were mounted, frozen, and sectioned in a cryostat. After 1-37 days of exposure, sections were developed and scanned for labeled cells. Cells with nuclear concentration were found in the male and female preoptic area, within certain nuclear groups in the basal hypothalamus, in the central gray of the midbrain, and in the pituitary. No labeling was detected in the cortex or amygdala. The results indicate that cells in certain regions of the brain and pituitary express progestin receptors at the end of gestation and suggest that progesterone is important for the normal development of these cells.

  3. Distinct hemispheric specializations for native and non-native languages in one-day-old newborns identified by fNIRS.

    PubMed

    Vannasing, Phetsamone; Florea, Olivia; González-Frankenberger, Berta; Tremblay, Julie; Paquette, Natacha; Safi, Dima; Wallois, Fabrice; Lepore, Franco; Béland, Renée; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed whether the neonatal brain recruits different neural networks for native and non-native languages at birth. Twenty-seven one-day-old full-term infants underwent functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) recording during linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation. Fourteen newborns listened to linguistic stimuli (native and non-native language stories) and 13 newborns were exposed to non-linguistic conditions (native and non-native stimuli played in reverse). Comparisons between left and right hemisphere oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) concentration changes over the temporal areas revealed clear left hemisphere dominance for native language, whereas non-native stimuli were associated with right hemisphere lateralization. In addition, bilateral cerebral activation was found for non-linguistic stimulus processing. Overall, our findings indicate that from the first day after birth, native language and prosodic features are processed in parallel by distinct neural networks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Juvenile Hormone Enhances Aversive Learning Performance in 2-Day Old Worker Honey Bees while Reducing Their Attraction to Queen Mandibular Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees’ attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP’s effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

  5. Quantitative analysis of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the freely-moving 15-day-old rat.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Abu-Hasaballah, K; Austin-LaFrance, R J; Morgane, P J

    1995-01-01

    The magnitude and duration of long-term potentiation (LTP) of perforant path/dentate granule cell synapses was examined in freely moving rats beginning at 15 days of age. Measures of dentate granule cell population EPSP slope and population spike amplitude (PSA) obtained before and after tetanization were used to evaluate the level of LTP. Tetanization resulted in significant enhancement of both the population EPSP slope (approximately +75%) and PSA (approximately +40%) measures. This enhancement was maintained without significant change for 18 h, after which both measures began a steady and continuous rise. Daily input/output response measures from age-matched nontetanized animals were used to factor out enhancement related to normal development. Under this schema, tetanization-induced enhancement of both EPSP slope and PSA measures decayed slowly, beginning 18-24 h after tetanization, returning to baseline 5 days after tetanization. Enhancement obtained from 90-day-old animals decayed to baseline 24 h after tetanization. The longer duration of LTP obtained from preweanlings is discussed with regard to the development of inhibitory systems modulating granule cell excitability.

  6. Distribution of progesterone receptor in the 20-day-old fetal mouse: an autoradiographic study with (/sup 125/I)progestin

    SciTech Connect

    Shughrue, P.J.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.

    1988-11-01

    The distribution of progestin target sites in 20-day-old fetuses of estrogen-primed pregnant mice was investigated by thaw-mount autoradiography. Pregnant mice received a Silastic estradiol implant on day 17 and were ovariectomized on day 19 of pregnancy. Twenty-four hours after ovariectomy 10 prematurely delivered fetuses were each injected with 0.33 microgram/100 g BW (/sup 125/I)progestin (SA, 2200 Ci/mM). To show specificity of progestin localization two additional fetuses were each injected sc with 20 micrograms R5020, a synthetic progestin, 1 h before the injection of (/sup 125/I)progestin. The fetuses were frozen 2 h after injection of (/sup 125/I)progestin, sectioned, and processed for thaw-mount autoradiography. Cells with nuclear uptake and retention of radioactivity were observed in numerous tissues, including certain regions of the oral mucosa and developing teeth, esophagus, larynx, skin, mammary gland, skeletal muscle, kidney, and reproductive glands and ducts. Injection of unlabeled R5020 1 h before (/sup 125/I)progestin prevented nuclear concentration of radioactivity in all target tissues. The results indicate that progesterone receptors are expressed with a regional, cellular, and subcellular distribution in term fetal mouse tissues and suggest that progesterone is important to the growth and development of certain fetal tissues.

  7. Persistence of hormonal and metabolic rhythms during fasting in 7 to 9 day-old rabbits entrained by nursing during the night

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Elvira; Meza, Enrique; Gordon, M. Kathleen; Pau, Francis K.Y.; Juárez, Claudia; Caba, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit does nurse their litter once every 24 h during the night. We hypothesized that corticosterone, ghrelin, leptin and metabolites like glucose, liver glycogen and free fatty acids could be affected in the pups by the time at which does nurse them. Therefore, we measured these parameters in pups nursed at 02:00 h (nighttime for the doe) to compare them with results from a previous study where does nursed at 10:00 h, during daytime. From postnatal day 7, pups were sacrificed either just before their scheduled time of nursing or at 4, 8, 12, 16 or 20 h after nursing (n = 6 at each time point); additional pups were sacrificed at 4 h intervals between 48 and 72 h after nursing to study the persistence of oscillations during fasting. All pups developed locomotor anticipatory activity to nursing. Corticosterone, ghrelin and free fatty acids exhibited a rhythm that persisted in fasted pups. Glucose concentrations were lower in fasted than in nursed pups, and glycogen was only detected in nursed subjects. Leptin values were stable and low in nursed subjects but increased significantly in fasted subjects up to 72 h after the expected nursing time. The rhythm of ghrelin persisted during fasting, contrary to our previous findings in pups nursed during daytime (i.e. outside the natural time of nursing for this species). Therefore, in 7-day-old rabbit pups, night nursing is a strong zeitgeber for corticosterone, ghrelin, free fatty acids and energy metabolites but not for leptin. PMID:20478309

  8. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in a woman and Tinea capitis in her 15-day-old baby: molecular evidence of vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, E T M; Borghi, E; Cerri, A; Sciota, R; Morace, G; Menni, S

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman who came under our observation with a 7-year history of a chronic erythematous scaly dermatitis, diagnosed as psoriasis, involving gluteal area and thighs, and treated with topical steroids without benefit. During pregnancy, a progressive worsening of her condition and an extension of cutaneous lesions were observed. Her newborn, a 15-day-old girl, presented a similar scaly and squamous lesion on her scalp. Mycological examination was positive for Trichophyton rubrum in both cases, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed the isogenicity of the two isolates. We performed a diagnosis of T. rubrum tinea corporis and tinea capitis. The case we describe illustrates an unusual clinical presentation of tinea corporis with remarkable extension of cutaneous lesions due to the diagnostic delay and the continuous use of local steroids, together with a rare tinea capitis in the newborn. Our experience highlights the possibility of mother-child transmission and the importance of an early diagnosis.

  9. Juvenile hormone enhances aversive learning performance in 2-day old worker honey bees while reducing their attraction to queen mandibular pheromone.

    PubMed

    McQuillan, H James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees' attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP's effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees.

  10. Influence of pre-storage incubation on hatchability traits, thyroid hormones, antioxidative status and immunity of newly hatched chicks at two chicken breeder flock ages.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, T A; Twfeek, F A; Assar, M H; Bealish, A M; Abd El-Karim, R E; Ragab, M

    2017-04-17

    Egg storage longer than 7 days is associated with negative effects on hatchability traits. Pre-storage incubation has been a suggested method to reduce the negative effects of long-term storage times by enhancing the developmental stage of the embryo and probably reducing the embryonic stress. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre-storage incubation and storage time on hatchability characteristics, chick quality and serum thyroid hormones, antioxidative properties and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) concentrations of newly hatched chicks at two breeder flock ages. A total of 8000 fertile eggs were obtained from two different ages of chicken breeder hens (Egyptian local cross, Inshas). Half of the eggs were collected from young breeder hens (28 weeks old) and the other half from old breeder hens (50 weeks old). In each breeder flock age, eggs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2×4 factorial arrangement, with two storage periods (4 or 14 days) and four pre-storage incubation durations (0, 4, 6 or 8 h at 37.5°C). At 28 and 50 weeks of age, pre-storage incubation and its interaction with storage period influenced significantly the apparent fertility, hatchability of set eggs and hatchability of fertile eggs and this improvement in hatchability is attributed to the reduction in embryonic mortality (early, intermediate and late). Pre-storage incubation for 6 or 8 h elevated significantly the grade A chicks and reduced the grade B chicks in comparison with non-heated controls. Interestingly, for eggs stored for 14 days, pre-storage incubation for 6 or 8 h enhanced serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, glutathione peroxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity and IgY concentrations significantly and decreased serum malondialdehyde concentration significantly in the newly hatched chicks. It could be concluded that pre-storage incubation enhanced the hatching results, improved the antioxidative properties, reduced

  11. Dual infections with low virulent chicken infectious anaemia virus (lvCIAV) and intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (iIBDV) in young chicks increase lvCIAV in thymus and bursa while decreasing lymphocyte disorders induced by iIBDV.

    PubMed

    Vaziry, Asaad; Silim, Amer; Bleau, Christian; Frenette, Diane; Lamontagne, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    The use of attenuated vaccines or the occurrence of low virulent T-lymphotropic or B-lymphotropic viruses in flocks may alter the immune responses of young chicks in spite of the absence of clinical signs. Infections with a low virulent T-lymphotropic chicken infectious anaemia virus (lvCIAV) followed by infection with an intermediate B-lymphotropic infectious bursal disease virus (iIBDV) were conducted in specific pathogen free chicks. Thirty-six 1-day-old chicks were infected with the lvCIAV strain (CAV-VAC®) and a similar number of chicks were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. At 14 days after lvCIAV infection, one group of 18 lvCIAV-infected chicks and one group of 18 uninfected chicks were infected with an iIBDV strain. At 4, 7 and 14 days post infection with iIBDV, six chicks from each group were euthanized and lymphoid organs were collected. Detection of lvCIAV and iIBDV genomes was conducted by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Double-labelled lymphoid subsets from the thymus, spleen and bursa were studied by cytofluorometric analysis. The results reveal that previous infection with lvCIAV increases the occurrence of the lvCIAV and iIBDV genome in thymus and/or bursa without the occurrence of clinical signs in dually lvCIAV/iIBDV-infected chicks. However, the decreases of B cells in spleen and bursa and increases of T-cell subsets in bursa observed in chicks infected with iIBDV did not occur in chicks previously infected with lvCIAV. Taken together, these results suggest that previous infection of young chicks with lvCIAV decreases lymphoid disorders induced by iIBDV while subsequent iIBDV infection increases the lvCIAV genome in lymphoid organs.

  12. Summation of Large Numerousness by Newborn Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Newly hatched domestic chicks, reared with identical objects, when presented with sets of 3 vs. 2 objects disappearing one-by-one behind separate screens, spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set; even when the continuous variables (area or perimeter) were controlled for (Rugani et al., 2009). Here, using a similar paradigm, we investigated the ability of chicks to perform addition on larger sets of objects. Chicks imprinted on five identical objects, were presented at test with 6 vs. 9 objects which disappeared one-by-one (Exp. 1). In Exp. 2, the same overall number of objects (15) was used, but employing an increased ratio, i.e., 5 vs. 10. In both experiments, when continuous variables were not made equal, chicks spontaneously inspected the screen occluding the larger set. However, when the size of the objects was adjusted so as to make the total surface area or perimeter equal for the two sets, chicks did not exhibit any preference. Lack of choice in the control conditions could be due to a combination of preferences; to rejoin the larger numerousness as well as the bigger objects (Rugani et al., 2010a). In Exp. 3, chicks were familiarized, during imprinting, with objects of various dimensions, in an attempt to reduce or suppress their tendency to approach objects larger than the familiar ones. Again chicks failed to choose at test between 5 vs. 10 objects when continuous variables were made equal. Results showed that chicks, after a one-by-one presentation of a large number of objects, rejoined the larger set. In order to choose the larger set, chicks estimated the objects in the two sets and then compared the outcomes. However, differently to what has been described for small numerousness, chicks succeeded only if non-numerical cues as well as numerical cues were available. This study suggests that continuous variables are computed by chicks for sets of objects that are not present at the same time and that are no longer visible at the time

  13. Impaired imprinting and social behaviors in chicks exposed to mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, during the final week of embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hideo; Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu

    2014-03-15

    The effects of glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during embryogenesis on the imprinting abilities and social behaviors of hatchlings were examined using "fertile hen's egg-embryo-chick" system. Of embryos treated with mifepristone (0.4μmol/egg) on day 14, over 75% hatched a day later than the controls (day 22) without external anomalies. The mifepristone-treated hatchlings were assayed for imprinting ability on post-hatching day 2 and for social behaviors on day 3. The findings were as follows: imprinting ability (expressed as preference score) was significantly lower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (0.65±0.06 vs. 0.92±0.02, P<0.005). Aggregation tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) required for four chicks, individually isolated with cardboard dividers in a box, to form a group after removal of the barriers showed that aggregation was significantly slower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (8.7±1.1 vs. 2.6±0.3, P<0.001). In belongingness tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) for a chick isolated at a corner to join a group of three chicks placed at the opposite corner, mifepristone-treated hatchlings took significantly longer than controls (4.5±0.4/40 cm vs. 2.4±0.08/40 cm, P<0.001). In vocalization tests, using a decibel meter to measure average decibel level/30s (chick vocalization), mifepristone-treated hatchlings had significantly weaker vocalizations than controls (14.2±1.9/30s vs. 26.4±1.3/30s P<0.001). In conclusion, glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during the last week embryogenesis altered the programming of brain development, resulting in impaired behavioral activities in late life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  15. Different sources of maternal selenium affect selenium retention, antioxidant status, and meat quality of 56-day-old offspring of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wang, Y X; Zhou, Y; Zheng, L; Zhan, X A; Pu, Q H

    2014-09-01

    The maternal effect of different Se source in offspring of young broiler breeders has been reported, but the lasting maternal effect of different sources of Se on offspring of breeders has received limited attention, so this study was conducted to investigate the effects of different maternal Se sources on Se retention, antioxidant status, and meat quality of 56-d-old offspring of broiler breeders. A total of two hundred forty 39-wk-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly distributed into 2 treatments, each of which was replicated 3 times with 40 birds per replicate, with a 14-d pretreatment and 56-d trial period. The treatments were fed a basal corn-soybean diet (0.04 mg∙kg⁻¹ Se) supplemented with 0.3 mg∙kg⁻¹ sodium selenite (SS) or selenomethionine (Se-Met). Fertile eggs were collected for incubation, after which 180 healthy chicks from each treatment were selected and randomly allocated into 3 replicates, with 60 birds per replicate. All the chicks were fed the same basal diet (0.04 mg∙kg⁻¹ Se) for 56 d. The Se concentrations in serum and tissues (liver, kidney, and breast muscle) of the 56-d-old offspring were significantly (P < 0.01) increased by maternal Se-Met intake compared with maternal SS intake. The antioxidant status of the 56-d-old offspring was greatly improved by maternal Se-Met supplementation in contrast with maternal SS supplementation, which was shown by increased glutathione peroxidase activity in serum and breast muscle (P < 0.01), glutathione concentration in serum (P < 0.05), and total antioxidant capability in pancreas (P < 0.01), as well as cytosolic glutathione peroxidase mRNA abundance in breast muscle, liver (P < 0.01), and pancreas (P < 0.05). The maternal Se-Met treatment was more effective in maintaining the shape of liver and pancreas cells, cell nuclei, chromatin, as well as cell membrane structure, and more organelles were observed in liver cells. The maternal Se-Met treatment had significant (P < 0

  16. Influence of dietary fat source on growth performance responses and carcass traits of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Poorghasemi, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.

