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Sample records for day-to-day temperature variability

  1. Day-to-day ionospheric variability due to lower atmosphere perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Yudin, V. A.; Roble, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric day-to-day variability is a ubiquitous feature, even in the absence of appreciable geomagnetic activities. Although meteorological perturbations have been recognized as an important source of the variability, it is not well represented in previous modeling studies, and the mechanism is not well understood. This study demonstrates that TIME-GCM (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model) constrained in the stratosphere and mesosphere by the hourly Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) simulations is capable of reproducing observed features of day-to-day variability in the thermosphere-ionosphere. Realistic weather patterns in the lower atmosphere in WACCM was specified by Modern Era Retrospective reanalysis for Research and Application (MERRA). The day-to-day variations in mean zonal wind, migrating and non-migrating tides in the thermosphere, vertical and zonal ExB drifts, and ionosphere F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) are examined. The standard deviations of the drifts and NmF2 display local time and longitudinal dependence that compare favorably with observations. Their magnitudes are 50% or more of those from observations. The day-to-day thermosphere and ionosphere variability in the model is primarily caused by the perturbations originated in lower atmosphere, since the model simulation is under constant solar minimum and low geomagnetic conditions.

  2. Day-to-day ionospheric variability due to lower atmosphere perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Yudin, V. A.; Roble, R. G.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Ionospheric <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is a ubiquitous feature, even in the absence of appreciable geomagnetic activities. Although meteorological perturbations have been recognized as an important source of the <span class="hlt">variability</span>, it is not well represented in previous modeling studies and the mechanism is not well understood. This study demonstrates that the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) constrained in the stratosphere and mesosphere by the hourly whole atmosphere community climate model (WACCM) simulations is capable of reproducing observed features of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the thermosphere-ionosphere. Realistic weather patterns in the lower atmosphere in WACCM were specified by Modern Era Retrospective Reanalysis for Research and Application (MERRA). The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in mean zonal wind, migrating and nonmigrating tides in the thermosphere, vertical and zonal E × B drifts, and ionosphere F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) are examined. The standard deviations of the drifts and NmF2 show local time and longitudinal dependence that compare favorably with observations. Their magnitudes are 50% or more of those from observations. The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> thermosphere and ionosphere <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the model is primarily caused by the perturbations originated in lower atmosphere, since the model simulation is under constant solar minimum and low geomagnetic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRA..112.6320C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRA..112.6320C"><span>Statistical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the geomagnetic Sq field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Gen-Xiong; Xu, Wen-Yao; Du, Ai-Min; Wu, Ying-Yan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Xiao-Can</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the geomagnetic Sq field is studied by using the magnetic data from a meridian chain of magnetometers along 120°E longitude. The method of natural orthogonal components (NOC or eigenmode analysis) is applied to separate the Sq variation from complicated disturbances. The first eigenmode with the largest eigenvalue represents fairly well the Sq variation with a conspicuous <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the daily range. For the stations on the same north- or south-side of the Sq current system focus, the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations show a positive correlation. In contrast, for the stations on the different sides of the Sq focus, they show a negative correlation, suggesting an important role of latitudinal shift of the Sq current system focus to the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Sq daily range. The Sq daily range is correlated with the magnetic indices Ap and Dst in a peculiar way: On some severe disturbed days, noticeable enhancements of the Sq are observed, implying increases in the ionospheric conductivities and/or tidal wind velocities; on other severe disturbed days, however, dramatically reduced Sq variations occur, suggesting dominant effects of the "disturbance dynamo" process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001426','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001426"><span>The observed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Mars water vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jakosky, Bruce M.; Lapointe, Michael R.; Zurek, Richard W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The diurnal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of atmospheric water vapor as derived from the Viking MAWD data is discussed. The detection of <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of atmospheric water would be a significant finding since it would place constraints on the nature of surface reservoirs. Unfortunately, the diurnal <span class="hlt">variability</span> seen by the MAWD experiment is well correlated with the occurrence of dust and/or ice hazes, making it difficult to separate real variations from observational effects. Analysis of the <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggests that the observations are, at certain locations and seasons, significantly affected by the presence of water-ice hazes. Because such effects are generally limited to specific locations, such as Tharsis, Lunae Planum, and the polar cap edge during the spring, the seasonal and latitudinal trends in water vapor that have been previously reported are not significantly affected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865136"><span>REPRODUCIBILITY OF BLOOD PRESSURE DIPPING: RELATION TO <span class="hlt">DAY-TO-DAY</span> <span class="hlt">VARIABILITY</span> IN SLEEP QUALITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hinderliter, Alan L.; Routledge, Faye S.; Blumenthal, James A.; Koch, Gary; Hussey, Michael A.; Wohlgemuth, William K.; Sherwood, Andrew</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous studies of the reproducibility of blood pressure (BP) dipping have yielded inconsistent results. Few have examined factors that may influence dayto-day differences in dipping. Methods and Results Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed on three occasions, approximately one week apart, in 115 untreated adult subjects with elevated clinic BPs. The mean±SD BP dip was 18±7/15±5 mmHg (sleep/awake BP ratio = 0.87±0.05/0.82±0.06), with a median (interquartile range) <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation of 5.2 (3.1–8.1)/4.3(2.8–5.6) mmHg. There was no decrease in <span class="hlt">variability</span> with successive measurements. The reproducibility coefficient (5.6 [95% CI 5.1, 6.1] mmHg) was greater and the intraclass correlation coefficient (0.53 [95% CI 0.42, 0.63]) was smaller for the systolic dip than for 24-hour or awake systolic BPs, suggesting greater day-today <span class="hlt">variability</span> in dipping. <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in systolic dipping was greater in subjects with higher awake BP, but was not related to age, gender, race, or body mass index. Within individuals, <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in dipping were related to variations in the fragmentation index (p < 0.001), a measure of sleep quality. Conclusions Although mean 24-hour and awake BPs were relatively stable over repeated monitoring days, our study confirms substantial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in BP dipping. <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> differences in dipping are related to sleep quality. PMID:23850195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.7067Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.7067Y"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of midlatitude ionospheric currents due to magnetospheric and lower atmospheric forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Y.; Häusler, K.; Wild, J. A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>As known from previous studies on the solar quiet (Sq) variation of the geomagnetic field, the strength and pattern of ionospheric dynamo currents change significantly from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span>. The present study investigates the relative importance of two sources that contribute to the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the ionospheric currents at middle and low latitudes. One is high-latitude electric fields that are caused by magnetospheric convection, and the other is atmospheric waves from the lower atmosphere. Global ionospheric current systems, commonly known as Sq current systems, are simulated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model. Simulations are run for 1-30 April 2010 with a constant solar energy input but with various combinations of high-latitude forcing and lower atmospheric forcing. The model well reproduces geomagnetic perturbations on the ground, when both forcings are taken into account. The contribution of high-latitude forcing to the total Sq current intensity (Jtotal) is generally smaller than the contribution of wave forcing from below 30 km, except during active periods (Kp≥4), when Jtotal is enhanced due to the leakage of high-latitude electric fields to lower latitudes. It is found that the penetration electric field drives ionospheric currents at middle and low latitudes not only on the dayside but also on the nightside, which has an appreciable effect on the Dst index. It is also found that quiet time <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Jtotal is dominated by symmetric-mode migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds at 45-60° latitude at ˜110 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..933C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..933C"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the global post-sunset equatorial ionization anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coker, Clayton; Dymond, Kenneth; Budzien, Scott; Chua, Damien</p> <p></p> <p>We report global observations of the daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the post-sunset Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). Multiple Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) sensors on the Constellation Ob-serving System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) constellation are used to produce high resolution maps the global pattern of the post-sunset equatorial anomaly for indi-vidual days. TIP is a compact, nadir directed, ultraviolet photometer operating at the 135.6-nm wavelength. TIP measures the horizontal structure of the ionosphere with 15-30 km resolution and high sensitivity. For the near solar minimum condition and equinox period of Septem-ber 2006, evidence of tidal influences is observed in the equatorial anomaly. The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> persistence of the 4-cell pattern produced by the diurnal eastward zonal wavenumber-3 (DE3) tide is remarkable. The daily 4-cell patterns display more dramatic variation in the equatorial anomaly than indicated by earlier studies using multi-day averages. In some longitude sectors the anomaly disappears completely on some days. The crest width is also much narrower than indicated by multi-day averages of the 4-cell pattern. Additionally, daily variations in magni-tude of individual cells are observed and appear to occur on hemispheric scales, suggesting a large scale <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the global neutral wind pattern. Finally, the impact of this daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> on low latitude irregularity development and scintillation is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20806844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20806844"><span>Reliability and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> vault training measures in artistic gymnastics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Hume, Patria; Calton, Mark; Aisbett, Brad</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Inter-day training reliability and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in artistic gymnastics vaulting was determined using a customised infra-red timing gate and contact mat timing system. Thirteen Australian high performance gymnasts (eight males and five females) aged 11-23 years were assessed during two consecutive days of normal training. Each gymnast completed a number of vault repetitions per daily session. Inter-day <span class="hlt">variability</span> of vault run-up velocities (at -18 to -12 m, -12 to -6 m, -6 to -2 m, and -2 to 0 m from the nearest edge of the beat board), and board contact, pre-flight, and table contact times were determined using mixed modelling statistics to account for random (within-subject <span class="hlt">variability</span>) and fixed effects (gender, number of subjects, number of trials). The difference in the mean (Mdiff) and Cohen's effect sizes for reliability assessment and intra-class correlation coefficients, and the coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) were calculated for <span class="hlt">variability</span> assessment. Approach velocity (-18 to -2m, CV = 2.4-7.8%) and board contact time (CV = 3.5%) were less <span class="hlt">variable</span> measures when accounting for <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> performance differences, than pre-flight time (CV = 17.7%) and table contact time (CV = 20.5%). While pre-flight and table contact times are relevant training measures, approach velocity and board contact time are more reliable when quantifying vaulting performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1307H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1307H"><span>Uncovering physical processes responsible for the asymmetry of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huth, Radan; Piskala, Vladimir</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes, and especially those of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in winter and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in summer, are asymmetrical: in winter, large warmings occur more frequently than large coolings and small coolings occur more frequently than small warmings. In summer, the opposite is the case. We investigate causes of this asymmetry for Prague, Czech Republic. First, we relate strong <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes to passages of atmospheric fronts. More specifically, large warmings in winter are related with passages of warm fronts and large coolings in summer are related with passages of cold fronts. In particular, we test the hypothesis that the days with large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes (changes exceeding 3°C or 5°C) are accompanied with passages of corresponding atmospheric fronts more frequently than other days. We prove statistical significance of such a relationship between front passages and large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes by means of a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Second, we demonstrate that small <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes (by up to 2°C), namely, small warmings in summer and small coolings in winter, are tightly related to anticyclonic circulation conditions and, hence, occur due to radiative processes. This relationship is investigated by comparing frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types in selected classifications from the COST733 database between the days with small <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and all other days. The relationship appears to be highly statistically significant. Although the findings may seem a bit trivial, we are not aware of any study that would examine and prove the relationships between front passages and anticyclonic circulation conditions on one side, and the asymmetry of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes on the other side.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoJI.134..484O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoJI.134..484O"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of geomagnetic hourly amplitudes at low latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okeke, F. N.; Agodi Onwumechili, C.; Rabiu, Babatunde A.</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>A study of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the amplitude of Sq at a fixed hour from one day to the next at nine stations from the dip equator to about 22° north of it has produced interesting results. The amplitude and sign of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> change virtually randomly, making the mean practically zero. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> occurs at all hours of the day. Its magnitudes in the components D, H and Z have the same diurnal variation, which peaks in the noon period like Sq(H) in low latitudes, and a weak seasonal variation that peaks at the June solstice (local summer). It is demonstrated that changes in the current intensities of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and the worldwide part of the Sq (WSq) current layers have contrasting phases and can sometimes be in antiphase. Indeed, the changes are mostly independent. Inclusion of the magnetic element D revealed that the EEJ current system has not only an east-west but also a north-south component. The study shows that the meridional component of the EEJ current intensity evidenced at the Kodaikanal and Annamalainagar stations is an integral part of the zonal component at Trivandrum. This confirms the results of Rastogi (1996) and validates those of Onwumechili (1997). The results suggest that ionospheric conductivity mainly controls the magnitude, while the electric field and ultimately winds mainly control the phase and randomness of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the hourly amplitudes of Sq. The random component is attributed to local and/or regional atmospheric winds, probably of gravity wave origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798364"><span>Associations of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Although the impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality and morbidity have been documented, few studies have investigated whether <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) are independent risk factors for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design This was a prospective, population-based, observational study. Methods We obtained all OHCA data from 2005-2013 from six major prefectures in Japan: Hokkaido, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, and Osaka. We used a quasi-Poisson regression analysis with a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the associations of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and DTR with OHCA for each prefecture. Results In total, 271,698 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were reported during the study period. There was a significant increase in the risk of OHCA associated with cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in five prefectures, with relative risks (RRs) ranging from 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.649) in Hokkaido to 3.893 (95% CI 1.713-8.845) in Kyoto. DTR was adversely associated with OHCA on hot days in Aichi (RR 1.158; 95% CI 1.028-1.304) and on cold days in Tokyo (RR 1.030; 95% CI 1.000-1.060), Kanagawa (RR 1.042; 95% CI 1.005-1.082), Kyoto (RR 1.060; 95% CI 1.001-1.122), and Osaka (RR 1.050; 95% CI 1.014-1.088), whereas there was no significant association between <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and OHCA. Conclusion We found that associations between <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and DTR and OHCA were generally small compared with the association with mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our findings suggest that preventative measures for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related OHCA may be more effective when focused on mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DTR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RaSc...48..513S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RaSc...48..513S"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of foEs in the equatorial ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somoye, E. O.; Akala, A. O.; Adeniji-Adele, R. A.; Onori, E. O.; Ogwala, A.; Karimu, A. O.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>seasonal, and solar cycle effects of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> (VR) of the critical frequency of sporadic E layer (foEsq) are investigated at Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, 6°S dip) in the African sector during high solar activity (HSA) year of 1958 (Rz = 181), moderate solar activity (MSA) year of 1973 (Rz = 30), and low solar activity (LSA) year of 1965 (Rz = 17). The diurnal variation of foEsq VR is characterized by post-midnight (32%-78%) and pre-midnight (20%-84%) peaks during high solar activity (HSA), the only epoch of the three showing these peaks and a diurnal trend. While the daytime foEsq VRs of the three epochs show no seasonal trend, pre-midnight and post-midnight, the foEsq VRs during HSA and LSA show seasonal trends. Similarity is observed in the curve of reciprocal of percentage occurrence of Esq and that of foEsq VR, indicating inverse variation of percentage occurrence and foEsq VR. Longitudinal influence is observed in the diurnal variation of HSA and MSA July foEsq VR of Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, 6°S dip) in the African sector, which is in the neighborhood of the Greenwich Meridian (GM); Singapore (1.3°N, 108.3°E, 17.6°S dip) in the Asian sector, east of GM; and Huancayo (12°S, 284.7°E, 1.90 dip) in the American sector, west of GM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960444"><span><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in fat oxidation and the effect after only 1 day of change in diet composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Støa, Eva Maria; Nyhus, Lill-Katrin; Børresen, Sandra Claveau; Nygaard, Caroline; Hovet, Åse Marie; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Helgerud, Jan; Støren, Øyvind</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Indirect calorimetry is a common and noninvasive method to estimate rate of fat oxidation (FatOx) during exercise, and test-retest reliability should be considered when interpreting results. Diet also has an impact on FatOx. The aim of the present study was to investigate <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> variations in FatOx during moderate exercise given the same diet and 2 different isoenergetic diets. Nine healthy, moderately-trained females participated in the study. They performed 1 maximal oxygen uptake test and 4 FatOx tests. Habitual diets were recorded and repeated to assess <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in FatOx. FatOx was also measured after 1 day of fat-rich (26.8% carbohydrates (CHO), 23.2% protein, 47.1% fat) and 1 day of CHO-rich diet (62.6% CHO, 20.1% protein, 12.4% fat). The reliability test revealed no differences in FatOx, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, or blood glucose between the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx decreased after the CHO-rich diet compared with the habitual day 2 (from 0.42 ± 0.15 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p < 0.05). No difference was found in FatOx between fat-rich diet and the 2 habitual diet days. FatOx was 31% lower (from 0.42 ± 0.14 to 0.29 ± 0.13 g·min(-1), p < 0.01) after the CHO-rich diet compared with the fat-rich diet. Using RER data to measure FatOx is a reliable method as long as the diet is strictly controlled. However, even a 1-day change in macronutrient composition will likely affect the FatOx results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31C0082I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31C0082I"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">Day-to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Vertical Distribution of Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone over Railroad Valley, NV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Tanaka, T.; Sweeney, C.; Tadic, J.; Roby, M.; Andrews, A. E.; Lopez, J. P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In-situ observations of three trace gases over a remote desert site allow for an analysis of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of ozone (O3), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the free troposphere. Observations from June 2013 show almost no change from one day to the next in the boundary layer (BL) up to > 4 km (30% of the atmospheric column), while mixing ratios of methane and carbon dioxide show strong <span class="hlt">variability</span> above this altitude. Ozone values also demonstrate <span class="hlt">variability</span> above the boundary layer, and ozone <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the well-mixed BL is greater than that of CO2 or CH4. Results from week-long intensives in both June 2012 and June 2013, as well as monthly measurements over the period 2012-2013, will be compared to long-term vertical profile data sets at other locations (Trinidad Head, CA; Briggsdale, CO; and the Southern Great Plains site, OK). <span class="hlt">Variability</span> above and in the boundary layer will be reported. To assess possible sources of <span class="hlt">variability</span>, in situ data will be analyzed with a chemical trajectory model (GEOS-Chem v9-01-03). The North America nested-grid version of GEOS-Chem utilizes varying emission inventories and model parameterizations to simulate the emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4, in this case) and ozone precursor gases. Tagged tracer simulations in GEOS-Chem allow for the geographical source apportionment of ozone, indicating whether the observed O3 was formed in the upper troposphere, middle troposphere, stratosphere, or any user-defined boundary layer location. For this study we will focus on ozone formed in the boundary layer over Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Mexico, Canada, and the United States. The importance of daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the free tropospheric values of CO2, CH4, and O3 will be discussed in the context of column measurements collected from the surface or from space. Many data assimilation systems are designed to assume that changes to the total column average should be attributed primarily to changes within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4393096','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4393096"><span>Spatial versus <span class="hlt">Day-To-Day</span> Within-Lake <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Tropical Floodplain Lake CH4 Emissions – Developing Optimized Approaches to Representative Flux Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peixoto, Roberta B.; Machado-Silva, Fausto; Marotta, Humberto; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Bastviken, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Inland waters (lakes, rivers and reservoirs) are now understood to contribute large amounts of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. However, fluxes are poorly constrained and there is a need for improved knowledge on spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and on ways of optimizing sampling efforts to yield representative emission estimates for different types of aquatic ecosystems. Low-latitude floodplain lakes and wetlands are among the most high-emitting environments, and here we provide a detailed investigation of spatial and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a shallow floodplain lake in the Pantanal in Brazil over a five-day period. CH4 flux was dominated by frequent and ubiquitous ebullition. A strong but predictable spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> (decreasing flux with increasing distance to the shore or to littoral vegetation) was found, and this pattern can be addressed by sampling along transects from the shore to the center. Although no distinct <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> were found, a significant increase in flux was identified from measurement day 1 to measurement day 5, which was likely attributable to a simultaneous increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our study demonstrates that representative emission assessments requires consideration of spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span>, but also that spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> patterns are predictable for lakes of this type and may therefore be addressed through limited sampling efforts if designed properly (e.g., fewer chambers may be used if organized along transects). Such optimized assessments of spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> are beneficial by allowing more of the available sampling resources to focus on assessing temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, thereby improving overall flux assessments. PMID:25860229</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5540344','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5540344"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of total content, peak density and slab thickness, and the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms. Final report, Jun 86-Sep 90</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fox, M.W.</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>The issue of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> ionospherics is of ongoing concern to users of satellites, navigation systems, and hf radio communications, and the mechanisms behind the variations are of interest to researchers. This report attempts to satisfy those operational concerns with a physical perspective, by analyzing hourly ionospheric data and developing an operationally useful model of the variations that is discussed in terms of the underlying physical processes. We describe an analysis of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in the total electron content, maximum electron density and equivalent slab thickness using nearly two solar cycles of observations from the American sector at mid latitudes. The report begins by quantifying <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of these three F-region parameters and by performing a detailed correlation analysis between them. Usefulness of statistical and persistence forecasts are discussed. Then follows a study of the response of the ionosphere to geomagnetic storms, as these are the times when the variations from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> are greatest. We then define storm patterns in terms of the departures on each day from average conditions in a storm-affected period. The average ionospheric response under a variety of conditions is described qualitatively and numerically. Individual storm patterns and common storm-related features are studied to characterize each storm and to investigate dependencies and interdependencies. The physical processes governing the observed responses and attempts to model these numerically, as well as applications to modeling real-time <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in an operational sense, are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE31A0261M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE31A0261M"><span>On <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Global Lightning Activity as Quantified from Background Schumann Resonance Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> final stage from the estimated positions and relative activities of the modeled "chimneys" using SR power spectra at the stations with the most reliable calibrations. Additional stabilization in the procedure has been achieved by exploiting the Le Come/Goltzman inversion algorithm that uses the empirically estimated statistical characteristics of the input parameters. When applied to electric and/or magnetic observations collected simultaneously in January 2009 from six ELF stations in Poland (Belsk), Japan (Moshiri), Hungary (Nagycenk), USA (Rhode Island), India (Shillong), and Antarctica (Syowa), the inversion procedure reveals a general repeatability of diurnal lightning scenarios with variations of "chimney" centroid locations by a few megameters, while the estimated regional activity has been found to vary from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> by up to several tens of percent. A combined empirical-theoretical analysis of the collected data aimed at selecting the most reliably calibrated ELF stations is presently in progress. All the effort is being made to transform the relative lightning activity into absolute units by the time of this meeting. The authors are greatly thankful to all the experimentalists who generously provided their observations and related information for this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp..155T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp..155T"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> variations in the amplitude of the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle and impact on adult eclosion timing of the onion fly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The onion fly Delia antiqua advances its eclosion timing with decreasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitude to compensate for a depth-dependent phase delay of the zeitgeber. To elucidate whether or not naturally occurring <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in the amplitude of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle disturb this compensatory response, we monitored daily variations in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitude in natural soils and evaluated the impact on adult eclosion timing. Our results indicated that both median and variance of the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitude become smaller as depth increases. Insertion of a larger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuation into the thermoperiod with smaller <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitude induced a stronger phase delay, while insertion of a smaller <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuation into the thermoperiod with larger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitude had a weaker phase-advancing effect. It is therefore expected that larger diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations disturb the compensatory response, particularly if they occur at deeper locations, while smaller <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations do so only at shallower locations. Under natural conditions, however, the probability of occurrence of smaller or larger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in shallower or deeper soils, respectively, is relatively small. Thus, naturally occurring <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitude rarely disturb the compensatory response, thereby having a subtle or negligible impact on adult eclosion timing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26696902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26696902"><span>Development of an Experimental Model to Study the Relationship Between <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Blood Pressure and Aortic Stiffness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bouissou-Schurtz, Camille; Lindesay, Georges; Regnault, Véronique; Renet, Sophie; Safar, Michel E; Molinie, Vincent; Dabire, Hubert; Bezie, Yvonnick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We aimed to develop an animal model of long-term blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span> (BPV) and to investigate its consequences on aortic damage. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> BPV produced by discontinuous treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by valsartan may increase arterial stiffness. For that purpose, rats were discontinuously treated, 2 days a week, or continuously treated by valsartan (30 mg/kg/d in chow) or placebo. Telemetered BP was recorded during 2 min every 15 min, 3 days a week during 8 weeks to cover the full BP variations in response to the treatment schedule. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic structure evaluated by immunohistochemistry were investigated in a second set of rats treated under the same conditions. Continuous treatment with valsartan reduced systolic BP (SBP) and reversed the aortic structural alterations observed in placebo treated SHR (decrease of medial cross-sectional area). Discontinuous treatment with valsartan decreased SBP to a similar extent but increased the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> BPV, short term BPV, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PWV as compared with continuous treatment. Despite no modifications in the elastin/collagen ratio and aortic thickness, an increase in PWV was observed following discontinuous treatment and was associated with a specific accumulation of fibronectin and its αv-integrin receptor compared with both groups of rats. Taken together the present results indicate that a discontinuous treatment with valsartan is able to induce a significant increase in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> BPV coupled to an aortic phenotype close to that observed in hypertension. This experimental model should pave the way for future experimental and clinical studies aimed at assessing how long-term BPV increases aortic stiffness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672044','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672044"><span>Development of an Experimental Model to Study the Relationship Between <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Blood Pressure and Aortic Stiffness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bouissou-Schurtz, Camille; Lindesay, Georges; Regnault, Véronique; Renet, Sophie; Safar, Michel E.; Molinie, Vincent; Dabire, Hubert; Bezie, Yvonnick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We aimed to develop an animal model of long-term blood pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span> (BPV) and to investigate its consequences on aortic damage. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> BPV produced by discontinuous treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by valsartan may increase arterial stiffness. For that purpose, rats were discontinuously treated, 2 days a week, or continuously treated by valsartan (30 mg/kg/d in chow) or placebo. Telemetered BP was recorded during 2 min every 15 min, 3 days a week during 8 weeks to cover the full BP variations in response to the treatment schedule. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic structure evaluated by immunohistochemistry were investigated in a second set of rats treated under the same conditions. Continuous treatment with valsartan reduced systolic BP (SBP) and reversed the aortic structural alterations observed in placebo treated SHR (decrease of medial cross-sectional area). Discontinuous treatment with valsartan decreased SBP to a similar extent but increased the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> BPV, short term BPV, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PWV as compared with continuous treatment. Despite no modifications in the elastin/collagen ratio and aortic thickness, an increase in PWV was observed following discontinuous treatment and was associated with a specific accumulation of fibronectin and its αv-integrin receptor compared with both groups of rats. Taken together the present results indicate that a discontinuous treatment with valsartan is able to induce a significant increase in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> BPV coupled to an aortic phenotype close to that observed in hypertension. This experimental model should pave the way for future experimental and clinical studies aimed at assessing how long-term BPV increases aortic stiffness. PMID:26696902</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA43B2146F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA43B2146F"><span>Ground-based observatory network, located in the Brazilian sector, to study the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the ionosphere-thermosphere during the solar cycle 24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fagundes, P. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A new set of instrumentation (all-sky imaging, Fabry-Perot, and magnetometers) is being installed in the Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP) observatory network, which is located from near equatorial region to low-latitudes at Manaus(2.9oS,60.0oW, Dip-latitude 6.4oN), Palmas (10.2oS, 48.2oW,Dip-latitude 05.5oS), Itajaí (18.0oS, 51.7oW, Dip-latitude 12.1oS), and São José dos Campos (23.2oS, 45.9oW,Dip-latitude 17.6oS). These observatories have operated ionosondes since 2002, and this new instrumentation will provide observation to study the ionosphere and thermosphere <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The main topics that may be studied in detail are: a) Thermosphere-ionosphere response to geomagnetic disturbed periods; b) Propagations of gravity waves and planetary waves at thermosphere and their effects on ionosphere; c) Generation, evolution, and propagation of equatorial large scale and bottom side ionospheric irregularities; d) Ionospheric F3 layer studies at equatorial and low-latitude regions. In addition, the combination of ground-based and satellite data is important to improve the knowledge of ionosphere-thermosphere <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The new instrumentation has been funded by the Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Grant 2012/08445-9. Figure 1- A map of Brazil showing the locations of the UNIVAP observatories. Table1- Detail of the UNIVAP Observatory network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4437390','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4437390"><span><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Reliability of Blood Oxidative Stress Markers within a Four-Week Period in Healthy Young Men</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goldfarb, A. H.; Garten, R. S.; Waller, J.; Labban, J. D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The present study aimed to determine the <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and reliability of several blood oxidative stress markers at rest in a healthy young cohort over a four-week period. Twelve apparently healthy resistance trained males (24.6 ± 3.0 yrs) were tested over 7 visits within 4 weeks with at least 72 hrs between visits at the same time of day. Subjects rested 30 minutes prior to blood being obtained by vacutainer. Results. The highest IntraClass correlations (ICC's) were obtained for protein carbonyls (PC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) (PC = 0.785 and ORAC = 0.780). Cronbach's α reliability score for PC was 0.967 and for ORAC was 0.961. The ICC's for GSH, GSSG, and the GSSG/TGH ratio ICC were 0.600, 0.573, and 0.570, respectively, with Cronbach's α being 0.913, 0.904, and 0.903, respectively. Xanthine oxidase ICC was 0.163 and Cronbach's α was 0.538. Conclusions. PC and ORAC demonstrated good to excellent reliability while glutathione factors had poor to excellent reliability. Xanthine oxidase showed poor reliability and high <span class="hlt">variability</span>. These results suggest that the PC and ORAC markers were the most stable and reliable oxidative stress markers in blood and that daily changes across visits should be considered when interpreting resting blood oxidative stress markers. PMID:26317028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....111005E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....111005E"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of H Component of Geomagnetic Field in Central African Sector Provided by YACM (Yaoundé-Cameroon) Amber Magnetometer Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Etoundi Messanga, Honoré</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The geomagnetic data obtained from Amber Network station in Cameroon has been used for this study. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of H component of geomagnetic field has been examined by using geomagnetic field data of X and Y components recorded at AMBER magnetometer station hosted by the Department of Physics of University of Yaoundé (3.87°N, 11.52°E). The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the horizontal intensity of the geomagnetic field has been examined and shows that the scattering of H component of magnetic field variation is more on disturbed than on quiet days. The signatures H of geomagnetic Sq and Sd variations in intensities in the geomagnetic element, has been studied. This paper shows that the daytime variations in intensities of geomagnetic elements H, Sq(H) and Sd(H) respectively are generally greater at diurnal-times than at night-times. This study mainly interests to answer to two questions: 1) how can geomagnetic variations be used to study the equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and electrojet equatorial over Africa in general and Cameroon in particular? 2) How can geomagnetic variations be used to monitor and predict Space weather events in Cameroon? This study presents and interprets the results of H component of geomagnetic field variations during magnetic storms and on quiet days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3056K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3056K"><span>Synoptic climatological analyses on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe also with attention to the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Comparing with that in East Asia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Kuranoshin; Hamaki, Tatsuya; Haga, Yuichi; Otani, Kazuo; Kato, Haruko</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>There are many stages with rapid seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling". The seasonal cycle has been an important background for generation of the many kinds of arts also in Europe around the western edge of the Eurasian Continent. Especially around Germany, there are so many music or literature works in which the "May" is treated as the special season. However, more detailed examination and its comparison with that in East Asia about the seasonal evolution from winter to spring including before May would be interesting. Deeper knowledge on the seasonal cycle would contribute greatly to the cultural understanding as mentioned above, as well as for considering the detailed response of the regional climate to the global-scale impacts such as the global warming. As such, the present study examined, based mainly on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1971-2010, the synoptic climatological features on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe also with attention to the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, by comparing with those in East Asia (detailed analyses were made mainly for 2000/01 - 2010/11 winters). Around the region from Germany to Turkey, the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TS) showed rather larger <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation (including the interannual or intraseasonal variation) throughout a year than in the Japan Islands area in East Asia. Especially from December to March (the minimum period of the climatological TS in the European side), the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation was extremely great around Germany and its northern region (to the north of around 45N/10E). Thus, the extremely low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events sometimes appeared around Germany till the end of March, although the seasonal mean TS was not so considerably low. The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation of sea level pressure (SLP) was also very large where such large amplitude of TS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2179591','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2179591"><span>Rotation of the anatomic regions used for insulin injections and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of plasma glucose in type I diabetic subjects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bantle, J P; Weber, M S; Rao, S M; Chattopadhyay, M K; Robertson, R P</p> <p>1990-04-04</p> <p>Treatment of type I diabetes mellitus is hindered by the often large fluctuations in blood glucose concentration experienced by affected individuals. To determine to what extent <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in blood glucose levels can be reduced if insulin is injected in the same anatomic region rather than in different regions using a rotational scheme, as is commonly recommended, 12 type I diabetic subjects were studied. Insulin injections were given in the abdomen for 3 days and rotated among arms, abdomen, and thighs for 3 days using a crossover design with random assignment of treatment order. Blood samples for measurement of plasma glucose levels were obtained at nine scheduled times on each day. Insulin dose, diet, and physical activity were held constant for each subject. During the abdominal injection period, the mean SD of plasma glucose levels and the mean variance of plasma glucose levels were both less at all nine time points than during the rotating injection period. Overall values for the SD of plasma glucose levels were 2.7 +/- 0.2 mmol/L for the abdominal injection period and 3.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/L for the rotating injection period. Overall values for the variance of plasma glucose levels were 9.2 +/- 1.4 mmol2/L2 for the abdominal injection period and 17.4 +/- 2.2 mmol2/L2 for the rotating injection period. We conclude that the common clinical practice of rotating the anatomic regions used for insulin injections increases <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in blood glucose concentration. Use of a single anatomic region, eg, the abdomen, for all insulin injections may reduce this variation and allow greater precision in the adjustment of insulin doses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.1466S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.1466S"><span>Coherent and incoherent scatter radar study of the climatology and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of mean F region vertical drifts and equatorial spread F</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, J. M.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Fejer, B. G.; Milla, M. A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the vertical drifts and equatorial spread F (ESF) measurements made by the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) between 1994 and 2013. The ISR measurements allowed us to construct not only updated climatological curves of quiet-time vertical plasma drifts but also time-versus-height maps of ESF occurrence over the past two solar cycles. These curves and maps allowed us to better relate the observed ESF occurrence patterns to features in the vertical drift curves than previously possible. We identified an excessively high occurrence of post-midnight F region irregularities during December solstice and low solar flux conditions. More importantly, we also found a high occurrence of ESF events during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. We also proposed and evaluated metrics of evening enhancement of the vertical drifts and ESF occurrence, which allowed us to quantify the relationship between evening drifts and ESF development. Based on a <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> analysis of these metrics, we offer estimates of the minimum pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) peak (and mean PRE) values observed prior to ESF development for different solar flux and seasonal conditions. We also found that ESF irregularities can reach the altitudes at least as high as 800 km at the magnetic equator even during low solar flux conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010658','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010658"><span>Governance: Blending Bureaucratic Rules with <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Operational Realities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chinitz, David P</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran take up the challenging issue of governance in their article "Governance, Government and the Search for New Provider Models," and use two case studies of health policy changes in Sweden and Spain to shed light on the subject. In this commentary, I seek to link their conceptualization of governance, especially its interrelated roles at the macro, meso, and micro levels of health systems, with the case studies on which they report. While the case studies focus on the shifts in governance between the macro and meso levels and their impacts on achievement of desired policy outcomes, they also highlight the need to better integrate the dynamics of <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> operations within micro organizations into the overall governance picture. PMID:27694682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782162','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782162"><span>Macrocognition in <span class="hlt">Day-To-Day</span> Police Incident Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baber, Chris; McMaster, Richard</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Using examples of incidents that UK Police Forces deal with on a <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> basis, we explore the macrocognition of incident response. Central to our analysis is the idea that information relating to an incident is translated from negotiated to structured and actionable meaning, in terms of the Community of Practice of the personnel involved in incident response. Through participant observation of, and interviews with, police personnel, we explore the manner in which these different types of meaning shift over the course of incident. In this way, macrocognition relates to gathering, framing, and sharing information through the collaborative sensemaking practices of those involved. This involves two cycles of macrocognition, which we see as ‘informal’ (driven by information gathering as the Community of Practice negotiates and actions meaning) and ‘formal’ (driven by the need to assign resources to the response and the need to record incident details). The examples illustrate that these cycles are often intertwined, as are the different forms of meaning, in situation-specific ways that provide adaptive response to the demands of the incident. PMID:27014117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24570170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24570170"><span>Association between internalizing disorders and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> activities of low energetic expenditure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gosmann, Natan Pereira; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Schuch, Felipe; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Bosa, Vera Lucia; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Manfro, Gisele Gus</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to compare energetic expenditure in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> activities among subjects with internalizing disorders (depression and anxiety), externalizing disorders (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) and healthy children and adolescents without any psychiatric diagnosis. One hundred and five (n = 105) students from a community sample were evaluated throughout a structured psychiatric interview and categorized into three groups: internalizing (n = 54), externalizing (n = 12) and typically developing controls (TDC, n = 39). Energetic expenditure was evaluated using 3-day physical activity record. Subjects with internalizing disorders performed activities with lower energetic expenditure as compared to those with externalizing disorders and TDC. Participants with externalizing disorders had more energetic expenditure <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Our study suggests that internalizing disorders are associated with activities of low energetic expenditure in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> activities, extending previous findings with physical exercise. These findings may further contribute to the understanding of the associated morbidity previously described in patients with internalizing disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27704330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27704330"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Population Movement and the Management of Dengue Epidemics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Falcón-Lezama, Jorge A; Martínez-Vega, Ruth A; Kuri-Morales, Pablo A; Ramos-Castañeda, José; Adams, Ben</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Dengue is a growing public health problem in tropical and subtropical cities. It is transmitted by mosquitoes, and the main strategy for epidemic prevention and control is insecticide fumigation. Effective management is, however, proving elusive. People's <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> movement about the city is believed to be an important factor in the epidemiological dynamics. We use a simple model to examine the fundamental roles of broad demographic and spatial structures in epidemic initiation, growth and control. We show that the key factors are local dilution, characterised by the vector-host ratio, and spatial connectivity, characterised by the extent of habitually <span class="hlt">variable</span> movement patterns. Epidemic risk in the population is driven by the demographic groups that frequent the areas with the highest vector-host ratio, even if they only spend some of their time there. Synchronisation of epidemic trajectories in different demographic groups is governed by the vector-host ratios to which they are exposed and the strength of connectivity. Strategies for epidemic prevention and management may be made more effective if they take into account the fluctuating landscape of transmission intensity associated with spatial heterogeneity in the vector-host ratio and people's <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> movement patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984RaSc...19..749D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984RaSc...19..749D"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> changes in ionospheric electron content at low latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dabas, R. S.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Tyagi, T. R.; Bhardwaj, R. K.; Lal, J. B.</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>For a number of years, the ionospheric electron content (IEC) over the Indian subcontinent has been determined on the basis of the Faraday rotation of satellite radio beacon transmissions. In these determinations, use was made of the orbiting satellites BE-B and BE-C, and, for a limited period, of the geostationary satellite ATS 6. A large <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> values of IEC was reported, and it was tried to correlate this phenomenon with magnetic activity, solar flux, or the effect of neutral winds. Tyagi (1978) observed that the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> changes in IEC occur in the form of single day abnormality, and alternate day abnormality. Long-term fluctuations were found with a periodicity of about 45 days. The present investigation is concerned with a more detailed study of the observed variations. An analysis is conducted of IEC data recorded during the low phase of the solar cycle, taking into account data from six low-latitude stations covering a latitude range from approximately 15.0 deg N to 30.0 deg N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&id=EJ999294','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&id=EJ999294"><span>An Idiographic Examination of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Patterns of Substance Use Craving, Negative Affect, and Tobacco Use among Young Adults in Recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zheng, Yao; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Harris, Kitty S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Psychological constructs, such as negative affect and substance use cravings that closely predict relapse, show substantial intraindividual <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This intraindividual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of relevant psychological states combined with the "one day at a time" nature of sustained abstinence warrant a <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> investigation of substance…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28013054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28013054"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> emotions, sleep, and social interactions in pediatric anxiety treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wallace, Meredith L; McMakin, Dana L; Tan, Patricia Z; Rosen, Dana; Forbes, Erika E; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Ryan, Neal D; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Kendall, Philip C; Mannarino, Anthony; Silk, Jennifer S</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Do <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> emotions, social interactions, and sleep play a role in determining which anxious youth respond to supportive child-centered therapy (CCT) versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)? We explored whether measures of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> functioning (captured through ecological momentary assessment, sleep diary, and actigraphy), along with clinical and demographic measures, were predictors or moderators of treatment outcome in 114 anxious youth randomized to CCT or CBT. We statistically combined individual moderators into a single, optimal composite moderator to characterize subgroups for which CCT or CBT may be preferable. The strongest predictors of better outcome included: (a) experiencing higher positive affect when with one's mother and (b) fewer self-reported problems with sleep duration. The composite moderator indicated that youth for whom CBT was indicated had: (a) more <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> sleep problems related to sleep quality, efficiency, and waking, (b) <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> negative events related to interpersonal concerns, (c) more DSM-IV anxiety diagnoses, and (d) college-educated parents. These findings illustrate the value of both <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> functioning characteristics and more traditional sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in identifying optimal anxiety treatment assignment. Future studies will need to enhance the practicality of real-time measures for use in clinical decision making and evaluate additional anxiety treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+team&pg=3&id=EJ824835','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+team&pg=3&id=EJ824835"><span>The Constant Cycle: <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Critical Action of the QUIPPED Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Medves, Jennifer M.; Paterson, Margo; Schroder, Cori; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Chapman, Christine; O'Riordan, Anne</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Action research in the critical paradigm involves a process of continual refection in and on action including the research process itself. In the second in a series of several papers we report on the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> management of the QUIPPED project. The aim was to facilitate patient centred care through inter-professional collaboration with health…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=causes+AND+front&pg=3&id=EJ965165','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=causes+AND+front&pg=3&id=EJ965165"><span>Preparing Students for Front-Line Management: Non-Routine <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clydesdale, Greg; Tan, John</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper attempts to reduce the gap between management education and practice. It emphasises <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> decisions that middle and lower level managers make. The purpose is to provide an education framework embodying a flexible approach to interpretation and solution creation, suitable for situations of ambiguity and uncertainty.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400579.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400579.pdf"><span>The Role of Books, Television, Computers and Video Games in Children's <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Lives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Welch, Alicia J.</p> <p></p> <p>A study assessed the role of various mass media in the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> lives of school-aged children. Research questions dealt with the nature of children's media experiences at home, how use of media impacts school activities, the social context of media use, interior responses to different media, and whether gender or socioeconomic differences among…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA582424','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA582424"><span>The Effects of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Physiological Data on Operator Functional State Classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>disease from magnetic resonance images , brain-computer interfaces for the disabled, and the decoding of brain functioning based on electrical activity have...Whitecross & Dickson, 2003; Shelley & Backs, 2006). The raw ECG waveform was post- processed to extract time between successive R-wave peaks. The...raw VEOG waveform was used to post- process a blink rate data channel. Blinks were automatically detected using the algorithm developed by Kong</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21298944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21298944"><span>[New forms of healthcare cooperation in <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> practice].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lecointre, Brigitte</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Healthcare professionals often have to show creativity in order to ensure the continuity and quality of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> treatments. They are required to accompany changes in patients' needs and expectations, and they also have to overcome many obstacles. Since the introduction of new forms of cooperation, a regulatory framework exists for this collaborative work between professionals, which helps to clarify fields of responsibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007367','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007367"><span>Tektite 2 habitability research program: <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> life in the habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nowlis, D. P.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Because it is widely agreed that the field of environmental psychology is quite young, it was determined that a sample of recorded observations from a representative mission should be included in the report on Tektite to give the professional reader a better feeling of normal <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> life in the isolated habitat. Names of the crew members have been replaced with numbers and some off-color words have been replaced by more acceptable slang; some remarks have been omitted that might lead to easy identification of the subjects. Otherwise, the following pages are exactly as transcribed during the late afternoons and the evenings of the mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26321795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26321795"><span>The <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Co-Production of Ageing in Place.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Procter, Rob; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Rouncefield, Mark; Hinder, Sue</p> <p></p> <p>We report findings from a study that set out to explore the experience of older people living with assisted living technologies and care services. We find that successful 'ageing in place' is socially and collaboratively accomplished - 'co-produced' - <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> by the efforts of older people, and their formal and informal networks of carers (e.g. family, friends, neighbours). First, we reveal how 'bricolage' allows care recipients and family members to customise assisted living technologies to individual needs. We argue that making customisation easier through better design must be part of making assisted living technologies 'work'. Second, we draw attention to the importance of formal and informal carers establishing and maintaining mutual awareness of the older person's circumstances <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> so they can act in a concerted and coordinated way when problems arise. Unfortunately, neither the design of most current assisted living technologies, nor the ways care services are typically configured, acknowledges these realities of ageing in place. We conclude that rather than more 'advanced' technologies, the success of ageing in place programmes will depend on effortful alignments in the technical, organisational and social configuration of support.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3825468','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3825468"><span>Living from <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> – Qualitative Study on Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Speranza, Mario; Taïeb, Olivier; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Corcos, Maurice; Révah-Levy, Anne</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess how far identity and self-image disturbances are features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. Method: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with a total of 50 adolescents with BPD and 50 controls, with a median age of 16 (SD 1.1; range 13 to 18) years. Data was analysed using a qualitative methodology, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Thematic statements representative of adolescents’ lived experience were extracted from the interviews. Results: Four main themes representing the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> experiences of adolescents with BPD were identified: emotional experiences characterised by the feelings of fear, sadness and pessimism; interpersonal relationships characterised by the feelings of solitude and hostility from others; a conformist self-image characterised by a feeling of normality and difficulty in projecting into time; and, a structuring of discourse characterised by discontinuity in the perception of experiences. Conclusion: This qualitative study suggests that the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> experiences of adolescents with borderline personality disorder is centred on the experience of the present. Discontinuity in self-image, alongside marked dysphoric manifestations, leads to distress and hinders compliance with care. These issues are highly relevant in psychotherapy and could lead to more effective treatment of the disorder in adolescents. PMID:24223047</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544393"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> variations in health behaviors and daily functioning: two intensive longitudinal studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In two intensive longitudinal studies we examined the daily dynamics in health behaviors and their associations with two important indicators of young adults' daily functioning, namely, affect and academic performance. Over a period of 8 months, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. A subsample wore an actigraph to provide an additional measurement of sleep and physical activity and participated in a controlled laboratory snacking situation. Multilevel structural equation models showed that better <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, but not snacking, were associated with improved daily functioning, namely, affect and learning goal achievement. Importantly, self-report measurements of health behaviors correlated with behavioral measurements. These findings have the potential to inform health promotion programs aimed at supporting young adults in their daily functioning in good physical and mental health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5154563','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5154563"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> Flow Dynamics on Degradable Transport Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Bo; Zhang, Ronghui; Lou, Xiaoming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Stochastic link capacity degradations are common phenomena in transport network which can cause travel time variations and further can affect travelers’ daily route choice behaviors. This paper formulates a deterministic dynamic model, to capture the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> (DTD) flow evolution process in the presence of degraded link capacity degradations. The aggregated network flow dynamics are driven by travelers’ study of uncertain travel time and their choice of risky routes. This paper applies the exponential-smoothing filter to describe travelers’ study of travel time variations, and meanwhile formulates risk attitude parameter updating equation to reflect travelers’ endogenous risk attitude evolution schema. In addition, this paper conducts theoretical analyses to investigate several significant mathematical characteristics implied in the proposed DTD model, including fixed point existence, uniqueness, stability and irreversibility. Numerical experiments are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the DTD model and verify some important dynamic system properties. PMID:27959903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27959903"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> Flow Dynamics on Degradable Transport Network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Bo; Zhang, Ronghui; Lou, Xiaoming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Stochastic link capacity degradations are common phenomena in transport network which can cause travel time variations and further can affect travelers' daily route choice behaviors. This paper formulates a deterministic dynamic model, to capture the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> (DTD) flow evolution process in the presence of degraded link capacity degradations. The aggregated network flow dynamics are driven by travelers' study of uncertain travel time and their choice of risky routes. This paper applies the exponential-smoothing filter to describe travelers' study of travel time variations, and meanwhile formulates risk attitude parameter updating equation to reflect travelers' endogenous risk attitude evolution schema. In addition, this paper conducts theoretical analyses to investigate several significant mathematical characteristics implied in the proposed DTD model, including fixed point existence, uniqueness, stability and irreversibility. Numerical experiments are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the DTD model and verify some important dynamic system properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1239595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1239595"><span>Revealing important nocturnal and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in fire smoke emissions through a multiplatform inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saide, Pablo E.; Peterson, David A.; de Silva, Arlindo; Anderson, Bruce; Ziemba, Luke D.; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Hair, Jonathan; Butler, Carolyn; Fenn, Marta; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Perring, Anne E.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Streets, David G.; Yan, Fang; Dibb, Jack; Yokelson, Robert; Toon, O. Brian; Hyer, Edward; Carmichael, Gregory R.</p> <p>2015-05-16</p> <p>We couple airborne, ground-based, and satellite observations; conduct regional simulations; and develop and apply an inversion technique to constrain hourly smoke emissions from the Rim Fire, the third largest observed in California, USA. Emissions constrained with multiplatform data show notable nocturnal enhancements (sometimes over a factor of 20), correlate better with daily burned area data, and are a factor of 2–4 higher than a priori estimates, highlighting the need for improved characterization of diurnal profiles and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> when modeling extreme fires. Constraining only with satellite data results in smaller enhancements mainly due to missing retrievals near the emissions source, suggesting that top-down emission estimates for these events could be underestimated and a multiplatform approach is required to resolve them. Predictions driven by emissions constrained with multiplatform data present significant variations in downwind air quality and in aerosol feedback on meteorology, emphasizing the need for improved emissions estimates during exceptional events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2811605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2811605"><span>The <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Impact of Urogenital Aging: Perspectives from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem. PMID:19908103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20347882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20347882"><span>Social status and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> behaviour of male serotonin transporter knockout mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lewejohann, Lars; Kloke, Vanessa; Heiming, Rebecca S; Jansen, Friederike; Kaiser, Sylvia; Schmitt, Angelika; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Sachser, Norbert</p> <p>2010-08-25</p> <p>Humans differing in the amount of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) are known to be differentially prone to neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetically modified mice eliciting abrogated transporter function display a number of corresponding phenotypic changes in behavioural tests. However, a characterisation of the effects of serotonergic malfunction on the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> life is still missing. Yet, this is precisely what an animal model is needed for in order to be meaningful for translation into human anxiety disorders. Homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice, heterozygous 5-HTT mice, and wild-type controls were housed in groups of males of the same genotype in spacious and richly structured cages. This enriched environment allowed the animals to show a wide variety of spontaneous behavioural patterns quantified by a trained experimenter. Additionally the mice could emigrate from the cages through a tunnel and a water basin. The results revealed unaltered daily behaviour in heterozygous mice. In knockouts, however, reduced locomotion, increased socio-positive behaviour, and reduced aggressive behaviour were observed. Nevertheless, all groups showed a significant amount of aggressive behaviour and there were no differences regarding the establishment of dominance relationships, emigration, and the number of animals remaining in their groups. In a second step, pairs of heterozygous and wild-type males and pairs of knockout and wild-type males were brought together in order to assess their ability to obtain a dominant social position in a direct encounter. Heterozygous mice did not differ from wild-type mice but knockout mice were significantly inferior in obtaining the dominant position. In addition to confirming multiple effects of abolished 5-HTT function in a real life situation, this study supports the central role of the 5-HTT in the control of social interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3154838','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3154838"><span>Self Reports of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Function in a Small Cohort of People with Prodromal and Early HD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Williams, Janet; Downing, Nancy; Vaccarino, Anthony L; Guttman, Mark; Paulsen, Jane S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> functioning is a component of health-related quality of life and is an important end point for therapies to treat Huntington Disease (HD). Specific areas of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> function changes have not been reported for prodromal or very early stages of HD. An exploratory self-report telephone interview was conducted with sixteen people with prodromal HD or early HD who met criteria designed to capture research participants most near to motor diagnosis. All completed semi-structured interviews on function in nine aspects of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> life. Out of 16, 14 reported changes in at least one area. All <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> function areas were endorsed by at least one participant with driving being the most common area endorsed by 11/16. Changes in ability to perform some <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> tasks are experienced by people who are close to the time of clinical diagnosis for HD. Functional ability is likely to be an important component of outcome assessments of clinical trials and in ongoing clinical management. PMID:21901173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26776265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26776265"><span>The consequence of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> stochastic dose deviation from the planned dose in fractionated radiation therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paul, Subhadip; Roy, Prasun Kumar</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Radiation therapy is one of the important treatment procedures of cancer. The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> delivered dose to the tissue in radiation therapy often deviates from the planned fixed dose per fraction. This <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation of radiation dose is stochastic. Here, we have developed the mathematical formulation to represent the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> stochastic dose variation effect in radiation therapy. Our analysis shows that that the fixed dose delivery approximation under-estimates the biological effective dose, even if the average delivered dose per fraction is equal to the planned dose per fraction. The magnitude of the under-estimation effect relies upon the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> stochastic dose variation level, the dose fraction size and the values of the radiobiological parameters of the tissue. We have further explored the application of our mathematical formulation for adaptive dose calculation. Our analysis implies that, compared to the premise of the Linear Quadratic Linear (LQL) framework, the Linear Quadratic framework based analytical formulation under-estimates the required dose per fraction necessary to produce the same biological effective dose as originally planned. Our study provides analytical formulation to calculate iso-effect in adaptive radiation therapy considering <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> stochastic dose deviation from planned dose and also indicates the potential utility of LQL framework in this context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866530','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4866530"><span>Is There an Association of Physical Activity with Brain Volume, Behavior, and <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> Functioning? A Cross Sectional Design in Prodromal and Early Huntington Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wallace, McKenzie; Downing, Nancy; Lourens, Spencer; Mills, James; Kim, Ji-in; Long, Jeffrey; Paulsen, Jane; PREDICT-HD Investigators and Coordinators of the Huntington Study Group</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Huntington disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive motor, cognitive, and behavioral decline. Subtle changes in these domains are detectable up to 15 years before a definitive motor diagnosis is made. This period, called prodromal HD, provides an opportunity to examine lifestyle behaviors that may impact disease progression. Theoretical Framework: Physical activity relates to decreased rates of brain atrophy and improved cognitive and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> functioning in Alzheimer disease and healthy aging populations. Previous research has yielded mixed results regarding the impact of physical activity on disease progression in HD and paid little attention to the prodromal phase. Methods: We conducted analyses of associations among current physical activity level, current and retrospective rate of change for hippocampus and striatum volume, and cognitive, motor, and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> functioning <span class="hlt">variables</span>. Participants were 48 gene-expanded cases with prodromal and early-diagnosed HD and 27 nongene-expanded control participants. Participants wore Fitbit Ultra activity monitors for three days and completed the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Hippocampal and striatal white matter volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive tests included the Stroop Color and Word Test, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Motor function was assessed using the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale total motor score (TMS). <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> functioning was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) version 2.0. Results: Higher Fitbit activity scores were significantly related to better scores on the SDMT and WHODAS in case participants but not in controls. Fitbit activity scores tracked better with TMS scores in the group as a whole, though the association did not reach statistical significance in the case participants. Higher Fitbit activity scores</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&pg=3&id=EJ1051939','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&pg=3&id=EJ1051939"><span>Predicting <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Changes in Students' School-Related Affect from Daily Academic Experiences and Social Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Altermatt, Ellen Rydell</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the role that everyday academic successes and failures--and the interactions with family members and peers that follow these events--play in predicting <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> changes in children's emotional responses to school. Middle school students (N = 101; mean age = 11.62 years) completed daily assessments of their academic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=clean+AND+energy&pg=5&id=EJ773705','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=clean+AND+energy&pg=5&id=EJ773705"><span><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jurecki, Dennis</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829730','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829730"><span>Mobile Phone-Based Unobtrusive Ecological Momentary Assessment of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Mood: An Explorative Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruwaard, Jeroen; Ejdys, Michal; Schrader, Niels; Sijbrandij, Marit; Riper, Heleen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a useful method to tap the dynamics of psychological and behavioral phenomena in real-world contexts. However, the response burden of (self-report) EMA limits its clinical utility. Objective The aim was to explore mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA, in which mobile phone usage logs are considered as proxy measures of clinically relevant user states and contexts. Methods This was an uncontrolled explorative pilot study. Our study consisted of 6 weeks of EMA/unobtrusive EMA data collection in a Dutch student population (N=33), followed by a regression modeling analysis. Participants self-monitored their mood on their mobile phone (EMA) with a one-dimensional mood measure (1 to 10) and a two-dimensional circumplex measure (arousal/valence, –2 to 2). Meanwhile, with participants’ consent, a mobile phone app unobtrusively collected (meta) data from six smartphone sensor logs (unobtrusive EMA: calls/short message service (SMS) text messages, screen time, application usage, accelerometer, and phone camera events). Through forward stepwise regression (FSR), we built personalized regression models from the unobtrusive EMA <span class="hlt">variables</span> to predict <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in EMA mood ratings. The predictive performance of these models (ie, cross-validated mean squared error and percentage of correct predictions) was compared to naive benchmark regression models (the mean model and a lag-2 history model). Results A total of 27 participants (81%) provided a mean 35.5 days (SD 3.8) of valid EMA/unobtrusive EMA data. The FSR models accurately predicted 55% to 76% of EMA mood scores. However, the predictive performance of these models was significantly inferior to that of naive benchmark models. Conclusions Mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA is a technically feasible and potentially powerful EMA variant. The method is young and positive findings may not replicate. At present, we do not recommend the application of FSR-based mood</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5370612','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5370612"><span>Data <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span>: building a community of expertise to address data skills gaps in an academic medical center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Surkis, Alisa; LaPolla, Fred Willie Zametkin; Contaxis, Nicole; Read, Kevin B.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background The New York University Health Sciences Library data services team had developed educational material for research data management and data visualization and had been offering classes at the request of departments, research groups, and training programs, but many members of the medical center were unaware of these library data services. There were also indications of data skills gaps in these subject areas and other data-related topics. Case Presentation The data services team enlisted instructors from across the medical center with data expertise to teach in a series of classes hosted by the library. We hosted eight classes branded as a series called “Data <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span>.” Seven instructors from four units in the medical center, including the library, taught the classes. A multipronged outreach approach resulted in high turnout. Evaluations indicated that attendees were very satisfied with the instruction, would use the skills learned, and were interested in future classes. Conclusions Data <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> met previously unaddressed data skills gaps. Collaborating with outside instructors allowed the library to serve as a hub for a broad range of data instruction and to raise awareness of library services. We plan to offer the series three times in the coming year with an expanding roster of classes. PMID:28377684</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B51F0083H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B51F0083H"><span>How to reduce <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation of leaf area index derived from digital cover photography?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, Y. R.; Ryu, Y.; Kimm, H.; Macfarlane, C.; Lang, M.; Sonnentag, O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Leaf area index (LAI) is essential for computing canopy level carbon and water fluxes. Nowadays, it is possible to automatically monitor daily LAI using low-cost sensors, such as digital cameras and LED-sensors. Recent studies have shown that RAW camera format images can improve the estimation of gap fractions and LAI compared to JPEG format. However, whether RAW-based methods can effectively reduce <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation of LAI time series has not been investigated. In this study, we used two methods to compute gap fraction. The first method separates sky and vegetation pixels using a single threshold in the blue band histogram. The second method interpolates the background sky image from pure sky pixels, and computes the transmittance from original and reconstructed images. In order to investigate which method is more accurate in reducing <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation of LAI, we first conducted a controlled experiment with punched panels which included different hole size and gap fractions on the rooftop. Then, we applied both methods to photos collected daily over a year at deciduous forest and evergreen forest in South Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17075058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17075058"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> dynamics of experience--cortisol associations in a population-based sample of older adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adam, Emma K; Hawkley, Louise C; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Cacioppo, John T</p> <p>2006-11-07</p> <p>In 156 older adults, <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in cortisol diurnal rhythms were predicted from both prior-day and same-day experiences, to examine the temporal ordering of experience-cortisol associations in naturalistic environments. Diary reports of daily psychosocial, emotional, and physical states were completed at bedtime on each of three consecutive days. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at wakeup, 30 min after awakening, and at bedtime each day. Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to estimate diurnal cortisol profiles for each person each day. The parameters defining those profiles (wakeup level, diurnal slope, and cortisol awakening response) were predicted simultaneously from day-before and same-day experiences. Prior-day feelings of loneliness, sadness, threat, and lack of control were associated with a higher cortisol awakening response the next day, but morning awakening responses did not predict experiences of these states later the same day. Same-day, but not prior-day, feelings of tension and anger were associated with flatter diurnal cortisol rhythms, primarily because of their association with higher same-day evening cortisol levels. Although wakeup cortisol levels were not predicted by prior-day levels of fatigue and physical symptoms, low wakeup cortisol predicted higher levels of fatigue and physical symptoms later that day. Results are consistent with a dynamic and transactional function of cortisol as both a transducer of psychosocial and emotional experience into physiological activation and an influence on feelings of energy and physical well-being.