  17. The characterisation of Bordetella/Alcaligenes-like organisms and their effects on turkey poults and chicks.

    PubMed

    Varley, J

    1986-01-01

    Eight isolates of the Bordetella or Alcaligenes-like organisms associated with turkey rhino-tracheitis were examined. Five of these isolates had been recovered from the United Kingdom and three were foreign isolates. Four of the UK isolates came from flocks with mild respiratory disease. The fifth isolate came from birds with no respiratory signs and this appears to be the first report of the recovery of Bordetella/Alcaligenes from apparently normal turkeys. The field isolates and type strains Alcaligenes faecalis NCTC 415 and Bordetella bronchiseptica NCTC 452 were characterised by biochemical tests, but these did not include any electrophoresis or nucleic acid studies. Cluster analysis using the group average method and the similarly coefficient of Sokal and Sneath indicated that all the strains were distinct from Alcaligenes faecalis but were quite closely related to Bordetella bronchiseptica. Each field isolate was used to infect separate groups of day-old turkey poults and chicks, and each group contained birds which were experimentally infected and others which were in-contact. Observations were made over a 32-day period. In turkey poults, some of the isolates induced severe respiratory disease and mortality, and others very little or none. The UK isolates were less pathogenic than the foreign isolates. It was not possible to correlate the pathogenicity of the isolates for turkey poults with their biochemical characteristics. Chicks infected with two of the eight isolates showed slight respiratory signs, but there was no significant mortality.

  18. Bacteria isolated from the duodenum, ileum, and cecum of young chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J P; Blake, I G; Muirehead, P A; Maglio, M; Goodman, J R

    1978-01-01

    Facultatively anaerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria colonizing the intestinal tracts of 14-day-old chicks fed a corn-based diet were enumerated, isolated, and identified. Colony counts from anaerobic roll tubes (rumen fluid medium) or aerobic plates (brain heart infusion agar) recovered from homogenates of the duodenum, upper and lower ileum, and cecum varied appreciably among samples from individual birds. Anaerobic and aerobic counts from the duodenum and ileum were similar. Anaerobic counts were highest from the cecum (0.7 X 10(11) to 1.6 X 10(11)/g of dry tissue) and exceeded aerobic plate counts by a factor of at least 10(2). Facultatively anaerobic groups (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli) comprised the predominant flora of the duodenum and ileum, although large numbers of anaerobes (9 to 39% of the small intestine isolates), represented by species of Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Clostridium, Gemmiger, and Fusobacterium, were also recovered. Strict anaerobes (anaerobic gram-positive cocci, Eubacterium, Clostridium Gemmiger, Fusobacterium, and Bacteriodes) made up nearly the entire microbial population of the cecum. Scanning electron microscopy of the intestinal epithelia of chicks revealed populations of microbes on the duodenal, ileal, and cecal mucosal surfaces. Images PMID:646359

  19. Regulation of rhythmic melatonin production in pineal cells of chick embryo by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Macková, M; Lamosová, D; Zeman, M

    1998-05-01

    The pineal cells of chick embryos incubated in vitro exhibited a daily rhythm of melatonin synthesis under a 12:12 light:dark (LD) cycle at the embryonic days 16 and 19. In order to elucidate whether cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)--a component of the melatonin generating system--is already at work in the embryonic period, we measured the effects of forskolin and isobuthylmethylxantine (IBMX) on melatonin production, cAMP efflux and accumulation. Forskolin (after 10, 20, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min of administration) and IBMX (6 h), when applied during the light phase of LD cycle, stimulated melatonin production and cAMP efflux and accumulation during the embryonic period (at days 16 and 19 fo development). Our results suggest that the biochemical pathway involving cAMP, which controls melatonin production in the postnatal period, is developed before hatching and already on embryonic day 19 works in a way similar to that in post-hatched chicks. Differences in response to cAMP stimulation between 16- and 19-day-old pinealocytes seem to be mostly quantitative.

  20. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  1. Anasarca and myopathy in ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Philbey, A W; Button, C; Gestier, A W; Munro, B E; Glastonbury, J R; Hindmarsh, M; Love, S C

    1991-07-01

    Twenty ostrich chicks that died at, or within, 1 week after hatching were examined from 7 farms with poor (43 to 75%) hatchability. All chicks had anasarca and 15 had mild, generalised, acute degenerative changes in the complexus and pelvic limb muscles. One had fibrinoid degeneration of arterioles. Biochemical examinations produced no evidence of deficiencies of selenium, vitamin A or vitamin E. The syndrome was related to high relative humidity during incubation. Malpositioning also was a cause of embryo mortality.

  2. Golgi apparatus in chick skeletal muscle: changes in its distribution during end plate development and after denervation.

    PubMed Central

    Jasmin, B J; Cartaud, J; Bornens, M; Changeux, J P

    1989-01-01

    In the course of studies about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of motor end plate formation, the distribution of the Golgi apparatus (GA) has been investigated by immunofluorescence methods in chick skeletal muscle in primary culture and in innervated muscles of 15-day-old chicks. By using a monoclonal antibody directed against the GA, we confirmed the known distribution of the GA in myogenic cells: a juxtanuclear polarized organization in myoblasts and a perinuclear nonpolarized distribution in myotubes. In contrast, the innervated anterior latissimus dorsi muscle of "young adult" chicks displayed a focal distribution of GA that appeared restricted to areas located underneath the motor end plates identified by alpha-bungarotoxin fluorescent labeling of the acetylcholine receptor. Five days after denervation of anterior latissimus dorsi muscle, a striking reorganization and expansion of the GA was observed. The GA now showed a perinuclear distribution in close association with every nucleus of the muscle fibers as observed in myotubes. The focal distribution of the GA in innervated muscle fibers and its remodeling upon denervation are interpreted in terms of a model of local synthesis, processing, and routing of acetylcholine receptor to the end plate and of regulation of these processes by functional motor innervation. Images PMID:2674951

  3. Effects of dietary saturated or unsaturated fatty acids and calcium levels on performance and mineral metabolism of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Leeson, S

    1984-11-01

    The effects of inclusion of 8% oleic, palmitic, or a 50/50 mixture of oleic and palmitic acids as the major source of fat in the presence of .8, 1.2, or 1.6% calcium in broiler diets was investigated using broiler chicks from day-old to 3 weeks of age. Supplementation of broiler diets with oleic acid reduced feed intake (P less than .05) and improved feed efficiency (P less than .01) compared to other treatments. Chicks fed diets supplemented with oleic acid or a mixture of oleic and palmitic acid gained more weight (P less than .01) over a 3-week period. Significant interactions were observed between type of dietary fatty acid and calcium level on metabolizable energy of diets (P less than .01), magnesium retention (P less than .05), calcium and fat retention (P less than .01), and proportion of excreta fatty acid that was present as soap (P less than .01). Although all fatty acids tested formed soap in the small intestine, soaps of oleic acid were efficiently utilized as opposed to soaps of palmitic acid. There was a significant (P less than .05) reduction in bone ash and bone calcium content of chicks fed diets supplemented with palmitic acid. There was a significant interaction (P less than .05) between type of fatty acid and calcium level on bone magnesium content. Increasing the calcium content of diets aggravated the decrease in calcium retention and bone calcium content associated with addition of fat.

  4. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking.

  5. Persistence of hormonal and metabolic rhythms during fasting in 7- to 9-day-old rabbits entrained by nursing during the night.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Elvira; Meza, Enrique; Gordon, M Kathleen; Pau, Francis K Y; Juárez, Claudia; Caba, Mario

    2010-08-01

    Rabbit does nurse their litter once every 24h during the night. We hypothesized that corticosterone, ghrelin, leptin, and metabolites such as glucose, liver glycogen, and free fatty acids could be affected in the pups by the time at which does nurse them. Therefore, we measured these parameters in pups nursed at 02:00 h (nighttime for the doe) to compare them with results from a previous study where does nursed at 10:00 h, during daytime. From postnatal day 7, pups were sacrificed either just before their scheduled time of nursing or at 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 h after nursing (n=6 at each time point); additional pups were sacrificed at 4h intervals between 48 and 72 h after nursing to study the persistence of oscillations during fasting. All pups developed locomotor anticipatory activity to nursing. Corticosterone, ghrelin, and free fatty acids exhibited a rhythm that persisted in fasted pups. Glucose concentrations were lower in fasted than in nursed pups, and glycogen was only detected in nursed subjects. Leptin values were stable and low in nursed subjects but increased significantly in fasted subjects up to 72 h after the expected nursing time. The rhythm of ghrelin persisted during fasting, contrary to our previous findings in pups nursed during daytime (i.e., outside the natural time of nursing for this species). Therefore, in 7-day-old rabbit pups, night nursing is a strong zeitgeber for corticosterone, ghrelin, free fatty acids, and energy metabolites but not for leptin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Salmonella enterica in imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt: repertoire of virulence genes and their antimicrobial resistance profiles.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Erfan, A M; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    Globalisation and international trade facilitate the rapid spread and transmission of foodborne pathogens. This study was designed to determine the serovars, distribution of virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and antibiotic resistance profiles in salmonellae recovered from imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt. The prevalence of salmonellae in the imported poults was 4% (6/150): S. Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate (1.3%; 2/150), followed by Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle and a non-typeable strain, each with 0.7% (1/150) prevalence. The prevalence of salmonellae in the domestic poults was < 2% (2/150) and serotyping indicated a prevalence of 1.3% (1/150) for both Typhimurium and Altona. In polymerase chain reaction screening, the genes invA, sopB and bcfC were detected in all the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates (100%); the gene gipA was absent from all isolates. Carriage of invA, sopB and bcfC among the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates was associated with a core pattern of resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The detection of S. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, and Altona in turkey poults has important implications because these serovars are a significant cause of foodborne illness and enteric fever in humans.

  7. Neurophysiological investigations of a recognition memory system for imprinting in the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Nicol, A U; Brown, M W; Horn, G

    1995-04-01

    The responsiveness of neurons in a region of the chick brain involved in the learning process of imprinting, the right intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (right IMHV), has been investigated in unanaesthetized, trained and untrained chicks. The results demonstrate that neuronal responsiveness in this region reflects a variety of behavioural consequences of imprinting and is markedly altered as a result of the learning process. Groups of chicks (nine in each group) were either dark-reared or trained (imprinted) by exposure to a rotating red box or a rotating blue cylinder. Recordings of single or small groups of neurons were subsequently made from 156 sites in the right IMHV while the 2-day-old chicks were free to move in a running wheel. There was a highly significant increase in the proportion of sites responsive to the stimulus used to train the birds compared to the proportion responsive to that stimulus in dark-reared birds (30 and 9% respectively). These changes were found when either the red box or the blue cylinder was used to train the bird, the changes being similar for both stimuli. There was also a significant increase in the mean magnitude of the change in neuronal activity on stimulus presentation for the training stimulus compared to the same stimulus when not used in the bird's training. No significant effects of the training experience of the chicks were found upon either the magnitude of evoked activity or the proportion of sites responsive to a rotating stuffed jungle fowl or the sound of the maternal call. The presence of the training stimulus was selectively signalled by the response at certain sites. At other sites there was response generalization across stimulus shape or colour. A comparison with results for the left IMHV demonstrates both similarities and differences in neuronal responsiveness between the two regions. In both regions imprinting selectively enhances neuronal responsiveness to the training stimulus. However, for

  8. Expression of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Egg Whites of Transgenic Hens

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications. PMID:25706123

  9. Expression of recombinant human lysozyme in egg whites of transgenic hens.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dainan; Wu, Hanyu; Li, Qingyuan; Sun, Yingmin; Liu, Tongxin; Fei, Jing; Zhao, Yaofeng; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg lysozyme (cLY) is an enzyme with 129 amino acid (AA) residue enzyme. This enzyme is present not only in chicken egg white but also in mucosal secretions such as saliva and tears. The antibacterial properties of egg white can be attributed to the presence of lysozyme, which is used as an anti-cancer drug and for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector containing a synthetic cLY signal peptide and a 447 bp synthetic human lysozyme (hLY) cDNA sequence driven by an oviduct-specific ovalbumin promoter, and microinjected into the subgerminal cavity of stage X chick embryos to generate transgenic chicken. The transgene inserted in the chicken chromosomes directs the synthesis and secretion of hLY which has three times higher specific activity than cLY. Three G1 transgenic chickens were identified, the only female of which expressed recombinant human lysozyme (rhLY) at 57.66 ± 4.10 μg/ml in the egg white and the G2 transgenic hens of the G1 transgenic cock A011 expressed rhLY at 48.72 ± 1.54 μg/ml. This experiment demonstrated that transgenic hens with stable oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human lysozyme proteins can be created by microinjection of lentiviral vectors. The results of this research could be contribute to the technological development using transgenic hens as a cost-effective alternative to other mammalian systems, such as cow, sheep and goats, for the production of therapeutic proteins and other applications.

  10. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs.

  11. Effect of dietary aluminum sulfate on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hussein, A S; Cantor, A H; Johnson, T H; Yokel, R A

    1990-06-01

    The effect of dietary aluminum sulfate on Ca and P metabolism was studied using 1-day-old male broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, practical diets providing .90% Ca plus .45% available P (Pav), .90% Ca plus .78% Pav, 1.80% Ca plus .45% Pav, or 1.80% Ca plus .90% Pav were fed with 0 or .392% A1 as aluminum sulfate for 21 days. The control diet (.90% Ca plus .45% Pav) without added A1 was fed to all chicks during Days 22 to 49. In general, A1 significantly (P less than .05) decreased BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, plasma inorganic P (Pi), tibia breaking strength, tibia weight, percentage of tibia ash, and plasma Zn, measured at Day 21. Elevating Pav increased BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, tibia weight and plasma Zn, and decreased plasma total Ca in the presence of .392% A1 plus 1.80% Ca. Plasma Pi, tibia breaking strength, and percentage of tibia ash were increased by raising dietary Pav in the presence of .392% A1 with either level of Ca. Negative effects of dietary A1 on feed intake and BW persisted through Day 49. In Experiment 2, a control diet (.90% Ca, .45% Pav) was fed for ad libitum access either alone or supplemented with .2% A1 as aluminum sulfate or with an equivalent amount of sulfate provided by potassium sulfate. The control diet was also pair-fed to chicks given .2% A1. Dietary A1 significantly depressed weight gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and plasma Pi.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. High stocking density as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Stocking density is a management factor which has critical implications for the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high stocking density as a predisposing factor in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Two hundred and forty as hatched day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: group N, with normal stocking density (15 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group D, with high stocking density (30 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group P, with normal stocking density and positive challenge; and group DP, with high stocking density and positive challenge. From each bird, the intestine, gizzard and liver were collected and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed significant interaction effects between "stocking density" and "challenge", regarding gross lesion scores in intestine and liver, pH values in jejunum, ileum and caeca as well as C. perfringens counts in the caeca (P ≤ 0.05). High stocking density in challenged birds increased the gross lesion score in the intestine (P ≤ 0.05), contrary to unchallenged birds. It can be concluded that high stocking density affects unfavourably the welfare and gut health of broiler chicks, predisposes to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and increases further its importance as a management factor for the poultry industry.

  13. Immuno-pathologic effects of oral administration of chlorpyrifos in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Asim; Khan, Ahrar; Khan, M Zargham; Mahmood, Fazal; Gul, S T; Saleemi, M Kashif

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess if chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced immunotoxic effects in orally-treated day-old broiler chicks. Groups of chicks received per os CPF diluted in xylene at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight (CPF-5, CPF-10, and CPF-20) orally daily for 15 days. Xylene and control groups received xylene alone (1 ml/kg BW) and physiological saline, respectively. At various times during/after the exposure regimens, different immune end-points were analyzed in the birds. Humoral immunity was examined by assessing antibody responses to sheep red blood cells. Cell-mediated immunity was measured via lymphoproliferative responses to avian tuberculin. Leukocyte phagocytic ability was measured using a carbon clearance assay. Results showed that CPF administered to broiler chicks caused a dose-dependent decrease in humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, and phagocytic activity. Dose- and time-related pathological changes were observed in bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus in treated birds. These changes were mild, moderate, and severe, respectively, in the 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg CPF groups. The Bursa of Fabricius in treated birds showed increased inter-follicular connective tissue proliferation, severe moderate cytoplasmic vacuolation, edema, and degenerative changes such as pyknosis and fragmentation of nuclei that depleted the follicles of lymphoid cells. In the spleen, disorganization of follicular patterns, severe congestion, cytoplasmic vacuolation, degenerative changes, and hyperplasia of reticular cells were noted. The thymus in treated birds exhibited congestion, hyper-cellularity, and a presence of immature monocytes in the medullary region, as well as myoid cell necrosis. Taken together, these studies clearly demonstrated that chlorpyrifos could induce immunotoxicities in broiler birds.

  14. Effects of litter provision during early rearing and environmental enrichment during the production phase on feather pecking and feather damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, F M; Brantsæter, M; Nordgreen, J; Sandberg, E; Hansen, T B; Nødtvedt, A; Rodenburg, T B; Moe, R O; Janczak, A M

    2016-12-01

    Feather pecking is a multi-factorial behavioral disorder and a serious welfare issue in the poultry industry. Several studies report early life experience with litter to be a major determinant in the development of feather pecking. The current study aimed to test the large-scale on-farm efficiency of a simple and cheap husbandry procedure applied during the rearing period with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of feather pecking and plumage damage during the production stage in laying hens. Five laying hen-rearing farmers from across Norway participated in the study. These farmers were asked to create divisions within their hen rearing houses and to separate their chicks into 2 groups: one reared with access to a paper substrate from the first d of age, the other a control group without access to paper substrate during rearing. All flocks were visited at the production farms at 30 wk of age and observed for pecking behavior and feather damage. Birds in the control group had higher odds of having more feather damage compared to the birds from the treatment group. In addition, flocks provided with environmental enrichment at the production farms had a reduced incidence of feather pecking, irrespective of the treatment. These results indicate that husbandry procedures during both rearing and production stages have the potential to alleviate feather pecking and increase laying hen welfare.

  15. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  16. Compensation to positive as well as negative lenses can occur in chicks reared in bright UV lighting.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David S; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2012-08-15

    An earlier report describing a lack of compensation to imposed myopic and hyperopic defocus in chicks reared in UV lighting has led to the belief that the spatial resolving power of the UV cone photoreceptor network in chicks is not capable of decoding optical defocus. However this study used dim light rearing conditions, of less than 10 lx. The purpose of the current study was to determine if emmetropization is possible in young chicks reared under higher luminance, UV lighting conditions. Young, 4 day-old chicks were reared under diurnal near UV (390 nm) illumination set to either 20 or 200 lx while wearing a monocular defocusing lens (+20, +10, -10 or -20 D), for 7 days. Similarly treated control groups were reared under diurnal white lighting (WL) of matching illuminance. The WL and UV LED sources were set to equivalent illuminances, measured in "chick lux", calculated from radiometer readings taken through appropriate narrow band interference filters, and a mathematical model of the spectral sensitivity of the chick visual system. High resolution A-scan ultrasonography was undertaken on days 0 (before lenses were fitted), 2, 4, and 7 to track ocular dimensions and refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy on days 0 and 7. Compensation to negative lenses was unaffected by UV illuminance levels, with near full compensation being achieved under both conditions, as well as under both WL conditions. In contrast, compensation to the positive lenses was markedly impaired in 20 lx UV lighting, with increased instead of decreased axial elongation along with a myopic refractive shift being recorded with the +10D lens. Compensation under both WL conditions was again near normal for the +10D lens. However, with the +20 D lens, myopic shifts in refractive error were observed under both dim UV and WL conditions. The spatial resolving power of the UV cone photoreceptor network in the chick is sufficient to detect optical defocus and guide the emmetropization response

  17. Recruitment of GABA(A) receptors and fearfulness in chicks: modulation by systemic insulin and/or epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Cid, Mariana Paula; Toledo, Carolina Maribel; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2013-02-01

    One-day-old chicks were individually assessed on their latency to peck pebbles, and categorized as low latency (LL) or high latency (HL) according to fear. Interactions between acute stress and systemic insulin and epinephrine on GABA(A) receptor density in the forebrain were studied. At 10 days of life, LL and HL chicks were intraperitoneally injected with insulin, epinephrine or saline, and immediately after stressed by partial water immersion for 15 min and killed by decapitation. Forebrains were dissected and the GABA(A) receptor density was measured ex vivo by the (3)[H]-flunitrazepam binding assay in synaptosomes. In non-stressed chicks, insulin (non-hypoglycemic dose) at 2.50 IU/kg of body weight incremented the Bmax by 40.53% in the HL chicks compared to saline group whereas no significant differences were observed between individuals in the LL subpopulation. Additionally, insulin increased the Bmax (23.48%) in the HL group with respect to the LL ones, indicating that the insulin responses were different according to the anxiety of each category. Epinephrine administration (0.25 and 0.50mg/kg) incremented the Bmax in non-stressed chicks, in the LL group by about 37% and 33%, respectively, compared to ones injected with saline. In the stressed chicks, 0.25mg/kg bw epinephrine increased the Bmax significantly in the HL group by about 24% compared to saline, suggesting that the effect of epinephrine was only observed in the HL group under acute stress conditions. Similarly, the same epinephrine doses co-administered with insulin increased the receptor density in both subpopulations and also showed that the highest dose of epinephrine did not further increase the maximum density of GABA(A)R in HL chicks. These results suggest that systemic epinephrine, perhaps by evoking central norepinephrine release, modulated the increase in the forebrain GABA(A) receptor recruitment induced by both insulin and stress in different ways depending on the subpopulation

  18. Demand for nest boxes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Appleby, M C

    1996-04-01

    Domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from commercial laying strains have been selected for high egg yield and may lay over 300 eggs in their working lives. In conventional wire cages, there is little opportunity to perform either nest seeking or nest building activities, which may lead to frustration each time an egg is laid. To measure the demand for a well-defined nest-site, which may act as a consummatory stimulus for nest seeking behaviour and an appetitive stimulus for nest building behaviour, 16 hens were allowed to work to gain access to a pen containing two littered, enclosed nest boxes. The cost of access to the nest boxes was varied by changing the width of the vertical gap, which divided a home pen containing food, water and a perch from the pen containing the nest boxes (gaps of 220, 140, 125, 110 and 95 mm, compared with mean body width of 117 mm). The number of entries to the nest pen declined with narrowing gap, whilst the number of failed attempts to enter rose, but all 16 hens persevered with entering the nest pen prior to oviposition and laid in the nest boxes. Between 120 and 30 min to oviposition hens made many entries with the 220 mm gap (27.6), but this declined to no entries with 95 mm gap. Hens made few entries in the last half hour prior to ovipositoin (1.3) but there was no significant decline in entries as the gap narrowed (1.1 with 95 mm gap). The number of nest inspections and nest entries also declined with width of gap, but there was no effect on time spent in the nest boxes. Hens passed gaps of 220, and 140 mm to return to the nest pen following oviposition, but did not pass gaps of 125, 110 or 95 mm. We therefore conclude that the narrow gap width can be used to assess the demand for environmental requirements. Hens were willing to pay a high cost to gain access to a nest box prior to oviposition, so prelaying behaviour may be frustrated in hens without a well-defined, littered nest site.

  19. [Effect of Black Sea algae on chicken egg production and on chick embryo development].

    PubMed

    Bratova, K; Ganovski, Kh

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with laying hens of the Leghorn breed. The fodder mixture tested was enriched with the addition of 1, 2, and 4 per cent meal of seaweeds. It was found that egg laying rose by 22.7 per cent as against that of the control group, which was best expressed with the addition of 2 per cent seaweeds. The eggs had a considerably higher weight of the shells. The content of calcium and magnesium in the shell as well as that of carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E in the yolk were higher. The intake of feedstuffs of algae produced a favourable effect on hatchability. Highest percent of hatchability--87.95%, i.e., by 6.85 higher than that of the controls was obtained with the addition of 2 per cent of seaweed meal. The weight of the newly hatched chicks was higher, and the content of carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E in the liver of the chicks was greater.

  20. Experimental vaccination of chicks with Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites. I. Circumsporozoite proteins are expressed by sporozoites recovered from both salivary glands and midguts of mosquitoes

    SciTech Connect

    Daher, V.R.; Krettli, A.U.

    1987-08-01

    Immunogenicity of Plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites for chicks and their in vitro reactivity with normal and specific immune sera were studied. Two sporozoite populations recovered from experimentally infected Aedes fluviatilis were used: sporozoites from salivary glands and sporozoites from midgut oocysts. Populations seven to nine days old of sporozoites recovered from salivary glands were infective for all chicks until the chicks were three weeks old; however, sporozoites recovered from midguts containing oocysts infected these chicks only if isolated on days 8-9, but not on day 7 after the mosquitoes' infective blood meal. Infectivity of the sporozoites was lost after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light (30 min) or X-rays (13 krad). Inactivated sporozoites from both sources proved highly immunogenic to chicks that were immunized by several intravenous or intramuscular injections. These parasites elicited a strong humoral immune response in the chicks, as measured by the circumsporozoite precipitation (CSP) reaction. The levels of the CSP antibodies were similar with sporozoites from both sources, there being no detectable differences in the percentage of reactive sporozoites or the intensity of the CSP reaction with sera containing antibodies to either sporozoites from salivary glands or sporozoites from oocysts. These results provide the first evidence that avian malaria sporozoites express the circumsporozoite protein that has been extensively characterized in mammalian malaria (rodent, simian, human sporozoites). Furthermore, we observed that the yields of sporozoites obtained from mosquito midguts, on days 8 and 9 of the P. gallinaceum infection, were at least twice as great as those obtained by salivary gland dissection, even 20 days after a blood meal.

  1. Dietary lipids modulate bone prostaglandin E2 production, insulin-like growth factor-I concentration and formation rate in chicks.

    PubMed

    Watkins, B A; Shen, C L; McMurtry, J P; Xu, H; Bain, S D; Allen, K G; Seifert, M F

    1997-06-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition of liver and bone, and on the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in liver and bone, as well as the relationship of these factors to bone metabolism. Day-old male broiler chicks were given a semipurified diet containing one of four lipid sources: soybean oil (SBO), butter+corn oil (BC), margarine+corn oil (MAC), or menhaden oil+corn oil (MEC) at 70 g/kg of the diet. At 21 and 42 d of age, chicks fed MEC had the highest concentration of (n-3) fatty acids [20:5(n-3), 22:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3)] in polar and neutral lipids of cortical bone but the lowest amount of 20:4(n-6) in polar lipids. Diets containing t-18:1 fatty acids (MAC and BC) resulted in t18:1 accumulation in bone and liver. Bone IGF-I concentration increased from 21 to 42 d in chicks given the SBO and BC diets. Tibial periosteal bone formation rate (BFR) was higher in chicks given BC compared with those consuming SBO and MEC at 21 d. The higher BFR and concentrations of hexosamine in serum and IGF-I in cartilage, but lower 20:4(n-6) content in bone polar lipids in chicks given BC compared with those given SBO suggest that BC optimized bone formation by altering the production of bone growth factors. A second study confirmed that dietary butter fat lowered ex vivo prostaglandin E2 production and increased trabecular BFR in chick tibia. These studies showed that dietary fat altered BFR perhaps by controlling the production of local regulatory factors in bone.