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3757229','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3757229"><span>Better or Worse: a Study of <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Changes over Five Months of Rosen Method Bodywork Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fogel, Alan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Fluctuations of good days and bad days—in physical symptoms and emotional states—are common for individuals with chronic illness. This pilot study examines these fluctuations during bodywork treatment. Purpose We analyzed changes in daily self-reports over a period of five months for five individuals who received weekly treatments of Rosen Method Bodywork (RMB), which uses touch and words to enhance body awareness of physical sensations and emotional states. Subjects and Design Five subjects (aged 31–56) who had chronic low back pain (CLBP) received 16 weekly treatments given by three experienced RMB practitioners. Measures Pre- and posttreatment assessments covered demographics, disability, and pain. Clients also completed daily bedtime assessments of pain, fatigue, emotional state, and sense of control during the entire treatment period. Results All clients reported reductions in pain and/or disability in post- compared to pretreatment. In spite of a high level of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the daily assessments, there were significant reductions in pain and fatigue, and significant increases in positive emotional state and sense of control across the treatment period. In reaching this end, however, some clients had slow and steady improvements, some improved more rapidly, while others got worse before they got better. Conclusions The natural course of healing—with its inevitable fluctuations in symptoms—is part of a process leading to successful treatment outcomes. Rosen Method Bodywork may be especially helpful in developing and accepting both sensory and emotional body awareness changes that facilitate overall improvement. PMID:24000305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1066727.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1066727.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Operations of Home School Families: Selecting from a Menu of Educational Choices to Meet Students' Individual Instructional Needs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anthony, Kenneth V.; Burroughs, Susie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> operations of home schools. The case study method was used with four families from a larger pool of families that held membership in a home school organization. Data was gathered using interviews, observations, and artifacts. Findings suggest that these families operated their home schools using traditional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22030156','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22030156"><span>Utilizing 3D-visualization to apply compulsory ALARA principles in nuclear power plant design and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sanders, R. L.; Lake, J. E.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>The development of an advanced visualization and simulation tool to support both design as well as <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> operation is presented. This tool exploits cutting edge computer graphics, physics-based effects modeling, virtual reality, and gaming technologies to establish a system that can eventually be used for the administrative planning and training of plant operators and design engineers. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798733"><span>A novel accelerometer-based method to describe <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> exposure to potentially osteogenic vertical impacts in older adults: findings from a multi-cohort study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hannam, K; Deere, K C; Hartley, A; Clark, E M; Coulson, J; Ireland, A; Moss, C; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E; Gaysin, T; Cooper, R; Wong, A; McPhee, J S; Cooper, C; Kuh, D; Tobias, J H</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. Population-based older adults experienced very limited high-impact activity. The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported activity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000697.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000697.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> with COPD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... meat, fish, and nuts. Eat healthy fats like olive or canola oils and soft margarine. Ask your ... Add a teaspoon (5 milliliters) of butter or olive oil to vegetables and soups. Stock your kitchen ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.103...83V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.103...83V"><span>Sources of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in equatorial topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varney, Roger H.; Hysell, David L.; Huba, J. D.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Jicamarca measurements of electron <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at high altitudes (500-1500km) from the last solar minimum routinely show variations of hundreds of Kelvin from <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span>. Possible sources of these variations are explored using the SAMI2-PE is another model of the ionosphere including photoelectron transport (SAMI2-PE) model, which includes a multistream photoelectron transport model. Changes to the electric fields, meridional winds, and thermospheric densities can all change the electron densities and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at high altitudes. The high altitude electron <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are primarily determined by a balance between heating from photoelectrons which travel up the field lines and thermal diffusion which carries heat back down the field lines. The winds and electric fields will change the altitude and densities of the off-equatorial F-region peaks, especially on the field lines connected to the equatorial arcs. The densities and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the plasmasphere will self consistently adjust themselves to achieve diffusive equilibrium with the off-equatorial F-regions. Furthermore, decreases in the density and/or altitude of the F-region makes it easier for photoelectrons to escape to high altitudes. These connections between the equatorial plasmasphere, the off-equatorial F-regions, and the neutral thermosphere suggest that high altitude measurements at Jicamarca could be used to study thermospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=526195','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=526195"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> variations during clinical drug monitoring of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide serum concentrations in cancer patients. A prospective observational study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klepstad, Pål; Hilton, Priscilla; Moen, Jorunn; Kaasa, Stein; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Zahlsen, Kolbjørn; Dale, Ola</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Background The feasibility of drug monitoring of serum concentrations of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) during chronic morphine therapy is not established. One important factor relevant to drug monitoring is to what extent morphine, M6G and M3G serum concentrations fluctuate during stable morphine treatment. Methods We included twenty-nine patients admitted to a palliative care unit receiving oral morphine (n = 19) or continuous subcutaneous (sc) morphine infusions (n = 10). Serum concentrations of morphine, M6G and M3G were obtained at the same time on four consecutive days. If readmitted, the patients were followed for another trial period. <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> variations in serum concentrations and ratios were determined by estimating the percent coefficient of variation (CV = (mean/SD) ×100). Results The patients' median morphine doses were 90 (range; 20–1460) mg/24 h and 135 (range; 30–440) mg/24 h during oral and sc administration, respectively. Intraindividual fluctuations of serum concentrations estimated by median coefficients of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation were in the oral group for morphine 46%, for M6G 25% and for M3G 18%. The median coefficients of variation were lower in patients receiving continuous sc morphine infusions (morphine 10%, M6G 13%, M3G 9%). Conclusion These findings indicate that serum concentrations of morphine and morphine metabolites fluctuate. The fluctuations found in our study are not explained by changes in morphine doses, administration of other drugs or by time for collection of blood samples. As expected the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation was lower in patients receiving continuous sc morphine infusions compared with patients receiving oral morphine. PMID:15461818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4017961','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4017961"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> fluctuation of point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test scores and faecal egg counts in children infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Determining the variation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine and egg counts variation in stool between days in Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infected individuals is vital to decide whether or not to rely on a single-sample test for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis. In this study, the magnitude of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in urine-CCA test scores and in faecal egg counts was evaluated in school children in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 620 school children (age 8 to 12 years) were examined for S. mansoni infection using double Kato-Katz and single urine-CCA cassette methods (batch 32727) on three consecutive days. Results The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 81.1% based on triple urine-CCA-cassette test and 53.1% based on six Kato-Katz thick smears. Among the study participants, 26.3% showed fluctuation in urine CCA and 32.4% showed fluctuation in egg output. Mean egg count as well as number of cases in each class of intensity and intensity of cassette band color varied over the three days of examination. Over 85% of the children that showed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in status of S. mansoni infection from negative to positive or vice versa by the Kato-Katz and the CCA methods had light intensity of infection. The fluctuation in both the CCA test scores and faecal egg count was not associated with age and sex. Conclusions The current study showed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation in CCA and Kato-Katz test results of children infected with S. mansoni. This indicates the necessity of more than one urine or stool samples to be collected on different days for more reliable diagnosis of S. mansoni infection in low endemic areas. PMID:24742192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1258R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1258R"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> from AIRS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we investigate the trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27694682','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27694682"><span>Governance: Blending Bureaucratic Rules with <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Operational Realities Comment on "Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chinitz, David P</p> <p>2016-05-31</p> <p>Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran take up the challenging issue of governance in their article "Governance, Government and the Search for New Provider Models," and use two case studies of health policy changes in Sweden and Spain to shed light on the subject. In this commentary, I seek to link their conceptualization of governance, especially its interrelated roles at the macro, meso, and micro levels of health systems, with the case studies on which they report. While the case studies focus on the shifts in governance between the macro and meso levels and their impacts on achievement of desired policy outcomes, they also highlight the need to better integrate the dynamics of <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> operations within micro organizations into the overall governance picture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25134251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25134251"><span>[The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> routine in hospitals--standards and conflicts, based on the example of the Rothschild spital in Vienna around the year 1900].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malleier, Elisabeth</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The juxtaposition of official regulations and letters of complaint from Vienna's Rothschild Hospital shows, beyond the rhetoric and euphemisms of hospital reports, how lively and diverse <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> life was in a Jewish hospital around the year 1900. The letters of complaint query the official hospital rules and show that ideal and reality did not always coincide. Often, religious questions were at the root of the critique--such as doubts as to whether kosher dietary laws were adhered to--or conflicts between the agents involved, be they individuals or groups, patients, nurses, physicians or administrative staff. As part of this process, power structures, social hierarchies, patient rights and gender issues were called into question and renegotiated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17397267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17397267"><span>Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Part 2): masking influences of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and a review of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Gregory S</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>This is the second of a two-part review on body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Part 1 discussed historical and modern findings on average body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. It also discussed endogenous sources of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, including variations caused by site of measurement; circadian, menstrual, and annual biological rhythms; fitness; and aging. Part 2 reviews the effects of exogenous masking agents - external factors in the environment, diet, or lifestyle that can be a significant source of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> findings in disease states are also reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23909464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23909464"><span>Elucidating satisfaction with physical activity: an examination of the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction during physical activity initiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baldwin, Austin S; Baldwin, Scott A; Loehr, Valerie G; Kangas, Julie L; Frierson, Georita M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Satisfaction with physical activity is known to be an important factor in physical activity maintenance, but the factors that influence satisfaction are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how ongoing experiences with recently initiated physical activity are associated with satisfaction. Participants (n = 116) included insufficiently active volunteers who initiated a self-directed physical activity regimen and completed daily diaries about their experiences for 28 days. We used multilevel models to examine the associations between experiences with physical activity and satisfaction. Significant between-person effects demonstrated that people reporting higher average levels of positive experiences and lower levels of thinking about the negative aspects of exercise were more likely to report higher levels of satisfaction (ps < .05). Positive experiences and perceived progress toward goals had significant within-person effects (ps < .01), suggesting that <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> fluctuations in these experiences were associated with changes in satisfaction. These findings elucidate a process through which people may determine their satisfaction with physical activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22885656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22885656"><span>When is rumination an adaptive mood repair strategy? <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> rhythms of life in combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kashdan, Todd B; Young, Kevin C; McKnight, Patrick E</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Prior research suggests that rumination and chronic negative emotions serve to maintain emotional disorders. However, some evidence suggests that pondering the nature and meaning of negative experiences can be adaptive. To better understand the function of this dimension of rumination, we studied the use of this strategy in response to negative emotions as they unfold from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span> in veterans with (n=27) and without (n=27) post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For two weeks, veterans completed daily questions about when they experienced a bad mood and how often they used rumination to feel differently. It was hypothesized that rumination would attenuate negative emotional reactions in veterans without PTSD, but that rigid, intense negative emotions would persist in veterans with PTSD. Using multilevel modeling, we found that on the same day, rumination was positively associated with negative affect. Because covariation fails to address directionality, we also examined lagged effects from one occasion to the next. For veterans without PTSD, more frequent use of rumination predicted less intense negative affect the next day; there was no support for a model with negative affect predicting rumination the next day. For veterans with PTSD, the prior day's intensity of negative affect was the only predictor of intensity of negative affect the next day. Results support the value of distinguishing within-day and across day effects, and the presence of PTSD, to clarify contexts when rumination is adaptive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729249"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span> co-variations of psychological and physical symptoms of the menstrual cycle: insights to individual differences in steroid reactivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The associations between physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle have not been carefully studied in past research, but may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these symptoms. The present study examines the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> co-variations among physical and psychological symptoms of the menstrual cycle. These symptoms were evaluated on a daily basis across one entire menstrual cycle, with a non-clinical sample of 92 university students. Results showed that headaches, gastrointestinal problems, lower abdominal bloating, skin changes, and breast changes, were all significantly associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms; whereas back and joint pain, lower abdominal cramps, cervical mucous, and menstrual flow, were not associated with psychological symptoms. However, significant differences in these associations were observed across individuals for back and joint pain, headaches, lower abdominal cramps, skin changes, and menstrual flow: Whereas some women demonstrated higher levels of psychological symptoms associated with these physical symptoms, other women demonstrated lower levels of psychological symptoms. Finally, correlations among the associations between physical and psychological symptoms (slopes) demonstrated clear differences across the different physical symptoms. These results indicate that, although higher levels of some physical symptoms are associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms, there are significant differences in the magnitude and direction of these relations across individuals. Further consideration of physical symptoms may provide useful information for understanding individual differences in symptom profiles and response to steroid fluctuations, and for improving differential diagnosis and treatment planning and evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4163097','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4163097"><span><span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Dynamics of Associations between Sleep, Napping, Fatigue and the Cortisol Diurnal Rhythm in Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L.; Janusek, Linda Witek</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVES To examine whether <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations in sleep behaviors, ongoing sleep disturbance and fatigue predict the cortisol diurnal rhythm in women recently diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Methods Women (N=130, age=55. 6±9.4 years) collected saliva 5×/day/2 days for cortisol. Diaries were used to assess prior-day nap duration, nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, and morning restfulness. Ongoing fatigue and sleep disturbance were measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Inventory. Data were analyzed using multilevel growth curve modeling. Results Greater ongoing fatigue (b=0.035, p = .032), or sleep disturbance (b=0.026, p = .006) predicted a slower cortisol decline. Greater ongoing fatigue also predicted higher awakening cortisol (b=0.154, p = .030) and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR) (b=−0.146, p = .005). Longer prior-day naps predicted higher CAR (b=0.042, p=.050), and a steeper cortisol decline (b=−0.035, p = .003). Longer sleep latency predicted both a greater cortisol linear decline (b=−0.013, p < .001), and a greater quadratic slope curvature (b=0.0007, p < .001). Feeling less rested in the morning predicted lower awakening cortisol (b=−0.187, p= .004), higher CAR (b=0.124, p=.016) and a slower cortisol decline (b=0.023, p=.042). CONCLUSIONS Both daily variations in sleep behaviors and ongoing sleep disturbance and fatigue associated with a disrupted cortisol rhythm. In contrast, prior-day napping associated with a more robust cortisol rhythm. These findings are particularly relevant to women with breast cancer who often experience sleep disturbance and fatigue. Additional research is needed to determine causal pathways between sleep disturbance and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with breast cancer. PMID:25186656</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871346','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871346"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> semiconductor film deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/570434','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/570434"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> semiconductor film deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Li, X.; Sheldon, P.</p> <p>1998-01-27</p> <p>A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyEd..49..635M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyEd..49..635M"><span>A Peltier-based <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molki, Arman; Roof Baba, Abdul</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In this paper we propose a simple and cost-effective <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> source based on the Peltier effect using a commercially purchased thermoelectric cooler. The proposed setup can be used to quickly establish relatively accurate dry <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reference points, which are necessary for many <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications such as thermocouple calibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870932','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870932"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seat climate control system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.</p> <p>1997-05-06</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate control system comprises a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate control system may comprise a number of additional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors to monitor the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122..713F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122..713F"><span>Deep <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Drake Passage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Firing, Yvonne L.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; King, Brian A.; Desbruyères, Damien G.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Observations made on 21 occupations between 1993 and 2016 of GO-SHIP line SR1b in eastern Drake Passage show an average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 0.53°C deeper than 2000 dbar, with no significant trend, but substantial year-to-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> (standard deviation 0.08°C). Using a neutral density framework to decompose the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> into isopycnal displacement (heave) and isopycnal property change components shows that approximately 95% of the year-to-year variance in deep <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is due to heave. Changes on isopycnals make a small contribution to year-to-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> but contribute a significant trend of -1.4 ± 0.6 m°C per year, largest for density (γn) > 28.1, south of the Polar Front (PF). The heave component is depth-coherent and results from either vertical or horizontal motions of neutral density surfaces, which trend upward and northward around the PF, downward for the densest levels in the southern section, and downward and southward in the Subantarctic Front and Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). A proxy for the locations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts is constructed from the repeat hydrographic data and has a strong relationship with deep ocean heat content, explaining 76% of deep <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. The same frontal position proxy based on satellite altimeter-derived surface velocities explains 73% of deep <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. The position of the PF plays the strongest role in this relationship between ACC fronts and deep <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Drake Passage, although much of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the southern half of the section can be explained by the position of the SACCF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494162','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494162"><span>SU-E-J-151: <span class="hlt">Day-To-Day</span> Variations in Fraction-Specific Motion Modeling Using Patient 4DCBCT Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dhou, S; Cai, W; Hurwitz, M; Williams, C; Cifter, F; Myronakis, M; Lewis, J; Ionascu, D</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: The goal of this study is to quantify the interfraction reproducibility of patient-specific motion models derived from 4DCBCT acquired on the day of treatment of lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients. Methods: Motion models are derived from patient 4DCBCT images acquired daily over 3–5 fractions of treatment by 1) applying deformable image registration between each 4DCBCT image and a reference phase from that day, resulting in a set of displacement vector fields (DVFs), and 2) performing principal component analysis (PCA) on the DVFs to derive a motion model. The motion model from the first day of treatment is compared to motion models from each successive day of treatment to quantify <span class="hlt">variability</span> in motion models generated from different days. Four SBRT patient datasets have been acquired thus far in this IRB approved study. Results: Fraction-specific motion models for each fraction and patient were derived and PCA eigenvectors and their associated eigenvalues are compared for each fraction. For the first patient dataset, the average root mean square error between the first two eigenvectors associated with the highest two eigenvalues, in four fractions was 0.1, while it was 0.25 between the last three PCA eigenvectors associated with the lowest three eigenvalues. It was found that the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of PCA motion models for each treatment fraction have variations and the first few eigenvectors are shown to be more stable across treatment fractions than others. Conclusion: Analysis of this dataset showed that the first two eigenvectors of the PCA patient-specific motion models derived from 4DCBCT were stable over the course of several treatment fractions. The third, fourth, and fifth eigenvectors had larger variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537499"><span>Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> and during lactation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p> together with high milk yield >50 l/day, and late in lactation together with low milk yield<15 l/day and estrous (0 to 5 days) were also important influencing factors for low-quality milk. However, ∼50% of the tested <span class="hlt">variables</span> did not explain any of the factors responsible for the cow producing milk in the low - 10% Afi-CF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4017821','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4017821"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on insect herbivory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Burkepile, Deron E.; Parker, John D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can influence the top-down control of plant biomass by increasing herbivore metabolic demands. Unfortunately, we know relatively little about the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on herbivory rates for most insect herbivores in a given community. Evolutionary history, adaptation to local environments, and dietary factors may lead to <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal response curves across different species. Here we characterized the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on herbivory rates for 21 herbivore-plant pairs, encompassing 14 herbivore and 12 plant species. We show that overall consumption rates increase with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 20 and 30 °C but do not increase further with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, there is substantial variation in thermal responses among individual herbivore-plant pairs at the highest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Over one third of the herbivore-plant pairs showed declining consumption rates at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while an approximately equal number showed increasing consumption rates. Such variation existed even within herbivore species, as some species exhibited idiosyncratic thermal response curves on different host plants. Thus, rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, particularly with respect to climate change, may have highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> effects on plant-herbivore interactions and, ultimately, top-down control of plant biomass. PMID:24860701</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3710H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3710H"><span>Understanding Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> during the Pliocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haywood, Alan; Hunter, Stephen; Dowsett, Harry; Prescott, Caroline; Dolan, Aisling</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the Pliocene have often been characterised as being warm and relatively stable. The link between Milankovitch cycles, insolation and global ice volume (as demonstrated by the magnitude of negative and positive benthic oxygen isotope excursions), appears to have been weaker in the Pliocene compared to the Pleistocene. However, the marine benthic oxygen isotope record may over represent the signal of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change from the high latitudes. Away from ice sheet regions, where stronger ice sheet/sea-ice albedo feedbacks are expected in response to changes in insolation, the magnitude of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> due to Milankovitch cycles would have been the same, or very similar, in the Pliocene (compared to the Quaternary). Pleistocene and Holocene surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have not been generalised in the same way as the Pliocene and studies concentrate on reconstructing, modelling and understanding discrete climate events, as well as critical climate transitions. It is appreciated that whilst an event, or events, may have a similar signature in terms of the magnitude of any benthic oxygen isotope (or ice core) excursion, they may still display unique surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> characteristics that distinguish one glacial or interglacial from another. This realisation has been possible due to the number of high resolution surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records available. Compared to the Quaternary there are relatively few high-resolution surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records to help constrain the nature of local to regional Pliocene surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, although new records are emerging quickly. Regardless of this, our current understanding of Pliocene surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> at a regional as well as global scale is still emerging. Here we use Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model version 3 (HadCM3) to explore the nature of Pliocene surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and to explore the premise that individual benthic oxygen isotope events in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029327','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029327"><span>Middle Pliocene sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dowsett, H.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) based upon foraminifer, diatom, and ostracod assemblages from ocean cores reveal a warm phase of the Pliocene between about 3.3 and 3.0 Ma. Pollen records and plant megafossils, although not as well dated, show evidence for a warmer climate at about the same time. Increased greenhouse forcing and altered ocean heat transport are the leading candidates for the underlying cause of Pliocene global warmth. Despite being a period of global warmth, this interval encompasses considerable <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Two new SST reconstructions are presented that are designed to provide a climatological error bar for warm peak phases of the Pliocene and to document the spatial distribution and magnitude of SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> within the mid-Pliocene warm period. These data suggest long-term stability of low-latitude SST and document greater <span class="hlt">variability</span> in regions of maximum warming. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616430G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616430G"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the Martian thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the last 7 Martian Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Millour, Ehouarn; Forget, François</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and densities in the Martian upper atmosphere have a significant influence over the different processes producing atmospheric escape. A good knowledge of the thermosphere and its <span class="hlt">variability</span> is thus necessary in order to better understand and quantify the atmospheric loss to space and the evolution of the planet. Different global models have been used to study the seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Martian thermosphere, usually considering three solar scenarios (solar minimum, solar medium and solar maximum conditions) to take into account the solar cycle <span class="hlt">variability</span>. However, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the solar activity within the simulated period of time is not usually considered in these models. We have improved the description of the UV solar flux included on the General Circulation Model for Mars developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-MGCM) in order to include its observed <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We have used the model to simulate the thermospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> during Martian Years 24 to 30, using realistic UV solar fluxes and dust opacities. The model predicts and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the upper thermosphere that ranges from about 50 K during the aphelion to up to 150 K during perihelion. The seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to the eccentricity of the Martian orbit is modified by the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the solar flux within a given Martian year. The solar rotation cycle produces <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations of up to 30 K. We have also studied the response of the modeled thermosphere to the global dust storms in Martian Year 25 and Martian Year 28. The atmospheric dynamics are significantly modified by the global dust storms, which induces significant changes in the thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The response of the model to the presence of both global dust storms is in good agreement with previous modeling results (Medvedev et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013). As expected, the simulated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11d4009K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11d4009K"><span>Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT <span class="hlt">variability</span> represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents-Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009DPS....41.6602A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009DPS....41.6602A"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Three Ionian Volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Daniel R.; Radebaugh, J.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The Cassini spacecraft imaged the surface of Io in eclipse by Jupiter in late 2000 and early 2001 and obtained multiple-filter images over timescales of hours. Images like these have been used to study the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the numerous hotspots on the surface of this volcanically active moon. For example, using a basic color <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis, Pele was found to be an active lava lake with most likely basaltic lava composition. Data from the New Horizons spacecraft suggest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the basaltic range with values of 1150 K to 1335 K for the brightest hotspots like Pele. We undertook similar color <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses to determine the lava composition and eruption style of three additional hotspots, Pillan, Wayland and Loki, using the Cassini data. We found mean color <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ± of 1200±240 K, 1320±130 K, and 1260±320 K for Pillan, Wayland, and Loki, respectively. These <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are suggestive of basaltic lava, but the maximum color <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded were consistent with ultramafic lava. Low signal strength, particularly in the infrared bandwidths, led to high error bars making the composition inconclusive. The data for Pillan showed an overall decrease in clear filter intensity over the three eclipse observations, with data obtained over intervals of tens of minutes and tens of hours, and were consistent with a cooling lava flow. Wayland's intensity decreased over the three eclipses as well indicating a cooling lava flow overall. However, it also showed a decrease of 257 electrons/s over a period of 48 minutes suggesting the end of an eruption of highly exposed lava, perhaps an open channel or fountain. Intensities at Loki over the course of the observation varied in both directions, and were consistent with previous determinations of a lava lake with periods of active overturning and fountains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952565','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952565"><span><span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> Critical-Current Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer</p> <p>2009-05-19</p> <p>This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27..763C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27..763C"><span>Effect of flux adjustments on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>CMIP investigators; Duffy, P. B.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>It has been suggested that “flux adjustments” in climate models suppress simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in 17 simulations of internal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing <span class="hlt">variability</span> in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3696105','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3696105"><span>The <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Acute Effect of Wake Therapy in Patients with Major Depression Using the HAM-D6 as Primary Outcome Measure: Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martiny, Klaus; Refsgaard, Else; Lund, Vibeke; Lunde, Marianne; Sørensen, Lene; Thougaard, Britta; Lindberg, Lone; Bech, Per</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background This paper reports <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> data for from a one-week intervention phase, part of a 9-weeks randomised parallel study with patient having major depression (data from weekly visits have been reported). Wake therapy (sleep deprivation) has an established antidepressant effect with onset of action within hours. Deterioration on the following night’s sleep is, however, common, and we used daily light therapy and sleep time stabilisation as a preventive measure. In particular, we evaluated the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> acute effect of and tolerance to sleep deprivation and examined predictors of response. Methods Patients were assessed at psychiatric inpatient wards. In the wake group (n = 36), patients did three wake therapies in combination with light therapy each morning together with sleep time stabilisation. In the exercise group (n = 38), patients did daily exercise. Hamilton subscale scores were primary outcome (not blinded), secondary outcome was self-assessment data from the Preskorn scale and sleep. Results Patients in the wake therapy group had an immediate, large, stable, and statistically significant better antidepressant effect than patients in the exercise group with response rates at day5 of 75.0%/25.1% and remission rates of 58.6%/6.0%, respectively. The response and remission rates were diminished at day8 with response rates of 41.9%/10.1% and remission rates of 19.4%/4.7%, respectively. Patients and ward personnel found the method applicable with few side effects. Positive diurnal variation (mood better in the evening) predicted a larger response to wake therapy. In the wake group napping on days after intervention predicted greater deterioration on day8. Conclusions The intervention induced an acute antidepressant response without relapse between wake nights but with a diminishing effect after intervention. Development is still needed to secure maintenance of response. Avoiding napping in the days after wake therapy is important. Trial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859"><span>High-frequency daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in China and its relationship to large-scale circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Fu-Ting; Fu, Congbin; Qian, Yun; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shu-Yu</p> <p>2016-04-18</p> <p>Two measures of intra-seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, indicated respectively by standard deviations (SD) and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> (DTD) fluctuations denoted by absolute differences between adjacent 2-day periods, as well as their relationships with large-scale circulation patterns were investigated in China during 1962–2008 on the basis of homogenized daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from 549 local stations and reanalysis data. Our results show that both the SD and DTD of daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin) in summer as well as the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter have been decreasing, while the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in summer is fluctuating more, especially over southern China. In summer, an attribution analysis indicates that the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and high-level East Asian Subtropical Jet stream (EASJ) are positively correlated with both SD and DTD, but the correlation coefficients are generally greater with the SD than with the DTD of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tmax. In contrast, the location of the EASJ shows the opposite correlation pattern, with intensity regarding the correlation with both SD and DTD. In winter, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is negatively correlated with both the SD and DTD of the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but its intra-seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> exhibits good agreement with the SD of the Tmin. The Siberian High acts differently with respect to the SD and DTD of the Tmin, demonstrating a regionally consistent positive correlation with the SD. Overall, the large-scale circulation can well explain the intra-seasonal SD, but DTD fluctuations may be more local and impacted by local conditions, such as changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> itself, the land surface, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710417"><span>Links between annual, Milankovitch and continuum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huybers, Peter; Curry, William</p> <p>2006-05-18</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> exists at all timescales-and climatic processes are intimately coupled, so that understanding <span class="hlt">variability</span> at any one timescale requires some understanding of the whole. Records of the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> illustrate this interdependence, having a continuum of <span class="hlt">variability</span> following a power-law scaling. But although specific modes of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> are relatively well understood, the general controls on continuum <span class="hlt">variability</span> are uncertain and usually described as purely stochastic processes. Here we show that power-law relationships of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> scale with annual and Milankovitch-period (23,000- and 41,000-year) cycles. The annual cycle corresponds to scaling at monthly to decadal periods, while millennial and longer periods are tied to the Milankovitch cycles. Thus the annual, Milankovitch and continuum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> together represent the response to deterministic insolation forcing. The identification of a deterministic control on the continuum provides insight into the mechanisms governing interannual and longer-period climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992721"><span>Precision and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in bacterial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoney, Anna; Salman, Hanna</p> <p>2015-05-19</p> <p>In Escherichia coli, the ratio of the two most abundant chemoreceptors, Tar/Tsr, has become the focus of much attention in bacterial taxis studies. This ratio has been shown to change under various growth conditions and to determine the response of the bacteria to the environment. Here, we present a study that makes a quantitative link between the ratio Tar/Tsr and the favored <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the cell in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient and in various chemical environments. From the steady-state density-profile of bacteria with one dominant thermo-sensor, Tar or Tsr, we deduce the response function of each receptor to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. Using the response functions of both receptors, we determine the relationship between the favored <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of wild-type bacteria with mixed clusters of receptors and the receptor ratio. Our model is based on the assumption that the behavior of a wild-type bacterium in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient is determined by a linear combination of the independent responses of the two receptors, factored by the receptor's relative abundance in the bacterium. This is confirmed by comparing our model predictions with measurements of the steady-state density-profile of several bacterial populations in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient. Our results reveal that the density-profile of wild-type bacteria can be accurately described by measuring the distribution of the ratio Tar/Tsr in the population, which is then used to divide the population into groups with distinct Tar/Tsr values, whose behavior can be described in terms of independent Gaussian distributions. Each of these Gaussians is centered about the favored <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the subpopulation, which is determined by the receptor ratio, and has a width defined by the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent speed and persistence time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.234c2031D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.234c2031D"><span>8 T cryogen free magnet with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demikhov, E.; Kostrov, E.; Lysenko, V.; Piskunov, N.; Troitskiy, V.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>A conduction cooled 8 T superconducting magnetic system with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> insert is developed and tested. The cryomagnetic system is based on a commercial two-stage pulse tube cryocooler with cooling power of 1W at 4.2 K. The compact superconducting magnet is manufactured from NbTi wire and impregnated with epoxy resin by "wet" technology. The clear diameter of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space is 20 mm. The system provides <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 5.5-300 K. The <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space is filled by low pressure helium gas. To eliminate the overheating of the magnet at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> the heat switch is used in thermal coupling between <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> space and the 4K stage. The system design, manufacturing and test results are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=4&id=EJ824930','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=4&id=EJ824930"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Equipment for a Commercial Magnetic Susceptibility Balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lotz, Albert</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equipment for the magnetic susceptibility balance MSB-MK1 of Sherwood Scientific, Ltd., is described. The sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is controlled with streaming air heated by water in a heat exchanger. Whereas the balance as sold commercially can be used only for room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements, the setup we designed extends the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980136"><span>Contribution of solar radiation to decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Kaicun; Dickinson, Robert E</p> <p>2013-09-10</p> <p>Global air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has become the primary metric for judging global climate change. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a decadal timescale is still poorly understood. This paper examines further one suggested hypothesis, that variations in solar radiation reaching the surface (Rs) have caused much of the observed decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Because Rs only heats air during the day, its <span class="hlt">variability</span> is plausibly related to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minus its minimum). We show that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range is consistent with the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Rs at timescales from monthly to decadal. This paper uses long comprehensive datasets for diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range to establish what has been the contribution of Rs to decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It shows that Rs over land globally peaked in the 1930s, substantially decreased from the 1940s to the 1970s, and changed little after that. Reduction of Rs caused a reduction of more than 0.2 °C in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during May to October from the 1940s through the 1970s, and a reduction of nearly 0.2 °C in mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during November to April from the 1960s through the 1970s. This cooling accounts in part for the near-constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the 1930s into the 1970s. Since then, neither the rapid increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the 1970s through the 1990s nor the slowdown of warming in the early twenty-first century appear to be significantly related to changes of Rs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ResPh...6..161S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ResPh...6..161S"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of correlated color <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of lightning channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimoji, Nobuaki; Aoyama, Ryoma; Hasegawa, Wataru</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, we present the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the correlated color <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of lightning channel shown in a digital still image. In order to analyze the correlated color <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we calculated chromaticity coordinates of the lightning channels in the digital still image. From results, the spatial variation of the correlated color <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the lightning channel was confirmed. Moreover, the results suggest that the correlated color <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and peak current of the lightning channels are related to each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.3211M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.3211M"><span>On forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes, internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and the AMO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Michael E.; Steinman, Byron A.; Miller, Sonya K.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We estimate the low-frequency internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations, which include both forced and internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> components, and several alternative model simulations of the (natural + anthropogenic) forced component alone. We then generate an ensemble of alternative historical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories based on the statistics of the estimated internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Using this ensemble, we show, first, that recent NH mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> fall within the range of expected multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Using the synthetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories, we also show that certain procedures used in past studies to estimate internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and in particular, an internal multidecadal oscillation termed the "Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation" or "AMO", fail to isolate the true internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> when it is a priori known. Such procedures yield an AMO signal with an inflated amplitude and biased phase, attributing some of the recent NH mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise to the AMO. The true AMO signal, instead, appears likely to have been in a cooling phase in recent decades, offsetting some of the anthropogenic warming. Claims of multidecadal "stadium wave" patterns of variation across multiple climate indices are also shown to likely be an artifact of this flawed procedure for isolating putative climate oscillations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18394329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18394329"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span>-thermoinsulation garments with a microprocessor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controller.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kurczewska, Agnieszka; Leánikowski, Jacek</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the concept of active <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermoinsulation clothing for users working in low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Those garments contain heating inserts regulated by a microprocessor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controller. This paper also presents the results of tests carried out on the newly designed garments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23600250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23600250"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> intertidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explains why disease endangers black abalone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lafferty, Kevin D</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We measured abalone body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and was independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70125649','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70125649"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> intertidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explains why disease endangers black abalone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We measured abalone body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and was independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.126...59Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.126...59Z"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> performance of a fully screen printed transistor switch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zambou, Serges; Magunje, Batsirai; Rhyme, Setshedi; Walton, Stanley D.; Idowu, M. Florence; Unuigbe, David; Britton, David T.; Härting, Margit</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This article reports on the <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> performance of a flexible printed transistor which works as a current driven switch. In this work, electronic ink is formulated from nanostructured silicon produced by milling polycrystalline silicon. The study of the silicon active layer shows that its conductivity is based on thermal activation of carriers, and could be used as active layers in active devices. We further report on the transistors switching operation and their electrical performance under <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The reliability of the transistors at constant current bias was also investigated. Analysis of the electrical transfer characteristics from 340 to 10 K showed that the printed devices' current ON/OFF ratio increases as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreases making it a better switch at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. A constant current bias on a terminal for up to six hours shows extraordinary stability in electrical performance of the device.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1069151','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1069151"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Measured Space <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in 60 Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, D.; Lay, K.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This report discusses the observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in indoor space <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of living room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depending on climate, and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of indoor space <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032852','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032852"><span>Joint <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global runoff and global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Global land surface runoff and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905-2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data to compute time series of annual gridded runoff for the analysis period. The annual runoff time series data are combined with gridded annual sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data, and the combined dataset is subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA) to identify the primary modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The first three components from the PCA explain 29% of the total <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the combined runoff/SST dataset. The first component explains 15% of the total variance and primarily represents long-term trends in the data. The long-term trends in SSTs are evident as warming in all of the oceans. The associated long-term trends in runoff suggest increasing flows for parts of North America, South America, Eurasia, and Australia; decreasing runoff is most notable in western Africa. The second principal component explains 9% of the total variance and reflects <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its associated influence on global annual runoff patterns. The third component explains 5% of the total variance and indicates a response of global annual runoff to <span class="hlt">variability</span> in North Aflantic SSTs. The association between runoff and North Atlantic SSTs may explain an apparent steplike change in runoff that occurred around 1970 for a number of continental regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.134...56T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.134...56T"><span>Solar-induced 27-day variations of mesospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water vapor from the AIM SOFIE experiment: Drivers of polar mesospheric cloud <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Gary E.; Thurairajah, Brentha; Hervig, Mark E.; von Savigny, Christian; Snow, Martin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) are known to be influenced by changes in water vapor and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the cold summertime mesopause. Solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> of these constituents has been held responsible for 11-year and 27-day <span class="hlt">variability</span> of PMC activity, although the detailed mechanisms are not yet understood. It is also known that the solar influence on PMC <span class="hlt">variability</span> is a minor contributor to the overall <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, which is dominated by effects of gravity waves, planetary waves, and inter-hemispheric coupling. To address this issue, we have analyzed 15 seasons of data taken from the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite. The SOFIE data contain precise measurements of water vapor, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ice water content (among other quantities). These high-latitude measurements are made during the PMC season at the terminator, and therefore directly relate to the simultaneous measurements of mesospheric ice. Using a composite data set of Lyman-α irradiance, we correlated the time variation of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">variables</span> with the 27-day <span class="hlt">variability</span> of solar ultraviolet irradiance. We used a combination of time-lagged linear regression and Superposed Epoch Analysis to extract the solar contribution as sensitivity values (response/forcing) vs. height. We compare these results to previously published results, and show that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity is somewhat higher, whereas the water sensitivity is nearly the same as published values. The time lags are shorter than that expected from direct solar heating and photodissociation, suggesting that the responses are due to 27-day variations of vertical winds. An analytic solution for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes forced by solar irradiance variations suggests that if the response is due purely to Lyman-α heating and Newtonian cooling, the response should vary throughout the summertime season and depend primarily upon the height-dependent column density of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7036"><span>Novel Dodecaarylporphyrins: Synthesis and <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> NMR Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cancilla, Mark; Lebrilla, Carlito; Ma, Jian-Guo; Medforth, Craig J.; Muzzi, Cinzia M.; Shelnutt, John A.; Smith, Kevin M.; Voss, Lisa</p> <p>1999-05-05</p> <p>An investigation of the synthesis of novel dodecaarylporphyrins using the Suzuki coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with octabromotetraarylporphyrins is reported. Studies of the dynamic properties of these new porphyrins using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VT) <SUP>1</SUP>H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics provide interesting insights into their dynamic properties, including the first determination of {beta} aryl rotation in a porphyrin system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17658915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17658915"><span>Insect development under predation risk <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and <span class="hlt">variable</span> food quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Logan, J David; Wolesensky, William; Joern, Anthony</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We model the development of an individual insect, a grasshopper, through its nymphal period as a function of a trade-off between prey vigilance and nutrient intake in a changing environment. Both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and food quality may be <span class="hlt">variable</span>. We scale up to the population level using natural mortality and a predation risk that is mass, vigilance, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent. Simulations reveal the sensitivity of both survivorship and development time to risk and nutrient intake, including food quality and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. The model quantifies the crucial role of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in trophic interactions and development, which is an important issue in assessing the effects of global climate change on complex environmental interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990IJBm...34...76V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990IJBm...34...76V"><span>Rheological modelling of physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span> during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations at rest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vogelaere, P.; de Meyer, F.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>The evolution with time of cardio-respiratory <span class="hlt">variables</span>, blood pressure and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been studied on six males, resting in semi-nude conditions during short (30 min) cold stress exposure (0°C) and during passive recovery (60 min) at 20°C. Passive cold exposure does not induce a change in HR but increases VO 2, VCO 2 Ve and core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T re, whereas peripheral <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is significantly lowered. The kinetic evolution of the studied <span class="hlt">variables</span> was investigated using a Kelvin-Voigt rheological model. The results suggest that the human body, and by extension the measured physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span> of its functioning, does not react as a perfect viscoelastic system. Cold exposure induces a more rapid adaptation for heart rate, blood pressure and skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than that observed during the rewarming period (20°C), whereas respiratory adjustments show an opposite evolution. During the cooling period of the experiment the adaptative mechanisms, taking effect to preserve core homeothermy and to obtain a higher oxygen supply, increase the energy loss of the body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322332','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=322332"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in complex terrain measured using fiber-optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) exerts critical controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes but magnitude and nature of Ts <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a landscape setting are rarely documented. Fiber optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing systems (FO-DTS) potentially measure Ts at high density over a large extent. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11A0846B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11A0846B"><span>Quantifying Walker River stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> using distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beck, A. J.; Null, S. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Nevada's Walker River historically supported Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi), although today Lahontan cutthroat trout are listed as a federally threatened species and limited to isolated headwater reaches. Much of the lower Walker River is impaired for native aquatic species because of elevated stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and nutrients, and low streamflow and dissolved oxygen levels. We deployed a 1 kilometer single-ended fiber-optic Raman spectra distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing (DTS) cable in the Wabuska drain outlet and surrounding Walker River for one week in June 2014 to improve fine-scale understanding of stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These data identify and quantify thermal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of micro-habitat that standard <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring and modeling do not capture. Results indicate stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeded 26°C and a return flow channel exhibited greater thermal <span class="hlt">variability</span> with both warmer daytime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cooler nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> - possibly providing more complex thermal habitat during some flow conditions. Fine-scale DTS data complement ongoing stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modeling by bounding thermal <span class="hlt">variability</span> within model reaches that are 250 m long and where stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is assumed to be well-mixed within each reach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357058"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> fluctuations as a source of brown dwarf <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, Tyler D.; Marley, Mark S.</p> <p>2014-04-20</p> <p>A number of brown dwarfs are now known to be <span class="hlt">variable</span> with observed amplitudes as large as 10%-30% at some wavelengths. While spatial inhomogeneities in cloud coverage and thickness are likely responsible for much of the observed <span class="hlt">variability</span>, it is possible that some of the variations arise from atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations instead of, or in addition to, clouds. To better understand the role that thermal <span class="hlt">variability</span> might play we present a case study of brown dwarf <span class="hlt">variability</span> using a newly developed one-dimensional, time-stepping model of atmospheric thermal structure. We focus on the effects of thermal perturbations, intentionally simplifying the problem through omission of clouds and atmospheric circulation. Model results demonstrate that thermal perturbations occurring deep in the atmosphere (at pressures greater than 10 bar) of a model T-dwarf can be communicated to the upper atmosphere through radiative heating via the windows in near-infrared water opacity. The response time depends on where in the atmosphere a thermal perturbation is introduced. We show that, for certain periodic perturbations, the emission spectrum can have complex time- and wavelength-dependent behaviors, including phase shifts in times of maximum flux observed at different wavelengths. Since different wavelengths probe different levels in the atmosphere, these variations track a wavelength-dependent set of radiative exchanges happening between different atmospheric levels as a perturbation evolves in time. We conclude that thermal—as well as cloud—fluctuations must be considered as possible contributors to the observed brown dwarf <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1052..151C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1052..151C"><span>Implementation of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sequential Controller on <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Speed Drive</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>There are many pump and motor installations with quite extensive speed variation, such as Sago conveyor, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and water pumping system. A common solution for these applications is to run several fixed speed motors in parallel, with flow control accomplish by turning the motors on and off. This type of control method causes high in-rush current, and adds a risk of damage caused by pressure transients. This paper explains the design and implementation of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> speed control system for use in industrial and commercial sectors. Advanced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> speed control can be achieved by using ABB ACS800 <span class="hlt">variable</span> speed drive-direct torque sequential control macro, programmable logic controller and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transmitter. The principle of direct torque sequential control macro (DTC-SC) is based on the control of torque and flux utilizing the stator flux field orientation over seven preset constant speed. As a result of continuous comparison of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the references <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; electromagnetic torque response is particularly fast to the motor state and it is able maintain constant speeds. Experimental tests have been carried out by using ABB ACS800-U1-0003-2, to validate the effectiveness and dynamic respond of ABB ACS800 against <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation, loads, and mechanical shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810061028&hterms=Barley&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBarley','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810061028&hterms=Barley&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBarley"><span>Infrared-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a large agricultural field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Dunnigan Agro-Meteorological Experiment airborne thermal scanner images of a large varying-terrain barley field are acquired and analyzed. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> that may occur within instantaneous fields of view (IFOV) is defined (coefficient of variation: standard deviation/mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in degrees C), and the percentage of the area within various IFOV's within + or - 1, 2, 3, and 5 degrees of the mean is determined. With the exception of very rugged terrain, over 80% of the area within 4, 16, 65 and 258 ha cells was at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within + or - 3 C of the mean cell <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Remote measurements of field <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appeared to be slightly influenced by pixel size in the range 4 ha to 259 ha, and the area percentage within any pixel which contributes within + or - 1, 2, 3, and 5 degrees C of the mean, is nominally the same. In conclusion, no great advantage is found in utilizing a small IFOV instead of a large one for remote sensing of crop <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.2447S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.2447S"><span>Tropical Indian Ocean subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the forcing mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sayantani, Ojha; Gnanaseelan, C.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The first two leading modes of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) are governed by El Niño Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) respectively. TIO subsurface however does not co-vary with the surface. The patterns of the first mode of TIO subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and their vertical structure are found to closely resemble the patterns of IOD and El Niño co-occurrence years. These co-occurrence years are characterized by a north-south subsurface dipole rather than a conventional IOD forced east-west dipole. This subsurface dipole is forced by wind stress curl anomalies, driven mainly by meridional shear in the zonal wind anomalies. A new subsurface dipole index (SDI) has been defined in this study to quantify the intensity of the north-south dipole mode. The SDI peaks during December to February (DJF), a season after the dipole mode index peaks. It is found that this subsurface north-south dipole is a manifestation of the internal mode of <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Indian Ocean forced by IOD but modulated by Pacific forcing. The seasonal evolution of thermocline, subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the corresponding leading modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> further support this hypothesis. Positive wind stress curl anomalies in the south and negative wind stress curl anomalies in the north of 5°S force (or intensify) downwelling and upwelling waves respectively during DJF. These waves induce strong subsurface warming in the south and cooling in the north (especially during DJF) and assist the formation and/or maintenance of the north-south subsurface dipole. A thick barrier layer forms in the southern TIO, supporting the long persistence of anomalous subsurface warming. To the best of our knowledge the existence of such north-south subsurface dipole in TIO is being reported for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..111...79J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..111...79J"><span>Bottom <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity distribution and its <span class="hlt">variability</span> around Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah M.; Quadfasel, Detlef</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR) shapes the oceanic conditions in the region around Iceland. Deep water cannot be exchanged across the ridge, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is directed southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). As a result, the near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences. Here, we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1900-2008, to investigate the distribution of near-bottom properties. Data are gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom hydrography. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to identify local <span class="hlt">variability</span>, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. Finally, property changes within the period 1975-2008 are presented using time series analysis techniques for a collection of grid boxes with sufficient data resolution. Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, as well as long term trends are discussed for different bottom depth classes, representing varying water masses. The seasonal cycle is most pronounced in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and decreases with depth (mean amplitudes of 2.2 °C in the near surface layers vs. 0.2 °C at depths > 500 m), while linear trends are evident in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity (maxima in shallow waters of +0.33 °C/decade for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and +0.03/decade for salinity).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6088S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6088S"><span>Trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in East African rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seregina, Larisa; Ermert, Volker; Fink, Andreas H.; Pinto, Joaquim G.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The economy of East Africa is highly dependent on agriculture, leading to a strong vulnerability of local society to fluctuations in seasonal rainfall amounts, including extreme events. Hence, the knowledge about the evolution of seasonal rainfall under future climate conditions is crucial. Rainfall regimes over East Africa are influenced by multiple factors, including two monsoon systems, several convergence zones and the Rift Valley lakes. In addition, local conditions, like topography, modulate the large-scale rainfall pattern. East African rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> is also influenced by various teleconnections like the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode and El Niño Southern Oscillation. Regarding future climate projections, regional and global climate models partly disagree on the increase or decrease of East African rainfall. The specific aim of the present study is the acquirement of historic data from weather stations in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Ruanda and Uganda), the use of gridded satellite (rainfall) products (ARC2 and TRMM), and three-dimensional atmospheric reanalysis (e.g., ERA-Interim) to quantify climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the recent past and to understand its causes. Climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends, including changes in extreme events, are evaluated using ETCCDI climate change and standardized precipitation indices. These climate indices are determined in order to investigate the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall and their trends with the focus on most recent decades. In the follow-up, statistical and dynamical analyses are conducted to quantify the local impact of pertinent large-scale modes of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of the Indian Ocean).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17534475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17534475"><span>Thermodynamics of actinide complexation in solution at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: application of <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> titration calorimetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rao, Linfeng</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Studies of actinide complexation in solution at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provide insight into the effect of solvation and the energetics of complexation, and help to predict the chemical behavior of actinides in nuclear waste processing and disposal where <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are high. This tutorial review summarizes the data on the complexation of actinides at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and describes the methodology for thermodynamic measurements, with the emphasis on <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> titration calorimetry, a highly valuable technique to determine the enthalpy and, under appropriate conditions, the equilibrium constants of complexation as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.2159T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...44.2159T"><span>The influence of global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the large-scale land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tyrrell, Nicholas L.; Dommenget, Dietmar; Frauen, Claudia; Wales, Scott; Rezny, Mike</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In global warming scenarios, global land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> () warm with greater amplitude than sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs), leading to a land/sea warming contrast even in equilibrium. Similarly, the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of is larger than the covariant interannual SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>, leading to a land/sea contrast in natural <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This work investigates the land/sea contrast in natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> based on global observations, coupled general circulation model simulations and idealised atmospheric general circulation model simulations with different SST forcings. The land/sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contrast in interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> is found to exist in observations and models to a varying extent in global, tropical and extra-tropical bands. There is agreement between models and observations in the tropics but not the extra-tropics. Causality in the land-sea relationship is explored with modelling experiments forced with prescribed SSTs, where an amplification of the imposed SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> is seen over land. The amplification of to tropical SST anomalies is due to the enhanced upper level atmospheric warming that corresponds with tropical moist convection over oceans leading to upper level <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations that are larger in amplitude than the source SST anomalies. This mechanism is similar to that proposed for explaining the equilibrium global warming land/sea warming contrast. The link of the to the dominant mode of tropical and global interannual climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is found to be an indirect and delayed connection. ENSO SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> affects the oceans outside the tropical Pacific, which in turn leads to a further, amplified and delayed response of.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communicative+AND+games&pg=6&id=EJ329934','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communicative+AND+games&pg=6&id=EJ329934"><span>Creativite au jour le jour (Creativity from <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Villarroel, Marie Christine</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Describes 11 classroom activities used in an adult French program that emphasize the development of linguistic skills, knowledge, and communicative skills. The activities include games, simulation, storytelling, writing of a pastiche based on a Prevert poem, a question-asking exercise, and conversation improvisation. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268995"><span>Prediction of Core Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> from Multiple <span class="hlt">Variables</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richmond, Victoria L; Davey, Sarah; Griggs, Katy; Havenith, George</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T re) from insulated skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T is) and micro-climate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T mc) previously reported (Richmond et al., Insulated skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a measure of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiol Meas 2013; 34:1531-43.) using additional physiological and/or environmental <span class="hlt">variables</span>, under several clothing and climatic conditions. Twelve male (25.8±5.1 years; 73.6±11.5kg; 178±6cm) and nine female (24.2±5.1 years; 62.4±11.5kg; 169±3cm) volunteers completed six trials, each consisting of two 40-min periods of treadmill walking separated by a 20-min rest, wearing permeable or impermeable clothing, under neutral (25°C, 50%), moderate (35°C, 35%), and hot (40°C, 25%) conditions, with and without solar radiation (600W m(-2)). Participants were measured for heart rate (HR) (Polar, Finland), skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T s) at 11 sites, T is (Grant, Cambridge, UK), and breathing rate (f) (Hidalgo, Cambridge, UK). T mc and relative humidity were measured within the clothing. T re was monitored as the 'gold standard' measure of T c for industrial or military applications using a 10cm flexible probe (Grant, Cambridge, UK). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to determine which of 30 <span class="hlt">variables</span> (T is, T s at 11 sites, HR, f, T mc, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and humidity inside the clothing front and back, body mass, age, body fat, sex, clothing, Thermal comfort, sensation and perception, and sweat rate) were the strongest on which to base the model. Using a bootstrap methodology to develop the equation, the best model in terms of practicality and validity included T is, T mc, HR, and 'work' (0 = rest; 1 = exercise), predicting T re with a standard error of the estimate of 0.27°C and adjusted r (2) of 0.86. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting individuals who reached 39°C was 97 and 85%, respectively. Insulated skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was the most important individual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057313&hterms=alfalfa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dalfalfa','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057313&hterms=alfalfa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dalfalfa"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in agricultural fields of central California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>In an attempt to evaluate the relationship between hand-held infrared thermometers and aircraft thermal scanners in near-level terrain and to quantify the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within individual fields, ground-based and aircraft thermal sensor measurements were made along a 50-km transect on 3 May 1979 and a 20-km transect on 7 August 1980. These comparisons were made on fields near Davis, California. Agreement was within 1 C for fields covered with vegetation and 3.6 C for bare, dry fields. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> within fields was larger for bare, dry fields than for vegetatively covered fields. In 1980, with improvements in the collection of ground truth data, the agreement was within 1 C for a variety of fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020060765','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020060765"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Winter Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Mid-Latitude Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereinafter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Europe. We analyze here the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cloud</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23948472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23948472"><span>Cryptic impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on amphibian immune function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terrell, Kimberly A; Quintero, Richard P; Murray, Suzan; Kleopfer, John D; Murphy, James B; Evans, Matthew J; Nissen, Bradley D; Gratwicke, Brian</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>Ectothermic species living in temperate regions can experience rapid and potentially stressful changes in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> driven by abrupt weather changes. Yet, among amphibians, the physiological impacts of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation are largely unknown. Using an ex situ population of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, an aquatic North American salamander, we tested the hypothesis that naturally occurring periods of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation negatively impact amphibian health, either through direct effects on immune function or by increasing physiological stress. We exposed captive salamanders to repeated cycles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations recorded in the population's natal stream and evaluated behavioral and physiological responses, including plasma complement activity (i.e. bacteria killing) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The best-fit model (ΔAICc=0, wi=0.9992) revealed 70% greater P. aeruginosa killing after exposure to <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and no evidence of thermal acclimation. The same model predicted 50% increased E. coli killing, but had weaker support (ΔAICc=1.8, wi=0.2882). In contrast, plasma defenses were ineffective against A. hydrophila, and other health indicators (leukocyte ratios, growth rates and behavioral patterns) were maintained at baseline values. Our data suggest that amphibians can tolerate, and even benefit from, natural patterns of rapid warming/cooling. Specifically, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation can elicit increased activity of the innate immune system. This immune response may be adaptive in an unpredictable environment, and is undetectable by conventional health indicators (and hence considered cryptic). Our findings highlight the need to consider naturalistic patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation when predicting species' susceptibility to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/899324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/899324"><span>Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao</p> <p>2006-10-05</p> <p>The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> using the Van't Hoff equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814828L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814828L"><span>Stochastic investigation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> process for climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span> identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lerias, Eleutherios; Kalamioti, Anna; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yannis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> process is considered as the most characteristic hydrometeorological process and has been thoroughly examined in the climate-change framework. We use a dataset comprising hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dew point records to identify statistical <span class="hlt">variability</span> with emphasis on the last period. Specifically, we investigate the occurrence of mean, maximum and minimum values and we estimate statistical properties such as marginal probability distribution function and the type of decay of the climacogram (i.e., mean process variance vs. scale) for various time periods. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51V..06O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51V..06O"><span>Insights on Antarctic climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> from paleo-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orsi, A. J.; Landais, A.; Stenni, B.; Severinghaus, J. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Few direct meteorological observations exist in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of the modes of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in this region. In particular, atmospheric reanalyses do not produce a coherent picture of the known warming trend since 1979. Here we analyze a suite of paleo-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxies to gain insight into both the recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend and the multi-decadal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Antarctica over the last 1000 years. We present <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from two sites in Antarctica: WAIS Divide (79°S, 112°W, 1766 m a.s.l), and Talos Dome (72°S, 159°E, 2315 m a.s.l), reconstructed from the combination of inert gas isotopes from the ice core and borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. Borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> provides an absolute estimate of long-term trends, while noble gases track decadal to centennial scale changes. In addition, we use water isotopes to infer information about circulation changes. We find a strong warming trend in West Antarctica over the last 50 years (+0.23°C/decade), which is accelerating (+0.8°C/decade since 1980). The longer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record shows that such a trend has analogs happening about every 200 years. However, the study of other climate proxies suggests that the recent trend is due to a different mechanism than the previous events. We also find a long term cooling trend over the last 1000 years, which is stronger in East Antarctica (Talos Dome) than in West Antarctica (WAIS-Divide). At WAIS Divide, we find that "Little Ice Age" cold period of 1400-1800 was 0.52°C colder than the last century. Overall, both records are consistent with the idea that the solar minima and persistent volcanic activity of the Little Ice Age (1400-1850 A.D.) had a significant impact on the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Antarctica. The feedbacks amplifying the forcing were likely stronger on the East Antarctic plateau than on the more marine-influenced West Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0765T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0765T"><span>Assessing surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> using quantile regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Timofeev, A. A.; Sterin, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Many researches in climate change currently involve linear trends, based on measured <span class="hlt">variables</span>. And many of them only consider trends in mean values, whereas it is clear, that not only means, but also whole shape of distribution changes over time and requires careful assessment. For example extreme values including outliers may get bigger, while median has zero slope.Quantile regression provides a convenient tool, that enables detailed analysis of changes in full range of distribution by producing a vector of quantile trends for any given set of quantiles.We have applied quantile regression to surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations made at over 600 weather stations across Russian Federation during last four decades. The results demonstrate well pronounced regions with similar values of significant trends in different parts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> value distribution (left tail, middle part, right tail). The uncertainties of quantile trend estimations for several spatial patterns of trends over Russia are estimated and analyzed for each of four seasons.For <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend estimation over vast territories, quantile regression is an effort consuming approach, but is more informative than traditional instrument, to assess decadal evolution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values, including evolution of extremes.Partial support of ERA NET RUS ACPCA joint project between EU and RBRF 12-05-91656-ЭРА-А is highly appreciated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.2299K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.2299K"><span>Causes of Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kobashi, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.-C.; Nakaegawa, T.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Precise understanding of Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). In our earlier study, we found that Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> deviated negatively (positively) from northern hemispheric (NH) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend during stronger (weaker) solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO) over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013). Therefore, a precise Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>, the modelled and observed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34-0.36 (p = 0.1-0.04) in 21 yr running means (RMs) and r = 0.38-0.45 (p = 0.1-0.05) on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs). Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90-96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland <span class="hlt">temperature</span> continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high-latitude <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1050097','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1050097"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span>. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5047764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5047764"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Mortality: A Multi-Country Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guo, Yuming; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben G.; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Tobias, Aurelio; Lavigne, Eric; Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio; Pan, Xiaochuan; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D.; Bell, Michelle L.; Overcenco, Ala; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Li, Shanshan; Tian, Linwei; Saldiva, Paulo; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: The evidence and method are limited for the associations between mortality and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> (TV) within or between days. Objectives: We developed a novel method to calculate TV and investigated TV-mortality associations using a large multicountry data set. Methods: We collected daily data for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality from 372 locations in 12 countries/regions (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, Moldova, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States). We calculated TV from the standard deviation of the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the exposure days. Two-stage analyses were used to assess the relationship between TV and mortality. In the first stage, a Poisson regression model allowing over-dispersion was used to estimate the community-specific TV-mortality relationship, after controlling for potential confounders. In the second stage, a meta-analysis was used to pool the effect estimates within each country. Results: There was a significant association between TV and mortality in all countries, even after controlling for the effects of daily mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In stratified analyses, TV was still significantly associated with mortality in cold, hot, and moderate seasons. Mortality risks related to TV were higher in hot areas than in cold areas when using short TV exposures (0–1 days), whereas TV-related mortality risks were higher in moderate areas than in cold and hot areas when using longer TV exposures (0–7 days). Conclusions: The results indicate that more attention should be paid to unstable weather conditions in order to protect health. These findings may have implications for developing public health policies to manage health risks of climate change. Citation: Guo Y, Gasparrini A, Armstrong BG, Tawatsupa B, Tobias A, Lavigne E, Coelho MS, Pan X, Kim H, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Guo YL, Wu CF, Zanobetti A, Schwartz JD, Bell ML, Overcenco A, Punnasiri K, Li S, Tian L, Saldiva P, Williams</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042540','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042540"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the ASRG case of 140 C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1303003','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1303003"><span>Low vibration high numerical aperture automated <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Raman microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tian, Y.; Reijnders, A. A.; Osterhoudt, G. B.; Valmianski, I.; Ramirez, J. G.; Urban, C.; Zhong, R.; Schneeloch, J.; Gu, G.; Henslee, I.; Burch, K. S.</p> <p>2016-04-05</p> <p>Raman micro-spectroscopy is well suited for studying a variety of properties and has been applied to wide- ranging areas. Combined with tuneable <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Raman spectra can offer even more insights into the properties of materials. However, previous designs of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Raman microscopes have made it extremely challenging to measure samples with low signal levels due to thermal and positional instability as well as low collection efficiencies. Thus, contemporary Raman microscope has found limited applicability to probing the subtle physics involved in phase transitions and hysteresis. This paper describes a new design of a closed-cycle, Raman microscope with full polarization rotation. High collection efficiency, thermal and mechanical stability are ensured by both deliberate optical, cryogenic, and mechanical design. Measurements on two samples, Bi<sub>2</sub>Se<sub>3</sub> and V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, which are known as challenging due to low thermal conductivities, low signal levels and/or hysteretic effects, are measured with previously undemonstrated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1303003-low-vibration-high-numerical-aperture-automated-variable-temperature-raman-microscope','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1303003-low-vibration-high-numerical-aperture-automated-variable-temperature-raman-microscope"><span>Low vibration high numerical aperture automated <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Raman microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Tian, Y.; Reijnders, A. A.; Osterhoudt, G. B.; ...</p> <p>2016-04-05</p> <p>Raman micro-spectroscopy is well suited for studying a variety of properties and has been applied to wide- ranging areas. Combined with tuneable <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Raman spectra can offer even more insights into the properties of materials. However, previous designs of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Raman microscopes have made it extremely challenging to measure samples with low signal levels due to thermal and positional instability as well as low collection efficiencies. Thus, contemporary Raman microscope has found limited applicability to probing the subtle physics involved in phase transitions and hysteresis. This paper describes a new design of a closed-cycle, Raman microscope with full polarizationmore » rotation. High collection efficiency, thermal and mechanical stability are ensured by both deliberate optical, cryogenic, and mechanical design. Measurements on two samples, Bi2Se3 and V2O3, which are known as challenging due to low thermal conductivities, low signal levels and/or hysteretic effects, are measured with previously undemonstrated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resolution.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008RScI...79a3904C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008RScI...79a3904C"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thin film indentation with a flat punch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cross, Graham L. W.; O; ²Connell, Barry S.; Pethica, John B.; Rowland, Harry; King, William P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We present modifications to conventional nanoindentation that realize <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, flat punch indentation of ultrathin films. The technique provides generation of large strain, thin film extrusion of precise geometries that idealize the essential flows of nanoimprint lithography, and approximate constant area squeeze flow rheometry performed on thin, macroscopic soft matter samples. Punch radii as small as 185nm have been realized in ten-to-one confinement ratio testing of 36nm thick polymer films controllably squeezed in the melt state to a gap width of a few nanometers. Self-consistent, compressive stress versus strain measurements of a wide variety of mechanical testing conditions are provided by using a single die-sample system with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from 20to125°C and loading rates spanning two decades. Low roughness, well aligned flat punch dies with large contact areas provide precise detection of soft surfaces with standard nanoindenter stiffness sensitivity. Independent heating and thermometry with heaters and thermocouples attached to the die and sample allow introduction of a novel directional heat flux measurement method to ensure isothermal contact conditions. This is a crucial requirement for interpreting the mechanical response in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitive soft matter systems. Instrumented imprint is a new nanomechanics material testing platform that enables measurements of polymer and soft matter properties during large strains in confined, thin film geometries and extends materials testing capabilities of nanoindentation into low modulus, low strength glassy, and viscoelastic materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3626S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3626S"><span>Spatial and Seasonal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Extreme Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Croatia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In terms of taking the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of extreme soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which are not real extreme values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the surface maximal soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H23F1349S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H23F1349S"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Complex Terrain measured using Distributed a Fiber-Optic Distributed <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seyfried, M. S.; Link, T. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) exerts critical environmental controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Rates of carbon cycling, mineral weathering, infiltration and snow melt are all influenced by Ts. Although broadly reflective of the climate, Ts is sensitive to local variations in cover (vegetative, litter, snow), topography (slope, aspect, position), and soil properties (texture, water content), resulting in a spatially and temporally complex distribution of Ts across the landscape. Understanding and quantifying the processes controlled by Ts requires an understanding of that distribution. Relatively few spatially distributed field Ts data exist, partly because traditional Ts data are point measurements. A relatively new technology, fiber optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> system (FO-DTS), has the potential to provide such data but has not been rigorously evaluated in the context of remote, long term field research. We installed FO-DTS in a small experimental watershed in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains of SW Idaho. The watershed is characterized by complex terrain and a seasonal snow cover. Our objectives are to: (i) evaluate the applicability of fiber optic DTS to remote field environments and (ii) to describe the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in complex terrain influenced by a <span class="hlt">variable</span> snow cover. We installed fiber optic cable at a depth of 10 cm in contrasting snow accumulation and topographic environments and monitored <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along 750 m with DTS. We found that the DTS can provide accurate Ts data (+/- .4°C) that resolves Ts changes of about 0.03°C at a spatial scale of 1 m with occasional calibration under conditions with an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 50°C. We note that there are site-specific limitations related cable installation and destruction by local fauna. The FO-DTS provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Ts in a landscape. We found strong seasonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881407','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881407"><span>Amplification of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in thetropical atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.</p> <p>2005-08-11</p> <p>The month-to-month <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1575..602L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1575..602L"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> FTIR study of crystalline sugars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lutz, E. T.; van der Maas, John H.; van Duijneveldt, F. B.; Kanters, J. A.; Baran, J.; Ratajczak, H.</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The complex chains of hydrogen bonds of (Beta) -L-arabinose (I), methyl (alpha) -D- glucopyranoside (II) and di-(Beta) -D-fructopyranose 1,2':2,1'-dianhydride (III) in the crystalline state have been studied at <span class="hlt">variable</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In addition to the increase of information showing up in the overall region upon cooling, the effect on intensity, bandshape and bandmaximum has also been studied. Most surprising is the contradictive behavior of the shift of the band maxima of methyl (alpha) -D-glucopyranoside, for which an increase is observed for the 'free' OH group, while H-bonds absorbing at lower wave-numbers are red shifted. Deuterium exchange experiments show the presence of vibrational coupling in the crystal of II whereas this phenomenon is absent in III.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.3297Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.3297Y"><span>-30° C to 960° C <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Blackbody (VTBB) Radiance <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Calibration Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Z.; Wang, J.; Hao, X.; Wang, T.; Dong, W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A blackbody radiance <span class="hlt">temperature</span> calibration facility (RTCF) has recently been established at the National Institute of Metrology, China, offering calibration and verification services for <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> blackbody (VTBB) radiation sources. The RTCF includes reference VTBBs in the range of -30° C to 960° C and consists of a stirred liquid bath blackbody of -30° C to 80° C and water, cesium, and sodium heat-pipe blackbodies spanning 50° C to 960° C. In addition, the facility is equipped with a set of radiation thermometers with different working wavelengths (or wavebands); these thermometers are used to transfer radiance <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the reference to customers' VTBBs. Cavities with V-notch grooves in the inner surface have an estimated emissivity from 0.99986 to 0.99994. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control stability and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> uniformity of VTBBs are characterized. Furthermore, we test the difference between a cavity and thermometer well <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and compare the radiance <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the Cs and Na heat-pipe blackbodies. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of VTBBs' radiance <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 10 \\upmu m (8 \\upmu m to 14 \\upmu m) is evaluated from 0.016° C to 0.23° C. The facility has been used to calibrate and characterize customers' VTBBs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASCMO...2..155D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASCMO...2..155D"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, Georgina; Cressie, Noel</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the Pacific Ocean is a key component of many global climate models and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We shall analyse SST for the period November 1981-December 2014. To study the temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the ENSO phenomenon, we have selected a subregion of the tropical Pacific Ocean, namely the Niño 3.4 region, as it is thought to be the area where SST anomalies indicate most clearly ENSO's influence on the global atmosphere. SST anomalies, obtained by subtracting the appropriate monthly averages from the data, are the focus of the majority of previous analyses of the Pacific and other oceans' SSTs. Preliminary data analysis showed that not only Niño 3.4 spatial means but also Niño 3.4 spatial variances varied with month of the year. In this article, we conduct an analysis of the raw SST data and introduce diagnostic plots (here, plots of <span class="hlt">variability</span> vs. central tendency). These plots show strong negative dependence between the spatial standard deviation and the spatial mean. Outliers are present, so we consider robust regression to obtain intercept and slope estimates for the 12 individual months and for all-months-combined. Based on this mean-standard deviation relationship, we define a variance-stabilizing transformation. On the transformed scale, we describe the Niño 3.4 SST time series with a statistical model that is linear, heteroskedastic, and dynamical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25631444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25631444"><span>Forcing, feedback and internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marotzke, Jochem; Forster, Piers M</p> <p>2015-01-29</p> <p>Most present-generation climate models simulate an increase in global-mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GMST) since 1998, whereas observations suggest a warming hiatus. It is unclear to what extent this mismatch is caused by incorrect model forcing, by incorrect model response to forcing or by random factors. Here we analyse simulations and observations of GMST from 1900 to 2012, and show that the distribution of simulated 15-year trends shows no systematic bias against the observations. Using a multiple regression approach that is physically motivated by surface energy balance, we isolate the impact of radiative forcing, climate feedback and ocean heat uptake on GMST--with the regression residual interpreted as internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>--and assess all possible 15- and 62-year trends. The differences between simulated and observed trends are dominated by random internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the shorter timescale and by variations in the radiative forcings used to drive models over the longer timescale. For either trend length, spread in simulated climate feedback leaves no traceable imprint on GMST trends or, consequently, on the difference between simulations and observations. The claim that climate models systematically overestimate the response to radiative forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations therefore seems to be unfounded.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293373','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293373"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.</p> <p>2009-03-16</p> <p>In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10151372"><span>A High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Hermetic Primer and a <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Begeal, D.R.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>Percussion primers are used at Sandia to ignite energetic components such as pyrotechnic actuators and thermal batteries. This report describes a High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Hermetic Primer (HTHP) that was developed to replace a previous G16 Percussion Primer Subassembly (Gl6PPS). The ignition mix in these primers is the same as in the discontinued Remington 44G16 (KC1O{sub 3}, SbS{sub 3}, and Ca{sub 2}Si). The HTHP has nearly the same sensitivity as the 44G16 and a significantly lower sensitivity than the G16PPS. In parallel with the HTHP development, we also designed a <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester (VST) to determine percussion primer ignition sensitivity with firing pins that have the same mass as those used in field applications. The tester is capable of accelerating firing pins over a velocity range of 100 to 600 inches per second for pins weighing up to 6 grams. The desired impulse can be preselected with an accuracy of better than {plus_minus}1%. The actual impulse is measured on every shot. The VST was characterized using the WW42Cl primer, as well as with the G16PPS and the HTHP. Compared to data from conventional ball drop testers, we found that ignition sensitivities were lower and there was less scatter in the sensitivity data. Our experiments indicate that ignition sensitivity is not strictly energy dependent, but also depends on the rate of deposition, or firing pin velocity in this case. Development results for the HTHP and <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Spring Tester are discussed and design details are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27..261C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27..261C"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in observations and sixteen climate model simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>CMIP Investigators; Bell, J.; Duffy, P.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Understanding how much, if any, of observed climate changes are anthropogenic depends upon understanding the magnitude and spatial patterns of natural climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We have compared simulated surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 16 coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice climate model simulations to observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The majority of the simulations exhibit excessive air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land while simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over oceans is generally too low. The ratio of <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land to over oceans is too high in all the simulations, relative to observations. We have identified several factors which may contribute to the differences in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In particular, many of the models use ”bucket” land surface schemes which produce greater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land, due to lower levels of soil moisture, than more realistic land surface schemes produce.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27..261B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoRL..27..261B"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in observations and sixteen climate model simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, J.; Duffy, P.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Understanding how much, if any, of observed climate changes are anthropogenic depends upon understanding the magnitude and spatial patterns of natural climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We have compared simulated surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 16 coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice climate model simulations to observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The majority of the simulations exhibit excessive air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land while simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over oceans is generally too low. The ratio of <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land to over oceans is too high in all the simulations, relative to observations. We have identified several factors which may contribute to the differences in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In particular, many of the models use "bucket" land surface schemes which produce greater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over land, due to lower levels of soil moisture, than more realistic land surface schemes produce.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..555D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..555D"><span>Decadal modulation of global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by internal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, Aiguo; Fyfe, John C.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Dai, Xingang</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Despite a steady increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), global-mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) has shown no discernible warming since about 2000, in sharp contrast to model simulations, which on average project strong warming. The recent slowdown in observed surface warming has been attributed to decadal cooling in the tropical Pacific, intensifying trade winds, changes in El Niño activity, increasing volcanic activity and decreasing solar irradiance. Earlier periods of arrested warming have been observed but received much less attention than the recent period, and their causes are poorly understood. Here we analyse observed and model-simulated global T fields to quantify the contributions of internal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (ICV) to decadal changes in global-mean T since 1920. We show that the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) has been associated with large T anomalies over both ocean and land. Combined with another leading mode of ICV, the IPO explains most of the difference between observed and model-simulated rates of decadal change in global-mean T since 1920, and particularly over the so-called `hiatus' period since about 2000. We conclude that ICV, mainly through the IPO, was largely responsible for the recent slowdown, as well as for earlier slowdowns and accelerations in global-mean T since 1920, with preferred spatial patterns different from those associated with GHG-induced warming or aerosol-induced cooling. Recent history suggests that the IPO could reverse course and lead to accelerated global warming in the coming decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33H..06D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33H..06D"><span>Decadal Modulation of Global Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> By Internal Climate <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, A.; Fyfe, J. C.; Xie, S. P.; Dai, X.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Despite a steady increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), global-mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) has shown no discernable warming since about 2000, in sharp contrast to model simulations which on average project strong warming. The recent slowdown in observed surface warming has been attributed to decadal cooling in the tropical Pacific, intensifying trade winds, changes in El Niño activity, increasing volcanic activity and decreasing solar irradiance. Earlier periods of arrested warming have been observed but received much less attention than the recent period, and their causes are poorly understood. Here we analyze observed and model-simulated global T fields to quantify the contributions of internal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (ICV) to decadal changes in global-mean T since 1920. We show that the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) has been associated with large T anomalies over both ocean and land since 1920. Combined with another leading mode of ICV, the IPO explains most of the difference between observed and model-simulated rates of decadal change in global-mean T since 1920, and particularly over the so-called "hiatus" period since about 2000. We conclude that ICV, mainly through the IPO, was largely responsible for the recent slowdown, as well as for earlier slowdowns and accelerations in global-mean T since 1920, with preferred spatial patterns different from GHG-induced warming. Recent history suggests that the IPO could reverse course and lead to accelerated global warming in the coming decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJT....38...30M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJT....38...30M"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Blackbodies via <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance: Thermal Design, Modelling and Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melzack, N.; Jones, E.; Peters, D. M.; Hurley, J. G.; Watkins, R. E. J.; Fok, S.; Sawyer, C.; Marchetaux, G.; Acreman, A.; Winkler, R.; Lowe, D.; Theocharous, T.; Montag, V.; Gibbs, D.; Pearce, A. B.; Bishop, G.; Newman, E.; Keen, S.; Stokes, J.; Pearce, A.; Stamper, R.; Cantell-Hynes, A.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents the overall design for large (˜ 400 mm aperture) reference blackbody cavities currently under development at the Science and Technology Facilities Council Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Space Department (STFC RAL Space), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). These blackbodies are designed to operate in vacuum over a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 160 K to 370 K, with an additional capability to operate at ˜ 100 K as a point of near-zero radiance. This is a challenging problem for a single blackbody. The novel thermal design presented in this paper enables one target that can physically achieve and operate successfully at both thermal extremes, whilst also meeting stringent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient requirements. The overall blackbody design is based upon a helium gas-gap heat switch and modified to allow for <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conductance. The blackbody design consists of three main concentric cylinder components—an inner cavity (aluminium alloy), a radiation shield (aluminium) and an outer liquid nitrogen (LN2) jacket (stainless steel). The internal surface of the cavity is the effective radiating surface. There is a helium gas interspace surrounding the radiation shield and enclosed by the LN2 jacket and the inner cavity. The blackbodies are now at a mature stage of development. In this paper, the overall design, focusing upon the thermal design solution, is detailed. This paper will also concern the full-scale prototype breadboard model, for which results on thermal stability, spatial gradients and other sensitivities will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920052612&hterms=correspondence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcorrespondence','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920052612&hterms=correspondence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcorrespondence"><span>Correspondence of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and terrain <span class="hlt">variables</span> over a tallgrass prairie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Friedl, Mark A.; Davis, Frank W.; Michaelsen, Joel C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The time-dependent correspondence between maps of surface brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data and mapped terrain <span class="hlt">variables</span> over a tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas is examined. Individual terrain <span class="hlt">variables</span> including burning treatment, vegetation cover type (agriculture, prairie, woody vegetation), hillslope position, and greenness exhibit varying degrees of association with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Burning treatment is most strongly associated with mid-morning surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Examination of terrain strata based on combinations of terrain <span class="hlt">variables</span>, notably burning treatment and hillslope position, suggest that terrain <span class="hlt">variables</span> interact in affecting surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Interaction between hillslope position, burning treatment, and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more important in August than in May.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChJME..26..158Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChJME..26..158Z"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> optimization for precision machine tool thermal error compensation on optimal threshold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ting; Ye, Wenhua; Liang, Ruijun; Lou, Peihuang; Yang, Xiaolan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Machine tool thermal error is an important reason for poor machining accuracy. Thermal error compensation is a primary technology in accuracy control. To build thermal error model, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span> are needed to be divided into several groups on an appropriate threshold. Currently, group threshold value is mainly determined by researchers experience. Few studies focus on group threshold in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> grouping. Since the threshold is important in error compensation, this paper arms to find out an optimal threshold to realize <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> optimization in thermal error modeling. Firstly, correlation coefficient is used to express membership grade of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span>, and the theory of fuzzy transitive closure is applied to obtain relational matrix of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span>. Concepts as compact degree and separable degree are introduced. Then evaluation model of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> clustering is built. The optimal threshold and the best <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> clustering can be obtained by setting the maximum value of evaluation model as the objective. Finally, correlation coefficients between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span> and thermal error are calculated in order to find out optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span> for thermal error modeling. An experiment is conducted on a precise horizontal machining center. In experiment, three displacement sensors are used to measure spindle thermal error and twenty-nine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors are utilized to detect the machining center <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Experimental result shows that the new method of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> optimization on optimal threshold successfully worked out a best threshold value interval and chose seven <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span> from twenty-nine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measuring points. The model residual of z direction is within 3 μm. Obviously, the proposed new <span class="hlt">variable</span> optimization method has simple computing process and good modeling accuracy, which is quite fit for thermal error compensation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.296..481E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.296..481E"><span>Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during early Eocene time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Fricke, Henry C.; Humphrey, John D.; Hackett, Logan; Newbrey, Michael G.; Hutchison, J. Howard</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>As a deep time analog for today's rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (52-53 Ma) rock on Ellesmere Island in Canada's High Arctic (˜ 79°N.) preserves evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions than at present, the quantification of Eocene Arctic climate has been more elusive. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we infer early Eocene Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MAT) of ˜ 8 °C, mean annual range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of ˜ 16.5-19 °C, warm month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 19-20 °C, and cold month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 0-3.5 °C. Our seasonal range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, relatively high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and SST by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and isoprenoid tetraether lipids in marine Crenarchaeota fall close to our warm month <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting a bias towards summer values. From a paleontologic perspective, our <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although for both of these reptilian groups, past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerances probably were greater than in living descendants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP43B1577E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP43B1577E"><span>Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the early Eocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, including mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although in both of these reptiles, past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..06S"><span>Using Spectral Methods to Quantify Changes in <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> across Frequencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, S.; McInerney, D.; Stein, M.; Leeds, W.; Poppick, A. N.; Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Moyer, E. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes in future surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> are of great scientific and societal interest. Since the impact of <span class="hlt">variability</span> on human society depends on not only the magnitude but also the frequency of variations, shifts in the marginal distribution of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> do not provide enough information for impacts assessment. Leeds et al (2014) proposed a method to quantify changes in <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at distinct temporal frequencies by estimating the ratio of the spectral densities of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between pre-industrial and equilibrated future climates. This spectral ratio functions well as a metric to quantify <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> shifts in climate model output. In this study, we apply the method of Leeds et al (2014) to explore the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> changes under increased radiative forcing. We compare changes in <span class="hlt">variability</span> in higher-CO2 climates across two different climate models (CCSM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and GISS-E2-R from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies), and changes driven by two different forcing agents (CO2 and solar radiation) within the same model (CCSM3). In all cases we use only the equilibrium stages of model runs extended several thousand years after an abrupt forcing change is imposed. We find a number of results. First, changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> differ by frequency in most regions, confirming the need for spectral methods. Second, changes are similar regardless of forcing agents. In experiments with abruptly increased CO2 and solar forcing designed to produce the same change in global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the distributions and magnitudes of spectral ratio changes are nearly identical. Finally, projections of <span class="hlt">variability</span> changes differ across models. In CCSM3, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> decreases in most regions and at most frequencies. Conversely, in GISS-E2-R, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> tends to increase over land. The discrepancy between CCSM3 and the GISS-E-R highlights the need for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035552','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035552"><span>Western Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the last 8000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Farmer, Jesse R.; Cronin, Thomas M.; De Vernal, Anne; Dwyer, Gary S.; Keigwin, Loyd D.; Thunell, Robert C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We reconstructed subsurface (∼200–400 m) ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea-ice cover in the Canada Basin, western Arctic Ocean from foraminiferal δ18O, ostracode Mg/Ca ratios, and dinocyst assemblages from two sediment core records covering the last 8000 years. Results show mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from −1 to 0.5°C and −0.5 to 1.5°C at 203 and 369 m water depths, respectively. Centennial-scale warm periods in subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records correspond to reductions in summer sea-ice cover inferred from dinocyst assemblages around 6.5 ka, 3.5 ka, 1.8 ka and during the 15th century Common Era. These changes may reflect centennial changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or strength of inflowing Atlantic Layer water originating in the eastern Arctic Ocean. By comparison, the 0.5 to 0.7°C warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly identified in oceanographic records from the Atlantic Layer of the Canada Basin exceeded reconstructed Atlantic Layer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the last 1200 years by about 0.5°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PCE....27..449M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PCE....27..449M"><span>Long-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> of stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above central Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makarova, L. N.; Shirochkov, A. V.</p> <p></p> <p>Long-term variations of atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at different isobaric surfaces above central Antarctica were studied. Data of atmospheric balloon soundings at two Antarctic intercontinental stations Vostok and Amundsen-Scott (South Pole) taken for the last 40 years were used in this study. It was found that stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at both stations averaged seasonally or annually does not demonstrate any meaningful correlation with correspondent sunspot number variations. On the other hand, there is a notable correlation between stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at both stations and annually averaged values of the solar wind dynamic pressure. Mutual coupling between stratosphere thermal regimes at two stations demonstrates obvious seasonal dependence: there is a good correlation between them in summer while it disappears in winter and equinoxes. It was found also that stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above South Pole Station varies in the same manner as correspondent parameter above North Pole as reported previously by Labitzke and Naujokat [SPARC Newsletter 15 (2000) 11]. At both geographic poles, stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had obvious tendency to warming in 1972-1995. On the other hand, the correspondent Vostok data demonstrates clear tendency to cooling in this period. Possible explanations of these results are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.185..131Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.185..131Z"><span>Spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> frequency and amplitude in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yuanjie; Gao, Zhiqiu; Pan, Zaitao; Li, Dan; Huang, Xinhui</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> extremes in China are examined based on daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from station observations and multiple global climate models. The magnitude and frequency of extremes are expressed in terms of return values and periods, respectively, estimated by the fitted Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution of annual extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The observations suggest that changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes considerably exceed changes in the respective climatological means during the past five decades, with greater amplitude of increases in cold extremes than in warm extremes. The frequency of warm (cold) extremes increases (decreases) over most areas, with an increasingly faster rate as the extremity level rises. Changes in warm extremes are more dependent on the varying shape of GEV distribution than the location shift, whereas changes in cold extremes are more closely associated with the location shift. The models simulate the overall pattern of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during 1961-1981 reasonably well in China, but they show a smaller asymmetry between changes in warm and cold extremes primarily due to their underestimation of increases in cold extremes especially over southern China. Projections from a high emission scenario show the multi-model median change in warm and cold extremes by 2040 relative to 1971 will be 2.6 °C and 2.8 °C, respectively, with the strongest changes in cold extremes shifting southward. By 2040, warm extremes at the 1971 20-year return values would occur about every three years, while the 1971 cold extremes would occur once in > 500 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JASTP..73..439E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JASTP..73..439E"><span>Influence of circulation indices upon winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elmallah, E. S.; Elsharkawy, S. G.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Trends of winter surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, WSATA, are investigated using data obtained from 13 monitoring stations. The analysis is performed in two steps; one deals with separate stations independently and the other deals with stations' groups. Groups' anomalies are correlated to circulation indices showing negative correlation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with North Atlantic Oscillations and positive one with Mediterranean Oscillation Index. Both power analysis and frequency distribution analysis are applied. The results show existence of Schwabe, Hale and Gleissberg cycles and declare that there are no critical thermal changes of climate in Egypt. It is concluded that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes during the past three decades are not only because of the human activity but the extraterrestrial impacts as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1643..248S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1643..248S"><span>Temporal changes and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series over Peninsular Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suhaila, Jamaludin</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>With the current concern over climate change, the descriptions on how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series changed over time are very useful. Annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been analyzed for several stations over Peninsular Malaysia. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for assessing the significance and detection of trends, while a nonparametric Pettitt's test and sequential Mann-Kendall test are adopted to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significance increasing trends for annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are detected for almost all studied stations with the magnitude of significant trend varied from 0.02°C to 0.05°C per year. The results shows that climate over Peninsular Malaysia is getting warmer than before. In addition, the results of the abrupt changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using Pettitt's and sequential Mann-Kendall test reveal the beginning of trends which can be related to El Nino episodes that occur in Malaysia. In general, the analysis results can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean events in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060034891&hterms=tsi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtsi','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060034891&hterms=tsi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtsi"><span>Models of Solar Irradiance <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and the Instrumental <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marcus, S. L.; Ghil, M.; Ide, K.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The effects of decade-to-century (Dec-Cen) variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Ts during the pre-Pinatubo instrumental era (1854-1991) are studied by using two different proxies for TSI and a simplified version of the IPCC climate model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T44C..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T44C..02S"><span>Lithology and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: How key mantle <span class="hlt">variables</span> control rift volcanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shorttle, O.; Hoggard, M.; Matthews, S.; Maclennan, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Continental rifting is often associated with extensive magmatic activity, emplacing millions of cubic kilometres of basalt and triggering environmental change. The lasting geological record of this volcanic catastrophism are the large igneous provinces found at the margins of many continents and abrupt extinctions in the fossil record, most strikingly that found at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Rather than being considered purely a passive plate tectonic phenomenon, these episodes are frequently explained by the involvement of mantle plumes, upwellings of mantle rock made buoyant by their high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, there has been debate over the relative role of the mantle's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and composition in generating the large volumes of magma involved in rift and intra-plate volcanism, and even when the mantle is inferred to be hot, this has been variously attributed to mantle plumes or continental insulation effects. To help resolve these uncertainties we have combined geochemical, geophysical and modelling results in a two stage approach: Firstly, we have investigated how mantle composition and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contribute to melting beneath Iceland, the present day manifestation of the mantle plume implicated in the 54Ma break up of the North Atlantic. By considering both the igneous crustal production on Iceland and the chemistry of its basalts we have been able to place stringent constraints on the viable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and lithology of the Icelandic mantle. Although a >100°C excess <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is required to generate Iceland's thick igneous crust, geochemistry also indicates that pyroxenite comprises 10% of its source. Therefore, the dynamics of rifting on Iceland are modulated both by thermal and compositional mantle anomalies. Secondly, we have performed a global assessment of the mantle's post break-up thermal history to determine the amplitude and longevity of continental insulation in driving excess volcanism. Using seismically constrained igneous crustal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1012303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1012303"><span>Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xia, Yuanxian; Rao, Linfeng; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.</p> <p>2010-02-02</p> <p>The complexation of Pu(IV) with fluoride at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was studied by solvent extraction technique. A solution of NaBrO3 was used as holding oxidant to maintain the oxidation state of plutonium throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-F- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of fluoride ions on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Pu(IV) and fluoride at 25 degrees C - 55 degrees C were calculated from the stability constants at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by using the Van’t Hoff equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASMS..27..339D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASMS..27..339D"><span>Development and Evaluation of a <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F.; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A.; Gronert, Scott</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A new, <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> instruments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA210823','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA210823"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> VSCF (<span class="hlt">Variable</span> Speed Constant Frequency) Generator System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>be’ing developed to reduce size and weight on all production programs. Monsanto OS-124 oil properties were used for heat transfer and fluid flow...is an important design consideration for higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation. Use of a lower expansion and stronger composite material such as cast AZ91 mg...systems were investigated. Figures 5 through 7 give a comparison of the tensile properties of composites with the properties of an unreinforced alloy. It</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000042&hterms=variables+Research&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dvariables%2BResearch','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000042&hterms=variables+Research&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dvariables%2BResearch"><span><span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span>-Gradient Device for Solidification Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaukler, W. F.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Device for research in solidification and crystal growth allows crystallization of melt observed as occurs. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> gradient across melt specimen increased or decreased rapidly while solidification front proceeds at constant speed across sample. Device moves sample at same speed, thereby holding position of liquid/solid interface stationary within field of optical microscope. Device, variabletemperature-gradient microscope stage, used to study crystal growth at constant rate while thermal driving force is varied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.124S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.124S"><span>Long-Term <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Above Central Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirochkov, A.; Makarova, L.</p> <p></p> <p>Long-term variations of atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at different isobaric surfaces above central Antarctica and their possible coupling with correspondent changes in the near-Earth space were studied. Data of atmospheric balloon sounding at two Antarctic intercontinental stations Vostok and Amundsen-Scott (South Pole) taken for the last 40 years were used in this study. A central part of the Antarctica continent with its minimum of man-made pollution, uniformity of severe thermal and circulation regimes is an ideal place for study of the real climatic changes. It was found that stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at both stations averaged seasonally or annually does not demonstrate any meaningful correlation with correspondent sunspot number variations. On the other hand there is a notable correlation (r > 0,6) between stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at both stations and annually averaged values of the solar wind dynamic pressure. The latter parameter whose long-term time series were originally calculated by the authors is proportional to energy transferred to the Earth system " ma g n e t o s p here -ionosphere -atmosphere " from the outer space. A concept of the global electric circuit with a Electro-Motive Force generator located at the dayside magnetopause and driven by the solar wind energy is one of the possible realistic physical mechanisms capable to explain interaction between solar wind and middle atmosphere. Electrically conducting layers of ionosphere, ionic region in stratosphere and the Earth surface are the passive elements of this scheme. Mutual coupling between stratosphere thermal regimes at two stations (Vostok and South Pole) demonstrates obvious seasonal dependence: there is a good correlation between them in summer while it disappears in winter and equinoxes. It was found also that stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above South Pole Station varies in the same manner as correspondent parameter above North Pole as reported previously by Labitzke and Naujokat (2000). At both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110016145&hterms=tsi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtsi','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110016145&hterms=tsi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtsi"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Responses to Spectral Solar <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Decadal Time Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cahalan, Robert F.; Wen, Guoyong; Harder, Jerald W.; Pilewskie, Peter</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Two scenarios of spectral solar forcing, namely Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM)-based out-of-phase variations and conventional in-phase variations, are input to a time-dependent radiative-convective model (RCM), and to the GISS modelE. Both scenarios and models give maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses in the upper stratosphere, decreasing to the surface. Upper stratospheric peak-to-peak responses to out-of-phase forcing are approx.0.6 K and approx.0.9 K in RCM and modelE, approx.5 times larger than responses to in-phase forcing. Stratospheric responses are in-phase with TSI and UV variations, and resemble HALOE observed 11-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. For in-phase forcing, ocean mixed layer response lags surface air response by approx.2 years, and is approx.0.06 K compared to approx.0.14 K for atmosphere. For out-of-phase forcing, lags are similar, but surface responses are significantly smaller. For both scenarios, modelE surface responses are less than 0.1 K in the tropics, and display similar patterns over oceanic regions, but complex responses over land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004660','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004660"><span>Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sierra, C.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S.S.; Loescher, H.W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with little attention to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">vari-ability</span>. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also <span class="hlt">variability</span> expressed as a change of the probability distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and respiration and found that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, without changes in the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and respiration and the magnitude of the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. A potential consequence of this effect of <span class="hlt">variability</span> would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.115..201D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSEle.115..201D"><span>Properties and mechanisms of Z2-FET at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dirani, Hassan El; Solaro, Yohann; Fonteneau, Pascal; Ferrari, Philippe; Cristoloveanu, Sorin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a systematic study of Z2-FET (Zero Subthreshold Swing and Zero Impact Ionization transistor) fabricated in advanced Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator (FDSOI) 28 nm technology with Ultra-Thin Body and Buried Oxide (UTBB). It is a recent sharp-switching device that achieves remarkable performance in terms of leakage current and triggering control. The device features an extremely sharp on-switch, an adjustable triggering voltage (VON), and is considered for Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) protection. The operation principle relies on the modulation of electrons and holes injection barriers. Experimental results show the effect of low and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the output characteristics, triggering voltage and leakage current.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635240','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635240"><span>Note: A <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cell for spectroscopy of thin films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brock-Nannestad, T; Nielsen, C B; Bak, H Ø; Pittelkow, M</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We report the design and construction of a cell that enables precisely controlled measurement of UV∕Vis spectra of thin films on transparent substrates at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 800 K. The dimensions of the setup are accommodated by a standard Varian Cary 5E spectrophotometer allowing for widespread use in standard laboratory settings. The cell also fits in a Bio-Rad IR-spectrometer. The cell is constructed with an outer water cooled heat shield of aluminum and an inner sample holder with heating element, thermo-resistor and windows, made from nickel coated copper. The cell can operate both in air, and with an inert gas filling. We illustrate the utility of the cell by characterization of three commercially available near infrared absorbers that are commonly used for laser welding of plastics and are known to possess high thermal stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25639108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25639108"><span>[Effects of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on organic carbon mineralization in typical limestone soils].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Lian-Ge; Gao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Chang-Huan; Ci, En; Xie, De-Ti</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Soil sampling in the field and incubation experiment in the laboratory were conducted to investigate the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization to <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes in the topsoil of limestone soils from forest land and dry land. Two incubated limestone soils were sampled from the 0-10 cm layers of typical forest land and dry land respectively, which were distributed in Tianlong Mountain area of Puding county, Guizhou province. The soils were incubated for 56 d under two different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes including <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (range: 15-25 degrees C, interval: 12 h) and constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (20 degrees C), and the cumulative <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was the same in the two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments. In the entire incubation period (56 d), the SOC cumulative mineralization (63.32 mg x kg(-1)) in the limestone soil from dry land (SH) under the <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was lower than that (63.96 mg x kg(-1)) at constant 20 degrees C, and there was no significant difference in the SOC cumulative mineralization between the <span class="hlt">variable</span> and constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments (P < 0.05). While the cumulative mineralization (169.46 mg x kg(-1)) of organic carbon in the limestone soil from forest land (SL) under the <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was significantly lower than that (209.52 mg x kg(-1)) at constant 20 degrees C. The results indicated that the responses of SOC mineralization to the <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were obviously different between SL and SH soils. The SOC content and composition were significantly different between SL and SH soils affected by vegetation and land use type, which suggested that SOC content and composition were important factors causing the different responses of SOC mineralization to <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between SL and SH soils. In addition, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of two limestone soils were highly (P < 0.01) positively correlated with daily mineralization of soil organic carbon in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments, which implied that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4796317','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4796317"><span>The absence of an Atlantic imprint on the multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of wintertime European <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Ayako; Palter, Jaime B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Northern Hemisphere climate responds sensitively to multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in North Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST). It is therefore surprising that an imprint of such <span class="hlt">variability</span> is conspicuously absent in wintertime western European <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, despite that Europe's climate is strongly influenced by its neighbouring ocean, where multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in basin-average SST persists in all seasons. Here we trace the cause of this missing imprint to a dynamic anomaly of the atmospheric circulation that masks its thermodynamic response to SST anomalies. Specifically, differences in the pathways Lagrangian particles take to Europe during anomalous SST winters suppress the expected fluctuations in air–sea heat exchange accumulated along those trajectories. Because decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in North Atlantic-average SST may be driven partly by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the atmosphere's dynamical adjustment to this mode of <span class="hlt">variability</span> may have important implications for the European wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to a projected twenty-first century AMOC decline. PMID:26975331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975331"><span>The absence of an Atlantic imprint on the multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of wintertime European <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Ayako; Palter, Jaime B</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Northern Hemisphere climate responds sensitively to multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in North Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST). It is therefore surprising that an imprint of such <span class="hlt">variability</span> is conspicuously absent in wintertime western European <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, despite that Europe's climate is strongly influenced by its neighbouring ocean, where multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in basin-average SST persists in all seasons. Here we trace the cause of this missing imprint to a dynamic anomaly of the atmospheric circulation that masks its thermodynamic response to SST anomalies. Specifically, differences in the pathways Lagrangian particles take to Europe during anomalous SST winters suppress the expected fluctuations in air-sea heat exchange accumulated along those trajectories. Because decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in North Atlantic-average SST may be driven partly by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the atmosphere's dynamical adjustment to this mode of <span class="hlt">variability</span> may have important implications for the European wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to a projected twenty-first century AMOC decline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015InAgr..29...38L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015InAgr..29...38L"><span>Semi-stationary measurement as a tool to refine understanding of the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehnert, Michal; Vysoudil, Miroslav; Kladivo, Petr</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Using data obtained by soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement at stations in the Metropolitan Station Network in Olomouc, extensive semi-stationary measurement was implemented to study the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. With the development of the research and computer technology, the study of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is not limited by the complexity of the processes determining the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but by the lack of spatial data. This study presents simple semi-stationary soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement methods, which can contribute to the study of the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. By semi-stationary measurement, it is possible to determine the average soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with high accuracy and the minimum soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with sufficient accuracy at a depth of 20 cm. It was proven that the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the minimum soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under grass at a depth of 20 cm can reach up to several degrees Celsius at the regional level, more than 1°C at the local level, and tenths of °C at the sublocal level. Consequently, the standard stationary measurement of the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be regarded as representative only for a very limited area. Semi-stationary soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement is, therefore, an important tool for further development of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GPC....37...19B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GPC....37...19B"><span>Evaluation of Northern Hemisphere natural climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in multiple <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions and global climate model simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, J. L.; Sloan, L. C.; Revenaugh, J.; Duffy, P. B.</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>The detection of anthropogenic climate change in observations and the validation of climate models both rely on understanding natural climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. To evaluate internal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>, we apply spectral analysis to time series of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) from nine coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations, three recent global paleotemperature reconstructions, and Northern Hemisphere (NH) instrumental records. Our comparison is focused on the NH due to the greater spatial and temporal coverage and validation of the available NH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions. The paleotemperature reconstructions capture the general magnitude of NH climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>, but not the precise variance and specific spatial, temporal, or periodic signals demonstrated in the instrumental record. The models achieved varying degrees of success for each measure of <span class="hlt">variability</span> analyzed, with none of the models consistently capturing the appropriate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In general, the models performed best in the analysis of combined mean annual land and marine <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP52A0944B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP52A0944B"><span>Sahel Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bach, D. E.; Kushnir, Y.; Seager, R.; Goddard, L.; Giannini, A.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>In the last 50 years or so, the Sahel region in sub-Saharan Africa has experienced two multi-decadal wet and dry periods separated by a relatively sharp transition. The onset of the dry episode in the Sahel is associated with the start of a significant warming trend in Southern Hemisphere sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) that persisted well into the late 1990's. It has been stipulated, based on general circulation model (GCM) experiments, that the SST rise in the southern ocean basins is the predominant driver of rainfall patterns over the Sahel. Here we support this notion by comparing the observed rate of change in Southern Hemisphere SST with that of Sahel summertime rainfall. We examine the variations in each ocean basin separately and find that the drought pattern is most prominently associated with SST changes in the Indian Ocean, which display maximum warming rates simultaneously with the wet to dry shift in the Sahel. We provide further support to the role of the Indian Ocean using results from GCM integrations forced with observed Indian Ocean SST values and climatological values elsewhere, which effectively recreate the dry Sahel rainfall pattern. While the variations in equatorial Pacific SST associated with El Ni¤o have been found to have an effect on Sahel rainfall during the summer months, their influence does not appear to be significantly connected with the prolonged drought episode. The dry period was accentuated by two severe droughts in the early 1970's and 1980s, which generated very different repercussions for the Sahelian people. The first drought resulted in widespread famine and death while the second more severe drought in 1983-84 generated very few casualties. The political and socioeconomic assessment of these episodes suggests that the extensive loss of life was due to inefficient transportation of supplies to the starving populations. International aid organizations initiated famine protection programs following the 1970's drought that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR...102...73D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR...102...73D"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>del Monte-Luna, Pablo; Villalobos, Héctor; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico (SGM) is related to changes in atmospheric forcing, subsurface water inputs, advection and surface currents. However, little is known about <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the gulf on decadal and multidecadal timescales. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> time series (1900-2010) were analysed in 36 2°×2° geographic quadrants that covered the SGM. A cluster analysis was applied to the data for the seasonal cycle and for the annual anomalies in each quadrant to describe SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>, with a special focus on low frequencies (i.e. >10 years). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> anomalies were correlated with the identified cyclic components of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in coastal quadrants of the gulf was described using multivariate analysis and harmonic analysys. There is a latitudinal separation of quadrants regading the seasonal cycle and a longitudinal separation in the total <span class="hlt">variability</span> that is related to the Loop Current. The highest SST correlations were those related to a ~60-year cycle of the AMO and were found on the Yucatan shelf. The ~60-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> is present in the entire gulf, but signals with periods shorter than ten years are more evident in the northern part. Extrapolation of the dominant sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in coastal areas of the gulf, shows that there will be a cooling event in the next 20 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22351565','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22351565"><span>Evidence for large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in quasar accretion disks from spectral <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Agol, Eric; Dexter, Jason</p> <p>2014-03-10</p> <p>The well-known bluer-when-brighter trend observed in quasar <span class="hlt">variability</span> is a signature of the complex processes in the accretion disk and can be a probe of the quasar <span class="hlt">variability</span> mechanism. Using a sample of 604 <span class="hlt">variable</span> quasars with repeat spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS), we construct difference spectra to investigate the physical causes of this bluer-when-brighter trend. The continuum of our composite difference spectrum is well fit by a power law, with a spectral index in excellent agreement with previous results. We measure the spectral <span class="hlt">variability</span> relative to the underlying spectra of the quasars, which is independent of any extinction, and compare to model predictions. We show that our SDSS spectral <span class="hlt">variability</span> results cannot be produced by global accretion rate fluctuations in a thin disk alone. However, we find that a simple model of an inhomogeneous disk with localized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations will produce power-law spectral <span class="hlt">variability</span> over optical wavelengths. We show that the inhomogeneous disk will provide good fits to our observed spectral <span class="hlt">variability</span> if the disk has large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in many independently varying zones, in excellent agreement with independent constraints from quasar microlensing disk sizes, their strong UV spectral continuum, and single-band <span class="hlt">variability</span> amplitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on quasar <span class="hlt">variability</span> models and add to the mounting evidence that quasar accretion disks have large localized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..988S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..988S"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its <span class="hlt">variability</span> on mortality in New England</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Kloog, Itai; Zanobetti, Antonella; Liu, Pengfei; Schwartz, Joel D.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Rapid build-up of greenhouse gases is expected to increase Earth’s mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with unclear effects on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This makes understanding the direct effects of a changing climate on human health more urgent. However, the effects of prolonged exposures to <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which are important for understanding the public health burden, are unclear. Here we demonstrate that long-term survival was significantly associated with both seasonal mean values and standard deviations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> among the Medicare population (aged 65+) in New England, and break that down into long-term contrasts between ZIP codes and annual anomalies. A rise in summer mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 1 °C was associated with a 1.0% higher death rate, whereas an increase in winter mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corresponded to a 0.6% decrease in mortality. Increases in standard deviations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for both summer and winter were harmful. The increased mortality in warmer summers was entirely due to anomalies, whereas it was long-term average differences in the standard deviation of summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across ZIP codes that drove the increased risk. For future climate scenarios, seasonal mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may in part account for the public health burden, but the excess public health risk of climate change may also stem from changes of within-season <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4487313','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4487313"><span>Kiloampere, <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span>, Critical-Current Measurements of High-Field Superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goodrich, LF; Cheggour, N; Stauffer, TC; Filla, BJ; Lu, XF</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We review <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span>, transport critical-current (Ic) measurements made on commercial superconductors over a range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to about 1 kA. We have developed and used a number of systems to make these measurements over the last 15 years. Two exemplary <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> systems with coil sample geometries will be described: a probe that is only <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> and a probe that is <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">variable</span>-strain. The most significant challenge for these measurements is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability, since large amounts of heat can be generated by the flow of high current through the resistive sample fixture. Therefore, a significant portion of this review is focused on the reduction of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> errors to less than ±0.05 K in such measurements. A key feature of our system is a pre-regulator that converts a flow of liquid helium to gas and heats the gas to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> close to the target sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The pre-regulator is not in close proximity to the sample and it is controlled independently of the sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This allows us to independently control the total cooling power, and thereby fine tune the sample cooling power at any sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The same general <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-control philosophy is used in all of our <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> systems, but the addition of another <span class="hlt">variable</span>, such as strain, forces compromises in design and results in some differences in operation and protocol. These aspects are analyzed to assess the extent to which the protocols for our systems might be generalized to other systems at other laboratories. Our approach to <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> measurements is also placed in the general context of measurement-system design, and the perceived advantages and disadvantages of design choices are presented. To verify the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> measurements, we compared critical-current values obtained on a specimen immersed in liquid helium (“liquid” or Ic liq) at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254166','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254166"><span>A <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> nanostencil compatible with a low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steurer, Wolfram Gross, Leo; Schlittler, Reto R.; Meyer, Gerhard</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>We describe a nanostencil lithography tool capable of operating at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> down to 30 K. The setup is compatible with a combined low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope located within the same ultra-high-vacuum apparatus. The lateral movement capability of the mask allows the patterning of complex structures. To demonstrate operational functionality of the tool and estimate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drift and blurring, we fabricated LiF and NaCl nanostructures on Cu(111) at 77 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19375759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19375759"><span>Is obesity associated with lower body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>? Core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: a forgotten <span class="hlt">variable</span> in energy balance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Landsberg, Lewis; Young, James B; Leonard, William R; Linsenmeier, Robert A; Turek, Fred W</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The global increase in obesity, along with the associated adverse health consequences, has heightened interest in the fundamental causes of excessive weight gain. Attributing obesity to "gluttony and sloth", blaming the obese for overeating and limiting physical activity, oversimplifies a complex problem, since substantial differences in metabolic efficiency between lean and obese have been decisively demonstrated. The underlying physiological basis for these differences have remained poorly understood. The energetic requirements of homeothermy, the maintenance of a constant core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the face of widely divergent external <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, accounts for a major portion of daily energy expenditure. Changes in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are associated with significant changes in metabolic rate. These facts raise the interesting possibility that differences in core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may play a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. This review explores the hypothesis that lower body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> contribute to the enhanced metabolic efficiency of the obese state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..413W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..413W"><span>Natural and forced air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Labrador region of Canada during the past century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Way, Robert G.; Viau, Andre E.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Evaluation of Labrador air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the past century (1881-2011) shows multi-scale climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and strong linkages with ocean-atmospheric modes of <span class="hlt">variability</span> and external forcings. The Arctic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation are shown to be the dominant seasonal and interannual drivers of regional air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> for most of the past century. Several global climate models show disagreement with observations on the rate of recent warming which suggests that models are currently unable to reproduce regional climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Labrador air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Using a combination of empirical statistical modeling and global climate models, we show that 33 % of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in annual Labrador air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the period 1881-2011 can be explained by natural factors alone; however, the inclusion of anthropogenic forcing increases the explained variance to 65 %. Rapid warming over the past 17 years is shown to be linked to both natural and anthropogenic factors with several anomalously warm years being primarily linked to recent anomalies in the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Evidence is also presented that both empirical statistical models and global climate models underestimate the regional air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to ocean salinity anomalies and volcanic eruptions. These results provide important insight into the predictability of future regional climate impacts for the Labrador region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959417','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959417"><span>Complexation of Lanthanides with Nitrate at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>: Thermodynamics and Coordination Modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin</p> <p>2008-12-10</p> <p>Complexation of neodymium(III) with nitrate was studied at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (25, 40, 55 and 70 C) by spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry. The NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} complex is weak and becomes slightly stronger as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. The enthalpy of complexation at 25 C was determined by microcalorimetry to be small and positive, (1.5 {+-} 0.