  2. Oligofructose supplementation (10%) during pregnancy and lactation does not change the inflammatory effect of concurrent trans fatty acid ingestion on 21-day-old offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated that trans fatty acid ingestion during pregnancy and lactation caused a pro-inflammatory effect on the newborn. The opposite effect was described for gestational prebiotic intake. In the present study, we examined whether supplementation of the diet of the dams with 10% of oligofructose with or without hydrogenated vegetable fat during pregnancy and lactation affected the pro-inflammatory status on the pups at age 21 days. Methods On the first day of pregnancy, rats were divided into four groups, each of which received one of four diets: a control diet (C group), a control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF group), a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat containing trans fatty acids (T group) or a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat containing trans fatty acids supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF group). The pups were weighed at birth and at 7, 14 and 21 days of life and were euthanized on post-natal day 21. The serum glucose, insulin and adiponectin concentrations were analyzed. The IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α contents of the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue, liver, soleus and extensor digital longus muscles were analyzed by ELISA. The results are presented as the means ± standard error of the mean. Statistical significance was assessed using two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test and considered significant at p < 0.05 Results The body weights of the 21-day old pups in the CF and TF groups were significant lower than those of the C (27% and 21%) and T (25% and 19%, respectively) groups. The serum levels of adiponectin in the CF, T and TF groups were lower than in the C group (41%; 34% and 31%, respectively). In the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, the IL-6 content was increased in TF group relative to the C and CF groups (74% for both), and the TNF-α content was higher in the T and TF groups than in the C group (62% and 98%, respectively). In the liver, the TNF-α (56% and 104%) and IL-10

  3. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C.; Lenucci, Marcello S.

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  4. Significant reduction of ATP production in PHA-activated CD4+ cells in 1-day-old blood from transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Suviolahti, Elina; Petrosyan, Anna; Mirocha, James; Ge, Shili; Karasyov, Artur; Thomas, David; Galera, Odette; Lim, Washington; Jimenez, Anne Maria; Czer, Lawrence S C; Chaux, George; De Leon, Jeffrey; Pao, Andy; Jordan, Stanley C; Toyoda, Mieko

    2012-12-27

    Global immunosuppression can be measured by assessing adenosine triphospate (ATP) levels in mitogen-stimulated CD4+ T cells. We investigated the effect of storage time on ATP levels in 234 blood samples from 18 healthy individuals and 152 transplant patients. The difference between day 0 (<13 hours post-blood draw) and day 1 (24-37 hours) measurements was analyzed and compared with various factors; a subset of samples was also analyzed in 6-hour intervals. The ATP levels were significantly lower on day 1 compared with that on day 0 in healthy individuals (279±159 vs 414±159 ng/mL, P<0.001) and patients (356±209 vs 455±221 ng/mL, P<0.0001). Of the 18 healthy individuals, 17 showed ATP reduction, whereas 192 (89%) of 216 patients did so on day 1 (24.8±24.1%). In the time course analysis, ATP levels decreased with the blood storage time in healthy and patient samples, and the reduction began as early as 7 hours post-blood draw. The reduction rate was significantly higher in patient samples with low day 0 ATP levels compared with samples with moderate or high levels (44.7±31.3% vs 23.2±23.6% or 18.7±15.7%; P<0.001). The reduction rate in patients treated with alemtuzumab induction was slightly higher than that in daclizumab-treated patients (28.8±24.6% vs 21.3±21.3%, P=0.09). CD4+ cell number did not change within 24 hours post-blood draw, but CD4 expression decreased 2.0±2.8% (P<0.05). The ATP levels are significantly lower in 1-day-old blood compared with fresh blood, suggesting that fresh blood should be used for assessing the T cell immune function to obtain the most accurate results.

  5. Periconceptional undernutrition increases quantity and quality of oocyte population, but not cognitive or emotional response of 60-day-old lambs.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Casao, A; Pascual-Alonso, M; Lobón, S; Aguayo-Ulloa, L A; Forcada, F; Meikle, A; Sosa, C; Marín, R H; Silva, M A; Maria, G A

    2015-06-01

    Maternal periconceptional undernutrition is associated with altered development and increased risks of adverse outcomes in the offspring. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of periconceptional undernutrition on behavioural and reproductive aspects of the offspring. Fifty ewes were synchronized in oestrus (day 0) and allocated to two groups (n = 25) to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (C) or 0.5 (L) times the requirements for maintenance until day 15. Ewes were mated and fed the control diet from day 16 until lambing. Two months after lambing, 26 lambs were exposed to tests to determine their cognitive/emotional responses. Six ewe lambs were euthanized and in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization procedures performed. The experimental diets produced no changes of mean live weight (LW) of C ewes, L ewes presenting a reduction in their initial LW with significant differences at day 15, in comparison with C ewes (p < 0.05). L ewes experienced a significant reduction in their body condition (BC) in comparison with C ewes (p < 0.05). Fourteen days after the onset of the experimental diets, mean LW and BC of L ewes was significantly lower than those of C ewes (p < 0.05). Undernourished ewes presented a trend to a reduction of prolificacy and fecundity (p < 0.10) in comparison with C ewes. Emotional and cognitive test revealed a similar response between groups. Ewe lambs from the undernourished ewes presented a population of oocytes 1.7 times higher than ovaries from control ewe lambs (66.0 ± 0.73 vs. 113.7 ± 15.6 oocytes; p < 0.05) and had more oocytes in the 'good' (p < 0.05) and 'healthy' (p < 0.05) categories. In conclusion, a low plane of nutrition around conception significantly increases quantity and quality of the oocyte population of 60-day-old female descendants. Modifications of the cognitive and emotional responses of the progeny have not been evidenced. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of low ambient temperatures and dietary vitamin C supplement on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant capacity of 21-day-old broilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Luo, Y H; Zeng, Q F; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Wang, J P

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of low ambient temperature (LAT) and a vitamin C (VC) dietary supplement on the growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant capacity of 21-d-old broilers. A total of 400 one-day-old male Cobb broilers were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments as follows: 1) LAT and a basal diet; 2) LAT and a basal diet supplemented with 1,000 mg of VC/kg (LAT + VC); 3) normal ambient temperature (NAT) and a basal diet; 4) NAT and a basal diet supplemented with 1,000 mg of VC/kg (NAT + VC). All birds were fed to 21 d of age. Broilers in groups 1 and 2 were raised at 24 to 26°C during 1 to 7 d, and at 9 to 11°C during 8 to 21 d, whereas groups 3 and 4 were raised at 29 to 31°C during 1 to 7 d and at 24 to 26°C during 8 to 21 d. The LAT increased the feed conversion ratio during the whole experimental period (P < 0.01), whereas it increased heart index at 21 d (P < 0.05) and hematocrit and hemoglobin level at 14 d (P < 0.05). Supplementing the diet with VC increased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count at 21 d (P < 0.05). At 21 d, LAT conditions decreased total antioxidant capacity in the serum, liver, and lungs (P < 0.05), and it also increased the levels of VC in the serum and liver, the amount of protein carbonylation in liver and lungs, and the malondialdehyde level in the lungs (P < 0.05). The addition of VC tended to increase the total antioxidant capacity level in serum (P < 0.1). Low ambient temperature resulted in oxidative stress for broilers that were fed from 1 to 21 d of age, whereas no significant effect was found on the antioxidant activity by dietary VC supplementation.

  7. Oral administration of supplementary biotin differentially influences the fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in low- and high-fertility broiler line hens.

    PubMed

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Mianji, G Rahimi; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2015-02-01

    Probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sperm viability in the sperm storage tubules of turkeys has been suggested. The high affinity of biotin to avidin and its analogs is also well documented. The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral biotin on reproductive performance and oviductal mRNA expression of avidin and AVR2 in 2 broiler hen lines with different fertility rates. Low-fertility (line B) and high-fertility (line D) hens (n=144) were randomly allotted to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg/L biotin in drinking water from 30 through 33 wk of age. The reproductive performance of the hens was evaluated using artificial insemination. At the end of the treatment period, 24 hens per line were killed to assay the expression of avidin and AVR2 in the uterovaginal junction. Supplementary biotin increased egg production from 73.5% for T0 to 87.8% for T2. Hens administered with biotin in line B, but not in line D, showed an increase (8.4%) in fertility rate. Hatchability, chick quality, and overall embryonic mortality were not different among the experimental groups. Real-time PCR data showed that both avidin (P=0.0013) and AVR2 (P<0.0001) expressions were influenced by a biotin×line interaction effect, where low-fertility line B hens receiving the high biotin level recorded respectively a 3.9 and 15.3% increase in avidin and AVR2 mRNA expression, although biotin did not affect these traits in line D hens. Control hens in line D had a dramatically higher AVR2 expression record (7.4-fold) compared with the control hens in line B. The correlation coefficients of fertility rate and avidin expression were 0.73 and 0.66 in lines B and D, respectively. However, the correlation of fertility and AVR2 (r=0.65) was significant for line D hens only. Overall, fertility rate and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 were dichotomously affected by oral biotin in low- and high-fertility line hens, where only low-fertility birds

  8. Relationship between mechanical properties and pentosidine in tendon: effects of age, diet restriction, and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Al-Humadi, N H; Klandorf, H

    2000-09-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation contributes to the formation of crosslinks, which leads to the structural and functional deterioration of tissue protein. The accumulation of these crosslinks in tissue proteins has been implicated in the alteration of biomechanical properties of connective tissues. The objective of this study was to determine whether tendon breaking time (TBT) and tendon breaking strength (TBS) of the flexor perforans et perforatus digiti iii tendon were related to concentrations of pentosidine in tendons (Pt) of broiler breeder hens from 8 to 125 wk of age. In addition, effects of diet restriction (DR) and a crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) on Pt, TBS, and TBT were determined. Female chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups immediately after hatch: ad libitum-fed (AL); diet-restricted (DR; 60% of AL); and AL and DR groups supplemented with 1.35 mg/kg BW per day AG in the feed (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). In AL hens, Pt increased with increasing age (P < or = 0.0001). Concurrently, an age-related parallel increase was found for TBS (P < or = 0.0001) and TBT (P < or = 0.0001). Rate of Pt accumulation was lower in DR (P < or = 0.001), TBS (P < or = 0.01), and TBT (P < or = 0.02) hens compared with AL hens. Concentration of Pt in the AL + AG group was lower (P < or = 0.0002) than in the AL group; TBS and TBT (P < or = 0.01) followed a similar pattern. Supplementation of DR with AG did not affect Pt, TBS, or TBT. The age-related increase in Pt and loss of elasticity in the tendon was retarded by diet restriction and AG.

  9. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  10. Laying hens learn to avoid feathers.

    PubMed

    Harlander-Matauschek, A; Wassermann, F; Zentek, J; Bessei, W

    2008-09-01

    Previous work demonstrated an association between feather pecking and feather eating in laying hens. This raised the question if digestive feedback affects feather eating or feather pecking in laying hens. We hypothesized that feathers enriched with sugar form a positive feedback and feathers enriched with quinine sulfate form a negative feedback. Forty-eight laying hens were kept in individual cages and fed a pelleted diet ad libitum. Twenty-four birds were offered feathers on a daily basis; 12 of these birds were offered feathers soaked in 4% quinine sulfate solution (Q), and the other 12 were offered feathers soaked in 4% sucrose solution (S). The other 24 birds were kept as a control (C) without access to feathers. After a 10-d feather feeding period, 3 groups of 4 S and 4 C birds each and 3 groups of 4 Q and 4 C birds each were assembled. Feather-pecking behavior was recorded over a period of 8 d. The number of Q feathers eaten was significantly lower than the number of S feathers. Birds that were offered Q feathers in the feather feeding phase showed significantly less severe feather pecking than S and C birds. The results clearly show that Q as an unpalatable substance was the signal the animal used to avoid damaging the feather cover in laying hens.

  11. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Mucin Expression and Suppresses the Mucosal Immune Function of the Respiratory Tract in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guanhua; Zhao, Jingpeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Zhigang; Lin, Hai

    2015-01-01

    The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A supplement levels on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of three replicates of 10 broilers and subjected to dietary vitamin A supplement levels of 0, 1,500, 6,000, or 12,000 IU/kg for seven days. Compared with control birds, vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the mucin and IgA levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the IgA level in serum. In the lungs, vitamin A supplementation downregulated TNF-α and EGFR mRNA expression. The TGF-β and MUC5AC mRNA expression levels were upregulated by vitamin A supplementation at a dose of 6,000 IU/kg, and the IL-13 mRNA expression level was increased at the 12,000 IU/kg supplement level. Vitamin A deficiency (control) significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of MUC2, IgA, EGFR, IL-13 and TGF-β in trachea tissue. Histological section analysis revealed that the number of goblet cells in the tracheal epithelium was less in the 0 and 12,000 IU/kg vitamin A supplement groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency suppressed the immunity of the airway by decreasing the IgA and mucin concentrations in neonatal chicks. This study suggested that a suitable level of vitamin A is essential for the secretion of IgA and mucin in the respiratory tract by regulating the gene expression of cytokines and epithelial growth factors. PMID:26422233

  12. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Effects of dietary inclusion of silymarin on performance, intestinal morphology and ileal bacterial count in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, E; Mahdavi, A H; Asgary, S; Jahanian, R

    2017-01-04

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of silymarin on performance, jejunal morphology and ileal bacterial population in broiler chicks intoxicated with a mix of aflatoxins. A total of three hundred thirty six 7-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between seven experimental groups with four replicates of 12 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of a control group (unchallenged), and a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, including two aflatoxin levels (0.5 and 2 ppm) and three levels of silymarin (0, 500 and 1000 ppm). Birds were challenged with a mix of aflatoxins from 7 to 28 days of age. Results showed that increasing aflatoxin level resulted in decreased average daily feed intake (ADFI) and weight gain (ADWG), consequently impaired feed conversion ratio (FCR) throughout the trial period. Dietary supplementation of silymarin resulted in the marked increases in ADFI and ADWG, and improved FCR values in aflatoxin-challenged chicks. Ileal bacterial populations at days 28 and 42 of age were increased by incremental levels of aflatoxins. On the other hand, dietary silymarin supplementation suppressed ileal populations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella and total negative bacteria in aflatoxicated birds. Increase in dietary aflatoxin level resulted in the decreased villi height, villi height-to-crypt depth ratio (VH:CD), villi surface area and apparent villi absorptive area, while it increased crypt depth, goblet cell count and lymphoid follicular diameter. Feeding silymarin at the level of 1000 ppm increased villi height and VH:CD in aflatoxicated birds. Present results indicate that dietary inclusion of silymarin could improve performance by suppressing ileal bacteria and enhancing absorptive surface area in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks.