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, in good agreement with the trend of the stability constant at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Luminescence emission spectra and lifetime of Eu(III) in nitrate solutions suggest that inner-sphere and bidentate complexes form between trivalent lanthanides (Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) and nitrate in aqueous solutions. Specific Ion Interaction approach (SIT) was used to obtain the stability constants of NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} at infinite dilution and <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4308995','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4308995"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and moisture synergistically interact to exacerbate an epizootic disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Raffel, Thomas R.; Halstead, Neal T.; McMahon, Taegan A.; Davis, Andrew K.; Rohr, Jason R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is altering global patterns of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, with implications for parasitic diseases of humans and wildlife. A recent study confirmed predictions that increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> could exacerbate disease, because of lags in host acclimation following <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts. However, the generality of these host acclimation effects and the potential for them to interact with other factors have yet to be tested. Here, we report similar effects of host thermal acclimation (constant versus shifted <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) on chytridiomycosis in red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) growth on newts was greater following a shift to a new <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative to newts already acclimated to this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (15°C versus 25°C). However, these acclimation effects depended on soil moisture (10, 16 and 21% water) and were only observed at the highest moisture level, which induced greatly increased Bd growth and infection-induced mortality. Acclimation effects were also greater following a decrease rather than an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results are consistent with previous findings that chytridiomycosis is associated with precipitation, lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This study highlights host acclimation as a potentially general mediator of climate–disease interactions, and the need to account for context-dependencies when testing for acclimation effects on disease. PMID:25567647</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27534960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27534960"><span>Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on fisheries yields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dee, Laura E; Miller, Steve J; Peavey, Lindsey E; Bradley, Darcy; Gentry, Rebecca R; Startz, Richard; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E</p> <p>2016-08-17</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation within a year can impact biological processes driving population abundances. The implications for the ecosystem services these populations provide, including food production from marine fisheries, are poorly understood. Whether and how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> impacts fishery yields may depend on the number of harvested species and differences in their responses to varying <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Drawing from previous theoretical and empirical studies, we predict that greater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> within years will reduce yields, but harvesting a larger number of species, especially a more functionally diverse set, will decrease this impact. Using a global marine fisheries dataset, we find that within-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> reduces yields, but current levels of functional diversity (FD) of targeted species, measured using traits related to species' responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, largely offset this effect. Globally, high FD of catch could avoid annual losses in yield of 6.8% relative to projections if FD were degraded to the lowest level observed in the data. By contrast, species richness in the catch and in the ecosystem did not provide a similar mitigating effect. This work provides novel empirical evidence that short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> can negatively impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, but that FD can buffer these negative impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040035745','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040035745"><span>Recent Climate <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Antarctica from Satellite-derived <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schneider, David P.; Steig, Eric J.; Comiso, Josefino C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent Antarctic climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> on month-to-month to interannual time scales is assessed through joint analysis of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from satellite thermal infrared observations (T(sub IR)) and passive microwave brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T(sub B)). Although Tw data are limited to clear-sky conditions and T(sub B) data are a product of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and emissivity of the upper approx. 1m of snow, the two data sets share significant covariance. This covariance is largely explained by three empirical modes, which illustrate the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Antarctic surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. T(sub B) variations are damped compared to TIR variations, as determined by the period of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forcing and the microwave emission depth; however, microwave emissivity does not vary significantly in time. Comparison of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modes with Southern Hemisphere (SH) 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies demonstrates that Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies are predominantly controlled by the principal patterns of SH atmospheric circulation. The leading surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mode strongly correlates with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) in geopotential height. The second <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mode reflects the combined influences of the zonal wavenumber-3 and Pacific South American (PSA) patterns in 500-hPa height on month-to-month timescales. ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span> projects onto this mode on interannual timescales, but is not by itself a good predictor of Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The third <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mode explains winter warming trends, which may be caused by blocking events, over a large region of the East Antarctic plateau. These results help to place recent climate changes in the context of Antarctica's background climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and will aid in the interpretation of ice core paleoclimate records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4250160','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4250160"><span>Ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>: Large model–data differences at decadal and longer periods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) at multidecadal and longer timescales is poorly constrained, primarily because instrumental records are short and proxy records are noisy. Through applying a new noise filtering technique to a global network of late Holocene SST proxies, we estimate SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> between annual and millennial timescales. Filtered estimates of SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> obtained from coral, foraminifer, and alkenone records are shown to be consistent with one another and with instrumental records in the frequency bands at which they overlap. General circulation models, however, simulate SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> that is systematically smaller than instrumental and proxy-based estimates. Discrepancies in <span class="hlt">variability</span> are largest at low latitudes and increase with timescale, reaching two orders of magnitude for tropical <span class="hlt">variability</span> at millennial timescales. This result implies major deficiencies in observational estimates or model simulations, or both, and has implications for the attribution of past variations and prediction of future change. PMID:25385623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25385623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25385623"><span>Ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>: large model-data differences at decadal and longer periods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter</p> <p>2014-11-25</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) at multidecadal and longer timescales is poorly constrained, primarily because instrumental records are short and proxy records are noisy. Through applying a new noise filtering technique to a global network of late Holocene SST proxies, we estimate SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> between annual and millennial timescales. Filtered estimates of SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> obtained from coral, foraminifer, and alkenone records are shown to be consistent with one another and with instrumental records in the frequency bands at which they overlap. General circulation models, however, simulate SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> that is systematically smaller than instrumental and proxy-based estimates. Discrepancies in <span class="hlt">variability</span> are largest at low latitudes and increase with timescale, reaching two orders of magnitude for tropical <span class="hlt">variability</span> at millennial timescales. This result implies major deficiencies in observational estimates or model simulations, or both, and has implications for the attribution of past variations and prediction of future change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.135...91M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.135...91M"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> patterns of the general circulation and sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the North Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mathis, M.; Elizalde, A.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Pohlmann, T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This study investigates patterns of spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the North Sea and their major driving mechanisms. Leading <span class="hlt">variability</span> modes of the general circulation and sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are extracted from model results by means of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The model results originate from an uncoupled simulation with the global ocean model MPIOM, forced with ERA40 reanalysis data at the air-sea interface. For this regional model study, MPIOM has been run with a stretched grid configuration enabling higher horizontal resolution in the Northwest European Shelf and North Atlantic ocean. The analysis is applied to interannual <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of winter and summer separately. The results indicate that on seasonal scales the leading <span class="hlt">variability</span> mode of the general circulation affects the entire North Sea, accompanied by significant inflow anomalies through the Fair-Isle Passage. Correlations of the corresponding Principal Component (PC) with wind density functions reveal the circulation anomalies to coincide with westerly and south-westerly wind anomalies. The second mode describes circulation anomalies along the Norwegian Trench and English Channel, which correlate with north-westerly wind anomalies caused by variations in large-scale atmospheric pressure areas centered over the British Isles. For sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, distinct <span class="hlt">variability</span> patterns are induced by <span class="hlt">variable</span> surface heat fluxes, vertical mixing, and <span class="hlt">variable</span> advective heat fluxes. The first mode of both the general circulation and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in winter mainly represents the response to atmospheric variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However, the higher modes account for such <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> that cannot be explained by the NAO. As a consequence of the integrated effects of the different <span class="hlt">variability</span> modes on the circulation system and heat content, local correlations of the NAO with volume transports and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are weakened in the regions of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830019036','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830019036"><span>Simulating soybean canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as affected by weather <span class="hlt">variables</span> and soil water potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Choudhury, B. J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Hourly weather data for several clear sky days during summer at Phoenix and Baltimore which covered a wide range of <span class="hlt">variables</span> were used with a plant atmosphere model to simulate soybean (Glycine max L.) leaf water potential, stomatal resistance and canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at various soil water potentials. The air and dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were found to be the significant weather <span class="hlt">variables</span> affecting the canopy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Under identical weather conditions, the model gives a lower canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for a soybean crop with a higher rooting density. A knowledge of crop rooting density, in addition to air and dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is needed in interpreting infrared radiometric observations for soil water status. The observed dependence of stomatal resistance on the vapor pressure deficit and soil water potential is fairly well represented. Analysis of the simulated leaf water potentials indicates overestimation, possibly due to differences in the cultivars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4556858','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4556858"><span>A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise reduces trial-to-trial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of locust auditory neuron responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schleimer, Jan-Hendrik; Schreiber, Susanne; Ronacher, Bernhard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The neurophysiology of ectothermic animals, such as insects, is affected by environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as their body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuates with ambient conditions. Changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alter properties of neurons and, consequently, have an impact on the processing of information. Nevertheless, nervous system function is often maintained over a broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, exhibiting a surprising robustness to variations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A special problem arises for acoustically communicating insects, as in these animals mate recognition and mate localization typically rely on the decoding of fast amplitude modulations in calling and courtship songs. In the auditory periphery, however, temporal resolution is constrained by intrinsic neuronal noise. Such noise predominantly arises from the stochasticity of ion channel gating and potentially impairs the processing of sensory signals. On the basis of intracellular recordings of locust auditory neurons, we show that intrinsic neuronal <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the level of spikes is reduced with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We use a detailed mathematical model including stochastic ion channel gating to shed light on the underlying biophysical mechanisms in auditory receptor neurons: because of a redistribution of channel-induced current noise toward higher frequencies and specifics of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the membrane impedance, membrane potential noise is indeed reduced at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This finding holds under generic conditions and physiologically plausible assumptions on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the channels' kinetics and peak conductances. We demonstrate that the identified mechanism also can explain the experimentally observed reduction of spike timing <span class="hlt">variability</span> at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. PMID:26041833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990115883&hterms=electrodynamics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Delectrodynamics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990115883&hterms=electrodynamics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Delectrodynamics"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Associated with the Middle Atmosphere Electrodynamics (MAE-1) Campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidlin, F. J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Meteorological rockets launched during the Middle Atmosphere Electrodynamics (MAE-1) Campaign in October 1980 from Andoya Rocket Range (ARR), Norway, exhibited large and unexpected <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> were found to vary as much as 20 C within a few hours and demonstrated a similar type of <span class="hlt">variability</span> from one day to the next. Following examination of the reduced rocketsonde profiles the question was raised whether the observed <span class="hlt">variability</span> was due to natural atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> or instrument malfunction. Small-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span>, as observed, may result from one or multiple sources, e.g., intense storms upstream from the observing site, orography such as mountain waves off of the Greenland Plateau, convective activity, gravity waves, etc. Arranging the observations spaced over time showed that the perturbations moved downward. Prior to MAE-1 very few small rocketsonde measurements had been launched from ARR, thus the quality of the initial measurements in early October caused concern when the large <span class="hlt">variability</span> was noted. We discuss the errors of the rocketsonde measurements, graphically review the nature of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> observed, compare the data with other measurements, and postulate a possible cause for the <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001WRR....37.1733C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001WRR....37.1733C"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">variable</span> reservoir releases on management of downstream water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carron, John C.; Rajaram, Harihar</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>A coupled unsteady flow and heat transport model is used to determine the impacts of fluctuating reservoir releases on downstream water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Maintenance of stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is one of the most common reasons cited for imposition of minimum flow requirements in regulated (reservoir controlled) rivers. Minimum flow constraints for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control are typically developed using worst-case scenarios (i.e., maximum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, clear sky, etc.) of atmospheric conditions. We show that short- term modifications to reservoir releases based on local meteorological conditions can reduce the volume of water released, while still meeting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> objectives. A case study of the Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam shows that for certain sets of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> objectives and atmospheric conditions, a diurnally varying release may be the only way to meet multiple <span class="hlt">temperature</span> objectives at different downstream locations. In the examples discussed, savings of nearly 20% in total release volume could be realized by using <span class="hlt">variable</span> releases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2889522','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2889522"><span>Linking global climate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> to widespread amphibian declines putatively caused by disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rohr, Jason R.; Raffel, Thomas R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The role of global climate change in the decline of biodiversity and the emergence of infectious diseases remains controversial, and the effect of climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span>, in particular, has largely been ignored. For instance, it was recently revealed that the proposed link between climate change and widespread amphibian declines, putatively caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), was tenuous because it was based on a temporally confounded correlation. Here we provide temporally unconfounded evidence that global El Niño climatic events drive widespread amphibian losses in genus Atelopus via increased regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, which can reduce amphibian defenses against pathogens. Of 26 climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> tested, only factors associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> could account for the spatiotemporal patterns of declines thought to be associated with Bd. Climatic predictors of declines became significant only after controlling for a pattern consistent with epidemic spread (by temporally detrending the data). This presumed spread accounted for 59% of the temporal variation in amphibian losses, whereas El Niño accounted for 59% of the remaining variation. Hence, we could account for 83% of the variation in declines with these two <span class="hlt">variables</span> alone. Given that global climate change seems to increase <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, extreme climatic events, and the strength of Central Pacific El Niño episodes, climate change might exacerbate worldwide enigmatic declines of amphibians, presumably by increasing susceptibility to disease. These results suggest that changes to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with climate change might be as significant to biodiversity losses and disease emergence as changes to mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:20404180</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990017738','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990017738"><span>Linkages Between Multiscale Global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Variabilities</span> in the US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lau, K. M.; Weng, Heng-Yi</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A growing number of evidence indicates that there are coherent patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomaly not only at interannual timescales, but also at decadal-to-inter-decadal timescale and beyond. The multi-scale <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of SST anomaly have shown great impacts on climate. In this work, we analyze multiple timescales contained in the globally averaged SST anomaly with and their possible relationship with the summer and winter rainfall in the United States over the past four decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.449...94K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.449...94K"><span>Constraints on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inhomogeneity in quasar accretion discs from the ultraviolet-optical spectral <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kokubo, Mitsuru</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The physical mechanisms of the quasar ultraviolet (UV)-optical <span class="hlt">variability</span> are not well understood despite the long history of observations. Recently, Dexter & Agol presented a model of quasar UV-optical <span class="hlt">variability</span>, which assumes large local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in the quasar accretion discs. This inhomogeneous accretion disc model is claimed to describe not only the single-band <span class="hlt">variability</span> amplitude, but also microlensing size constraints and the quasar composite spectral shape. In this work, we examine the validity of the inhomogeneous accretion disc model in the light of quasar UV-optical spectral <span class="hlt">variability</span> by using five-band multi-epoch light curves for nearly 9 000 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 region. By comparing the values of the intrinsic scatter σint of the two-band magnitude-magnitude plots for the SDSS quasar light curves and for the simulated light curves, we show that Dexter & Agol's inhomogeneous accretion disc model cannot explain the tight inter-band correlation often observed in the SDSS quasar light curves. This result leads us to conclude that the local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in the accretion discs are not the main driver of the several years' UV-optical <span class="hlt">variability</span> of quasars, and consequently, that the assumption that the quasar accretion discs have large localized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations is not preferred from the viewpoint of the UV-optical spectral <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.9679M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.9679M"><span>Independent component analysis of local-scale temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sediment-water interface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Middleton, M. A.; Whitfield, P. H.; Allen, D. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> recorded at the sediment-water interface has been identified as a valuable tracer for understanding groundwater-surface water interactions. However, factors contributing to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be difficult to distinguish. In this study, the temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the sediment-water interface is evaluated for a 40 m reach of a coastal stream using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA separation is used to identify three independent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> components within the reach for each of four summer periods (2008-2011). Extracted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signals correlate with stream discharge, estimated streambed <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and groundwater level, but the strength of the correlations varies from summer to summer. Overall, variations in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signals have clearer separation in summers with lower stream discharge and greater stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges. Surface heating from solar radiation is the dominant factor influencing the sediment-water interface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in most years, but there is evidence that thermal exchanges are taking place other than at the air-water interface. These exchanges take place at the sediment-water interface, and the correlation with groundwater levels indicates that these heat exchanges are associated with groundwater inflow. This study demonstrates that ICA can be used effectively to aid in identifying component signals in environmental applications of small spatial scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS43A2009M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS43A2009M"><span>Oceanographic Controls on Diffuse Flow <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> at Main Endeavour Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mihaly, S. F.; Matabos, M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Lee, R.; Lilley, M. D.; Sarradin, P. M.; Sarrazin, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> observations from the Main Endeavour vent Field (MEF) on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge reveal large spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> over centimeter length scales. Five thermistor chains with ten sensors each are draped over a faunal assemblage on the the north side of the Grotto mound in the northern part of MEF. Spacing is on the order of 10 cm and the areal coverage is about a square meter. Shimmering fluids are evident in the ROV video during the deployment and recovery of the thermistors indicating that the area is a diffuse venting zone. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> can be a result of heterogeneity in the degree of diffuse venting and/or <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the degree of mixing with the cool ambient waters. Concurrent observations from the NEPTUNE cabled observatory are: <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from a nearby hot fluid (330 deg) vent orifice that is weakly modulated by the surface tide (pressure), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from a diffuse flow area artificially sheltered from the ambient currents and measurements of currents from a bottom-mounted ADCP. We use these measurements to argue that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is the result of interaction of the buoyant flow with the oceanic currents in the boundary layer at the level of the faunal assemblage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033191','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033191"><span>Associations of decadal to multidecadal sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> with Upper Colorado River flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McCabe, G.J.; Betancourt, J.L.; Hidalgo, H.G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The relations of decadal to multidecadal (D2M) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) with D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the flow of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) are examined for the years 1906-2003. Results indicate that D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SSTs in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, tropical Pacific, and Indian Oceans is associated with D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the UCRB. A principal components analysis (with varimax rotation) of detrended and 11-year smoothed global SSTs indicates that the two leading rotated principal components (RPCs) explain 56% of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the transformed SST data. The first RPC (RPC1) strongly reflects <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the second RPC (RPC2) represents <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the tropical Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean SSTs. Results indicate that SSTs in the North Atlantic Ocean (RPC1) explain as much of the D2M <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global SSTs as does the combination of Indian and Pacific Ocean <span class="hlt">variability</span> (RPC2). These results suggest that SSTs in all of the oceans have some relation with flow of the UCRB, but the North Atlantic may have the strongest and most consistent association on D2M time scales. Hydroclimatic persistence on these time scales introduces significant nonstationarity in mean annual streamflow, with critical implications for UCRB water resource management. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27479037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27479037"><span>Freezing tolerance revisited-effects of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on gene regulation in temperate grasses and legumes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Ergon, Åshild; Rognli, Odd Arne</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Climate change creates new patterns of seasonal climate variation with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, longer growth seasons and more <span class="hlt">variable</span> winter climates. This is challenging the winter survival of perennial herbaceous plants. In this review, we focus on the effects of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during autumn/winter/spring, and its interactions with light, on the development and maintenance of freezing tolerance. Cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> induce changes at several organizational levels in the plant (cold acclimation), leading to the development of freezing tolerance, which can be reduced/lost during warm spells (deacclimation) in winters, and attained again during cold spells (reacclimation). We summarize how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interacts with components of the light regime (photoperiod, PSII excitation pressure, irradiance, and light quality) in determining changes in the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3757Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3757Y"><span>Two distinct mechanisms on East Asian surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yeh, Sang-Wook; Won, Yujin; Yeo, Sae-Rim; Yim, Bo Young</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) in East Asia was examined in order to find global scale versus local scale factors that affected its <span class="hlt">variability</span> during the summer (June-July-August). It was found that there exist a distinguished sub-seasonal variation, showing remarkable differences in its <span class="hlt">variability</span> between early summer (June) and late summer (July and August). In particular, we pay attention to the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Korean SAT. This study revealed that Korean SAT during early and late summer is affected by different principal modes of SAT over East Asia domain. In particular, there was a significant warming trend in the Korean SAT during early summer, which was primarily influenced by a global warming trend that manifested in East Asia. Meanwhile, there exists the local scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Korean SAT, which is independent from the global warming signal. During late summer, on the other hand, the SAT <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Korea was not significantly influenced by a warming trend, although the warming signal still accounts for majority of the SAT variance over East Asia. Instead, Korean SAT during late summer appears to be closely related to the atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> originated from the western tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) forcing. These results implied that the East Asian SAT <span class="hlt">variability</span> during early and late summer has different sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S"><span>Deglacial Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) <span class="hlt">variability</span> is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span> show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting changing vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and δ18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> characterized by abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3417L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3417L"><span>A novel method to analyze NO2 spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Eastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Mengyao; Lin, Jintai; Wang, Yuchen; Sun, Yang; Zheng, Bo; Shao, Jinyuan; Cheng, Jinxuan; Yan, Yingying; Zheng, Yixuan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Over Eastern China (consisted of North China and East China), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and other air pollutants vary significantly in space and undergo diurnal and <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations. In particular, the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of pollutants is weather-determined and largely non-periodic and non-stationary, posing a difficulty for a conventional time series analysis using Fourier or wavelet decomposition. Here, we use an EOF-EEMD decomposition method to evaluate the spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of ground-level NO2, PM2.5, and their associations with meteorological processes. The EOF-EEMD method consists of an EOF analysis to separate temporal and spatial components and a subsequent EEMD decomposition step to separate temporal scales of either stationary or non-stationary nature. The NO2 and PM2.5 data are taken from about 160 air quality automatic monitoring stations over 25th October to 25th December and correspondent meteorology observations are taken from about 90 stations. The observed concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 as well as some meteorological factors such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 2 meters, relative moisture (RH) and wind speed exhibit large <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, in time intervals consistent with the passage of cold fronts. Depending on the strength of the passing cold fonts, pollutants can be cleaned up over the whole Eastern China or over the northern parts of the region only. This leads to a clear difference in pollution <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> between North China and East China. We further apply the EOF-EEMD analysis to evaluate the simulations of GEOS-Chem and CMAQ chemical transport models in capturing the observed spatiotemporal variations of pollutants. We find that both models capture the spatial variation of the observed NO2 fairly well, but they are not able to reproduce the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variation of NO2. Detailed model and observation analyses are still ongoing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAP...104d3521C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAP...104d3521C"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> photoluminescence of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cui, J. B.; Soo, Y. C.; Thomas, A.; Kandel, H.; Chen, T. P.; Daghlian, C. P.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> photoluminescence of ZnO thin films deposited by a reactive laser ablation of metallic zinc was investigated. Free and bound exciton emissions are absent at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the near band edge (NBE) emission is independent of measurement <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the ZnO thin film deposited at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Annealing at 700 °C results in the removal of defects, reappearance of exciton emission, and a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent NBE emission. The experimental data suggest that defects play an important role in the band edge emission in terms of both spectra shape and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence. Our observations will have an impact on device applications using ZnO, especially for optoelectronics that utilizes the exciton emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074665"><span>Separating the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, drought, and fire on interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in atmospheric CO2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Wolf, Aaron S; Mu, Mingquan; Doney, Scott C; Morton, Douglas C; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Miller, John B; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Randerson, James T</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The response of the carbon cycle in prognostic Earth system models (ESMs) contributes significant uncertainty to projections of global climate change. Quantifying contributions of known drivers of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is important for improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in these ESMs. Several recent studies have identified the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of tropical net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as a primary driver of this <span class="hlt">variability</span> by analyzing a single, globally averaged time series of CO2 anomalies. Here we examined how the temporal evolution of CO2 in different latitude bands may be used to separate contributions from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress, drought stress, and fire emissions to CO2 <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We developed atmospheric CO2 patterns from each of these mechanisms during 1997-2011 using an atmospheric transport model. NEE responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, NEE responses to drought, and fire emissions all contributed significantly to CO2 <span class="hlt">variability</span> in each latitude band, suggesting that no single mechanism was the dominant driver. We found that the sum of drought and fire contributions to CO2 <span class="hlt">variability</span> exceeded direct NEE responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Additional sensitivity tests revealed that these contributions are masked by temporal and spatial smoothing of CO2 observations. Accounting for fires, the sensitivity of tropical NEE to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress decreased by 25% to 2.9 ± 0.4 Pg C yr(-1) K(-1). These results underscore the need for accurate attribution of the drivers of CO2 <span class="hlt">variability</span> prior to using contemporary observations to constrain long-term ESM responses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4461073','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4461073"><span>Separating the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, drought, and fire on interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in atmospheric CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Wolf, Aaron S; Mu, Mingquan; Doney, Scott C; Morton, Douglas C; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Miller, John B; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Randerson, James T</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The response of the carbon cycle in prognostic Earth system models (ESMs) contributes significant uncertainty to projections of global climate change. Quantifying contributions of known drivers of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is important for improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in these ESMs. Several recent studies have identified the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of tropical net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as a primary driver of this <span class="hlt">variability</span> by analyzing a single, globally averaged time series of CO2 anomalies. Here we examined how the temporal evolution of CO2 in different latitude bands may be used to separate contributions from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress, drought stress, and fire emissions to CO2 <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We developed atmospheric CO2 patterns from each of these mechanisms during 1997–2011 using an atmospheric transport model. NEE responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, NEE responses to drought, and fire emissions all contributed significantly to CO2 <span class="hlt">variability</span> in each latitude band, suggesting that no single mechanism was the dominant driver. We found that the sum of drought and fire contributions to CO2 <span class="hlt">variability</span> exceeded direct NEE responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Additional sensitivity tests revealed that these contributions are masked by temporal and spatial smoothing of CO2 observations. Accounting for fires, the sensitivity of tropical NEE to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress decreased by 25% to 2.9 ± 0.4 Pg C yr−1 K−1. These results underscore the need for accurate attribution of the drivers of CO2 <span class="hlt">variability</span> prior to using contemporary observations to constrain long-term ESM responses. PMID:26074665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823492','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823492"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Values <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Piezoelectric Implant Site Preparation: Differences between Cortical and Corticocancellous Bovine Bone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lamazza, Luca; Garreffa, Girolamo; Laurito, Domenica; Lollobrigida, Marco; Palmieri, Luigi; De Biase, Alberto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose. Various parameters can influence <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise and detection during implant site preparation. The aim of this study is to investigate local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in cortical and corticocancellous bovine bone during early stages of piezoelectric implant site preparation. Materials and Methods. 20 osteotomies were performed using a diamond tip (IM1s, Mectron Medical Technology, Carasco, Italy) on two different types of bovine bone samples, cortical and corticocancellous, respectively. A standardized protocol was designed to provide constant working conditions. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> were measured in real time at a fixed position by a fiber optic thermometer. Results. Significantly higher drilling time (154.90 sec versus 99.00 sec; p < 0.0001) and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (39.26°C versus 34.73°C; p = 0.043) were observed in the cortical group compared to the corticocancellous group. A remarkable <span class="hlt">variability</span> of results characterized the corticocancellous blocks as compared to the blocks of pure cortical bone. Conclusion. Bone samples can influence heat generation during in vitro implant site preparation. When compared to cortical bone, corticocancellous samples present more <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values. Even controlling most experimental factors, the impact of bone samples still remains one of the main causes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. PMID:27110567</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047087','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047087"><span>The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of California summertime marine stratus: impacts on surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous <span class="hlt">variability</span> of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and warmer nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Summer daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26286881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26286881"><span>What do foraging wasps optimize in a <span class="hlt">variable</span> environment, energy investment or body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Vespine wasps (Vespula sp.) are endowed with a pronounced ability of endothermic heat production. To show how they balance energetics and thermoregulation under <span class="hlt">variable</span> environmental conditions, we measured the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and respiration of sucrose foragers (1.5 M, unlimited flow) under <span class="hlt">variable</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T a = 20-35 °C) and solar radiation (20-570 W m(-2)). Results revealed a graduated balancing of metabolic efforts with thermoregulatory needs. The thoracic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the shade depended on ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, increasing from ~37 to 39 °C. However, wasps used solar heat gain to regulate their thorax <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a rather high level at low T a (mean T thorax ~ 39 °C). Only at high T a they used solar heat to reduce their metabolic rate remarkably. A high body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accelerated the suction speed and shortened foraging time. As the costs of foraging strongly depended on duration, the efficiency could be significantly increased with a high body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Heat gain from solar radiation enabled the wasps to enhance foraging efficiency at high ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T a = 30 °C) by up to 63 %. The well-balanced change of economic strategies in response to environmental conditions minimized costs of foraging and optimized energetic efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21D0472H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21D0472H"><span>Drivers of River Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Space-time <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Northeast Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hannah, D. M.; Docherty, C.; Milner, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> plays an important role in stream ecosystem functioning; however, water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dynamics in high Arctic environments have received relatively little attention. Given that global climate is predicted to change most at high latitudes, it is vital we broaden our knowledge of space-time <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Arctic river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to understand controlling processes and potential consequences of climate change. To address this gap, our research aims: (1) to characterise seasonal and diel patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span> over three summer and two winter seasons with contrasting hydrometeorological conditions, (2) to unravel the key drivers influencing thermal regimes and (3) to place these results in the context of other snow/ glacier-melt dominated environments. Fieldwork was undertaken in July-September 2013, 2014 and 2015 close to the Zackenberg Research Station in Northeast Greenland - an area of continuous permafrost with a mean July air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 6 °C. Five streams were chosen that drain different water source contributions (glacier melt, snow melt, groundwater). Data were collected at 30 minute intervals using micro-dataloggers. Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were collected within 7km by the Greenland Survey. Weather conditions were highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> between field campaigns, with 2013 experiencing below average, and 2014 and 2015 above average, snowfall. Summer water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> appear to be high in comparison to some Arctic streams in Alaska and in Svalbard. Winter snowfall extent decreases stream water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases with atmospheric exposure time (distance from source) - illustrating the intertwined controls of water and heat fluxes. These Greenland streams are most strongly influenced by snowmelt, but groundwater contributions could increase with a changing climate due to increased active layer thickness, which may result in increased river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with implications for aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17..793S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17..793S"><span>Tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and Kelvin-wave activity in the UTLS from GPS RO measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Randel, William J.; Kim, Joowan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over 10-30 km and associated Kelvin-wave activity are investigated using GPS radio occultation (RO) data from January 2002 to December 2014. RO data are a powerful tool for quantifying tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations with short vertical wavelengths due to their high vertical resolution and high accuracy and precision. Gridded <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from GPS RO show the strongest <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the tropical tropopause region (on average 3 K2). Large-scale zonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> is dominated by transient sub-seasonal waves (2 K2), and about half of sub-seasonal variance is explained by eastward-traveling Kelvin waves with periods of 4 to 30 days (1 K2). Quasi-stationary waves associated with the annual cycle and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> contribute about a third (1 K2) to total resolved zonal variance. Sub-seasonal waves, including Kelvin waves, are highly transient in time. Above 20 km, Kelvin waves are strongly modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric zonal winds, with enhanced wave activity during the westerly shear phase of the QBO. In the tropical tropopause region, however, peaks of Kelvin-wave activity are irregularly distributed in time. Several peaks coincide with maxima of zonal variance in tropospheric deep convection, but other episodes are not evidently related. Further investigations of convective forcing and atmospheric background conditions are needed to better understand <span class="hlt">variability</span> near the tropopause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.178..535E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.178..535E"><span>Spatiotemporal investigation of long-term seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Libya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elsharkawy, S. G.; Elmallah, E. S.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Throughout this work, spatial and temporal variations of seasonal surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been investigated. Moreover, the effects of relative internal (teleconnection) and external (solar) forcing on surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> have been examined. Seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series covering 30 different meteorological locations and lasting over the last century are considered. These locations are classified into two groups based on their spatial distribution. One represents Coast Libya Surface Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (CLSAT), contains 19 locations, and the other represents Desert Libya Surface Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (DLSAT), contains 11 locations. Average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> departure test is applied to investigate the nature of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> trends are analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and their coefficients are calculated using Sen's slope estimate. Cross-correlation and spectral analysis techniques are also applied. Our results showed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> deviation from average within a band of ± 2°C at coast region, while ± 4°C at desert region. Extreme behavior intensions between summer and winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at coast region are noticed. Segmentation process declared reversal cooling/warming behavior within <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for all seasons. Desert region shows warming trend for all seasons with higher coefficients than obtained at coast region. Results obtained for spectral analysis show different short and medium signals and concluded that not only the spectral properties are different for different geographical regions but also different for different climatic seasons on regional scale as well. Cross-correlation results showed that highest influence for Rz upon coastal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is always in conjunction with highest influence of NAO upon coastal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the period 1981-2010. Desert region does not obey this phenomenon, where highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-NAO correlations at desert during autumn and winter seasons are not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=227343','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=227343"><span>Changes in Rice with <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Parboling: Thermal and Spectroscopic Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rapid visco analysis (RVA) and differential scannning calorimetry (DSC)provided overall assessments of the effects of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> soaking at 30, 50, 70, and 90°C and steaming at 4, 8, and 12 min. Calculation of the relative parboiling index (RPI) and percent gelatinization provided good met...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...62B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...62B"><span>Quantitative assessment of drivers of recent global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>: an information theoretic approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta; Koganti, Triven; Gurubaran, S.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> remains a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two <span class="hlt">variables</span> with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases: CO2 , CH4 and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance (TSI) and cosmic ray flux (CR); El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Global Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Anomaly (GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding signals of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO2 ({˜ } 24 % ), CH4 ({˜ } 19 % ) and volcanic aerosols ({˜ }23 % ) are the primary contributors to the observed variations in GMTA. While, UV ({˜ } 9 % ) and ENSO ({˜ } 12 % ) act as secondary drivers of variations in the GMTA, the remaining play a marginal role in the observed recent global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Interestingly, ENSO and GMTA mutually drive each other at varied time lags. This study assists future modelling efforts in climate science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016150','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016150"><span>Temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of remotely sensed suspended sediment and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in Mobile Bay, Alabama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rucker, J.B.; Stumpf, R.P.; Schroeder, W.W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Distribution patterns of suspended sediments and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in, Mobile Bay were derived from algorithms using digital data from the visible, near infrared, and infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-TIROS-N satellite. Closely spaced AVHRR scenes for January 20, 24, and 29, 1982, were compared with available environmental information taken during the same period. A complex interaction between river discharge, winds, and astronomical tides controlled the distribution patterns of suspended sediments. These same <span class="hlt">variables</span>, coupled with air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, also governed the distribution patterns of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. ?? 1990 Estuarine Research Federation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126..575K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126..575K"><span>Local air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerance: a sensible basis for estimating climate <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kärner, Olavi; Post, Piia</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The customary representation of climate using sample moments is generally biased due to the noticeably nonstationary behaviour of many climate series. In this study, we introduce a moment-free climate representation based on a statistical model fitted to a long-term daily air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly series. This model allows us to separate the climate and weather scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the series. As a result, the climate scale can be characterized using the mean annual cycle of series and local air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerance, where the latter is computed using the fitted model. The representation of weather scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> is specified using the frequency and the range of outliers based on the tolerance. The scheme is illustrated using five long-term air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records observed by different European meteorological stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000159','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000159"><span>Associations of multi-decadal sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> with US drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McCabe, G.J.; Betancourt, J.L.; Gray, S.T.; Palecki, M.A.; Hidalgo, H.G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Recent research suggests a link between drought occurrence in the conterminous United States (US) and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in both the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans on decadal to multidecadal (D2M) time scales. Results show that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is the most consistent indicator of D2M drought <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the conterminous US during the 20th century, but during the 19th century the tropical Pacific is a more consistent indicator of D2 M drought. The interaction between El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the AMO explain a large part of the D2M drought <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the conterminous US. More modeling studies are needed to reveal possible mechanisms linking low-frequency ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the AMO with drought in the conterminous US. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA52A..04J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA52A..04J"><span>Solar Cycle <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Mean Thermospheric Composition and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Induced by Atmospheric Tides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, M., Jr.; Forbes, J. M.; Hagan, M. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Vertically-propagating atmospheric thermal tides whose origins lie in Earth's lower atmosphere are now widely recognized as one of the dominant "meteorological" drivers of space weather. Many prior research efforts have focused on documenting and understanding the role that dissipating tides play in determining the longitudinal and seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with lower thermospheric winds, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and constituent densities. However, considerably less attention has focused on understanding the potential solar cycle <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the mean thermospheric state induced by the tides. In this paper we utilize the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM), forced with observationally-based tides at the model lower boundary from the Climatological Tidal Model of the Thermosphere (CTMT, from Oberheide et al. [2011]), to elucidate how the dissipating tides induce variations of up to 30 K in the zonal-mean thermosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between solar minimum and maximum. Numerical experiments are performed for the month of September and for solar minimum, medium, and maximum conditions in order to quantify the solar cycle <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with the different terms in the thermodynamic energy, major and minor neutral constituent continuity equations. Our analysis indicates that solar cycle <span class="hlt">variability</span> in neutral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> results from a combination of net eddy heat transport effects and tidal modulation of net nitric oxide (NO) cooling. The chemical and dynamical pathways through which dissipating tides affect mean NO cooling differently at solar minimum and maximum are diagnosed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025530"><span>High Performance CMOS Light Detector with Dark Current Suppression in <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> Systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Wen-Sheng; Sung, Guo-Ming; Lin, Jyun-Long</p> <p>2016-12-23</p> <p>This paper presents a dark current suppression technique for a light detector in a <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> system. The light detector architecture comprises a photodiode for sensing the ambient light, a dark current diode for conducting dark current suppression, and a current subtractor that is embedded in the current amplifier with enhanced dark current cancellation. The measured dark current of the proposed light detector is lower than that of the epichlorohydrin photoresistor or cadmium sulphide photoresistor. This is advantageous in <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> systems, especially for those with many infrared light-emitting diodes. Experimental results indicate that the maximum dark current of the proposed current amplifier is approximately 135 nA at 125 °C, a near zero dark current is achieved at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> lower than 50 °C, and dark current and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibit an exponential relation at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher than 50 °C. The dark current of the proposed light detector is lower than 9.23 nA and the linearity is approximately 1.15 μA/lux at an external resistance RSS = 10 kΩ and environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 25 °C to 85 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025982','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025982"><span>Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> from Chesapeake Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ~2-4oC in Chesapeake Bay (CB) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ~2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> excursions during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (~800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> between ~450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts, the existence of numerous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ~70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3oC, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5298588','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5298588"><span>High Performance CMOS Light Detector with Dark Current Suppression in <span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Wen-Sheng; Sung, Guo-Ming; Lin, Jyun-Long</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a dark current suppression technique for a light detector in a <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> system. The light detector architecture comprises a photodiode for sensing the ambient light, a dark current diode for conducting dark current suppression, and a current subtractor that is embedded in the current amplifier with enhanced dark current cancellation. The measured dark current of the proposed light detector is lower than that of the epichlorohydrin photoresistor or cadmium sulphide photoresistor. This is advantageous in <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> systems, especially for those with many infrared light-emitting diodes. Experimental results indicate that the maximum dark current of the proposed current amplifier is approximately 135 nA at 125 °C, a near zero dark current is achieved at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> lower than 50 °C, and dark current and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibit an exponential relation at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher than 50 °C. The dark current of the proposed light detector is lower than 9.23 nA and the linearity is approximately 1.15 μA/lux at an external resistance RSS = 10 kΩ and environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 25 °C to 85 °C. PMID:28025530</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H42B..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H42B..02S"><span>Parameter Measurement and Estimation at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Scales: Example of Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Complex Terrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seyfried, M. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The issue of matching measurement scale to application scale is long standing and frequently revisited with advances in instrumentation and computing power. In the past we have emphasized the importance of understanding the dominant processes and amount and nature of parameter <span class="hlt">variability</span> when addressing these issues. Landscape-scale distribution of carbon and carbon fluxes is a primary focus of the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory (RC CZO). Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) is a critical parameter of generally unknown <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Estimates of Ts are often based on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta), but it is understood that other factors control Ts, especially in complex terrain, where solar radiation may be a major driver. Data were collected at the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), which is 240 km2 in extent and covers a 1000 m elevation range. We used spatially extensive Ts data to evaluate correlations with Ta (915 m elevation gradient) on aspect neutral sites with similar vegetative cover. Effects of complex terrain were evaluated using a combination of fixed point measurements, fiber optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing and periodic, spatially distributed point measurements. We found that Ts over the elevation gradient followed Ta closely. However, within small subwatersheds with uniform Ta, Ts may be extremely <span class="hlt">variable</span>, with a standard deviation of 8° C. This was strongly related to topographically associated land surface units (LSU's) and highly seasonal. Within LSU <span class="hlt">variability</span> was generally low while there were seasonally significant differences between LSU's. The mean annual soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference between LSU's was greater than that associated with the 915 m elevation gradient. The seasonality of Ts <span class="hlt">variability</span> was not directly related to solar radiation effects but rather to variations in cover. Scaling Ts requires high resolution accounting of topography in this environment. Spatial patterns of soil carbon at the RCEW are consistent with this.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005687','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005687"><span>Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Comparison in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly distributions between observation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.3642T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.3642T"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and relationships between top-of-atmosphere radiation and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenberth, Kevin E.; Zhang, Yongxin; Fasullo, John T.; Taguchi, Shoichi</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The monthly global and regional <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Earth's radiation balance is examined using correlations and regressions between atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and water vapor with top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave (OLR), absorbed shortwave (ASR), and net radiation (RT = ASR - OLR). Anomalous global mean monthly <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the net radiation is surprisingly large, often more than ±1 W m-2, and arises mainly from clouds and transient weather systems. Relationships are strongest and positive between OLR and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, especially over land for tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, except in the deep tropics where high sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with deep convection, high cold cloud tops and thus less OLR but also less ASR. Tropospheric vertically averaged <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (surface = 150 hPa) are thus negatively correlated globally with net radiation (-0.57), implying 2.18 ± 0.10 W m-2 extra net radiation to space for 1°C increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Water vapor is positively correlated with tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and thus also negatively correlated with net radiation; however, when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependency of water vapor is statistically removed, a significant positive feedback between water vapor and net radiation is revealed globally with 0.87 W m-2 less OLR to space per millimeter of total column water vapor. The regression coefficient between global RT and tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> becomes -2.98 W m-2 K-1 if water vapor effects are removed, slightly less than expected from blackbody radiation (-3.2 W m-2 K-1), suggesting a positive feedback from clouds and other processes. Robust regional structures provide additional physical insights. The observational record is too short, weather noise too great, and forcing too small to make reliable estimates of climate sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13...93T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13...93T"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Iberian Range since 1602 inferred from tree-ring records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tejedor, Ernesto; Ángel Saz, Miguel; María Cuadrat, José; Esper, Jan; de Luis, Martín</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Tree rings are an important proxy to understand the natural drivers of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Mediterranean Basin and hence to improve future climate scenarios in a vulnerable region. Here, we compile 316 tree-ring width series from 11 conifer sites in the western Iberian Range. We apply a new standardization method based on the trunk basal area instead of the tree cambial age to develop a regional chronology which preserves high- to low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span>. A new reconstruction for the 1602-2012 period correlates at -0.78 with observational September <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with a cumulative mean of the 21 previous months over the 1945-2012 calibration period. The new IR2Tmax reconstruction is spatially representative for the Iberian Peninsula and captures the full range of past Iberian Range <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Reconstructed long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations match reasonably well with solar irradiance changes since warm and cold phases correspond with high and low solar activity, respectively. In addition, some annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> downturns coincide with volcanic eruptions with a 3-year lag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2165T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2165T"><span>Projected intensification of subseasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and heat waves in the Great Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teng, Haiyan; Branstator, Grant; Meehl, Gerald A.; Washington, Warren M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Compared to changes in the climatological mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we have less confidence in how much and by what mechanisms <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> may be affected by anthropogenic climate change. Here based on a 30-member climate change projection from an earth system model, we find that summertime subseasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the U.S. Great Plains is enhanced by approximately 20% in 2070-2100 relative to 1980-2010. In particular, daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> departures from the new climatologies during future heat waves are on average 0.6°C warmer than are the corresponding departures under present-day conditions. Although in both periods heat waves in the Great Plains tend to be associated with planetary wave events, the amplification of future heat waves does not appear to be induced by changes in planetary wave <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the midlatitudes. Instead, in this experiment the strengthening appears to be primarily caused by enhanced local land-atmosphere feedbacks resulting from a warmer/drier future climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16667518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16667518"><span>Variation among Species in the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of the Reappearance of <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Fluorescence following Illumination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burke, J J</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>The relationship between the thermal dependence of the reappearance of chlorophyll <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence following illumination and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)) of NADH hydroxypyruvate reductase for NADH was investigated in cool and warm season plant species. Brancker SF-20 and SF-30 fluorometers were used to evaluate induced fluorescence transients from detached leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv TAM-101), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Paymaster 145), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Del Oro), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv California Wonder), and petunia (Petunia hybrida cv. Red Sail). Following an illumination period at 25 degrees C, the reappearance of <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluorescence during a dark incubation was determined at 5 degrees C intervals from 15 degrees C to 45 degrees C. <span class="hlt">Variable</span> fluorescence recovery was normally distributed with the maximum recovery observed at 20 degrees C in wheat, 30 degrees C in cotton, 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C in tomato, 30 to 35 degrees C in bell pepper and 25 degrees C in petunia. Comparison of the thermal response of fluorescence recovery with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of the apparent K(m) of hydroxypyruvate reductase for NADH showed that the range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> providing fluorescence recovery corresponded with those <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> providing the minimum apparent K(m) values (viz. the thermal kinetic window).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21712237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21712237"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">variable</span> [CO2] and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on water transport structure-function relationships in Eucalyptus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phillips, Nathan G; Attard, Renee D; Ghannoum, Oula; Lewis, James D; Logan, Barry A; Tissue, David T</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Nearly 30 years ago, Whitehead and Jarvis and Whitehead et al. postulated an elegant mechanistic explanation for the observed relationship between tree hydraulic structure and function, hypothesizing that structural adjustments promote physiological homeostasis. To date, this framework has been nearly completely overlooked with regard to varying atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]). Here, we evaluated Whitehead's hypothesis of leaf water potential (Ψ(l)) homeostasis in faster-growing (Eucalyptus saligna) and slower-growing (Eucalyptus sideroxylon) tree saplings grown under three [CO(2)] (pre-industrial, current and future) and two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ambient and ambient + 4°C) treatments. We tested for relationships between physiological (stomatal conductance and Ψ(l)) and structural (leaf and sapwood areas (A(l), A(s)), height (h), xylem conductivity (k(s))) plant <span class="hlt">variables</span> as a function of the [CO(2)] and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments to assess whether structural <span class="hlt">variables</span> adjusted to maintain physiological homeostasis. Structural components (A(l), A(s), h) generally increased with [CO(2)] or <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while g(s) was negatively correlated with [CO(2)]. Contrary to Whitehead's hypothesis, Ψ(l) did not exhibit homeostasis in either species; elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were associated with more negative Ψ(l) in faster-growing E. saligna, and less negative Ψ(l) in slower-growing E. sideroxylon. Moreover, individual structural <span class="hlt">variables</span> were generally uncorrelated with Ψ(l). However, across both species, the integrated hydraulic property of leaf specific hydraulic conductance (K(l)) was positively correlated with an independent calculation of K(l) determined exclusively from leaf physiological <span class="hlt">variables</span>. These results suggest that physiological homeostasis may not apply to saplings exposed to global change drivers including [CO(2)] and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Nevertheless, Whitehead et al.'s formulation identified K(l) as a sensitive measure of plant structural-physiological co</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17832386','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17832386"><span>Interannual and interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 335 years of central England <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plaut, G; Ghil, M; Vautard, R</p> <p>1995-05-05</p> <p>Understanding the natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of climate is important for predicting its near-term evolution. Models of the oceans' thermohaline and wind-driven circulation show low-frequency oscillations. Long instrumental records can help validate the oscillatory behavior of these models. Singular spectrum analysis applied to the 335-year-long central England <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CET) record has identified climate oscillations with interannual (7- to 8-year) and interdecadal (15- and 25-year) periods, probably related to the North Atlantic's wind-driven and thermohaline circulation, respectively. Statistical prediction of oscillatory <span class="hlt">variability</span> shows CETs decreasing toward the end of this decade and rising again into the middle of the next.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33C1297H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33C1297H"><span>What are the Historical and Future Impacts of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Thermoelectric Power Plant Performance?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henry, C.; Pratson, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Current literature hypothesize that climate change-driven <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases will negatively affect the power production capacity of thermoelectric power plants, which currently produce ~88% of electricity used in the United States. This impact can occur through 1) warm cooling water that reduces the quantity of heat removed from the once-through (open-loop) steam system, 2) increased air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or humidity that decrease the amount of heat absorption in cooling towers/ponds of wet-recirculating (closed-loop) plants, and 3) environmental protection regulations that impose restrictions on both cooling water withdrawal volume and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of discharge. However, despite the widespread consensus that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and power generation are negatively related, different models yield a range of results and the magnitude of effects is uncertain. In this study, we test current literature's model predictions using historical data by assembling and analyzing a database of relevant parameters from distinct sources. We examine how daily and seasonal changes in cooling water, ambient air, and wet bulb <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have historically impacted coal and natural gas power plants in the U.S., focusing on 39 plants over a period up to 14 years. This allows us to assess how future changes in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may affect generation. Our results suggest that water and ambient air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have a lower impact on thermoelectric plant performance than previously predicted. Moreover, we find that recirculating power plants are more resilient to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> than are once-through plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDH10004L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDH10004L"><span>Scaling Analysis of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Between a Rotating Cylinder and a Turbulent Buoyant Jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lapointe, Caelan; Wimer, Nicholas T.; Hayden, Torrey R. S.; Christopher, Jason D.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Hamlington, Peter E.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Vortex shedding from a cylinder is a canonical problem in fluid dynamics and is a phenomenon whose behavior is well documented for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Industrial processes, by contrast, often have many moving parts that may also be exposed to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, resulting in highly complex flow fields. This complexity can, in turn, introduce velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations that may be undesirable for a particular industrial process. In this study, we specifically seek to understand and parameterize <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> between a rotating cylinder and a high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> turbulent buoyant jet. The relevance of this configuration for industrial processing is outlined, and velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields between the jet and cylinder are obtained using large eddy simulations (LES). In the LES, key parameters such as the angular velocity and diameter of the cylinder, the dimensions, velocity, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the turbulent buoyant jet, and the distance between the cylinder and the jet are varied. The resulting LES results are then used to develop scaling relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance near the cylinder and other problem parameters. Such scaling relations will be highly beneficial for the estimation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in industrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068156&hterms=Greenhouse+effect+Atmospheric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGreenhouse%2Beffect%252C%2BAtmospheric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068156&hterms=Greenhouse+effect+Atmospheric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGreenhouse%2Beffect%252C%2BAtmospheric"><span>Implications of solar irradiance <span class="hlt">variability</span> upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Robert B., III</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variabilily suggest that the mean, global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSemi..37d4010S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSemi..37d4010S"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature-variable</span> high-frequency dynamic modeling of PIN diode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shangbin, Ye; Jiajia, Zhang; Yicheng, Zhang; Yongtao, Yao</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The PIN diode model for high frequency dynamic transient characteristic simulation is important in conducted EMI analysis. The model should take junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span> into consideration since equipment usually works at a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this paper, a <span class="hlt">temperature-variable</span> high frequency dynamic model for the PIN diode is built, which is based on the Laplace-transform analytical model at constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The relationship between model parameters and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is expressed as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> functions by analyzing the physical principle of these parameters. A fast recovery power diode MUR1560 is chosen as the test sample and its dynamic performance is tested under inductive load by a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> chamber experiment, which is used for model parameter extraction and model verification. Results show that the model proposed in this paper is accurate for reverse recovery simulation with relatively small errors at the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 25 to 120 °C. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2011AA11A265).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3220603U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3220603U"><span>Seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions in the subarctic North Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ueno, Hiromichi; Oka, Eitarou; Suga, Toshio; Onishi, Hiroji</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Hydrographic data from profiling floats obtained during 2001-2004 were analyzed to study seasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions (T-invs) in the subarctic North Pacific (SNP). In the western SNP and Bering Sea, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minimum at the top of T-invs outcropped and was renewed every winter, causing a seasonal cycle in the magnitude of T-invs, with the maximum at the end of winter. In the Gulf of Alaska in the eastern SNP, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minimum outcropped in winters 2002 and 2004, but scarcely outcropped in winter 2003. Consequently, the magnitude of the T-invs showed remarkable interannual variation; its monotonic decrease through winter 2003 overwhelmed the seasonal cycle. The year-to-year variation of the magnitude of the T-invs in each region of the SNP was consistent with and thereby attributable to that of the winter sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=127523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=127523"><span>Energy-Based Dynamic Model for <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Batch Fermentation by Lactococcus lactis†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dougherty, Daniel P.; Breidt, Jr., Frederick; McFeeters, Roger F.; Lubkin, Sharon R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We developed a mechanistic mathematical model for predicting the progression of batch fermentation of cucumber juice by Lactococcus lactis under <span class="hlt">variable</span> environmental conditions. In order to overcome the deficiencies of presently available models, we use a dynamic energy budget approach to model the dependence of growth on present as well as past environmental conditions. When parameter estimates from independent experimental data are used, our model is able to predict the outcomes of three different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift scenarios. Sensitivity analyses elucidate how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affects the metabolism and growth of cells through all four stages of fermentation and reveal that there is a qualitative reversal in the factors limiting growth between low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our model has an applied use as a predictive tool in batch culture growth. It has the added advantage of being able to suggest plausible and testable mechanistic assumptions about the interplay between cellular energetics and the modes of inhibition by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and end product accumulation. PMID:11976123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1219073W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1219073W"><span>Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the atmospheric CO2 growth rate: relative contribution from precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, J.; Zeng, N.; Wang, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> (IAV) in atmospheric CO2 growth rate (CGR) is closely connected with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. However, sensitivities of CGR to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation remain largely uncertain. This paper analyzed the relationship between Mauna Loa CGR and tropical land climatic elements. We find that Mauna Loa CGR lags precipitation by 4 months with a correlation coefficient of -0.63, leads <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by 1 month (0.77), and correlates with soil moisture (-0.65) with zero lag. Additionally, precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are highly correlated (-0.66), with precipitation leading by 4-5 months. Regression analysis shows that sensitivities of Mauna Loa CGR to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation are 2.92 ± 0.20 Pg C yr-1 K-1 and -0.46 ± 0.07 Pg C yr-1 100 mm-1, respectively. Unlike some recent suggestions, these empirical relationships favor neither <span class="hlt">temperature</span> nor precipitation as the dominant factor of CGR IAV. We further analyzed seven terrestrial carbon cycle models, from the TRENDY project, to study the processes underlying CGR IAV. All models capture well the IAV of tropical land-atmosphere carbon flux (CFTA). Sensitivities of the ensemble mean CFTA to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation are 3.18 ± 0.11 Pg C yr-1 K-1 and -0.67 ± 0.04 Pg C yr-1 100 mm-1, close to Mauna Loa CGR. Importantly, the models consistently show the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in net primary productivity (NPP) dominates CGR, rather than soil respiration. Because NPP is largely driven by precipitation, this suggests a key role of precipitation in CGR IAV despite the higher CGR correlation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Understanding the relative contribution of CO2 sensitivity to precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has important implications for future carbon-climate feedback using such "emergent constraint".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.2339W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.2339W"><span>Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the atmospheric CO2 growth rate: roles of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jun; Zeng, Ning; Wang, Meirong</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> (IAV) in atmospheric CO2 growth rate (CGR) is closely connected with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. However, sensitivities of CGR to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation remain largely uncertain. This paper analyzed the relationship between Mauna Loa CGR and tropical land climatic elements. We find that Mauna Loa CGR lags precipitation by 4 months with a correlation coefficient of -0.63, leads <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by 1 month (0.77), and correlates with soil moisture (-0.65) with zero lag. Additionally, precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are highly correlated (-0.66), with precipitation leading by 4-5 months. Regression analysis shows that sensitivities of Mauna Loa CGR to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation are 2.92 ± 0.20 PgC yr-1 K-1 and -0.46 ± 0.07 PgC yr-1 100 mm-1, respectively. Unlike some recent suggestions, these empirical relationships favor neither <span class="hlt">temperature</span> nor precipitation as the dominant factor of CGR IAV. We further analyzed seven terrestrial carbon cycle models, from the TRENDY project, to study the processes underlying CGR IAV. All models capture well the IAV of tropical land-atmosphere carbon flux (CFTA). Sensitivities of the ensemble mean CFTA to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation are 3.18 ± 0.11 PgC yr-1 K-1 and -0.67 ± 0.04 PgC yr-1 100 mm-1, close to Mauna Loa CGR. Importantly, the models consistently show the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in net primary productivity (NPP) dominates CGR, rather than heterotrophic respiration. Because previous studies have proved that NPP is largely driven by precipitation in tropics, it suggests a key role of precipitation in CGR IAV despite the higher CGR correlation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Understanding the relative contribution of CO2 sensitivity to precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has important implications for future carbon-climate feedback using such ''emergent constraint''.