  14. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Mucin Expression and Suppresses the Mucosal Immune Function of the Respiratory Tract in Chicks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Shaoqiong; Liu, Guanhua; Zhao, Jingpeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Zhigang; Lin, Hai

    2015-01-01

    The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A supplement levels on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of three replicates of 10 broilers and subjected to dietary vitamin A supplement levels of 0, 1,500, 6,000, or 12,000 IU/kg for seven days. Compared with control birds, vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the mucin and IgA levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the IgA level in serum. In the lungs, vitamin A supplementation downregulated TNF-α and EGFR mRNA expression. The TGF-β and MUC5AC mRNA expression levels were upregulated by vitamin A supplementation at a dose of 6,000 IU/kg, and the IL-13 mRNA expression level was increased at the 12,000 IU/kg supplement level. Vitamin A deficiency (control) significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of MUC2, IgA, EGFR, IL-13 and TGF-β in trachea tissue. Histological section analysis revealed that the number of goblet cells in the tracheal epithelium was less in the 0 and 12,000 IU/kg vitamin A supplement groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency suppressed the immunity of the airway by decreasing the IgA and mucin concentrations in neonatal chicks. This study suggested that a suitable level of vitamin A is essential for the secretion of IgA and mucin in the respiratory tract by regulating the gene expression of cytokines and epithelial growth factors.

  15. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Chick Epiphyseal Cartilage Matrix Vesicle Proteolipid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Epiphyseal growth plate cartilage from the proximal portion of 49-52 day old broiler strain chickens was digested in collagenase for 15 hours. Plasma...cartilage from the proximal portion of 49-52 day old broiler strain chickens was digested in collagenase for 15 hours. Plasma membranes and matrix...ATPASE ACTIVITY. Epiphyseal growth plate cartilage from the proximal portion of 49-52 day old broiler strain chickens was digested in collagenase for 15

  17. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. L. M.; Makagon, M. M.; Swanson, J. C.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens’ movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the ‘dark’ observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the ‘light’ observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  18. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  19. The efficacy of raw and concentrated bentonite clay in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shannon, T A; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Shaw, D P; Dakovic, A; Markovic, M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two adsorbents, a raw bentonite clay (RC) and a concentrated bentonite clay (CC), in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Results of the in vitro study (pH 3.0) indicated the CC adsorbed more AFB1 than RC (93.39 mg/g vs. 79.30 mg/g) suggesting that CC may be more effective than RC in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1. One hundred and eighty day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 6 replicate pens of 5 chicks each and assigned to 6 dietary treatments from hatch to day 21. Dietary treatments included: 1) basal diet (BD) containing no AFB1 or adsorbents; 2) BD plus 0.50% RC; 3) BD plus 0.50% CC; 4) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg; 5) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg plus 0.50% RC; and 6) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg plus 0.50% CC. Dietary AFB1 concentrations were confirmed by analysis and diets were screened for other mycotoxins prior to the start of the experiment. The addition of AFB1 to the feed reduced (P < 0.05) growth performance and increased (P < 0.05) relative liver weight (RLW) and kidney weight (RKW) of chicks fed AFB1 compared to control chicks on day 21. These changes were ameliorated (P < 0.05) by the addition of RC and CC to the AFB1 diet. Mild to moderate lesions of aflatoxicosis (2.25) were observed in chicks fed AFB1 alone on day 21. The addition of both RC and CC to the AFB1 diet decreased (P < 0.05) but did not prevent liver lesions (0.92 and 1.42, respectively). Results indicate that both RC and CC were effective in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1, however the cost of processing of CC would make the RC a more economical product for reducing the effects of AFB1 in young broiler chicks. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. The Stimulatory Effect of Cerebral Intraventricular Injection of cNPY on Precocial Feeding Behavior in Neonatal Chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guiqian; Yang, Feifei; Wu, Taofen; Jiang, Junfang; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in many animals. Most of the supporting evidence for the effects of NPY has been gathered in mammalian species using porcine NPY. To investigate the effects of NPY on precocial feeding initiation in chicks, we firstly used chicken NPY (cNPY) to study its role in food intake and spontaneous activities in 3-day-old male chicks. Food intake was monitored at different times after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of cNPY (2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 μg/10 μL) and anti-cNPY antibody (anti-cNPY) (1:9000, 1:3000 or 1:1000 in dilution). cNPY given at different doses significantly increased food intake at 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min after injection. Chicks treated with 5.0 μg/10 μL of cNPY showed a maximal 4.48 fold increase in food intake comparing to the control at 30 min. There is still more than 2 fold increase in food intake at 120 min after injection of cNPY. Food intake was significantly inhibited by a single ICV injection of anti-cNPY diluted to 1:9000 (60% inhibition), 1:3000 (92% inhibition), and 1:1000 (95% inhibition) at 30 min with 1:1000 being the maximally effective concentration. The inhibitory effects of anti-cNPY (diluted to1:9000, 1:3000, 1:1000) at 120 min post ICV injection were 22%, 42% and 46%, respectively. But ICV of anti-cNPY (1:3000 in dilution) did not block the orexigenic effect of 2.5 μg/10 μL of cNPY. ICV injection of different concentrations of cNPY increases locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner while ICV anti-cNPY greatly decreased the distance moved by each chick compared to control groups. Taken together, our results demonstrated that cNPY has a promoting effect on chick food intake and locomotor activity, and that endogenous cNPY might play a positive role in regulating precocial feeding behavior in newly hatched chicks. PMID:27055273

  1. Effect of Boric Acid Supplementation on the Expression of BDNF in African Ostrich Chick Brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Zheng, Xing-ting; Xiao, Ke; Wang, Kun-lun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yun-xiao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wei; Lu, Shun; Yang, Ke-li; Sun, Peng-Peng; Khaliq, Haseeb; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2016-03-01

    The degree of brain development can be expressed by the levels of brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF plays an irreplaceable role in the process of neuronal development, protection, and restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of boric acid supplementation in water on the ostrich chick neuronal development. One-day-old healthy animals were supplemented with boron in drinking water at various concentrations, and the potential effects of boric acid on brain development were tested by a series of experiments. The histological changes in brain were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Expression of BDNF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was evaluated with Dutp-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction, and caspase-3 was detected with QRT-PCR. The results were as follows: (1) under the light microscope, the neuron structure was well developed with abundance of neurites and intact cell morphology when animals were fed with less than 160 mg/L of boric acid (groups II, III, IV). Adversely, when boric acid doses were higher than 320 mg/L(groups V, VI), the high-dose boric acid neuron structure was damaged with less neurites, particularly at 640 mg/L; (2) the quantity of BDNF expression in groups II, III, and IV was increased while it was decreased in groups V and VI when compared with that in group I; (3) TUNEL reaction and the caspase-3 mRNA level showed that the amount of cell apoptosis in group II, group III, and group IV were decreased, but increased in group V and group VI significantly. These results indicated that appropriate supplementation of boric acid, especially at 160 mg/L, could promote ostrich chicks' brain development by promoting the BDNF expression and reducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, high dose of boric acid particularly in 640 mg/L would damage the neuron structure of

  2. Fibronectin-synthesizing activity of free and membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts and chick embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Belkin, V.M.; Volodarskaya, S.M.

    1986-06-20

    The fibronectin-synthesizing activity of membrane-bound and free polyribosomes in a cell-free system was studied using immunochemical methods. It was found that fibronectin biosynthesis on membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts accounts for 4.9% and those from 10-day-old chick embryos for 1.1% of the total amount of newly synthesized proteins, whereas on free polyribosomes it is 1.0 and 0.3%, respectively. Fibronectin monomers with a molecular weight of 220,000 were found only in the material of the cell-free system containing heavy fractions of membrane-bound polyribosomes newly synthesized in the presence of spermidine. Thus, it was shown that fibronectin is synthesized primarily on membrane-bound polyribosomes.

  3. Contribution to the prophylaxis of chicks aspergillosis: study of the contamination of a hatchery by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Hamet, N; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R

    1991-09-01

    Contamination of a hatchery by Aspergillus fumigatus has been studied for 8 weeks from eggs to day old chicks. We have shown that the contamination of the hatchery originates on the egg shell and that each time the eggs are manipulated, spores of Aspergillus fumigatus are thrown into suspension in the air. Thus it seems necessary to bring eggs with as few as possible spores of Aspergillus fumigatus on their shell into the hatchery. Prophylaxis of aspergillosis should be foreseen from the conception of the hatchery: the ventilation system and the internal lay-out should be designed to prevent dispersion and accumulation of Aspergillus fumigatus spores during the processing of the eggs through the hatchery.

  4. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes.

  5. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Walstra, I; Ten Napel, J; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-07-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation. Thermally manipulated embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation and were exposed to 40 degrees C for 4 h/d from embryonic d 14 to 18 (TM chicks). After hatch, chicks from each treatment were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 32 per group) and were subjected to a temperature preference test at d 1, 7, or 33. One day after the temperature preference test, each subgroup was exposed to 1 thermal challenge for 4 h (d 2, 40 degrees C; d 8, 40 degrees C; or d 34, 35 degrees C). Effects of TM on (fearfulness) behavior of chicks were investigated in a tonic immobility test and during home pen observations. Temperature manipulation decreased incubation time with 7 h (P < 0.0001) and body temperature at hatch with 0.2 degrees C (P = 0.002). The TM chicks preferred a lower ambient temperature in the temperature preference test (P < 0.05) and showed a higher body temperature response than CC chicks to the thermal challenge at d 2 and 8 (P < 0.05). No effects of TM on behavior and performance were observed. Because most TM studies are conducted in broilers, this study is the first attempt to unravel the effects of TM during late embryogenesis on posthatch environmental adaptation in layer chicks. The results demonstrated that effects of our TM on postnatal temperature preference and response to high environmental temperatures are only found until d 8 of age. This may suggest 1 of 3 options: a) the timing or the level, or both, of TM and duration were not at the sensitive period of embryogenesis or not sufficient, or both, respectively; b) the level of the postnatal thermal challenge was not strong enough to

  6. Broiler chicks with slow-feathering (K) or rapid-feathering (k+) genes: Effects of environmental stressors on physiological adaptive indicators up to 56 h posthatch.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H; Manafi, M

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the physiological responses of slow-feathering (K) and rapid-feathering (k(+)) genes in neonate broiler chicks subjected to posthatch fasting (PHF). In the first experiment, 300 Ross 308 chicks were denied access to feed and water for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 h posthatch. In the second experiment, 625 Ross 308 chicks were subjected to PHF for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. In experiment 1, the weight loss rate increased over 56 h PHF and did not differ between fast- and slow-feathering chicks up to 28 h posthatch but was greater (P < 0.05) in fast-feathering birds from 28 to 56 h posthatch. The fast-feathering genotypes demonstrated greater serum K levels following 7, 21, and 56 h (P < 0.05) and serum uric acid (UA) levels after 7, 21, 28, 49, and 56 h PHF (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, weight loss increased linearly with no difference between fast- and slow-feathering chicks through 36 h PHF but increased in fast-feathering birds when PHF continued for 48 h. Neonatal fasting periods of 12 to 48 h decreased breast and thigh percentage (P < 0.01), with no difference between feathering genotypes. The fast-feathering genotypes showed greater serum HDL levels at 24 h (P < 0.05) and greater serum UA concentration following 12, 36, and 48 h PHF (P < 0.05). The mean frequency of jumping (P < 0.01) and active wakefulness (P > 0.01) was increased as PHF continued from 12 to 48 h across genotypes. At 48 h, the fast-feathering chicks showed greater frequency of escape attempts from the test field (P < 0.01). It was concluded that slow-feathering chicks are more capable of withstanding PHF periods lasting more than 28 h. This is important to consider when day-old chicks are transported for extended periods without access to feed. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Heterosis in normal versus dwarf laying hens.

    PubMed

    Merat, P; Minvielle, F; Bordas, A; Coquerelle, G

    1994-01-01

    The effect of genotype at the sex-linked dwarf locus on heterosis in crosses between a White Leghorn and a brown egg line for body weight, egg production, and related traits was studied. Heterozygous Dw/dw males were used to produce normal and dwarf pullets in each of the pure lines and their reciprocal crosses (eight genotype-line combinations). There were 54 pullets per combination. Line differences were significant for shank length, body weights at 8, 17, and 52 wk, age at first egg, egg number, clutch length, rate of lay, and egg weight. Heterosis was observed for all of these traits. Body weight as a covariate was not important in analyses of egg number, clutch length, and egg weight. The egg production reduction associated with the dw gene in pure lines was smaller in F1 hens. This discovery may be adequate to warrant use of dwarf crossbred hens for egg production.

  8. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  9. Biodetoxification of aflatoxin-contaminated chick feed.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Castañeda, Z I; Avila-Gonzalez, E; Casaubon-Huguenin, M T; Cervantes-Olivares, R A; Vásquez-Peláez, C; Hernández-Baumgarten, E M; Moreno-Martínez, E

    2008-08-01

    Two studies were done to study detoxification of aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated chick feed with Nocardia corynebacteroides (NC). In the first study, pathogenicity of the bacteria was studied; in the second, the nutritional value of detoxified feed was evaluated. Commercial corn was divided into 2 sublots, one of which was contaminated with AF. Both lots were divided into 2 parts; the first was inoculated with NC. Four corn-soybean diets were prepared from the 4 corn lots. A completely randomized design was used with 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in which the factors were AF contaminated or not and NC inoculated or not. One hundred Ross 308 chicks (1-d-old, male) were used in 4 treatments with 5 repetitions and 5 chickens per cage. Bird weight and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Each week, 1 chick per treatment repetition was killed for histopathologic analysis of liver, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, pancreas, and small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and for analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the 3 sections of the intestine. At 21 d (the end of both experiments), 1 chick per treatment repetition was killed, and moisture, lipid content, and residual AF in liver were detected. Results at 3 wk did not show differences between treatments (P > 0.05) in any of the variables. In the second study, the same methodology was used except that greater levels of AF were used (800 and 1,200 mug of AFB1/kg of feed). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in body weight, lipid content, and residual AF in liver. Histopathologic studies showed statistical differences in lesion severity in liver, duodenum, and kidney. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed severe lesions of intestinal mucosa that mainly affected tight junctions in AF treatments. It can be concluded that NC is safe for chicks and may be used to partly detoxify chicken feed contaminated with AF.