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930864"><span>Elucidating the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and extremes on cereal croplands through remote sensing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duncan, John M A; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Remote sensing-derived wheat crop yield-climate models were developed to highlight the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during thermo-sensitive periods (anthesis and grain-filling; TSP) of wheat crop development. Specific questions addressed are: can the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation occurring during the TSP on wheat crop yield be detected using remote sensing data and what is the impact? Do crop critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds during TSP exist in real world cropping landscapes? These questions are tested in one of the world's major wheat breadbaskets of Punjab and Haryana, north-west India. Warming average minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the TSP had a greater negative impact on wheat crop yield than warming maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Warming minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the TSP explain a greater amount of variation in wheat crop yield than average growing season <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In complex real world cereal croplands there was a <span class="hlt">variable</span> yield response to critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold exceedance, specifically a more pronounced negative impact on wheat yield with increased warming events above 35 °C. The negative impact of warming increases with a later start-of-season suggesting earlier sowing can reduce wheat crop exposure harmful <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, even earlier sown wheat experienced <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced yield losses, which, when viewed in the context of projected warming up to 2100 indicates adaptive responses should focus on increasing wheat tolerance to heat. This study shows it is possible to capture the impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during the TSP on wheat crop yield in real world cropping landscapes using remote sensing data; this has important implications for monitoring the impact of climate change, variation and heat extremes on wheat croplands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26647147','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26647147"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 °C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014266','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014266"><span>The use of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magic-angle sample spinning in studies of fulvic acids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Earl, W.L.; Wershaw, R. L.; Thorn, K.A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Intensity distortions and poor signal to noise in the cross-polarization magic-angle sample spinning NMR of fulvic acids were investigated and attributed to molecular mobility in these ostensibly "solid" materials. We have shown that inefficiencies in cross polarization can be overcome by lowering the sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to about -60??C. These difficulties can be generalized to many other synthetic and natural products. The use of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and cross-polarization intensity as a function of contact time can yield valuable qualitative information which can aid in the characterization of many materials. ?? 1987.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810039233&hterms=sorghum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsorghum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810039233&hterms=sorghum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsorghum"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as related to cropping practice with implications for irrigation management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Reginato, R. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Idso, S. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Goettelman, R. C.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Crop stress measured using thermal infrared emission is evaluated with the stress-degree-day (SDD) concept. Throughout the season, the accumulation of SDD during the reproductive stage of growth is inversely related to yield. This relationship is shown for durum wheat, hard red winter wheat, barley, grain sorghum and soybeans. It is noted that SDD can be used to schedule irrigations for maximizing yields and for applying remotely sensed data to management of water resources. An airborne flight with a thermal-IR scanner was used to examine the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that may exist from one field to another and to determine realistic within-field <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. It was found that the airborne and the ground-based data agreed very well and that there was less <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the fields that were completely covered with crops than those of bare soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27419210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27419210"><span>Fractional Order Two-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dual-Phase-Lag Thermoelasticity with <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Thermal Conductivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mondal, Sudip; Mallik, Sadek Hossain; Kanoria, M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A new theory of two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> generalized thermoelasticity is constructed in the context of a new consideration of dual-phase-lag heat conduction with fractional orders. The theory is then adopted to study thermoelastic interaction in an isotropic homogenous semi-infinite generalized thermoelastic solids with <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conductivity whose boundary is subjected to thermal and mechanical loading. The basic equations of the problem have been written in the form of a vector-matrix differential equation in the Laplace transform domain, which is then solved by using a state space approach. The inversion of Laplace transforms is computed numerically using the method of Fourier series expansion technique. The numerical estimates of the quantities of physical interest are obtained and depicted graphically. Some comparisons of the thermophysical quantities are shown in figures to study the effects of the <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conductivity, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> discrepancy, and the fractional order parameter.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4897283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4897283"><span>Fractional Order Two-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dual-Phase-Lag Thermoelasticity with <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Thermal Conductivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mallik, Sadek Hossain; Kanoria, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A new theory of two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> generalized thermoelasticity is constructed in the context of a new consideration of dual-phase-lag heat conduction with fractional orders. The theory is then adopted to study thermoelastic interaction in an isotropic homogenous semi-infinite generalized thermoelastic solids with <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conductivity whose boundary is subjected to thermal and mechanical loading. The basic equations of the problem have been written in the form of a vector-matrix differential equation in the Laplace transform domain, which is then solved by using a state space approach. The inversion of Laplace transforms is computed numerically using the method of Fourier series expansion technique. The numerical estimates of the quantities of physical interest are obtained and depicted graphically. Some comparisons of the thermophysical quantities are shown in figures to study the effects of the <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermal conductivity, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> discrepancy, and the fractional order parameter. PMID:27419210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9145C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9145C"><span>Climate reconstructions of the NH mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: Can underestimation of trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> be avoided?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christiansen, Bo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Knowledge about the climate in the period before instrumental records are available is based on climate proxies obtained from tree-rings, sediments, ice-cores etc. Reconstructing the climate from such proxies is therefore necessary for studies of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and for placing recent climate change into a longer term perspective. More than a decade ago pioneering attempts at using a multi-proxy dataset to reconstruct the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resulted in the much published "hockey-stick"; a NH mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that did not vary much before the rapid increase in the last century. Subsequent reconstructions show some differences but the overall "hockey-stick" structure seems to be a persistent feature However, there has been an increasing awareness of the fact that the applied reconstruction methods underestimate the low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends. The recognition of the inadequacies of the reconstruction methods has to a large degree originated from pseudo-proxy studies, i.e., from long climate model experiments where artificial proxies have been generated and reconstructions based on these have been compared to the known model climate. It has also been found that reconstructions contain a large element of stochasticity which is revealed as broad distributions of skills. This means that it is very difficult to draw conclusions from a single or a few realizations. Climate reconstruction methods are based on variants of linear regression models relating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and proxies. In this contribution we review some of the theory of linear regression and error-in-<span class="hlt">variables</span> models to identify the sources of the underestimation of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Based on the gained insight we formulate a reconstruction method supposed to minimize this underestimation. The method is tested by applying it to an ensemble of surrogate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields based on two climate simulations covering the last 500 and 1000 years. Compared to the RegEM TTLS method and a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307939"><span>Holocene Southern Ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> west of the Antarctic Peninsula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shevenell, A E; Ingalls, A E; Domack, E W; Kelly, C</p> <p>2011-02-10</p> <p>The disintegration of ice shelves, reduced sea-ice and glacier extent, and shifting ecological zones observed around Antarctica highlight the impact of recent atmospheric and oceanic warming on the cryosphere. Observations and models suggest that oceanic and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations at Antarctica's margins affect global cryosphere stability, ocean circulation, sea levels and carbon cycling. In particular, recent climate changes on the Antarctic Peninsula have been dramatic, yet the Holocene climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> of this region is largely unknown, limiting our ability to evaluate ongoing changes within the context of historical <span class="hlt">variability</span> and underlying forcing mechanisms. Here we show that surface ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the continental margin of the western Antarctic Peninsula cooled by 3-4 °C over the past 12,000 years, tracking the Holocene decline of local (65° S) spring insolation. Our results, based on TEX(86) sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) proxy evidence from a marine sediment core, indicate the importance of regional summer duration as a driver of Antarctic seasonal sea-ice fluctuations. On millennial timescales, abrupt SST fluctuations of 2-4 °C coincide with globally recognized climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Similarities between our SSTs, Southern Hemisphere westerly wind reconstructions and El Niño/Southern Oscillation <span class="hlt">variability</span> indicate that present climate teleconnections between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the western Antarctic Peninsula strengthened late in the Holocene epoch. We conclude that during the Holocene, Southern Ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the western Antarctic Peninsula margin were tied to changes in the position of the westerlies, which have a critical role in global carbon cycling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...141....1O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...141....1O"><span>Wood density provides new opportunities for reconstructing past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> from southeastern Australian trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Donnell, Alison J.; Allen, Kathryn J.; Evans, Robert M.; Cook, Edward R.; Trouet, Valerie; Baker, Patrick J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Tree-ring based climate reconstructions have been critical for understanding past <span class="hlt">variability</span> and recent trends in climate worldwide, but they are scarce in Australia. This is particularly the case for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: only one tree-ring width based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction - based on Huon Pine trees from Mt Read, Tasmania - exists for Australia. Here, we investigate whether additional tree-ring parameters derived from Athrotaxis cupressoides trees growing in the same region have potential to provide robust proxy records of past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We measured wood properties, including tree-ring width (TRW), mean density, mean cell wall thickness (CWT), and tracheid radial diameter (TRD) of annual growth rings in Athrotaxis cupressoides, a long-lived, high-elevation conifer in central Tasmania, Australia. Mean density and CWT were strongly and negatively correlated with summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In contrast, the summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signal in TRW was weakly positive. The strongest climate signal in any of the tree-ring parameters was maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in January (mid-summer; JanTmax) and we chose this as the target climate <span class="hlt">variable</span> for reconstruction. The model that explained most of the variance in JanTmax was based on TRW and mean density as predictors. TRW and mean density provided complementary proxies with mean density showing greater high-frequency (inter-annual to multi-year) <span class="hlt">variability</span> and TRW showing more low-frequency (decadal to centennial-scale) <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The final reconstruction model is robust, explaining 55% of the variance in JanTmax, and was used to reconstruct JanTmax for the last five centuries (1530-2010 C.E.). The reconstruction suggests that the most recent 60 years have been warmer than average in the context of the last ca. 500 years. This unusually warm period is likely linked to a coincident increase in the intensity of the subtropical ridge and dominance of the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode in summer, which weaken the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..171a2092N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..171a2092N"><span>Helium exchange gas based <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> insert for cryogen-free magnet system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadaf, A.; Kar, S.; Kumar, M.; Dutt, R. N.; Das, A.; Singh, F.; Posa, L.; Datta, T. S.; Sarangi, S. K.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A cryocooler based <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inserts (VTI) has been designed and developed for measurement of physical properties at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and high magnetic field. The VTI, designed using the helium exchange gas principle, needs to be integrated in the warm bore of an existing 6 T cryogen free magnet system. The lowest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> achieved at the sample is 5 K at 34.5 kPa (∼5 psi) gaseous helium environment in the sample space. The equilibrium <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the sample, at the vacuum condition, is 8.7 K. The cool-down time of the sample at vacuum environment is 9 hrs whereas it takes 7 hrs in presence of helium exchange gas. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the sample was varied up to 325 K. The stability of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> achieved is less than 50 mK. The cooling and heating curves has been studied to estimate time required for a complete cycle of experiment. This paper will briefly present the design and performance of VTI system in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 5-325 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13..231T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13..231T"><span>Tropical forcing of increased Southern Ocean climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> revealed by a 140-year subantarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turney, Chris S. M.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; van Sebille, Erik; Thomas, Zoë; McGlone, Matt; Richardson, Sarah; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Fenwick, Pavla; Zunz, Violette; Goosse, Hugues; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Carter, Lionel; Lipson, Mathew; Jones, Richard T.; Harsch, Melanie; Clark, Graeme; Marzinelli, Ezequiel; Rogers, Tracey; Rainsley, Eleanor; Ciasto, Laura; Waterman, Stephanie; Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Visbeck, Martin</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Occupying about 14 % of the world's surface, the Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in ocean and atmosphere circulation, carbon cycling and Antarctic ice-sheet dynamics. Unfortunately, high interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> and a dearth of instrumental observations before the 1950s limits our understanding of how marine-atmosphere-ice domains interact on multi-decadal timescales and the impact of anthropogenic forcing. Here we integrate climate-sensitive tree growth with ocean and atmospheric observations on southwest Pacific subantarctic islands that lie at the boundary of polar and subtropical climates (52-54° S). Our annually resolved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction captures regional change since the 1870s and demonstrates a significant increase in <span class="hlt">variability</span> from the 1940s, a phenomenon predating the observational record. Climate reanalysis and modelling show a parallel change in tropical Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that generate an atmospheric Rossby wave train which propagates across a large part of the Southern Hemisphere during the austral spring and summer. Our results suggest that modern observed high interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> was established across the mid-twentieth century, and that the influence of contemporary equatorial Pacific <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may now be a permanent feature across the mid- to high latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6945F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6945F"><span>The potential of explaining low-frequency <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> by a linear model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fredriksen, Hege-Beate; Rypdal, Martin; Rypdal, Kristoffer</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Earth surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responds to both dynamical and stochastic forcing on a myriad of temporal scales, and the high thermal inertia of the ocean is the major reason for the time-delayed responses to the forcing. To understand how the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can have decadal- to millennial-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> - also in the absence of deterministic external forcing - it is crucial to understand the slow physical processes acting to redistribute heat between the surface and the deeper ocean layers. We investigate how well the multiscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be produced by a simple energy balance model, consisting of N vertically distributed boxes that exchange heat. In particular, we investigate the possibility of modeling the heat exchange in this N-box model using only linear terms. In addition, we investigate which criteria must be satisfied for this model to have a surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that is well approximated by the observed scaling properties. Potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from all vertical ocean layers in some CMIP5 models are used to estimate the parameters in the N-box model. Once we know these, we also have an estimate for the response/Green's function for global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Furthermore, we can estimate the expected <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations both in the case of purely stochastic forcing and with any deterministic forcing. We should however keep in mind that these model parameters are derived solely from complex climate models, so it is also necessary to test this N-box model against observation data in order to verify/reject it as a suitable model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......111F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......111F"><span>An analysis of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> along the Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franquist, Eric S.</p> <p></p> <p>Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in this region as rises in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest warming occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of <span class="hlt">variability</span> with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10832743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10832743"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of the breathing pattern in newborn rats: effects of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in normoxia or hypoxia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cameron, Y L; Merazzi, D; Mortola, J P</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>We hypothesized that the inter-breath <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the breathing pattern in newborn rats varied with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxygenation. Breathing pattern was recorded in 4-day-old rats by airflow plethysmography, during normoxia in warm (control) and cold conditions, or during hypoxia (inspired O2 = 10%) in warm or cold conditions, each lasting 15 min. The warm phase (36 degrees C) either preceded or followed the cold (24 degrees C). Time-domain analysis was applied to 500 continuous breaths recorded toward the end of each phase. All parameters describing the breathing pattern (instantaneous ventilation, tidal volume, and inspiratory and expiratory time) had lower <span class="hlt">variability</span> when the condition differed from control i.e. in cold or hypoxia, with no correlation with the absolute level of ventilation. The difference in <span class="hlt">variability</span> between warm-normoxia and the other conditions was reduced when cold preceded the warm phase. Gaseous metabolism was increased in cold because of thermogenesis. When the cold preceded the warm phase the increased thermogenesis partly persisted into the warm phase, raising the metabolic level. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the breathing pattern in newborn rats 1) does not depend on the absolute level of ventilation, and 2) is reduced by the increased chemical stimuli occurring during cold-hypermetabolism or hypoxia. In normoxia in warm condition metabolic and chemical stimuli are low, and the <span class="hlt">variability</span> is the highest. The results are in agreement with the clinical observations of a higher incidence of apneic episodes in infants during warm conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..85..213Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..85..213Y"><span>Analysis of characteristics in the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the East/Japan Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Young-Gyu; Min, HongSik; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hak</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>We examine the characteristics of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the East/Japan Sea (EJS) for the period of 1891-2005 using 1°×1° latitude and longitude resolution datasets from the Japan Meteorological Agency and the Hadley Centre. A significant warming trend that manifests itself more strongly over the southern part of the sea is observed. In addition, it is found in the EJS that warming during the boreal winter is more significant than that during the summer. The EJS SST index, obtained from the time series of monthly SST anomaly averaged over the western half of the EJS, where large SST anomaly standard deviation is observed, has a primary spectral density at a frequency longer than a decade and a secondary peak at the annual frequency band. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the low-frequency EJS SST, which is mostly explained by that during winter, is characterized by significant warming from the early 1940s to the late 1940s and from the mid-1980s to the present. Between the two warming periods, the EJS SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> is dominated by decadal fluctuations. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms of the low frequency EJS SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> in conjunction with atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span>. When the northwesterly winter monsoon becomes weaker (stronger), less (greater) amount of cold air is advected to the EJS. Sensible heat loss from the sea to the air becomes smaller (greater) producing a warm (cold) SST anomaly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS44A..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS44A..05H"><span>Indian Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and change since 1960s: forcing and process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, W.; Meehl, G. A.; Hu, A.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Indian Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> and change since 1960s are investigated using global coupled models,the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) and parallel climate model (PCM). Results from the CCSM3 and a series of PCM experiments are analyzed in order to understand the roles played by internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, human-induced warming, and external forcing in causing the SST variations. To consolidate the model results, the simple Ocean model Data Assimilation (SODA) products are also analyzed. The results suggest that the SST in both the south and north Indian Ocean (IO) has an increasing trend. Overlying on this trend is decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Consistent with previous studies, the warming trend results mainly from the human-induced increased green house gases, which increase downward longwave fluxes. Interestingly, warming of the upper tropical and subtropical basins is accomanied by cooling in higher-latitudes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region, which results from the reduced southward heat transports by weakened the subtropical cells (STCs). This colder, ACC water can enter the IO via deep layers in the south and then shoals upward to the thermocline layer in the tropical Indian Ocean, causing a distinct vertical structrure: with warming in the near surface and below the thermocline and cooling in the thermocline. The SST decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, however, is caused primarily by external forcing, due to a combined effect of surface heat flux and lateral heat transport. Internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the coupled system also plays a role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25392458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25392458"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and acidification <span class="hlt">variability</span> reduce physiological performance in the intertidal zone porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paganini, Adam W; Miller, Nathan A; Stillman, Jonathon H</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>We show here that increased <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pH synergistically negatively affects the energetics of intertidal zone crabs. Under future climate scenarios, coastal ecosystems are projected to have increased extremes of low tide-associated thermal stress and ocean acidification-associated low pH, the individual or interactive effects of which have yet to be determined. To characterize energetic consequences of exposure to increased <span class="hlt">variability</span> of pH and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we exposed porcelain crabs, Petrolisthes cinctipes, to conditions that simulated current and future intertidal zone thermal and pH environments. During the daily low tide, specimens were exposed to no, moderate or extreme heating, and during the daily high tide experienced no, moderate or extreme acidification. Respiration rate and cardiac thermal limits were assessed following 2.5 weeks of acclimation. Thermal variation had a larger overall effect than pH variation, though there was an interactive effect between the two environmental drivers. Under the most extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pH combination, respiration rate decreased while heat tolerance increased, indicating a smaller overall aerobic energy budget (i.e. a reduced O2 consumption rate) of which a larger portion is devoted to basal maintenance (i.e. greater thermal tolerance indicating induction of the cellular stress response). These results suggest the potential for negative long-term ecological consequences for intertidal ectotherms exposed to increased extremes in pH and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to reduced energy for behavior and reproduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20039097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20039097"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on cholera incidence in southeastern Africa, 1971-2006.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paz, Shlomit</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Africa has a number of climate-sensitive diseases. One that remains a threat to public health is cholera. The aquatic environment <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the most important ecological parameter governing the survival and growth of Vibrio cholerae. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. In light of this, a Poisson Regression Model has been used to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. The results showed a significant exponential increase of cholera rates in humans during the study period. In addition, it was found that the annual mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and SST at the local scale, as well as anomalies at hemispheric scales, had significant impact on the cholera incidence during the study period. Despite future uncertainty, the climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> has to be considered in predicting further cholera outbreaks in Africa. This may help to promote better, more efficient preparedness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939928"><span>How Vial Geometry <span class="hlt">Variability</span> Influences Heat Transfer and Product <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> During Freeze-Drying.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scutellà, Bernadette; Passot, Stéphanie; Bourlés, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Vial design features can play a significant role in heat transfer between the shelf and the product and, consequently, in the final quality of the freeze-dried product. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of some geometrical dimensions of a set of tubing vials commonly used for pharmaceuticals production on the distribution of the vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) and its potential consequence on product <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water and 8 combinations of chamber pressure (4-50 Pa) and shelf <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (-40°C and 0°C) in 2 freeze-dryers. Kv values were individually determined for 100 vials located in the center of the shelf. Vial bottom curvature depth and contact area between the vial and the shelf were carefully measured for 120 vials and these data were used to calculate Kv distribution due to <span class="hlt">variability</span> in vial geometry. At low pressures commonly used for sensitive products (below 10 Pa), the vial-shelf contact area appeared crucial for explaining Kv heterogeneity and was found to generate, in our study, a product <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution of approximately 2°C during sublimation. Our approach provides quantitative guidelines for defining vial geometry tolerance specifications and product <span class="hlt">temperature</span> safety margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136547','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136547"><span>Demonstration of a <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Phase Turbine Power System for Low <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Geothermal Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hays, Lance G</p> <p>2014-07-07</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">variable</span> phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, <span class="hlt">variable</span> phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> geothermal resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950053271&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950053271&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span>Global-scale modes of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on interannual to century timescales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Using 100 years of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data, we have performed a singluar value decomposition of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in narrow frequency bands to isolate coherent spatio-temporal modes of global climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Statistical significance is determined from confidence limits obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Secular variance is dominated by a globally coherent trend; with nearly all grid points warming in phase at varying amplitude. A smaller, but significant, share of the secular variance corresponds to a pattern dominated by warming and subsequent cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic with a roughly centennial timescale. Spatial patterns associated with significant peaks in variance within a broad period range from 2.8 to 5.7 years exhibit characteristic El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) patterns. A recent transition to a regime of higher ENSO frequency is suggested by our analysis. An interdecadal mode in the 15-to-18 years period and a mode centered at 7-to-8 years period both exhibit predominantly a North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pattern. A potentially significant decadal mode centered on 11-to-12 years period also exhibits an NAO <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pattern and may be modulated by the century-scale North Atlantic <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M"><span>Ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: seasonal cycle and daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> from in-situ and satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST <span class="hlt">variability</span> on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical <span class="hlt">variability</span>. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA Glob<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> project which aims at applying surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in models in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069516&hterms=Natural+gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DNatural%2Bgas','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069516&hterms=Natural+gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DNatural%2Bgas"><span><span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> cryogenic trap for the separation of gas mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Des Marais, D. J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The paper describes a continuous <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> U-shaped cold trap which can both purify vacuum-line combustion products for subsequent stable isotopic analysis and isolate the methane and ethane constituents of natural gases. The canister containing the trap is submerged in liquid nitrogen, and, as the gas cools, the gas mixture components condense sequentially according to their relative vapor pressures. After the about 12 min required for the bottom of the trap to reach the liquid-nitrogen <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, passage of electric current through the resistance wire wrapped around the tubing covering the U-trap permits distillation of successive gas components at optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Data on the separation achieved for two mixtures, the first being typical vacuum-line combustion products of geochemical samples such as rocks and the second being natural gas, are presented, and the thermal behavior and power consumption are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000101592','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000101592"><span>Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Accelerations. Part 2; <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Taril; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. LHP's are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. <span class="hlt">Variable</span> accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It has been known that in stationary tests the LHP operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when the compensation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is not actively controlled. Results of this test program indicate that any change in the accelerating force will result in a chance in the LHP operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through its influence on the fluid distribution in the evaporator, condenser and compensation chamber. However, the effect is not universal, rather it is a function of other test conditions. A steady, constant acceleration may result in an increase or decrease of the operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while a periodic spin will lead to a quasi-steady operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a sufficient time interval. In addition, an accelerating force may lead to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> hysteresis and changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation. In spite of all these effects, the LHP continued to operate without any problems in all tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1793S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP21B1793S"><span>Deglacial Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation <span class="hlt">Variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Hertzberg, J. E.; Them, T. R.; Parker, A. O.; Chang, P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments conducted under both the present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) <span class="hlt">variability</span> is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate change through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; Chang et al., 2008; Chiang et al., 2008; Otto-Bliesner and Brady, 2009). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). To test the hypothesis that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the TNA is coupled to AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstruct Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and δ18O records from both surface (Globigerinoides ruber, upper mixed layer) and sub-thermocline dwelling (Globorotalia truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth) planktonic foraminifera, as well as from the benthic species Cibicidoides pachyderma in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33 °N, 66.63 °W; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Reconstructed sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5 °C during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, LGM subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as much as 2.5 °C warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> characterized by abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as large as 4-5 °C. In addition, benthic Mg/Ca ratios during the YD and H1 increase by 50% relative to Holocene intervals, suggesting significant warming extending to 1079 m water depth across these events. Comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC <span class="hlt">variability</span> (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21C1344S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21C1344S"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Rainfall <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Northern Andes Over the Past Two Millennia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shanahan, T. M.; Bixler, C. W.; Mora, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies of tropical glaciers have shown that most are retreating rapidly, with some of the most dramatic changes occurring since the mid-1970s, most likely as a result of increasing global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, a longer-term perspective is needed to place these changes in the context of natural climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. To better understand the climatological factors driving long-term variations in the mass balance of tropical glaciers, we reconstructed changes in precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the northern tropical Andes using variations in the hydrogen isotope composition of sedimentary leaf waxes and branched GDGT distributions in a high-resolution varved sediment record from Lago Chingaza, Colombia. Br-GDGT derived <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are significantly correlated with instrumental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data and indicate that recent warming in the northern tropical Andes is unprecedented over the past two millennia. Furthermore, the magnitude of warming since the Little Ice Age is substantially larger than suggested by high latitude <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions. Hydrogen isotope data indicated that colder conditions during the Little Ice Age were accompanied by a decrease in rainfall, likely associated with a southward shift in the position of the ITCZ. Over the past few centuries, warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were accompanied by an increase in rainfall and a northward expansion of the tropical rainbelt. Together, these data suggest that the dominant control on the retreat of Andean glaciers has been the unprecedented rate and magnitude of recent warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51C0764B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51C0764B"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and hydrologic <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and hydrologic <span class="hlt">variability</span>. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, was used to reconstruct surface water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.122...86B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.122...86B"><span>Influence of cosmic-ray <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the monsoon rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Badruddin; Aslam, O. P. M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We study the role of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in influencing the rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) season. We find that on an average during 'drought' (low ISMR) periods in India, GCR flux is decreasing, and during 'flood' (high ISMR) periods, GCR flux is increasing. The results of our analysis suggest for a possibility that the decreasing GCR flux during the summer monsoon season in India may suppress the rainfall. On the other hand, increasing GCR flux may enhance the rainfall. We suspect that in addition to real environmental conditions, significant levitation/dispersion of low clouds and hence reduced possibility of collision/coalescence to form raindrops suppresses the rainfall during decreasing GCR flux in monsoon season. On the other hand, enhanced collision/coalescence efficiency during increasing GCR flux due to electrical effects may contribute to enhancing the rainfall. Based on the observations, we put forward the idea that, under suitable environmental conditions, changing GCR flux may influence precipitation by suppressing/enhancing it, depending upon the decreasing/increasing nature of GCR flux <span class="hlt">variability</span> during monsoon season in India, at least. We further note that the rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span> is inversely related to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during ISMR season. We suggest an explanation, although speculative, how a decreasing/increasing GCR flux can influence the rainfall and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We speculate that the proposed hypothesis, based on the Indian climate data can be extended to whole tropical and sub-tropical belt, and that it may contribute to global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a significant way. If correct, our hypothesis has important implication for the sun - climate link.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......344S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......344S"><span>Analysis and modeling of decadal and long-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> of coastal California summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sequera, Pedro</p> <p></p> <p>Summer average daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) trends for 1950-2010 were calculated for 241 locations along all of California by use of daily max <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from NWS Coop sites to understand the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> of the previously reported summer coastal-cooling. Results show that coastal-cooling appears almost continuously throughout the California coast in locations open to marine air penetrations for the period of 1970-2010. Correlations with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Index show that coastal-cooling disappears during the increasing PDO period (1950-1985). The most influential factor(s) on California summer coastal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, i.e., Greenhouse Gas (GHG) warming, PDO and changes in Land Cover/Land Use (LCLU), were determined through numerical atmospheric modeling using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model. Combined results from observations, reanalysis and modeling lead to the conclusion that PDO is the main mechanism of decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of California summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, dominating over global GHG-warming effects. PDO affects both coastal and inland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by controlling the position and intensity of the two dominating global circulation patterns on California summer: the semi-permanent Pacific High Pressure System and the continental Thermal-Low. Coastal cooling will rise on decreasing PDO periods, where the warming of inland regions and cooling of nearshore Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (SSTs) results in an increase in sea-breeze activity. Coastal-warming results in increasing periods of the PDO. Global warming induced by GHG and hyper-urbanization were found to be major sources of coastal warming over complete PDO cycles (1950-2010).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124.1145W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124.1145W"><span>Local-scale spatial modelling for interpolating climatic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span> to predict agricultural plant suitability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, Mathew A.; Hall, Andrew; Kidd, Darren; Minansy, Budiman</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Assessment of local spatial climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span> is important in the planning of planting locations for horticultural crops. This study investigated three regression-based calibration methods (i.e. traditional versus two optimized methods) to relate short-term 12-month data series from 170 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> loggers and 4 weather station sites with data series from nearby long-term Australian Bureau of Meteorology climate stations. The techniques trialled to interpolate climatic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span>, such as frost risk, growing degree days (GDDs) and chill hours, were regression kriging (RK), regression trees (RTs) and random forests (RFs). All three calibration methods produced accurate results, with the RK-based calibration method delivering the most accurate validation measures: coefficients of determination ( R 2) of 0.92, 0.97 and 0.95 and root-mean-square errors of 1.30, 0.80 and 1.31 °C, for daily minimum, daily maximum and hourly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively. Compared with the traditional method of calibration using direct linear regression between short-term and long-term stations, the RK-based calibration method improved R 2 and reduced root-mean-square error (RMSE) by at least 5 % and 0.47 °C for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, 1 % and 0.23 °C for daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 3 % and 0.33 °C for hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Spatial modelling indicated insignificant differences between the interpolation methods, with the RK technique tending to be the slightly better method due to the high degree of spatial autocorrelation between logger sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..88...14B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..88...14B"><span>Influence of spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of subsurface soil moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on vapour intrusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bekele, Dawit N.; Naidu, Ravi; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A comprehensive field study was conducted at a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents, mainly trichloroethylene (TCE), to investigate the influence of subsurface soil moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on vapour intrusion (VI) into built structures. Existing approaches to predict the risk of VI intrusion into buildings assume homogeneous or discrete layers in the vadose zone through which TCE migrates from an underlying source zone. In reality, the subsurface of the majority of contaminated sites will be subject to significant variations in moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Detailed site-specific data were measured contemporaneously to evaluate the impact of spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of subsurface soil properties on VI exposure assessment. The results revealed that indoor air vapour concentrations would be affected by spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of subsurface soil moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The monthly monitoring of soil-gas concentrations over a period of one year at a depth of 3 m across the study site demonstrated significant variation in TCE vapour concentrations, which ranged from 480 to 629,308 μg/m3. Soil-gas wells at 1 m depth exhibited high seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in TCE vapour concentrations with a coefficient of variation 1.02 in comparison with values of 0.88 and 0.74 in 2 m and 3 m wells, respectively. Contour plots of the soil-gas TCE plume during wet and dry seasons showed that the plume moved across the site, hence locations of soil-gas monitoring wells for human risk assessment is a site specific decision. Subsurface soil-gas vapour plume characterisation at the study site demonstrates that assessment for VI is greatly influenced by subsurface soil properties such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture that fluctuate with the seasons of the year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21925758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21925758"><span>Intraspecific <span class="hlt">variability</span> of growth and patulin production of 79 Penicillium expansum isolates at two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia</p> <p>2011-12-02</p> <p>Penicillium expansum is the main species responsible for patulin production in apples and pears. Generally, fruit is stored at suboptimal conditions for mould growth and this situation could influence on the intra-species <span class="hlt">variability</span> in both capability for growth and mycotoxin production. The aim of this research was to assess the impact of suboptimal environmental conditions on the intra-specific <span class="hlt">variability</span> of P. expansum growth and patulin production using seventy nine isolates of this mould. Petri dishes with Apple Concentrate Agar Medium (ACAM) were inoculated centrally and incubated at two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, one near optimal (20 °C) and the other representative of suboptimal cold storage (1 °C). For each condition, 10 Petri dishes were inoculated, and colony growth and patulin production was measured over time. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences among growth rate (μ) and lag phase (λ) within the seventy nine assayed isolates. Coefficients of variation revealed a wider dispersion of μ (mm/day) and λ (days) at 1 °C compared with 20 °C. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among patulin levels (ng/mm²) for the different conditions, values being lower at the lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Coefficients of variation revealed a wider dispersion of mycotoxin production at 1 °C. In order to address the strain <span class="hlt">variability</span> in growth initiation and prove the well-established notion of reducing patulin production in foods by preventing fungal growth, a greater number of strains should be included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044570','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044570"><span>Streams in the urban heat island: spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Somers, Kayleigh A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Grace, James B.; Hassett, Brooke A.; Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Wang, Siyi; Urban, Dean L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Streams draining urban heat islands tend to be hotter than rural and forested streams at baseflow because of warmer urban air and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, paved surfaces, and decreased riparian canopy. Urban infrastructure efficiently routes runoff over hot impervious surfaces and through storm drains directly into streams and can lead to rapid, dramatic increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Thermal regimes affect habitat quality and biogeochemical processes, and changes can be lethal if <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceed upper tolerance limits of aquatic fauna. In summer 2009, we collected continuous (10-min interval) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data in 60 streams spanning a range of development intensity in the Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. The 5 most urbanized streams averaged 21.1°C at baseflow, compared to 19.5°C in the 5 most forested streams. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in urban streams rose as much as 4°C during a small regional storm, whereas the same storm led to extremely small to no changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in forested streams. Over a kilometer of stream length, baseflow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied by as much as 10°C in an urban stream and as little as 2°C in a forested stream. We used structural equation modeling to explore how reach- and catchment-scale attributes interact to explain maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and magnitudes of storm-flow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surges. The best predictive model of baseflow <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (R2  =  0.461) included moderately strong pathways directly (extent of development and road density) and indirectly, as mediated by reach-scale factors (canopy closure and stream width), from catchment-scale factors. The strongest influence on storm-flow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surges appeared to be % development in the catchment. Reach-scale factors, such as the extent of riparian forest and stream width, had little mitigating influence (R2  =  0.448). Stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an essential, but overlooked, aspect of the urban stream syndrome and is affected by reach-scale habitat <span class="hlt">variables</span>, catchment-scale urbanization</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...629537W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...629537W"><span>Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical tropopause <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Wuke; Matthes, Katja; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Latif, Mojib</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Tropopause <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (TPTs) control the amount of stratospheric water vapour, which influences chemistry, radiation and circulation in the stratosphere, and is also an important driver of surface climate. Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and long-term trends in tropical TPTs as well as stratospheric water vapour are largely unknown. Here, we present for the first time evidence, from reanalysis and state-of-the-art climate model simulations, of a link between decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in tropical TPTs and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The negative phase of the PDO is associated with anomalously cold sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) in the tropical east and central Pacific, which enhance the zonal SST gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The latter drives a stronger Walker Circulation and a weaker Hadley Circulation, which leads to less convection and subsequently a warmer tropopause over the central equatorial Pacific. Over the North Pacific, positive sea level pressure anomalies occur, which damp vertical wave propagation into the stratosphere. This in turn slows the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and hence warms the tropical tropopause, enabling more water vapour to enter the stratosphere. The reverse chain of events holds for the positive phase of the PDO. Such ocean-troposphere-stratosphere interactions may provide an important feedback on the Earth’s global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4941568','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4941568"><span>Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical tropopause <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Wuke; Matthes, Katja; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Latif, Mojib</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tropopause <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (TPTs) control the amount of stratospheric water vapour, which influences chemistry, radiation and circulation in the stratosphere, and is also an important driver of surface climate. Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and long-term trends in tropical TPTs as well as stratospheric water vapour are largely unknown. Here, we present for the first time evidence, from reanalysis and state-of-the-art climate model simulations, of a link between decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in tropical TPTs and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The negative phase of the PDO is associated with anomalously cold sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) in the tropical east and central Pacific, which enhance the zonal SST gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The latter drives a stronger Walker Circulation and a weaker Hadley Circulation, which leads to less convection and subsequently a warmer tropopause over the central equatorial Pacific. Over the North Pacific, positive sea level pressure anomalies occur, which damp vertical wave propagation into the stratosphere. This in turn slows the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and hence warms the tropical tropopause, enabling more water vapour to enter the stratosphere. The reverse chain of events holds for the positive phase of the PDO. Such ocean-troposphere-stratosphere interactions may provide an important feedback on the Earth’s global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:27404090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27404090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27404090"><span>Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of tropical tropopause <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Wuke; Matthes, Katja; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Latif, Mojib</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Tropopause <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (TPTs) control the amount of stratospheric water vapour, which influences chemistry, radiation and circulation in the stratosphere, and is also an important driver of surface climate. Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and long-term trends in tropical TPTs as well as stratospheric water vapour are largely unknown. Here, we present for the first time evidence, from reanalysis and state-of-the-art climate model simulations, of a link between decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in tropical TPTs and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The negative phase of the PDO is associated with anomalously cold sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) in the tropical east and central Pacific, which enhance the zonal SST gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The latter drives a stronger Walker Circulation and a weaker Hadley Circulation, which leads to less convection and subsequently a warmer tropopause over the central equatorial Pacific. Over the North Pacific, positive sea level pressure anomalies occur, which damp vertical wave propagation into the stratosphere. This in turn slows the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and hence warms the tropical tropopause, enabling more water vapour to enter the stratosphere. The reverse chain of events holds for the positive phase of the PDO. Such ocean-troposphere-stratosphere interactions may provide an important feedback on the Earth's global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..927B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..927B"><span>European seasonal mortality and influenza incidence due to winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballester, Joan; Rodó, Xavier; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François Richard</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Recent studies have vividly emphasized the lack of consensus on the degree of vulnerability (see ref. ) of European societies to current and future winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Here we consider several climate factors, influenza incidence and daily numbers of deaths to characterize the relationship between winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality in a very large ensemble of European regions representing more than 400 million people. Analyses highlight the strong association between the year-to-year fluctuations in winter mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality, with higher seasonal cases during harsh winters, in all of the countries except the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Belgium. This spatial distribution contrasts with the well-documented latitudinal orientation of the dependency between daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality within the season. A theoretical framework is proposed to reconcile the apparent contradictions between recent studies, offering an interpretation to regional differences in the vulnerability to daily, seasonal and long-term winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Despite the lack of a strong year-to-year association between winter mean values in some countries, it can be concluded that warmer winters will contribute to the decrease in winter mortality everywhere in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13C1097B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13C1097B"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> sensitivity of US maize yield to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across developmental stages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, E. E.; Huybers, P. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The sensitivity of maize to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> has been widely demonstrated. Furthermore, field work has indicated that reproductive development stages are particularly sensitive to stress, but this relationship has not been quantified across a wide geographic region. Here, the relationship between maize yield and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations is examined as a function of developmental stage. US state-level data from the National Agriculture Statistics Service provide dates for six growing stages: planting, silking, doughing, dented, mature, and harvested. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> that correspond to each developmental stage are then inferred from a network of weather station observations interpolated to the county level, and a multiple linear regression technique is employed to estimate the sensitivity of county yield outcomes to variations in growing-degree days and an analogous measure of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> referred to as killing-degree days. Uncertainties in the transition times between county-level growth stages are accounted for. Results indicate that the silking and dented stages are generally the most sensitive to killing degree days, with silking the most sensitive stage in the US South and dented the most sensitive in the US North. These <span class="hlt">variable</span> patterns of sensitivity aid in interpreting which weather events are of greatest significance to maize yields and provide some insight into how shifts in planting time or changes in developmental timing would influence the risks associated with exposure to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990064360&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DChlorine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990064360&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DChlorine"><span>Ozone Depletion at Mid-Latitudes: Coupling of Volcanic Aerosols and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> to Anthropogenic Chlorine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Solomon, S.; Portmann, R. W.; Garcia, R. R.; Randel, W.; Wu, F.; Nagatani, R.; Gleason, J.; Thomason, L.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Satellite observations of total ozone at 40-60 deg N are presented from a variety of instruments over the time period 1979-1997. These reveal record low values in 1992-3 (after Pinatubo) followed by partial but incomplete recovery. The largest post-Pinatubo reductions and longer-term trends occur in spring, providing a critical test for chemical theories of ozone depletion. The observations are shown to be consistent with current understanding of the chemistry of ozone depletion when changes in reactive chlorine and stratospheric aerosol abundances are considered along with estimates of wave-driven fluctuations in stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived from global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> fluctuations are shown to make significant contributions to model calculated northern mid-latitude ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chlorine activation on liquid sulfate aerosols at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 200-210 K (depending upon water vapor pressure), particularly after major volcanic eruptions. Future mid-latitude ozone recovery will hence depend not only on chlorine recovery but also on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and/or <span class="hlt">variability</span>, volcanic activity, and any trends in stratospheric sulfate aerosol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0712K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0712K"><span>The effect of light radiation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the invasion of marine fouling species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, T.; Micheli, F.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Climate change can alter the community structure as species which have adapted to the changed climate can compete better with other species. It can also influence the recruitment and invasion success of marine introduced species. Climate change involves not only global warming but also global dimming. However, it was not tested which of warming or dimming factors more significantly influence the invasion of marine species. To test this, we manipulated both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and light radiation by deploying different shading devices (black, white, transparent, and no treatment) for recruitment tiles in the warmer region where the species invasion rate is high. We compared the species frequency and coverage between shaded and non-shaded treatments. Interestingly, under opaque white plates where light radiation is lower than under transparent plates but the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is higher than under black plates, had the highest frequency and coverage of invasive fouling species. The recruitment tiles under black plates got second higher invasion of exotic species. We also deployed recruitment tiles in 14 different sites to determine if <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influences the success of invasive species. The coverage of invasive species over native species increased significantly with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results suggest that both low radiation and higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> facilitates the success of species invasion in the intertidal region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS14A..05B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS14A..05B"><span>Using skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> to quantify surface and subsurface estuarine processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brumer, S. E.; Zappa, C. J.; Anderson, S. P.; Dugan, J. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>IR imagery is a unique tool to study nearshore processes. It not only provides a measure for surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also permits the determination of surface currents. Variations in the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> arise from disruption and renewal of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at the air-water interface, or due to turbulent eddies generated from below. The TBL plays a critical role in nearshore processes, in particular air-water heat and gas exchanges. It is essential to characterize the spatio-temporal scales of the disruption of the TBL and the extent to which it is renewed, as well as to understand how environmental factors relate to skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Furthermore, it is necessary to evaluate the ability not only to derive surface currents, but also to infer subsurface properties and processes from IR images. Estuarine and inlet environments such as the Hudson River are more complex, with multitude of additional processes at play, compared to the open ocean. For instance, the atmospheric boundary layer is complicated by the fact that that air is moving over both land and water, flow is fetch limited and there is orographic steering of winds. In addition, the subsurface turbulence is enhanced due to the bottom boundary layer. Here, high resolution IR imagery was collected from a ship stationed roughly 12 miles upstream of the New York Harbor in November 2010. On a nearby piling, several in situ instruments were mounted both above and below water, measuring environmental parameters such as wind speed, heat fluxes, air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity as well as subsurface currents, turbulence, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity. An IR imager installed on the cliff overlooking the river provided a complete view of the experiment area, with both the ship and the steel piling in its field of view. This study aims not only to characterize the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>, but also to assess the validity of the various models for surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805213"><span>Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 21st century <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Erickson, David J; Branstetter, Marcia; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and <span class="hlt">variability</span>, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.5497L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.5497L"><span>NAO implicated as a predictor of Northern Hemisphere mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Jin, Fei-Fei</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>twentieth century Northern Hemisphere mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (NHT) is characterized by a multidecadal warming-cooling-warming pattern followed by a flat trend since about 2000 (recent warming hiatus). Here we demonstrate that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is implicated as a useful predictor of NHT multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Observational analysis shows that the NAO leads both the detrended NHT and oceanic Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) by 15-20 years. Theoretical analysis illuminates that the NAO precedes NHT multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> through its delayed effect on the AMO due to the large thermal inertia associated with slow oceanic processes. An NAO-based linear model is therefore established to predict the NHT, which gives an excellent hindcast for NHT in 1971-2011 with the recent flat trend well predicted. NHT in 2012-2027 is predicted to fall slightly over the next decades, due to the recent NAO decadal weakening that temporarily offsets the anthropogenically induced warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/50809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/50809"><span>Interannual and interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 335 years of central England <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Plaut, G.; Ghil, M.; Vautard, R.</p> <p>1995-05-05</p> <p>Understanding the natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of climate is important for predicting its near-term evolution. Models of the oceans` thermohaline and wind-driven circulation show low-frequency oscillations. Long instrumental records can help validate the oscillatory behavior of these models. Singular spectrum analysis applied to the 335-year-long central England <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CET) record has identified climate oscillations with interannual (7- to 8-year) and interdecadal (15- and 25-year) periods, probably related to the North Atlantic`s wind-driven and thermohaline circulation, respectively. Statistical prediction of oscillatory <span class="hlt">variability</span> shows CETs decreasing toward the end of this decade and rising again into the middle of the next. 42 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/982146','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/982146"><span>Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic <span class="hlt">variability</span> in 21st century <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and <span class="hlt">variability</span>, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A14B..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A14B..07S"><span>North American west coast summer low cloudiness: Broadscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Iacobellis, S.; Cayan, D. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Six decades of observations at 20 coastal airports, from Alaska to southern California, reveal coherent interannual to interdecadal variation of coastal low cloudiness (CLC) from summer to summer over this broad region. The leading mode of CLC <span class="hlt">variability</span> represents coherent variation, accounting for nearly 40% of the total CLC variance spanning 1950-2012. This leading mode and the majority of individual airports exhibit decreased low cloudiness from the earlier to the later part of the record. Exploring climatic controls on CLC, we identify North Pacific Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> anomalies, largely in the form of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as well correlated with, and evidently helping to organize, the coherent patterns of summer coastal cloud <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Links from the PDO to summer CLC appear a few months in advance of the summer. These associations hold up consistently in interannual and interdecadal frequencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.3307S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.3307S"><span>North American west coast summer low cloudiness: Broadscale <span class="hlt">variability</span> associated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwartz, Rachel E.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Six decades of observations at 20 coastal airports, from Alaska to southern California, reveal coherent interannual to interdecadal variation of coastal low cloudiness (CLC) from summer to summer over this broad region. The leading mode of CLC <span class="hlt">variability</span> represents coherent variation, accounting for nearly 40% of the total CLC variance spanning 1950-2012. This leading mode and the majority of individual airports exhibit decreased low cloudiness from the earlier to the later part of the record. Exploring climatic controls on CLC, we identify North Pacific Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> anomalies, largely in the form of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as well correlated with, and evidently helping to organize, the coherent patterns of summer coastal cloud <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Links from the PDO to summer CLC appear a few months in advance of the summer. These associations hold up consistently in interannual and interdecadal frequencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4312217M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4312217M"><span>The impact of Labrador Sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span> on density and the subpolar AMOC in a decadal prediction system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menary, Matthew B.; Hermanson, Leon; Dunstone, Nick J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Labrador Sea density <span class="hlt">variability</span> is important for Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) dynamics and hence decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Atlantic. We investigate whether <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or salinity dominate top 500 m interannual Labrador Sea density <span class="hlt">variability</span> in gridded observations, an assimilation of the observations, and a set of multiannual hindcasts. We find that salinity dominates in the observations and assimilation. In the hindcasts salinity remains dominant for the first year but from year three these revert to the same <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dominance seen in the underlying climate model. This is due to damping of the interannual salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span>, possibly caused by unrealistically large convection that develops. Crucially, the hindcasts have high correlation skill in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/salinity throughout, but no skill in density, dynamic sea level, or the subpolar AMOC due to the incorrect drivers. This highlights the importance of correctly simulating both the sign and magnitude of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/salinity <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a prediction system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..701E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..701E"><span>Summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> across four urban neighborhoods in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ellis, Kelsey N.; Hathaway, Jon M.; Mason, Lisa Reyes; Howe, David A.; Epps, Thomas H.; Brown, Vincent M.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The urban heat island (UHI) is a well-documented effect of urbanization on local climate, identified by higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> compared to surrounding areas, especially at night and during the warm season. The details of a UHI are city-specific, and microclimates may even exist within a given city. Thus, investigating the spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of a city's UHI is an ongoing and critical research need. We deploy ten weather stations across Knoxville, Tennessee, to analyze the city's UHI and its differential impacts across urban neighborhoods: two each in four neighborhoods, one in more dense tree cover and one in less dense tree cover, and one each in downtown Knoxville and Ijams Nature Center that serve as control locations. Three months of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (beginning 2 July 2014) are analyzed using paired-sample t tests and a three-way analysis of variance. Major findings include the following: (1) Within a given neighborhood, tree cover helps negate daytime heat (resulting in up to 1.19 ∘C lower maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), but does not have as large of an influence on minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; (2) largest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between neighborhoods occur during the day (0.38-1.16 ∘C difference), but larger differences between neighborhoods and the downtown control occur at night (1.04-1.88 ∘C difference); (3) presiding weather (i.e., air mass type) has a significant, consistent impact on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a given city, and lacks the differential impacts found at a larger-scale in previous studies; (4) distance from city center does not impact <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as much as land use factors. This is a preliminary step towards informing local planning with a scientific understanding of how mitigation strategies may help minimize the UHI and reduce the effects of extreme weather on public health and well-being.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21830713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21830713"><span>An evaluation of the effect of recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the prediction of coral bleaching events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donner, Simon D</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Over the past 30 years, warm thermal disturbances have become commonplace on coral reefs worldwide. These periods of anomalous sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) can lead to coral bleaching, a breakdown of the symbiosis between the host coral and symbiotic dinoflagellates which reside in coral tissue. The onset of bleaching is typically predicted to occur when the SST exceeds a local climatological maximum by 1 degrees C for a month or more. However, recent evidence suggests that the threshold at which bleaching occurs may depend on thermal history. This study uses global SST data sets (HadISST and NOAA AVHRR) and mass coral bleaching reports (from Reefbase) to examine the effect of historical SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the accuracy of bleaching prediction. Two <span class="hlt">variability</span>-based bleaching prediction methods are developed from global analysis of seasonal and interannual SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The first method employs a local bleaching threshold derived from the historical <span class="hlt">variability</span> in maximum annual SST to account for spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in past thermal disturbance frequency. The second method uses a different formula to estimate the local climatological maximum to account for the low seasonality of SST in the tropics. The new prediction methods are tested against the common globally fixed threshold method using the observed bleaching reports. The results find that estimating the bleaching threshold from local historical SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> delivers the highest predictive power, but also a higher rate of Type I errors. The second method has the lowest predictive power globally, though regional analysis suggests that it may be applicable in equatorial regions. The historical data analysis suggests that the bleaching threshold may have appeared to be constant globally because the magnitude of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in maximum SST is similar for many of the world's coral reef ecosystems. For example, the results show that a SST anomaly of 1 degrees C is equivalent to 1.73-2.94 standard</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050175755','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050175755"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Mossbauer Data Acquisition: Laboratory-based and MER A Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rothstein, Y.; Sklute, E. C.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Mossbauer spectrometers on the Spirit and Opportunity rovers have played a valuable role in identifying mineralogy at both the Gusev and Meridiani landing sites. Key to the application of Mossbauer results is the issue of how accurately the peak positions, on which the mineral identifications are based, can be determined. Remote Mossbauer spectroscopy has by necessity some unusual experimental constraints that may influence the confidence with which peak positions can be fit. We present here an analysis of the effects of <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and short duration run times on spectral resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15697771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15697771"><span>Behavior of the critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Ising thin films with <span class="hlt">variable</span> surface magnetic moments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Monroe, James L</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Properties of magnetic thin films are of considerable interest both for applied as well as theoretical reasons. I study the behavior of Ising thin films through the use of layered Bethe lattices and Husimi trees. In particular the behavior of the critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> both as a function of the number of layers and as a function of <span class="hlt">variable</span> magnetic moments of surface spins is presented. The later is motivated by that fact that such variation has been found to occur in physical systems such as Ni and Fe free surfaces and Ni/Co interfaces. The approach used is more accurate than many previously used and most importantly shows a different qualitative behavior of the critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from previous studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1749b0007N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1749b0007N"><span>Elastic modulus measurements at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: Validation of atomic force microscopy techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Natali, Marco; Reggente, Melania; Passeri, Daniele; Rossi, Marco</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The development of polymer-based nanocomposites to be used in critical thermal environments requires the characterization of their mechanical properties, which are related to their chemical composition, size, morphology and operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been proven to be a useful tool to develop techniques for the mechanical characterization of these materials, thanks to its nanometer lateral resolution and to the capability of exerting ultra-low loads, down to the piconewton range. In this work, we demonstrate two techniques, one quasi-static, i.e., AFM-based indentation (I-AFM), and one dynamic, i.e., contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM), for the mechanical characterization of compliant materials at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A cross-validation of I-AFM and CR-AFM has been performed by comparing the results obtained on two reference materials, i.e., low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polycarbonate (PC), which demonstrated the accuracy of the techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8189S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8189S"><span>Reconciling observed and modeled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation trends over Europe by adjusting for circulation <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saffioti, Claudio; Fischer, Erich M.; Scherrer, Simon C.; Knutti, Reto</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Europe experienced a pronounced winter cooling of about -0.37°C/decade in the period 1989-2012, in contrast to the strong warming simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 multimodel average during the same period. Even more pronounced discrepancies between observed and simulated short-term trends are found at the local scale, e.g., a strong winter cooling over Switzerland and a pronounced reduction in precipitation along the coast of Norway. We show that monthly sea level pressure <span class="hlt">variability</span> accounts for much of the short-term variations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over most of the domain and of precipitation in certain regions. Removing the effect of atmospheric circulation through a regression approach reconciles the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends over Europe and Switzerland and the precipitation trend along the coast of Norway with the corresponding multimodel mean trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27457265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27457265"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Infrared Spectroscopy Studies of Aromatic Acid Adsorbate Effects on Montmorillonite Dehydration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ingram, Audrey L; Nickels, Tara M; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Molecular interactions between benzoic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acids and water contained within montmorillonite clay interlayer spaces are characterized by using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (VT-DRIFTS). By using sample perturbation and difference spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectral variations resulting from the removal of interlayer water are used to characterize aromatic acid local environment changes. Difference spectra features representing functional group perturbations are correlated with changes in IR absorptions associated with -O-H and -C = O stretching vibrations. Results suggest that adsorbate carboxylic acid functionalities participate in extensive hydrogen bonding and that the strengths of these interactions are diminished when clays are dehydrated. The nature of these interactions and their <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent properties are found to depend on adsorbate structure and concentration as well as the clay interlayer cation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679007','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679007"><span><span class="hlt">Variable-Temperature</span> Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Molecule Fluctuations and Dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Kyoung-Duck; Muller, Eric A; Kravtsov, Vasily; Sass, Paul M; Dreyer, Jens; Atkin, Joanna M; Raschke, Markus B</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>Structure, dynamics, and coupling involving single-molecules determine function in catalytic, electronic or biological systems. While vibrational spectroscopy provides insight into molecular structure, rapid fluctuations blur the molecular trajectory even in single-molecule spectroscopy, analogous to spatial averaging in measuring large ensembles. To gain insight into intramolecular coupling, substrate coupling, and dynamic processes, we use tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) at <span class="hlt">variable</span> and cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, to slow and control the motion of a single molecule. We resolve intrinsic line widths of individual normal modes, allowing detailed and quantitative investigation of the vibrational modes. From <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent line narrowing and splitting, we quantify ultrafast vibrational dephasing, intramolecular coupling, and conformational heterogeneity. Through statistical correlation analysis of fluctuations of individual modes, we observe rotational motion and spectral fluctuations of the molecule. This work demonstrates single-molecule vibrational spectroscopy beyond chemical identification, opening the possibility for a complete picture of molecular motion ranging from femtoseconds to minutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1692P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1692P"><span>Impact of Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and SST <span class="hlt">Variability</span> on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paz, Shlomit</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series: Regional scale: a) Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly; b) Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA46012Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA46012Z"><span>A cryogen-free <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope capable for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Di; Wu, Shiwei</p> <p></p> <p>While low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has become an indispensable research tool in surface science, its versatility is yet limited by the shortage or high cost of liquid helium. The makeshifts include the use of alternative cryogen (such as liquid nitrogen) at higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or the development of helium liquefier system usually at departmental or campus wide. The ultimate solution would be the direct integration of a cryogen-free cryocooler based on GM or pulse tube closed cycle in the STM itself. However, the nasty mechanical vibration at low frequency intrinsic to cryocoolers has set the biggest obstacle because of the known challenges in vibration isolation required to high performance of STM. In this talk, we will present the design and performance of our home-built cryogen-free <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> STM at Fudan University. This system can obtain atomically sharp STM images and high resolution dI/dV spectra comparable to state-of-the-art low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> STMs, but with no limitation on running hours. Moreover, we demonstrated the inelastic tunneling spectroscopy (STM-IETS) on a single CO molecule with a cryogen-free STM for the first time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMSA31A..02I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMSA31A..02I"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Stratosphere Obtained from 7 years of Vibrational-Raman- lidar Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iserhienrhien, B.; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL) is a large power-aperture product monostatic laser radar located at the Delaware Observatory (42° 52' N, 81° 23' W, 225 m elevation above sea level) near the campus of The University of Western Ontario. It is capable of measuring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wave parameters from 10 to 110 km altitude, as well as water vapor in the troposphere and stratosphere. We use upper tropospheric and stratospheric vibrational Raman N2 backscatter-derived <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to form a climatology for the years 1999 to 2007 from 10 to 30 km altitude. The lidar <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are validated using coincident radiosondes measurements from Detroit and Buffalo. The measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> show good agreement with the radiosonde soundings. An agreement of ±1 K is found during summer months and ±2.5 K during the winter months, validating the calibration of the lidar to within the geophysical <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the measurements. Comparison between the PCL measurements and atmospheric models shows the PCL measurements are 5 K or less colder than CIRA-86 below 25 km and 2.5 K warmer above during the summer months. Below 16 km the PCL measurements are 5 K or less colder than the MSIS-90 model, while above this region, the PCL agrees to about ±3.5 K or less. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between the PCL measurements and the models are consistent with the differences between the atmospheric models and the Detroit and Buffalo radiosonde measurements. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences compared to the models are consistent with previous comparisons between other radiosondes and satellite data sets, confirming that these differences with the models are real. We will highlight nights which show significant variations from the long-term averages, and when possible, the evolution of the variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2155Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2155Y"><span>Intraseasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the mid-high latitude Eurasia in boreal winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Shuangyan; Li, Tim</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the mid- and high-latitude Eurasia in boreal winter was investigated by NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data. It is found that the intraseasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> disturbances exhibit maximum <span class="hlt">variability</span> near the surface in the region of 50°-75°N, 80°‒120°E and they propagate southeastwards at average zonal and meridional phase speeds of 3.2 and 2.5 m s-1, respectively. The low-level <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signal is tightly coupled with upper-tropospheric height anomalies, and both propagate southeastward in a similar phase speed. A diagnosis of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> budget reveals that the southeastward propagation is primarily attributed to the advection of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly by the mean wind. A wave activity flux analysis indicates that the southeastward propagating wave train is likely a result of Rossby wave energy propagation. The source of the Rossby wave train appears at the high latitude Europe/Atlantic sector, where maximum wave activity flux convergence resides. During its southeastward journey, the ISO perturbation gains energy from the mean flow through both kinetic and potential energy conversions. A physics-based empirical model was constructed to predict the intraseasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly over southeast China. The major predictability source is the southeastward-propagating ISO signal. The data for 1979‒2003 were used as a training period to construct the empirical model. A 10-yr (2004‒2013) independent forecast shows that the model attains a useful skill of up to 25 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1247V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1247V"><span>Low-frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the Barents Sea: causes and mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van der Linden, Eveline C.; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco; Graversen, Rune G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The predominant decadal to multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Arctic region is a feature that is not yet well-understood. It is shown that the Barents Sea is a key region for Arctic-wide <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This is an important topic because low-frequency changes in the ocean might lead to large variations in the sea-ice cover, which then cause massive changes in the ocean-atmosphere heat exchanges. Here we describe the mechanism driving surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and heat fluxes in the Barents Sea based primarily on analyzes of one global coupled climate model. It is found that the ocean drives the low-frequency changes in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whereas the atmosphere compensates the oceanic transport anomalies. The seasonal dependence and the role of individual components of the ocean-atmosphere energy budget are analyzed in detail, showing that seasonally-varying climate mechanisms play an important role. Herein, sea ice is governing the seasonal response, by acting as a lid that opens and closes during warm and cold periods, respectively, thereby modulating the surface heat fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988tpl..confT....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988tpl..confT....H"><span>A flexible <span class="hlt">variable</span> conductance heat pipe design for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control of spacecraft equipment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwangbo, Han; Joost, T. E.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>The paper describes a <span class="hlt">variable</span> conductance heat pipe design with a flexible joint. The heat pipe is developed for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control of high power electronics using a deployable space radiator. The evaporator section of the heat pipe is attached to the baseplate of the electronics. The condenser section of the heat pipe and the reservoir of noncondensible gas are attached to the deployable radiator. During the ascent phase of the flight the radiator is stowed for minimum heat rejection. During the final orbit period the radiator is deployed for full operation. An analytical thermal model of a Flexible <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Conductance Heat Pipe (FVCHP) is developed to predict the heat transport capacity and the location of the noncondensible gas front in the heat pipe. Also, transient performance of the FVCHP in an orbital environment with electrical feedback <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control is predicted. The analysis results indicate that a FVCHP radiator can reject at least twice the heat of a single sided fixed radiator of the same size. Results also indicate that control of the evaporator within 75 + or - 5 F is feasible for a unit with 100 W dissipation using the FVCHP radiator design presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoPh.224..352M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoPh.224..352M"><span>Linearized acoustic perturbation equations for low Mach number flow with <span class="hlt">variable</span> density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munz, Claus-Dieter; Dumbser, Michael; Roller, Sabine</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>When the Mach number tends to zero the compressible Navier-Stokes equations converge to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, under the restrictions of constant density, constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and no compression from the boundary. This is a singular limit in which the pressure of the compressible equations converges at leading order to a constant thermodynamic background pressure, while a hydrodynamic pressure term appears in the incompressible equations as a Lagrangian multiplier to establish the divergence-free condition for the velocity. In this paper we consider the more general case in which <span class="hlt">variable</span> density, <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat transfer are present, while the Mach number is small. We discuss first the limit equations for this case, when the Mach number tends to zero. The introduction of a pressure splitting into a thermodynamic and a hydrodynamic part allows the extension of numerical methods to the zero Mach number equations in these non-standard situations. The solution of these equations is then used as the state of expansion extending the expansion about incompressible flow proposed by Hardin and Pope [J.C. Hardin, D.S. Pope, An acoustic/viscous splitting technique for computational aeroacoustics, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 6 (1995) 323-340]. The resulting linearized equations state a mathematical model for the generation and propagation of acoustic waves in this more general low Mach number regime and may be used within a hybrid aeroacoustic approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11E0909G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H11E0909G"><span>Long-Term <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Satellite Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in the Great Lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> such as ENSO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.2813Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.2813Z"><span>Seasonal differences in intraseasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Mediterranean Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zveryaev, Igor I.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data from the NOAA OI SST data set for 1982-2011 are used to investigate intraseasonal and interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Mediterranean SST during winter and summer seasons. It is shown that during winter the intraseasonal SST fluctuations are larger than the interannual SST variations in the western Mediterranean (e.g., the Tyrrhenian Sea), but smaller in the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. In summer, the intraseasonal SST fluctuations are larger in almost the entire Mediterranean basin. Also summertime intraseasonal SST fluctuations are larger (up to three times near the Gulf of Lions) than their wintertime counterparts in the entire Mediterranean basin. The interannual SST variations are larger during summer in the western and central Mediterranean Sea and during winter in its eastern part. The leading empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the Mediterranean SST and of the intensities of its intraseasonal fluctuations are characterized by the differing spatial-temporal structures both during winter and summer implying that their interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> is driven by different physical mechanisms. During winter, the EOF-1 of SST is associated with the East Atlantic teleconnection, whereas EOF-1 of the intensity of intraseasonal fluctuations is not linked significantly to regional atmospheric dynamics. The second EOFs of these <span class="hlt">variables</span> are associated, respectively, with the East Atlantic/West Russia and the North Atlantic teleconnections. While during summer the atmospheric influence on Mediterranean SST is generally weaker, it is revealed that the EOF-1 of the intensity of intraseasonal SST fluctuations is linked to the Polar teleconnection.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035622','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035622"><span>Joint spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and global Palmer drought severity index values</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Dominant modes of individual and joint <span class="hlt">variability</span> in global sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and <span class="hlt">variability</span> related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...51S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...51S"><span>Climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span> of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological <span class="hlt">variables</span>. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic <span class="hlt">variables</span>, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) <span class="hlt">variability</span> (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3276M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3276M"><span>The signatures of large-scale patterns of atmospheric <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Antarctic surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marshall, Gareth J.; Thompson, David W. J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We investigate the impact that the four principal large-scale patterns of Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric circulation <span class="hlt">variability</span> have on Antarctic surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT): (1) the southern baroclinic annular mode (BAM), which is associated with variations in extratropical storm amplitude; (2) the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), associated with latitudinal shifts in the midlatitude jet; and (3) the two Pacific-South American patterns (PSA1 and PSA2), which are characterized by wave trains originating in the tropical Pacific that extend across the SH extratropics. A key aspect is the use of 35 years of daily observations and reanalysis data, which affords a sufficiently large sample size to assess the signatures of the circulation patterns in both the mean and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of daily mean SAT anomalies. The BAM exerts the weakest influence on Antarctic SAT, albeit it is still important over select regions. Consistent with previous studies, the SAM is shown to influence SAT across most of the continent throughout the year. The PSA1 also affects SAT across almost all of Antarctica. Regionally, both PSA patterns can exert a greater impact on SAT than the SAM but also have a significantly weaker influence during summer, reflecting the seasonality of the SH response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The SAM and PSA patterns have distinct signatures in daily SAT variance that are physically consistent with their signatures in extratropical dynamic <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The broad-scale climate linkages identified here provide benchmarks for interpreting the Antarctic climate response to future changes in tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, ozone recovery, and greenhouse gas increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeCoA..68.4821R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeCoA..68.4821R"><span>Hydrolysis of neptunium(V) at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (10 85°C)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rao, Linfeng; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Garnov, Alexander Yu; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Bismondo, Arturo</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Neptunium is one of the few radioactive elements that are of great concern in the disposal of nuclear wastes in the geological repository, due to its hazards and the long half-life of the isotope, 237Np ( t1/2 = 2.14 × 10 6 years). To understand and predict the migration behavior of neptunium in the geological media, it is of importance to study its hydrolysis at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, because the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the waste package and the vicinity of the repository could be high. Moreover, the chemical analogy between neptunium(V) and plutonium(V) adds even greater value to this investigation, because the latter could exist at tracer levels in neutral and slightly oxidizing waters but is difficult to study due to its rather labile redox behavior. In this work, the hydrolysis of neptunium(V) was studied at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (10 to 85°C) in tetramethylammonium chloride (1.12 mol kg -1). Two hydrolyzed species of neptunium(V), NpO 2OH(aq) and NpO 2(OH) 2-, were identified by potentiometry and Near-IR absorption spectroscopy. The hydrolysis constants (* βn) and enthalpy of hydrolysis (Δ Hn) for the reaction NpO 2+ + nH 2O = NpO 2(OH) n(1-n)+ + nH + ( n = 1 and 2) were determined by titration potentiometry and microcalorimetry. The hydrolysis constants, * β1 and * β2, increased by 0.8 and 3.4 orders of magnitude, respectively, as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was increased from 10 to 85°C. The enhancement of hydrolysis at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is mainly due to the significant increase of the degree of ionization of water as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. The hydrolysis reactions are endothermic but become less endothermic as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. The heat capacities of hydrolysis, Δ Cp1 and Δ Cp2 , are calculated to be -(71 ± 17) J K -1 mol -1 and -(127 ± 17) J K -1 mol -1, respectively. Approximation approaches to predict the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, including the constant enthalpy approach, the constant heat capacity approach and the DQUANT equation, have been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24551103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24551103"><span>Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and zooplankton.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and zooplankton food availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817529F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817529F"><span>Forced and internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulations and reconstructions of the Common Era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Garcia-Bustamante, Elena; Smerdon, Jason S.; Luterbacher, Juerg; Raible, Christoph C.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The relatively short ranges of external forcing <span class="hlt">variability</span> within the CE represent a challenge in as much as the consistency between simulations and reconstructions can be affected by the large uncertainties in their respective responses to the external forcings. One of the core questions within this work relates therefore the extent to which a straight response to the external forcing can be identified during the period under study and whether this signal is common to simulated and reconstructed <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This study is based on an exhaustive compilation, analysis and intercomparison of the available hemispherical and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions as well as a complete ensemble of simulations including both PMIP3/CMIP5 and non-PMIP3 model experiments. In addition, the various external forcing configurations applied to the models are characterized and a Total External Forcing, including all the individual forcing contributors, is developed for each experiment. Based on the linear relationship found at multidecadal and longer timescales during the last millennium between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the total external forcing, a quantitative metric of the ratio of response, the so-called Last Millennium Transient Climate Response (LMTCR), is obtained and compared for simulations and reconstructions. Within the LMTCR context, a significant quantitative consistency between the simulations and reconstructions is addressed. This work also offers a discussion about the impact that a range of generally accepted methodological approaches might have on the reconstructed ensemble uncertainties and their influences on model-data comparison exercises. A segregation among the various existing spatial targets within the NH, based on the different level of temperatura <span class="hlt">variability</span> observed in the series, suggests a lower level of model-data consistency during the MCA than previously reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246555"><span>Atmospheric controls on northeast Pacific <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and change, 1900-2012.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnstone, James A; Mantua, Nathan J</p> <p>2014-10-07</p> <p>Over the last century, northeast Pacific coastal sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) and land-based surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SATs) display multidecadal variations associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, in addition to a warming trend of ∼ 0.5-1 °C. Using independent records of sea-level pressure (SLP), SST, and SAT, this study investigates northeast (NE) Pacific coupled atmosphere-ocean <span class="hlt">variability</span> from 1900 to 2012, with emphasis on the coastal areas around North America. We use a linear stochastic time series model to show that the SST evolution around the NE Pacific coast can be explained by a combination of regional atmospheric forcing and ocean persistence, accounting for 63% of nonseasonal monthly SST variance (r = 0.79) and 73% of variance in annual means (r = 0.86). We show that SLP reductions and related atmospheric forcing led to century-long warming around the NE Pacific margins, with the strongest trends observed from 1910-1920 to 1940. NE Pacific circulation changes are estimated to account for more than 80% of the 1900-2012 linear warming in coastal NE Pacific SST and US Pacific northwest (Washington, Oregon, and northern California) SAT. An ensemble of climate model simulations run under the same historical radiative forcings fails to reproduce the observed regional circulation trends. These results suggest that natural internally generated changes in atmospheric circulation were the primary cause of coastal NE Pacific warming from 1900 to 2012 and demonstrate more generally that regional mechanisms of interannual and multidecadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> can also extend to century time scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.5945H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.5945H"><span>Multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, salinity, and transport in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holliday, N. P.; Cunningham, S. A.; Johnson, C.; Gary, S. F.; Griffiths, C.; Read, J. F.; Sherwin, T.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Extended Ellett Line (EEL) hydrographic section extends from Scotland to Iceland crossing the Rockall Trough, Hatton-Rockall Basin, and Iceland Basin. With 61 full-depth stations at a horizontal resolution of 10-50 km, the EEL samples the upper limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation flowing across the Iceland-Scotland Ridge into the Nordic Seas. The Rockall Trough has been sampled nearly four times per year from 1975 to 1996, and the full section annually since 1996. The EEL is an exceptionally long-time series of deep ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and salinities. This study extends prior work in the Rockall Trough, and examines for the first time 18 year records in the Iceland and Hatton-Rockall Basins. We quantify errors in the time series from two sources: observational errors and aliasing. The data quality and annual sampling are suitable for observing interannual to decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> because the <span class="hlt">variability</span> exceeds our error estimates. The upper waters of all three basins are cooler/fresher from 1997 to 2001, warmer/more saline 2001-2006, and cooler/fresher from 2006 to 2014. A reference level for geostrophic shear is developed heuristically and by comparison with sea-surface altimetry. The mean northward transport in the upper waters is 6.7 ± 3.7 Sv and there is a 6.1 ± 2.5 Sv southward flow below the thermocline. Although the magnitude of the Iceland Basin overturning circulation (4.3 ± 1.9 Sv) is greater than in the Rockall Trough (3.0 ± 3.7 Sv), the <span class="hlt">variability</span> is greater in the Rockall Trough. We discuss the results in the context of our understanding of drivers of <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3795F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.3795F"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> relationship between accumulation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in West Antarctica for the past 31,000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fudge, T. J.; Markle, Bradley R.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Buizert, Christo; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Steig, Eric J.; Waddington, Edwin D.; Conway, Howard; Koutnik, Michelle</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Antarctic contribution to sea level is a balance between ice loss along the margin and accumulation in the interior. Accumulation records for the past few decades are noisy and show inconsistent relationships with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We investigate the relationship between accumulation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the past 31 ka using high-resolution records from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core in West Antarctica. Although the glacial-interglacial increases result in high correlation and moderate sensitivity for the full record, the relationship shows considerable <span class="hlt">variability</span> through time with high correlation and high sensitivity for the 0-8 ka period but no correlation for the 8-15 ka period. This contrasts with a general circulation model simulation which shows homogeneous sensitivities between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and accumulation across the entire time period. These results suggest that variations in atmospheric circulation are an important driver of Antarctic accumulation but they are not adequately captured in model simulations. Model-based projections of future Antarctic accumulation, and its impact on sea level, should be treated with caution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023050','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023050"><span>Design Analysis of a High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Radiator for the <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheth, Rubik B.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chambliss, Joe P.; Cassady, Leonard D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR), currently under development by Ad Astra Rocket Company, is a unique propulsion system that can potentially change the way space propulsion is performed. VASIMR's efficiency, when compared to that of a conventional chemical rocket, reduce propellant needed for exploration missions by a factor of 10. Currently plans include flight tests of a 200 kW VASIMR system, titled VF-200, on the International Space Station. The VF-200 will consist of two 100 kW thruster units packaged together in one engine bus. Each thruster unit has a unique heat rejection requirement of about 27 kW over a firing time of 15 minutes. In order to control rocket core <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, peak operating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of about 300 C are expected within the thermal control loop. Design of a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> radiator is a unique challenge for the vehicle design. This paper will discuss the path taken to develop a steady state and transient based radiator design. The paper will describe radiator design options for the VASIMR thermal control system for use on ISS as well as future exploration vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023253','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023253"><span>Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Acidity and Solution Composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Watling, Helen R.; Shiers, Denis W.; Collinson, David M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II) and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC), such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of <span class="hlt">variable</span> solution acidity and composition, as well as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As) to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity. PMID:27682094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJP..132..110A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJP..132..110A"><span>Nanostructures study of CNT nanofluids transport with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent <span class="hlt">variable</span> viscosity in a muscular tube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akbar, Noreen Sher; Abid, Syed Ali; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The transport of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluids with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent <span class="hlt">variable</span> viscosity is analyzed by peristaltically driven flow. The main flow problem has been modeled using cylindrical coordinates and flow equations are simplified to ordinary differential equations using long wavelength and low Reynolds' number approximation. Analytical solutions have been obtained for axial velocity, pressure gradient and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results acquired are discussed graphically for better understanding. It is observed that with an increment in the Grashof number the velocity of the governing fluids starts to decrease significantly and the pressure gradient is higher for pure water as compared to single-walled carbon nanotubes due to low density. As the specific heat is very high for pure water as compared to the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, it raises <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the muscles, in the case of pure water, as compared to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, it is noticed that the trapped bolus starts decreasing in size as the buoyancy forces are dominant as compared to viscous forces. This model may be applicable in biomedical engineering and nanotechnology to design the biomedical devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.4537L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.4537L"><span>Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy <span class="hlt">variable</span>. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5177L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5177L"><span>Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy <span class="hlt">variable</span>. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318638"><span>Evidence for a weakening relationship between interannual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and northern vegetation activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piao, Shilong; Nan, Huijuan; Huntingford, Chris; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Peng, Shushi; Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Cong, Nan; Levis, Sam; Levy, Peter E; Liu, Lingli; Lomas, Mark R; Mao, Jiafu; Myneni, Ranga B; Peylin, Philippe; Poulter, Ben; Shi, Xiaoying; Yin, Guodong; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuhui; Zaehle, Soenke; Zeng, Ning; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Chen, Anping</p> <p>2014-10-16</p> <p>Satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a proxy of vegetation productivity, is known to be correlated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in northern ecosystems. This relationship, however, may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Here we show that above 30°N, the strength of the relationship between the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of growing season NDVI and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (partial correlation coefficient RNDVI-GT) declined substantially between 1982 and 2011. This decrease in RNDVI-GT is mainly observed in temperate and arctic ecosystems, and is also partly reproduced by process-based ecosystem model results. In the temperate ecosystem, the decrease in RNDVI-GT coincides with an increase in drought. In the arctic ecosystem, it may be related to a nonlinear response of photosynthesis to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, increase of hot extreme days and shrub expansion over grass-dominated tundra. Our results caution the use of results from interannual time scales to constrain the decadal response of plants to ongoing warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MARF36054S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MARF36054S"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Current-Voltage Measurements of CdTe Solar Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, A. D.</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>We have used a 2" x 2" Peltier heat pump chip powered with 24 V from a computer power supply to build a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stage for current voltage measurements of solar cells. A voltage divider was used to achieve several different set point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 25 oC to -24 oC. This system was used with a halogen lamp to study the electrical performance of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells fabricated in our group. These cells have the superstrate structure glass/SnO2:F/CdS/CdTe/metal.(1) The I-V characteristic shows evidence of a blocking back-diode which sets in below room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This behavior will be related to the diffusion into the CdTe of the metals used for our back contact.(2) 1. M. Shao, A. Fischer, D. Grecu, U. Jayamaha, E. Bykov, G. Contreras-Puente, R.G. Bohn, and A.D. Compaan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3045-3047 (1996). 2. D. Grecu and A.D. Compaan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 361-363 (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS33B1354K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS33B1354K"><span>Ensemble reconstruction of small-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 1870 - 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karspeck, A. R.; Sain, S.; Kaplan, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Existing historical records of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extending back to the mid 1800's are a valuable source of information for understanding climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> at interannual and decadal time-scales. However, the temporal and spatial irregularity of these data make them difficult to use in scientific climate research, where gridded data fields are preferred for both direct analysis and forcing of numerical models of the atmosphere. Infilling methods based on constraining the leading eigenvectors of the global-scale covariance have proven very successful in creating gridded estimates of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These methods are especially useful for infilling within the vast regions of unobserved ocean that characterize the earliest segments of the data record. Regional <span class="hlt">variability</span>, on the other hand, is not well represented by these methods. This is especially true in data-poor regions. Here we present a method for augmenting the existing large-scale reconstruction methods with a statistical model of the regional scale <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Using high quality sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from the last 25 years, including satellite-derived records, we specify a spatially non-stationary covariance model for the regional scale marine surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The use of a non-stationary, non-isotropic correlation function in the covariance model is a novel aspect in this work. With the covariance model estimated from the modern record, historical observations are used to condition posterior distributions on the regional scales back to the mid 1800's It is common in the geosciences for the expected value of the distribution to be offered as the data reconstruction. If uncertainty information is provided, it often takes the form of a point-wise estimate that neglects the covariability inherent in the full distribution. In contrast to this common practice, we generate multiple realizations from the full posterior distribution. These samples will be made available to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..388..321M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..388..321M"><span>Using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modeling to investigate the temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of riverbed hydraulic conductivity during storm events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutiti, Samuel; Levy, Jonathan</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>SummaryUnderstanding the impact of storm events on riverbed hydraulic conductivity is crucial in assessing the efficacy of riverbank filtration as a water-treatment option. In this study, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of riverbed hydraulic conductivity and its correlation to river stage during storm events was investigated. Water levels and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were continuously monitored in the river using creek piezometers screened beneath the riverbed, and monitoring wells located on the river bank. The range of values for water levels during the study period was from 161.3 to 163.7 m AMSL while <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranged from 3.75 °C to 24 °C. During the duration of the study the Great Miami River was losing water to the underlying aquifer due to pumping in the adjacent municipal well field. Flow and heat transport were simulated in a groundwater heat and flow program VSH2D to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated by using it as a calibration parameter to match simulated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to observed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a monitoring well. Hydraulic heads in the aquifer responded to storm events at the same times but with dampened amplitudes compared to the river stage. The relative responses resulted in increased head gradients during the rising limb of the stage-hydrograph. Heat-flow modeling during five storm events demonstrated that a rise in head gradient alone was not sufficient to produce the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes observed in the wells. Simulated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were fitted to the observed data by varying both river stage (as measured in the field) and riverbed hydraulic conductivity. To produce the best fit <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, riverbed hydraulic conductivity consistently needed to be increased during the rising and peak stages of the storm events. The increased conductivity probably corresponds to a loss of fine sediments due to scour during high river stage. Hydraulic conductivity increases during storm events varied from a factor of two (0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715705O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715705O"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the last 1000 years in Antarctica from inert gas isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orsi, Anais; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A large effort has been made to document the climate history of the last two thousand years, but there are still substantial gaps in the Southern Hemisphere, especially at high latitudes, where the changes in the climate are the largest. These gaps limit our understanding of the most fundamental driving mechanisms of the climate. In particular, the impact of solar minima on surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is not fully understood. Here, we investigate the spatial structure of multi decadal climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Antarctica, assess the significance of the Little Ice Age minimum documented elsewhere. We present a 1000 year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record at two sites in Antarctica: WAIS Divide (79°S, 112°W, 1766 m a.s.l), and Talos Dome (72°S, 159°E, 2315 m a.s.l), reconstructed from the combination of inert gas isotopes from the ice core and borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. Borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> provides an absolute estimate of long-term trends, while noble gases track decadal to centennial scale changes. This method provides a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction that is independent of water isotopes, and allows us to improve our understanding of water isotopes as a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxy, and use them to track circulation changes. We find that there is a pronounced cooling trend over the last millennium at both sites, but it is stronger in East Antarctica (Talos Dome) than West Antarctica (WAIS-D). At WAIS Divide, we find that "Little Ice Age" cold period of 1400-1800 was 0.52°C colder than the last century, and that the recent warming trend (0.23°C/decade since 1960) has past analogs about every 200 years. At Talos Dome, the pronounced cooling trend over the whole record is not visible in the water isotope record, which suggests that there is a compensation of several sources of fractionation. Overall, both records are consistent with the idea that the solar minima and persistent volcanic activity of the Little Ice Age (1400-1850 A.D.) had a significant impact on the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064550"><span>NOM degradation during river infiltration: effects of the climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and discharge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diem, Samuel; Rudolf von Rohr, Matthias; Hering, Janet G; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Schirmer, Mario; von Gunten, Urs</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Most peri-alpine shallow aquifers fed by rivers are oxic and the drinking water derived by riverbank filtration is generally of excellent quality. However, observations during past heat waves suggest that water quality may be affected by climate change due to effects on redox processes such as aerobic respiration, denitrification, reductive dissolution of manganese(III/IV)- and iron(III)(hydr)oxides that occur during river infiltration. To assess the dependence of these redox processes on the climate-related <span class="hlt">variables</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and discharge, we performed periodic and targeted (summer and winter) field sampling campaigns at the Thur River, Switzerland, and laboratory column experiments simulating the field conditions. Typical summer and winter field conditions could be successfully simulated by the column experiments. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was found not to be a major electron donor for aerobic respiration in summer and the DOM consumption did not reveal a significant correlation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and discharge. It is hypothesized that under summer conditions, organic matter associated with the aquifer material (particulate organic matter, POM) is responsible for most of the consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO), which was the most important electron acceptor in both the field and the column system. For typical summer conditions at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> >20 °C, complete depletion of DO was observed in the column system and in a piezometer located only a few metres from the river. Both in the field system and the column experiments, nitrate acted as a redox buffer preventing the release of manganese(II) and iron(II). For periodic field observations over five years, DO consumption showed a pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence (correlation coefficient r = 0.74) and therefore a seasonal pattern, which seemed to be mostly explained by the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the calculated POM consumption (r = 0.7). The river discharge was found to be highly and positively correlated</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP41A1993L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP41A1993L"><span>Thermocline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Timor Strait over the last two glacial cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lo Giudice Cappelli, E.; Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Regenberg, M.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>), corresponding to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference of ±0.9°C. The amplitude of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change during deglaciation is ~2°C between MIS2 and the Holocene and ~3°C between MIS6 and MIS5e. In contrast, the highest amplitude <span class="hlt">variability</span> (~6.5°C) is detected during MIS3, suggesting transient shutdown of the Indonesian Throughflow leading to thermocline warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCM...29c5703P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCM...29c5703P"><span>Size effect on high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> range hopping in Al+ implanted 4H-SiC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parisini, Antonella; Parisini, Andrea; Nipoti, Roberta</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The hole transport properties of heavily doped 4H-SiC (Al) layers with Al implanted concentrations of 3  ×  1020 and 5  ×  1020 cm-3 and annealed in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 1950-2100 °C, have been analyzed to determine the main transport mechanisms. This study shows that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the resistivity (conductivity) may be accounted for by a <span class="hlt">variable</span> range hopping (VRH) transport into an impurity band. Depending on the concentration of the implanted impurities and the post-implantation annealing treatment, this VRH mechanism persists over different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges that may extend up to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this framework, two different transport regimes are identified, having the characteristic of an isotropic 3D VRH and an anisotropic nearly 2D VRH. The latter conduction mechanism appears to take place in a rather thick layer (about 400 nm) that is too large to induce a confinement effect of the carrier hops. The possibility that an anisotropic transport may be induced by a structural modification of the implanted layer because of a high density of basal plane stacking faults (SF) in the implanted layers is considered. The interpretation of the conduction in the heaviest doped samples in terms of nearly 2D VRH is supported by the results of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation on one of the 5  ×  1020 cm-3 Al implanted samples of this study. In this context, the average separation between basal plane SFs, measured along the c-axis, which is orthogonal to the carrier transport during electrical characterization, appears to be in keeping with the estimated value of the optimal hopping length of the VRH theory. Conversely, no SFs are detected by TEM in a sample with an Al concentration of 1  ×  1019 cm-3 where a 3D nearest neighbor hopping (NNH) transport is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA22B..07V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA22B..07V"><span>SCIAMACHY observations of OH*(3-1) rotational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and OH* emission height <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>von Savigny, C.; McDade, I. C.; Eichmann, K.; Burrows, J. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>SCIAMACHY, the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY on ESA's Envisat provided night-time limb measurements of the terrestrial airglow between fall 2002 and spring 2012 over a wide spectral range (220 - 2380 nm). These measurements are employed to retrieve OH(3-1) rotational <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and vertical emission rate profiles of several different Meinel bands. This contribution will focus on three different topics related to the OH airglow. First, a solar-driven 27-day signature in OH(3-1) rotational <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was identified using cross-correlation and superposed epoch analysis methods. This signature was found to be highly significant. Interestingly, the sensitivity of the mesopause <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to the 27-day solar forcing agrees within uncertainties with the sensitivity in terms of the 11-year solar cycle, suggesting similar forcing mechanims. The sensitivity in terms of the 27-day cycle is consistent with recent model simulations, but is significantly larger than previously published experimental results. Second, SCIAMACHY observations and model simulations are used to investigate, whether the Meinel emissions originating from different vibrational levels peak at the same altitude. We find systematic differences in emission peak altitudes between different Meinel bands - emissions from higher vibrational levels peak at higher altitudes - and good qualitative and quantitative agreement between measurements and model results. Third, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the OH(3-1) emission altitude is investigated. A pronounced semi-annual variation with an amplitude of about 1 km is found at low latitudes. Annually averaged emission altitudes do not vary by more than about 300 m between 2003 and 2011, i.e. they show no evidence of an obvious 11-year solar cycle signature or a long-term trend. This provides important information for the interpretation of ground-based OH rotational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.466.2855P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.466.2855P"><span>Effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of cataclysmic-<span class="hlt">variable</span> white dwarfs as a probe of their evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Townsley, D.; Boyd, D.; Cook, M. J.; De Martino, D.; Godon, P.; Haislip, J. B.; Henden, A. A.; Hubeny, I.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Kafka, S.; Knigge, C.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Long, K. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Monard, B.; Moore, J. P.; Myers, G.; Nelson, P.; Nogami, D.; Oksanen, A.; Pickard, R.; Poyner, G.; Reichart, D. E.; Rodriguez Perez, D.; Schreiber, M. R.; Shears, J.; Sion, E. M.; Stubbings, R.; Szkody, P.; Zorotovic, M.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We present HST spectroscopy for 45 cataclysmic <span class="hlt">variables</span> (CVs), observed with HST/COS and HST/STIS. For 36 CVs, the white dwarf is recognisable through its broad Ly α absorption profile and we measure the white dwarf effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Teff) by fitting the HST data assuming log g = 8.35, which corresponds to the average mass for CV white dwarfs (≃0.8 M⊙). Our results nearly double the number of CV white dwarfs with an accurate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. We find that CVs above the period gap have, on average, higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (<Teff> ≃ 23 000 K) and exhibit much more scatter compared to those below the gap (<Teff> ≃ 15 000 K). While this behaviour broadly agrees with theoretical predictions, some discrepancies are present: (i) all our new measurements above the gap are characterized by lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Teff ≃ 16 000-26 000 K) than predicted by the present-day CV population models (Teff ≃ 38 000-43 000 K); (ii) our results below the gap are not clustered in the predicted narrow track and exhibit in particular a relatively large spread near the period minimum, which may point to some shortcomings in the CV evolutionary models. Finally, in the standard model of CV evolution, reaching the minimum period, CVs are expected to evolve back towards longer periods with mean accretion rates dot{M}≲ 2 × 10^{-11} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, corresponding to Teff ≲ 11 500 K. We do not unambiguously identify any such system in our survey, suggesting that this major component of the predicted CV population still remains elusive to observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.2136L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.2136L"><span>The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of SE2 tide extracted from TIMED/SABER observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xing; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Yu, You</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Based on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations of the TIMED/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry in mesosphere/lower thermosphere region (70-110 km altitudes) and at the low latitude and midlatitude (45°S-45°N) from 2002 to 2012, the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the nonmigrating tide SE2 with 1 day resolution is analyzed, using the method from Li et al. (2015). It is found that the climatological features (large-scale <span class="hlt">variability</span>) of the SE2 tide are similar with the results from the previous research works. The SE2 tide manifests mainly at the low-mid latitudes around ±30°. The northern hemisphere tidal amplitudes below 110 km are larger than the southern hemisphere tide. SE2 peaks below 110 km mainly present between 100 and 110 km altitude. The tidal amplitudes below 110 km occur a north-south asymmetry about the equator in the annual variation: in the southern hemisphere, SE2 occurs with an obvious annual variation with a maximum of tidal amplitudes in December, while in the northern one, the semiannual variations with maximum at the equinoxes. Herein, owing to the high-resolution tidal data, we could research the short-term (<span class="hlt">day-to-day</span>) variations of SE2. We found that the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations manifest mainly at between 100 and 110 km altitudes; it increases gradually with latitudes, and it is stronger at the low-mid latitudes; it is relatively slightly stronger around solstices than equinoxes; and it does not present a remarkably interannual variation. The SE2 <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> variations may be composed by the absolute amplitudes' variance and the impact of the wave phases, and the latter ones are more important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10421021Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10421021Z"><span>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> off southern Brazil and Uruguay as revealed from historical data since 1854</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavialov, Peter O.; Wainer, Ilana; Absy, JoãO. M.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>About 300,000 quality-controlled local reports from ships of opportunity were complemented with the data extracted from global data records to compile monthly series of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) for the period 1854 to 1994 on a grid 1° × 1° in latitude and longitude. These historical data are used to investigate the <span class="hlt">variability</span> off the coast of southern Brazil and Uruguay in a broad range of temporal scales from seasonal to secular. With respect to behavior at these scales, three distinct areas can be identified in the study region. The first one, located over the shelf and controlled by winter invasions of subantarctic water along with Rio de la Plata and Patos-Mirim discharges, is characterized by large annual range of SST (7° to over 10°C), energetic mean square <span class="hlt">variability</span> (from 1.4 to 2.2°C2, after removal of seasonal signal), and an extremely high secular trend toward warming (1.2 to 1.6°C per 100 years), especially in the proximity of the estuaries. The second one, an area of the Brazil Current influence, exhibits smaller annual range (5° to 7°C) and mean square <span class="hlt">variability</span> (1 to 1.4°C2). The secular trend is from 1° to 1.2°C per 100 years, smaller than observed in the shelf, but still high compared to the global average. The third area, which encompasses the eastern deep ocean part of the region away from the influence of either major currents or coastal discharges, exhibits less energetic <span class="hlt">variability</span> at all examined scales, as compared to the rest of the region. Everywhere in the region, 50 to 80% of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> is associated with periods smaller than 10 years; however, compared to the rest of the region, the shelf zone is characterized by a relatively large contribution from decadal and interdecadal scales. In austral winter a thermal front forms in the study region, separating warm tropical water associated with the Brazil Current and cold subantarctic water flowing northward on the shelf with an admixture of coastal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JASTP..69.2355H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JASTP..69.2355H"><span>Latitudinal and longitudinal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of mesospheric winds and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during stratospheric warming events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.; Keuer, D.; Hocking, W. K.; Kunze, M.; Murayama, Y.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Continuous MF and meteor radar observations allow detailed studies of winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) as well as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> around the mesopause. This height region is characterized by a strong <span class="hlt">variability</span> in winter due to enhanced planetary wave activity and related stratospheric warming events, which are distinct coupling processes between lower, middle and upper atmosphere. Here the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of mesospheric winds and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is discussed in relation with major and minor stratospheric warmings as observed during winter 2005/06 in comparison with results during winter 1998/99. Our studies are based on MF radar wind measurements at Andenes (69°N, 16°E), Poker Flat (65°N, 147°W) and Juliusruh (55°N, 13°E) as well as on meteor radar observations of winds and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at Resolute Bay (75°N, 95°W), Andenes (69°N, 16°E) and Kühlungsborn (54°N, 12°E). Additionally, energy dissipation rates have been estimated from spectral width measurements using a 3 MHz Doppler radar near Andenes. Particular attention is directed to the changes of winds, turbulence and the gravity wave activity in the mesosphere in relation to the planetary wave activity in the stratosphere. Observations indicate an enhancement of planetary wave 1 activity in the mesosphere at high latitudes during major stratospheric warmings. Daily mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived from meteor decay times indicate that strong warming events are connected with a cooling of the 90 km region by about 10 20 K. The onset of these cooling processes and the reversals of the mesospheric circulation to easterly winds occur some days before the changes of the zonal circulation in the stratosphere start indicating a downward propagation of the circulation disturbances from the MLT region to the stratosphere and troposphere during the stratospheric warming events. The short-term reversal of the mesospheric winds is followed by a period of strong westerly winds connected with enhanced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6274156','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6274156"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> interval time/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (VITT) defrost-control-system evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-08-12</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">variable-interval-time/temperature</span> (VITT) heat pump defrost control systems are analyzed to determine if systems manufactured by Honeywell and Ranco qualify for credit for heat pumps with demand defrost control. The operation of the systems is described. VITT controls are not demand defrost control systems but utilize demand defrost control as backup systems in most Ranco models and all Honeywell models. The evaluations and results, intended to provide DOE information in making its determinations regarding credits for the control systems are discussed. The evaluation methodology utilizes a modified version of the Heat Pump Seasonal Performance Model (HPSPM) and the important modifications are discussed in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a detailed listing and discussion of the HPSPM output. (MCW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...837L..27Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...837L..27Z"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Short-wavelength Radiation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Exoplanets around M Dwarfs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xin; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yuwei; Dudhia, Jimy; Chen, Ming</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>It is a common practice to use 3D General Circulation Models (GCM) with spatial resolution of a few hundred kilometers to simulate the climate of Earth-like exoplanets. The enhanced albedo effect of clouds is especially important for exoplanets in the habitable zones around M dwarfs that likely have fixed substellar regions and substantial cloud coverage. Here, we carry out mesoscale model simulations with 3 km spatial resolution driven by the initial and boundary conditions in a 3D GCM and find that it could significantly underestimate the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of both the incident short-wavelength radiation and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at planet surface. Our findings suggest that mesoscale models with cloud-resolving capability be considered for future studies of exoplanet climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A13E0256N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A13E0256N"><span>Patterns Of Intraseasonal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Variability</span> And Their Relations With Enhanced Local Predictability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naumann, G.; Vargas, W. M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The knowledge of patterns that represent <span class="hlt">variability</span> at the intraseasonal scale is one of the keys to understand the processes involved in this time scale. Current weather predictions indicate that predictability is relatively good for three weeks (Simmons and Hollingsworth 2002), however some spatial and temporal structures can be predicted beyond this period. Detecting these structures is difficult because unpredictable patterns that govern the physical effects exist superimposed on the predictable ones (Del Sole and Tippet, 2007). However, some persistent components can be predictable beyond three weeks and can also explain the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the monthly means, even if these processes explain little of the daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Shukla 1981a). In this light, Lorenz (1969) and Shukla (1981b) explain that large-scale dynamical processes tend to be more persistent and hence more predictable than small-scale processes. To detect the thermal structures that produce persistent phenomena a wavelet spectral analysis was performed over the daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The stations or reference series used in the analysis must have long records of high quality measurements, and must represent different or specific climatic regions of southern South America. This analysis aims to detect the main spectral features at the intraseasonal scale, where non-linear effects tend to produce quasi-periodicities over the daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the region. A major feature is the 30-60 days quasi-periodicities in daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that seem to appear over the entire region. In general these periodicities can persist from 30 to 100 days. This means that the transitions between cold and hot events (a 30-60 days pattern) can persist over an entire season. Moreover, the occurrence of these periodicities has a markedly seasonal behavior with a maximum during winter which is highly related with the extreme cold air outbreaks. An interannual analysis shows that the intraseasonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12...76N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12...76N"><span>Patterns of intraseasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and their relations with enhanced local predictability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naumann, Gustavo; Vargas, Walter</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The knowledge of patterns that represent <span class="hlt">variability</span> at the intraseasonal scale is one of the keys to understand the processes involved in this time scale. Current weather predictions indicate that predictability is relatively good for three weeks (Simmons and Hollingsworth 2002), however some spatial and temporal structures can be predicted beyond this period. Detecting these structures is difficult because unpredictable patterns that govern the physical effects exist superimposed on the predictable ones (Del Sole and Tippet, 2007). However, some persistent components can be predictable beyond three weeks and can also explain the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the monthly means, even if these processes explain little of the daily <span class="hlt">variability</span> (Shukla 1981a). In this light, Lorenz (1969) and Shukla (1981b) explain that large-scale dynamical processes tend to be more persistent and hence more predictable than small-scale processes. To detect the thermal structures that produce persistent phenomena a wavelet spectral analysis was performed over the daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The stations or reference series used in the analysis must have long records of high quality measurements, and must represent different or specific climatic regions of southern South America. This analysis aims to detect the main spectral features at the intraseasonal scale, where non-linear effects tend to produce quasi-periodicities over the daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the region. A major feature is the 30-60 days quasi-periodicities in daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that seem to appear over the entire region. In general these periodicities can persist from 30 to 100 days. This means that the transitions between cold and hot events (a 30-60 days pattern) can persist over an entire season. Moreover, the occurrence of these periodicities has a markedly seasonal behavior with a maximum during winter which is highly related with the extreme cold air outbreaks. An interannual analysis shows that the intraseasonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244342"><span>[Preventing damage to workers' health: redesigning jobs through <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> negotiation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Leny</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This paper reflects on prevention of harm to workers' health by redesigning jobs. Assuming redesign as the process of negotiating organizational choices, the author discusses the characteristics of routine negotiation at the workplace, illustrated by daily negotiations in work process organization at a Brazilian food-processing factory. Finally, the author discusses both the range and limits of such negotiations in the prevention of harm to workers' health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&id=EJ1086714','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&id=EJ1086714"><span>Individual <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Process of Social Anxiety in Vulnerable College Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Campbell, Cynthia G.; Bierman, Karen L.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Transitions requiring the creation of new social networks may be challenging for individuals vulnerable to social anxiety, which may hinder successful adjustment. Using person-specific methodology, this study examined social anxiety in vulnerable university freshman away from home during their first semester of college to understand how day-to-day…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CosRe..46..465T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CosRe..46..465T"><span>Characteristics of high energy cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy on <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> basis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiwari, C. M.; Tiwari, D. P.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity for the period of 1989 to 2000 at Kiel, Haleakakla, Rome, Hermanus, Calgary, and Goose Bay neutron monitors has been studied. Frequency histograms are generated for each year by using the daily values of amplitudes and phases. In the present analysis we have derived the yearly mean amplitude and phase of the diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity. It has been concluded from the analysis that the diurnal amplitude is mostly concentrated in between the amplitude values of 0.1% and 0.4%, whereas the phase of diurnal anisotropy is concentrated in the belt of 100 to 225 degrees. As such, the various characteristics of long-term diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity for the maxima of solar activity cycle 22 to the next maxima of solar activity cycle 23 have been studied. The minimum amplitudes are apparent for the minimum solar activity periods starting from 1995 and up to 1997 at Kiel, Haleakakla, Rome, Hermanus, Calgary and Goose Bay stations. The diurnal amplitude has been found to have almost recovered to its values observed during 1989 to 1990. It is also seen that the diurnal amplitudes are much larger by a factor of two at high/middle latitude stations as compared to that for low latitude stations, where the amplitudes are even ˜01% or less during 1996. The phase is significantly earlier during 1996 and 1997 with some significant change starting in 1995. As such, competitive is a continuous decreasing trend in the diurnal phase with smaller change at high/middle latitude and significantly much larger change at low latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26106928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26106928"><span>Dignity in Practice: <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Life in Intensive Care Units in Western Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koksvik, Gitte H</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Dignity is a key concept in contemporary health care ethics, but the practical meaning of dignity in care remains unclear. In this article, I show that in practice, different and possibly conflicting notions of what dignity means are engaged simultaneously in the care of critical patients. The empirical data is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in three separate intensive care units in three European countries, Spain, Norway, and France, in the spring of 2014. Four weeks were spent at each site. Using participant observations and semi-structured interviews with 24 intensive care unit staff, I illustrate how the ideal of patient dignity is carried out in practice in the daily life of these units.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2841363','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2841363"><span>Loneliness and Cortisol: Momentary, <span class="hlt">Day-to-day</span>, and Trait Associations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Adam, Emma K.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Summary In attempts to understand the social determinants of health, strong associations have been found between measures of loneliness, physiological stress processes, and physical and mental health outcomes. Feelings of loneliness are hypothesized to have implications for physiological stress processes, including activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In a community sample of young adults, multilevel modeling was used to examine whether trait and state feelings of loneliness were related to changes in levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, and whether the associations between loneliness and cortisol were mediated or moderated by the presence of concurrent depression or high levels of chronic life stress. Results indicated that trait loneliness was associated with a flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. In addition, both daily and momentary state variations in loneliness were related to cortisol. Prior-day feelings of loneliness were associated with an increased cortisol awakening response the next morning and momentary experiences of loneliness during the day were associated with momentary increases in cortisol among youth who also had high chronic interpersonal stress. Results were significant after covarying current depression, both chronic and momentary reports of stress, and medical and lifestyle covariates. This study expanded on prior work by investigating and revealing three different time-courses of association between loneliness and HPA axis activity in young adults: trait, daily and momentary. PMID:19744794</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22455860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22455860"><span>"Living from <span class="hlt">day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">day</span>": food insecurity, complexity, and coping in muTare, Zimbabwe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gwatirisa, Pauline; Manderson, Lenore</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In Zimbabwe, unpredictable conditions associated with structural and institutional factors exacerbated the combined effects of structural violence, economic and political instability, and climate change in the mid 2000s, contributing to widespread food insecurity. Drought, food shortages, and government settlement policy affecting both rural and urban populations has yielded a national human rights crisis. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Mutare, southeast Zimbabwe, in 2005-2006, the authors illustrate the flow-on effects of drought and government policy on the livelihoods of households already suffering as a result of the social impacts of AIDS, and how people in a regional city responded to these factors, defining and meeting their basic food needs in diverse ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=something&pg=5&id=EJ1089481','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=something&pg=5&id=EJ1089481"><span>The <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Work of Primary School Teachers: A Source of Professional Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ambler, Trudy Belinda</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Teachers are an important influence on students' learning, and therefore the opportunity for teachers to learn and develop is something of interest to educators internationally. This article reports on a research project involving six primary school teachers who participated in one-on-one and small group interviews to explore the opportunities for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22777683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22777683"><span>Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> retail resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140016952','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140016952"><span>Evidence-Based Recommendations for Optimizing Light in <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Spaceflight Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren; Barger, Laura; Clark, Toni; Bollweg, Laura; Ohnesorge, Kristine; Brainard, George</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) personnel have previously reported on efforts to transition evidence-based recommendations for a flexible lighting system on the International Space Station (ISS). Based on these recommendations, beginning in 2016 the ISS will replace the current fluorescent-based lights with an LED-based system to optimize visual performance, facilitate circadian alignment, promote sleep, and hasten schedule shifting. Additional efforts related to lighting countermeasures in spaceflight operations have also been underway. As an example, a recent BHP research study led by investigators at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of blue-enriched light exposure during exercise breaks for flight controllers working the overnight shift in the Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA Johnson Space Center. This effort, along with published laboratory studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of appropriately timed light for promoting alertness, served as an impetus for new light options, and educational protocols for flight controllers. In addition, a separate set of guidelines related to the light emitted from electronic devices, were provided to the Astronaut Office this past year. These guidelines were based on an assessment led by NASA's Lighting Environment Test Facility that included measuring the spectral power distribution, irradiance, and radiance of light emitted from ISS-grade laptops and I-Pads, as well as Android devices. Evaluations were conducted with and without the use of off-the-shelf screen filters as well as a software application that touts minimizing the short-wave length of the visible light spectrum. This presentation will focus on the transition for operations process related to lighting countermeasures in the MCC, as well as the evidence to support recommendations for optimal use of laptops, I-Pads, and Android devices during all phases of spaceflight operations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED421581.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED421581.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span>...Parent to Child. The Future of Violence among Homeless Children in America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.</p> <p></p> <p>The majority of parents now living in homeless shelters, typically young single mothers with one or two children under the age of six, have spent their lives spiraling downward through a complex and self-perpetuating cycle of family violence, community violence, and poverty. Sixty-three percent of homeless parents, a survey has found, live with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=integration&pg=5&id=EJ1027363','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=integration&pg=5&id=EJ1027363"><span>Integration in Italian Schools: Teachers' Perceptions Regarding <span class="hlt">Day-to-Day</span> Practice and Its Effectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ianes, Dario; Demo, Heidrun; Zambotti, Francesco</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Italy is famous for having the highest percentage of students with disabilities attending "the school for all" (integration). However, in recent studies, the reality of integration seems to be more complex. Integration has reached some important goals (e.g. longer school careers), but while the Italian school system envisages the full…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=homelessness+AND+America&pg=4&id=EJ566956','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=homelessness+AND+America&pg=4&id=EJ566956"><span><span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span>...Parent to Child: The Future of Violence among Homeless Children in America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nunez, Ralph da Costa</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Explores the cycle of family violence and its impact on homeless families. Once family violence sends families into homelessness, community violence prevents them from escaping. Re-envisioning shelters as centers of learning rather than emergency facilities can begin to break the cycle of violence. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19744794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19744794"><span>Loneliness and cortisol: momentary, <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span>, and trait associations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doane, Leah D; Adam, Emma K</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>In attempts to understand the social determinants of health, strong associations have been found between measures of loneliness, physiological stress processes, and physical and mental health outcomes. Feelings of loneliness are hypothesized to have implications for physiological stress processes, including activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In a community sample of young adults, multilevel modeling was used to examine whether trait and state feelings of loneliness were related to changes in levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, and whether the associations between loneliness and cortisol were mediated or moderated by the presence of concurrent depression or high levels of chronic life stress. Results indicated that trait loneliness was associated with a flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. In addition, both daily and momentary state variations in loneliness were related to cortisol. Prior day feelings of loneliness were associated with an increased cortisol awakening response the next morning and momentary experiences of loneliness during the day were associated with momentary increases in cortisol among youth who also had high chronic interpersonal stress. Results were significant after covarying current depression, both chronic and momentary reports of stress, and medical and lifestyle covariates. This study expanded on prior work by investigating and revealing three different time courses of association between loneliness and HPA axis activity in young adults: trait, daily and momentary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cadbury&id=EJ883474','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cadbury&id=EJ883474"><span>Spending Time in Normansfield: Changes in the <span class="hlt">Day</span> <span class="hlt">to</span> <span class="hlt">Day</span> Life of Patricia Collen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cadbury, Heather; Whitmore, Michelle</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The article explores the changes in care over the years for people with a learning disability by focusing on the life story of one individual, Patricia Collen, who spent many years within an institution. Her story shows that it is possible for people with a learning disability to live a full and active life, either in the community or within an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12533078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12533078"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> and comparison of hyporheic water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and seepage fluxes in a small Atlantic salmon stream.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alexander, Matthew D; Caissie, Daniel</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Ground water discharge is often a significant factor in the quality of fish spawning and rearing habitat and for highly biologically productive streams. In the present study, water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (stream and hyporheic) and seepage fluxes were used to characterize shallow ground water discharge and recharge within thestreambed of Catamaran Brook, a small Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stream in central New Brunswick, Canada. Three study sites were instrumented using a total of 10 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors and 18 seepage meters. Highly <span class="hlt">variable</span> mean seepage fluxes, ranging from 1.7 x 10(-4) to 2.5 cm3 m(-2) sec(-1), and mean hyporheic water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, ranging from 10.5 degrees to 18.0 degrees C, at depths of 20 to 30 cm in the streambed were dependent on streambed location (left versus right stream bank and site location) and time during the summer sampling season. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data were usefulfor determining if an area of the streambed was under discharge (positive flux), recharge (negative flux), or parallel flow (no flux) conditions and seepage meters were used to directly measure the quantity of water flux. Hyporheic water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements and specific conductance measurements of the seepage meter sample water, mean values ranging from 68.8 to 157.9 microS/cm, provided additional data for determining flux sources. Three stream banks were consistently under discharge conditions, while the other three stream banks showed reversal from discharge to recharge conditions over the sampling season. Results indicate that the majority of the water collected in the seepage meters was composed of surface water. The data obtained suggests that even though a positive seepage flux is often interpreted as ground water discharge, this discharging water may be of stream water origin that has recently entered the hyporheic zone.The measurement of seepage flux in conjunction with hyporheic water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or other indicators of water origin should be considered when attempting to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068"><span>Trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed by the China Meteorological Administ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OSJ...tmp....6L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OSJ...tmp....6L"><span>Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the Yellow Sea based on MODIS dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Chunli; Sun, Qiwei; Xing, Qianguo; Liang, Zhenlin; Deng, Yue; Zhu, Lixin</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) were analyzed using a time series of MODIS datasets for four separate regions in the Yellow Sea (YS) that were located along a north-south axis. The space variant temporal anomaly was further decomposed using an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) for estimating spatially distributed SST. The monthly SSTs showed similar temporal patterns in each region, which ranged from 2.4°C to 28.4°C in the study years 2011 to 2013, with seasonal cycles being stronger at the higher latitudes and weaker at the lower latitudes. Spatially, although there were no significant differences among the four regions (p < 0.05) in any year, the geographical distribution of SST was characterized by an obvious gradient whereby SST decreased along the north-south axis. The monthly thermal difference among regions was largest in winter since the SST in the southeast was mainly affected by the Yellow Sea Warm Currents. The EOF1 mode accounted for 56% of the total spatial variance and exhibited a warming signal during the study period. The EOF2 mode accounted for 8% of the total variance and indicated the warm current features in the YS. The EOF3 mode accounted for 6% of the total variance and indicated the topographical features. The methodology used in this study demonstrated the spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> in the YS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..786K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..786K"><span>Response of El Niño sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> to greenhouse warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Seon Tae; Cai, Wenju; Jin, Fei-Fei; Santoso, Agus; Wu, Lixin; Guilyardi, Eric; An, Soon-Il</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The destructive environmental and socio-economic impacts of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) demand an improved understanding of how ENSO will change under future greenhouse warming. Robust projected changes in certain aspects of ENSO have been recently established. However, there is as yet no consensus on the change in the magnitude of the associated sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span>, commonly used to represent ENSO amplitude, despite its strong effects on marine ecosystems and rainfall worldwide. Here we show that the response of ENSO SST amplitude is time-varying, with an increasing trend in ENSO amplitude before 2040, followed by a decreasing trend thereafter. We attribute the previous lack of consensus to an expectation that the trend in ENSO amplitude over the entire twenty-first century is unidirectional, and to unrealistic model dynamics of tropical Pacific SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>. We examine these complex processes across 22 models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) database, forced under historical and greenhouse warming conditions. The nine most realistic models identified show a strong consensus on the time-varying response and reveal that the non-unidirectional behaviour is linked to a longitudinal difference in the surface warming rate across the Indo-Pacific basin. Our results carry important implications for climate projections and climate adaptation pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OSJ....52....1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OSJ....52....1L"><span>Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the Yellow Sea based on MODIS dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Chunli; Sun, Qiwei; Xing, Qianguo; Liang, Zhenlin; Deng, Yue; Zhu, Lixin</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) were analyzed using a time series of MODIS datasets for four separate regions in the Yellow Sea (YS) that were located along a north-south axis. The space variant temporal anomaly was further decomposed using an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) for estimating spatially distributed SST. The monthly SSTs showed similar temporal patterns in each region, which ranged from 2.4°C to 28.4°C in the study years 2011 to 2013, with seasonal cycles being stronger at the higher latitudes and weaker at the lower latitudes. Spatially, although there were no significant differences among the four regions ( p < 0.05) in any year, the geographical distribution of SST was characterized by an obvious gradient whereby SST decreased along the north-south axis. The monthly thermal difference among regions was largest in winter since the SST in the southeast was mainly affected by the Yellow Sea Warm Currents. The EOF1 mode accounted for 56% of the total spatial variance and exhibited a warming signal during the study period. The EOF2 mode accounted for 8% of the total variance and indicated the warm current features in the YS. The EOF3 mode accounted for 6% of the total variance and indicated the topographical features. The methodology used in this study demonstrated the spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">variabilities</span> in the YS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..571W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..571W"><span>An analysis of seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of satellite detected land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and urban heat islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weng, Q.</p> <p></p> <p>This research intends to develop a diffusive UHI model and to compare it with UHIs based on impervious coverage as well as those based on population distribution using Indianapolis as a case study Land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> LSTs in the four seasons were extracted from thermal infrared data of Terra s ASTER imagery and calibrated with emissivity and other parameters Heat islands were modeled as a three-dimensional surface protruding from a planar surface of the surrounding non-urban land cover The complexity of urban heat islands were measured by fractal dimensions Spectral mixture analysis was applied to transform ASTER reflective bands into fraction images including high albedo low albedo green vegetation and soil with a constrained least-square solution Based on the result of the spectral unmixing impervious surface was calculated The spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of texture in LST was found to be highly correlated with those in the fractions and in the population density surface It is suggested that these <span class="hlt">variables</span> had a direct correspondence with the radiative thermal and moisture properties of the Earth s surface that determine LST and heat islands In order to develop a generalized model of urban heat islands that has a global application fractals and numerical modeling should be combined to develop a guiding framework</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9768K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9768K"><span>A 1700-year history of West African multidecadal sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhnert, Henning; Stefan, Mulitza; Gesine, Mollenhauer</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) exert a major influence on the latitudinal position and intensity of the West African Monsoon and the tropical rainbelt. The impact of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in particular has previously been demonstrated, but little information is available beyond the instrumental time period. We have reconstructed summer-fall SST and relative changes in the discharge of the Senegal River from a sediment core off southern Mauritania. Time series of SST and seawater-d18O (a measure of salinity and hence discharge) were estimated from planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and d18O. The records are sufficiently resolved to infer multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 1700 years and centennial <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the past 3300 years. River discharge increases slightly over the entire time series. This can be brought into agreement with the general Sahel drying trend indicated by previous studies, when we assume a southward migration of the rainbelt that leads to locally enhanced rainfall over the southernmost Senegal River catchment area in Guinea. SST cooled by 1-1.5 °C between AD 1250 and 1500, more pronounced and somewhat earlier compared with the North Atlantic mean. Spectral analysis reveals several multidecadal periods (38, ~45 and ~62 years) where SST and Senegal River discharge are tightly coupled and are driven by the AMO. The exception is a 30-year periodicity in discharge that has no counterpart in SST, and is potentially linked to meridional tropical SST gradient anomalies. AMO signatures are present throughout the past 1700 years, but vary in amplitude. The most recent and persistent phase of enhanced AMO <span class="hlt">variability</span> commences around AD 1250 contemporaneous with the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.1099M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.1099M"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> on near-term snow trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mankin, Justin S.