  10. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  11. The Selenium Deficiency Disease Exudative Diathesis in Chicks Is Associated with Downregulation of Seven Common Selenoprotein Genes in Liver and Muscle123

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Li, Dai-Lin; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Lv-Hui; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Luo, Xugang; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-01-01

    Fast-growing broiler chicks are susceptible to Se deficiency diseases including exudative diathesis (ED). Our objective was to determine if ED could be induced by feeding a current, practical diet and if the incidence was related to selenogenome expression in liver and muscle of chicks. Four groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD; 14 μg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Sichuan, China and not supplemented with Se or vitamin E), the BD and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate at 50 mg/kg and Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg, or both of these nutrients for 6 wk. A high incidence of ED and mortality of chicks were induced by the BD. The incidences and mortality were completely prevented by supplemental dietary Se but were only partially decreased by supplemental α-tocopherol acetate. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 7 common selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx4, Sepw1, Sepn1, Sepp1, Selo, and Selk) in muscle and liver. Whereas supplementing α-tocopherol acetate enhanced (P < 0.05) only the muscle Sepx1 mRNA level, it actually decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic Gpx1, Seli, Txnrd1, and Txnrd2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary Se protected chicks from the Se deficiency disease ED, probably by upregulating selenoprotein genes coding for oxidation- and/or lesion-protective proteins. The protection by vitamin E might be mediated via selenoproteins not assayed in this study and/or Se-independent mechanisms. The inverse relationship between hepatic expression of 4 redox-related selenoprotein genes and vitamin E status revealed a novel interaction between Se and vitamin E in vivo. PMID:21795426

  12. The selenium deficiency disease exudative diathesis in chicks is associated with downregulation of seven common selenoprotein genes in liver and muscle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Li, Dai-Lin; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Lv-Hui; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Luo, Xugang; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-09-01

    Fast-growing broiler chicks are susceptible to Se deficiency diseases including exudative diathesis (ED). Our objective was to determine if ED could be induced by feeding a current, practical diet and if the incidence was related to selenogenome expression in liver and muscle of chicks. Four groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD; 14 μg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Sichuan, China and not supplemented with Se or vitamin E), the BD and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate at 50 mg/kg and Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg, or both of these nutrients for 6 wk. A high incidence of ED and mortality of chicks were induced by the BD. The incidences and mortality were completely prevented by supplemental dietary Se but were only partially decreased by supplemental α-tocopherol acetate. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 7 common selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx4, Sepw1, Sepn1, Sepp1, Selo, and Selk) in muscle and liver. Whereas supplementing α-tocopherol acetate enhanced (P < 0.05) only the muscle Sepx1 mRNA level, it actually decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic Gpx1, Seli, Txnrd1, and Txnrd2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary Se protected chicks from the Se deficiency disease ED, probably by upregulating selenoprotein genes coding for oxidation- and/or lesion-protective proteins. The protection by vitamin E might be mediated via selenoproteins not assayed in this study and/or Se-independent mechanisms. The inverse relationship between hepatic expression of 4 redox-related selenoprotein genes and vitamin E status revealed a novel interaction between Se and vitamin E in vivo.

  13. [The effect of palm oil and safflower oil in the feed of parent fattening hens on fertility, hatchability and growth of progeny].

    PubMed

    Halle, I

    1999-01-01

    The aim of two experiments with broiler breeder hens was to evaluate the effect of diets containing palm butter or safflower oil (25 g and 50 g/kg feed, resp.) on fertility, hatchability and growth of progeny. Especially the incorporation of oleic and linoleic acid in egg yolk reflected the dietary fatty acid source. Eggs were collected and stored in the incubator at a hen age of 31, 40, 50, and 60 weeks. Hatched chicks were reared over 5 weeks. The number of fertile eggs (Experiment 1 and 2, 75 and 88%, resp.) differed between the experiments (P < or = 0.05). Neither embryonic mortality nor hatchability (Experiment 1 and 2, 76 and 78%, resp.) were significantly affected by fatty acid composition of yolk. No clear maternal dietary effect was recorded on chicken weight at hatching (Experiment 1 and 2, 43.3 g and 43.7 g, resp.) and at 35 days of age (Experimental 1 and 2, 1676 g and 1764 g, resp.) The fatty acid composition in the analysed egg yolk sac of chicks showed a different fatty level but corresponded to fatty acid composition of breeding eggs before incubation. According to a decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk due to increased incorporation of linoleic acid, the content of this fatty acid was also diminished in phospholipids of the brain of chicken on days 1 and 5 after hatching.

  14. Three-Day-Old Human Unfertilized Oocytes after In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Can Be Activated by Calcium Ionophore A23187 or Strontium Chloride and Develop to Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao-jie; Liu, Ming-hui; Wang, Shu-yu; Jia, Chan-wei; Yu, Lan; Ren, Guoqing; Wang, Li; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to observe the effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride on the activation and subsequent embryonic development of 3-day-old human unfertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 279 3-day-old unfertilized oocytes after IVF or ICSI were randomized to be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 (n=138) or strontium chloride (n=141). The activated oocytes were cultured in vitro for 3–5 days. Activation rate, pronucleus formation, cleavage rate, and developmental potential of parthenotes during culture were evaluated. A total of 170 unfertilized oocytes were activated; 65 developed to cleavage stage, 19 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and five blastocysts were obtained. The activation rate of the calcium ionophore A23187 group was higher than that of the strontium chloride group (75.4% and 46.8%, respectively; p<0.05); there was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). Among the 44 cleaved oocytes in the calcium ionophore A23187 group, eight developed to the two- to four-cell stage, 17 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, 15 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and four blastocysts were obtained. Among the 21 cleaved oocytes in the strontium chloride group, six developed to the two- to four- cell stage, 10 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, four developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and one blastocyst was obtained. Three-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI could be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride, and a small part of parthenogenetic embryos developed into blastocysts. The treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 was better than that of strontium chloride in respect to the activation rate of 3-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI. PMID:24960285

  15. Three-day-old human unfertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be activated by calcium ionophore a23187 or strontium chloride and develop to blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Han, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Shu-Yu; Jia, Chan-Wei; Yu, Lan; Ren, Guoqing; Wang, Li; Li, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to observe the effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride on the activation and subsequent embryonic development of 3-day-old human unfertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 279 3-day-old unfertilized oocytes after IVF or ICSI were randomized to be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 (n=138) or strontium chloride (n=141). The activated oocytes were cultured in vitro for 3-5 days. Activation rate, pronucleus formation, cleavage rate, and developmental potential of parthenotes during culture were evaluated. A total of 170 unfertilized oocytes were activated; 65 developed to cleavage stage, 19 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and five blastocysts were obtained. The activation rate of the calcium ionophore A23187 group was higher than that of the strontium chloride group (75.4% and 46.8%, respectively; p<0.05); there was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). Among the 44 cleaved oocytes in the calcium ionophore A23187 group, eight developed to the two- to four-cell stage, 17 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, 15 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and four blastocysts were obtained. Among the 21 cleaved oocytes in the strontium chloride group, six developed to the two- to four- cell stage, 10 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, four developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and one blastocyst was obtained. Three-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI could be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride, and a small part of parthenogenetic embryos developed into blastocysts. The treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 was better than that of strontium chloride in respect to the activation rate of 3-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI.

  16. Dietary protein effects on hen performance and nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, J D; Zhao, L

    2011-01-01

    Because dietary nitrogen intake affects nitrogen content in manure, diet management has been recognized as a means to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry operations. The objectives of the present research were 1) to determine the extent to which the CP content of laying diets can be reduced, based on performance criteria, and 2) to determine how ash:nitrogen ratios of manure, eggs, and hens are affected by dietary protein changes. Egg-type hens were fed equal daily amounts of essential amino acids in diets that provided 13, 15, or 17 g of protein/d. Each diet was fed to 20 hens, with 2 hens/cage. The planned digestible lysine intake was 0.71 g/hen per day. Ratios of other digestible amino acids to lysine were methionine plus cysteine, 0.83; threonine, 0.68; and isoleucine, 0.94. The experiment began when hens were 29 wk old and continued until they were 57 wk old. Egg production averaged approximately 90%, and daily protein intake caused no effects on egg production or grams of egg per hen per day. Feed intake was higher for hens fed 13 g of protein than for hens in the other 2 treatments (P < 0.01). Average feed intake for the experiment was approximately 95 g/d. Composition of the eggs was not affected by protein intake. Average values were DM, 30.5%; ash, 31.0% of DM; and nitrogen, 6.31% of DM. The average manure DM production was 25.9 g/hen per day, with an ash content of 25.5% of DM. Manure nitrogen content ranged from 3.98% of DM for hens fed 13 g of protein to 5.68% for those fed 17 g of protein (P < 0.01). A method is outlined that uses the analysis of fresh manure and manure leaving the poultry operation to estimate the loss of nitrogen as ammonia.

  17. Lack of developmental and reproductive toxicity of 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105) in ring-necked pheasants

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, M.W.; Miller, L.; Peterson, R.E.; Melancon, M.

    1995-12-31

    One of these PCBs, 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105) has the potential to produce toxicity by an Ah receptor-mediated mechanism. To determine the potency of PCB 105 for producing reproductive and developmental toxicity, adult ring-necked pheasant hens were orally dosed with 0, 0.06, 0.6 or 6 mg PCB 105/kg hen/week for 10 weeks after which hens were bred with control roosters once per week for 8 weeks. Eggs were collected daily and incubated until hatched, or for 28 days, after which embryo development was evaluated. Fertilized egg production, embryo mortality and chick mortality were not significantly different between treatment groups, nor were total body, liver and heart weights of chicks 1 day post-hatch (dph). To determine whether signs of PCB 105 toxicity were delayed, the first chick to hatch from each hen was evaluated at 21 dph for signs of toxicity. Chick total body, liver and heart weights at 21 dph were not significantly different between treatment groups. Three hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activities were significantly elevated in 1 day old chicks from hens given a cumulative PCB 105 dose of 6 mg/kg and in 21 day old chicks from hens given a cumulative PCB dose of 60 mg/kg as compared to respective control chicks. These results indicate that a cumulative PCB 105 dose up to 60 mg/kg hen does not decrease the production of fertilized eggs or increase embryo or chick mortality in ring-necked pheasants, but does increase chick hepatic monooxygenase activity.

  18. The correlation of chemical and physical corn kernel traits with production performance in broiler chickens and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Moore, S M; Stalder, K J; Beitz, D C; Stahl, C H; Fithian, W A; Bregendahl, K

    2008-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence on broiler chicken growth and laying hen performance of chemical and physical traits of corn kernels from different hybrids. A total of 720 male 1-d-old Ross-308 broiler chicks were allotted to floor pens in 2 replicated experiments with a randomized complete block design. A total of 240 fifty-two-week-old Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were allotted to cages in a randomized complete block design. Corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for 3 broiler growth phases and one 14-wk-long laying hen phase to be marginally deficient in Lys and TSAA to allow for the detection of differences or correlations attributable to corn kernel chemical or physical traits. The broiler chicken diets were also marginally deficient in Ca and nonphytate P. Within a phase, corn- and soybean-based diets containing equal amounts of 1 of 6 different corn hybrids were formulated. The corn hybrids were selected to vary widely in chemical and physical traits. Feed consumption and BW were recorded for broiler chickens every 2 wk from 0 to 6 wk of age. Egg production was recorded daily, and feed consumption and egg weights were recorded weekly for laying hens between 53 and 67 wk of age. Physical and chemical composition of kernels was correlated with performance measures by multivariate ANOVA. Chemical and physical kernel traits were weakly correlated with performance in broiler chickens from 0 to 2 wk of age (P<0.05, | r |<0.42). However, from 4 to 6 wk of age and 0 to 6 wk of age, only kernel chemical traits were correlated with broiler chicken performance (P<0.05, | r |<0.29). From 53 to 67 wk of age, correlations were observed between both kernel physical and chemical traits and laying hen performance (P<0.05, | r |<0.34). In both experiments, the correlations of performance measures with individual kernel chemical and physical traits for any single kernel trait were not large enough to base corn hybrid selection on for feeding poultry.

  19. [Effect of dietary concentration of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast recovered from beer, in Warren male chicks].

    PubMed

    Póo, M E; Millán, N

    1990-03-01

    Six groups of 1-day-old Warren chicks (seven per group) were fed for 15 days on diets with the protein supplement made of mixtures of soybean protein and dried yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis recovered from beer. The purpose was to establish the maximum substitution level of the soybean protein isolate by dried yeast, with the least possible related metabolic effects. Each group was fed one of the diets containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the protein supplement based on yeast protein, substituting the soybean protein isolate. In order to estimate the NPR value of the yeast protein, a group which received a protein-free diet, was also included. Protein utilization and changes in both plasma and liver total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and liver and kidney uric acid, were determined. In triglycerides, cholesterol and liver and kidney uric acid, were determined. In the groups fed diets with 75% and 100% of yeast protein, decreased body weight gain and PER and NPR values were observed, as well as an increment in the liver and kidney uric acid concentrations, although the diet consumption was not substantially modified. Thus, protein utilization, measured as PER and NPR, was lower in these groups. Plasma uric acid was not modified in neither group. The plasma lipids were not altered at whatever yeast concentration, while in the liver, total lipids as well as triglycerides decreased when the dietary yeast was increased. Results indicated that when using whole yeast cells recovered from beer in pre-starting rations for chicks, 50% of yeast protein is the maximum substitution level.

  20. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.