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Snow is a vital resource for a host of natural and human systems. Global warming is projected to drive widespread decreases in snow accumulation by the end of the century, potentially affecting water, food, and energy supplies, seasonal heat extremes, and wildfire risk. However, over the next few decades, when the planning and implementation of current adaptation responses are most relevant, the snow response is more uncertain, largely because of uncertainty in regional and local precipitation trends. We use a large (40-member) single-model ensemble climate model experiment to examine the influence of precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> on the direction and magnitude of near-term Northern Hemisphere snow trends. We find that near-term uncertainty in the sign of regional precipitation change does not cascade into uncertainty in the sign of regional snow accumulation change. Rather, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases drive statistically robust consistency in the sign of future near-term snow accumulation trends, with all regions exhibiting reductions in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow, along with mean decreases in late-season snow accumulation. However, internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> does create uncertainty in the magnitude of hemispheric and regional snow changes, including uncertainty as large as 33 % of the baseline mean. In addition, within the 40-member ensemble, many mid-latitude grid points exhibit at least one realization with a statistically significant positive trend in net snow accumulation, and at least one realization with a statistically significant negative trend. These results suggest that the direction of near-term snow accumulation change is robust at the regional scale, but that internal <span class="hlt">variability</span> can influence the magnitude and direction of snow accumulation changes at the local scale, even in areas that exhibit a high signal-to-noise ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMagR.212..355T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMagR.212..355T"><span>Development of a <span class="hlt">temperature-variable</span> magnetic resonance imaging system using a 1.0 T yokeless permanent magnet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Terada, Y.; Tamada, D.; Kose, K.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet. A permanent magnet, gradient coils, radiofrequency coil, and shim coil were installed in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermostatic bath. First, the variation in the magnetic field inhomogeneity with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured. The inhomogeneity has a specific spatial symmetry, which scales linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and a single-channel shim coil was designed to compensate for the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity was drastically reduced by shimming over a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from -5 °C to 45 °C. MR images of an okra pod acquired at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> demonstrated the high potential of the system for visualizing thermally sensitive properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21856197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21856197"><span>Development of a <span class="hlt">temperature-variable</span> magnetic resonance imaging system using a 1.0T yokeless permanent magnet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terada, Y; Tamada, D; Kose, K</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet. A permanent magnet, gradient coils, radiofrequency coil, and shim coil were installed in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> thermostatic bath. First, the variation in the magnetic field inhomogeneity with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured. The inhomogeneity has a specific spatial symmetry, which scales linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and a single-channel shim coil was designed to compensate for the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity was drastically reduced by shimming over a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from -5°C to 45°C. MR images of an okra pod acquired at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> demonstrated the high potential of the system for visualizing thermally sensitive properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1304704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1304704"><span>The role of Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in the global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Klett, James D.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Hengartner, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We simulated the global mean 1900–2015 warming by 42 Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models varies between 0.58 and 1.70 °C. The observed warming according to the NASA GISS <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis is 0.95 °C with a 1200 km smoothing radius, or 0.86 °C with a 250 km smoothing radius. The projection of the future 2015–2100 global warming under a moderate increase of anthropogenic radiative forcing (RCP4.5 scenario) by individual models is between 0.7 and 2.3 °C. The CMIP5 climate models agree that the future climate will be warmer; however, there is little consensus as to how large the warming will be (reflected by an uncertainty of over a factor of three). Moreover, a parsimonious statistical regression model with just three explanatory <span class="hlt">variables</span> [anthropogenic radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases and aerosols (GHGA), solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index] accounts for over 95 % of the observed 1900–2015 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. This statistical regression model reproduces very accurately the past warming (0.96 °C compared to the observed 0.95 °C) and projects the future 2015–2100 warming to be around 0.95 °C (with the IPCC 2013 suggested RCP4.5 radiative forcing and an assumed cyclic AMO behavior). The AMO contribution to the 1970–2005 warming was between 0.13 and 0.20 °C (depending on which AMO index is used) compared to the GHGA contribution of 0.49–0.58 °C. During the twenty-first century AMO cycle the AMO contribution is projected to remain the same (0.13–0.20 °C), while the GHGA contribution is expected to decrease to 0.21–0.25 °C due to the levelling off of the GHGA radiative forcing that is assumed according to the RCP4.5 scenario. Therefore, the anthropogenic contribution and natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> are expected to contribute about equally to the anticipated global warming during the second half of the twenty-first century for the RCP4.5 trajectory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3271C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.3271C"><span>The role of Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in the global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Klett, James D.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Hengartner, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The global mean 1900-2015 warming simulated by 42 Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models varies between 0.58 and 1.70 °C. The observed warming according to the NASA GISS <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis is 0.95 °C with a 1200 km smoothing radius, or 0.86 °C with a 250 km smoothing radius. The projection of the future 2015-2100 global warming under a moderate increase of anthropogenic radiative forcing (RCP4.5 scenario) by individual models is between 0.7 and 2.3 °C. The CMIP5 climate models agree that the future climate will be warmer; however, there is little consensus as to how large the warming will be (reflected by an uncertainty of over a factor of three). A parsimonious statistical regression model with just three explanatory <span class="hlt">variables</span> [anthropogenic radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases and aerosols (GHGA), solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index] accounts for over 95 % of the observed 1900-2015 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. This statistical regression model reproduces very accurately the past warming (0.96 °C compared to the observed 0.95 °C) and projects the future 2015-2100 warming to be around 0.95 °C (with the IPCC 2013 suggested RCP4.5 radiative forcing and an assumed cyclic AMO behavior). The AMO contribution to the 1970-2005 warming was between 0.13 and 0.20 °C (depending on which AMO index is used) compared to the GHGA contribution of 0.49-0.58 °C. During the twenty-first century AMO cycle the AMO contribution is projected to remain the same (0.13-0.20 °C), while the GHGA contribution is expected to decrease to 0.21-0.25 °C due to the levelling off of the GHGA radiative forcing that is assumed according to the RCP4.5 scenario. Thus the anthropogenic contribution and natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> are expected to contribute about equally to the anticipated global warming during the second half of the twenty-first century for the RCP4.5 trajectory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1304704-role-atlantic-multi-decadal-oscillation-global-mean-temperature-variability','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1304704-role-atlantic-multi-decadal-oscillation-global-mean-temperature-variability"><span>The role of Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation in the global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Chylek, Petr; Klett, James D.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; ...</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We simulated the global mean 1900–2015 warming by 42 Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models varies between 0.58 and 1.70 °C. The observed warming according to the NASA GISS <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis is 0.95 °C with a 1200 km smoothing radius, or 0.86 °C with a 250 km smoothing radius. The projection of the future 2015–2100 global warming under a moderate increase of anthropogenic radiative forcing (RCP4.5 scenario) by individual models is between 0.7 and 2.3 °C. The CMIP5 climate models agree that the future climate will be warmer; however, there is little consensus as to how largemore » the warming will be (reflected by an uncertainty of over a factor of three). Moreover, a parsimonious statistical regression model with just three explanatory <span class="hlt">variables</span> [anthropogenic radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases and aerosols (GHGA), solar <span class="hlt">variability</span>, and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index] accounts for over 95 % of the observed 1900–2015 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. This statistical regression model reproduces very accurately the past warming (0.96 °C compared to the observed 0.95 °C) and projects the future 2015–2100 warming to be around 0.95 °C (with the IPCC 2013 suggested RCP4.5 radiative forcing and an assumed cyclic AMO behavior). The AMO contribution to the 1970–2005 warming was between 0.13 and 0.20 °C (depending on which AMO index is used) compared to the GHGA contribution of 0.49–0.58 °C. During the twenty-first century AMO cycle the AMO contribution is projected to remain the same (0.13–0.20 °C), while the GHGA contribution is expected to decrease to 0.21–0.25 °C due to the levelling off of the GHGA radiative forcing that is assumed according to the RCP4.5 scenario. Therefore, the anthropogenic contribution and natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> are expected to contribute about equally to the anticipated global warming during the second half of the twenty-first century for the RCP4.5 trajectory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410083"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in <span class="hlt">variable</span> inductor employing magnetorheological fluid driven by a high-frequency pulsed voltage source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Ho-Young; Kang, In Man; Shon, Chae-Hwa; Lee, Se-Hee</p> <p>2015-05-07</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">variable</span> inductor with magnetorheological (MR) fluid has been successfully applied to power electronics applications; however, its thermal characteristics have not been investigated. To evaluate the performance of the <span class="hlt">variable</span> inductor with respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we measured the characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise and developed a numerical analysis technique. The characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise were determined experimentally and verified numerically by adopting a multiphysics analysis technique. In order to accurately estimate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in a <span class="hlt">variable</span> inductor with an MR fluid-gap, the thermal solver should import the heat source from the electromagnetic solver to solve the eddy current problem. To improve accuracy, the B–H curves of the MR fluid under operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were obtained using the magnetic property measurement system. In addition, the Steinmetz equation was applied to evaluate the core loss in a ferrite core. The predicted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise for a <span class="hlt">variable</span> inductor showed good agreement with the experimental data and the developed numerical technique can be employed to design a <span class="hlt">variable</span> inductor with a high-frequency pulsed voltage source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008192','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008192"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet, 2000-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino, C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Enhanced melting along with surface-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases measured using infrared satellite data, have been documented for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Recently we developed a climate-quality data record of ice-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1ST product -- http://modis-snow-ice.gsfc.nasa.gov. Using daily and mean monthly MODIS 1ST maps from the data record we show maximum extent of melt for the ice sheet and its six major drainage basins for a 12-year period extending from March of 2000 through December of 2011. The duration of the melt season on the ice sheet varies in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The short time of the study period (approximately 12 years) precludes an evaluation of statistically-significant trends. However the dataset provides valuable information on natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of IST, and on the ability of the MODIS instrument to capture changes in IST and melt conditions indifferent drainage basins of the ice sheet.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018864','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018864"><span>Spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture and surface soil properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hajek, B. F.; Dane, J. H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The overall objectives of this research were to: (l) Relate in-situ measured soil-water content and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles to remotely sensed surface soil-water and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions; to model simultaneous heat and water movement for spatially and temporally changing soil conditions; (2) Determine the spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface soil properties affecting emissivity, reflectance, and material and energy flux across the soil surface. This will include physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of primary soil components and aggregate systems; and (3) Develop surface soil classes of naturally occurring and distributed soil property assemblages and group classes to be tested with respect to water content, emissivity and reflectivity. This document is a report of studies conducted during the period funded by NASA grants. The project was designed to be conducted over a five year period. Since funding was discontinued after three years, some of the research started was not completed. Additional publications are planned whenever funding can be obtained to finalize data analysis for both the arid and humid locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.118...57J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.118...57J"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> and trends in daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied <span class="hlt">variables</span> on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in January and May in case of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range has not changed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034713','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034713"><span>Ground and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> for remote sensing of soil moisture in a heterogeneous landscape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Giraldo, M.A.; Bosch, D.; Madden, M.; Usery, L.; Finn, M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>At the Little River Watershed (LRW) heterogeneous landscape near Tifton Georgia US an in situ network of stations operated by the US Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service-Southeast Watershed Research Lab (USDA-ARS-SEWRL) was established in 2003 for the long term study of climatic and soil biophysical processes. To develop an accurate interpolation of the in situ readings that can be used to produce distributed representations of soil moisture (SM) and energy balances at the landscape scale for remote sensing studies, we studied (1) the temporal and spatial variations of ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GT) and infra red <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (IRT) within 30 by 30 m plots around selected network stations; (2) the relationship between the readings from the eight 30 by 30 m plots and the point reading of the network stations for the <span class="hlt">variables</span> SM, GT and IRT; and (3) the spatial and temporal variation of GT and IRT within agriculture landuses: grass, orchard, peanuts, cotton and bare soil in the surrounding landscape. The results showed high correlations between the station readings and the adjacent 30 by 30 m plot average value for SM; high seasonal independent variation in the GT and IRT behavior among the eight 30 by 30 m plots; and site specific, in-field homogeneity in each 30 by 30 m plot. We found statistical differences in the GT and IRT between the different landuses as well as high correlations between GT and IRT regardless of the landuse. Greater standard deviations for IRT than for GT (in the range of 2-4) were found within the 30 by 30 m, suggesting that when a single point reading for this <span class="hlt">variable</span> is selected for the validation of either remote sensing data or water-energy models, errors may occur. The results confirmed that in this landscape homogeneous 30 by 30 m plots can be used as landscape spatial units for soil moisture and ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> studies. Under this landscape conditions small plots can account for local expressions of environmental</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP33C1262D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP33C1262D"><span>Millennial-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during Marine Isotope Stages 19 and 31 in the continental Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Wet, G.; Castañeda, I. S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Salacup, J. M.; Keisling, B. A.; Habicht, M. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In light of predicted climate change, high-resolution paleoclimate records are essential to accurately contextualize future warming. The Arctic region in particular is currently lacking terrestrial paleoclimate reconstructions that extend beyond the last glacial period. A sediment core from Lake El'gygytgyn (Russia) provides a continuous record of Arctic climate spanning the past 3.6 Ma. Here we utilize molecular organic proxies to create millennial-scale paleotemperature reconstructions through Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 19 and 31, two interglacial periods considered to be good analogs for the current interglacial and future climate change, respectively. MIS 31 has been previously identified a "super interglacial" period at Lake El'gygytgyn whereas MIS 19 provides an analog for the current MIS 1 interglacial, without anthropogenic influences, due to similar orbital forcing. Our paleotemperature reconstructions, based on the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) paleothermometer, demonstrate that Lake El'gygytgyn sediments capture glacial-interglacial climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> noted in global climate records (Figure 1) and suggests close ties to Antarctic climate. We find that MIS 31 was the warmest interglacial period of the past ~ 1 Ma, in agreement with pollen-derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates. Our cm-scale brGDGT <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction, with an average time step of <500 years, to the best of our knowledge provides the highest resolution Arctic paleoclimate record of this "super interglacial" and reveals <span class="hlt">variability</span> hitherto unobserved by lower resolution marine records. Our results are placed in context of paleotemperature reconstructions over the period of MIS 19-35. Remarkably, multiple proxies display a number of abrupt and short-lived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations of ca. 3-5°C occurring within MIS 19 and 31, as well as within other previous interglacials at Lake El'gygytgyn. We examine our results in the context of other biomarker records, existing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.125..469U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.125..469U"><span>Understanding convection features over Bay of Bengal using sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and atmospheric <span class="hlt">variables</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uma, R.; Lakshmi Kumar, T. V.; Narayanan, M. S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Tropical oceanic regions are frequently prone to deep convections. Hence, it is very essential to understand the features of convection with the help of oceanic and atmospheric <span class="hlt">variables</span> such as sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST), outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), rainfall, relative humidity, columnar water vapour (CWV) etc. and the linkage among them. In our present study, we have divided the Bay of Bengal (BoB) into ten different subregions (SR) and have attempted to study the connection between the above-stated <span class="hlt">variables</span> during convective and non-convective events in the southwest monsoon (SWM) season (June to September) for the period 1998-2010. The monthly behaviour of SST/OLR decreased by 0.5 °C/14 W/m2 from May to June and increased by 0.1 °C/7 W/m2 from September to October. Among the ten SRs, SR 5 and SR 10 are observed to be coldest and warmest, respectively, based on the SST variations. Intra-seasonal oscillations of the above-mentioned <span class="hlt">variables</span> show the influences of quasi-biweekly oscillations (QBWO) and Madden-Julian oscillations (MJO). As the threshold values for SST, OLR and rainfall were already reported, we have drawn our attention to deduce a threshold value for water vapour in lower level troposphere (water vapour density (WVD) at 850 mb) which highly influences the convection. In arriving at a threshold of low-level water vapour, we have analysed the convective and non-convective events of each central 1 × 1° grid in all the SRs for the period from 1998 to 2010, along with water vapour scale height. Our analysis inferred that the low-level water vapour density at 850 mb varied above 12 g/m3during convective days and below 12 g/m3during non-convective days. We noticed that the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in water vapour density is more in non-convective days than in convective days over BoB. The results of the study may be useful to understand the water vapour dynamics with SST, OLR and rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010055268','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010055268"><span>Apparatus and Method for Measuring Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Ahead of an Aircraft for Controlling a <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Inlet/Engine Assembly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The apparatus and method employ remote sensing to measure the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> a sufficient distance ahead of the aircraft to allow time for a <span class="hlt">variable</span> inlet/engine assembly to be reconfigured in response to the measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, to avoid inlet unstart and/or engine compressor stall. In one embodiment, the apparatus of the invention has a remote sensor for measuring at least one air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ahead of the vehicle and an inlet control system for varying the inlet. The remote sensor determines a change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> value using at least one <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement and prior <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements corresponding to the location of the aircraft. The control system uses the change in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> value to vary the inlet configuration to maintain the position of the shock wave during the arrival of the measured air in the inlet. In one embodiment, the method of the invention includes measuring at least one air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ahead of the vehicle, determining an air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the vehicle from prior air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements, determining a change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> value using the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the vehicle and the at least one air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement ahead of the vehicle, and using the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> value to-reposition the airflow inlet, to cause the shock wave to maintain substantially the same position within the inlet as the airflow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes within the inlet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010015246&hterms=arctic+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Darctic%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010015246&hterms=arctic+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Darctic%2Btemperature"><span>Satellite Observed <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Antarctic and Arctic Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> and Their Correlation to Open Water Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies using meterological station data have indicated that global surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been increasing at a rate of 0.05 K/decade. Using the same set of data but for stations in the Antarctic and Arctic regions (>50 N) only, the increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were 0.08, and 0.22 K/decade, when record lengths of 100 and 50 years, respectively, were used. To gain insights into the increasing rate of warming, satellite infrared and passive microwave observations over the Arctic region during the last 20 years were processed and analyzed. The results show that during this period, the ice extent in the Antarctic has been increasing at the rate of 1.2% per decade while the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been decreasing at about 0.08 K per decade. Conversely, in the Northern Hemisphere, the ice extent has been decreasing at a rate of 2.8% per decade, while the surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been increasing at the rate of 0.38 K per decade. In the Antarctic, it is surprising that there is a short term trend of cooling during a global period of warming. Very large anomalies in open water areas in the Arctic were observed especially in the western region, that includes the Beaufort Sea, where the observed open water area was about 1x10(exp 6) sq km, about twice the average for the region, during the summer of 1998. In the eastern region, that includes the Laptev Sea, the area of open water was also abnormally large in the summer of 1995. Note that globally, the warmest and second warmest years in this century, were 1998 and 1995, respectively. The data, however, show large spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> with the open water area distribution showing a cyclic periodicity of about ten years, which is akin to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillations. This was observed in both western and eastern regions but with the phase of one lagging the other by about two years. This makes it difficult to interpret what the trends really mean. But although the record length of satellite data is still</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11k4015T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11k4015T"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">variability</span> and extremes of electricity and gas demand in Great Britain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thornton, H. E.; Hoskins, B. J.; Scaife, A. A.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The daily relationship of electricity and gas demand with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Great Britain is analysed from 1975 to 2013 and 1996 to 2013 respectively. The annual mean and annual cycle amplitude of electricity demand exhibit low frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span>. This low frequency <span class="hlt">variability</span> is thought to be predominantly driven by socio-economic changes rather than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation. Once this <span class="hlt">variability</span> is removed, both daily electricity and gas demand have a strong anti-correlation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (r elec = -0.90 , r gas = -0.94). However these correlations are inflated by the changing demand-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship during spring and autumn. Once the annual cycles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and demand are removed, the correlations are {r}{{elec}}=-0.60 and {r}{{gas}}=-0.83. Winter then has the strongest demand-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship, during which a 1 °C reduction in daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> typically gives a ˜1% increase in daily electricity demand and a 3%-4% increase in gas demand. Extreme demand periods are assessed using detrended daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations from 1772. The 1 in 20 year peak day electricity and gas demand estimates are, respectively, 15% (range 14%-16%) and 46% (range 44%-49%) above their average winter day demand during the last decade. The risk of demand exceeding recent extreme events, such as during the winter of 2009/2010, is also quantified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13....1K"><span>Spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> over Turkey since 1800 CE reconstructed from a broad network of tree-ring data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Köse, Nesibe; Tuncay Güner, H.; Harley, Grant L.; Guiot, Joel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The meteorological observational period in Turkey, which starts ca. 1930 CE, is too short for understanding long-term climatic <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Tree rings have been used intensively as proxy records to understand summer precipitation history of the region, primarily because they have a dominant precipitation signal. Yet, the historical context of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> is unclear. Here, we used higher-order principle components of a network of 23 tree-ring chronologies to provide a high-resolution spring (March-April) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction over Turkey during the period 1800-2002. The reconstruction model accounted for 67 % (Adj. R2 = 0.64, p < 0.0001) of the instrumental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance over the full calibration period (1930-2002). The reconstruction is punctuated by a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase during the 20th century; yet extreme cold and warm events during the 19th century seem to eclipse conditions during the 20th century. We found significant correlations between our March-April spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction and existing gridded spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions for Europe over Turkey and southeastern Europe. Moreover, the precipitation signal obtained from the tree-ring network (first principle component) showed highly significant correlations with gridded summer drought index reconstruction over Turkey and Mediterranean countries. Our results showed that, beside the dominant precipitation signal, a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signal can be extracted from tree-ring series and they can be useful proxies in reconstructing past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CorRe..31..121V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CorRe..31..121V"><span>Effects of modeled tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on coral reef bleaching predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Hooidonk, R.; Huber, M.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Future widespread coral bleaching and subsequent mortality has been projected using sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data derived from global, coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs). While these models possess fidelity in reproducing many aspects of climate, they vary in their ability to correctly capture such parameters as the tropical ocean seasonal cycle and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Such weaknesses most likely reduce the accuracy of predicting coral bleaching, but little attention has been paid to the important issue of understanding potential errors and biases, the interaction of these biases with trends, and their propagation in predictions. To analyze the relative importance of various types of model errors and biases in predicting coral bleaching, various intra- and inter-annual frequency bands of observed SSTs were replaced with those frequencies from 24 GCMs 20th century simulations included in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th assessment report. Subsequent thermal stress was calculated and predictions of bleaching were made. These predictions were compared with observations of coral bleaching in the period 1982-2007 to calculate accuracy using an objective measure of forecast quality, the Peirce skill score (PSS). Major findings are that: (1) predictions are most sensitive to the seasonal cycle and inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the ENSO 24-60 months frequency band and (2) because models tend to understate the seasonal cycle at reef locations, they systematically underestimate future bleaching. The methodology we describe can be used to improve the accuracy of bleaching predictions by characterizing the errors and uncertainties involved in the predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020094','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020094"><span>Field study and simulation of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on infiltration and <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated flow beneath an ephemeral stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ronan, A.D.; Prudic, D.E.; Thodal, C.E.; Constantz, J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Two experiments were performed to investigate flow beneath an ephemeral stream and to estimate streambed infiltration rates. Discharge and stream-area measurements were used to determine infiltration rates. Stream and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were used to interpret subsurface flow through <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated sediments beneath the stream. Spatial variations in subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> suggest that flow beneath the streambed is dependent on the orientation of the stream in the canyon and the layering of the sediments. Streamflow and infiltration rates vary diurnally: Stream flow is lowest in late afternoon when stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is greatest and highest in early morning when stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is least. The lower afternoon streamflow is attributed to increased infiltration rates; evapotranspiration is insufficient to account for the decreased streamflow. The increased infiltration rates are attributed to viscosity effects on hydraulic conductivity from increased stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The first set of field data was used to calibrate a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated flow model that includes heat transport. The model was calibrated to (1) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in the subsurface and (2) infiltration rates determined from measured stream flow losses. The second set of field data was to evaluate the ability to predict infiltration rates on the basis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements alone. Results indicate that the <span class="hlt">variably</span> saturated subsurface flow depends on downcanyon layering of the sediments. They also support the field observations in indicating that diurnal changes in infiltration can be explained by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of hydraulic conductivity. Over the range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and flows monitored, diurnal stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes can be used to estimate streambed infiltration rates. It is often impractical to maintain equipment for determining infiltration rates by traditional means; however, once a model is calibrated using both infiltration and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdG....42...35M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdG....42...35M"><span>Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the midsummer drought in Central America and the connection with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge; Claremar, Björn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The midsummer drought (MSD) in Central America is characterised in order to create annual indexes representing the timing of its phases (start, minimum and end), and other features relevant for MSD forecasting such as the intensity and the magnitude. The MSD intensity is defined as the minimum rainfall detected during the MSD, meanwhile the magnitude is the total precipitation divided by the total days between the start and end of the MSD. It is shown that the MSD extends along the Pacific coast, however, a similar MSD structure was detected also in two stations in the Caribbean side of Central America, located in Nicaragua. The MSD intensity and magnitude show a negative relationship with Niño 3.4 and a positive relationship with the Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) index, however for the Caribbean stations the results were not statistically significant, which is indicating that other processes might be modulating the precipitation during the MSD over the Caribbean coast. On the other hand, the temporal <span class="hlt">variables</span> (start, minimum and end) show low and no significant correlations with the same indexes.The results from canonical correlation analysis (CCA) show good performance to study the MSD intensity and magnitude, however, for the temporal indexes the performance is not satisfactory due to the low skill to predict the MSD phases. Moreover, we find that CCA shows potential predictability of the MSD intensity and magnitude using sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) with leading times of up to 3 months. Using CCA as diagnostic tool it is found that during June, an SST dipole pattern upon the neighbouring waters to Central America is the main <span class="hlt">variability</span> mode controlling the inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the MSD features. However, there is also evidence that the regional waters are playing an important role in the annual modulation of the MSD features. The waters in the PDO vicinity might be also controlling the rainfall during the MSD, however, exerting an opposite effect at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895927"><span>Managing <span class="hlt">variability</span> in perioperative services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dempsey, Christina J</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Variability</span> within perioperative services has come to be something physicians, perioperative nurses, and managers expect. Peaks and valleys in schedules; differences in physician preferences for surgical implants, instruments, and supplies; staffing competencies; and inpatient bed availability are just a few examples of <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> that affects perioperative services personnel. Rather than simply responding to <span class="hlt">variability</span>, however, the goal should be to eliminate <span class="hlt">variability</span> in patient flow as much as possible and effectively manage what cannot be eliminated. Combining the hard science of queuing theory and simulation modeling with the soft science of change management and operations improvement expertise is the key to success, and a collaborative team makes it possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp..110Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp..110Z"><span>Impact of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia stratified by season of birth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Desheng; Zhang, Xulai; Xu, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jian; Xie, Mingyu; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Shusi; Li, Kesheng; Yang, Huihui; Wen, Liying; Wang, Xu; Su, Hong</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change between neighboring days (TCN) are important meteorological indicators closely associated with global climate change. However, up to date, there have been no studies addressing the impacts of both DTR and TCN on emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia. We conducted a time-series analysis to assess the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and daily schizophrenia onset in Hefei, an inland city in southeast China. Daily meteorological data and emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia from 2005 to 2014 in Hefei were collected. After stratifying by season of birth, Poisson generalized linear regression combined with distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was used to examine the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and schizophrenia, adjusting for long-term trend and seasonality, mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and relative humidity. Our analysis revealed that extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> may increase the risk for schizophrenia onset among patients born in spring, while no such association was found in patients born in summer and autumn. In patients born in spring, the relative risks of extremely high DTR comparing the 95th and 99th percentiles with the reference (50th, 10 °C) at 3-day lag were 1.078 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.025-1.135) and 1.159 (95 % CI 1.050-1.279), respectively. For TCN effects, only comparing 99th percentile with reference (50th, 0.7 °C) was significantly associated with emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia (relative risk (RR) 1.111, 95 % CI 1.002-1.231). This study suggested that exposure to extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in short-term may trigger later days of schizophrenia onset for patients born in spring, which may have important implications for developing intervention strategies to prevent large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174..595S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174..595S"><span>The Role of Auxiliary <span class="hlt">Variables</span> in Deterministic and Deterministic-Stochastic Spatial Models of Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Poland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szymanowski, Mariusz; Kryza, Maciej</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Our study examines the role of auxiliary <span class="hlt">variables</span> in the process of spatial modelling and mapping of climatological elements, with air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Poland used as an example. The multivariable algorithms are the most frequently applied for spatialization of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and their results in many studies are proved to be better in comparison to those obtained by various one-dimensional techniques. In most of the previous studies, two main strategies were used to perform multidimensional spatial interpolation of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. First, it was accepted that all <span class="hlt">variables</span> significantly correlated with air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> should be incorporated into the model. Second, it was assumed that the more spatial variation of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was deterministically explained, the better was the quality of spatial interpolation. The main goal of the paper was to examine both above-mentioned assumptions. The analysis was performed using data from 250 meteorological stations and for 69 air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cases aggregated on different levels: from daily means to 10-year annual mean. Two cases were considered for detailed analysis. The set of potential auxiliary <span class="hlt">variables</span> covered 11 environmental predictors of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Another purpose of the study was to compare the results of interpolation given by various multivariable methods using the same set of explanatory <span class="hlt">variables</span>. Two regression models: multiple linear (MLR) and geographically weighted (GWR) method, as well as their extensions to the regression-kriging form, MLRK and GWRK, respectively, were examined. Stepwise regression was used to select <span class="hlt">variables</span> for the individual models and the cross-validation method was used to validate the results with a special attention paid to statistically significant improvement of the model using the mean absolute error (MAE) criterion. The main results of this study led to rejection of both assumptions considered. Usually, including more than two or three of the most significantly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26025884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26025884"><span>Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variable</span> age structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Damos, Petros</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic <span class="hlt">variability</span> towards equilibrium under different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26137681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26137681"><span>[Physiological and biochemical change of Paris seed in after-ripening during <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stratification].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Zhao-ling; Tong, Kai; Yan, Shen; Yang, Hua; Wang, Qiao; Tang, Yong-bin; Deng, Meng-sheng; Tian, Meng-liang</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In order to explore the dormancy physiological and biochemical mechanism of Paris seeds, the seed embryo growth courses, and the dynamic change of 5 enzymes, include SOD, POD, CAT, MDH, G-6-PDH were measured during <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stratification. The results indicated that Paris seeds embryo grew quickly after 40 d in warm-stratification (18 ± 1) °C, at the meantime the metabolic activity was significantly strengthened. These facts showed that Paris seeds turned into physiological after-ripening process. After 60-80 d, the morphological embryo after-ripping process basically completed, and the following cold-stratification (4 ± 1) °C furthered Paris seed to finish physiological after-ripening. After 40 d, the activity of MDH decreased while G-6-PDH increased significantly. This showed that the main respiratory pathway of seed changed from TCA to PPP, which benifited breaking seed dormancy. In the whole period of stratification process, the activity variation of SOD and CAT was insignificantly and the activity of POD was enhanced significantly after shifting the seed in cold stratification process. This showed that SOD, CAT had no direct effects on breaking Paris seed dormancy but keeping the seed vigor, while the POD might involve in the process of Paris seed dormancy breaking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120006480','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120006480"><span>Design of a High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Radiator for the <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheth, Rubik B.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chambliss, Joe P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR), currently under development by Ad Astra Rocket Company (Webster, TX), is a unique propulsion system that could change the way space propulsion is performed. VASIMR's efficiency, when compared to that of a conventional chemical rocket, reduces the propellant needed for exploration missions by a factor of 10. Currently plans include flight tests of a 200 kW VASIMR system, titled VF-200, on the International Space Station (ISS). The VF-200 will consist of two 100 kW thruster units packaged together in one engine bus. Each thruster core generates 27 kW of waste heat during its 15 minute firing time. The rocket core will be maintained between 283 and 573 K by a pumped thermal control loop. The design of a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> radiator is a unique challenge for the vehicle design. This paper will discuss the path taken to develop a steady state and transient-based radiator design. The paper will describe the radiator design option selected for the VASIMR thermal control system for use on ISS, and how the system relates to future exploration vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4801270','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4801270"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-driven global sea-level <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Common Era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kopp, Robert E.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Bittermann, Klaus; Horton, Benjamin P.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Gehrels, W. Roland; Hay, Carling C.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Morrow, Eric D.; Rahmstorf, Stefan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We assess the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and global sea-level (GSL) <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the Common Era through a statistical metaanalysis of proxy relative sea-level reconstructions and tide-gauge data. GSL rose at 0.1 ± 0.1 mm/y (2σ) over 0–700 CE. A GSL fall of 0.2 ± 0.2 mm/y over 1000–1400 CE is associated with ∼0.2 °C global mean cooling. A significant GSL acceleration began in the 19th century and yielded a 20th century rise that is extremely likely (probability P≥0.95) faster than during any of the previous 27 centuries. A semiempirical model calibrated against the GSL reconstruction indicates that, in the absence of anthropogenic climate change, it is extremely likely (P=0.95) that 20th century GSL would have risen by less than 51% of the observed 13.8±1.5 cm. The new semiempirical model largely reconciles previous differences between semiempirical 21st century GSL projections and the process model-based projections summarized in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. PMID:26903659</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC41A0787V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC41A0787V"><span>Effects of modeled tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> on coral reef bleaching predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Hooidonk, R. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Future widespread coral bleaching and subsequent mortality has been projected with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data from global, coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs). While these models possess fidelity in reproducing many aspects of climate, they vary in their ability to correctly capture such parameters as the tropical ocean seasonal cycle and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) <span class="hlt">variability</span>. These model weaknesses likely reduce the skill of coral bleaching predictions, but little attention has been paid to the important issue of understanding potential errors and biases, the interaction of these biases with trends and their propagation in predictions. To analyze the relative importance of various types of model errors and biases on coral reef bleaching predictive skill, various intra- and inter-annual frequency bands of observed SSTs were replaced with those frequencies from GCMs 20th century simulations to be included in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th assessment report. Subsequent thermal stress was calculated and predictions of bleaching were made. These predictions were compared with observations of coral bleaching in the period 1982-2007 to calculate skill using an objective measure of forecast quality, the Peirce Skill Score (PSS). This methodology will identify frequency bands that are important to predicting coral bleaching and it will highlight deficiencies in these bands in models. The methodology we describe can be used to improve future climate model derived predictions of coral reef bleaching and it can be used to better characterize the errors and uncertainty in predictions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH33B1570C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH33B1570C"><span>Relationship between the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of satellite-observed fires and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Morton, D. C.; DeFries, R. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Jin, Y.; Marlier, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that occurs in multiple biomes and regions, and has large impacts on ecosystems, air quality, and global climate. High fire years are often associated with an extended dry season and anomalously low levels of precipitation. Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) may regulate the precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> on land through teleconnections. Here we investigated the relationship between year-to-year changes in satellite-derived estimates of fire activity and SST anomalies. Using South America as an example, we demonstrated an approach to predict regional annual fire season severity with 3-5 month lead times. We found that the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) was correlated with interannual fire activity in the eastern Amazon whereas the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index was more closely linked with fires in the southern and southwestern Amazon. We then extended this approach to examine the relationship between fire occurrences and SSTs for other important fire regions, using SST anomalies from different regions within the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. We determined regions where SST changes had significant impacts on the annual fire season severity, as well as the optimal lead times of fire prediction for each region. This study will be of use in several different ways to inform mitigation and adaptation strategies related to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1826B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51A1826B"><span>Multiproxy paleolimnological evidence of Holocene <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> from the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bixler, C. W.; Shanahan, T. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The late Holocene was characterized by a number of significant, widespread multi-century climate anomalies, the most prominent and well documented of which are the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period. Existing paleoclimate reconstructions from South and Central America provide evidence for anomalous climate conditions during these time periods but the spatial and temporal resolution of existing records is limited and quantitative data on the magnitudes of these events is lacking. These limitations make it difficult to fully evaluate the causes and large scale impacts of these apparently global events. Here, we present new high-resolution multiproxy lacustrine records of late Holocene climate change in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia over the last 2 millennia by combining high-resolution core scanning approaches with molecular and stable isotope analysis of lipid biomarkers. Preliminary paleoclimate reconstructions from these archives suggest that the northern tropics of South America strongly reflect global century-scale climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> over this time period, with significant hydrologic and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies that are broadly synchronous with events in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The magnitude and widespread nature of late Holocene century-scale droughts in this region likely had significant ecological and societal impacts in the Eastern Cordillera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745239"><span>Effect of extrusion <span class="hlt">variables</span> (<span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture) on the antinutrient components of cereal brans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaur, Satinder; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Dar, B N</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The study was carried out, to explore the potentiality of extrusion technology for elimination of antinutritional components of cereal brans. Extrusion <span class="hlt">variables</span> were moisture content (14, 17 and 20 %) and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (115 °C, 140 °C, 165 °C). Phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates, trypsin inhibitor, bulk density and color of brans after extrusion were analyzed. All four raw bran samples had high concentration of phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates and trypsin inhibitors. Extrusion cooking was found effective in reduction of these antinutritients. Extrusion processing reduced the phytic acid by 54.51 %, polyphenol by 73.38 %, oxalates by 36.84 %, and trypsin inhibitor by 72.39 %. The heat treatment caused the highest reduction in polyphenols followed by trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and oxalates. The highest reduction in antinutrients was observed at 140 °C and 20 % moisture content. Bulk density increased significantly compared to raw brans and increase in redness and decrease in yellowness of brans was observed after extrusion treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26903659','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26903659"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-driven global sea-level <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Common Era.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kopp, Robert E; Kemp, Andrew C; Bittermann, Klaus; Horton, Benjamin P; Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Gehrels, W Roland; Hay, Carling C; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Morrow, Eric D; Rahmstorf, Stefan</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>We assess the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and global sea-level (GSL) <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the Common Era through a statistical metaanalysis of proxy relative sea-level reconstructions and tide-gauge data. GSL rose at 0.1 ± 0.1 mm/y (2σ) over 0-700 CE. A GSL fall of 0.2 ± 0.2 mm/y over 1000-1400 CE is associated with ∼ 0.2 °C global mean cooling. A significant GSL acceleration began in the 19th century and yielded a 20th century rise that is extremely likely (probability [Formula: see text]) faster than during any of the previous 27 centuries. A semiempirical model calibrated against the GSL reconstruction indicates that, in the absence of anthropogenic climate change, it is extremely likely ([Formula: see text]) that 20th century GSL would have risen by less than 51% of the observed [Formula: see text] cm. The new semiempirical model largely reconciles previous differences between semiempirical 21st century GSL projections and the process model-based projections summarized in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.280..137M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.280..137M"><span>Stone <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">variability</span> under temperate environmental conditions: Implications for sandstone weathering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McAllister, Daniel; Warke, Patricia; McCabe, Stephen</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and moisture conditions are key drivers of stone weathering processes in both natural and built environments. Given their importance in the breakdown of stone, a detailed understanding of their temporal and spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> is central to understanding present-day weathering behaviour and for predicting how climate change may influence the nature and rates of future stone decay. Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture data are reported from quarry fresh Peakmoor Sandstone samples exposed during summer (June-July) and late autumn/early winter (October-December) in a mid-latitude, temperate maritime environment. These data demonstrate that the subsurface thermal response of sandstone comprises numerous short-term (minutes), low magnitude fluctuations superimposed upon larger-scale diurnal heating and cooling cycles with distinct aspect-related differences. The short-term fluctuations create conditions in the outer 5-10 mm of stone that are much more 'energetic' in comparison to the more subdued thermal cycling that occurs deeper within the sandstone samples. Data show that moisture dynamics are equally complex with a near-surface region (5-10 mm) in which frequent moisture cycling takes place and this, combined with the thermal dynamism exhibited by the same region, may have significant implications for the nature and rate of weathering activity. Data indicate that moisture input from rainfall, particularly when it is wind-driven, can travel deep into the stone where it can prolong the time of wetness. This most often occurs during wetter winter months when moisture input is high and evaporative loss is low but can happen at any time during the year when the hydraulic connection between near-surface and deeper regions of the stone is disrupted with subsequent loss of moisture from depth slowing as it becomes reliant on vapour diffusion alone. These data illustrate the complexity of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture conditions in sandstone exposed to the 'moderate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770015630','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770015630"><span>JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Meteorological <span class="hlt">variables</span>, surface reflectivity, surface and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kahle, A. B.; Schieldge, J.; Paley, H. N.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Data collected at the Finney County, Kansas test site as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment (JSME) are presented here, prior to analysis, to provide all JSME investigators with an immediate source of primary information. The ground-truth measurements were taken to verify and complement soil moisture data taken by microwave and infrared sensors during aircraft overflights. Measurements were made of meteorological <span class="hlt">variables</span> (air speed, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, and rainfall), surface reflectivity, and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at and below the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.6419H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016WRR....52.6419H"><span>Assimilation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hydraulic gradients for quantifying the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of streambed hydraulics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Xiang; Andrews, Charles B.; Liu, Jie; Yao, Yingying; Liu, Chuankun; Tyler, Scott W.; Selker, John S.; Zheng, Chunmiao</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of water flux into or out of shallow aquifers is imperative for water resources management and eco-environmental conservation. In this study, the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the vertical specific fluxes and hydraulic conductivities in a streambed were evaluated by integrating distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing (DTS) data and vertical hydraulic gradients into an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) and an empirical thermal-mixing model. The formulation of the EnKF/EnKS assimilation scheme is based on a discretized 1D advection-conduction equation of heat transfer in the streambed. We first systematically tested a synthetic case and performed quantitative and statistical analyses to evaluate the performance of the assimilation schemes. Then a real-world case was evaluated to calculate assimilated specific flux. An initial estimate of the spatial distributions of the vertical hydraulic gradients was obtained from an empirical thermal-mixing model under steady-state conditions using a constant vertical hydraulic conductivity. Then, this initial estimate was updated by repeatedly dividing the assimilated specific flux by estimates of the vertical hydraulic gradients to obtain a refined spatial distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients and vertical hydraulic conductivities. Our results indicate that optimal parameters can be derived with fewer iterations but greater simulation effort using the EnKS compared with the EnKF. For the field application in a stream segment of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, the average vertical hydraulic conductivities in the streambed varied over three orders of magnitude (5 × 10-1 to 5 × 102 m/d). The specific fluxes ranged from near zero (qz < ±0.05 m/d) to ±1.0 m/d, while the vertical hydraulic gradients were within the range of -0.2 to 0.15 m/m. The highest and most <span class="hlt">variable</span> fluxes occurred adjacent to a debris-dam and bridge pier. This phenomenon is very likely</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H44D..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H44D..05G"><span>Inter-Annual <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in Stream Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Microclimate and Heat Exchanges: a Comparison of Forest and Moorland Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garner, G.; Hannah, D. M.; Malcolm, I.; Sadler, J. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Riparian forest is recognised as important for moderating stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and has the potential to mitigate thermal extremes in a changing climate. Previous research on the heat exchanges controlling water column <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has often been short-term or seasonally-constrained, with the few multi-year studies limited to a maximum of two years. This study advances previous work by providing a longer-term perspective which allows assessment of inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, microclimate and heat exchange dynamics between a semi-natural woodland and a moorland (no trees) reach of the Girnock Burn, a tributary of the Scottish Dee. Automatic weather stations collected 15-minute data over seven consecutive years, which to our knowledge is a unique data set in providing the longest term perspective to date on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, microclimate and heat exchange processes. Results for spring-summer indicate that the presence of a riparian canopy has a consistent effect between years in reducing the magnitude and <span class="hlt">variability</span> of mean daily water column <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily net energy totals. Differences in the magnitude and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in net energy fluxes between the study reaches were driven primarily by fluctuations in net radiation and latent heat fluxes in response to between- and within-year <span class="hlt">variability</span> in growth of the riparian forest canopy at the forest and prevailing weather conditions at both the forest and moorland. This research provides new insights on the inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of stream energy exchanges for moorland and forested reaches under a wide range of climatological and hydrological conditions. The findings therefore provide a more robust process basis for modelling the impact of changes in forest practice and climate change on river thermal dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A21G3118Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A21G3118Q"><span>Climate Change Impact Assessment in Pacific North West Using Copula based Coupling of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">variables</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, Y.; Rana, A.; Moradkhani, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The multi downscaled-scenario products allow us to better assess the uncertainty of the changes/variations of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and future periods. Joint Probability distribution functions (PDFs), of both the climatic <span class="hlt">variables</span>, might help better understand the interdependence of the two, and thus in-turn help in accessing the future with confidence. Using the joint distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation is also of significant importance in hydrological applications and climate change studies. In the present study, we have used multi-modelled statistically downscaled-scenario ensemble of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variables</span> using 2 different statistically downscaled climate dataset. The datasets used are, 10 Global Climate Models (GCMs) downscaled products from CMIP5 daily dataset, namely, those from the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique generated at Portland State University and from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) technique, generated at University of Idaho, leading to 2 ensemble time series from 20 GCM products. Thereafter the ensemble PDFs of both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is evaluated for summer, winter, and yearly periods for all the 10 sub-basins across Columbia River Basin (CRB). Eventually, Copula is applied to establish the joint distribution of two <span class="hlt">variables</span> enabling users to model the joint behavior of the <span class="hlt">variables</span> with any level of correlation and dependency. Moreover, the probabilistic distribution helps remove the limitations on marginal distributions of <span class="hlt">variables</span> in question. The joint distribution is then used to estimate the change trends of the joint precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and future, along with estimation of the probabilities of the given change. Results have indicated towards varied change trends of the joint distribution of, summer, winter, and yearly time scale, respectively in all 10 sub-basins. Probabilities of changes, as estimated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JCli...15.1389P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JCli...15.1389P"><span>Linkages between Summer Rainfall <span class="hlt">Variability</span> over South America and Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Anomalies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paegle, Julia N.; Mo, Kingtse C.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>A reconstructed rainfall dataset, and satellite estimates are used to analyze interannual to decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of austral summer precipitation over South America. Rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis is applied to isolate dominant patterns of rainfall. Links of these patterns to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (SSTAs) are examined.The leading mode is related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which explains 12% of the total variance. During warm ENSO events, the positive phase of this mode shows dry conditions over northern South America and wet conditions over the subtropical plains between 25° and 35°S. The situation reverses during cold events. The second REOF 2, which explains about 10.8% of the total variance, consists of positive loadings over northeast Brazil centered at 50°W near the equator and negative loadings over Colombia and the subtropical plains. For December-January-February (DJF), REOF 2 is influenced by tropical South Atlantic SSTAs through displacements of the intertropical convergence zone. Northeast Brazil receives most rainfall in March-April-May (MAM) and it is modulated by both the Atlantic SSTAs and ENSO. In the interannual frequency band, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has very limited influence on rainfall. On the decadal timescales, the NAO leads REOF 2 by three years.Latitudinal variations of tropical convection are through the joint contribution of REOF 2 and REOF 4. REOF 4 is similar to REOF 2, but centers are displaced about 10° south. When these two EOFs are both positive, central South America is wet. The amplitudes of REOF 2 and REOF 4 are small during the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s and they are out of phase from 1968 to 1970, periods with persistent dry conditions over the upper La Plata River basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.1861C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.1861C"><span>Wind-driven <span class="hlt">variability</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> front distribution in the California Current System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castelao, Renato M.; Wang, Yuntao</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Simultaneous satellite-derived observations from 2002 to 2009 are used to quantify the relation between sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) fronts and ocean winds in the California Current System (CCS). An edge-detection algorithm is applied to SST observations to generate monthly maps of frontal probabilities. Empirical orthogonal decompositions reveal that the seasonal evolution of fronts in the CCS is strongly related to the seasonal evolution of coastal alongshore wind stress. The seasonal development of SST fronts is remarkably different to the north and to the south of Cape Mendocino, however. While fronts to the north of the cape extend for hundreds of kilometers from the coast peaking during summer and fall, when upwelling winds are stronger off northern California and Oregon, the region to the south of Cape Mendocino is characterized by high frontal activity during spring in a much narrower band close to the coast. Throughout the region, anomalies in the intensity of upwelling-favorable wind stress are followed by anomalies in frontal activity. The width and speed of the widening of the region of high frontal activity are also related to coastal alongshore wind stress. Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the timing of the widening of the region of high frontal activity in the lee of Cape Blanco compared to the timing of the spring transition to upwelling-favorable winds may be related to the wind stress curl distribution in the lee of the cape. Stronger upwelling-favorable wind stress curl anomalies lead to early widening of the region of high frontal activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alpha+AND+ray&id=EJ770215','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alpha+AND+ray&id=EJ770215"><span>Using <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Powder X-Ray Diffraction to Determine the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid MgO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Corsepius, Nicholas C.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Warnaar, Deborah L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory exercise was developed by using <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine [alpha] for MgO (periclase)and was tested in the Applied Physical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Laboratories at James Madison University. The experiment which was originally designed to provide undergraduate students with a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22833269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22833269"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> in solar radiation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explains observed patterns and trends in tree growth rates across four tropical forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Shirley Xiaobi; Davies, Stuart J; Ashton, Peter S; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Supardi, M N Nur; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Tan, Sylvester; Moorcroft, Paul R</p> <p>2012-10-07</p> <p>The response of tropical forests to global climate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and change remains poorly understood. Results from long-term studies of permanent forest plots have reported different, and in some cases opposing trends in tropical forest dynamics. In this study, we examined changes in tree growth rates at four long-term permanent tropical forest research plots in relation to variation in solar radiation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. Temporal variation in the stand-level growth rates measured at five-year intervals was found to be positively correlated with variation in incoming solar radiation and negatively related to temporal variation in night-time <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Taken alone, neither solar radiation <span class="hlt">variability</span> nor the effects of night-time <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can account for the observed temporal variation in tree growth rates across sites, but when considered together, these two climate <span class="hlt">variables</span> account for most of the observed temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in tree growth rates. Further analysis indicates that the stand-level response is primarily driven by the responses of smaller-sized trees (less than 20 cm in diameter). The combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and radiation responses identified in this study provide a potential explanation for the conflicting patterns in tree growth rates found in previous studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4718611','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4718611"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Stress in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and Its Implications for Sensitivity to an Additional Chemical Stressor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A wealth of studies has investigated how chemical sensitivity is affected by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, however, almost always under different constant rather than more realistic fluctuating regimes. Here we compared how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to copper at constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (8–24°C) and under fluctuation conditions of low (±4°C) and high (±8°C) amplitude (averages of 12, 16, 20°C and 16°C respectively). The DEBkiss model was used to interpret effects on energy budgets. Increasing constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 12–24°C reduced time to first egg, life-span and population growth rates consistent with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> driven metabolic rate change. Responses at 8°C did not, however, accord with this pattern (including a deviation from the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Size Rule), identifying a cold stress effect. High amplitude variation and low amplitude variation around a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 12°C impacted reproduction and body size compared to nematodes kept at the matching average constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Copper exposure affected reproduction, body size and life-span and consequently population growth. Sensitivity to copper (EC50 values), was similar at intermediate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (12, 16, 20°C) and higher at 24°C and especially the innately stressful 8°C condition. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation did not increase copper sensitivity. Indeed under <span class="hlt">variable</span> conditions including time at the stressful 8°C condition, sensitivity was reduced. DEBkiss identified increased maintenance costs and increased assimilation as possible mechanisms for cold and higher copper concentration effects. Model analysis of combined <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects, however, demonstrated no additional joint stressor response. Hence, concerns that exposure to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations may sensitise species to co-stressor effects seem unfounded in this case. PMID:26784453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5361S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5361S"><span>Climate change impact on the roles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in western U.S. snowpack <span class="hlt">variability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scalzitti, Jason; Strong, Courtenay; Kochanski, Adam</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We employ dynamical downscaling and pseudo global warming methodologies to evaluate climate change impact on the roles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in spring snowpack (S) <span class="hlt">variability</span> across the western United States (U.S.). The negative correlation between S and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> weakens linearly with elevation, whereas the correlation between S and precipitation increases asymptotically with elevation. The curvilinear relationship in the latter case was not visible in prior studies because of the observation networks' limited range. In our historical validation, there is a range of threshold elevations (1580-2181 m) across six mountainous regions, above which precipitation is the main driver of snowpack <span class="hlt">variability</span> and below which <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the main driver. Under a moderate end-of-century climate change scenario, these thresholds increase by 191 to 432 m. These rising thresholds indicate increasing spatial and elevational vulnerability of western U.S. spring snowpack along with associated impacts to hydrologic and ecologic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001076','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001076"><span>Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Acetate at <span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (T = 283 - 343 K)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio</p> <p>2009-12-21</p> <p>Spectrophotometric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/acetate complex and determine the equilibrium constants at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T = 283 - 343 K) and at the ionic strength of 1.05 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. The enthalpy of complexation at corresponding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was determined by microcalorimetric titrations. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with acetate is weak but strengthened as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. The complexation is endothermic and is entropy-driven. The enhancement of the complexation at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is primarily due to the increasingly larger entropy gain when the solvent molecules are released from the highly-ordered solvation spheres of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and acetate to the bulk solvent where the degree of disorder is higher at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5355R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5355R"><span>Annually resolved seawater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Sub-polar North Atlantic over the last 1000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, David; Scourse, James; Hall, Ian; Nederbragt, Alexandra; Wanamaker, Alan; Halloran, Paul; Butler, Paul; Richardson, Chris; Eiríksson, Jon; Heinemeier, Jan; Luise Knudsen, Karen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The lack of annually-resolved marine climate records spanning the last millennium constrains our understanding of the natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the global climate system. We present a continuous annually-resolved reconstruction of sub-polar (N Iceland) sea water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SWT) derived from the 18O analyses of carbonate material drilled from the annually resolved growth increments contained in an absolutely dated master Arctica islandica sclerochronology spanning the period 953-2000. The calibrated SWT reconstruction contains a significant cooling trend over the period 953-1891 (0.1oC per century) and a marked warming trend over the period 1891-2000 (2.3oC per century). The underlying natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> is controlled by solar irradiance changes modulated by volcanic forcing and internal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. The modern SWT warming is demonstrated to lie outside the range of natural <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the last 1000 years consistent with an anthropogenic influence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3885695','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3885695"><span>Patterns in Temporal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Oxygen and pH along an Environmental Gradient in a Coral Reef</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guadayol, Òscar; Silbiger, Nyssa J.; Donahue, Megan J.; Thomas, Florence I. M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Spatial and temporal environmental <span class="hlt">variability</span> are important drivers of ecological processes at all scales. As new tools allow the in situ exploration of individual responses to fluctuations, ecologically meaningful ways of characterizing environmental <span class="hlt">variability</span> at organism scales are needed. We investigated the fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of high-frequency temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, dissolved oxygen concentration, and pH experienced by benthic organisms in a shallow coastal coral reef. We used a spatio-temporal sampling design, consisting of 21 short-term time-series located along a reef flat-to-reef slope transect, coupled to a long-term station monitoring water column changes. Spectral analyses revealed sharp gradients in variance decomposed by frequency, as well as differences between physically-driven and biologically-reactive parameters. These results highlight the importance of environmental variance at organismal scales and present a new sampling scheme for exploring this <span class="hlt">variability</span> in situ. PMID:24416364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1434N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1434N"><span><span class="hlt">Variability</span> of OH rotational <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on time scales from hours to 15 years by kinetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations, emission layer changes, and non-LTE effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noll, Stefan</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Rotational <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived from hydroxyl (OH) line emission are frequently used to study atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at altitudes of about 87 km. While the measurement only requires intensities of a few bright lines of an OH band, the interpretation can be complicated. Ground-based <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are averages for the entire, typically 8 km wide emission layer. Variations in the rotational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are then caused by changes of the kinetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the OH emission profile. The latter can also be accompanied by differences in the layer-averaged efficiency of the thermalisation of the OH rotational level populations. Since this especially depends on the frequency of collisions with O_2, which is low at high altitudes, the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) contribution to the measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be significant and <span class="hlt">variable</span>. In order to understand the impact of the different sources of OH rotational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations from time scales of hours to a solar cycle, we have studied spectra from the astronomical echelle spectrographs X-shooter and UVES located at Cerro Paranal in Chile. While the X-shooter data spanning 3.5 years allowed us to measure <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for 25 OH and two O_2 bands, the UVES spectra cover no more than 10 OH bands simultaneously but a period of about 15 years. These data have been complemented by kinetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and OH and O_2 emission profiles from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. Taking the O_2 and SABER kinetic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as reference and considering the different band-dependent emission profiles, we could evaluate the contribution of non-LTE effects to the measured OH rotational <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> depending on line set, band, and time. Non-LTE contributions are significant for most bands and can exceed 10 K. The amplitudes of their average nocturnal and seasonal variation are of the order of 1 to 2 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP23C1425W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP23C1425W"><span>Early Holocene Centennial-Scale Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Salinity <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Florida Straits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weinlein, W. A.; Schmidt, M. W.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J. M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Paleoproxy data and modeling studies suggest that Early Holocene (10.5 - 7 kyr BP) climate in the western tropical North Atlantic (TNA) was warmer and wetter than today. Perihelion occurred during boreal summer, resulting in an amplified Early Holocene seasonal cycle and a reorganization of the tropical climate system (Oppo et al., 2007). Trace metal records from the Cariaco Basin (Haug et al., 2001) and ostracod δ18O records from Haiti (Hodell, 1991) suggest a northward shift in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) resulted in decreased evaporation-precipitation values in the western TNA. In addition, the final drainage of large pro-glacial lakes into the North Atlantic at 8.2 kyr BP is thought to have resulted in a meltwater-induced reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation that caused widespread cooling in the circum-Atlantic region (Barber et al., 1999; Clarke et al., 2004; Ellison et al., 2006). In order to reconstruct centennial-scale records of Early Holocene sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and salinity (SSS) <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Florida Straits, we will measure δ18O values as well as Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber from two sediment cores recovered from the Florida Straits: KNR166-2 JPC-51 (24°24.70’N, 83°13.14’W, 198 m; ~60-100 cm/kyr sedimentation rate) and KNR166-2 GGC-7 (24°21.50’N, 83°20.90’N, 535 m; ~55 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). SSTs are calculated from Mg/Ca ratios based on a published sediment trap calibration (Anand et al., 2003). Initial measurements of Mg/Ca ratios suggest centennial-scale SST oscillations during the Early Holocene. Calculated SSTs vary from 26.3 to 29.8°C and are within the range of modern seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> for our core locations (25-30°C). Calculated Mg/Ca-SSTs will be combined with G. ruber δ18O values to calculate past δ18Oseawater values (a proxy for SSS) using a laboratory calibrated relationship (Bemis et al., 1998). In addition, Ba</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227012"><span>OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness alters murine heart rate <span class="hlt">variability</span> and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Domnik, N J; Seaborn, G; Vincent, S G; Akl, S G; Redfearn, D P; Fisher, J T</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Altered autonomic (ANS) tone in chronic respiratory disease is implicated as a factor in cardiovascular co-morbidities, yet no studies address its impact on cardiovascular function in the presence of murine allergic airway (AW) hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Since antigen (Ag)-induced AHR is used to model allergic asthma (in which ANS alterations have been reported), we performed a pilot study to assess measurement feasibility of, as well as the impact of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) on, heart rate <span class="hlt">variability</span> (HRV) in a murine model. Heart rate (HR), body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(B)), and time- and frequency-domain HRV analyses, a reflection of ANS control, were obtained in chronically instrumented mice (telemetry) before, during and for 22 h after OVA or saline aerosolization in sensitized (OVA) or Alum adjuvant control exposed animals. OVA mice diverged significantly from Alum mice with respect to change in HR during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001, Two-Way ANOVA; HR max change Ctrl = +80 ± 10 bpm vs. OVA = +1 ± 23 bpm, mean ± SEM), and displayed elevated HR during the subsequent dark cycle (P = 0.006). Sensitization decreased the T(B) during aerosol challenge (P < 0.001). Sensitized mice had decreased HRV prior to challenge (SDNN: P = 0.038; Low frequency (LF) power: P = 0.021; Low/high Frequency (HF) power: P = 0.042), and increased HRV during Ag challenge (RMSSD: P = 0.047; pNN6: P = 0.039). Sensitized mice displayed decreased HRV subsequent to OVA challenge, primarily in the dark cycle (RMSSD: P = 0.018; pNN6: P ≤ 0.001; LF: P ≤ 0.001; HF: P = 0.040; LF/HF: P ≤ 0.001). We conclude that implanted telemetry technology is an effective method to assess the ANS impact of allergic sensitization. Preliminary results show mild sensitization is associated with reduced HRV and a suppression of the acute T(B)-response to OVA challenge. This approach to assess altered ANS control in the acute OVA model may also be beneficial in chronic AHR models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110245','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110245"><span>Trend and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of China Precipitation in Spring and Summer: Linkage to Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Fanglin; Lau, K.-M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Observational records in the past 50 years show an upward trend of boreal-summer precipitation over central eastern China and a downward trend over northern China. During boreal spring, the trend is upward over southeastern China and downward over central eastern China. This study explores the forcing mechanism of these trends in association with the global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variations on the interannual and inter-decadal timescales. Results based on Singular Value Decomposition analyses (SVD) show that the interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of China precipitation in boreal spring and summer can be well defined by two centers of actions for each season, which are co-varying with two interannual modes of SSTs. The first SVD modes of precipitation in spring and summer, which are centered in southeastern China and northern China, respectively, are linked to an ENSO-like mode of SSTs. The second SVD modes of precipitation in both seasons are confined to central eastern China, and are primarily linked to SST variations over the warm pool and Indian Ocean. Features of the anomalous 850-hPa winds and 700-Wa geopotential height corresponding to these modes support a physical mechanism that explains the causal links between the modal variations of precipitation and SSTs. On the decadal and longer timescale, similar causal links are found between the same modes of precipitation and SSTs, except for the case of springtime precipitation over central eastern China. For this case, while the interannual mode of precipitation is positively correlated with the interannual variations of SSTs over the warm pool and Indian Ocean; the inter-decadal mode is negatively correlated with a different SST mode, the North Pacific mode. The later is responsible for the observed downward trend of springtime precipitation over central eastern China. For all other cases, both the interannual and inter-decadal variations of precipitation can be explained by the same mode of SSTs. The upward trend</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Cryo...55...73C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Cryo...55...73C"><span>A calorimeter for multilayer insulation (MLI) performance measurements at <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Celik, D.; Hurd, J.; Klimas, R.; Van Sciver, S. W.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Here we describe a concentric cylindrical calorimeter with radiation guards developed to measure the thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) for low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications. One unique feature of this calorimeter is its ability to independently control the boundary <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and about 15 K using two single-stage Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. Also, unlike the existing calorimeters that use the evaporation rate of a liquid cryogen to measure the heat load, in the present system the total heat transfer through the MLI is measured by recording the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference across a calibrated heat load support rod that connects the cold inner cylinder to the lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cryocooler. This design allows the continuous mapping of MLI performance over a much wider <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range with independently controlled boundary conditions. The calorimeter is also suitable for performing a variety of radiation heat transfer experiments including the determination of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the total emissivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155262','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155262"><span>The forcing of southwestern Asia teleconnections by low-frequency sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> during boreal winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Mathew Barlow,</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Southwestern Asia, defined here as the domain bounded by 20°–40°N and 40°–70°E, which includes the nations of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, is a water-stressed and semiarid region that receives roughly 75% of its annual rainfall during November–April. The November–April climate of southwestern Asia is strongly influenced by tropical Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">variability</span> on intraseasonal and interannual time scales, much of which can be attributed to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variations. The influences of lower-frequency SST <span class="hlt">variability</span> on southwestern Asia climate during November–April Pacific decadal SST (PDSST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> and the long-term trend in SST (LTSST) is examined. The U.S. Climate <span class="hlt">Variability</span> and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Drought Working Group forced global atmospheric climate models with PDSST and LTSST patterns, identified using empirical orthogonal functions, to show the steady atmospheric response to these modes of decadal to multidecadal SST <span class="hlt">variability</span>. During November–April, LTSST forces an anticyclone over southwestern Asia, which results in reduced precipitation and increases in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The precipitation and tropospheric circulation influences of LTSST are corroborated by independent observed precipitation and circulation datasets during 1901–2004. The decadal variations of southwestern Asia precipitation may be forced by PDSST <span class="hlt">variability</span>, with two of the three models indicating that the cold phase of PDSST forces an anticyclone and precipitation reductions. However, there are intermodel circulation variations to PDSST that influence subregional precipitation patterns over the Middle East, southwestern Asia, and subtropical Asia. Changes in wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation over southwestern Asia forced by LTSST and PDSST imply important changes to the land surface hydrology during the spring and summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/901464','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/901464"><span>Large-scale spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hanrahan, Timothy P.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> and complexity of surface water and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable <span class="hlt">variability</span> in riverbed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.138..136K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.138..136K"><span>Coastal ocean climatology of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity off the Southern California Bight: Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span>, climate index correlation, and linear trend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Sung Yong; Cornuelle, Bruce D.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A coastal ocean climatology of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity in the Southern California Bight is estimated from conductivity-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth (CTD) and bottle sample profiles collected by historical California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI) cruises (1950-2009; quarterly after 1984) off southern California and quarterly/monthly nearshore CTD surveys (within 30 km from the coast except for the surfzone; 1999-2009) off San Diego and Los Angeles. As these fields are sampled regularly in space, but not in time, conventional Fourier analysis may not be possible. The time dependent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity fields are modeled as linear combinations of an annual cycle and its five harmonics, as well as three standard climate indices (El Niňo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)), the Scripps Pier <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series, and a mean and linear trend without time lags. Since several of the predictor indices are correlated, the indices are successively orthogonalized to eliminate ambiguity in the identification of the contributed variance of each component. Regression coefficients are displayed in both vertical transects and horizontal maps to evaluate (1) whether the temporal and spatial scales of the two data sets of nearshore and offshore observations are consistent and (2) how oceanic <span class="hlt">variability</span> at a regional scale is related to <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the nearshore waters. The data-derived climatology can be used to identify anomalous events and atypical behaviors in regional-scale oceanic <span class="hlt">variability</span> and to provide background ocean estimates for mapping or modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23568485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23568485"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and precipitation drive temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in aquatic carbon and GHG concentrations and fluxes in a peatland catchment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dinsmore, K J; Billett, M F; Dyson, K E</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The aquatic pathway is increasingly being recognized as an important component of catchment carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets, particularly in peatland systems due to their large carbon store and strong hydrological connectivity. In this study, we present a complete 5-year data set of all aquatic carbon and GHG species from an ombrotrophic Scottish peatland. Measured species include particulate and dissolved forms of organic carbon (POC, DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), CO2 , CH4 and N2 O. We show that short-term <span class="hlt">variability</span> in concentrations exists across all species and this is strongly linked to discharge. Seasonal cyclicity was only evident in DOC, CO2 and CH4 concentration; however, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlated with monthly means in all species except DIC. Although the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlation with monthly DOC and POC concentrations appeared to be related to biological productivity in the terrestrial system, we suggest the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlation with CO2 and CH4 was primarily due to in-stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent solubility. Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in total aquatic carbon concentration was strongly correlated with catchment gross primary productivity (GPP) indicating a strong potential terrestrial aquatic linkage. DOC represented the largest aquatic carbon flux term (19.3 ± 4.59 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ), followed by CO2 evasion (10.0 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ). Despite an estimated contribution to the total aquatic carbon flux of between 8 and 48%, evasion estimates had the greatest uncertainty. Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in total aquatic carbon export was low in comparison with <span class="hlt">variability</span> in terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere exchange, and could be explained primarily by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. Our results therefore suggest that climatic change is likely to have a significant impact on annual carbon losses through the aquatic pathway, and as such, aquatic exports are fundamental to the understanding of whole catchment responses to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8939O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8939O"><span>Simulated Future Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Climatology and <span class="hlt">Variability</span> in the Mediterranean Basin by Using Downscaled Global Climate Model Outputs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozturk, Tugba; Pelin Ceber, Zeynep; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Mediterranean Basin is one of the regions that shall be affected most by the impacts of the future climate changes on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime including changes in heat waves intensity and frequency, seasonal and interannual precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> including changes in summer dryness and drought events, and hydrology and water resources. In this study, projected future changes in mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation climatology and inter-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> over the Mediterranean region were simulated. For performing this aim, the future changes in annual and seasonal averages for the future period of 2070-2100 with respect to the period from 1970 to 2000 were investigated. Global climate model outputs of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were used. SRES A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios' outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were used in future climate model projections. Future surface mean air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the larger Mediterranean basin increase mostly in summer and least in winter, and precipitation amounts decreases in all seasons at almost all parts of the basin. Future climate signals for surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals will be much larger than the inter-model standard deviation. Inter-annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> increases evidently in summer season and decreases in the northern part of the domain in the winter season, while precipitation <span class="hlt">variability</span> increases in almost all parts of domain. Probability distribution functions are found to be shifted and flattened for future period compared to reference period. This indicates that occurrence frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions will increase in the future period. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..400..333P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..400..333P"><span>Long-term trend and multi-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the pristine Bela River basin (Slovakia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pekárová, Pavla; Miklánek, Pavol; Halmová, Dana; Onderka, Milan; Pekár, Ján; Kučárová, Katarína; Liová, Soňa; Škoda, Peter</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>SummaryBiological processes in surface waters appreciably depend on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water. This paper summarizes our investigations of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Bela River. The Bela River is a mountainous stream not influenced by direct human activities, draining the headwaters of the Vah River basin in the Tatra National Park (TANAP), Slovakia. Our primary aim was to identify the long-term trends and multi-annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the Podbanske gauging station, using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> readings taken at 7.00 am for the period of 50 years (1959-2008). Long-term mean of the annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Bela River at the Podbanske gauging station (922 m a.s.l.) was 4.2 °C, the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Podbanske meteorological station (972 m a.s.l.) was 5.0 °C. Both, air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, show an increasing trend. While the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within 50-years increased significantly by 1.5 °C, in the case of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> this increase was merely by 0.12 °C. On November 19, 2004, a wind-throw brushed the investigated area with an aftermath of 15.4% destroyed forest in the Bela basin, mainly along the area adjacent to the river. Therefore, in the second part of the study, the impact of the riparian vegetation growing along the river banks was evaluated for two distinctive periods, i.e. the period prior and after the wind-throw. We statistically analysed the changes in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on 6-year time series of daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (November 2001 through November 2007). The results presented herein may be useful for defining boundary values for surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as required by the EC Water Framework Directive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20020693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20020693"><span>A comparison of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in three 1000-Yr. coupled ocean-atmosphere model integrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stouffer, R.J.; Hegerl, G.; Tett, S.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>This study compares the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in three long coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model integrations. It is shown that the annual mean climatology of the surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SAT) in all three models is realistic and the linear trends over the 1,000-yr integrations are small over most areas of the globe. Second, although there are notable differences among the models, the models' SAT <span class="hlt">variability</span> is fairly realistic on annual to decadal timescales, both in terms of the geographical distribution and of the global mean values. A notable exception is the poor simulation of observed tropical Pacific <span class="hlt">variability</span>. In the HadCM2 model, the tropical <span class="hlt">variability</span> is overestimated, while in the GFDL and HAM3L models, it is underestimated. Also, the ENSO-related spectral peak in the globally averaged observed SAT differs from that in any of the models. The relatively low resolution required to integrate models for long time periods inhibits the successful simulation of the <span class="hlt">variability</span> in this region. On timescales longer than a few decades, the largest variance in the models is generally located near sea ice margins in high latitudes, which are also regions of deep oceanic convection and <span class="hlt">variability</span> related to variations in the thermohaline circulation. However, the exact geographical location of these maxima varies from model to model. The preferred patterns of interdecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> that are common to all three coupled models can be isolated by computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of all model data simultaneously using the common EOF technique. A comparison of the variance each model associated with these common EOF patterns shows that the models generally agree on the most prominent patterns of <span class="hlt">variability</span>. However, the amplitudes of the dominant models of <span class="hlt">variability</span> differ to some extent between the models and between the models and observations. For example, two of the models have a mode with relatively large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092238','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092238"><span>Exact solutions of laminar-boundary-layer equations with constant property values for porous wall with <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Donoughe, Patrick L; Livingood, John N B</p> <p>1955-01-01</p> <p>Exact solution of the laminar-boundary-layer equations for wedge-type flow with constant property values are presented for transpiration-cooled surfaces with <span class="hlt">variable</span> wall <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The difference between wall and stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is assumed proportional to a power of the distance from the leading edge. Solutions are given for a Prandtl number of 0.7 and ranges of pressure-gradient, cooling-air-flow, and wall-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-gradient parameters. Boundary-layer profiles, dimensionless boundary-layer thicknesses, and convective heat-transfer coefficients are given in both tabular and graphical form. Corresponding results for constant wall <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and for impermeable surfaces are included for comparison purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5220L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5220L"><span>Seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, salinity, and geostrophic currents obtained from CTD and satellite observations around South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, EunAe; Kim, Sung Yong</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The annual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, salinity, and geostrophic circulation around South Korea (East/Japan Sea, southern coast, and Yellow Sea) is studied by analyzing conductivity-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth (CTD) profiles for recent 10 years (2001 to 2010). In the estimates of seasonal amplitudes using harmonic analysis, we examine their accuracy by evaluating how well the seasonal fit reconstructs the known pure seasonal signals with noise. Over the shelf (within 70km of the coast) in the East Sea, the seasonal amplitudes, means, and root-mean-squares of subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity are smaller than those offshore about 20-50%, which may be due to southward North Korea cold currents along the shelf nearly all year. Conversely, in the Yellow Sea, the seasonal amplitudes of subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> onshore waters (within 40 km) become larger than offshore about 40% as a result of enhanced onshore tidal mixing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..252A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..252A"><span>Comparison of equatorial Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> and trends with Sr/Ca records from multiple corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gove, Jamison M.; Young, Charles W.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Coral Sr/Ca is widely used to reconstruct past ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, some studies report different Sr/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships for conspecifics on the same reef, with profound implications for interpretation of reconstructed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We assess whether these differences are attributable to small-scale oceanographic <span class="hlt">variability</span> or "vital effects" associated with coral calcification and quantify the effect of intercolony differences on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates and uncertainties. Sr/Ca records from four massive Porites colonies growing on the east and west sides of Jarvis Island, central equatorial Pacific, were compared with in situ logger <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> spanning 2002-2012. In general, Sr/Ca captured the occurrence of interannual sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events but their amplitude was not consistently recorded by any of the corals. No long-term trend was identified in the instrumental data, yet Sr/Ca of one coral implied a statistically significant cooling trend while that of its neighbor implied a warming trend. Slopes of Sr/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> regressions from the four different colonies were within error, but offsets in mean Sr/Ca rendered the regressions statistically distinct. Assuming that these relationships represent the full range of Sr/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> calibrations in Jarvis Porites, we assessed how well Sr/Ca of a nonliving coral with an unknown Sr/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship can constrain past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our results indicate that standard error of prediction methods underestimate the actual error as we could not reliably reconstruct the amplitude or frequency of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events as large as ± 2°C. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing the full range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-Sr/Ca relationships at each study site to estimate true error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047289&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047289&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature"><span>Decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-Atmosphere model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mehta, Vikram M.; Delworth, Thomas</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">variability</span> was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model's tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the Global Ocean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Atlas (GOSTA) time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of the horizontal structures of the decadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the GFDL coupled model showed the existence of two types of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in general agreement with results of the GOSTA SST time series analyses. One type, characterized by timescales between 8 and 11 yr, has high spatial coherence within each hemisphere but not between the two hemispheres of the tropical Atlantic. A second type, characterized by timescales between 12 and 20 yr, has high spatial coherence between the two hemispheres. The second type of <span class="hlt">variability</span> is considerably weaker than the first. As in the GOSTA time series, the multidecadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the GFDL SST time series has approximately opposite phases between the tropical North and South Atlantic Oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies revealed a north-south bipolar pattern as the dominant pattern of decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. It is suggested that the bipolar pattern can be interpreted as decadal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the interhemispheric gradient of SST anomalies. The decadal and multidecadal timescale <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the tropical Atlantic SST, both in the actual and in the GFDL model, stands out significantly above the background 'red noise' and is coherent within each of the time series, suggesting that specific sets of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMoSt1134..606S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMoSt1134..606S"><span>Structural analysis of N,N-diacyl-1,4-dihydropyrazine by <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> NMR and DFT calculation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Xiu-qing; Tan, Hong-bo; Yan, Hong; Chang, Yu</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>N,N-diacyl-1,4-dihydropyrazine derivatives (1) were prepared via an efficient microwave-assisted synthesis. 1 was isolated and unambiguously confirmed by NMR spectra and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The NMR spectra of 1 showed complicated rather than conventional spectroscopy. <span class="hlt">Variable-temperature</span> experiments and DFT calculation (PES) were used to investigate this phenomenon. DFT calculations confirmed that the structures of the two rotamers of 1 correspond to those determined by NMR in solution, and gave the syn-anti interconversion barriers of rotamers. The results showed that two isomers exist in solution (deuterated solvent) at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, resulting in complicated NMR spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23l5016M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SMaS...23l5016M"><span>A novel smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber for high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and <span class="hlt">variable</span> amplitude vibrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Liu, Baolong; Hong, Jie</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The work describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber (SMA-MR) elements, able to provide <span class="hlt">variable</span> stiffness and damping characteristics with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, motion amplitude and excitation frequency. Differences in damping behavior and nonlinear stiffness between SMA-MR and more traditional metal rubber supports are discussed. The mechanical performance shown by the prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using the SMA-MR concept for active vibration control in rotordynamics, in particular at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and large amplitude vibrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MAP....88..107T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MAP....88..107T"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of chilling <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Turkey and its effect on human comfort</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toros, H.; Deniz, A.; Şaylan, L.; Şen, O.; Baloğlu, M.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, absolute humidity and wind speed are the most important meteorological parameters that affect human thermal comfort. Because of heat loss, the human body feels air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> different to actual <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Wind speed is the most practical element for consideration in terms of human comfort. In winter, due to the strong wind speeds, the sensible <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is generally colder than the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This uncomfortable condition can cause problems related to tourism, heating and cooling. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of cooling <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and Wind Chill Index (WCI) are analyzed for Turkey, and their effect on the human body is considered. In this paper, monthly cooling <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between October and March in the years 1929 to 1990 are calculated by using measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind speed at 79 stations in Turkey. The influence of wind chill is especially observed in the regions of the Aegean, west and middle Black Sea and east and central Anatolia. The wind chill in these regions has an uncomfortable effect on the human body. Usually, the WCI value is higher in western, northern and central Anatolia than in other regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85j3701J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85j3701J"><span>A new <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> solution-solid interface scanning tunneling microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jahanbekam, Abdolreza; Mazur, Ursula; Hipps, K. W.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We present a new solution-solid (SS) interface scanning tunneling microscope design that enables imaging at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with low thermal drift and with volatile solvents. In this new design, distinct from the conventional designs, the entire microscope is surrounded in a controlled-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and controlled-atmosphere chamber. This allows users to take measurements at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> while minimizing thermal drift. By incorporating an open solution reservoir in the chamber, solvent evaporation from the sample is minimized; allowing users to use volatile solvents for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent studies at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The new design enables the user to image at the SS interface with some volatile solvents for long periods of time (>24 h). An increase in the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric scanner in the lateral direction as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is addressed. A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent study of cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (CoOEP) at the toluene/Au(111) interface has been performed with this instrument. It is demonstrated that the lattice parameters remain constant within experimental error from 24 °C to 75 °C. Similar quality images were obtained over the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. We report the unit cell of CoOEP at the toluene/Au(111) interface (based on two molecules per unit cell) to be A = (1.36 ± 0.04) nm, B = (2.51 ± 0.04) nm, and α = 97° ± 2°.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031473','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031473"><span>Identifying spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of groundwater discharge in a wetland stream using a distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lowry, C.S.; Walker, J.F.; Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Discrete zones of groundwater discharge in a stream within a peat-dominated wetland were identified on the basis of variations in streambed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using a distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor (DTS). The DTS gives measurements of the spatial (??1 m) and temporal (15 min) variation of streambed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a much larger reach of stream (>800 m) than previous methods. Isolated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies observed along the stream correspond to focused groundwater discharge zones likely caused by soil pipes within the peat. The DTS also recorded variations in the number of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, where higher numbers correlated well with a gaining reach identified by stream gauging. Focused zones of groundwater discharge showed essentially no change in position over successive measurement periods. Results suggest DTS measurements will complement other techniques (e.g., seepage meters and stream gauging) and help further improve our understanding of groundwater-surface water dynamics in wetland streams. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E..101a2058F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E..101a2058F"><span>New measurements of multilayer insulation at <span class="hlt">variable</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevated residual gas pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Funke, Th; Haberstroh, Ch</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>New MLI measurements at the TU Dresden flow type calorimeter have been carried out. Specimens of 20 layer double side aluminized polyester film were tested. A cylindrical cold surface of 0.9 m2 is held at the desired cold boundary <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between approximately 30 K and 300 K. The heat transfer through the MLI is measured by recording the mass flow as well as the inlet and the outlet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the cooling fluid. Measurements at varied cold boundary <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been performed. Moreover the effect of an additional vacuum degradation - as it might occur by decreasing getter material performance in real systems at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> - is studied by a controlled inlet of nitrogen gas. Thus the vacuum pressure was varied over a range of 10-7 mbar to 10-2 mbar. Different cold boundary <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 35 K and 110 K were investigated. Test results for 20 layer MLI are presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP41A1609W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP41A1609W"><span>Spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of Crenarchaeota in Lake Superior and implications for the application of the TEX86 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woltering, M. L.; Werne, J. P.; Hicks, R. E.; Kish, J. L.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We present results of a study of Crenarchaeota in the water column of Lake Superior, in which their vertical distribution was examined through in situ filtration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> through a three-year time-series sediment trap deployment. We observed that Crenarchaeotal cells and membrane lipids are distributed throughout the water column during overturning conditions, but mainly reside in the hypolimnion when Lake Superior is thermally stratified. TEX86 derived <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in suspended particulate matter were in very good agreement with the actual water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at times and depths that the SPM was sampled. Fluxes of isoprenoid crenarchaeotal membrane lipids towards the sediment mainly occur in winter and late spring/early summer and starts when the lake is overturning. We observed a strong covariance of all the fluxes analyzed in the sediment traps suggesting a role of resuspension and sediment focusing to the study site. A lack of seasonality in the trend of TEX86 derived <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in settling particles shows that the crenarchaeotal membrane lipid flux during the stratified period is likely dominated by lipids that have been produced in the hypolimnion. Both TEX86 derived <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from surface sediments and the flux weighted averaged <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the sediment traps yield <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that are close the average hypolmnetic water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as well as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed during the start of overturning. These data suggest that the TEX86 from the sediments of Lake Superior largely reflects a subsurface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and not an annual mean surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The sensitivity of hypolimnetic water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of Lake Superior to changes in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> surrounding Lake Superior are small, even when large changes in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> would occur over a century time scale. Therefore caution needs to be applied when interpreting trends of TEX86 <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Lake</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040082159','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040082159"><span>Large Scale <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of Phytoplankton Blooms in the Arctic and Peripheral Seas: Relationships with Sea Ice, <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Clouds, and Wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.; Cota, Glenn F.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Spatially detailed satellite data of mean color, sea ice concentration, surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, clouds, and wind have been analyzed to quantify and study the large scale regional and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> of phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic and peripheral seas from 1998 to 2002. In the Arctic basin, phytoplankton chlorophyll displays a large symmetry with the Eastern Arctic having about fivefold higher concentrations than those of the Western Arctic. Large monthly and yearly <span class="hlt">variability</span> is also observed in the peripheral seas with the largest blooms occurring in the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Barents Sea during spring. There is large interannual and seasonal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in biomass with average chlorophyll concentrations in 2002 and 2001 being higher than earlier years in spring and summer. The seasonality in the latitudinal distribution of blooms is also very different such that the North Atlantic is usually most expansive in spring while the North Pacific is more extensive in autumn. Environmental factors that influence phytoplankton growth were examined, and results show relatively high negative correlation with sea ice retreat and strong positive correlation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in early spring. Plankton growth, as indicated by biomass accumulation, in the Arctic and subarctic increases up to a threshold surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 276-277 degree K (3-4 degree C) beyond which the concentrations start to decrease suggesting an optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or nutrient depletion. The correlation with clouds is significant in some areas but negligible in other areas, while the correlations with wind speed and its components are generally weak. The effects of clouds and winds are less predictable with weekly climatologies because of unknown effects of averaging <span class="hlt">variable</span> and intermittent physical forcing (e.g. over storm event scales with mixing and upwelling of nutrients) and the time scales of acclimation by the phytoplankton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..541D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..541D"><span>Carbon films embedded by nickel nanoparticles: fluctuation in hopping rate and <span class="hlt">variable</span>-range hopping with respect to annealing <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dalouji, Vali; Elahi, Smohammad; Solaymani, Shahram; Ghaderi, Atefeh; Elahi, Hossein</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this work, the electrical properties of carbon-nickel films annealed at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (573, 773, 1073 and 1273 K) in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 15-300 K were investigated. The films were grown by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering on quartz substrates at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The multiphonon hopping conduction mechanism is found to dominate the electrical transport in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 150-300 K. It can be seen that the room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> hopping rate (ΓRT) at 773 K has maximum value of 56.8 × 105 s-1. Our results of conductivity measurements at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are in good agreement with strong carrier-lattice coupling model; on the other hand, the conductivity in the range 15-50 K is well described in terms of <span class="hlt">variable</span>-range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The localized state density around Fermi level N( E F) and the average hopping energy W hop at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the films annealed at 773 K have maximum value of 2.23 × 1023 (cm-3 eV-1) and minimum value of 9.74 × 10-4 eV, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7853E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7853E"><span>Neutral atmosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">variability</span> at 90 km, 70 °N, 19 °E, 2003-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eriksen Holmen, Silje; Hall, Chris M.; Tsutsumi, Masaki</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Neutral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 90 km height above Tromsø, Norway, have been determined using ambipolar diffusion coefficients calculated from meteor echo fading times using the Nippon/Norway Tromsø Meteor Radar (NTMR). Daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages have been calculated from November 2003 to October 2014 and calibrated against <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board Aura. Large-scale periodic oscillations ranging from ˜ 9 days to a year were found in the data using Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis, and these components were used to seasonally detrend the daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values before assessing trends. Harmonic oscillations found are associated with the large-scale circulation in the middle atmosphere together with planetary and gravity wave activity. The overall <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change from 2003 to 2014 is -2.2 K ± 1.0 K decade-1, while in summer (May-June-July) and winter (November-December-January) the change is -0.3 K ± 3.1 K decade-1 and -11.6 K ± 4.1 K decade-1, respectively. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record is at this point too short for incorporating a response to solar <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the trend. How well suited a meteor radar is for estimating neutral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 90 km using meteor trail echoes is discussed, and physical explanations behind a cooling trend are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.2002M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.2002M"><span>The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the northeast Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKinnell, Stewart M.; Crawford, William R.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle (LNC) is a significant feature of winter (January) air and sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> along the North American west coast over a 400-year period. Yet much of the recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation can also be explained by wind patterns associated with the PNA teleconnection. At Sitka, Alaska, (57°N) and nearby stations in northern British Columbia, the January PNA index accounts for over 70% of average January air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in lengthy meteorological records. It appears that the LNC signal in January air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in this region is not independent of the PNA, but is a component of it. The Sitka air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record, along with SSTs along the British Columbia coast and the PNA index have significant cross-correlations with the LNC that appear at a 2-year lag, LNC leading. The influence of the PNA pattern declines in winter with decreasing latitude but the LNC component does not. It appears as a significant feature of long-term SST variation at Scripps Pier and the California Current System. The LNC also appears over centennial-scales in proxy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> along western North America. The linkage of LNC-moderated surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to processes involving basin-scale teleconnections expands the possibility that the proximate mechanism may be located remotely from its expression in the northeast Pacific. Some of the largest potential sources of a diurnal tidal signal in the atmosphere are located in the western Pacific; the Sea of Okhotsk and the Indonesian archipelago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27475184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27475184"><span>Sound speed as a proxy <span class="hlt">variable</span> to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Fram Strait.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dushaw, Brian D; Sagen, Hanne; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The application of ocean acoustic tomography in Fram Strait requires a careful assessment of the accuracy to which estimates of sound speed from tomography can be converted to estimates of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The Fram Strait environment is turbulent, with warm, salty, northward-flowing North Atlantic water interacting with cold, fresh, southward-flowing Arctic water. The nature of this environment suggests that salinity could play an important role with respect to sound speed. The properties of sound speed with respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity in this environment were examined using climatological and in situ glider data. In cold water, a factor of about 4.5 m s(-1) °C(-1) can be used to scale between sound speed and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In situ data obtained by gliders were used to determine the ambiguities between <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, salinity, and sound speed. Tomography provides a depth-averaging measurement. While errors in the sound speed-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> conversion at particular depths may be 0.2 °C or larger, particularly within 50 m of the surface, such errors are suppressed when the depth is averaged. Using a simple scale factor to compute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from sound speed introduced an error of about 20 m °C for depth-averaged <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a value less than formal uncertainties estimated from acoustic tomography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhL.110l3501G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhL.110l3501G"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and field-dependent transport measurements in continuously tunable tantalum oxide memristors expose the dominant state <span class="hlt">variable</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graves, Catherine E.; Dávila, Noraica; Merced-Grafals, Emmanuelle J.; Lam, Si-Ty; Strachan, John Paul; Williams, R. Stanley</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Applications of memristor devices are quickly moving beyond computer memory to areas of analog and neuromorphic computation. These applications require the design of devices with different characteristics from binary memory, such as a large tunable range of conductance. A complete understanding of the conduction mechanisms and their corresponding state <span class="hlt">variable(s</span>) is crucial for optimizing performance and designs in these applications. Here we present measurements of low bias I-V characteristics of 6 states in a Ta/ tantalum-oxide (TaOx)/Pt memristor spanning over 2 orders of magnitude in conductance and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 100 K to 500 K. Our measurements show that the 300 K device conduction is dominated by a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-insensitive current that varies with non-volatile memristor state, with an additional leakage contribution from a thermally-activated current channel that is nearly independent of the memristor state. We interpret these results with a parallel conduction model of Mott hopping and Schottky emission channels, fitting the voltage and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent experimental data for all memristor states with only two free parameters. The memristor conductance is linearly correlated with N, the density of electrons near EF participating in the Mott hopping conduction, revealing N to be the dominant state <span class="hlt">variable</span> for low bias conduction in this system. Finally, we show that the Mott hopping sites can be ascribed to oxygen vacancies, where the local oxygen vacancy density responsible for critical hopping pathways controls the memristor conductance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25419003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25419003"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: Resolving interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in bloom dynamics using a degree day approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ralston, David K; Keafer, Bruce A; Brosnahan, Michael L; Anderson, Donald M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Observations of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in an estuary over multiple years were used to assess drivers of their spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Nauset Estuary on Cape Cod, Massachusetts has a recurrent, self-seeding A. fundyense population that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and leads to nearly annual closure to shellfishing. Weekly surveys of the entire estuary were made in 3 of 4 consecutive years, with surveys of a subembayment during the intervening year. Major A. fundyense blooms were observed all 4 years, with maximum concentrations >10(6) cells L(-1). Concentrations were greatest in three salt ponds at the distal edges of the estuary. The bloom timing varied among the salt ponds and among years, although the blooms had similar durations and maximum cell concentrations. Nutrient concentrations did not correlate with the growth of the bloom, but differences in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> among years and ponds were significant. Net growth rates inferred from the surveys were similar to those from laboratory experiments, and increased linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A growing degree day calculation was used to account for effects of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> and spatial gradients in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on population development. The approach collapsed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the timing of bloom onset, development, and termination across years and among ponds, suggesting that this relatively simple metric could be used as an early-warning indicator for HABs in Nauset and similar areas with localized, self-seeding blooms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237216','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237216"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: Resolving interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> in bloom dynamics using a degree day approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ralston, David K.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Anderson, Donald M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Observations of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in an estuary over multiple years were used to assess drivers of their spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span>. Nauset Estuary on Cape Cod, Massachusetts has a recurrent, self-seeding A. fundyense population that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and leads to nearly annual closure to shellfishing. Weekly surveys of the entire estuary were made in 3 of 4 consecutive years, with surveys of a subembayment during the intervening year. Major A. fundyense blooms were observed all 4 years, with maximum concentrations >106 cells L−1. Concentrations were greatest in three salt ponds at the distal edges of the estuary. The bloom timing varied among the salt ponds and among years, although the blooms had similar durations and maximum cell concentrations. Nutrient concentrations did not correlate with the growth of the bloom, but differences in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> among years and ponds were significant. Net growth rates inferred from the surveys were similar to those from laboratory experiments, and increased linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A growing degree day calculation was used to account for effects of interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> and spatial gradients in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on population development. The approach collapsed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the timing of bloom onset, development, and termination across years and among ponds, suggesting that this relatively simple metric could be used as an early-warning indicator for HABs in Nauset and similar areas with localized, self-seeding blooms. PMID:25419003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68718"><span>Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levitus, S.; Boyer, T.P.; Antonov, J.I.</p> <p>1994-10-07</p> <p>Analyses of historical ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950-1990 the subtropical and subartic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields between 20{degrees}N and 70{degrees}N in the North Atlantic show a characteristic space-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first-identified at Ocean Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17814003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17814003"><span>Interannual <span class="hlt">variability</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a depth of 125 meters in the north atlantic ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levitus, S; Antonov, J I; Boyer, T P</p> <p>1994-10-07</p> <p>Analyses of historical ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950 to 1990 the subtropical and subarctic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields between 20 degrees N and 70 degrees N in the North Atlantic show a characteristic space-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first identified at Ocean Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43B1204T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43B1204T"><span>Evolution of rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Burkina Faso: Analysis of meteorological data and farmers' perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Y. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Farmers in Burkina Faso are among the most exposed to climate change/ climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>, as their livelihoods are greatly linked to climate hazards. Rainfall and in some extent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are among the inputs farmers use to take decisions in their farming activities. A better understanding of factors that shape farmers' perceptions of climate change and decision to adapt farming practices is needed to take appropriate measures. In the current study farmers' perception of climate change and climate <span class="hlt">variability</span>- specifically, changes in rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>- were compared to historical recorded climate data. Primary data was collected through village focus-group surveys and household surveys. Nine Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted in the study areas' villages; 450 households were also selected randomly from three locations and sampled out through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Secondary data on the historical precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Burkina Faso from 1960 to 2012 was obtained from the National Meteorological Service of Burkina Faso (DGM) and the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies methodology have been used to assess anomalies in rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> covering a period of 48 years, from 1964 to 2011; and Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimator to assess the significance of the trends and the Theil-Sen slope estimator is used to identify their magnitude. The analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change indicates that most farmers perceived a declining trend of precipitation and an increasing trend of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in all areas. Results from recorded climate data's analysis, revealed contrasting evidence, while that farmers' perception of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> match with historical data, their perception of rainfall evolution were not always corroboted by scientific evidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26084089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26084089"><span>THE INFLUENCE OF <span class="hlt">VARIABLE</span> <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> AND HUMIDITY ON THE PREDATION EFFICIENCY OF P. PERSIMILIS, N. CALIFORNICUS AND N. FALLACIS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Audenaert, J; Vangansbeke, D; Verhoeven, R; De Clercq, P; Tirry, L; Gobin, B</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Predatory mites like Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and N. fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are essential in sustainable control strategies of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in warm greenhouse cultures to complement imited available pesticides and to tackle emerging resistance. However, in response to high energy prices, greenhouse plant breeders have recently changed their greenhouse steering strategies, allowing more variation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. The impact of these variations on biological control agents is poorly understood. Therefore, we constructed functional response models to demonstrate the impact of realistic climate variations on predation efficiency. First, two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes were compared at constant humidity (70%) and photoperiod (16L:8D): DIF0 (constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and DIF15 (<span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with day-night difference of 15°C). At mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 25°C, DIF15 had a negative influence on the predation efficiency of P. persimilis and N. californicus, as compared to DIF0. At low mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 15°C, however, DIF15 showed a higher predation efficiency for P. persimilis and N. californicus. For N. fallacis no difference was observed at both 15°C and 25°C. Secondly, two humidity regimes were compared, at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 25°C (DIFO) and constant photoperiod (16L:8D): RHCTE (constant 70% humidity) and RHALT (alternating 40% L:70%D humidity). For P. persimilis and N. fallacis RHCTE resulted in a higher predation efficiency than RHALT, for N. californicus this effect was opposite. This shows that N. californicus is more adapted to dry climates as compared to the other predatory mites. We conclude that <span class="hlt">variable</span> greenhouse climates clearly affect predation efficiency of P. persimilis, N. californicus and N. fallacis. To obtain optimal control efficiency, the choice of predatory mites (including dose and application frequency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23H1662J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23H1662J"><span>Understanding and Predicting Spatio-Temporal <span class="hlt">Variability</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Scotland's Rivers: Implications for Riparian Land Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, F. L.; Malcolm, I.; Hannah, D. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Freshwater fish are frequently the focus of river management, and rising water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tw) has the potential to negatively influence the suitability of habitats for many species, including salmonids. Consequently, an improved understanding of spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Tw is required at the river basin, hydrometric region and national scales concurrent with the scales at which management decisions are made. The Scotland River <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Monitoring Network (SRTMN) was designed to record Tw <span class="hlt">variability</span> across the observed environmental range of a suite of landscape characteristics. These characteristics act as proxies for controls known to affect heat and water exchange processes. This national-scale monitoring network provides quality controlled data that enables the scaling up of small-scale process understanding to larger spatial scales. This dataset provided the input to statistical models which were used to investigate controls on summary metrics describing Tw and to predict future change. Following model selection procedures, the most significant and influential <span class="hlt">variables</span> were found to vary seasonally and in relation to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> metric being described, reflecting the time varying importance of landscape controls and their influence on energy exchange processes. The presence of riparian woodland was a significant control on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that is also amenable to management control. Future work will focus on applying these models to unmonitored locations and highlighting sensitive areas where riparian management (planting or protecting woodland) could be beneficial to reduce the risks of potentially damaging high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This large-scale scientific understanding will be important for informing the management of Scottish rivers under a changing climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027101','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027101"><span>The Schaake shuffle: A method for reconstructing space-time <span class="hlt">variability</span> in forecasted precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Clark, M.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Hay, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Wilby, R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A number of statistical methods that are used to provide local-scale ensemble forecasts of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> do not contain realistic spatial covariability between neighboring stations or realistic temporal persistence for subsequent forecast lead times. To demonstrate this point, output from a global-scale numerical weather prediction model is used in a stepwise multiple linear regression approach to downscale precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to individual stations located in and around four study basins in the United States. Output from the forecast model is downscaled for lead times up to 14 days. Residuals in the regression equation are modeled stochastically to provide 100 ensemble forecasts. The precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ensembles from this approach have a poor representation of the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> and temporal persistence. The spatial correlations for downscaled output are considerably lower than observed spatial correlations at short forecast lead times (e.g., less than 5 days) when there is high accuracy in the forecasts. At longer forecast lead times, the downscaled spatial correlations are close to zero. Similarly, the observed temporal persistence is only partly present at short forecast lead times. A method is presented for reordering the ensemble output in order to recover the space-time <span class="hlt">variability</span> in precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields. In this approach, the ensemble members for a given forecast day are ranked and matched with the rank of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from days randomly selected from similar dates in the historical record. The ensembles are then reordered to correspond to the original order of the selection of historical data. Using this approach, the observed intersite correlations, intervariable correlations, and the observed temporal persistence are almost entirely recovered. This reordering methodology also has applications for recovering the space-time <span class="hlt">variability</span> in modeled streamflow. ?? 2004 American</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DSRII..55.1801L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008DSRII..55.1801L"><span>Investigating <span class="hlt">variability</span> in catch rates of halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) in the Pribilof Islands: Is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> important?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loher, Timothy</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>From 2002 to 2004, a study was conducted to test the hypothesis that commercial catch per unit effort (CPUE) of Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) in the Pribilof Islands local fishery varies on intra-annual (weeks-months) and inter-annual (among fishing seasons) time scales due to (a) variation in seasonal migration timing, (b) <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent habitat preference, or (c) average local abundance governed by late spring hydrographic conditions. Changes in CPUE over the progression of three fishing seasons were examined for evidence of seasonal migration signals. Relationships between catch and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were examined by deploying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> recorders from local commercial vessels and correlating the observations with vessel-standardized CPUE intra- and inter-annually. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data were obtained from 735-longline sets; simultaneous depth data were collected from a subset of 412 of those deployments. Annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data clearly demonstrated seasonal warming trends, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was negatively correlated with depth. Warmest conditions were observed in 2003: maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of ˜6 °C were observed in early June and increased to ˜10 °C in early September. Conditions in 2002 and 2004 were similar to one another and on average about 1 °C cooler than in 2003, warming from ˜5 °C in June to ˜9.5 °C in September. No intra-annual trend in CPUE was apparent. A relationship was not detected between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and vessel-standardized CPUE within years, whether CPUE was compared to absolute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or the difference between observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily-predicted maximum. These results suggest that halibut do not respond strongly to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within the observed range, nor was there evidence that the fishery was influenced by seasonal movement patterns. These conclusions are supported by concurrent archival tagging that suggests the Pribilof fishery may be too short to capture seasonal migration periods; summer local abundance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800024314','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800024314"><span>Infrared-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in a large agricultural field. [Dunnigan, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. L. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The combined effect of water carved gullies, varying soil color, moisture state of the soil and crop, nonuniform phenology, and bare spots was measured for commercially grown barley planted on varying terrain. For all but the most rugged terrain, over 80% of the area within 4, 16, 65, and 259 ha cells was at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within 3 C of the mean cell <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The result of using relatively small, 4 ha instantaneous field of views for remote sensing applications is that either the worst or the best of conditions is often observed. There appears to be no great advantage in utilizing a small instantaneous field of view instead of a large one for remote sensing of crop canopy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The two alternatives for design purposes are then either a very high spatial resolution, of the order of a meter or so, where the field is very accurately <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mapped, or a low resolution, where the actual size seems to make little difference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188510&keyword=insulation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78675524&CFTOKEN=87180299','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188510&keyword=insulation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78675524&CFTOKEN=87180299"><span>Estuarine intertidal sediment <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA170586','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA170586"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> 13C and 29Si CPMAS NMR Studies of Poly(Di-n-Hexylsilane).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-07-17</p> <p>below the thermochromic transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of ca. 307K. The low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> form is J ’... characterized by a silicon resonance at ca. -20.8ppm... thermochromic UV shift recently observed is due to a transformation of the polymer backbone from an - -_ ordered trans conformation to a highly...13q and 9Si CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. It has been found that the silane backbone exists in djfferent conformations above and below the thermochromic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18593102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18593102"><span><span class="hlt">Variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> neutron diffraction and X-ray charge density studies of tetraacetylethane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piccoli, Paula M B; Koetzle, Thomas F; Schultz, Arthur J; Zhurova, Elizabeth A; Stare, Jernej; Pinkerton, A Alan; Eckert, Juergen; Hadzi, Dusan</p> <p>2008-07-24</p> <p>Single crystal neutron diffraction data have been collected on a sample of enolized 3,4-diacetyl-2,5-hexanedione (tetraacetylethane, TAE) at five <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 20 and 298 K to characterize the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent behavior of the short, strong, intramolecular hydrogen bond. Upon decreasing the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 298 K to 20 K, the O2-H1 distance decreases from 1.171(11) to 1.081(2) A and the O1...H1 distance increases from 1.327(10) to 1.416(6) A. The convergence of the C-O bond lengths from inequivalent distances at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to identical values (1.285(4) A) at 298 K is consistent with a resonance-assisted hydrogen bond. However, a rigid bond analysis indicates that the structure at 298 K is disordered. The disorder vanishes at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Short intermolecular C-H...O contacts may be responsible for the ordering at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The intramolecular O...O distance (2.432 +/- 0.006 A) does not change with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. X-ray data at 20 K were measured to analyze the charge density and to gain additional insight into the nature of the strong hydrogen bond. Quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that periodic boundary conditions provide significant enhancement over gas phase models in that superior agreement with the experimental structure is achieved when applying periodicity. One-dimensional potential energy calculations followed by quantum treatment of the proton reproduce the location of the proton nearer to the O2 site reasonably well, although they overestimate the O-H distance at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The choice of the single-point energy calculation strategy for the proton potential is justified by the fact that the proton is preferably located nearer to O2 rather than being equally distant to O1 and O2 or evenly distributed (disordered) between them.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26SS....3..284I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26SS....3..284I"><span>Rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the Upper East Region of Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Issahaku, Abdul-Rahaman; Campion, Benjamin Betey; Edziyie, Regina</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The aim of the research was to assess the current trend and variation in rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Upper East Region, Ghana, using time series moving average analysis and decomposition methods. Meteorological data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency in Accra, Ghana, from 1954 to 2014 were used in the models. The additive decomposition model was used to analyze the rainfall because the seasonal variation was relatively constant over time, while the multiplicative model was used for both the daytime and nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> because their seasonal variations increase over time. The monthly maximum and the minimum values for the entire period were as follows: rainfall 455.50 and 0.00 mm, nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> 29.10°C and 13.25°C and daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> 41.10°C and 26.10°C, respectively. Also, while rainfall was decreasing, nighttime and daytime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were increasing in decadal times. Since both the daytime and nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were increasing and rainfall was decreasing, climate extreme events such as droughts could result and affect agriculture in the region, which is predominantly rain fed. Also, rivers, dams, and dugouts are likely to dry up in the region. It was also observed that there was much variation in rainfall making prediction difficult. Day <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were generally high with the months of March and April have been the highest. The months of December recorded the lowest night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Inhabitants are therefore advised to sleep in well-ventilated rooms during the warmest months and wear protective clothing during the cold months to avoid contracting climate-related diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022661','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022661"><span>Climatic change by cloudiness linked to the spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Otterman, J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>An active role in modifying the earth's climate is suggested for low cloudiness over the circumarctic oceans. Such cloudiness, linked to the spatial differences in ocean surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, was studied. The temporal variations from year to year of ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns can be pronounced and therefore, the low cloudiness over this region should also show strong temporal variations, affecting the albedo of the earth and therefore the climate. Photographs are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11518105L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11518105L"><span>QBO and ENSO <span class="hlt">variability</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ozone from SHADOZ, 1998-2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, S.; Shelow, D. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Miller, S. K.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and ozone profiles from SHADOZ (1998-2005) radiosonde and ozonesonde profiles are analyzed. Data from four representative stations are used to investigate regional differences as well as QBO and ENSO influences on vertically fine structure. Principal components of the ozone profile time series at Kuala Lumpur (101°E, 3°N) are adopted as a stratospheric QBO index to study tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ozone signatures associated with the QBO. A downward propagating QBO ozone signal extends to the mid-troposphere where the phase analysis of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies implies that the driving force is a zonal mean overturning circulation associated with thermal wind adjustment. The maximum tropospheric ozone anomalies associated with the QBO are ≈8 ppbv, about 10-20% that of typical tropical tropospheric ozone values, and differ in phase at the four sites. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and ozone fields, linearly regressed against the QBO index, suggest that dynamical processes, including horizontal transport, play an important role in the observed tropospheric ozone anomalies. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> profiles, regressed against the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), reveal anomalously cool, but also wavy lower stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies over Kuala Lumpur and Nairobi (37°E, 1°S). Tropospheric ozone profiles associated with the SOI show a statistically significant signal that is consistent with anomalous vertical motions that are known to occur during ENSO, but also exhibit fluctuations at a 40-50 day time scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1157L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1157L"><span>The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of nonmigrating tides detected from TIMED/SABER observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xing; Liu, Libo; Ning, Baiqi; Ren, Zhipeng; Wan, Weixing</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This work deals with the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the nonmigrating tides detected from the observation of the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite during the 11 year solar period from 2002 to 2012. The longitudinal wave number spectra with 1 day resolution were first estimated from the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data measured at the MLT altitudes (70-110 km) and at the lower midlatitudes and low latitudes (between ±±45°°). Then we used the wave number 4 component to obtain the nonmigrating tides in which the dominant component DE3 was further analyzed in detail. We found that the properties of the spatial distribution and large time scale variation of the DE3 component are similar to those of the previous works, which used the interpolated data with 2 month resolution. These properties are that the DE3 component occurs mainly at the low latitudes within ±30° and at the altitudes from 90 to 110 km; the tidal amplitude is larger during boreal summer and early autumn, smaller in spring and almost tends to disappear in winter; the component is slightly stronger during the eastward wind QBO phase than the westward phase. Practically, the higher-resolution data were used to reveal the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the DE3 component. It is found that (1) the <span class="hlt">variability</span> occurs mainly at the altitudes from 100 to 110 km with a peak at 106 km; (2) it is strong at the low latitudes and peaks around the equator, as well, slightly stronger in the Southern Hemisphere than in northern one; (3) it is considerably larger around solstitial months than equinoctial months; and (4) it would not experience an obvious interannual variation. The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the DE3 component may be explained by the variance of the absolute amplitudes and the contribution of the wave phases, and the later seems to play more important role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..12010793L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..12010793L"><span>The <span class="hlt">variability</span> of nonmigrating tides detected from TIMED/SABER observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xing; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Ning, Baiqi</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the nonmigrating tides detected from the observation of the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite during the 11 year solar period from 2002 to 2012. The longitudinal wave number spectra with 1 day resolution were first estimated from the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data measured at the MLT altitudes (70-110 km) and at the lower midlatitudes and low latitudes (between ±45°). Then we used the wave number 4 component to obtain the nonmigrating tides in which the dominant component DE3 was further analyzed in detail. We found that the properties of the spatial distribution and large time scale variation of the DE3 component are similar to those of the previous works, which used the interpolated data with 2 month resolution. These properties are that the DE3 component occurs mainly at the low latitudes within ±30° and at the altitudes from 90 to 110 km; the tidal amplitude is larger during boreal summer and early autumn, smaller in spring and almost tends to disappear in winter; the component is slightly stronger during the eastward wind QBO phase than the westward phase. Practically, the higher-resolution data were used to reveal the <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the DE3 component. It is found that (1) the <span class="hlt">variability</span> occurs mainly at the altitudes from 100 to 110 km with a peak at 106 km; (2) it is strong at the low latitudes and peaks around the equator, as well, slightly stronger in the Southern Hemisphere than in northern one; (3) it is considerably larger around solstitial months than equinoctial months; and (4) it would not experience an obvious interannual variation. The <span class="hlt">day-to-day</span> <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the DE3 component may be explained by the variance of the absolute amplitudes and the contribution of the wave phases, and the later seems to play more important role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086970"><span>Steady state <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in dermal regions of an irregular tapered shaped human limb with <span class="hlt">variable</span> eccentricity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agrawal, M; Pardasani, K R; Adlakha, N</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The investigators in the past have developed some models of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in the human limb assuming it as a regular circular or elliptical tapered cylinder. But in reality the limb is not of regular tapered cylindrical shape. The radius and eccentricity are not same throughout the limb. In view of above a model of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in the irregular tapered elliptical shaped human limb is proposed for a three dimensional steady state case in this paper. The limb is assumed to be composed of multiple cylindrical substructures with <span class="hlt">variable</span> radius and eccentricity. The mathematical model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic activity and thermal conductivity. The outer surface is exposed to the environment and appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. The finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles have been computed in the dermal layers of a human limb and used to study the effect of shape, microstructure and biophysical parameters on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in human limbs. The proposed model is one of the most realistic model as compared to conventional models as this can be effectively employed to every regular and nonregular structures of the body with <span class="hlt">variable</span> radius and eccentricity to study the thermal behaviour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12359394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12359394"><span>The effects of endosulfan and <span class="hlt">variable</span> water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on survivorship and subsequent vulnerability to predation in Litoria citropa tadpoles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Broomhall, Sara</p> <p>2002-12-03</p> <p>The effects of short-term exposure of stage 25 Litoria citropa tadpoles to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan in combination with either a stable or a <span class="hlt">variable</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle (20+/-2 vs. 21+/-7.5 degrees C) were investigated. Both exposure to 0.8 microg/l endosulfan and the wider <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range over 96 h had significant adverse effects on survivorship. In addition, <span class="hlt">variable</span> water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the time of endosulfan exposure increased tadpoles' vulnerability to predation by odonates 24 days later, but only if they had also been exposed to endosulfan. This effect occurred despite maintenance of all tadpoles at 19+/-1 degrees C during the intervening 24 days. Correlates of fitness such as this represent a move towards more biologically relevant experimental endpoints. This is an important step if we are to gain an understanding of how exposure to agricultural chemicals may affect frog populations in the natural environment. The results indicate that a short, pulsed exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan and extremes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may then have long-term impacts on fitness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZNatA..71..413G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZNatA..71..413G"><span>Impact of Velocity Slip and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Jump of Nanofluid in the Flow over a Stretching Sheet with <span class="hlt">Variable</span> Thickness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Chengjie; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Chaoli; Chen, Xuehui; Zhang, Xinxin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this study, the generalised velocity slip and the generalised <span class="hlt">temperature</span> jump of nanofluid in the flow over a stretching sheet with <span class="hlt">variable</span> thickness are investigated. Because of the non-adherence of the fluid to a solid boundary, the velocity slip and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> jump between fluid and moving sheet may happen in industrial process, so taking velocity slip and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> jump into account is indispensable. It is worth mentioning that the analysis of the velocity v, which has not been seen in the previous references related to the <span class="hlt">variable</span> thickness sheet, is presented. The thermophoresis and the Brownian motion, which are the two very important physical parameters, are fully studied. The governing equations are simplified into ordinary differential equations by the proper transformations. The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to solve the reduced equations for general conditions. In addition, the effects of involved parameters such as velocity slip parameter, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> jump parameter, Prandtl number, magnetic field parameter, permeable parameter, Lewis number, thermophoresis parameter, and Brownian motion parameter are investigated and analysed graphically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007WRR....4310433B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007WRR....4310433B"><span>On the opposing roles of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind speed <span class="hlt">variability</span> in flux estimation from remotely sensed land surface states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertoldi, G.; Albertson, J. D.; Kustas, W. P.; Li, F.; Anderson, M. C.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>In semi-arid regions the evapotranspiration rates depend on both the spatial distribution of the vegetation and the soil moisture, for a given radiation regime. Remote sensing can provide high resolution spatially distributed estimation (o ˜ 10-100 m) of land surface states. However, data on the near surface air properties are not readily available at the same resolution and are often taken as spatially uniform over a greater region. Concern for how this scale mismatch might lead to erroneous flux estimations motivates this effort. This paper examines the relative roles of <span class="hlt">variability</span> in the two dominant atmospheric states, wind speed and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, on the <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the surface fluxes. The study is conducted with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL), where the boundary conditions are given by a surface energy balance model based on remotely sensed land surface data. Simulations have been performed for the late morning hours of two clear-sky summer days during the SGP97 experiment with different wetness conditions over an area characterized by a high contrast in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, canopy cover, and roughness between vegetated and dry bare soil areas. Spatial <span class="hlt">variability</span> in canopy density effects both the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Ta, through the energy partitioning, and the wind speed U, via the roughness, leading to local variations at 5 m above the ground of the order of 1 K and 1 m/s, respectively. Simulations show that the Ta <span class="hlt">variability</span> tends to decrease the sensible heat flux H (- 30 W/m2) over bare soil areas and to increase it (+30 W/m2) over dense vegetation, thus reducing the total <span class="hlt">variability</span> of the surface fluxes relative to those that would be estimated for spatially constant Ta, as observed in previous studies. The <span class="hlt">variability</span> in U tends to increase H over bare soil (+50 W/m2), while having negligible effects over the vegetation, thus increasing the spatial variance of surface fluxes. However, when considered</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251550','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251550"><span>An optics-based <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> assay system for characterizing thermodynamics of biomolecular reactions on solid support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P.; Zhu, X. D.; Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Huang, Shengshu; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Chen, Xi</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>A biological state is equilibrium of multiple concurrent biomolecular reactions. The relative importance of these reactions depends on physiological <span class="hlt">temperature</span> typically between 10 °C and 50 °C. Experimentally the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of binding reaction constants reveals thermodynamics and thus details of these biomolecular processes. We developed a <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> opto-fluidic system for real-time measurement of multiple (400–10 000) biomolecular binding reactions on solid supports from 10 °C to 60 °C within ±0.1 °C. We illustrate the performance of this system with investigation of binding reactions of plant lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) with 24 synthetic glycans (i.e., carbohydrates). We found that the lectin-glycan reactions in general can be enthalpy-driven, entropy-driven, or both, and water molecules play critical roles in the thermodynamics of these reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84k4102F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84k4102F"><span>An optics-based <span class="hlt">variable-temperature</span> assay system for characterizing thermodynamics of biomolecular reactions on solid support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P.; Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Huang, Shengshu; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Chen, Xi; Zhu, X. D.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>A biological state is equilibrium of multiple concurrent biomolecular reactions. The relative importance of these reactions depends on physiological <span class="hlt">temperature</span> typically between 10 °C and 50 °C. Experimentally the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of binding reaction constants reveals thermodynam