  1. Curcumin Prevents Aflatoxin B1 Hepatoxicity by Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Isozymes in Chick Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ni-Ya; Qi, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Zhu, Ming-Kun; Guo, Jiao; Liu, Jie; Gu, Chang-Qin; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Qi, De-Sheng; Sun, Lv-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to establish if Curcumin (CM) alleviates Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxic effects and to determine whether alteration of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isozymes is involved in the regulation of these effects in chick liver. One-day-old male broilers (n = 120) were divided into four groups and used in a two by two factorial trial in which the main factors included supplementing AFB1 (< 5 vs. 100 μg/kg) and CM (0 vs. 150 mg/kg) in a corn/soybean-based diet. Administration of AFB1 induced liver injury, significantly decreasing albumin and total protein concentrations and increasing alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum, and induced hepatic histological lesions at week 2. AFB1 also significantly decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, while increasing malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO)-DNA concentrations. In addition, the mRNA and/or activity of enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of AFB1 into AFBO—including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4—were significantly induced in liver microsomes after 2-week exposure to AFB1. These alterations induced by AFB1 were prevented by CM supplementation. Conclusively, dietary CM protected chicks from AFB1-induced liver injury, potentially through the synergistic actions of increased antioxidant capacities and inhibition of the pivotal CYP450 isozyme-mediated activation of AFB1 to toxic AFBO. PMID:27834912

  2. Sevelamer hydrochloride binds phosphate released from phytate in chicks fed 1α-hydroxy cholecalciferol.

    PubMed

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Meyer, Katie M; Helvig, Christian; Petkovich, Martin; Cook, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in animal models of human renal disease has been linked to increased risk of death. Phosphate binders (e.g., sevelamer hydrochloride) and plant-based, low phosphate diets are used to reduce dietary phosphate load; however, animal models show that treatment with active forms of vitamin D(3) (e.g., calcitriol, a renal disease therapy) renders plant phytate phosphate available for absorption. Using an established chick model, the effectiveness of sevelamer in preventing the apparent absorption of liberated phytate phosphate during active vitamin D use was investigated in two separate experiments. One-day-old chicks were fed ad libitum a basal diet containing deficient levels of inorganic phosphate (0.13%), but adequate in total phosphate (0.40%, 0.23% as phytate phosphate), with or without the inclusion of sevelamer hydrochloride (a phosphate binder), available inorganic phosphate, or active vitamin D as 1α-(OH) D(3). Plasma phosphate (mg/dL), total bone ash (%), and weight gain (g). Adding inorganic phosphate (0.36%) or 1α-(OH) D(3) increased plasma phosphate 49% and 48%, respectively (P < .0001), and bone ash 23% and 19%, respectively (P < .001). The addition of 1% sevelamer to the basal diet with added inorganic phosphate or 1α-(OH) D(3) significantly decreased plasma phosphate by 28% and 20%, respectively (P < .01). Active vitamin D increased the availability of phytate phosphate for intestinal absorption in an animal model; however, sevelamer effectively reduced the availability of phosphate liberated from phytate. These data imply that sevelamer has phytate phosphate binding efficacy. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of supplemental boron on growth performance and meat quality in African ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Xinting; Zhu, Daiyun; Yang, Zhi; Tang, Juan; Sun, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Peng, Kemei

    2014-11-19

    To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P < 0.05). Ostrich chicks in the 640 mg/L treatment group (group 6) had the lowest final BW (30.8 ± 1.05 kg) and ADG (208 ± 0.74 g) (P < 0.05). The highest ash (1.35 ± 0.01%) and pH (6.18 ± 0.03) and the lowest protein (20.4 ± 1.74%), drip loss (2.10 ± 0.76%), cooking loss (35.0 ± 0.41%), C18:1 (28.2 ± 0.65%), and C18:3ω3 (2.60 ± 0.51%) appeared in group 6 (P < 0.05) as well. Overall, the optimum concentration of 160 mg/L supplemental boron improved ostrich growth performance and meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality.

  4. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks <1 week old for more than 2 days because of feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  5. The effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes on growth, metabolizable energy value, and nitrogen utilization of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Squires, M W; Naber, E C; Toelle, V D

    1992-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato pomace on gain, feed to gain ratio, nitrogen utilization, and ME of diets for broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, both treated and untreated tomato pomace was included in broiler diets at a 10 or 20% level. Results indicated that the level or antinutritional factors present in untreated tomato cannery waste did not appreciably depress any measured production parameter. Hence, it appeared that untreated tomato cannery wastes might be used as a feed ingredient in low-energy poultry diets (broiler breeder and laying hen recycling rations), ruminant diets, and as a protein source in regions of the world where such feed ingredients are scarce. The second experiment was designed to test the effect of alkali concentration and treatment time of tomato pomace on the performance of broiler chicks. Alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of broiler chicks over those of untreated tomato waste controls. Results indicated that the increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of the chicks were due in part to the acid neutralization phase of the alkali treatment. Alkali treatment apparently affects the tomato cannery wastes almost instantaneously, as differences among actual treatment times and concentrations were small. However, only the highest alkali treatment increased the pH of the tomato cannery waste above 7, suggesting that a true alkali treatment might cause additional improvements in gain and feed to gain ratio when fed to broiler chicks.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation of waste date’s vinegar on performance and improvement of digestive tract in broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Tasharofi, Shima; Yazdanpanah Goharrizi, Laleh; Mohammadi, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Two hundred 1-day-old commercial broilers (Ross 308) were used to determine the effects of diets supplementation with waste date’s vinegar (WDV) on the growth and performance of digestive tract over a 42-days growing period. Chicks were randomly allocated to one of five experimental diets supplementing as 0 (control), 1, 2, and 3% of WDV and 2% industrial vinegar (IV). Broilers and their feed consumptions were weighed at the trial beginning and days 10, 21, 35 and 42 of experimental period. Moreover, one chick from every replicate was killed at days 21 and 42 to measure development of digestive tissues and morphology and microbiology of small intestine. Although the final body weight was higher following IV and 1% WDV usage, feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by IV usage compared to control (p < 0.05). Relative weight of different parts of small intestine was not affected by experimental diets. Villus height and width were reduced linearly in WDV, IV and control groups (p < 0.05), but crypt depth was not different among experimental diets. Also, ileum microbiota was not affected by treatments. Results indicated that diet supplementation with WDV has positive effects on growth performance and histomorphology of jejunum in broilers. PMID:28785388

  7. A chick assay for determination of available iron from biological material and its application to fish protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Soevik, T; Opstvedt, J; Braekkan, O R

    1979-04-01

    A dose response assay for the assessment of available iron in biological materials using chicks as experimental animals is described. Day-old chicks were fed on an iron-deficient diet for 2 to 3 weeks at which time the hematocrit had decreased to about 20%. After this depletion period, the standard groups were fed graded levels of iron sulphate up to a maximum level of 30 ppm iron. The test groups were fed two levels of biological material giving a total dietary iron concentration within the standard range. The response was measured by hemoglobin concentration (g/100 ml), and the dose by the consumption of iron per gram of body weight gain. Contents of available iron (relative to iron sulphate-iron) in the test substances were calculated from the dose response regression equations obtained on the standard groups, and hemoglobin (g/100 ml), feed consumption and body weight gain in the test groups. Statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the assay complied with the requirement for statistical and fundamental validity. Results from application of the method on six different samples of fish protein concentrate (FPC) are reported.

  8. Fluctuating wing asymmetry and hepatic concentrations of persistent organic pollutants are associated in European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) chicks.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Aarnes, Jon Birger; Murvoll, Kari-Mette; Herzke, Dorte; Nygård, Torgeir

    2010-01-01

    In aquatic birds, high body burdens of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with developmental effects related to growth, increased fluctuating wing asymmetry, and disruption of the thyroid hormone, vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (tocopherol) homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to examine if morphological variables (body mass, liver mass, wing length, tarsus length and head length), fluctuating asymmetry of the wings and tarsus, growth rates and endocrine variables (thyroid hormones, retinol and tocopherol) were associated with hepatic levels of POPs (PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs) in 21 day old chicks of European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis showed that fluctuating asymmetry of wing bone length (FA(WBL)) was affected by PCB-105, -118, -138, -153, and -180 (r(2)x=0.88, r(2)y=0.35, q(2)=0.29). Bivariate correlation confirmed significant positive relationships between FA(WBL) and each of these PCB congeners. In the PLS model no other biological variables were significantly affected by any of the POPs. Levels of POPs were much lower in the shag chicks than in eggs and in hatchlings from the same breeding colony, most likely due to growth dilution of the compounds. We suggest that the effects of the PCBs on FA(WBL) may be due to effects of these compounds on bone growth and bone structure. FA(WBL) may have functional effects on the fitness if it persists after fledging.

  9. Identification of Salmonella typhimurium Genes Required for Colonization of the Chicken Alimentary Tract and for Virulence in Newly Hatched Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Arthur K.; Lovell, Margaret A.; Hulme, Scott D.; Zhang-Barber, Li; Barrow, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    From a collection of 2,800 Tn5-TC1 transposon mutants of Salmonella typhimurium F98, 18 that showed reduced intestinal colonization of 3-week-old chicks were identified. The sites of transposon insertion were determined for most of the mutants and included insertions in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaY, rfbK, and rfbB and the genes dksA, clpB, hupA, and sipC. In addition, identification was made of an insertion into a novel gene that encodes a protein showing similarity to the IIC component of the mannose class of phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems, which we putatively called ptsC. Transduction of most of the transposon mutations to a fresh S. typhimurium F98 genetic background and construction of defined mutations in the rfbK, dksA, hupA, sipC, and ptsC genes of S. typhimurium F98 supported the role in colonization of all but the pts locus. The virulence of the rfbK, dksA, hupA, sipC, and ptsC defined mutants and clpB and rfaY transductants in 1-day-old chicks was tested. All but the ptsC and rfaY mutants were attenuated for virulence. A number of other phenotypes associated with some of the mutations are described. PMID:9573095

  10. Effect of light-emitting diode vs. fluorescent lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 1 - Operational characteristics of lights and production traits of hens.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Ning, Z; Xin, H

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are becoming more affordable for agricultural applications. Despite many lab-scale studies concerning impact of LED on poultry, little research has been documented under field production conditions, especially for laying hens. This 15-month field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LED vs. fluorescent (FL) lights on laying hens (Dekalb white breed) using 4 (2 pairs) aviary hen houses each at a nominal capacity of 50,000 hens. The evaluation was done regarding operational characteristics of the lights and hen production traits. The results show that spatial distribution of the LED light was less uniform than that of the FL light. Light intensity of the LED light decreased by 27% after 3,360 h use but remained quite steady from 3,360 to 5,760 h use. Eleven out of 762 (1.44%) LED lamps (new at onset of the study) in the 2 houses failed during the 15-month experiment period. The neck area of the LED lamp was hottest, presumably the primary reason for the lamp failure as cracks were noticed in the neck region of all failed LED lamps. No differences were observed in egg weight, hen-day egg production, feed use, and mortality rate between LED and FL regimens. However, hens under the FL had higher eggs per hen housed and better feed conversion than those under the LED during 20 to 70 wk production (P < 0.05). Hens under the LED tended to have less feather uniformity and insulation than those under the FL (P < 0.05). Moreover, hens under the LED showed a larger median avoidance distance than those under the FL at 36 wk age (P < 0.05), indicating that hens under the LED were more alert; but no difference at 60 wk age. More comparative research to quantify behavioral and production responses of different breeds of hens to LED vs. FL lighting seems warranted. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. In Ovo and dietary administration of oligosaccharides extracted from palm kernel cake influence general health of pre- and neonatal broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Rohollah; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the main byproduct from the palm oil industry in several tropical countries that contains considerable amounts of oligosaccharide. We earlier demonstrated beneficial prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract of PKC (OligoPKC) in starter and finisher broiler birds. This study was envisaged to elucidate the effects of in ovo and/or oral administration of the OligoPKC on prenatal and post-hatched broiler chicks. A total of 140 broiler (Cobb500) eggs were randomly divided into two groups (n = 70 each), and on day 12 of incubation, eggs in one group received in ovo injection of 0.1 mL (containing 20 mg) of OligoPKC, while those in the other group received 0.1 mL of saline (placebo) solution. Of these in ovo placebo or OligoPKC injected eggs, after hatching, six chicks from each group were sampled for day-one analysis, while 48 chicks from each group were randomly allocated to two dietary regimes involving either no feeding or feeding of OligoPKC through basal diet for a 14 days experiment forming the experimental groups as: (i) saline-injected (Control, C), (ii) OligoPKC-injected (PREBovo), (iii) saline-injected, but fed 1% OligoPKC (PREBd), and (iv) OligoPKC-injected and also 1% OligoPKC (PREBovo+d). In ovo injection of prebiotic OligoPKC had no effect on body weight and serum immunoglobulins concentrations of day old chicks, except for IgG, which was increased significantly (P<0.05). Body weight and feed conversion ratio of 14 days old chicks were neither affected by in ovo injection nor feeding of OligoPKC. However, populations of cecal total bacteria and major beneficial bacteria of the chicks were markedly enhanced by feeding of OligoPKC (PREBd and PREBovo+d > C and PREBovo), but lesser influenced by in ovo OligoPKC injection. Irrespective of its prior in ovo exposure, chicks fed OligoPKC diets had lower population of pathogenic bacteria. Overall serum immunoglobulin status of birds was improved by feeding of OligoPKC but in ovo Oligo

  12. In Ovo and dietary administration of oligosaccharides extracted from palm kernel cake influence general health of pre- and neonatal broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Rohollah; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the main byproduct from the palm oil industry in several tropical countries that contains considerable amounts of oligosaccharide. We earlier demonstrated beneficial prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract of PKC (OligoPKC) in starter and finisher broiler birds. This study was envisaged to elucidate the effects of in ovo and/or oral administration of the OligoPKC on prenatal and post-hatched broiler chicks. A total of 140 broiler (Cobb500) eggs were randomly divided into two groups (n = 70 each), and on day 12 of incubation, eggs in one group received in ovo injection of 0.1 mL (containing 20 mg) of OligoPKC, while those in the other group received 0.1 mL of saline (placebo) solution. Of these in ovo placebo or OligoPKC injected eggs, after hatching, six chicks from each group were sampled for day-one analysis, while 48 chicks from each group were randomly allocated to two dietary regimes involving either no feeding or feeding of OligoPKC through basal diet for a 14 days experiment forming the experimental groups as: (i) saline-injected (Control, C), (ii) OligoPKC-injected (PREBovo), (iii) saline-injected, but fed 1% OligoPKC (PREBd), and (iv) OligoPKC-injected and also 1% OligoPKC (PREBovo+d). In ovo injection of prebiotic OligoPKC had no effect on body weight and serum immunoglobulins concentrations of day old chicks, except for IgG, which was increased significantly (P<0.05). Body weight and feed conversion ratio of 14 days old chicks were neither affected by in ovo injection nor feeding of OligoPKC. However, populations of cecal total bacteria and major beneficial bacteria of the chicks were markedly enhanced by feeding of OligoPKC (PREBd and PREBovo+d > C and PREBovo), but lesser influenced by in ovo OligoPKC injection. Irrespective of its prior in ovo exposure, chicks fed OligoPKC diets had lower population of pathogenic bacteria. Overall serum immunoglobulin status of birds was improved by feeding of OligoPKC but in ovo Oligo

  13. A method for trapping prairie grouse hens on display grounds

    Treesearch

    John E. Toepfer; Jay A. Newell; John Monarch

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a method for trapping prairie grouse hens on display grounds. The basic principle of the trap is a drift fence which funnels visiting hens into traps. The trap has been used successfully in at least 6 states and 2 provinces and on 4 species of prairie grouse. This method is less expensive and less disruptive than rocket or cannon nets.

  14. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  15. Microbiological impact of three commercial laying hen housing systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hen housing for commercial egg production continues to be a societal and regulatory concern. Controlled studies have examined various aspects of egg safety but a comprehensive assessment of commercial hen housing systems in the US has not been conducted. The current study is part of a holistic, mu...

  16. Selected pharmacokinetic parameters for Cefovecin in hens and green iguanas.

    PubMed

    Thuesen, L R; Bertelsen, M F; Brimer, L; Skaanild, M T

    2009-12-01

    The third generation cephalosporin cefovecin has been shown to have an exceptionally long elimination half-life in dogs and cats, making it suitable for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in these species. Pharmacokinetic parameters for cefovecin were investigated in juvenile hens and green iguanas, following subcutaneous injections with 10 mg cefovecin/kg bodyweight. Preliminary studies in eight additional species of birds and reptiles were performed and results were compared with the parameters found in hens and green iguanas. The kinetics were characterized by rapid absorption with peak plasma concentration of 6 +/- 2 microg/mL in hens and 35 +/- 12 microg/mL in green iguanas. The mean plasma half-life for cefovecin was 0.9 +/- 0.3 h for hens and 3.9 h in green iguanas. Volume of distribution was 1.6 +/- 0.5 L/kg for hens and 0.3 L/kg for green iguanas and clearance was 1252 +/- 185 mL.h/kg for hens and 53 mL.h/kg for green iguanas. Results from preliminary studies did not differ notably from those seen in hens and green iguanas. Cefovecin is not suitable for the treatment of bacterial infections with a 14-day dosing interval in hens or green iguanas and seems not to be in a number of other bird and retile species either.

  17. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) different levels of aerobic organisms dependent on housing system. Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic contamination in relation to hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P < 0.01) levels of Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  18. Serological detection of experimental Salmonella enteritidis infections in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gast, R K; Beard, C W

    1990-01-01

    The antibody response of laying hens to experimental Salmonella enteritidis infection was evaluated in microagglutination, tube agglutination, and rapid whole-blood plate agglutination assays. Hens of three different ages were infected by either oral inoculation or horizontal contact transmission. Blood was collected at weekly intervals, and the presence of specific antibodies was assessed by reaction with antigens prepared from strains of S. enteritidis and S. pullorum. The sensitivity of detection of infected hens did not vary significantly between the assays, as all three tests effectively identified most exposed hens as seropositive. Within each test, however, variation was observed in the detection sensitivity when different antigens were used. The microagglutination titers of serum samples were determined by serial dilution. Antibody titers peaked at 1 to 2 weeks postinoculation and declined steadily, although most birds were still identified as seropositive at 10 weeks postinoculation. The mean microtest titers obtained with S. enteritidis antigens were higher than with an S. pullorum antigen, indicating greater test sensitivity. However, use of the S. pullorum antigen resulted in fewer false positives when sera from uninfected control hens were tested. The titers of contact-exposed hens peaked later and at lower values than did those of inoculated hens, but these two groups of hens had similar antibody titers after the third week postinoculation.

  19. [Inhibition of histone deacetylases in the chick brain modulates expression of c-Fos and ZENK transcription factors and facilitates establishment of long-term memory].

    PubMed

    Toropova, K A; Anokhin, K V; Tiunova, A A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the role of histone acetylation in memory consolidation in newborn chicks. We studied the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on a "weak" memory for passive avoidance and on expression of two transcription factors c-Fos and ZENK known to play a role in neuronal plasticity in the chick brain. Intraventricular administration of trichostatin A prior to training produced a dose-dependent enhancement of memory when tested 24 hours after the training. It also increased neuronal expression of c-Fos and ZENK proteins: the density of ZENK immunopositive cells increased in the hippocampus and intermediate medial mesopallium and the density of c-Fos immunopositive cells increased in intermediate arcopallium and dorsocaudal nidopallium. Weak passive avoidance training did not produce further enhancement of c-Fos and ZENK expression in any of these brain areas. These data demonstrate possibility of facilitating long-term memory in day-old chicks by a histone deacetylases inhibitor, thus supporting the hypothesis on the role of histone acetylation in long-term memory formation. They also suggest that these effects might be mediated through modulation of transcriptional response in brain areas involved in consolidation of this form of memory.

  20. Acute heat stress up-regulates neuropeptide Y precursor mRNA expression and alters brain and plasma concentrations of free amino acids in chicks.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Bahry, Mohammad A; Hui, Yang; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2015-09-01

    Heat stress causes an increase in body temperature and reduced food intake in chickens. Several neuropeptides and amino acids play a vital role in the regulation of food intake. However, the responses of neuropeptides and amino acids to heat-stress-induced food-intake regulation are poorly understood. In the current study, the hypothalamic mRNA expression of some neuropeptides related to food intake and the content of free amino acids in the brain and plasma was examined in 14-day-old chicks exposed to a high ambient temperature (HT; 40±1 °C for 2 or 5 h) or to a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30±1 °C). HT significantly increased rectal temperature and plasma corticosterone level and suppressed food intake. HT also increased the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) precursor mRNA, while no change was observed in pro-opiomelanocortin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, or corticotropin-releasing hormone precursor mRNA. It was further found that the diencephalic content of free amino acids - namely, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, valine and serine - was significantly higher in HT chicks with some alterations in their plasma amino acids in comparison with CT chicks. The induction of NPY and ASIP expression and the alteration of some free amino acids during HT suggest that these changes can be the results or causes the suppression of food intake.

  1. Acute stress or systemic insulin injection increases flunitrazepam sensitive-GABAA receptor density in synaptosomes of chick forebrain: Modulation by systemic epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Cid, Mariana Paula; Arce, Augusto; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2008-03-01

    Interactions between acute stress and systemic insulin and epinephrine on GABAA receptor density in the forebrain were studied. Here, 10 day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with insulin, epinephrine or vehicle and then immediately stressed by partial water immersion for 15 min and killed by decapitation. Non-stressed controls were similarly injected, then returned to their rearing boxes for 15 min and then killed. Forebrains were dissected and GABAA receptor density was measured ex vivo in synaptosomes by 3[H]-flunitrazepam binding assay. In non-stressed chicks, insulin at 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 IU/kg of body weight (non-hypoglycemic doses) increased Bmax by 33, 53 and 44% compared to saline, respectively. A similar increase of 41% was observed in receptor density after stress. However, the insulin effect was not additive to the stress-induced increase suggesting that both effects occur through similar mechanisms. In contrast, epinephrine, at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg did not induce any changes in Bmax in non-stressed chicks. Nevertheless, after stress these doses increased the receptor density by about 13 and 27%, respectively. Similarly, the same epinephrine doses co-administered with insulin (2.50 IU/kg), increased the receptor density by about 20% compared to insulin alone. These results suggest that systemic epinephrine, perhaps by evoking central norepinephrine release, modulates the increase in forebrain GABAA receptor binding induced by both insulin and stress.

  2. Piracetam facilitates long-term memory for a passive avoidance task in chicks through a mechanism that requires a brain corticosteroid action.

    PubMed

    Loscertales, M; Rose, S P; Daisley, J N; Sandi, C

    1998-07-01

    We investigated the effects of piracetam, a nootropic, on learning and memory formation for a passive avoidance task in day-old chicks. To test for the possible cognitive-enhancing properties of piracetam, a weak learning version of this task--whereby chicks maintain a memory to avoid pecking at a bead coated in a diluted aversant for up to 10 h--was used. Post-training (5, 30 or 60 min), but not pretraining, injections of piracetam (10 or 50 mg/kg, i.p.) increased recall for the task when the chicks were tested 24 h later. Because previous studies showed that long-term memory for the passive avoidance task is dependent upon a brain corticosteroid action, and because the efficacy of piracetam-like compounds is also modulated by corticosteroids, we tested whether the facilitating effect of piracetam was dependent upon a corticosteroid action through specific brain receptors (mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor). First, increased plasma levels of corticosterone were found 5 min after piracetam injection. In addition, intracerebral administration of antagonists for each receptor type (RU28318, for mineralocorticoid receptors, and RU38486 for glucocorticoid receptors; i.c.) given before the nootropic inhibited the facilitative effect of piracetam on memory consolidation. These results give further support to a modulatory action of piracetam on the mechanisms involved in long-term memory formation through a neural action that, in this learning model, requires the activation of the two types of intracellular corticosteroid receptors.

  3. Influence of dietary excess methionine on the relationship between dietary copper and the concentration of copper and iron in organs of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ekperigin, H E; Vohra, P

    1981-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to study the nature of the relationship between methionine, copper and iron. The day-old broiler chicks used were adapted to an isolated soyprotein-cornstarch diet containing 20% protein, 3,300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, normal levels of minerals and 0.59% methionine. They were then fed the basal diet, alone or supplemented with 1.5% DL-methionine, 2,000 ppm molybdenum (Mo), 4,000 ppm Mo, or 100, 250, 500 or 1,000 ppm copper for 1 or 3 weeks. In contrast to 1.5% excess methionine, excess Mo increased plasma copper concentrations significantly, had no effect on spleen or liver iron and did not induce neurological changes. Dietary copper or methionine significantly influenced body weight gain, and the concentrations of copper in plasmas or livers. Supplements of 1.5% DL-methionine, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm copper retarded body weight. A direct relationship between dietary copper, and the concentration of copper in livers or plasmas was demonstrated in chicks fed either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 1.5% DL-methionine. However, chicks fed excess methionine had lower levels of copper in their plasmas and livers at every level of excess dietary copper. Liver and spleen iron concentrations were increased by 1.5% excess DL-methionine, but were not significantly altered by supplementary copper.

  4. Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-05-01

    Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (p<0.05) activity of ALP in the tissues. Contrarily, there were significant reductions (p<0.05) in the activities of ALP, ALT, AST and gamma-GT in the liver and heart of the broilers fed the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the serum of the broilers in this group. The data obtained showed that A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks.

  5. [Amprolium residues in eggs following administration of amprolium/ethopabate in laying hens and breeding hens].

    PubMed

    Kan, C A; van Leeuwen, W; van Gend, H W

    1989-01-15

    Amprolium may be used as a coccidiostat in rearing hens and is a therapeutical agent used in laying hens. As a result of cross contamination, low amprolium levels may occur in feed. Feed containing a concentration of amprolium ranging from 5 to 250 mg/kg was therefore supplied to groups of laying hens. The amprolium residues in the yolks during and after treatment were subsequently determined. These levels varied from 1.75 mg/kg in the group fed 250 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg in the group fed 5 mg/kg. Amprolium levels in the whites of eggs were much lower than those in the yolks. The residues in yolks decreased below detectable levels (less than 0.005 mg/kg) within approximately ten days after treatment. Rearing hens in a tiered wire floor system were given amprolium in their feed until the first egg was laid. Amprolium residues in yolks were detected for well over a fortnight after the onset of laying. The amprolium residues determined in yolk did not exceed US tolerance levels of 8 mg/kg.

  6. Oxidative stability of silky fowl eggs. Comparison with hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Toyosaki, Toshiyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2004-03-10

    Oxidative stability of original silky fowl's eggs was investigated. The silky fowl's whole eggs indicated significant oxidative stability compared to hen's eggs in storage for 14 days. The hen eggs showed an increased amount of hydroperoxides on 6 days of storage at room temperature. In contrast, the silky fowl eggs showed restricted generation of hydroperoxides until 8 days and then a gradual increase. Though pigment extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1) solvent from hen's whole egg turned brown for 14 days, the pigment extracted from silky fowl's whole egg slowly turned brown. Unsaturated fatty acids in silky fowl eggs were 62.5% among total fatty acids, while the unsaturated fatty acids of hen's eggs were 53.9%. It is speculated that the silky fowl eggs show oxidative stability owing to the higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids in the silky fowl eggs compared with that of hen eggs.

  7. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from chick optic lobe.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R I; Mehraban, F; Barnard, E A; Dolly, J O

    1982-01-01

    An alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic cholinergic receptor from chick optic lobe has been completely purified. Its standard sedimentation coefficient is 9.1 S. The value near 12 S reported for the related component from other brain regions can be reproduced when the initial extraction is by Triton X-100 (rather than Lubrol PX), but other protein is then complexed with it. A single subunit of apparent molecular weight 54,000 is detected, and this subunit is specifically labeled by bromo-[3H]acetylcholine, but only after disulfide reduction. The same size subunit likewise is labeled in the protein (purified similarly) from the rest of the chick brain which can also bind alpha-bungarotoxin and nicotinic ligands. Immunological crossreactivity is demonstrated between both of these proteins with an antiserum to pure acetylcholine receptor from skeletal muscle. The acetylcholine receptor from chick optic lobe and the alpha-bungarotoxin-binding protein from the rest of the brain appear similar or identical by a series of criteria and are related to (but with differences from) peripheral acetylcholine receptors. Images PMID:6175967

  8. Vicine and convicine in common vetch (Vicia sativa) seeds enhance beta-cyanoalanine toxicity in male broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Darwish, A H; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M

    2002-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of feeding raw and wa